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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
fleshy when green. :—An extensive woody climber. tonic. Chikakai. long. DISTR. along the coasts of Konkan and N. " Vata ". linear-oblong. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Sd. Charmakusha. G. H.. Kochi. measles and other skindiseases. Phena. urinary and vaginal discharges.5-12. Tans. Ritha. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. leaflets 10-20 pairs. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests.-6-10 .-Mar. gums. Kushthari. :—Throughout India. leucorrhoea.-July.5X2-2. LOC. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . :—Common in the Konkan and N. Sk. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Malay Islands. . HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Country and Gujarat. Shikekai. strengthens teeth. inflammations. yellow. indigestion. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Lalkhair. Sige-balli or kai. Manda-otte. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. Soap-pod tree.—pod. FAM. ulcers. COM. Bhuriphena. bronchitis. :—Common throughout the Stale . Dipta. Khandesh Akrani S.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Khair. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Saradruma. It is given in diarrhœa. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). M. heaviness. Deccan. Himalayas up to 1700 m. acrid. Fr. erysipelas. Vidula. astringent to bowels. cooling. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. piles.—bipinnate. anti-pyretic. sore-throat and tooth-ache. cures itching. Saptata.—in fascicled globose heads. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. psoriasis. 5-10 cm. Fl. Khadira. relaxation of the uvula. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. 7. Kanara forests. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. DISTR.. leprosy. M. In ulceration of the gums.8 cm. mouth troubles. throat diseases. M. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). hypertrophy of tonsils. " Kapha ". aphrodisiac.-t. K. given in elephantiasis. NS. Shige. Dantadhavan. Kath-bole. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. LOC. Burma. Fl. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Kanara (often on laterite). :—Rajastan. overlapping. antidysenteric.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. :—E. Dyes. Sk. CHAR. anthelmintic. prurigo. Sikkim. Pegu. boils. See—Timbers. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. wrinkled when dry . Western Peninsula. LOC. China. Yajnika.
Gandhbabul. burning sensation. purgative. improves appetite. itching. Gandhelo khair . ulcers. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. biliousness. blood diseases. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers.. M. FAM. cures stomatitis. stomatitis. :—E. leucoderma. Pissibabul. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). digestible. leaves and gum. Sk. Internally they are aperient. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . cooling. Girimeda. caries of teeth. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. Cassia flower. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. LOC. not indigenous but naturalised. Sind. Gums and Resins. NS. K. Stinking acacia. often cultivated. Sauna jali. bronchitis. LOC. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. leucoderma. Kari jali.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). PARTS USED :—Bark. buboes. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. alexiteric. DISTR. causes " Vata". piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. Jheri baval. . Marudruma. COM. erysipelas. cures " Kapha. tonic. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. Sponge tree. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. LOC. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. ascites. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. cardio-tonic. inflammations. In Philippines decoction. often planted . of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. Gum—sweetish. anti-diarrhoeal. detergent. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Devababhul. blood-diseases.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Jali. common in eastern parts of the Deccan.pungent. anti-dysenteric. deobstruent. Kankri. anthelmintic. expectorant and good emetic. Vilavati kikar. prurigo. anthelmintic. H. eczema. erysipelas. See—Timbers. Arimeda. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Moist situations.
ascending. axillary spikes .57. Fl. :—Common in the Deccan and S.—Euphorbiaceæ. NS. The plant contains acalyphin. Merkati. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. H. Sk. Khajoti. :—E. :—G. oblong-cylindric. Agheda-di.3-0. Apang. t. brown. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. . pale-brown. rounded at base. Sd. males. Philippines. enclosed in perianth smooth. G. Chirchira. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. pneumonia and rheumatism. Kharamanjiri. high. COM.—Nov. :—An erect herb 0. high. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers.—truncate at apex.3 X 2. branches terete or quadrangular striate. :—Annual. asthma.—monœcious. Arittamanjaria. Prickly chaff-flower.5-4. elliptic obovate. Fl. Var. Aghada . NS. few. scattered. many. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. Sd. Khokali. Uttrane . erect. M. one-seeded. Ceylon.-Jany. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. Vanchhikanto. clustered near the summit of spike. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. Kuppi-gida. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. softly hairy. DISTR.5 cm. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. K. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. M. tropical Africa. minute.—capsule. COM.— ovoid. 30-75 cm.5 cm. FAM. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. t. Chichra. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. L. angular. somewhat 3-nerved. 3. Utranigida. :—Throughout India. It is used in congestive headache. in lax. crenate-serrate. Kuppi. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. Fl. K. in elongate terminal spikes. erect herb. Country. branches long.5x2-4. hispid. Sk. Vasira.—utricle.—June-Sept. perianth 4-5 segments.—Amarantaceæ. females.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. LOC. smooth. Khokla. Fr. FAM. CHAR. Apamarga. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. 2. stem stiff. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. Fl. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. elongate.—opposite. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Fr. Chalmari. small. Kantarika. long in fruit. CHAR. Latjira ..8-6. LOC. Ksharamadhya. M.. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. brown.—greenish white. about 50 cm.9 m.
anthers yellow. Tropical Asia.—turbinate.. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. heating. anthelmintic. useful in general weakness. alexiterie.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.9-1. Jatila. Ceylon. bright-green. HABITAT :—Marshy places. flatulence. liver and chest pains. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. voice. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. acute. heart diseases.8 X 1. L. K. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. loss of memory. piles. emmenagogue . Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. carminative. emetic. piles. DISTR. pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. slightly curved. laxative.8 cm. Sk. See—Sacred Plants. leucoderma (Yunani). M. America. tumours. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. epilepsy. spathe 15-75 cm. Gandhilovaj. bronchitis. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. laxative. margins wavy. kidney troubles. :—E. CHAR. useful in abdominal pains. Bitter. useful in dyspepsia. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. throat. Europe and N. sepals scarious. and is considered useful in dropsy. Vekhand . fevers. abdominal pains. Ugragandha. Africa. prismatic. stomachic. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. brain-tonic. expectorant. itching. long. Throughout Asia. Gorbach . Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. stomatitis. leaves. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. blood diseases (Ayurveda). worms in the ear (Ayurveda). toothache. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. long. 0. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. good for mouth diseases. green . :—Throughout India. improves appetite. LOC. Sweet flag . obtuse. improves appetite. Vacha. dysentery. bronchitis.7-3. thirst. :—An aromatic herb . thickened in the middle. etc. laxative. rat-bite. Bach. inflammations. flowers and seeds. . "Vata". creeping and branching. NS. dysentery. useful in vomiting. LOC. Australia. skin eruption etc. Vekhand. FAM. bitter.. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. LOC. G. carminative. inflammations. COM. ascites. PARTS USED : —Root. spadix. H. carminative. heating. top pyramidal. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. dyspepsia. Baja . Baluchistan. Godavaj. Bhutnashini. boils.—Araceæ. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. diuretic. America. delirium. hysteria. 5-10 cm. Sikkim. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache.
keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . In cases of irritation of throat and cough. fevers and other maladies. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. bark. :—Western Peninsula. indigenous in tropical Africa. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . aerial parts yield a volatile oil. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Gujarat. fever. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. LOC. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Deccan.:—Konkan. Sk. Gopali. in children. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. M.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. H. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. PARTS USED : —Root. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Pisa. Powder is very effective insecticide. Gorakshi. Monkey-bread tree. colic. Haggodgimara. Rukhdo . FAM. dysentery. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. LOC. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. leaf and fruit. Bukha. African calabash. :—K. anti-pyretic. Goremlichora . Kanara evergreen forests.—Lauraceæ. COM. etc. NS. Baobab. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. Brahmamlika. COM. K. vomiting.—Bombacaceæ. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. FAM. Tudgensu . NS. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. :—E. Gorakhchinch. See—Timbers. DISTR.. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. LOC. :—Grown in many places in India . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Gorakamali. It is a good remedy in asthma. Pichli.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . useful in biliousness. DISTR. Gorakhaamli. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. M. HABITAT':—Cultivated. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. N. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Panch-parnika. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Shirisha. Kaloshirish. spermatorrhoea. Vamaka. Karnapura. biliousness. H. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. K. Akoly. Malaya. (Mimosaceæ). FAM. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Sirai. alterative. LOC. NS. :—Throughout the State. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). cures " Kapha". ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). fish-poison. Kalosadasado. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Shirish. commonly planted along roadsides. rat-bite. China. Dodda-Hombage. H.—Leguminosæ. poisonous bites. See—Timbers. DISTR. heating. Kalashirish. lumbago (Yunani). anthelmintic. Kanara. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. . Ankoli. Ankola. M. Seeds—cooling. Ankoli. leaves (rarely). The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. inflammations. Piloshirish.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. LOO. Anedhera. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. carminative. Juice—emetic. Onkla. G. hydrophobia. M. Gudhapatra. Ankota. alexipharmic . pungent. Sirsul. burning of body. and fruit. Root-bark poisonous. aromatics or honey. Ankora. Fruit—laxative. lumbago. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. COM. :—Throughout India. Dridhakantaka. Ceylon. Uddanaka. dysentery. useful in inflammations. Tamraphala. Ankotha. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. Chinchola. inflammations. Kathora. Sirisa.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. Shyamala. anthelmintic. NS. Tantia. Root-bark— used in piles. See—Timbers. Sage-leaved alangium. Krishnashirisha. Ankola. Sk. diarrhœa. Ankol. Kullumavu. acute fever. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . wasting diseases. LOC. COM. blood diseases. useful in worms. S. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. alexiteric.) FAM. gleet. it is said to stop after-pains. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Kalshish. colic.—Alangiaceæ. indigestible. Philippines. Asroli. Shankiniphala. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). stem. " Vata "-pain. K. tonic. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. often along banks of nalas in N. G. Sk. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. cures erysipelas. aphrodisiac. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Garso. Shirish. expectorant. Ankola. blood diseases.
ear-ache. bronchitis. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Ulageddi. It is an important garden crop. occasionally used in fever. appetiser. Kanda. M. blood diseases. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). which acts as a diuretic. Flowers—aphrodisiac. relieves tooth-ache. diarrhœa. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. good in rat-bite. prescribed in ophthalmia. improves taste. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. given in piles. Burma. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. skin-diseases. weakness. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. inflammations. Leaves—good in night blindness. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. flowers. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid.:—E. Bark and seeds are astringent. DISTR. maturant. scabies. Rochaka. seeds. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. etc. paralysis. aphrodisiac. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. B & C. :—Native country probably Persia. Bark— anthelmintic. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. cures "Vata". scabies. G. Seeds—fattening. etc. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. body pains. spleen diseases. epistaxis. alexiteric. leaves. syphilis. NS. used in leprosy. volatile oil. biliousness. Bark-bitter. Root—astringent. The plant contains vitamins A. asthma.K. emollient. cooling. excessive perspiration. LOC. Ceylon..: —Throughout India. ophthalmia. vomiting. Bulb—tonic. enriches blood.—Liliaceæ. LOC. See—Vegetables. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. stimulant and expectorant. itching. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. bark. COM. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. seeds. Palandu. Rajapriya. strengthens gums and teeth. Piyaz. catarrh. boils. Bengal. stomachic. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. usually planted.. Seeds—tonic to brain. Oil is used in leprosy. deafness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). anthelmintic. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). piles. piles. bleeding piles. useful in vomiting. useful in malaria. . and also in skin diseases . leucoderma. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. their smell useful in hemicrania. eruptions and swellings. erysipelas. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. See—Timbers. and chronic bronchitis . H. cultivated everywhere. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. FAM. tumours. Dungari. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. dropsy. Onion.
LOC. FAM. M. FAM. LOC. paraplegia and convulsive affections. coughs and other debilitating conditions. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever.—Liliaceæ. hemiplegia. Lasun. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Korkand. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. asthma. carminative. good for lumbago. Lasan. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. thirst. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. useful in inflammations. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. Lasan. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. thirst. Ugragandha. caries of teeth. In Cambodia. Ghi-kumari. tumours. Lahsan. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. useful in diseases of eye and heart. H. Rasonaka. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. COM. PARTS USED :—Bulb. K. Lolisara.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Kumari. :—E. aphrodisiac. Kapila. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. In pulmonary phthisis. Kattali. Bellulli. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. Lashuna. anthelmintic. sciatica. paralysis. Garlic. thins the blood (Yunani). digestive. Kanya. chronic fevers. The plant contains vitamin C. low fevers. ALŒ VERA Linn. Kumari. . NS. alexipharmic. fattening. lumbago. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. Ikshurmallika. voice. improves appetite. oleaginous . H. tonic. " Vata ". G. M. heating. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Country. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. leucoderma. body and joint pains. epileptic fits. clears voice. Sk. :—E. Diuretic. COM. aphrodisiac. G.—Liliaceæ. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. NS. Indian aloe. troubles of spleen. K. Kuvarpatha. liver and lungs . It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Sk. bronchitis. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. M. See—Vegetables. In cases of diphtheria. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Korphad. piles. It is an important garden crop. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. inflammation. complexion. leucoderma. ear-ache (Ayurveda).
—Apocynaceæ. wild along the coast. simple or branched. LOC. Dita bark tree. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Saptachhada. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. Java. common in the rain-forests of N. piles. Australia. tropical Africa. pain in muscles. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. Satian. skin diseases. The plant contains aloin. lumbago. somewhat divided. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. Barbados. Kaduhale. Mediterranean. LOC. used in fevers. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. :—E. isobarbaloin and emodin. cooling. Sk. DISTR. crowded. pale-green. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. and it is largely imported into India. biliousness. lanceolate. fattening. tonic. leaves. ulcers (Ayurveda). Native of S. purgative. :—Throughout India. liver troubles. spleen enlargement. E. scaly. useful in splean inflammation. also cultivated. COM. yellow. Kanara. liver complaints.—in dense racemes . Satwin. bark. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. biliousness (Yunani). K. methritis. emollient and demulcent. Fl. M. Saptaparna. gonorrhœa. stem short thick. Satwin. fleshy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. India. tumours. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. alexiteric.—sessile. planted in Indian gardens . C. strangury. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Br. It also acts as a mild purgative. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. bronchitis. alterative. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Chatian. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. scape longer than the leaves. tonic. pendulous. West Indian Islands. useful in eye-diseases. vomiting. Bitter . ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Jamaica. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. used in form of paste in pleurisy. anthelmintic. perianth cylindric . inflammations. Kadusale. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. FAM. H. DISTR. L. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Africa. Hale. digestive. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. margins spiny. NS. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. carminative. milky juice. PARTS USED :— . jaundice. :—A perennial herb . LOC. Root. :—Wild along the coast in S. purgative.
M. Mullarave-soppu. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana.8 cm. tropical countries. rubbish heaps and fields. alexiteric. L. COM. H.). It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Drug Com. piles. LOC. bristles pointed. antiperiodic and febrifuge. Bark—acrid. leucoderma. leprosy. Pathyashaka. blood diseases. Mulladantu. " tridosha " pain. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. . :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. Kante math. HABITAT :—In waste places.3—3. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Fr. Fl. long. digestible. diuretic.—Amarantaceæ. ovoid.— capsule. Cholai. unisexual. hallucination. apiculate. Tandulibija. often reddish. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. Apamarisha. Kantalo dambho. high. K. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. also in fields. useful in " Kapha ". G. rugose. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. Root—heating expectorant. tumours. :—E.5 X 1. See—Vegetables. boils and burns.— 3. good in diseases of the heart. bitter. antipyretic. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. also useful in catarrhal fever. DISTR. obtuse. Tandulaja. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . Kantanu-dant. FAM. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. improves appetite. lanceolate.. thickened at the top. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. LOC. :—An erect glabrous herb. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. See—Timbers. 30-60 cm. female calyx oblong. :—Throughout India. heating. galactogogue. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. Tandulja. stomachic. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. leucorrhoea. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. Prickly amaranth. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic.2—7. LOC. burning sensation. oleaginous. numerous. bronchitis.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. diseases of the blood. obtuse. biliousness. anthelmintic. laxative. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. rat-bite. NS. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. entire. ovate. sudorific and febrifuge. rubbish heaps . Ceylon. Sk. male calyx acute. asthma. laxative. ulcers. Kantanatia.
HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Gujarat and Kanara. abdominal pains. fresh or dried. Sd. tumours. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. laxative. high. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Deccan. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. constipating. enlargement of the spleen. stomachic. Suran.—capsule. Kanthalla. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. Kurendika. useful in piles. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. fevers etc. Bharajambhul. LOC. H. Blistering ammania. erect or subscandent herb. appetiser. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Elephant's foot. vomiting. :—An annual. Arshaghna. Kuranti. :—Throughout India in moist places. COM. Kuranda. :—E.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . increases appetite and taste. Jangli mehandi. Sukaranda. corm. depressed. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Konkan rivers. PARTS USED :—Leaves. M. :—Cultivated widely in the State. FAM. Corm is irritant and also the seeds.:— Konkan. Jalavgiyo. Australia. :—E. Vatari. Kandala. used as an appetiser (Yunani). China. asthma. G. M. Grows wild on the banks of S. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Tropical Africa. sessile. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. Suran. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Dadmari. G. . acrid. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. LOC. In the Konkan. LOC. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. COM. Bitter and acrid . causes itching sensation. H.—Lythraceæ. aphrodisiac. Afghanistan. DISTR. Kandavardhan. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. NS. It is also used as an emmenagogue. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Suran . LOC. Fl. Suran. 8-65 cm. globose. the plant. Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Sk. bronchitis. removes " Kapha ". DISTR.—Nov. K.—Araceæ." blood troubles. pungent. Fl. CHAR. red. much narrowed at the base. NS.—opposite. stomachic. harmful in "Kapha". Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. Fr. strangury . " Vata. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . branches usually opposite. L.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. t. Vikata. blood diseases. elephantiasis .
ulcers. Kakamari. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. :—A native of tropical America. aphrodisiac. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". DISTR. long. It is supposed to have restorative power. Kakamari. Cashew apple-nut. G. Kakamari. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. Agni-krita. Fish-Louse Berry. also cultivated. M. skin diseases. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Jermic. Gerubi. Oils. 10-12 X 7. which is nutritious and emollient. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. hot. & A. bark vertically furrowed . It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. Kakanashika. Garalaphala. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. Kakamari. B.5 cm. Fl. USES :—Bark is alterative. :—E. ascites. cordate or truncate. Govamba. G. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. K. Gova. COM. and trace of C. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. FAM. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. See—Timbers. piles. fever. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. 5-nerved. ringworm. See—Vegetables. Kanara. Upapushpika.5-12. flowers. corns and obstinate ulcers.—Menispermaceæ. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. H. anthelmintic. broadly ovate. NS. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. leaves. The seed contains vitamin A. . Prithagbija. NS. M. digestible. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N.— subcoriaceous. swollen peduncle of fruit. FAM.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh.—in panicles 25-35 cm. Kaju. K. COM. H. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. LOC. Sk. Sk. leucoderma. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Corm is poisonous. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). . Kaju. Kaju . Kempu— Turkaka geru . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. dysentery. L. Kajutaka. Kakamari. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Kakkisoppugida . many flowered. sweet. Kakaphal. Sophara. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . The plant contains Vitamins A. tumours. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established..—Anacardiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Bark. Crow-Fish Killer. CHAR. :—E. LOC. equal to almond oil.
good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. causes cough and biliousness. a poison to fish (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Kiryat. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Ananas. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. It acts also as diuretic.-Oct. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Ananas . M. LOC. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. Ananas . good expectorant. Fl. Kirata. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Sk.—Bromeliaceæ. :—Khasia Hills. :—E. Bhuinimba. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. N. fruits. Nelabevu gida. . cultivated. E. also acts as a purgative. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Creat. G. DISTR. Kantak sanjika. H. petals absent. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. :—E. black . :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. Ananas hannu. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. removes gases from the intestines . :—Konkan. leaves and fruits. diaphoretic and refrigerant. G. K. LOC. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). H. smooth. it is useful in jaundice. COM. Assam. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. NS. dioecious. Bengal. Mahateet. Ananas. M. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Kanara. Olen kirayat. COM.) LOC. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. to a certain extent in Gujarat. See—Fruit Trees. PARTS USED :—Roots. Olikiriyat. from Orissa to Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . K. DISTR. Ananasa. Kiriyata.—Acanthaceæ. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Sk. Parvati.—Sept. Mahatit. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Pine-apple . FAM. t. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. native of Brazil (tropical America). ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. LOC. FAM. Ama.
lateral lobes small. FAM. G.—very thick. dyspepsia and fever from teething. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui.. very small. stomachic. LOC. acute.—Dec. PROPERTIES AND LOC. smooth. CHAR. tonic. Vaikunth. K. and N. :—Deccan. Sk.-Oct. Green leaves. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Fl. oblong-lanceolate. extensively used in Bengal. lower 3lobed.9 m. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. DISTR. Sundraphul. distant.—Ghats. :—Throughout India. lower lip very large and broad . sometimes cultivated. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. Fl. Malay Peninsula. approximate above. stem quadrangular. HABITAT.2-1. Oshthaphala. Malabar Catmint. pale above. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. C—2-lipped.-Nov. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . dysentery.8 m. 1. ellipsoid. L. . :—Konkan and Kanara. :—An erect shrub. COM. thickly woolly. and anthelmintic. t. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. forming a spicate inflorescence. LOC. polished brown. Sundara. Fl. Chodhara. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. upper lip 2-toothed. Karnatak. purple.3-0. Sd. rose coloured. yellowish brown. and certain forms of dyspepsia. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. Karitumbe. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. :—An erect branched annual 0. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth.—Labiatæ.—in dense whorls . Fr.—lanceolate. :—E. Fl.— capsule.5 cm. Plant is useful in general debility. white below. :—S. Fr. crenate-serrate. Ceylon.—many. linear-oblong. alterative. DISTR. Gojivana. high. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. undulate. acute at both ends . The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. bracts lanceolate. solitary. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. t. pale beneath. made into an electuary. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Kanara. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Alamoda. distant.—nutlets. high. rugosely pitted.3-10 X 2-4. L. C—2-lipped.—small. clothed with woolly hairs . PROPERTIES AND LOC. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. 6. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. Br.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. M. NS.
K. increases biliousness . DISTR. :—E. Ceylon. Bakla. Shushkanga. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. :—E. Sitaphala. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. flavoury. Dhavala. G. FAM. Durangi. Dabria. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. PARTS USED :—Root. Dohu. Anan. applied to skin-diseases. Bahubijika. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. See—Timbers. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Sitaphala.—Combretaceæ. Sugar apple. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. (Yunani). G. expectorant. Sitaphal. LOC. Fruit—sweet. bark. Amritphala.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. increases muscular strength. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Bejjalu. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. erysipelas. discharges. Dhamora. Dindala. sedative to heart. stimulant. Dindiga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. useful in liver complaints. M. Pitaphala. Dhava. H. NS. cooling. H. Bark is a powerful astringent. Dhava. tasty. Ata. and eyesores. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds—difficult to digest. NS. Sitaphala. enriches blood . produce ulcers in the eye. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). :—Throughout the greater part of India. Dyes. fruit and seeds. useful in anaemia. cooling . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Bark is bitter. leaves. Damora. Sweet-sop. Dhavada. Sharipha.—Anonaceæ. Krishnabija. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . improves taste and appetite . :—A native of West Indies . astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. LOC. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Sitaphala. leaves and fruits. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Sk. DISTR. FAM. now cultivated throughout India. good tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. Custard apple. COM. Kanara border. K. Sk. Root—cathartic. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. LOC. enriches blood. Anuram. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". bark. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. COM. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. chronic diarrhœa. Button Tree. astringent to the bowels. LOC. causes fever and furunculosis . Dhavada. abortifacient. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.
often cultivated. COM NS. LOC. astringent to bowels. Seeds yield an oil and resin. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. It is generally considered tonic. acrid. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Malay Islands. Karnapuraka. mixed with gram-flour. Kanara . Bairi. sweet. wild or cultivated. PARTS USED :—Seeds. :—W. indigestible. stomachic. Chandala.—Moraceæ. causes biliousness when ripe. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. bitter. Ajjanpatte. sprouts and fruits. . H. In eye inflammations. Peninsula. :—Throughout India. FAM. common near Yellapur. Kadamb . Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. M. Valkala. LOC. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Kadamba. Chandkuda. USES:—In the Konkan. COM. Fodder Plants. sap of the tree. Chandkuda. :—G. Ashokari. Fruit—heating. See—Fruit Trees. Niv. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Kaduve. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Kadamb. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. alexiteric. Surabhi. " Vata". DISTR. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. M. Nadija. LOC. FAM. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. DISTR. They are detergent and their powder. Kadamb. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Sk. Malayan Peninsula. PARTS USED:—Bark.—Rubiaceæ. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Burma. Sk. good in uterine complaints. is a good hairwash. biliousness. strangury. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Upas Tree. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. K. Ceylon. Kadubale. :—E. cooling.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Pegu. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Jajpugri. burning sensation. saline. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. galactagogue. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Nipa. Sacred Plants. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. " Kapha". Kadam. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. See—Timbers. Kadamb . Sprouts—acrid. Tennaserim. K. vulnerary.
abortifacient. scabies. vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous.5-2 mm. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Africa. vomiting. specially near large cities. Monkey-nut. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Bhuimug-chana. segments once or twice trifid. Mungphali. :—E. See—Timbers. Fr. fever with cough. used in anasarca and colic. astringent to bowels . Seeds—carminative. Mandapi. cauline 3-partite. vittae broad.— in umbels. Ajamoda. Bhuimug. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. tooth-ache. FAM. erect. Asia. urinary discharges. Wild celery. Nelkadle. G. . Chinimung. Markati. aphrodisiac. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. Bhuchanak. useful in ophthalmia. branching. Sk. G. improve appetite . apex toothed . Sk. β-antiarin. Europe. tonic. Ajmud. Glucoside apiin is present. See—Vegetables. nasal catarrh (Yunani). appetiser. The plant contains vitamins A. pedicels 6-16 . amenorrhœa. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. inflammations. high. cure asthma. K. rheumatism.4 m. Ugragandha. Shimbika. M. " Vata " . good in ophthalmia. Bodi ajomoda. Ground-Pea-nut. H. hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Fibres. bronchitis. N. M. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. COM NS. Java and Malaya. ridges narrow. rectal troubles. Abyssinia.— radial. :—A biennial plant. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. abdominal pain. ascites. Karafs. L. cure " Kapha ". tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Snehabijaka. NS. CHAR.. 0. COM. good for heart. Afghanistan. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. chest-pains. Celery. laxative. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.—Umbelliferæ. Bhuimug. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. W. Moda. heart and spleen diseases. W. Ajmoda . Bori ajmud.:—Foot of the N. :—E. LOC. Brahmakoshi. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. anthelmintic.—1. scorpion and other stings. LOC. Fl. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn.3-2. H. and γ-antiarin. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. traces of B and C. rays 5-10.
Suppiyari. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Kaungu. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—Madras. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. In French Guinea. H. Burma. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. emmenagogue. indigestible. Seed cooling. fairly largely in the Konkan. Assam. Oils. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. cardiotonic. Supari. Akota. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Supari. LOC. seeds. DISTR. ARECA CATECHU Linn. :—E. G.:—Extensively grown in N. used for eye-inflammations. improves appetite and taste. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Pophal. Country.—Palmæ. Hopari. Chikka. . It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. digestive. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. gleet. DISTR. Mysore. giddiness. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. bleeding gums. LOC. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). oil is given in acute abdominal pain. removes foul breath. gum. Kanara. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. COM.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. diuretic. leaves (rarely). Indo-Malaya. Tantusara. Pugiphal. Chhataphala. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Adki. PARTS USED :—Root. Areca palm. K. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. See—Food Plants. Poga. Sopari. M. Areca-nut palm. Gujarat and S. USES. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. cooling. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. NS. useful in urinary disorders. Bengal. Betta. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. LOC. LOC. Chikkan. FAM. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Nut astringent. aphrodisiac. Sk. Betel-nut palm. M.. Siam. Malabar. removes pus (Yunani). laxative. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Gum pungent.
prickly. M. jaundice and cutaneous affections. glaucous herb . Ind. Darudi. :—A glabrous. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). K. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). antidote to various poisons. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Seeds are laxative. spinous. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. arecoline. oblong-ovoid 2. Datturi.5-18 cm. 2. Plant enriches blood. NS. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Shialkanta. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. prickly. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. Mexican prickly poppy . CHAR.—all the year. veins white. arecaidine. destroys worms . high.3-0. Root anthelmintic. brownish black. Daruri. Fl. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers.12 m. USES :—Root is an alterative. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. Srigalkanta. nauseant. Brahma dandi. inflammations and bilious fevers. expectorant and demulcent. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India.5-5 cm. LOC. 7. sinuately pinnatifid. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. netted.—thistlelike. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine.—numerous. Bila dhatura.5-3. diam. sedative. globose. Svarnakshiri. relieves blisters. t. LOC. COM. Bharbhand. oblong.). DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. seeds and yellow juice. This is said to bring the worm out at once. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). L. yellow.8 cm. It is also diuretic. stem clasping.— terminal. cures leprosy. juice yellow. Juice—used as a collyrium. . Sk. H. See—Timbers. purgative. Seeds—purgative. FAM. useful is strangury. India. Fr. G. various skin-diseases. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. Pita-pushpa.—Papaveraceæ. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Balurakkisa. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Fruit Trees. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. emetic. Sd. Fl. Pirangi datturi. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. and in pertussis and asthma.—capsule. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. stem 0. :—E. branching.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Indigenous in tropical America. and guvacine. opening by 4-6 valves.
infundibuliform. long. Dridhadaru.—capsule. Ceylon.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet.—Aristolochiaceæ. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic.-Sept. K.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Varghoro. reniform or broadly ovate. LOC. stems stout. tropical Africa. Fl. perhaps a native of Bengal. FAM. weak. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. Sd. In synovitis.— globose apiculate. white-tomentose beneath. Kitakaba. absorptive. powdered root is given with milk. FAM.5-30 x 6. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. aphrodisiac. Ganda. base cordate. bracts large . G. Shyambhuna. the bands silky pubescent outside. pubescent outside.:—Konkan. Fr. Leaves are maturative. :—A very large climber. Fl. glabrous inside. Arabia. pedicel with a large bract at the base. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. used in gleet. :—A slender perennial. Konkan. 12-ribbed . L. Soge. :—E. painful joints. Samudrashosh. stems. white-tomentose L. :—Bengal. Samudrapatrashoh. NS. gonorrhœa. CHAR. NS. M.-Nov. M. Vridhadaraka. Gandali. long and as broad as long. cultivated. tubular.—Aug. long. Kitamari. Elephant Creeper.5 cm. 1. chronic ulcers (Yunani). K. CHAR. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. anthelmintic. G. COM. Hastivalli.8-7. M. base cordate with wide sinus . Fr. tip linear dark purple. (sometimes even larger). Krimighni. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. Samudrashok. Samardar sokh. Deccan and S. Samudraballi. Ajantri. base subglobose. Fl. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). Kiramar.— Aug. Java. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. rose purple. COM. tube inflated. :—Throughout India.. Samandarka phal.—Convolvulaceæ. Sk. t. Dhuma-patra. Country. long. C—5-6.5 cm. white-tomentose. Kidamar. H. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. perianth 2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. DISTR. Gujarat and S. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . strangury. M.3 cm. LOC. W.5-4. Bracteated Birth-wort. . " Kapha" fevers.—solitary. t.—deltoid with cordate base .— 7. oblongellipsoid. Peninsula. diuretic . Fl. Country. DISTR. useful in " Vata". with revolute margins. prostrate. Adumuttadagida. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. striate.3-2 cm. Kidamari. ovate glabrous above.3-25 cm. H. peduncles stout.—in sub-capitate cymes. :—E. LOC.— 3.
Mother or Mugwort. obovate oblong 10-12. Fr. tonic. globose-oblong. Nilpushpa. Sd. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant.8-10 X 1.—variable linear oblong. LOC. base vaiable. Dhor-davana.5x7. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. alexiteric. 3. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. H.—flat. Arkamula. Seeds useful in inflammation. K. The plant contains an alkaloid. L. Saraparni. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Dona. Country.5 cm. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. DISTR. :—E. biliousness. COM. NS. Sk. Gathona.:—Konkan and S. Indian Birth-wort. G. Nagduna. bract opposite the pedicel. 6-valved. Isvara balli beru . Nepal. long with globose inflated base. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). — capsule. Plant is used as an abortifacient. CHAR. leaves and seeds. Isharmula. :—E. grooved. Ruhimula. The plant contains an alkaloid. joint-pains. Sugandha. Sapsan.—Nov.3-2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.) FAM. LOC. bitter. dry cough. entire with undulate margins. H. t. M. M. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Fl. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. slender. Manjipatri. COM. winged. Ceylon. reaching 4.. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. also useful in dropsy. Stem long. Ishvari.—Aristolochiaceæ. K. emmenagogue. M. Sk. Flea-bane.—in few flowered axillary racemes. NS. Dovana. Nakuli. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. perianth greenishwhite. Fl.5 cm. . purgative (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Nagdamani. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Bengal. FAM. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma.5 cm. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn." pains in the joints. Arkamula. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. woody at the base. dyspnoea of children. :—Western Peninsula. :—A twining shrub. Majtari. Mastaru. PARTS USED :—Roots. Indian wormwood. useful in " Tridosha.—Compositæ..
aphrodisiac. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. hairy.:—A perennial shrub. Kanthal. Halasina. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Chakki. Jack-Orange wood. useful in biliousness. " Vata". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. toothed or again pinnatisect. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). NS.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. LOC. petioled.10x2. temperate Asia. ulcers. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. PARTS USED :—Leaves. "Vata". Panesa. M. alexiteric. Thailand (Siam). diuretic.4 m. grown in gardens also. stems leafy.6-2. See—Timbers. The plant contains an essential oil. deobstruent and antispasmodic. cooling. minute. LOC. enriches blood. tonic. solitary or 2. outer flowers female.—heads ovoid or subglobose. although very nutritious. lobes entire. Vanas. :—Widely cultivated. white tomentose beneath. fruit and seeds. base lobed. oleaginous. HABITAT. oblong ellipsoid. Kujja. Kantakaphala. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache.—Jany. Sk. Tage. LOC. The young leaves are used in skin diseases.—Urticaceæ. Panas. tonic. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. Fr. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. L— lower leaves 5. :—Konkan. Fl. Java. 3-fid or entire. upper leaves smaller. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. FAM. constipating (Ayurveda). fattening. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. asthma. DISTR. Kanara. ripe fruit laxative. deeply pinnatisect. pubescent above. high. Panos. fertile. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. H. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. appetiser.— achene. Fruit Trees and Dyes. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. Ghats. Skandaphala. Externally it is used in fomentations. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. involucral bracts villous. aphrodisiac. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C.-Hilly districts. cures "Kapha". aphrodisiac. t. Phanasa. :—E. Phanas.5-5 em. K. Seeds sweet. " Kapha".30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. . Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. itching (Ayurveda). aromatic. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. leprosy. Fl. DISTR. The unripe fruit is astringent. inner hermaphrodite. An infusion is given as a tonic. ovate. LOC. G. COM. Jack-fruit tree. 0. asthma and brain diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Ceylon. but rather difficult to digest. lanceolate. often planted along roadsides in N.
indigestible.. Fr. PARTS USED:—Root. M. useful in dysentery. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—June-Sept. galactogogue. Siprimuli. FAM. Fl. COM. cladodes in tufts.—orange in axillary umbels. M. Fr. common in the Deccan. linear. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column.-Dec. blood and eye diseases. H. cooling. Asual Shatavari. tumours. t. inflammation. Fl. throat complaints. fragrant. lanceolate.—lobes reflexed in flower. undershrub. in the Himalayas. narrowed at both ends. aphrodisiac.—linear with a stout spinous spur. :—E. straight. t. Fl. globose. DISTR. M.5 cm. thorn. erect.ovoid. :—G. Tropical Africa.—opposite 7. biliousness. long. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Deccan. root-stock tuberous. valvate in bud. FAM. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. K. Var. alterative. LOC. Java and Australia. Fl.—Liliaceæ. leaves and flowers. JAVANICA Baker. appetiser. red when ripe.—in simple raceme.2 m. Kaktundi. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. NS. tapering at both ends.— follicles. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. up to 1. naturalised in many parts of India. NS. Country. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. white. 0. tonic. LOC.5 cm. CHAR.—berry. from Kashmir eastwards. oleaginous. 7. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds.5-10 X 1. thin. oblong. PARTS USED:—Root. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. 2. :—Introduced from the W. Sd. segments. L. spines recurved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. spinous. Svadurasa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. C. Indies.000 m. astringent to bowels.-Feb. Shatavari. Svetmuli. solitary. high. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. S. Satavari. Satamulika. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.—Asclepiadaceæ. DISTR. . :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. Kuraki. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. stomachic. :—An erect undershrub. COM. Sk. :—Extremely scandent. abundant round about Poona.9-1. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . and moist monsoon forests. L. dark brown. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. Flower is a good styptic. cultivated as ornamental plant. A fibre is extracted from the plants. Satavari. Satavari.3-2.5-5 cm. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. CHAR. with coma. curved.
Vikhara. Fl. galactogogue. linear oblong. lower deeply 3-lobed. like leaves. scalding of urine. Kak-Kokilaksha. stems fasciculate. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. widely 2-lipped. useful in diseases of kidney and liver.—June-Jany.2 cm. aphrodisiac . anuria. Konkan and Deccan. :—A stout herb. useful in jaundice and anasarca. tube. hispid with long hairs. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. COM. HABITAT:—Swampy places. 4-8 seeded. long. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. laxative. constipation. 3. And. demulcent. useful in diarrhœa. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains.5 cm. :—Throughout India. Gokhran. tonic. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Seeds fattening. tonic. aphrodisiac. Shrigalghant. aphrodisiac. dysentery. . upper 2-fid. and dysentery. hairy.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally.) FAM. Ikshura. Talamkhan. anæmia. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). erect. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine.— purple blue. lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. night-blindness (Ayurveda). K. LOC. USES :—The root is refrigerant. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Ceylon. 4 inner small. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. The root is sweet. Phalaghrita. CHAR. Sk. subquadrangular. expectorant. eyediseases. t. Fr. Gokhalkanta.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . biliousness.— Acanthaceæ.:—Common throughout the State. Vishnu Taila.6-1. tonic. Used in diarrhœa. diuretic. thickened at the nodes. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. L. Gokshura.—capsule. thirst.) LOC. inflammations. USES. H. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. bracts. Talim-khana. improve blood (Yunani). ascites. Narayana Taila. 2 outer large. abdominal troubles. Kalavankabija. Leaves good for cough. antispasmodic. Africa. leprosy. NS. gleet. Kolavalike. sedative to gravid uterus . hypnotic. Talamkhana. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. 0. LOC. and alterative tonic. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. aphrodisiac. pointed. lips sub-equal..—sessile. Seeds cooling. Vajrakantaka. abruptly swollen at the top. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac . colic. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. 18 X 3-3. high.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. leaves and seeds. (Yunani. DISTR. C.8 cm. tropical and S. Fl. M. Ekharo. ciliate . :—G. urinary calculi and discharges. tonic. gonorrhoea.
K. found wild near N. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). laxative. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. lobes equal spangled.:—Konkan and Deccan. FAM. oblong. astringent to bowels. t. astringent to bowels . H. Kamrang. rarely wild. causes biliousness (Yunani).—Scrophulariaceæ. Nirbrahmi.:—E. LOC. M. Fr. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. capsule. branches many ascending. Karuka.) FAM. NS. :—A glabrous. sessile. useful in bad ulcers. COM. Jalneam. Karmar. L. Brahmi. causes biliousness. Sk. Kamaranga. inflammations. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. indigestion. striate. leprosy. C. Tamarak. Fruit sour. heating. digestible. DISTR. decussate. heats the body (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Damp places. acute. also used in diarrhœa. See—Fruit Trees. Karmal. anæmia. dried fruit is given in fevers. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. NS. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. creeping herb. obovate-oblong or spatulate. "Vata". Carambola apple. Bama. 2-lipped. allays thirst. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Kirihuli. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. with shining dots. Barambhi. 6-25 X 2. DISTR.:—Throughout India in wet places. emetic. H. pale. solitary.. perhaps a native of Malaya. Karmare . :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. Sd. LOC. Thyme-leaved graticula . "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). K. Kamarakha. pungent. pale blue or white. succulent. Ceylon and all warm countries. Brahmi. enlargement of spleen. Sk. G. CHAR. Fruits are used in pickles. fleshy. Soumyalata. LOC. sour. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tumours.5-10 mm. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. . Brahmi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. COM. stems rooting at the nodes. fruits. Mudgara. Shiral. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Coromandel gooseberry. Jany-May. Safed-Kammi. Manduki. Kamarakh. Darehuli. ovoid. when fresh. Fl. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . Kanara villages. ascites. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement.—Oxalidaceæ. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . black dotted : entire. tonic. Fl. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. axillary.
conjoined with petroleum. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Root and leaves are cathartic. purgative. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. diuretic. leaves and seeds. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. syphilis . USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. in monsoon forests of N. Hakum. Kanara. Guggula. :—G. COM. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. anasarca and jaundice. M. leucoderma. ellipsoid. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. FAM. Dantika. purifies blood. useful in insanity. epilepsy and hoarseness. leucoderma. Peninsula. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). DISTR. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Burma. Mukul. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. epilepsy and hoarseness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. PARTS USED :—Root. Jamalgota. obovoid. CHAR. sinuate. Dantimul. the upper small. Sk. capsule. It is a direct cardiac tonic.. Assam. Gum gugul. Fr. anaemia. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. L. HABITAT :—Dry open plains.—Burseraceæ. good in scabies. 2-glandular. Jatala. enlarged spleen. Danti. of three 2-valved cocci. is used as a local application in rheumatism. branching from the roots. Guggula. Danti. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Malaya. Sk. itching. Chota Nagpur. NS. mottled. H.9-1. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. FAM. high. . useful in pains. 0. :—Bihar. Rechani. LOC. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Guggul. Kaduharalu. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. K. M. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. Vishodhini. aphrodisiac . diseases of skin and abdomen. anthelmintic. Devdhup. Seeds are poisonous. W. alexiteric.8 m. Gugul. Danti. K. N. or in monsoon forests. They are used in dropsy. t. G. yellowish. Uddipta. Guggula. the lower large. LOC. COM. Fl.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. Danti. Sd. toothed. :—E. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. wounds. NS. Dec. H. smooth. Leaf-juice. LOC. Bengal. all male or with a few females below. jaundice (Ayurveda). :—A stout undershrub. often palmately 3-5 lobed. Fl. hairy. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflammations.—Euphorbiaceæ. piles. :—Dry open Deccan plains.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
fever. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. Dorokaru. cardiac and general tonic. FAM. asthma. Buds—indigestible. NS. bark and flowers. Burma. blood diseases. DISTR. given' to corpulent persons. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. dehiscent. burning sensation.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kohala. flat. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries.-Apl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. USES :—Root-decoction is given. diuretic. tuberculous glands. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. eye diseases. asthma. enriches blood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. Bark—astringent to bowels.10-15. Golkaddu. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Kudimah. used in piles. tuberculous glands. urinary discharges and calculi. red and white. seeds. in dyspepsia and flatulence. t. leprosy. cures strangury. Timisha. tonic to liver. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Shikhivardhaka.5 cm. it is also anti-fat remedy. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. blood impurities. COM. " Tridosha".8-2. tonic. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Tallow-White gourd. G. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. "Kapha". K. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. China. Koholu. Seeds— cooling. Fr. aphrodisiac. Bhuru-koholu. appetising. used as gargle in stomatitis. anal troubles. cough. vaginal discharges. urethral discharges. leprosy. H. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. removes foul taste from mouth. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Sikkim. dysmenorrhoea. Sd. anthelmintic. wounds and ulcers. thirst. leucoderma. . blood diseases . Karkutika. PARTS USED :—Fruit. biliousness. heart tonic (Ayurveda). used in dry cough. used in strangury. thirst.—pod. Kumaon. menorrhagia. Kondha. tonic. M. not indigenous. cures biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kushmanda. LOC.-Feb. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. cough. LOC. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). Root. There are two varieties. Fl. ulcers. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. oil from the seeds. Sk. :—Cultivated throughout the State. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. 15-20 X 1. Fruit—antiperiodic. biliousness. :—E. aphrodisiac. Budekumbalkai. cures biliousness. Ash pumpkin.
PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. LOC. good in syphilis (Yunani). Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. heart diseases. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. :—G. pungent. China. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Pilokapurio. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Mriduchhada. BLUMEA LACERA DC. t. CHAR. See—Vegetables. and diuretic. Australia.9 m.—Jany. Kakarunda. phthisis. good for the brain and liver. catarrh. finely silky pubescent on both sides. etc.—Compositæ. asthma. Country.—the lower ones petioled. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. inner bracts with green midrib. COM.-Apl. Ceylon. Fruit is made into confections. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. thirst. Tropical Africa. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. cures bronchitis. LOC. high. DISTR. Tamrachuda.-achene. not ribbed. sweetish. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. upper subsessile. fevers. it is given in bleeding piles. anti-pyretic.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Malaya. Deccan. sharply serrate-dentate. :—Throughout plains of India. stem erect. :—Annual herb. haemoptysis. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. with a strong odour of turpentine. M. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields.3—0. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. Kakaronda. blood diseases. Kukurbanda. Sk. Kalhar.—heads many. Bhamurdi. . it is also useful in insanity. pappus white. Oil—is soporific. oblong. NS. mixed with black pepper. laxative. Konkan. Kanara. H. Kukkurdru. L. Fl. epilepsy and other nervous diseases.:—In plains south of Bombay. 0. FAM. burning sensation. Fr. ash colored. cooling. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. LOC. Fl. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Jangali-muli. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. and nutritious tonic. astringent. often incised or lyrate. pubescent. base tapered. S. M. densely glandular. febrifuge. elliptic-oblong. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. bitter.
LOC. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. —Nyctaginaceæ. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. Asavardu. Plant contains large quantities of pot.. Desert Palm. Kolaba and Thana districts. FAM. Sk. COM. Bitter. LOC. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. spleen enlargement. alterative. whitish beneath. alexiteric. LOC. . :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. blood impurities. Shothaghni. stem prostrate or ascending. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. M. Kommegida. very small. It is used in jaundice. CHAR. Fl. Leaves— appetiser. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Tad. 1. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). and dropsy. Uttar Pradesh. Santhikari. NS. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Madhurasa. asthma.—in unequal pairs at each node. Fl. Tad. Tad. useful in ophthalmia. HABITAT :—A weed. Burma. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Talimara. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Moto-satodo. Indian Archipelago. Vasu. Brab tree. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). H.—in corymbose umbels. :—E. Varshabhu.— Nov. inflammations. FAM. fusiform. useful in lumbago. M. cultivated. Fan Palm. useful in biliousness. gonorrhœa. DISTR. NS. heart diseases. "Kapha" heating. margins undulate. Dholia-saturdo. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. leaves and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. leucorrhoea. green above. tumours. :—E. scabies. Hogweed. Seeds—tonic. bluntly 5-ribbed. :—Tropical India. cultivated and self-sown. anæmia. Ghetuli. It produces a very marked and persistent. G. Ceylon. G. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial.—Palmæ. in pain of joints. Celyon. sub-orbicular. common in S. L. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn.—clavate. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. COM. generally found in poorer soils. K. Baluchistan. "Vata". native of tropical Africa. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. expectorant. very glandular . carminative. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. :—A diffuse herb.3—2 cm. astringent to bowels . Tala.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Dhvajadruma. Sk. Raktakanda. Persian Gulf. abdominal pains. Palmyra Palm. root large. Lekhyapatra. Africa and America. cooling . pinkish. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . (Ayurveda). India. P. H. DISTR. Punarnava.
antidysenteric. Salphali. DISTR. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. mouth-sores. helps delivery. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. ulcers .—Burseraceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. LOC. Guggali. flowers. asthma. invigorating. G. Moddi. flowers. thirst. used for boils. Fruit—cooling. fruit and gum. useful in intestinal troubles. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. LOC. See—Timbers. biliousness. Dhupam. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. causes headache. cooling. strengthens teeth.. leaves. convulsions.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. FAM. Fruit—aphrodisiac. fruits. allays thirst. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. skin diseases. useful in skin and blood diseases. hot. tonic. Fermented juice—tonic. thirst and scalding of urine. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Bark. causes " Kapha ". Guggula. Liquors. K. allays asthma. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. bitter. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. tonic. with a good flavour. heals wounds . Sk. M. Gum is of five kinds . diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. diaphoresis. blood complaints . may cause vomiting. expectorant. dry. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. intoxicating. intoxicating. juice. bronchitis. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. scabies. H. laxative. COM. useful in biliousness. binding. " Vata". if taken regularly acts as laxative. Loban. Mukulsalai. antibilious . Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. astringent to bowels. . alexiteric. Salashi. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Sugars. purifies blood (Yunani). as a collyrium in ophthalmia. antiglycosuretic. NS. Vishesha-dhupa. Bark-decoction. with a little salt added. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. Gums and Resins. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. :—E. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. fattening. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Salai. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . also used as antiperiodic. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Kundur. vaginal discharges. burning sensation. fevers. Dup. diuretic . BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. also found in Belgaum District. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. cures dysentery. Gum—hot. Indian olibanum tree. Luban. fatigue. removes "Kapha". Dhup. cough. purifies blood. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. allays. Salgond. bad throat. Sambrani. Salpe. aphrodisiac. improves taste. "Vata". expectorant. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . fattening.
" Vata". In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. DISTR. chiefly in Nasik. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. and toothache. Kali-rai. Khandesh. Surat. Sarshapa. :—E.—Cruciferae. spasmodic. increase appetite . Rai. bechic. Sk. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. :—Cultivated in India. internal congestions. cure skin-dissases. stomachic. NS. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. spleen. Seeds— remove cough tumours. G. Taramira . USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. FAM. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. Kari Sasive . Gums and Resins. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. rheumatism. Kaira. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. cure nose. ear. vermicide. cure enlargement of spleen. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. . The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. anthelmintic . as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. H. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. biles. Jwalanti. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. See—Timbers. eye-troubles. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Mohori. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. appetiser. Seeds act as digestive condiment . smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Broach. good for throat complaints. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Asuri. cause burning . Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Rajika. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. increase bile. used with butter in syphilis . COM. dispel fever . if swallowed whole they are laxative. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Dharwar and Belgaum. Black-True mustard. India. K. kill external parasites. lessen oedema of body. good in cough and for inflammations. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. M. Seeds-laxative. neuralgic and rheumatic affections .
Chandra. Sk. Sd. M. Shivalingi. Garige. Patharphoda. 5 cm. long. FAM. Tans. :—Deccan. H. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Fr. Ekadivi. Shivlingi. COM. M. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. LOC. . Asana.:—Throughout India. southward to Ceylon. lumbago. glabrous . alterative. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. 3—2 . DISTR. tendrils 2-fid : L. Mauritius. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Khaja. FAM. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda).—Euphorbiaceæ. Sk. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). bitter. Suviraka. Mullu-siru Honne. smooth. Apastambhini.. Lingaja. subsessile. Country.— Aug-Sept. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. M. Mahavira. Kaj. diam.—yellowish brown. NS. bark. Lingini. Ishawara-Shivalingi. LOC. Malaya. globose. Asana. and in fevers with flatulence.— membranous. Asana. Goge. tropical Africa. lobes oblong lanceolate. LOC. heating. 1 . LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. S. Shivavalli. Asana.—Cucurbitaceæ. deeply cordate base. ovate-oblong. hot. Fl. 10-15 cm. COM. Gargumaru. corolla companulate. Manj. PARTS USED :—Root. female flowers solitary. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. stem grooved. :—G. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Kavodi. NS. Kassi. hemiplegia. It is used in bilious attacks. Ekalkanto. :—G. streaked with broad vertical lines . margins sinuate denticulate. Gunjan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. bluish green. H. t. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. 5-partite. corolla as in the male .. CHAR. Australia. useful in "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. of Shivaling shape . K. paler and smooth beneath. :—An annual scandent herb.. 5-lobed. Fl. pungent. DISTR. See—Timbers.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. green and scabrid above.—baccate. Gauli.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. or few or many. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Philippines.
C. inflammations. Fl. It is a disinfectant. Sd. Stems obtusely 4-angled. cures blooddiseases. purgative. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. useful in diarrhœa.—pendant. :—Konkan. leaves. The bark is bitter and poisonous. cardio-tonic. LOC. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha".3-1. Char.—variable. NS. younger reddish. Charoli. bruises. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. :—Native of tropical Africa. Char. Cambodia. Kolegeru. PARTS USED :—Roots. LOC. DISTR. Country. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. lower usually simple. M. Murukali. COM. S.—small.—Crassulaceæ. Snehabija. Piyal. Sk. Fl. NS. Rajadana. gum (rarely).MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. buds with root. COM. M. Charoli. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). purifies blood. boils and bites of venomous insects. K. cooling. analgesic. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Tapaspriya. L. Gujarat. Lalana. Deccan. Char. Leaf-juice digestive. Panphuti. Parnabija. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. occasionally compound. Lonnahadakana gida. Zakhi-haiyat. vomiting.2 m. :—Hot and drier parts of India. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. expectorant. reddish purple. M. ulcers. astringent to bowels. LOC. high. M. fruit. deciduous open forests. aphrodisiac. Dhanu. Fr. in large panicles. binding. FAM. fattening. Cochin-China. Asthibhakshya. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. crenate or serrate. K. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. seeds.) FAM. speckled with white. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Sk.—swollen and octagonal at the base. :—H. t. CHAR. Thailand (Siam). with opposite branches . leaflets ovate. carminative. the Dangs. HABITAT :—Dry.—Anacardiaceæ. Country. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . Deccan. thirst. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). when punctured. also wild. burning sensation on body. constricted in the middle. fevers. tonic. upper 3-5-7 foliate. lobes triangular.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Priyal. "Vata" and biliousness. aphrodisiac. allays .. Charpoppu. Paira. See—Ornamental Plants.—Jany. Burma. Panphui. the older light-coloured. decussate. laxative. Pyalchar. smooth. :—G. S. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. DISTR. elliptic. H.
gum. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Khakhrao. bark. burning urine. Palas. dysentery. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. piles. strangury. burning sensation. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Fruit and seed—hot. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. remove bad humours. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). lessens lumbago. :—E. biliousness. anthelmintic. Bastard teak. skindiseases. Chichra. inflammations. Kuntz. aphrodisiac. H. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. lessens inflammations. used in liver disorders. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. tonic to liver. if chewed. Palash. relieves abnormal thirst. astringent. colic. diseases of anus. pimples. anthelmintic. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. aperient used in urinary discharges. good in dysentery. DISTR. worms and piles. useful in bone fractures. Bark—appetiser. useful in piles. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . Ceylon. Gum—acrid. G. Oils. tonic. Tripatrak. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Flower—aphrodisiac. good in biliousness. cure tumours. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. stomatitis. Yajnika. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. emmenagogue. piles. gonorrhoea. ascends to 1200 m. Kinshuk. Dhak. tumours. corneal opacities.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. hydrocele. Kshatadru. gonorrhœa. carminative. digestible. seeds. Muttala. Khakda. purifies blood. cures ulcers and tumours. LOC. topically in piles and hydrocele. stomachic. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. lessens biliousness. K. Fruit and seeds—oily. Flowers—cure " Kapha". leprosy. useful in elephantiasis. Muttuga.) FAM. Bark—appetiser. in the Khandesh Akrani. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. NS. useful in syphilis. Sk. Leaf—very astringent. Gums and Resins. cold and cough. diuretic . buboes. good in fevers. COM. fractures. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. M. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Gum—astringent to bowels. Kakria. eye diseases. anthelmintic. Palas. Khakera. Dyes. cause headache (Yunani). useful in gleet and urinary concretions . gout. pterygium. laxative. tonic. leaves. dysmenorrhoea. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cough. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. India. Seeds tonic to body and brain. prickly heat and itch. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). dry. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. cures excessive perspiration. LOC. used in diseases of chest and lungs. expectorant. flowers.
useful in colic. Leaves contain a glucoside. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Gums and Resins. Gum solution is applied to bruises. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Sind.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. leaves. L. LOC. strongly mucronate. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. CHAR. wounds. heating. shortly stalked. Katkaranj.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Flowers are astringent. Katkaleja. Fruit—acrid. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. long . M. Physic nut.) COM. LOC. :—Throughout India. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious.—abruptly pinnate. Fl. ringworm. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. prevents contagious diseases . anthelmintic. long. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Fr. flowers and fruit.5 cm. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. NS. t. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. petioles prickly. :—An extensive climber. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. the tropics generally. anthelmintic . elliptic-oblong.—pod. See—Timbers.5 cm. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. Tapasi. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. Gajjige. lead-colored 1. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Sd. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. FAM. oblong 5-7.—yellow. fevers. :—E. aphrodisiac. 5-7. Karanja. G. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. DISTR. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. sprouts useful in tumours. K. cures urinary discharges. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. piles. Fever nut. . H. act as rubefacient. Kakechika. cures inflammation . leucorrhcea. 30-60 cm.3 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. asthma and colic. densely armed on the faces with prickles. leprosy (Yunani). skin-diseases. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . etc.5 X 4. Kuberakshi. Sagargota. aphrodisiac and diuretic. Sk. Seed—styptic. astringent to bowels. They are applied to orchitis. antiperiodic.—JulySept. very common near the sea-coast. malaria. Gajaga. Gajga.—1-2 oblong. Fl. Dyes. hydrocele. Deccan hills.
2. Madar. Madar. LOC. Surhonne. :—E.H. Ekke. Alexandrian laurel. Australia. often gregarious. elliptic or ovate oblong. :—E. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Sk. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mandara. Akand. Arka. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Undi. LOC. NS. K. astringent.8-10 cm. H. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. COM. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Punnag. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. also cultivated as an ornamental plant.. Ponne. high. East African Islands. Malaya. :—Cultivated throughout India. Punnaga. See—Timbers.. base cordate.—Asclepiadaceæ. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. branches stout. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. very common in N. DISTR. . :—A large shrub. Purasakeshera. and for its oil. CHAR. K. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. M. M. thick. sessile. Kshirparni. and oil.4-3 m. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". sometimes amplexicaul. covered with cottony pubescence. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R.— opposite.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. G. Sk. Polynesia. 10-20 X3. Vuma.. NS.. Kshiranga. Br. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. used in chronic fevers. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Arka. Gigantic swallow-wort. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. L. Sultanchampa. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Shuka-phala. FAM. gum. much branched. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Akdo. Kanara associated with littoral species. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Oils. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Dholaakdo. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Undi. Tungakeshera. The gum from wounded branches. Mandara. Ak. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet.—Guttiferæ. improves complexion (Ayurveda).. both surfaces tomentose. Surpan. lessens appetite. Ceylon. Ark. Surangi. Rui.
across. COM. Fr. Madar.—7.5-10 X 5-7. corona shorter than the column. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. Sk. laxative. useful in leprosy. ascites. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. rat-bite. young parts white. Safedak. usually 5. Ak. elephantiasis. purplish or white. leaves and flowers. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. t.7—15 X 4. ellipsoid or ovoid. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. NS. :—An erect shrub usually 1.— Feb. cottony. Malay Islands and S. cures leucoderma. asthma. flattened tomentose. ulcers. buds globose. LOC. . heal wounds. PARTS USED :—Root. long. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Fl. high.—Asclepiadaceæ. ascites and anasarca. C. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. depilatory. swellings. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. scabies. Milk— caustic. liver and spleen enlargement. Mandara. Rajarka.2 cm. See—Fibres. tumours. LOC. lobes usually erect. Sd:—many. asthma. India. subglobose.. L. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. acrid . cures inflammations. painful joints . expectorant and anthelmintic. tonic and stomachic in action. Milk— heating. China.—in umbellate cymes. very common. catarrh and loss of appetite. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . cures piles and "Kapha". bark. C. comose. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. very common is S.5 cm. spleen and liver diseases. comose . ringworm of scalp. buds ovoid. Sd. 9-10 cm.— purplish in umbellate cymes. Root-bark is diaphoretic.5 cm. purgative.. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. Fr. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic.. elliptic or obovate.—lobes deltoid-ovate.—about 2. broad. alterative and purgative properties. CHAR. Mandara. green. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. bark corky. tumours.:—H. dropsy. good for liver (Yunani). Juice—anthelmintic. ovate oblong.—subsessile. leaves applied to paralysed parts. cures asthma and syphilis. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . Flower—analgesic. DISTR.4 m. apex with two auricles. Ceylon. oleaginous.5-8. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. Flowers—digestive. piles. cures leprosy. also useful in intestinal worms. Flowers—stomachic. astringent. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. Br.-July. M. Ark. spongy. FAM. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. diaphoretic. back much curved. coughs. used in cough.—follicles.8-2. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. eruption on body.—broadly ovate.
erect. COM. COM. FAM. narrow. spatulate. K. Kalehu. Gigantea.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Hudingana. abundant in Sind. Fl. Waziristan. PARTS USED :—Pods. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Arabia. Egypt. :—E. Kadavare. long.2 m. Sarvajaya. veins arching. DISTR. Iran..:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Shitarambha. Kadsambu. The pods contain vitamin A. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Koshaphala. cooling. stem 0. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. Flowers used as detergent. appetiser. Gavria.3 cm. Devakeli. PARTS USED :—Leaves. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Afghanistan. Warm leaves used as poultice. oval or orbicular. H. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. See—Fibres. See—Vegetables. on trees and hedges . M. staminodial segments. Kardali. (Chopra). :—E. tonic.:—Perennial herb . H. Tamateballi. tropical Africa. 3 sub-erect. Gavara. Shimbi. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Nilashimbika. Asishimbi. bracts oblong. flowers and milky juice. LOC.—segments 2. acrid. Kamakshi. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. G. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. biliousness. Akalabera. Khadsambal. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Tarvardi. membranous. Broad—Sword bean. Sarvajaya. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. G. lanceolate to ovate. P. Sk. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. useful in burning sensations.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. ulcers (Ayurveda).9-1. Sambe. high . 1 linear . CANNA INDICA Linn.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. K. LOC. Paraholiya. M. LOC. CHAR. L. root-stock tuberous. but doubtfully wild. Sabbajaya. FAM. Sk.5 cm. Abai. greenish or colored. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. they are given in cholera. hernia and colic.. Indian shot. indigestible.—Scitaminaceae. Sema. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. NS. green.
check vomiting. seeds and resin. leaves. tonic. Fl. heating. male flowers. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. NS. antidiarrhoeic. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. Harshini. Bhang. Hemp. Bhang. See—Ornamental Plants. restlessness. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—small axillary. aphrodisiac.—achene. insanity.—Urticaceæ. flowers. alterative .—alternate or the lower opposite. stomachic. sepals 5. (3) Charas. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. useful in " Kapha". HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. aphrodisiac. upper 1-3. intoxicating. LOC. black. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Bhangi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. water extract anthelmintic. LOC. high in its feral state. Fl.—more or less throughout the year. K. Ganja. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . Leaves—bitter. cause headache. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. cough. Seeds—carminative. female perianth hyaline. t. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . M.—many. tonic.—sub-globose or oblong . leaves. causes thirst and biliousness. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Wild in the Himalayas. Sk. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. serrate. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. dropsy.5 m. hallucinations. Not indigenous. causes biliousness. intoxication. soporific. LOC. :—E. Vijaya. intoxication (Ayurveda). Fr. Mohini. DISTR. impotence. Siddhapatri. lower 3-8 foliate. :—Throughout India. oil-good for earache.9-1. (2) Bhang. inflammations. DISTR. astringent. leprosy. CHAR. L. also wild. Shivapriya. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). flowers and seeds. FAM. good for hydrocele. dioecious. Female inflorescence is stomachic. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. lessen inflammation. useful in convulsions. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Ganja. melancholia. PARTS USED :—Roots. hot. Ganja. female crowded under convolute bracts. excessive use causes indigestion. Central Asia. shining. 3-lobed. Fr. G. PARTS USED :—Bark. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. piles. They are broken in small pieces. globose. Sd. echinulate . :—Widely cultivated in India. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. soporific. astringent to bowels. abortifacient. Bark—tonic. imbricate. usually 0. causes thirst. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). H. Unmattini. male fascicled.
M. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Lalmirchi. H. weakness of body. expectorant. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. DISTR. See—Gums and Resins. Chillies. Cayenne-pepper. muscular pains. spermatorrhoea. erysipelas. Menshinkai. M. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. useful in brain complaints. cholera. The fruit contains Capsisin. COM. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. in the form of electuary. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. :—Cultivated all over India. Raktamaricha. Ujjvala. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). increases appetite. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. diarrhœa. Narcotics. LOC. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. . PARTS USED :—Fruit. delirium (Ayurveda). In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. dysuria. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. and flatulence.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. Vegetables. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. Mirchi. Sk. The plant contains cannabinin. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Marchu . as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. increases biliousness. asthma. loss of consciousness.—Solanaceæ. Fruit—pungent. acute mania. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. Tivrashakti. K. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. NS. LOC. useful in indigestion. and dropsy. FAM. often found as an escape. Lanka mirchi. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Capsaicin and Solanin. G. dyspepsia. Tikshna. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Mirchi. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. and is employed by Indian physicians. chronic ulcers. It is stomachic. Country in Deccan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fibres. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). The fruits contain vitamins A and C. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. Madana modak used in cough. Marichiphala. whooping cough. See—Condiments and Spices. also in gout.
inciso-serrate. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Karnasphota. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Kanphuti. DISTR. leucoderma. Gavvahannu. urinary discharges. FAM. :—Most warm countries. skin-diseases.—Sapindaceæ. Sakralata. bark. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . Kumbi. DISTR. Kangu. Vakambi. Root is considered diaphoretic. The plant contains saponin. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus.—Myrtaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. Thailand (Siam). G. 2-ternate. Maniju balli. Sind. ultimate segments lanceolate. Ceylon. it is mucilaginous. " Vata ". flowers and fruits. Kumbhi. Sk. COM. Fl. winged at the angles. NS. Fruit—acrid. C. :—Throughout India. when moistened. CHAR. leaves. :—E. smooth. bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Shaundi. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. See—Timbers.—globose. M. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . useful in tumours. subglobose. colic. Fibres.—capsule. LOC.—white. Karolio. Daddala. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. FAM. rounded at the apex. introduced. dry. Hennumatti. Balloon vine. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Ghats. COM. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. alexiteric. Sk. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. leaves and seeds. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. L. Jyotish-mati. epileptic fits. petals 4. H. hot. K.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. abscesses and ulcers. Girikarnika. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. . Kumbhi. K. Kumbha. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Konkan and W. HABITAT :—In hedges . common in S. :—E. very acute apex. Root. bronchitis. piles. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. Agni-erum. diuretic and aperient. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. NS. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. deltoid. LOC. black. Deccan. Malay Peninsula. Blister creeper. bladdery . and is administered in fevers. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Wild guava . M. G. LOC.— alternate. trigonous. Sd. Kapalphodi. Kalindi. stem wiry. dyspepsia.
digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. heating. M. Guppe. NS. cooling. NS. strangury. diuretic. White thin latex contains Papain. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Pangi. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. leucoderma. K. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Barre. COM. leprosy. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. H. cure urinary discharges. Popayi. Papayi. :— E. good for eyes. Sk. appetiser. Flower—tonic to liver.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. G. Kusumba. Leaves—hot. Chirbhita. it is used to procure abortion.—Compositæ. flowers. :—E. Oil—indigestible. used. Ahmednagar and Nasik. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Karada. made into curries. Indies. causes burning sensation . Kusumba. Safflower. K. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Mexico and Brazil. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. H. expectorant. Fruit—stomachic. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. of W. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Kusumbha. aphrodisiac. Papaw. Papaya. relieves obesity. cause biliousness. LOC. scabies. cures inflammations. Kusumba. Papita. cure "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. seeds and oil. depilatory. FAM. wounds of urinary track. Pappayi. Kusumbo. cures inflammation. Agnishikha. COM. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. piles. Papaya. Nalikadala. :—Grown extensively in Poona. DISTR. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. Kardai. ringworm. fruit and seeds. enlargement of spleen. Kamalottama. LOC. Seeds—oleaginous. LOC. appetiser . cures insanity (Ayurveda). . Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. hypnotic. DISTR. diuretic. Sk. Dyer's saffron. unripe fruit. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). removes biliousness . :—Native throughout India. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. HABITAT :—Cultivated. carminative. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. bleeding piles. Papaya. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. in haemoptysis. M. laxative. "Kapha". astringent to bowels. FAM. "Tridosh".—Caricaceæ. diuretic. removes urinary concretions . ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. bile. G. Karrak. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. See—Fruit Trees. Chibda. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver.
long. abdominal pain. Dipyaka. Bishops' weed . K. give lustre to eyes. NS. good in weakness of limbs. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. Sk. good for old people. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). laxative. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. stomachic. chest and throat pains. LOC. Oma. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. vomiting. K. FAM. emmenagogue and sedative. hiccup.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. vomiting. enrich blood. improve speech and eyesight. strengthening. cure catarrh. pungent. cure ascites. and diarrhœa. Seeds—purgative. they are used in jaundice . H. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. Ajowan. rachis . tonic and carminative properties. mucronate. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . Afghanistan.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). leaflets 10-12 pairs. appetiser. Tivragandha. COM. inflammation (Yunani). diuretic. DISTR. Dadmardan. Dwipagasti. :—Cultivated extensively in India. H. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Dadrughna. FAM. Dyes. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Ringworm shrub. purgative. oblong-obtuse. Datka pat. carminative. CHAR. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. Dodda sagate. good for ear boils. dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). bechic. spleen. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. carminative. They are administered in flatulence. tonic. anthelmintic. Winged senna. stimulate intestines. carminative. Sk. Iran. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. Ajamo . Europe. aphrodisiac. and even in cholera. subsessile. pinnate. LOC. Simyatase. Omu . L. piles. Egypt. 30-60 cm. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. See—Vegetables. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. good for heart and tooth-ache. liver. M. Leaves contain vitamin A. M. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic.—Umbelliferæ. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. Oil—good in all diseases. kidney troubles. Baluchistan. chest pains. paralysis. downy beneath. oblique at the base. Elgra. The seeds bitter and hot. atonic dyspepsia. abdominal tumours. Oils. bitter. Ajamoda. CASSIA ALATA Linn. aphrodisiac . G. See—Condiments and Spices. :—E. myrabolans and rock salt. Owa. NS :— E. Ajwain. Dadamardana. enlargement of spleen. COM. stimulant.
Taroda. ringworm. " In eczema. DISTR. useful in thirst. leaflets 8-12 pairs. Pitakilaka. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers.-Oct. itching. pale beneath. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). reddish brown.—large. nocturnal emissions. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. anthelmintic. slightly overlapping. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. asthma . Ph. 10-20 X 1. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. K. Sakusina. CHAR. :—Introduced into India. Fl. Sd. pedunculate racemes . skin diseases. Fr. leaves. obliquely septate. long. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Bark has the same properties. Country. Indies.) COM. :—E. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Mukerji). reniform. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. buds in yellow bracts. Ceylon.—Jany. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. Sk. cures tumours. flowers. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. G.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. across. cm.-July. C.. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). cure " Vata ". Avarike.-50 or more. thirst. Awal. M. 5 cm. 28-4-88). NS. diabetes. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. vermicide (Ayurveda).. leprosy. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan.5 X 10 cm. cough. t. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. straight. alexipharmic . LOC. rachis densely pubescent. Gujarat and S. asthma. Peninsula. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). skin-diseases. M. rhombohedral. 20-25. t. Charmaranga. urinary discharges . PARTS USED :—Root. causes flatulence . oblong-obovate.—pod long. yellow with orange veins. along the sea coast in laterite region.—7.—30-35. Fl.—in spiciform. HABITAT :—Planted.. Tangadi. LOC. dull green above. and throat troubles. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. mucronate. Tarwad. membranous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. Avartki. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). Fr. good for ulcers. Sd. LOC. DISTR. N. Fl. useful in vomiting. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. very likely a native of the W. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. Burma. Madhya Pradesh and W. Mayahari. . Fl.6 cm. Tarwad. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. bark smooth. rotundate. J. Ahmed.—pod. H. FAM. fruits and seeds. Tanner's cassia.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.—bright yellow with darker veins. stipules very large. The whole plant.3-1. L.
Kasonda. Kasundari. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Konde. Flowers—improve taste. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. :—E.) COM. H. Fl. cooling. abortifacient. Hema-puspha. leaves. Leaves—anti-periodic . Rankasvinda. purgative. Chimkani. Indian laburnum. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. K. Rajataru. astringent. t. rheumatism. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. also planted. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves lessen inflammation. base somewhat oblique. Ceylon.—petals 5. used in rheumatism.— Jany-March. corymbose. Pudding-pipe or stick.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Kacodari. Ane sogate. ovate-lanceolate. flowers. Balla. (Ayurveda). Vyadivata. :—E. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. throat-troubles. tuberculous glands. M. Arogyashimbi. branches furrowed. Fruit—digestible. 10—12. Garmala. eye-diseases. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Fr. Tans. cure " Kapha ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. Sk. carminative.. heal ulcers . recurved.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. purgative. yellow. LOC. Flowers—purgative. antipyretic. long. In Konkan. cause flatulence. griping. Amaltas. . NS. hard. Chakinda. laxative. Rechana. cures burning sensation. often purplish. Kakka. K. Kasondi. FAM. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Bandartauri. LOC. and Famine Plants.) COM. Sd. L. Suvarnaka. faintly veined with orange . M. syphilis. cooling.—pods. Fruit—antipyretic. useful in chest and liver complaints. See—Dyes. H. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. It is a mild laxative. Aragina. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). apex acute. Ornamental Plants. Seeds— oily. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. Burma.5 cm. distinctly torulose. C. Fl. Dodda-tagase. G. biliousness . safe for children and pregnant women. Kasmarda. transversely septate.—20-30. G. lessens inflammation and body-heat. long. Bahava. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. DISTR. Sk. Stinking weed. FAM. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. juice given in erysipelas. Arimarda. improve appetite. See—Timbers.—very foetid when bruised. leaflets 3-5 pairs. NS. Negro coffee. Golden shower. demulcent.—in few flowered racemes. :—Throughout India. shining dark olive-green. 15-20 cm. leprosy. CHAR. smooth. Kasari. Kasoda. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree.
:—Throughout India and most tropical countries. annual or perennial. ovate. alexiteric. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. high. Sd. rachis grooved . fevers. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. LOC. :—A shrub 2.. The plant contains glucoside emodin. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. " tridosha " . CHAR. turgid. :—G. COM. hiccup.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. lanceolate. t. Banar. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them.510 cm. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. mixed with honey. C. leaves and seeds. Talapota. K. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). See—Famine Plants.4-3 m. petals 5. cures ascites.Jany. 7. heals wounds. obtuse. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). See—Famine Plants. DISTR. base rounded. DISTR.—in axillary. Kasondi. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn.—30-40 broadly ovoid. elephantiasis. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. NS. long . leaves and seeds. Leaves—aphrodisiac. with a solitary conical gland near the base . In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Ran tankala. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. . Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. septate between the seeds . tonic and febrifuge. Kasamarda. cough. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Sk. M. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). and seeds are cathartic. yellow. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places.—pod. leaflets 6-10 pairs. few flowered corymbose racemes. Kasamarda. PARTS USED :—Bark.— Nov. slightly recurved. LOC. LOC. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. Kasundari. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. Baskikasondi.—18-23 cm. in Kutch. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. At Kotra. asthma. The bark. dark brown . are given in diabetes. Fl. Fr. LOC.. In many countries root is considered diuretic. L. cure " Kapha". Seeds used in heat of the blood. FAM. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. H. opposite. stomachic. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . " Vata ".
pale yellow. LOC.5 cm. Fl. . DISTR. 7. laxative. Foetid cassia. obovate. H. Chakunda. PARTS USED :— Root. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Fr. obliquely septate. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Sd.5 mm. leaflets 3 pairs. base oblique. ovate or obovate. brain and liver tonic.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. DISTR. covered with lenticels.. L. 12. X 4. Pamad. K. :—E. :—E. reddish brown. crenate.) COM. Malkangoni. Fr. Burma. L. Sd. usually unisexual. capsule. Fl. FAM.. cause burning sensation. hot. in drooping panicles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . much curved when young.5-10 cm. M. H. alternate. 18 m. branches rough. :—An annual foetid herb. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Kanguni. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. high. Malkamni. leaves and seeds.—after the rains. COM.—pod.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Kangodi. upper petal 2-lobed . :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. bright yellow. NS. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. NS. C. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Sphutabandhani.—pinnate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. fleshy arillus. Chakramarda. Tarota. oblong.5-20 cm. Dadrughna. high. powerful brain tonic. Tagache. Chagoche. Kangani. long. expectorant. Climbing-staff plant. 1-6 completely covered with red. Sk. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Dadamari.— petals 5. :—Large deciduous climber. Taragosi. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. appetiser. rachis grooved.—Celastraceæ. K. unarmed. :—A very common weed all over the State. Madras State. CHAR. Velo . globose. 6. in diam. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. Ceylon. emetic. small yellowish-green. bitter.3-10 X 3. Panevar. Malhangana. Sk. Taga. M. Svarnalata. CHAR. LOC.. G. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Malkakni. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. 30-90 cm. Jyotishmati. Intellect tree. Kangli. Seeds— acrid. Takala. stem upto 23 cm. aphrodisiac. cure joint-pains. FAM. t. shining above. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. Black-oil tree. opposite (lowest smaller). with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Seeds—bitter.8-7.
-Apl. Fl. C.—opposite. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. used in leprosy. Brahmi. FAM.). Brahmamanduki. LOC. H.). aphrodisiac and stimulant. reniform. obovate or oblong. COM. elliptic. cloves. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. CHAR. especially in Bengal. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Vondelaga. stem creeping with long internodes. FAM. narrowly oblong . It is used as a substitute for chiretta. M. Seeds are hot. Fl. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. rooting at the nodes. DISTR. base deeply cordate stipulate. Vallari . Barmi. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). ovoid. good for cough and asthma. NS.—capsule.—May-Nov.—4 mm. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. :—A slender herbaceous plant. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. M. Fr. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. Jangli-karayatu. minute. Fl. orbicular.—Umbelliferæ. Fr. COM. tonic. they are also sudorific. persistent. high.—tubular lobes 5. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :— E. K. Mandukparni. G. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. long. Deccan and S. Sk. :—Throughout India. Oil stomachic. Jhinkun-kariatum. linear-oblong. Fl. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. :—Konkan.—Gentianaceæ. :—G. hard-rugose. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. t. H. . Ekpani. cauline smaller.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). pink. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. CHAR. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers.—Feb. L. pink. radical leaves revolute. and is employed for external application. spreading star-like . Don. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn.—3 from each node.—in fascicled umbels. L. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. Mahaushadhi. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. paralysis and leprosy. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. M. NS. Lahanchirayat. gout. Brahmamanduki. Country. t.
Malay Archipelago. :—South Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. stomachic. bronchitis. LOC. laxative. bitter. cardio-tonic. See—Timbers. cooling. small-pox. scalding of urine. clears voice and brain. soporific.—Apocynaceæ. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. ointment. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. biliousness. nut is narcotic and poisonous . the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. digestible. PARTS USED :—Bark. asthma. sedative to nerves. Chanda. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. inflammations. spleen enlargement. headache . The plant contains glucoside cerberin. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. DISTR. tropical and subtropical regions of the world.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. M. abundant on the Malabar Coast. :—Throughout India near the coast. :—K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". Sukanu. and a bitter substance odollin. For external use powder. COM. NS. tonic. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. used in insanity (Ayurveda). milky juice. alterative. asthma. carminative. FAM. water courses throughout the State. cures hiccup. urinary discharges. bechic. USES :—Bark is purgative. alexiteric. Tande. LOC. twigs. antipyretic. bronchitis. Kanara. thirst. cures leucoderma. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . anæmia. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. China. memory. fevers. Honde. tonic. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. improves appetite (Yunani). improves appetite. . LOC. :—In moist situations (streams. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. Leaves are also diuretic. nallas. leaves and seeds). Plant—bitter. Leaf-powder. Australia Pacific Islands. diuretic. voice. blood diseases. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. plaster or bath are used. " Kapha ".) DISTR. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. fruit. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration.
tonic. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Bengal—Common-gram. Country. Chillika. :—Widely distributed. DISTR. anthelmintic. oleaginous.) FAM. :—E. Wild-spinach. Chakravarti. Harparauri K. piles . COM. K.—Chenopodiaceæ. fragrant. Cheel. also cultivated as a pot herb. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. abdominal pains. Skandhaphala. Balabhojya. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. M. Harbara. Lavali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. "Kapha". biliousness. COM. M. diuretic. improves appetite. H. throattroubles. Chanaka. Goose-foot. Pandu. USES :— Root is purgative.. Bathusag. spleen (Ayurveda). NS. constipation. eye-diseases. diseases of blood. Harparrevdi. useful in bronchitis. piles. Agralohita. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Sk. Kadale. FAM. Chana. The fruit is acrid and astringent. biliousness.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Rai-avala. :— E. The plant yields an essential oil. . COM. M. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. G. laxative. Chandanbedu. Fruit is very sour . Sk. Tanko. Vajibhakshya. Chania. Country gooseberry. See—Fruit Trees. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. NS. G. root and the seed are cathartic. aphrodisiac. LOC. useful in thirst. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Kari-Kempukadale. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Deccan and S. LOC. Chick pea. Laveni. LOC. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Chalmeri. sour . LOC. DISTR. But. "Vata". HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—E. Chana. vomiting. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite.—Euphorbiaceæ. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. K. tonic to liver. urinary concretions. Chakravati. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fruit and seeds. useful in biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Chakwat. Chunna. M. Rayara nelli. acrid. FAM . native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. heart. Kanchuki. NS. :—Cultivated in India. H. :—Very common in the Deccan. Ksharadala.
As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. M. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. cures thirst and burning. Malay Peninsula. headache. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). carminative. Kanara district. chest complaints. abdominal pains. good for diseases of liver and spleen. biliousness. expectorant. Ceylon. tonic to hair. tonic . Seed—indigestible. Leaves—purgative. useful in bronchitis. See—Food Plants. K. heated brain.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. It possesses carminative. cures skin diseases. anthelmintic. . Nisane. PARTS USED. causes flatulence. bronchitis (Yunani). Oils. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. Dalchini. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. very common in the N. leprosy. toothache (Ayurveda). NS. anthelmintic . Lavange-hakke. LOC. vomiting. Kash. thirst. Gudatwaka. aphrodisiac. pungent. flatulence. Duk. See—Condiments and Spices. Darchini. enriches blood. cure bronchitis. emmenagogue. tonic. :—W. foul mouth and fever. aphrodisiac. improve taste and appetite. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). Oil—styptic. Dalchini. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. FAM. pains . Peninsula. causes flatulence. It checks nausea and vomiting.—Lauraceæ. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED :—Leaves. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. LOC. alexiteric. vomiting. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. useful in hydrocele. headache. hiccup. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. liver-tonic . aphrodisiac. :— Bark and oil. appetiser. Leaves contain vitamin A. seed and acid exudation. biliousness. itching. Oil—carminative. Dalchini. Dalchini. indigenous and cultivated. bronchitis. COM. indigestion. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. diarrhœa and dysentery. cold in head. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. blood troubles. causes salivation. throat troubles. abortifacient. DISTR. strengthens liver. parched mouth. heart. aphrodisiac. Sk. H. refrigerant. :—G. etc. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. Burma. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. tonic. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. piles. Valkala. toothache. throat troubles. useful in cold. flatulence. useful in loss of appetite. useful in " Vata ". Bark—tonic. anthelmintic. carminative. rectum and urinary diseases. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Seed—stimulant. useful in inflammations.
C. peltate. LOC. monœcious. waxy coated. Venivel. Colocynth. DISTR. LOC. CHAR. alleviates vomiting. Makal. F.8-10 cm. Pavamekke Kayi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . red or yellowish white. in conjunction with aromatics. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. :—An extensively climbing annual. upto 25 cm. female flowers in elongate. orbicular or reniform. 7. Fl. 1949). Mahendravaruni. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. COM.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn.—Menispermaceæ. Fl. L. tendrils bifid.— usually margined. long. Indruk. itching . :—In hills. leaves. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. axillary racemes . branches more or less pubescent. Indrayan. an alkaloid. stem thick. minute. heart troubles. Pahadvel. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Indraphal. warm parts of Asia. also for prolapsus uteri. flesh juicy. Chitraphala. 5-partite. Paharmul. Uthika. Sd. hairy. uterine complaints. useful in hemicrania. which possibly has a cholinergic action.. PARTS USED :—Root. COM.—Nov. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". HABITAT. diam.—A climbing shrub. Ghorumba. H. G. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. removes pain. dropsy and cough. Fr. has been isolated. solitary. yellow within.—July-Sept. i.. 3. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. H. Kanara. yellowish. Velvet-leaf. The active constituent of the drug. M. R. lobes obovateoblong. helps parturition. :— E. Africa and America. burning. CHAR. . dysentery. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. (Ind. Asso. greenish. removes intestinal worms. NS. Trapusi. Annual Report. compressed. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. angular .—large. Nirbisi. Venivalli. diarrhœa. Patha. :—E. t. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. greenish outside. Fl. FAM. Sk. :—Deccan. male flowers in axillary cymes. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. 5-nerved. cordate at the base. FL t. Bitter apple. or twin. G. sub-globose. drupe. subcampanulate.-Jany. Sk. fever. L. piles.5-20 cm. Katurasa. subglobose. K. NS. asthma . M. solitary. Kaduvrindavan. skin eruptions. Indrayana. diam. Indrayan. smooth. mucronate. red. E. FAM. somewhat hairy. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda).e. young shoots woolly. Tumtikayi. Fr. margins ciliate.—Cucurbitaceæ.
fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. ulcers. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. fever and worms. K. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. with or without nux-vomica. COM. bowel complaints. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Narangi. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. anthelmintic. Narenj. Kirmirtvaka. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. In the Konkan fruit and root. FAM. tonic. leuco-derma. carminative. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. Nagaranga. diuretic. useful in biliousness. fortifies chest. purgative. Deccan. ascites. relieves colds. enlargement of spleen. and lumbago. removes fatigue . sea-shores. :—Widely cultivated in India. tonic. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. Root and fruit cooling. DISTR. Sukkare-kanji. dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. Asia. aphrodisiac . The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. epilepsy. LOC. DISTR. :— E. N. Flower— stimulant. Doddile. removes biliousness. (Poona. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda).—Rutaceæ. LOC. enlargement of spleen. jaundice. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Naringa. constipation. bronchitis. anthelmintic . useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). Ahmednagar and Khandesh). :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. good in fevers. asthma. G. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. laxative. Santra. sweet and has agreeable flavour. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. M. :—Konkan. " Kapha". good in vomiting and skin diseases. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Also indigenous in Arabia. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. pain in joints. Cardiotonic. Tvakasugandha. anæmia. astringent. Narange. cooling. chest troubles. cures tumours. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. LOC. LOC. Sunthura. throat diseases. elephantiasis . INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. removes " Vata ". Fruit—sour. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. urinary discharges. aphrodisiac. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Rind— anthelmintic. constipation. NS. Kittale. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Gujarat. useful in piles. tuberculous glands of neck. H. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. W. antipyretic. relieves vomiting and retching. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Naringi.
asthma. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. tonic and astringent properties. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. H. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Fruit—sweet and sour. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Bijaura. thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. FAM. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). LOC. See—Fruit Trees. bark and fruit. DoddaGaja-nimba. Devamadala. VAR. Sk. COM. Amlakeshara. Limonum. anæmia. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. removes colic. astringent to bowels . Citron . Matulunga. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Jambira.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Rusaki. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Thora-limbu. Lemon . urinary calculus and caries of teeth. rind of the fruit is bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Sk. relieves sore-throat. cough. juice refrigerant and astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. :—Citron rind is hot. fruits and seeds. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". flatulence. tonic. leaves and flowers hot and dry. Kutla. sharp. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. PARTS USED :—Root. K. NS. Turanj. Mahaphala. Matunga. G. increase appetite. The fruits contain vitamins A. Bijoru. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. the juice allays ear-ache. USES. Idalimbu. though there are no regular plantations. said to be wild in W. Flowers—stimulant. useful in abdominal complaints. :—Roots. Mahaphala. B and C. Bera nimbu. H. stimulant. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Mahalunga. Harale. LOC. flowers. Adam's apple. cures leprosy. relieve vomiting. its preserve is used for dysentery. digestible.—Rutaceæ. intoxication. According to Theophrastus. Balank. NS. LOC. COM. useful in vomiting. Madala. anthelmintic. :—E. PARTS USED. Paharinimbu . :— E. Bijapurna. also corrects foetid breath. heating.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Ghats. Mahanimbu. K. Ruchaka. Matalunga. jaundice. dry and tonic . M. cough. oily. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. anasarca and chronic fever. seeds. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. M. with a sharp taste. Turanj. hiccup. Mavalunga. Seeds—indigestible. asthma. Motalimbu . used in constipation and tumours. G. the pulp cold and dry. .
relieves vomiting . weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Amlasara. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites.—Ranunculaceæ. L. VAR.—simple or once ternate. lobes mucronate. Acid-Sour lime . ovoid. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. :—E. See—Fruit Trees. NS. cures abodominal complaints. hairy outside. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. also useful in rheumatism. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. C. Nimbu. FAM. Limbu. CHAR. petioles twinning. Sk. Khatalimbu. whole plant tomentose. stomachic. Fl.—petals O. Limpaka. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. measles. improves liver. PARTS USED :—Fruit. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. K. Fruit—sour. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. Nimbu. sepals 4-6. sharp taste. burning in the chest.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. anthelmintic. LOC. Morata. Fl. silky villous. scarletina. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. relieves biliousness. COM. H.. Devashreni. :—An extensive climber. Oil from rind. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. fatigue . . Shodhana. M. Moravel. Churhar.—Sept. white. throat trouble. hemicrania. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. COM. :—G. Limbe. Acida. NS. Ranjai. with flavour. Sk. but often found trailing amongst grass. Kagadi limbu. t. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. bronchitis . K. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. leaves (rarely). Lebu. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Morvel. G. eyes . it cures and prevents scurvy. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Morhari.5 cm. where there is dry skin and much thirst. brain disorders. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . blades 2-2. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Lebu. heart. Nebu. Murhari. it helps digestion. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. not good in old age.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Fr. Rochana. vomiting. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Nimbe.Nov. Nimbuka. M. Dhantiate. appetiser. Madhulika. constipation. plethora. stimulant . good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath.—achenes. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". with long feathery tails . long ovate or orbicular. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Snuva. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Murva. loss of appetite.
USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. in lax racemes. Brahmani. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. causes excessive biliousness.—axillary. dryness and urethral discharges. DISTR. H. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Jangali-harhar. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Phanjika. Ghats.—capsule. COM. Tilparni. reduces tumours and inflammations . and dispel intestinal fermentation. Bharangi. erect. and fevers. Leaves—favour digestion. . itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani).—Capparidaceæ. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. FAM. veined. transversely striate. Sk. Juice— cures ear-ache. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Nayibela. M. NS. FAM. terminal the largest. stems grooved and glandular. laxative. LOC. :—G. Fl. cooling. Kanphutia. Konkan. stomachic. 30-90 cm. LOC. hairy. HABIT :—A common weed. anthelmintic. Hulhul. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Barbara. Adityabhakta. NS. :—G. bitter taste and a strong odour. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. :—Annual erect herb. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. high. subglobose. H. COM.—brownish black. hairy. Sk. very common in the Deccan. used internally in thirst. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Kasaghni. Sd. petioles of lower leaves longer. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. M. CHAR. removes " Kapha". Vatari. mixed with oil. tapering towards both ends . diuretic. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers.—petals 4. Talvari. hot. Tinmani. Kiritekki. :—W. astringent. Gantubarangi. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. obliquely striate. Karnasphota. Fl. Bharangi.—Sept-June. laxative. :—Common in grass lands. LOC. :—Throughout the tropics of the world.—Verbenaceæ. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. useful in leprosy. t. Bharangi. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Tilwan. leaflets elliptic-oblong. yellow. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Bharang. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish.—3-5 foliate. K. DISTR. good in malaria. bitter. Harhuria. stimulant. Sauri. K. L. externally applied to boils. oblong-obovate. Fr. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. stimulates secretion of bile. Kanphodi. C.
Fl. L.—axillary. asthma. lessens expectoration. COM. C. NS. fevers (Yunani). Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia.. useful in inflammation. K. Sk.3 cm. Gokarni. "Vata".. collectively forming a terminal panicle. biliousness. stems terete. elliptic oblong.—pale blue. t— June-Jany.. solitary. showy. pains. 2-2. tonic to the brain. Wowatheti. burning sensation. wounds (Ayurveda). with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. fleshy. Kowa.—Shrub. sharply serrate. Fl. Fr. spreading. 4 lobes flat. .—imparipinnate. FAM. 3. pubescent. standard bright blue or white.9-2. tumours. DISTR..—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. nearly straight. Fr. flat. smooth. Gokarnika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. Fl. acrid. Koyala. Kajli. cures "Tridosha".7-6. useful in ascites (Yunani). consumption. elephantiasis. :—G. inflammations. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. epilepsy. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. ulcers (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In hedges. The plant contains an alkaloid. beaked. laxative. Aparajita. stomachic. There are two varieties :—white flowered. Root is purgative and diuretic. sometimes opposite.—much exerted. M.:—More or less throughout India. tubercular glands.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Vishnukranta. 0. oblong or elliptic. :—A perennial twining herb. useful in bronchitis.—many.2 cm. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. asthma.—ternately whorled. PARTS USED :—Root. fevers. and blue flowered. Kalina. 12. the larger lower lobe dark purple. leaflets 5-7. ulcers of the cornea. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. leucoderma. CHAR. tuberculous glands. in lax dichotomous cymes. heating.5 X 2-3. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. high. LOC. ozœna. diuretic. Fl. stems bluntly quadrangular. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. LOC. Ceylon. tube hairy within. H.-Oct. hairy. t. Garani. leaves and seeds. headache. burning sensation.—6-10 yellowish brown.— Aug. Girikarniballi.8-5 cm. long . HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. Sd.5-15 X 5. Girikarnika. leaves and seeds. L. obovoid. PARTS USED :—Root. hiccup. with an orange centre. also found throughout the State. bronchitis. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. anthelmintic.2 m. black.— drupe. blood diseases. good for eye-diseases. Root increases appetite. anthelmintic. Malay Peninsula. Aparajita. lower one deflexed. C. inflammations. DISTR. alexiteric.
Konkan. allays thirst. & A. and jaundice. M. cures leprosy. flowers. LOC. diseases of blood.—Menispermaceæ. . inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). The plant contains an enzyme.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Tondali.:—Cultivated in gardens. COCCINIA INDICA W. aphrodisiac.:—Root cooling. Vevdi. M. Jamtikibel. Vasandi. Ink-berry. tropical Africa.—Cucurbitaceæ. COM. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES. Galedu. DISTR :—Throughout India. fruit. USES:—In the Konkan. See—Vegetables. Sk. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. stops vomiting. useful in ascites and fevers. Tundi. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels.—E. Bimba. Tundika. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Ceylon. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Dirghvalli. Fruit— indigestible. Seeds are purgative and aperient. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Tondeballi. Gujarat. urinary losses. antipyretic . Oshthi. burning of hands and feet.) FAM. HABITAT. Faridburti. Glum. Bimbi. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Parvel. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Sk. Tana. Broom-creeper. G. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. biliousness. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Ghobe. M. Vasantitikta. NS. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Malaya. H. Garudi. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. :—G. cause flatulence. COM. Fruit is aphrodisiac. NS. Bimbika. Country. Kambhoja. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. " Vata". useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Bimb. Chireta. Vasanvel. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). leaves. S. dried and powdered. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. PARTS USED :—Root. Flowers cure itching. Deccan. Leaves—acrid. Hunder. astringent to bowels. LOC. given for uterine discharges. Root bark. Vevati. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. galactagogue. a hormone and an alkaloid. H. wild in hedges. FAM. consumption. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. K. K. Kanduri.
tonic. as a cure for gonorrhœa. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Ceylon and throughout the tropics. India. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. PARTS USED :—Root.—Palmæ. bronchitis. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. DISTR. ovate. Cocoanut palm. useful in biliousness. It is also used as a refrigerant. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). "Kapha" and "Vata". biliousness. young parts densely Villous.—drupe. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. flowers. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. fermented juice.3-3. LOC. oil. fattening. burning sensation. laxative. aphrodisiac. DISTR. :—E. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. Tenginmara. keeled. Pegu. G. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.8 cm.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. NS. it is used for coughs. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. laxative and sudorific. In the Konkan. smells sweetish and pungent. Gujarat. Milk—cooling. alexipharmic . ovate-oblong. Mahaphala. also in many places in the interior. Konkan. size of a small pea. FAM. useful in diabetes. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). India and Ceylon. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. LOC.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. H. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. Naral. Fl. tropical Africa. tuberculosis. which is taken internally with sugar. Nariyal. Fr. M. L. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. K. Flower-cooling . male in small axillary cymose panicles. urinary discharges. thirst.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. constipation. Tengu. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. 3-5 nerved. Narial. blood diseases.8-6. Deccan. S. fattening. lessens thirst. tonic. seed. 2-8 together. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains .—Dec. lessens bile and burning sensation. Narikel. Jataphala. Common in Konkan and N. cardiotonic. subdeltoid or subhastate. Arabia. Antipyretic. Mad.—dioecious. dysentery. aphrodisiac. Seed-cooling. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. indigestible. and put on to sore-eyelids. with a few heads of pepper. mixed with water. China. t. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. Kanara..:— A straggling scandent shrub.—3. appetiser. S. Sk. Leaf-juice.3 X 1. oleaginous. villous . HABITAT :—In hedges. Mangalya. Fl. useful in leprosy. good in fractures. . enriches blood. tumours. it is heating. Nalivar. Toyagarbha. female in axillary clusters. COM. rugose . causes "Kapha".
Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. it promotes growth of hair. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). promotes hairgrowth. China. Malaya. internodes smooth.—Gramineæ COM. paralysis. consumption. bluish grey. diuretic. high or more.6-10 mm. Gavedhu. smooth. Rajputana. tonic. 6. lessens inflammations . notched at the nodes . See—Fruit Trees.—10-15 x 2. Fibres.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. useful in lumbar-pain. Japan. useful in fever. long.—broadly ovoid to globose. enriches blood. stout.—Oct. Assam. Oil—sweet. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Madhya Bharat.5-5 cm. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Oils. L. Madhya Pradesh. H. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. S.5-6. increases body weight. liver complaints. Ran-jondhala. tropical Asia-Africa. spinously serrate margins. FAM. piles . LOC. polished. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. M. useful in urinary complaints. CHAR. Gurlu . LOC. midrib stout. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Jargadi. NS. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Sk. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. HABITAT :—Gregarious. America. Oil—indigestible. stem 90-150 cm. :—Himalayas.3 cm. smooth. asthma. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. incipient phthisis and cachexia. long. DISTR. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). Fl. LOC. rooting at the lower nodes. polished. G. Bengal. fermented juice is intoxicating. B and C. piles and scabies (Yunani. ulcers (Ayurveda). Bark good for teeth and in scabies. rachis within the bract slender. it also purifies blood. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn.—monœcious racemes 2. above the bract stout. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).. base cordate.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. India. Kasai. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. fattening. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Fl. sheaths long. Fr. diuretic . It is refreshing and laxative. Job's tears. :—A tall leafy grass. t. :—E. Polynesia. It is also used for burns. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. Dabha. bronchitis. abundant in standing water. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. Gojivha. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic.
smooth. wedgeshaped. cultivated in most tropical countries. FAM. anthelmintic. and dyspepsia. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. diam. also efficacious in skin-diseases. COM. yellow. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. G. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. also as antiperiodic. NS. 5-valved. Sebesten plum. Pistan. histidin. H. :—E. Col. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. DISTR. Gondan. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. ridged and muricated. not beaked. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Sk. Fl. Bhukerbudara. Gujarat. Bargund.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . FAM.:—E. t. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. Fr. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. :—An annual herb. Fl. See—Fodder Plants.— capsule. Chaunchan .—petals 4-5. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. Jute . M. See—Fibres. PARTS USED :—Root.—in short cymes.2 cm. Sd. lanceolate. LOC. brown. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China.— Sept. Resalla. In jutegrowing districts. serrate. Rayagundo. Mannadike. Patta. K. Bhokar. Chhunchh . Lassora. L.—few in each cell. and intestinal antiseptic. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Challa. Bhokar. It is also used as a bitter tonic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Konkan.—Boraginaceæ. growing very tall under cultivation. lysin.—Tiliaceæ. C. Kalasaka. NS. The plant contains leucin. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Hadige. subglobose.—7. leaves and fruit. Bhuselu. fever. COM. M. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. acute or acuminate. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. buds obovoid.5-10 X 2-3. G. carminative. Sk. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. stomachic. astringent. laxative. 12 mm. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. arginine and coicin. CHAR. tyrosin. .
Cochin-China. eye-pains. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. pains in joints. Dhania. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). headache. burning of throat. LOC. stimulant. Dharika. tropical Australia. H. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). LOC. :—Cultivated throughout India. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. removes bad humours. LOC. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. aphrodisiac. Hivija. maturant. Coriander. LOC. also cultivated.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. vulnerary. gleet. Leaves—hypnotic. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. diuretic. M. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Bark. anthelmintic. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). Sk. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. biliousness. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). biliousness. chronic fevers. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Seeds—aphrodisiac. The plant and fruit— acrid. heart and liver. FAM. gives appetite. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. DISTR. inflammations. anthelmintic. causes suppuration. Allaka. expectorant. DISTR. stomachic. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. G. laxative.:—Throughout the State in W. Vitunnaka. stomatitis. widely known from Palestine. antipyretic. tuberculous glands. stimulant. tooth-ache. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. carminative and antispasmodic. highly esteemed in coughs. Egypt. . cures thirst. Fruits are used as spice. Kustumburi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. indigestion. biliousness. leaves (rarely) and fruit. anthelmintic. Satpudas. used in dry cough. COM. useful in hiccup. prevents coryza and bronchitis. :—Throughout India. bechic. thirst. piles. dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic to brain. Mesapotamia and Greece. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. often planted. Konphir. Ghats. wild and cultivated. See—Timbers. bleeding gums. uterus and urethra. Kothimbir. Fruit is aromatic. Ceylon. NS. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Kanara. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. diseases of chest.—Umbelliferæ. jaundice. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. analgesic. Kothambri. diseases of chest and urethra. Fibres. Kothamir. Fruit—diuretic. cooling. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. used as an expectorant and astringent. used in syphilis. purgative. scabies.:—E. Syria. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. K. vomiting.
Hadawarna. fever. Kushtha. Kashmira.7 m.—Aug. K. Karikuttu. lobes ovate-oblong. " Kapha". anæmia. LOC. crisped. LOC. sheaths coriaceous . Changalkashta. stem sub-woody at the base . Varvunna. Chikke. Kemuka. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Pakarmula. useful in bronchitis. useful in catarrhal fevers. Fl. LOC. Castle Rock. in moist and shady places. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. COM. bright red. Varuna.— tube short. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. See—Condiments and Spices. The plant yields an essential oil.5 cm. red. M.-Oct. . nalas. Kumaraka. Vayavarno. high. globosely 3-gonous. Barna. Bilpatri. It is also astringent and digestive. :—G.—15-30 X 5. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests.2-2. and " Vata". By the earliest writers. :—An erect plant 1. Sk. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. oblong. mucronate.—Scitamineæ. root-stock tuberous. Var. L. DISTR. lumbago. a tonic is prepared from it. Keu. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Khandala. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Madhya Bharat. Fl. concave. Sd. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names.— black with white aril. M. depurative.— in very dense spikes. C. hiccup (Ayurveda). M. FAM. India. S. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Pinga. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. DISTR. lip white with yellow centre. Varuna. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. Nervele. rheumatism. many. Bitusi. :—Almost all over India (Assam. inflammations. also planted near Muslim tombs. H. Ajapa. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Sk. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). :—More or less throughout India.:—Konkan ghats. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. S. silky-pubescent beneath. Mahakapittha. t. NS. NS. dyspepsia. spirally arranged. COM. Kust. Varno. Country. K. Var. Pushkarmula. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Shura. subequal. Malay Islands. PARTS USED:—Root. H.—capsule. Vayavarna. subsessile. bracts ovate.—Capparidaceæ. Penva. Pushkarmula. China. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. and aphrodisiac. coughs and skin diseases.7-7. Fr. Biliana. CHAR. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. :—G. FAM.
as long as the tube. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Wild or cultivated. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. carminative.—Amaryllidaceæ. beaked. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). CHAR. COM. expectorant. act as rubefacient and vesicant. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. Nagadown. leaves. K.—subglobose. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). LOC. linear lanceolate. detergent. also wild. Chindar. Kanwal. The plant contains saponin. it promotes appetite. LOC. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. L. lung and spleen diseases. then sweet. :—Throughout tropical India. increases secretion of bile.—1 (rarely 2). removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). antilithic. FAM.5-10 cm. lobes 6. removes "Vata". vulnerary. emmenagogue. laxative. Sk. See—Timbers. and seeds. tumours. USES:—Root is alterative. vomiting. chest and blood diseases. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . lumbago. linear. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. Ceylon.—15-50 in an umbel.—20-30. antipyretic. NS. thin. bright green. with a sheathing base. heating. laxative. Kanda-shalini. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. fragrant at night. Fr. M. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. urinary discharges. flowers and fruits. toothache. bechic. Sd. laxative. good in strangury. night-blindness.:—G. HABITAT :—Cultivated.9-1. expectorant. Pindar. bulb 5-10 cm. diam. stomachic. bracts 7. chest. bitter. strangury. anuria.. flat. "Pitta" and "Kapha". defective vision. scape 45-90 cm. H. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). Nag-damani. leaves. . Fl. anthelmintic. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. vesicant. gonorrhœa. urinary concretions. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. white. useful in bronchitis. diseases of vagina. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. X 12. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. Patra-pushpi. Nagdavana. Vishamungalli. Nag-damani. useful in biliousness.5-18 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. long. Bark promotes appetite. Kanmu.5 cm. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. cylindric. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. 0. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. perianth tube greenish-white.. found wild in North and South Konkan. Seeds—purgative. bark. aphrodisiac. Visha-Mandalamardini. digestive. DISTR. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. tuberculous glands. Tonic. anthelmintic.
Jepal. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. M. FAM. Nepala . Sk. fever. nauseant and diaphoretic. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. :—Sylhet. cathartic. Chucka . In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. Bhutankusam. M. leaves and seeds. convulsions. PARTS USED :—Root. K. insanity. . USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. in small doses. Seeds cause burning sensation. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. See—Ornamental Plants. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. useful in mental troubles. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). near Junnar (Poona Dist). COM. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. etc. The plant contains lycorin. inflammations. Assam to Malacca. Madhya Pradesh. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Seeds contain an alkaloid. As an application to sprains. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. LOC. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre.—Euphorbiaceæ. NS.. Western Peninsula. DISTR. Malay Islands. Bengal. tonic. Jamalgota. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. naturalised or cultivated. it is in great request. Chota-Natpur. Danti. Purging croton . Ieucoderma. Jamalgota . PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Bengal. FAM. :—H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. bronchitis (Ayurveda). abdominal diseases. Oil from the seed is purgative. bruises and rheumatic swellings. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally.—Euphorbiaceæ. bark. China. Burma. Kanara. NS. DISTR. Sk. Konkan. Nepal. Danti. Ganasur. H. LOC. carminative. good in sore eyes. Ceylon . Nepala. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. excessive phlegm. Jayapala. emetic. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. See—Timbers. :—E. COM. Japala. Ceylon. G. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Oil cathartic. :—Rare in the State. expectorant. :—Naturalised in S. Burma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC.
Lomashi. chronic fever. NS. Kharbuja. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. tonic. C. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Mahanaracha Rasa. dropsy. &c. aphrodisiac. gives headache. insanity. ascites. insanity. nutritive and diuretic. K. Melon. synovitis. Ripe fruit—sweet. Kachra. . paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Tarkakadi. cooling. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. diuretic. oily. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. allays fatigue. fattening. Kalangida. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Karkati. strengthens heart. H. may cause skin eruptions and strangury.:—E. Chibuda. Kharbuja. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. diuretic. obstinate constipation. laxative. H. Valaka. Mutrala. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Sk. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Sweet melon . Kharbuja. in ascites and anasarca. It is useful in apoplexy. LOC. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. Vrittervaru. cures ophthalmia. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Rind—vulnerary. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. wholesome. laxative. Shantanu. ascites. thirst (Yunani). Fruit—tonic. Kakadi. LOC. DISTR. Shadrekha. convulsions. colic. Pathira . Karkali. may cause indigestion. Valungi. fruit and seeds. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Sk. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. Said to be truly wild in India. cures " Vata ". and lock-jaw. It is given internally with great caution. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. diaphoretic. Seeds—lachrymatory. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. G. See—Timbers. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. :—In Deccan. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. MELO Var. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. NS. Kankadi. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). brain and body. Kakni. urinary discharges. used in liver and kidney troubles. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. They are edible. Chibdu Shakarteti. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema.—Cucurbitaceæ. M. galactagogue. Kakri. FAM. COM. LOC. DISTR. biliousness. bronchitis. :—G. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine.
enrich blood. COM. Seeds possess cooling properties. fever. fruits. India is considered to be the original home. K. Khira. improve complexion. Seeds—diuretic. M. pulp bitter. are administered in throat affections. utilissimus (Ayurveda.—June-Sept. Mrigadani.:—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves. fatigue.—subglobose or ellipsoid. diuretic. See-Fruit Trees. Fl. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. lobulate or dentate . They are nutritive. indigestible. melo var. t. astringent. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. C. they are also used as diuretic. Cultivated in all parts of India. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. H. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. . allay thirst. cures thirst. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation.—white. B. Ripe one tonic. cooling. LOC. hairy. Kakdi. Santekayi. Yunani). Sudhavsa.—monœcious . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. used in thirst. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. Sk. Trapusha. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. Takamaki. Chitravalli. Cucumber. COM. dry. female peduncle longer than male. Khira. tendrils simple. Kothiban. NS. Seed oil used in fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. male in clusters. stomachic. Tansali. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). cures biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. L. Sushitala. antipyretic. Hislambhi. Fr. CHAR. See—Vegetables. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda).—yellow segments elliptic. Sk.:—N. rigid. Tavasa. Vishala. LOC. stem slender. purgative. Sd. LOC. :—G. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. :—A perennial climber. DISTR.— suborbicular. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. cordate at the base. Fl. Kumbhakshi. G. angled. seeds. and C.—Cucurbitaceæ. Karit. NS. Kankdi. causes "Vata". and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Fruit—fattening . strangury. lobes obovate. FAM. biliousness. pale yellow when ripe. margined . "Kapha" and flatulence. Kakari. H. M. good for brain and body. roasted and powdered.
Sk. Punyalata.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative.—Cucurbitaceæ. increases " Vata ". DISTR. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Koron. astringent to bowels . Kumbala. LOC. LOC. Kadimah. G. . Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. :—Cultivated. M. See—Vegetables. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. G. Pumpkin.—Cucurbitaceæ. Afghanistan. Dried fruit indigestible . Melon pumpkin. allays thirst. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Kaddu.:—Considered to be a native of America. Tambda bhopala. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. M. tonic. DISTR. Sk. Australia. LOC. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. N. Ceylon. Kushmand. Pitakushmand. :—Throughout the greater part of India. improves taste (Ayurveda). Dangari. LOC. Mithakaddu. NS. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Red squash gourd. unhealthy ulcers. B and C. The plant contains glucoside saponin. FAM. Malaya. Kumra. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. carbuncles. :—E. LOC. USES. In Malabar. Bhopala.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. K. stomachic. Karkarn. COM. Iran. cures cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Fruit contains vitamins A. FAM . NS. H. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Kumbala. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. etc. Seeds are used as taeniacide. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Kushmand. COM. H. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. PARTS USED :—Root. increases " Vata" . It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. K. Dudia. on hedges. DISTR. fruits and seeds. Safedkaddu . Kashiphala. cultivated in many parts of India. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. : — E. indigestible. HABITAT :—Cultivated. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Vegetable marrow. HABITAT.
—Umbelliferæ. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Girautmi. Dipaka. tonic. biliousness. bronchitis. stomachic. enlargment of the spleen. remove biliousness. sweet. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. and the root for making these more potent. aphrodisiac. carminative. PARTS USED :—Fruit. . NS. leucoderma. LOC. :—E. LOC. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. abortifacient. Mushalikand . H. fruit and seeds. scabies. NS. Gaurajerka. K. haematinic. :—G. fatigue. Kapha " and " Vata ". astringent to bowels. uterine stimulant. ulcers. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. M. throat and eyes. heals corneal opacities. Seeds anthelmintic. COM. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. H. eye-diseases. diuretic and demulcent. Kalimusali. thirst. astringent. Kalimusali. analgesic. anthelmintic. Seeds—diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. FAM. relieves hiccup. Zira. good for teeth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. inflammations. stops epistaxis . Sk. laxative. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). Leaves—digestible. antidysenteric. Seeds are taeniacide. ft contains vitamins A and C. leprosy. Talamulika. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Musali. Fruit astringent. cooling. Jira. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. cure haemoptysis. appetiser. beneficial in consumption. cures haemoptysis. Dirghaka. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. G. FAM. antipyretic. emmenagogue. Kalimusali. See—Condiments and Spices. purifies blood (Ayurveda). gonorrhœa. LOC. allays thirst. Cumin. belching . CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. also a lactagogue. asthma. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. cures leprosy. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). Sk.—Amaryllidaceæ. See—Vegetables. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. Jire. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. astringent to bowels. fever. carminative. fever. Jirige. Neladati. DISTR. K. Jiru. Neltati gadde. Cures " Vata " tumours. M. tonic. increases appetite . scorpion sting (Ayurveda). fattening. tonic to intestine. vulnerary. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Fruit yields an essential oil. COM. Fruit—very cooling. alexipharmic. carminative. Ajjika.
L. :—E. Peninsula. LOC. Ambahaladara. common at the beginning of rains. useful in inflammations. sessile. Mango-ginger. CHAR.:—Sweet. W. Fl. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. COM. FAM. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. scabies.5-12. diarrhœa. diarrhœa.— in racemes. t. shining . ulcers on penis. perianth segments elliptic. NS. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. oblong. G. oblong. Fl. hairy on the back. :—Bengal. biliousness. Bitter. Ambahaldi. gonorrhœa. Peninsula. alterative and tonic. useful in piles. DISTR. gleet.5 cm. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Sd. tubers thick. alterative. Fr. linear or linear-lanceolate . antipyretic. very short. Karpuraharidra. black. pains in joints (Yunani). HABITAT :—Often cultivated. indigestion. cylindric or ellipsoid. :—Konkan and N. causes "Vata". fatigue. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . Sk.— in autumnal spikes 7. scape.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. aphrodisiac. Bengal. tonic. Amhaladi. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. emollient. distichous.3-2. gonorrhœa. Amragandha. lumbago. antipyretic. pale yellow inside . stomatitis (Yunani). aphrodisiac.—capsule. debility and impotence. LOC. laxative. piles. Ambehalad. alexiteric. oblong lanceolate. :—Konkan and Gujarat. cooling. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. M. flowering bract greenish-white. bitter. asthma. often cultivated. useful in biliousness. C—white or very pale-yellow. appetising. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . all skin-diseases. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. Malay Archipelago.5-15 X 3. Assam. antipyretic. clavate . yellow.. aphrodisiac.5 cm. colic. expectorant.—long petioled in tufts. hiccup. ophthalmia. DISTR. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. useful in bronchitis. " Vata". Kapurahaldi. jaundice. . during convalescence after acute illness. Kanara. gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. :—A small herb. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. K.—grooved.8-5 cm. rhizome.:—W. 30-45x7. troubles in the mouth and ear. with a beak . Fl. L. appetiser. hydrophobia. root stock large. H. lumbago. diuretic. tips sometimes rooting.-Sept. inflammations (Ayurveda). blood-diseases (Ayurveda). fattening. Fl.—sessile or petiolate.—Scitamineæ.— May-June. vomiting. t. Root—carminative. 1545 X 1. Java. maturant. appetiser. :—Stemless herb.
in spikes 15-30 cm. Turmeric. DISTR. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. rounded at the tips. 3lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Harita. Sk. Halad.—tube 2. pale green. annulate. :—Western Peninsula. long. base deltoid. Bengal. Haridra. appearing before leafing stem. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. FAM. forming pouches for the flowers. lip yellow. L. Vanarishta. Indian saffron. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. M.5 cm.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm.—Scitamineæ. Sometimes cultivated.— flowering stem sheathed. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Fl. LOC. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. lateral lobes oblong. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). NS. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Arishina. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. H. Halada. CHAR. . It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. NS. M. flowering bracts cymbiform. Ran-halad. H.-May. G. LOC. C. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. variegated above. COM. Jayanti. Fl. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. Sk. Halad. :—Grown extensively in Deccan.—Scitamineæ. biennial. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. t. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. COM. Banhaladi. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. Kapur-kachali. long. Yellow Zedoary. flowers fragrant. Varnadatri. :—E. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. the dorsal longer. upper half funnel-shaped. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . it is seldom used alone .. DISTR. :—E. Also cultivated in Konkan. Sholika. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. sessile. root-stock large. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Banharidra. Vanhaldara. lobes pale-rose. FAM. tubers yellow and aromatic inside.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. See—Condiments and Spices. Aranyaharidra. Mangalya. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. K. palmately branched. Sholi. also stomachic. LOC. used as an application for skin-diseases. It is considered tonic and carminative. appetiser . sometimes cultivated. :—Stemless herb. green.
sprains (Ayurveda). paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. Narakachora. H. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. odour like camphor. itches etc. diuretic. alexiteric. useful in " Kapha". antipyretic. Jatala. clothed with sheaths. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. boils. anthelmintic. DISTR. useful in leucoderma. taste bitterish spicy. Himalayas and Chittagong.—4-6 with long petioles. externally applied to leech-bites. used in prurigo. It contains vitamin A. internally administered in blood disorders. Bitter. Zedoary.—funnel shaped. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis .— flowering stem 20-25cm. Karechura. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. FAM . emollient. vulnerary.—capsule. Gandhamulaka sara. clouded with purple down the middle. deepyellow. lip 3-lobed. "Vata ". A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. oblong-lanceolate. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. carminative. L. destroys foulness of breath. tonic. improves complexion. K. leucoderma. 3-gonous. In small-pox and chicken-pox. Kachari. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. asthma. an alkaloid. Sk. Shathi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . bruises (Yunani). long. small-pox. In coryza. swellings. :—Stemless herb. vulnerary.—Scitamineæ. pale-yellow inside. bitter. See—Condiments and Spices. oblong. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. Hakhir. LOC. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. M. fragrant. said to be Wild in E. scabies. Tuber is used as a stimulant. Fr. CHAR. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. annulate tubers. laxative. cylindric. coma-bract crimson or purple . urinary discharges. Fl. heating. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. scabies. jaundice. NS. :—Cultivated in the State. boils and urticaria. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. flowering bract green tinged with red . heating. LOC. Kachora. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . urinary discharges.:—E. root-stock of palmately branched. bitter. bruises. appetiser. Kachuri. alexiteric. long. C. blood diseases. 30-60 cm. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. lobed . mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. bronchitis. and yields an essential oil. maturant. anthelmintic. G. fumes are used during hysteric fits . good for liver affections. COM. bruises. flowers yellow in spikes. appearing before the leaves. piles. The plant contains curcumin. Kachora. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic.
PARTS USED :—Leaves. applied to bruises and sprains. LOC. stimulant and carminative. probably of Indian origin. sheaths terete .:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. glaucous green. Putigandha.. LOC. sheaths of the culm tight. long. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion.8 m. tuberculous glands of neck. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). others narrow and separating. gastric irritability. nodding. emmenagogue. chronic rheumatism. Gavati-chaha. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. It is an excellent stomachic to children. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. of much use in typhoid fevers. appetiser. midrib whitish on the upper side. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—linear tapering upwards to a point. epileptic fits. tonic to brain and heart. neuralgia. useful in griping of children. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. M. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Sk. laxative. and is of great value in cholera. H. carminative. upto over 90 cm. sharp. Lemon grass. COM. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. sprains. Bitter. Bhustrina. . velvety at the nodes. It is also aromatic. Tubers yield an essential oil. Takratrina. Ligule very short. FAM. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. also used as a tonic and depurative. good odour. hot. CHAR. Lilicha. aphrodisiac. leprosy.—Gramineæ. pains. Majjige hullu. enlargement of spleen. Gandhatrina. alexipharmic. L. toothache (Yunani). carminative. Externally it is rubefacient. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. laxative. long. alexipharmic. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. :—A tall perennial. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. emetic. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. inflammations. useful in bronchitis. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. sharp hot taste. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. erect. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. DISTR. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. high. anthelmintic. up to over 1.:—E. Purhati hullu. K. furunculosis. and other painful affections. it is also a good application for ringworm. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. expectorant. it is stimulant. LOC. NS. culm stout. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. G.
G. t. Fl. most warm countries. S. through N. Country.—spikes 2-nate. Fr. smooth. 12-18 mm. :—E.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. long. M. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. COM.—flat. Dhoboghas. glaucous beneath. :—Punjab. Africa to Morocco. Roshagavat.5-2. Rhusghas. FAM. sweet. hallucinations. subcordate or rounded at the base.:—Grows all over the State. LOC.3 cm. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. 1 mm. stem. Mangala. G.4 m. Baluchistan. Ghats. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. bad taste in the mouth. bronchitis.—Gramineæ. leafy. Harali. Sind. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Konkan. DISTR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. straw coloured. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. Shatamula. heart diseases. Mirchiagand. vomiting.000 m. throat troubles. stem. Kobbar. oblique or divaricate. X 1 cm. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. Fl. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. K. narrowly linear. Sk. W.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. FAM. thirst. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. Deccan. Bujina. Rohisha. Geramium grass. 1. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. margins scabrid. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). prostrate . sheaths tight. upto 2. scabies. pains. finely acute. high. Afghanistan.5-30 cm. useful in biliousness. throughout India.—Oct. H.-Nov. Bahuvirya. cooling. L. NS. burning sensation. :—Cosmopolitan . high. Bhutika. Fl. Garikehallu. long. particularly the Deccan trap areas..—throughout the year. Shatagranthi. skin . bitter. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. See-Oils. LOC. COM. Vasanchullu.t. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. leprosy. long. L. NS. Fl. carminative. Durva. green or purplish. DISTR. Dhro. Roshdo. CHAR. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Burma. Gharo. M. useful in fevers. M. :—Sourashtra.5-5 cm. widely creeping. long. wide below. Durva.—2-10 cm. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. HABITAT:—Open grass lands.—Gramineæ. in the Himalayas. usually broad. Durba. K. CHAR. forming matted tufts. Gujarat. :—E. LOC. fatigue.—grain. Sk. epileptic fits. slender. Rohisha. Saugandhika. Shyamaka. :—A perennial grass . soft. with erect flowering branches 7. pungent.
t. USES :—Roots are commonly. Mustaka. vulnerary. COM. dyspepsia. dysentery. Granthi. expectorant. biliousness. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. Tungegaddo. very troublesome weed. stomachic. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. fevers. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. hiccup (Yunani). bruises. NS. fever. useful in leprosy. They are also diuretic and stimulant. juice is used in hysteria. it is diuretic. LOC. DISTR. Root— diuretic. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. :—Glabrous herb. Motha. anthelmintic. In Ceylon. anthelmintic. ophthalmia. Nagarmotha. narrowly linear. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. useful for ulcers and sores. CHAR. difficult to eradicate. emmenagogue. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. epistaxis. useful in vomiting. Mutha. cooling. :—Throughout India. thirst. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Fl. PARTS USED :—Tubers. M. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. burning sensation. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. stolons elongate. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. epilepsy.— in simple or compound umbel. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. :—G.—shorter or longer than the stem. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Bimbal. LOC. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers.. Motha.—Sept-Nov. blood diseases. dysentery. K. urinary concretions (Yunani). stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. blood diseases. trigonous. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet.. See—Fodder Plants. Sugandhi-granthila. fever.—Cyperaceæ.5 cm. H. Koranarigadde. Kachhola.82. astringent. erysipelas. Sk Bhadramusta. stomatitis. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. epistaxis (Ayurveda). vomiting. epilepsy and insanity. acrid. Motha. pain.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. . Nut—broadly ovoid. LOC. erysipelas (Ayurveda). appetiser. Bitterish. Ceylon. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. diaphoretic. spikelets 10-50 flowered. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. biliousness. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. L. FAM. diarrhœa. pruritis. Fl. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. vulnerary. greyish black. diarrhœa. Tubers yield an essential oil. most hot countries. 0.
paralytic ileus.—follicle.—7. :—Deccan. tubular. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. H. Sd. covered with straight sharp prickles. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. ciliate. green. DISTR. Fl. Fl. Fr.—Solanaceæ.:—E. spur acute. and sub-involution of the uterus.—Asclepiadaceæ. divaricately branched. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". Gujarat. stem hairy. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. Kariyu-Um-Matta. 18 cm. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. M. .g. Bhranta. corona outer and inner. Country.2 cm. G. nodding. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. Fl. COM. M. Sk. FAM. velvety pubescent beneath.—Aug.-Jany. C. Kanaka. LOC.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. glabrous above. COM. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. CHAR. Kaladhatura. high. NS. lobes spreading. PROPERTIES AND LOC. very unequal at the base. packed. somewhat zigzag. Kanaka. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. white inside. on curved stalk 3. FAM. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain).2-7.5 cm. outer truncate.—Sept-Dec. M. e. Phalakantak. funnel-shapped. Sd. t. across. Fl. :—Annual shrub. t. long 10-20. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. subglobose. beak long. long. inner curved high over the staminal column. L. Black-Purple datura. entire or with large teeth or lobes. a glucoside. Ceylon. S. :—H. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. L. afterwards racemose. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. diam. Utran. CHAR.—many.—purple outside. Ns.— tubular. Fr. reflexed. K: Dhattura.5 cm. Unmatta.5-15 X 3.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose.—thin. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. Rajdhattura. Administered after the third stage of labour. usually pubescent. :—A perennial twining herb. LOC. 30-60 cm. broadly ovate or suborbicular. greenish-yellow or dull-white. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. acute. soft spiny. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). ovate. Kaladhatura. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. Utarni. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. solitary. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle.—capsule.. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABIT :—A common weed. Sk. Kala-dhotara. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. yellowish brown. double.
Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. anthelmintic. LOC. anthelminitic . nodes. Gajar. skin-diseases. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. LOC. ganja. Cultivated in many parts of India. toddy. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Shikkikanda. emetic. febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sk. Carrot. in gonorrhœa. Garjara. equal in effect to atropine. The plant as a whole has narcotic. digestive and heating. (Ayurveda). M.. bitter. NS. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. jaundice. Seeds—narcotic. Leaf-juice is given internally. painful tumours. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Europe. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Leaf poultice. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. anodyne. and antispasmodic properties. PARTS USED :—Roots. emetic.—Umbelliferæ COM. useful in leucoderma. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. tonic. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. H. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. febrifuge. K. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Root. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. USES :—Out of the two varieties. majum. heating. :—E. Gajar. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. GranthiPinda-Mula. toxic. leaves and seeds. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. biliousness. . mumps etc. Gajar. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. G. leaves and seeds. chronic coughs. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. in combination with subja. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. :—Throughout the tropics. nosetrouble. Gajjari. aphrodisiac. The whole plant is narcotic. piles. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. ulcers. with curdled milk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. headache. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. DISTR. cause headache (Yunani). black variety is considered to be more powerful. black (Kala) and white (Safed). relieves pain. bronchitis. Gajra. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. enlargement of testicles and boils. FAM. to increase their stupefying effect.
piles. hairy. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. H. vomiting. C—violet or white. inflammations. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. Country. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests.—May-July. :— G. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. " Vata". Fl. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. urinary complaints. L. alterative.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. hooked hairy. removes " Kapha". pains. :—A woody undershrub. used in bronchitis. good for liver. burning sensation. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. expectorant. Kanara .. Salwan. Salparni. It is used in fevers. astringent to bowels. prevents death of fœtus in womb . alexipharmic. . USES :—Externally. LOC. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). margins wavy. Salwan. upper edge straight. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Salpan. asthma. joints 6-8. cures typhoid. Salpani. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. B and C. antidysenteric. K. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. high. carminative. hiccup. anthelmintic.2 m. t. Shaliparni. NS. chronic affections of chest and lungs. Dirghamula. Ceylon. sub-falcate. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. LOC. astringent to bowels. Salwan. Fr. paler and hairy beneath. aphrodisiac. piles. Philippines. cough. stems and branches angled. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. China. M. Sk. Deccan and S.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Darh. membranous. vomiting and asthma.—pod. fattening. cures biliousness. Murele-honne. Vidarigandha. thirst. cardiotonic. good for inflammation. cures leprosy. biliousness. green and glabrous above. they produce a spirituous liquor. chest troubles. diuretic. Burma. M. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. Roots contain vitamins A. 0.6-1. throughout India.—onefoliate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. DISTR. asthma.—in terminal or axillary racemes. Root marmalade is refrigerant. nausea (Yunani). LOC. ovate-oblong. urinary discharges. boiled with honey and fermented. COM. Ranbhal. tonic. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Vegetables. bronchitis. FAM. vomiting. stomachic. tumours. useful in chronic fevers. CHAR. Malay Peninsula and Islands . indigestible. tropical Africa. :—Konkan and N. dysentery . " Tridosha ". standard cuneate at the base . thirst. other fevers. Tonic. they are also diuretic. biliousness. Kitavinashini. arranged in few-flowered fascicles .
COM. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. stout.—Ebenaceæ. Riber ebony. :—Along the coasts of N. :—Throughout India. Wood cures biliousness. Wild mangosteen. high.—Dec. tufted. Nubia. Tumari.3-3. FAM. See—Fodder Plants. thirst. diseases of bladder. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). useful in blood diseases. bark. :—Perennial tall grass. margins hispid. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. covered with shining sheaths. creeping. vomiting. Tendu. Sphurjaka. Syria. Zeeberwo. aphrodisiac. branched from the base. LOC.—Gramineæ. used in biliousness and blood diseases. G.:—Saurashtra. Malay Archipelago. Darbha. ligule a hairy line . jaundice. branches short crowded. COM. M. Kalaskandh. oleaginous. interrupted. erect. fruit and seeds. Gavandu. Tinduka.—many. sheaths glabrous. erect pyramidal or columnar. long. astringent to bowels. flowers. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Sacred Plants. smooth. Timbwini. asthma.) FAM. DISTR. NS. Tumaki Mara. Ceylon. rigid. vaginal discharges. in the beds of rivers and streams.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Dab. :—E. Makurkendi. Fruit—oleaginous. vesical calculi. CHAR. L. Thailand (Siam). rootstock stout. diseases of blood. Davoli.8 cm. Temburni. stems 30-90 cm. -panicle 15-45 X 1. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Banda. DISTR. Fl. reaching 50 cm. NS. cures ulcers and " Vata". cooling. Anilsara. Kusha. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Kalatendu. Gale. diuretic. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Egypt. . K. PARTS USED :—Wood. t. Durva. Konkan. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. Fl. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. LOC. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. biliousness. Pavitra. Darbha. Sk. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. good for lumbago.—G. Dabha. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). H. clothed with sessile spikelets. heating. stolon very stout. Gujarat. skin eruptions. H. Kanara and the Konkan. sedative to pregnant uterus. the basal fascicled. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places.. strangury. M. Sk.
G. variously lobed. Country—Belgaum. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. generally on trees and rocks. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. COM. fattening. abdominal complaints. anthelmintic. Horse-Gram. hiccup. PARTS USED :—Seeds. COM. antipyretic. asthma. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. Kulathi. Kulit. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Jurali. ozoena. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). appetiser. NS. "Vata". Wandar bashing. removes stone from kidney. :—Tropics of the old world.—Polypodiaceæ. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. Bijapur and Dharwar. Tans. H. FAM. Kulthi. cures hiccup. base decurrent on the stipe. cordate. strangury. improves complexion. urinary discharges. Kulthi. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. M. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. ovate. tumours. densely clothed with red-brown scales. hot. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Texture membranaceous to leathery. Kulitha. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. causes biliousness (Yunani). heart-troubles. Sori two in each primary areole. CHAR. fertile ones long stalked.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). See-Food Plants. See—Timbers. LOC. It is demulcent in calculus affection. Grains contain vitamin A. Sitetara. M. Nasik. cures " Kapha". fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. leucoderma. K. acrid. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. Diuretic. inflammation. :—E. short. emmenagogue. Kulithaka. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. coughs etc. grown to a certain extent in S. . Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. liver troubles. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. DISTR.Gahat. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. dry. Sk. FAM. piles. diseases of the brain and eyes. LOC. astringent to bowels. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. eye troubles. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Hurali. :—Rhizome creeping. NS. Surfaces naked. piles. intestinal colic. Basingh. :—M. bronchitis. Kalvrinta. stout. Kulith. enlargement of spleen. Ashvakatri. pain in liver. Konkan— Ratnagiri.
astringent to bowels . USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. H. hot. :—Konkan. spines 2.—limb linear. LOC. thirst. S.—Compositæ. NS. pappus short. Keshrangana. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. DISTR. oblong. bitter. gleet. Kantalu. tonic. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. " Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. K. involucre. causes " Kapha". increases appetite. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Fl.— opposite. analgesic. often rooting at the nodes. the lobes triangular and oblong. Afghanistan. COM. chronic fever. t. M. Markara. antipyretic. diseases of heart. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. M. usually oblong-lanceolate.—Compositæ. CHAR. CHAR. Fr. Utkantaka. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. .—heads white. used in strangury. deeply pinnatifid. Kadigga-garaga. C. glabrous above. Shulio. Sk. LOC. branches widely spreading from the base. Balari. Country. used in ophthalmia. wooly beneath. yellowish. Sk. Bhangra. strigose and hairy. Utkanto. also cultivated to a certain extent. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. :—G. globose. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. inflammations.3—0. DISTR. Dadhal. useful in brain-diseases. Deccan. Root— abortifacient. biliousness. hysteria.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. hectic fever. urinary discharges. :—A much branched rigid annual.:—Throughout India. Utkanta. Plant stomachic.—sessile. Kadechubak. FAM. Bhangra. H. cooling. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Maka. Ajagara.5 cm. Utanti. surrounded by strong white bristles. stems and branches strigose and hairy. cottony.-Jany. :—More or less throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Seeds—wholesome. Pitripriya. Kantaphala. pain in joints. subentire. sessile. COM. :—Kanara. dyspepsia. FAM. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Sunilaka. Utakatara. high. sinuate and spinescent. Mochand.— Nov. improves taste. Fl. L. intermediate produced in sharp spine.—achene obconic. 0. Garagadasoppu. L. Konkan. bracts 3seriate. densely villous. NS. Bhringraj. cottony pubescent. stimulates liver. long. :—G. LOC. Utkatara. It is used in hoarse cough. spiny. dyspepsia and cough. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb.9 m. Kalobhangro . M. Bhangro.
hemi-crania. "Vata". Karangi. hair. Panjab. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. Ceylon. M. It is given internally in scalding of urine. Fr.—in heads. Gourangi. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. alexipharmic. asthma. tonic. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. It relieves headache when applied with oil. Sind.. toothache. and for strengthening gums. Malaya. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. :—Western valleys of N. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). fattening. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . disk ones tubular . Choti-Elachi. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis.—Scitaminaceæ. improves colour of hair. cuneate with a narrow wing. lustre of eyes. cures inflammations. COM. . Kanara (Siddapur. anthelmintic. :—E.— Oct. solitary or 2 together. hernia. DISTR. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. cures vertigo (Yunani). Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. anæmia. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. teeth. good for complexion. expectorant. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. stomatitis. "Kapha". Burma. Elachi. Fl. LOC. a reputed and popular liver tonic. eye diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. syphilis. Gandhkuti. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. There are two forms erect and prostrate.—achene. FAM. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Bitter . good for spleen diseases. C—often 4-toothed . hot. Bahula. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Chandrabala. K. bronchitis. cultivated. Peninsula). fevers. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). H. Velchi. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. it is powdered and applied externally. Veldoda. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . NS. G. axillary. prevents abortion and miscarriage. leucoderma. alterative. W. eyes. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. Yalakki. LOC. ray flowers ligulate.-Dec.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. night blindness. Madhya Bharat. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Ela. internal diseases. heart and skin diseases. Ilaji. antipyretic. stomachic. Triputa. Sk. involucral bracts about 8 . liver pain.:—India (Bengal. pappus 0. See—Sacred Plants. t. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy.
causes thirst. pruritus. laxative. chest and throat (Yunani). consumption. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Bavato. tonic to heart. Varding. Wavrung. Sk. M. Rajika. cooling. Marua. Boberang. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. most suitable to hard-working classes. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. DISTR. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. fruit is tonic. stomachic. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. diuretic. kidney. Vayuvitang. It is said to be astringent. H. See-Food Plants. diuretic. cooling. LOC. ear and tooth ache. Jantughna. CUM. fruit and seeds. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. lessens inflammation. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. India. In S. LOC. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. cause biliousness .. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. Ragi. piles. bad humours of liver. NS. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. stomachic. diseases of bladder. Vidariga. Kanisha. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). cultivated. FAM. Pavaka. LOC. Grains contain vitamin B. useful in biliousness. Navalo-nagali. pungent. Sk. Seed—fragrant. Narttaka. brain and mouth. FAM. PARTS USED :—Grain.—Gramineæ. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. strangury. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. abortifacient.—Myrsinaceæ.:—Western and S. Makra. useful in asthma. bitter. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Bhasmaka. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). Nachani. M. clear head. NS. Nagali. Rotka. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. Bidanga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. alexiteric . K. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. Vavading. COM.:—G. scabies. :— G. fragrant. tonic. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. See—Condiments and Spices. Vavoding. . K. useful in head. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. It is stomachic. rich or poor.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. root is laxative and tonic. stimulant and emmenagogue.
et. cures bronchitis . HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. :— E. bronchitis. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . urinary discharges. Paranjpe and G.—in lax panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid.) FAM. Fl. carminative. DISTR. alexiteric. t. Dhatriphala. K. M. alterative. internodes long. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. Amla. good for plethoric constitution. " Kapha'. inflammations. Pharm. sweats. anuria.—Feb. Dhatri. black when ripe. Ther. hemicrania. sour. shining above. S. branches long. G. reddens urine. Anward. thirst. Ceylon. fruit and seeds. Seed— acrid. laxative. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Amlika. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). bark studded with lenticels . PARTS USED :—Fruit. LOC. flowers. HABITAT :—Rain forests. piles. anthelminitic. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. constipation. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Int. :—A large scandent shrub. dry. antipyretic. Amlika. L. Bhoza . H. LOC. S. biliousness. Fl. purgative. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. smooth. cures tumours. leprosy. poisoning. Ambala. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Nellika . Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. slender. wild or planted. like a pepper corn when dried. dries wound discharges . Adiphala. Malay Islands. leaves. Sk. bark.—alternate. Ceylon. 42-II-1932). Dadi. tonic. greenish yellow. NS. alterative. paler and silvery beneath. China. " Tridosha ". It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. urinary discharges. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. :—Throughout India. useful in asthma. often planted in Konkan. ascites. with a sharp bitter taste.—berry. laxative. succulent. K. Bitter. DISTR.—Euphorbiaceæ. aphrodisiac. mental diseases. analgesic. Arch. Daula . diseases of heart. useful in burning sensation. China. Kanara. Fr. strangury. (Dymock). Malaya. jaundice. alexiteric. flexible. carminative. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. Anola. LOC. nearly globose. cooling. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Embelic myrobalan. Konkan and N. dyspnoea. Amalaka. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. :—Hilly parts of the State. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. Gokhale. Triphala. coriaceous. vulnerary. Deccan. erysipelas. racemes minute. good appetiser. bronchitis. many. Avala. . elliptic-lanceolate. COM. Western Ghats. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). anthelmintic .
biliousness. Unripe fruit is cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Mamejavo . Celyon. USES :—Root. tropical Africa. high. Saurashtra.—sessile. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. FAM. L. Fl. improves appetite.— capsule. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". Grey). ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. stops nasal hæmorrhage.-Nov. Mabhipaka. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. useful in heart-diseases. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. LOC. Fr. astringent. narrowed at the base. Garambi. cold in the nose. liver complaints. Giant's rattle.—Aug. Dried fruits. rounded apex. K. M. M. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Doddakampi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. CHAR. vulnerary. branched from the base.—sessile. sub-quadrangular or terete. Chhotakirayat. R. See—Timbers. :—Konkan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fruit—acrid. Ind. DISTR. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. 3-nerved. Tans.) FAM. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Lady nut. LOC. Nahu. Tiktapatra. COM.). stems erect or procumbent. Malaya. Hallekayiballi. Tanavadi. piles. Madvinashi. West Indies. cooling. Dyes. aperient. bark and fruit are astringent. opposite. used as laxative and astringent. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. NS. diuretic and laxative. M. t. ellipsoid. expectorant. Sind. NS. LOC. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. eye troubles. Fl. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). C—infundibuliform. 10—50 cm. Sk.—Gentianaceæ. lobes 5. Kadvinayi. white. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. Nagajivha. Gujarat. Country. S. Garbe. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. thirst. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. . :—E. tonic. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Fruit Trees. Mackary bean. in axillary clusters all along the stem. sour. H. mid-nerve strong. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—G. COM. :—A perennial glabrous herb. purifies body humours (Yunani). variable. anthelmintic.
rigidly coriaceous. long.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Fl.. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. dark green. 4. LOC. COM. ORIENTALIS Merr. M. bark. Peninsula. Nepal. shining and brown.—pod. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Mandara.— Mar. oblong or obovate. Sd. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. Sundribans.5-10 cm.. H. improve appetite. USES :—Powdered kernel. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Sk. cure urinary discharges. Mullumurige. Salaki. L. pinnae 2—3 pairs. Pangara. Arakan. :—Konkan and N. they are given internally as an emetic. bark used in dysentery. Kanara. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. G. orbicular. 30-90 cm. :—Coast forests of Malabar. Andamans and Nicobar. W. Raktapushpa. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L.3-2 cm. C. often along river banks. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. wide and 3-8 cm. stalked. for grapevines in Nasik district. compressed. LOC. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold.5-5-7 cm. anthelmintic. 3. Dadap. K.—6-15. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Pangara. The plant is used as a fish-poison. indented between the seeds.-May. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. in debility and glandular swellings . slightly curved. Leaves—bitter.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Seeds. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Panjira. t. Hongara. :—E. flowers. glabrous. Fr. smooth. long. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. leaflets 7-5 x 2. Bangaro. along sea-coast above high-water. Fl. Tennaserim. Mandara.—yellow. Indian coral-tree. Panarvo. Paribhadra. woody. leaves. Mochi-wood. hot. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. the tropics generally. thick.) FAM.. . Phandra .7-5x7. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Var. DISTR. Panderavo. Pegu. Halivan. Planted as ornament.—2pinnate.S. branches terete.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Planted as support for pepper vines. N. diam. mixed with spices. stomachic. Kantakinshuka. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.
reddish brown. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Sc. NS. Paradeshi thora . USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Pill-bearing spurge. Australian asthma herb. Fl. M. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Vajradruma. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. :—E. appressedly hairy. Achchegida. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. 18th Ind. PROPERTIES AND LOC. base unequal-sided. t. M. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. H. The plant contains an alkaloid. G. L. Indian tree spurge. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Nagpur 1931). with or without a limb. Sk. . Ceylon. FAM. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. and to relieve pain of the joints. Sher. Sk. high.—ovoid-trigonous. it is anthelmintic. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Kodukalli. Dudhi. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. rugose.—Euphorbiaceæ. branches often 4-angled. G. COM. Milk hedge. Govardhan. Dudhi. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bowel complaints and cough in children. Fr.—Euphorbiaceæ. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Dudhi. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Sahud. Cong. Dudanali. pale beneath. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. 15-50 cm. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Dandalio thora. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. :—Annual herb. K. —throughout the year.—opposite.) FAM. erect or ascending. Mondukalli. dark green above. K.—involucres numerous. Plant is chiefly used for worms. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. :— E. CHAR. Duddi. Milk bush. H. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails.—capsule. Pusitoa. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Sd. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Nevli. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Shirthahar. gland minute. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). FL. COM. Sendh. NS. Bottugalli. Dandasruha. Bahukshira. globose. LOC. serrulate or dentate.
also as an alterative. Sd. almost leafless. peduncles very long. axillary. employed to raise blisters. Fr.—capsule. about 6 m. Kalisankhavali. elliptic-oblong. epilepsy. anthelmintic. carminative. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. base acute.-Aug. cocci velvety. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. :—A small tree. Nilpushpi. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Konkan and Gujarat. stems many. M. Juice is purgative. L. smooth. 6-13 mm. brightens intellect. colic. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia.-July-Nov. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. globose. 4valved. H. linear. :—G. Vishnukranta. pungent. leprosy. long (appearing in rainy season) . Sd— glabrous. stone in bladder (Yunani). DISTR. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid. Shyamakranta . K.—ovoid. silky hairy. Sk. rootstock woody . and with oil to promote growth of hair. alexiteric. high. Vishnukranti.— capsule. spreading. :—A perennial herb.—small. Fl. Jhinkiphudardi. branches erect. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. asthma. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. dyspepsia. naturalised in India. LOC. FAM. tumours. t.—Convolvulaceæ. Fr. milk is alexiteric. useful in abdominal troubles. mostly female. DISTR. alterative. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. useful in bronchitis. solitary or sometimes 2. branchlets whorled. enlargement of spleen. thick like quill. biliousness. :—Throughout the State. COM. teething of infants . It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. tropical and sub-tropical countries. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. Fl. :—Sind. Vishnukranta. jaundice.-light blue. useful in gonorrhœa. . The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. Vishnugandhi. tonic. long. usually clothed with long hairs . thin. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). whooping cough. wiry. leprosy and leucorrhoea. NS. polished. campanulate. more than 5 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. terete. prostrate.-Sep.—many. t. useful in biliousness. L. :—Native of East Africa. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Fl. dropsy. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . smooth. Ceylon. carminative. LOC. LOC. LOC.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. leucoderma.
in copious terminal cymes . the middle the largest. N. ophthalmia. shining. Prabhodhini.-Nov. smooth. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). also used in chronic fevers. Upper Gangetic plains. 1-seeded cocci. NS. leaflets linear. petioles deeply striate. spitting of blood. elliptic or lanceolate. Waziristan. 1-3 foliate. Fl. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. Dhamaso . in chronic bronchitis.—Zygophyllaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb." asthma. good for liver troubles. LOC.). infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. pale rose-coloured. ovate. reaching 60 cm. COM. Dhanavi. toothache. Punjab. Atmamuli. DISTR. C—lobes 4-5. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic.—opposite. vomiting. smooth. obliquely obovate. typhoid. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. t. M. Udichirayat. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. Cooling. FAM.— showy. stomatitis. westwards to Afghanistan. removes "Vata. it has got cooling properties. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Mysore.— ovoid. Rajasthan. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Ghats.-Aug. cures dysentery. Dusparsha. W. H. emmenagogue. purifies blood (Ayurveda). used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. DISTR. thirst. urinary discharges. cooling. Mediterranean. Baluchistan. FL. Fl. M. Barachirayat. of 5. glandular hairy.-Dec. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. Ind. the upper blue. high. Kashaya.—solitary. Deccan hills and S. Sd. pyramidal to the apex. Fl. LOC. :—G. :— Sind. Dhamasa. flattened. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. arising from between the stipules . removes "Vata". Circars. Coimbatore. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). root fibrous. 5-nerved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. :—Madras State. HABITAT :—Pasture lands.-Oct. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. CHAR.—Gentianaceæ. NS. more or less glandular. Arabia. :—An erect annual. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. LOC. :— H.—very variable in size and form sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. quadrangular. Fr. Gujarat. sessile. erysipelas. Bark is used in scabies. Fr. reduces tumours. COM. stem. Ustarkhar. Sk. acute. asthma.—capsule. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Country. scarcely branched. Maval. yellowish brown. fever. deeply 5-partite. M.2 cm. FAM. Iran. t. lower half white. long. . about 1. Hinguna. L. small. :—Konkan. ellipsoid. CHAR. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . L. alexipharmic.
Monkey fruit. fatigue. :— E. Sk. Bar. removes biliousness. asthma. diam. Kavit. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Balin. blood impurities. NS. LOC. L. :—Cultivated all over the State. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Byala. India. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. high. M. Manmadha. refrigerant. K. about 2 cm. DISTR. Kathel. Fr. Kathinyaphala. LOC. S. shining above. ophthalmia. Kavath. Elephant or wood apple. tumours. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Vat. Jatala. :—Indigenous in S. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Kavitha. Dadhiphala. Java. with spreading branches. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Bargat. Avaroha. cures cough. " Vata ". Kait. COM. acrid. Fruit Trees. ovate to elliptic. Alada. See—Timbers. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. tonic to heart. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections.— globose. consumption. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. common in the Tapi Valley. CHAR. Fruit—sour . binding diuretic. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Vad.—Rutaceæ. astringent..—Moraceæ. Kapitha. leucorrhoea. Belada. Banian tree. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. refrigerant . Nyagrodha. female. FAM. Ala. " Tridosha". liver and lungs . H. cordate or rounded base. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. M. aphrodisiac. often planted. Kapipriya. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—E. Kotha. G. NS. thirst. Bhringi. 10-20 X 5-12. Seeds—antidote to poison. with male. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Ghats. Goli. Bargad. Ceylon. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Self-sown. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. difficult to digest. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. vomiting . Vadlo . Leaves—very astringent. G. heart diseases. often cultivated. Grahiphala. M. Vata. Sk. K. strengthening to gums . Vad. fruit and seeds. Kothun. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . country and N.5 cm.—coriaceous. hiccup. useful in biliousness. H. Malura.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. good for throat. dysentery. Bahupada. COM. .:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W.
hill ranges of S. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. leprosy (Ayurveda). root-fibres. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Root—tonic. useful in "Kapha". Anjura. Fig. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. vomiting. Sk. Fibres. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. inflammations. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. Anjir. biliousness. Bijapur. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). useful in piles. diuretic. India. Grown scattered elsewhere.—Moraceæ. COM. ulcers. aphrodisiac. :—Baluchistan. G. Afghanistan. India. DISTR. . tonic. H. stimulates hair-growth. LOC. Sacred Plants. nutritive. bruises. useful in leucoderma. nose-diseases. FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark. paralysis. pain in chest cures piles. See—Famine Plants. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Asia and Mediterranean. in rheumatism and lumbago. Kakodumbar. leaves. FICUS CARICA Linn. LOC. fever. Cultivated in N. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. NS. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. useful in inflammation . applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. leprosy. useful in syphilis. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. gonorrhœa. Seeds are cooling and tonic. vaginal complaints. W. demulcent. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. Anjir. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. USES :—Fruit is emollient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. lithotriptic. thirst. seeds and milky juice. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. lessens inflammations. Aerial root is styptic. K. alexiteric. diseases of head and blood. Anjir. LOC. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. liver and spleen diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. boils and carbuncles. Dharwar. Milky Juice—expectorant. ringworm. weakness. erysipelas. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. maturant. biliousness. Anjir. W. inflammation of liver (Yunani). :— E. dysentery. Simeyatu . nose bleeding (Ayurveda). useful in "Vata". laxative. vulnerary.
cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Pavitraka. LOC. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Fruit—astringent to bowels. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). styptic. given in leucorrhoea. planted all over. in diseases of blood. Demera. leucorrhoea. COM. M. diseases of kidney and spleen. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Pipal. M. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Umbro. bark. Sk. fatigue. PARTS USED :—Root. ground with onions. bark. good for gravid uterus. Leaves—astringent to bowels . FAM. Umar. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. Jari. galactagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. vulnerary. biliousness. . LOC. menorrhagia. DISTR. Ragi. Udumbara. nose bleedings. Ashwatha mara. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. NS. good for bronchitis. Pippala. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. useful in "Kapha". tonic. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. leprosy. G. :—E. LOC. good for foul taste. Pimpal. blood diseases. Umbar. Arani. vagina. Bark. fruit. Sk.—Moraceæ.—Moraceæ. Fruit— useful in dry cough. menorrhagia and haemoptysis.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. :—Throughout the State near villages. leaves. H. Pipers. Bark is cooling. burning sensation. :—Widely spread throughout India. Yajnika. Atti. See—Timbers. Pipli. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. uterus . DISTR. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. loss of voice. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. :—E. FAM. Pippala. Peepal tree . Bodhidruma. useful. Milk—aphrodisiac. Gular-Country fig. urinary discharges. ulcers. latex. HABITAT :—Planted. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Pipal. (Yunani). The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. NS. H. cummin. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. K. biliousness. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Vriksharaj. Sacred Plants. Gular. Umar. leaves and fruits. K. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Hemadugdha. allays thirst. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Shuchidruma. Rumadi. Ashvatha.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. Lalka. G. acrid. COM.
Sacred Plants. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa.—Flacourtiaceæ. Kanara Jungles. promotes granulations. astringent in leucorrhoea. Sk. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :— G. H. Sk. good for lumbago. Root good for gout. cleans ulcers. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. W. Shalina. COM NS. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Soupa. Bhanber. Handi Kandai. aphrodisiac. fruit. PARTS USED :—Root.—Umbelliferæ. appetising and digestive. FAM. Bhuripushpa. bark. Katar. Bilangra . Fruit—purgative. Satpura. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. LOC. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Country and N. See—Timbers. G. DISTR. K. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. M. N. Root-bark good in stomatitis. HABITAT :—Hills. Fennel. upper Gangetic plain. See—Timber. Finkel. Gajale.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Badishep. Kankod . :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Mullutari. COM. Fodder Plants. and produces sterility in women. common in the Peninsula. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Akrani. Hettarimullu. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. gum. M. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. LOC. . :—E. Shateya. Swadukantaka. Paker. Badisoppu. Khandesh. Tambat. Burma. Hunmunki. The juice is employed in hiccup. Bhakal. Fruits are sweet. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Circars. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Variali. Ghats. FAM. seeds. Tapaspriya. SAPIDA Roxb. NS. S. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Variari. checks vomiting (Yunani). Young bark useful in bone fractures. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. heart diseases. H. M. Potika. K.
Wild mangosteen. kidney. USES :—Bark is astringent. NS. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. carpophore 2-partite. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. 0. fruit and seeds. wounds. aphrodisiac.—in large umbels . Sk. often cultivated. alexiteric. :—Endemic in W. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. USES :—used as stimulant. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms.— decompound. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. Coorg. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. Atyamla. aromatic and carminative. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. Ratambi. dysentery. eye-diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. yellow. M.9 m. . Ghats. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. diuretic. K. bracts and bracteoles absent. anthelmintic. demulcent and emollient. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. improves appetite and allays thirst. annual. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". in headache. Leaves—improve eyesight. ultimate segments linear. burning sensation. leaves (rarely). :—Apparently a native of S. leaves and seeds. fissures of lips. Kokam . HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Roots. Ghats south of Bombay. H. FAM. furrows vittate. Kokam . HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. stomachic. biliousness. galactagogue. amenorrhœa. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter.—Guttiferæ. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. LOC. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). spleen. lessen inflammations. wounds etc. Wynaad. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. thirst. ridges prominent. useful in diseases of chest. Fr. Tittidika . It is much used as a nutritive. difficult to digest. useful in bleeding piles.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. dark green. LOC. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. cardiotonic. dysentery. common in S. Tintidika. :—E. leprosy (Ayurveda). causing constipation . Konkan and N. Mulgala. Oils. Murjinhalli. tumours. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—W. cough and asthma. seeds-carminative. cures "Tridosh". (Mhaskar and Caius). COM. FL. LOC. L. :—A tall glabrous. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. fever. stimulant. strengthen eyes (Yunani). cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. See—Timbers. Kanara. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. " Vata ". DISTR. Kokam. Amlabija.6-0. appetiser. anthelmintic.—ellipsoid. laxative. G.
MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. Fl. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. oblong or ellipsoid. Dekamari. 4.-subsessile. high. :—A deciduous shrub. PARTS USED :—Gum. lucida (Ayurveda).8 cm. :—India. COM. FAM.—Rubiaceæ. lucida. :—E. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. See—Timbers. same as for G. Jantuka. first white then changing to yellow. FAM. Burma. Suvirya. Sk. Northern ghats of Madras State. DISTR. . :—India (W. C. shining.5x22. buds resinous. LOC. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . COM. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. long. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. LOC. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. See—Gums and Resins.-sessile. astringent to bowels.—Rubiaceæ. As sold in the bazar it is hard. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. G. H. NS. Fl. DISTR. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. Dakamali. LOC. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. Western Peninsula. Gums and Resins. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. L. Dikamali.5 cm. Dikkamalli. -June. about 1. opaque. :—Common from Konkan southwards. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). all dry districts of Madras State. 1-3 together. LOC.5-3.—2. Dikemali. K. Hingu. t. HABITAT :—Open situations. relieves pain of bronchitis..—Feb. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. PARTS USED:-Gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G.8 m. Peninsula). Bikke. Fr. Dikamari. common on laterite in southern parts of N. CHAR. M.-tubular. elliptic-obovate. not fragrant. oblong. Cambi resin tree. Pinda. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. unarmed. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. NS. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Kanara.
. . Kalikari. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed.—Liliaceæ. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. DISTR. H. There are two varieties of the plant. given off from young tubers .-July-Oct. Agnimukhi. useful in chronic ulcers. ovate lanceolate.5 X 15 X 2-4. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. Nangulika. root-stock of arched. abortifacient. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. abdominal pains.. NS. orange. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. bitter. LOC. In case of retained placenta. :—Throughout tropical India.5 cm. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Indai. Cochin-China. The former is supposed to be male. sometimes whorled. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. 7. FL. Tuber— astringent. Dudhio vachhonag. expectorant. laxative.2 cm. margins wavy. :—G. L. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. piles. Kathari. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). Huliyuguru. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.—sessile. Ceylon. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. branching climber . heating. In Guinea. Kalihari. inflammations. axillary . leprosy. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. :—Herbaceous. Khadyanag. solid. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. LOC. Fr.. M. leaves and flowers. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. thirst. stems annual. Garbhapatani. used to remove placenta from uterus. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. CHAR. Karianag. alexiteric.—large. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).3 cm. Kulhari. tall. PARTS USED :—Tuber. and crimson from blooming to fading. FAM.—capsule. Akkitang hall. COM. Tropical Africa. changing colours from greenish yellow. linear oblong. anthelmintic.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. itching. filaments long spreading. Languli. perianth segments reaching 6. Linn. t. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. solitary. acrid. Fl. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. linear-lanceolate. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. scattered or opposite. Sk.5-3. K. Malay Peninsula. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. scarlet. Sivasaktibalb .
Kumbudi. Shivan . . useful in leprosy and blood diseases. useful in fevers . Gambari. promotes hair-growth. Ceylon. scattered in monsoon forests. Devakapus. leaves. consumption. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Khandesh. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. piles. LOC. gleet. Nurma . K. W. catarrh of the bladder etc. thirst. DISTR. Hanji. indigestible. NS. made into paste. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. K. LOC. tonic. Cashmere tree. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Malaya. Coomb teak. Gumbhar. Madhya Bharat. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. :— Bengal. G. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. useful in hallucinations. leaves. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. useful in "Vata". Flowers—astringent. root is also stomachic and laxative. anæmia. Oils. aphrodisiac. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. See—Fibres. Gupsi. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. :— E. flowers and seeds. See—Timbers. Gambhari. H. FAM. abdominal pains. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. burning sensation. Savan.:—E. Gandhari. Rajasthan and N. PARTS USED :—Root. G. Karpasam. Provinces. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Sind. anthelmintic . consumption and some catarrhal affections . In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. improves appetite . GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. M. scalds etc. :—Throughout the State and about temples. alterative. Root taken with liquorice. Devkapas. Karibatti. In the Konkan. Mahabhadra. " Tridosha ". Philippines. H. DISTR. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Deokapas. Tree cotton. flowers and fruit. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. anasarca. White teak. Bachanige. COM. Sk. Shivani. chronic cystitis. common on Satpuda.—Verbenaceæ. thirst.—Malvaceæ. the root. laxative. ulcers. leprosy. Sk. Shiwan. strangury. Var. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Root extract is bitter and tonic. :—Throughout the State. :—Throughout India. COM. useful in indigestion. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. Shiwan. M. fevers. Kashmari. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Shripani. urinary discharges. Fruit— diuretic.
causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Pharuah. Kupas. Oils. Iran. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Parusha. Ripe fruit—sweet. FAM. S. DISTR. Karpas. Arali. M. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. COM. leaves. Mediterranean. cooling. preventing their access to wounds etc. Syria. extensively in Gujarat. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Phalsi. fruits and seeds. Kapus. allay thirst. laxative . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Sk. :—E. aphrodisiac. Jana. K. expectorant. cure all ear-troubles. Country. Seeds— ' galactagogue. K. wild in Deccan. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. H. Phalsa. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Hatti. heart and blood disorders. Leaves remove " Vata " . USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. LOC. analgesic. W. Dhamin. Arabia and Asia Minor. FAM. fomentation for burning eyes . poultice applied to burns' scalds. Tula. PARTS USED :—Root. remove biliousness and " Kapha " .—Tiliaceæ. Rui. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. scabies . :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. DISTR. LOC. In India they are used to procure abortion. extensively cultivated. (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Malvaceæ. acrid. G. bark. M. expectorant and aphrodisiac. fevers and consumption.Phalse. tonic.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. probably in N. Province (Pakistan). in hills near Poona. :—Cultivated in the State. Roshana. Tadasala. Sutrapuspha. Gujarat and S. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. F. tonic. COM. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. A. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). East Tropical Africa. Cotton . Baluchistan. Afghanistan. M. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Egypt. H. in hypochondria. :—Sind. removes " Vata ". Seeds are laxative. Kapas . See—Fibres. Badari. Parapera. LOC. Rui. digestible.. good for all kinds of inflammations. Sk. U. used in orchitis. :—G. leaf-juice good in dysentery. Anagnika. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . enrich blood. cures inflammations. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. removes " Vata" and biliousness. fruit. NS. sour. increase flow of urine. Buttiyu-dippa. demulcent. Karihariyale. :— Cultivated in N. good for throat . as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection.. restore consciousness. Mesapotamia. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections.
removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Hulhul. . :— E. See—Fruit Trees.— with thin marginal wing. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. DISTR. Pandhari tilwan. Karalia . Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". bronchitis. Sati talvani. M. leucoderma. Gurmar. Sanngera. :—A large woody climber. Tilparni. Bedki. Hulhul. Bastagandha.— companulate . Merasingi. NS.-May. vitreous body) burning sensation. G. COM. Mabli. Br. Meshashingi. base rounded or cordate . Fl. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. Kavali. Arkapuspika. L. cooling. acrid. strengthens chest and heart. H. The ease of administration. alterative. Periploca of the woods. CHAR. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. LOC. Churota. — Asclepiadaceæ. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Shrikala. corona of 5 processes . :E. elliptic. Sannagerse. Fruit—sour. Bundelkhand Saharanpur.—in cymes . inflammations. tonic. ulcers. the stomachic stimulant. G. biliousness. Vishani. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. C. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Ugragandha. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Sd. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). SK. FAM. young stems densely pubescent. anthelmintic. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Ceylon. K. :—Throughout the State.—follicle. Fr. FAM. lanceolate. good in heart-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. common in hedges in Dharwar district. sweet. LOC. Vakundi. S. H. Karnasphota.—Capparidaceæ. Adiyakharan. stomachic. Kanara coast. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Tropical Africa. asthma. cornea. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. yellow . COM. NS. t. piles. helps removal of dead fetus. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Meshavalli. FL. Kanphodi. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. usually single. Root and bark used in strangury.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. should not be eaten raw. Tanmani. ovate. K. much branched. India.— opposite. Kabari. relieves thirst and hiccup. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. :—Western Peninsula.— Apl. alexiteric. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. M. Caravella. Sk. LOC. Mardashingi. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Mahabaleshwar and N.
ellipsoid . Katraj Ghat. hills near Nagothana. stomachic . HELICTERES ISORA Linn. Fr. Jonkaphal Maraphali. leaflets subsessile. leaves and seeds. vesicant. China.—muricate. with divaricate herbaceous branches . in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. Marosi. 5-9 cm.-Feb. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . COM. FAM. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. :—G. hairy. sessile..8-9 cm. Murdasing. Fr. H. pedicels viscid hairy. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. t.—capsule. :—M. stipules triangular. dark-brown . L. Murudi. Avartant. :—An annual erect herb 0. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Gidesa Jitasai. producing copious exudation. LOC. M. margins crenate-dentate. good in ascites. elliptic-lanceolate.—many. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda).—Oct. gynophore 2-2. Kewan. long. Kavargi. NS. L. Edamuri. white or blue. Sk. M. tumours. high. CHAR. Fl.—capsule. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and.6—1. glabrous or pubescent above.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. S. hairy on the nerves beneath. Fl. LOC. FAM. hills in Supa Taluka. PARTS USED :—Root. :—A small deciduous shrub. NS. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. COM. pink . Fl.—3-5 foliate. acute. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle.12. hairy. stem and branches hairy. DISTR. Kanara.—rather rigid. Sinhgad hills. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Sd. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. ulcers. C. long .—Rubiaceæ. Mrigashringa. K. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. pain. . (Kirtikar and Basu). HABITAT:—Hills. Sd. DISTR. opposite. Fl. removes "Vata". earache.—petals 4 with long slender claws. LOC. :—Deccan. t.5 cm.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. PARTS USED :—Root. viscid.—in dense bracteate racemes. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge.. . leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. tapering at both ends. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. pubescent. Murudseng.—Sterculiaceæ. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—June. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . elliptic-obovate. Gujarat.2 m.5-20 X 3.
low appetite. common in hedges. useful in gleet.—tubular.. and leaves. asthma. :—Upper Gangetie plain. Upalsali. antidiarrhœal. astringent to bowels . alexiteric.512. epileptic fits. purplish inside. Utpalashariva. Fl. fevers. Sugandhi-balli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Australia and West Indies. stems thickened at the nodes . and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). K. bronchitis.—Asclepiadaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—In hedges. t. angular . 5-6. lessens griping. Root and stem—laxative.—follicle of 5-6. :—Throughout the State.—numerous. demulcent. DISTR. tapering . cures all skin-diseases. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. red at first fading to lead colour. PARTS USED :—Root. eye troubles. burning sensation. See—Fibres. COM. C. Durivel.5 X 5-10 cm. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. FL. t — Aug. dark-green. spirally coiled.Sd.—throughout the greater part of the year. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. ovate orbicular. 7.— with silvery white coma . USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. “tridosh". FAM. Hamadaberu . Stem lessens inflammation. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. long. Indian sarsaparilla . poisoning. root-Stock woody . diuretic. syphilis. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. bark and fruit. stem. uterine complaints. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. Deccan and S. diaphoretic. good for brain. useful in piles.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. India. Konkan. Ceylon. Burma. irregularly crowded. joint-pains. mildly astringent. :—Large shrub or small tree. often variegated with white above. CHAR. blood diseases. cough. LOC. Root useful in hemicrania. :— E. Fl. Magrabu. Fl. anti-galactagogue. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). L. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. obliquely cordate. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. greenish outside. liver and kidney diseases . leucorrhoea. Sd. Kanara ghat forests. Fr. diarrhœa. astringent to bowels. foul body odour.— in cymes in opposite axils. Upalsari. rat-bites. paralysis. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). DISTR. asthma. Dhaval kashtha. LOC. They are demulcent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. "Kapha". LOC. "Vata' dysentery. L. Country.3 cm.-Dec. bilabiate. . M. thirst. beaked. Anantmula. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. Anantmula.— very variable. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. Sk.—follicle cylindric. NS. Kapurimathuri. H. Br. Hindisalse. scabrous above. Malaya.-biferous. urinary discharges. G. Fr.
ovate or ovate lanceolate. syphilis and leucorrhoea. and mixed with ghee. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. Raktapushpi. skindiseases. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . and as early as 1864. remove burning of body. involucral bracts 5-7. and the powdered root for menorrhagia.—7. Shoe flower. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. etc. M. bark and petals are demulcent. DISTR. H. See—Ornamental Plants. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. pedicel jointed above the middle. . promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Fr. Sk. red. FAM. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. irregularly serrate towards the top. demulcent. useful in loss of appetite. :— E. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. Harivallaba. yellow. diam. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. It is also diuretic. glabrous. Rudrapushpa. Native country probably China. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). Root roasted in plantain leaves. L. uterine and vaginal discharges. Fl.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Dasanihu. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient.—during most of the year. Root is valuable in coughs. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra).—axillary. t. Jasuva. Jasum. Fl. Dasavala. seminal weakness. fevers. petals thrice as long as the calyx. LOC. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. bright red. entire near the base. urinary discharges. Kempupundrika. tubular below. piles. leaves.—short petioled. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). solitary. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar.. Jasut. flowers.5. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. C. Japapushpa. crimson. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. K. In the Konkan. Aruna. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. tonic. magenta.—Malvaceæ. NS. :—A perennial shrub. cm. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. astringent. CHAR. Jasavand. It is said to purify blood. LOC. cooling.—no fruits produced in India. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India.
on the margins. Haladvel. C. Atimukta. Malati. H.lobes oblong. Madmalati. . (lower leaves sometimes entire). Deccan.—in erect racemes. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. G. Lal ambari. and adding a little salt. Ghats. Fl. Rozelle.—large. Fibres. HABITAT. Fl. t. 1. fringed.. Lal ambadi. Madhavi. Fl. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. uppermost petal broader.-Mar. :—An annual. 3-winged. mid-lobe the longest.2-2 cm. NS. Ceylon. calyx fleshy. LOC. Kampti. Madhavi. FAM. entire glabrous.—Oct.-Dec. ovoid. Chandravalli. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.—1-3. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. glabrous. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. NS. acuminate. long. COM. Madhavi. DISTR. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. long. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. CHAR. flowers. across. fruits and seeds. fragrant. M. Sd. Konkan. erect. Kanara. hairy. covered with minute hairs . (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Fr. See—Vegetables. elliptic-oblong. 5th petal yellow at the base. Red sorrel. Grows abundantly on the W. Patwa. H.—Malpighiaceæ. white.—Malvaceæ. Vasantduti. CHAR. 10-18 X 4. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India.—capsule. Madhavi. orbicular. purple.—coriaceous. :—E. K.) FAM. L. Ragotpiti.—petals 5. clawed. :—Throughout the State. L. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. 3-5 lobed. pepper. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Sd.5 cm. stem and branches purple. :—Cultivated. asafoetida and molasses. PARTS USED :—Leaves.3-7. Madhalata. Adimurtte Adirganti.—purple with darker centres. globose.— solitary. M. Vasantduti. LOC.—axillary. Pundi-bija or soppu. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. involucral bracts 10.— Jany. base cuneate.—5-7. sedative and refrigerant.5 cm. :—G. Madhumalati. beaked. young parts silky. t. Vasanti. tropics of the old world. black-brown. COM. K. purple. Lal ambadi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. Kempupundrike. Atimukta. serrate. Kamuka. much used in curries. C. Sk. petioles silky. Fr.
cylindric. Veppale. often dotted with white spots. given in chest affections. appetiser cure blood diseases. Hale. piles. See—Ornamental Plants. G. DISTR. Malay Peninsula. Kaling. Karohi. bitter. wounds. Seeds—carminative. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. PARTS USED :—Bark. Leavesastringent. fatigue. Kumaon. Conessi bark tree. Kaduoindrajav. styptic. COM. N. Kodasige. t. Thailand (Siam). good in chronic bronchitis. skin diseases. boils. Kudsalu. branchlets drooping. leprosy. Karnatak. Pandhara Kuda. Dudhi. FL. Flowers— acrid. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda).— in terminal corymbose cymes .5 cm. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . H. lumbago. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. cool the brain. Circars. M. Andamans. diarrhœa. flowers and seeds. Kuda. smoke good for piles. leprosy. urinary discharges. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. good in erysipelas. Burma. K. remove "Tridosh".—Feb. main nerves conspicuous . ulcers. CHAR.—follicles 20-48 cm. Siwalik. insecticidal. astringent to bowels cure pains. " Kapha". cooling. Hath. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. throat hairy inside. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES. LOC. Assam. Sd. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Kuda. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham).. inodorous. long. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. burning sensation. Ceylon. thirst and inflammation. tonic. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. hallucinations (Ayurveda). if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. diuresis (Yunani). Madras State. China. broadly ovate or elliptic. cough. aphrodisiac. cause "Vata". Indrayana. Kura. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. vulnerary.. thirst. white. Fr. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree.—10-20 X 5-11. Sk. Bark—bitter. strengthens gums. Fl. galactagogue. NS. excessive menstrual flow. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. biliousness. :—Throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca.—Apocynaceæ. heating. Karuindrayan. asthma. acrid. acrid. fevers. L.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. biliousness. burning sensation. remove muscular pains . colic. C—tubular.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. :—E. Abu. vulnerary. Mt. bleeding piles. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. LOC. Kurchi tree. leucoderma . tonic. cures dysentery.-June. LOC. Nepal. skin and spleen diseases. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Seeds—appetiser. good in headache. lessens inflammations. leaves. Kutaja. FAM.
nor styptic. improves voice. Barley. widely cultivated in temperate regions. (R. sweetish. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. useful in bronchitis. M. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. Gaz. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). bronchitis. headache. See—Food Plants. fevers (Yunani). good for ulcers. Tasteless. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. fattening. They are astringent. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. dysentery and intestinal worms. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. appetiser. Shaktu. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. 1928). Satu. with radicle attached to it. Javegodhi. Suj. Germinated barley. Jav. . Sk. LOC. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. G. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. causes constipation. burns. aphrodisiac. allays thirst. Knowles. and kurchicine. acrid. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. Yava. diarrhœa. febrifuge. India. Jawa. asthma. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Ind. Ymvah. biliousness. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers.—Gramineæ. PARTS USED :—Seeds. COM. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. useful in fevers. malt sugar and diastase.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. stomachic. Hayapriya. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Med. —Cultivated chiefly in N. pains in chest. The grains contain vitamin B. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. K. Java. HABITAT :—Cultivated. nor astringent. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. They are also used after delivery. :—E. especially cod-liver oil. lowers the pulse. Jav. DISTR. Divya. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. FAM. NS. Aug. kurchine. H. anæmia. useful in biliousness. inflamed gums. demulcent and expectorant. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. LOC.
Bhanina.—Bixaceæ. S. Kshiradru. Kastel. Betaga..—Jany. broadly ovate. For scald-head. Doti. globose or ovoid.—solitary or in racemes. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. :—W. Sd. M. DISTR. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. COM. Madhya Pradesh. DISTR. Bharnarasalya. more or less coriaceous. LOC. dioecious . HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. 12. flat. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. white. acuminate. Kanara evergreen forests. :—G. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Bandaru. H. M. Fl. Peninsula. Garudphala. Malabar. Bihar.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . FL. . sometimes along river banks. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment.5-23 X 3. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Southern and Western India. NS. Sk.8-7. Phaldu. common in Travancore. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kadukavata. sulphur. :—K. Amarachala. good for the throat. FAM. M. Ghats. COM. bitter. t. Country and Kanara. Common in N. Fr. Ugragandha. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Dondra. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.—berry. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. K. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Fruits are used for poisoning fish.) FAM.5 cm.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn.—Rubiaceæ. tomentose. Sk. Bhringamallika. NS. C. CHAR.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. Bhutabi. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Garudphala. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Bhoswar. camphor and lime-juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Dondru. L. increases taste and appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.—numerous. high. Bhorsal.—Apl. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Kowti. Gandele. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. pungent. size of small apple. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. See—Oils. Niradivittulu. Bhrijatuaka. young parts brown pubescent.
:—Konkan.—tube with narrow portion below. very common in Gujarat. blood diseases. Potuasaga. Sd. See—Timbers. Fl. :—More or less throughout India.5x 3.2 -7. Karmi. Fodder Plants.—follicle. :—G. FL. cures " Kapha ". the powdered wood is used for herpes. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.5 cm. elliptic oblong. Australia. trailing on mud or floating. rooting at the nodes . ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . C.—5-12. greenish white. Nalanibhaji. FAM. FAM. LOC. C. stems long. Fr. cordate or hastate. very slender. Fr. Sk. rusty pubescent. LOC. COM.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. numerous . Kalaghantika. thick. Ceylon. Br.—capsule. COM. LOC. Kantebhovari. biliousness. L. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. M. Fl.-Apl. In Indo-China. Java. Kanara.—4 or 2. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. straight or slightly curved.—Convolvulaceæ. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid.—1-5 flowered peduncles . HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. ovoid . throat and tube dull purple . Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. hollow. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. :—A large twining shrub . Sariva. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Kalambika. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). acute. NS.—in axillary and terminal. Nalichibhaji. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers.-Dec. Gopini. t. . upper constricted. Gorwiballi. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Shradhashaka. Fl. stalks and leaves. Siamalata. CHAR. middle portion much inflated. vomiting. Bhadra. M. Pechuli. DISTR. M. Karihambu.—4-5-7 X 2-3. thirst.. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. cylindric . X 4 cm. K. H. Chandangopa. S. black with white scanty coma. :—Throughout the State. Nadika. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. prostrate. Kalidudhi. PARTS USED :—Root. Kalaka. Sk.—Nov. glabrous above.— Nov. L.8 cm. The outer layer is tasteless. Kanara. Krishnasariva. aphrodisiac. lobes obscure . trichotomous cymes. NS. CHAR. Common in the evergreen forests of N. :—Annual or biennial herb. t. fever. 10-15 cm. :—H. Kalmisag. base rounded.—Apocynaceæ. cooling.—linear. " Vata ". pubescent.
stimulant. Ceylon. deeply palmately divided. L. 4-celled.—10-15 cm. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. Fl. :—Perennial.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. See—Gums and Resins. (Yunani). (Ayurveda). USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. Bhunichahragadde. LOC.—capsule. aphrodisiac. 3. diuretic. Bilaikand . bronchitis. lessens inflammation. K. also useful in liver complaints. dry. stem long. In Burma. aphrodisiac.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. tonic. improves voice and complexion. galactagogue. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. indigestible. M. Nila-kumbala.—in. biliousness and fevers. America. ovate-lanceolate. useful in syphilis. debility and want of digestive power. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. Fl. jaundice. DISTR. stomachic. long. root large. often broader than long. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). useful in leprosy. thick.—Convolvulaceæ. appetiser. :— E. Fr. COM. alterative. tropical Asia. Africa. near sea coast. LOC. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. enclosed in fleshy sepals. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. Africa and Australia. LOC. to children in case of emaciation. peduncle solitary axillary. twining. 4-valved. entire. " Kapha " . biliousness. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Root. Giant potato . Bhumikushmanda. ovoid. demulcent and lactagogue. leaves. carminative. flowers (rarely). :—Throughout the Konkan and N. useful in fever. glabrous. tropical Asia. H. being regarded as tonic. alterative. Flower causes " Vata ". vomiting. Australia in moist climate. Sk. liver complaints. :—Throughout India. galactagogue. Kanara sea coast.3 cm. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. leprosy. Carminative. purple. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. t. useful in leucoderma. CHAR. long. cures biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. pale. expectorant. blood diseases. FAM. Leaves enrich blood. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. (Yunani). NS. Bhuikohala. Root—heating. Swadu Vidarikand. gonorrhœa and inflammation.8—6. Sd. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. . Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin.-July-Sept. anthelmintic. lobes 5-7. anthelmintic .
L. crenate. leucoderma. G. COM.-Oct. Nilvel. surrounded by ciliate sepals. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. Krishna—Shyama-bija. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. 3-celled. K. S.3-2. lobes ovate. ovate-cordate. Africa. tropical Africa. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. Sd. pains in joints. C. Kaladana.—1. Fr. H. Purgative. :—Konkan. :—G. Ceylon. Country. deeply three-Iobed. stems twining. DISTR. t.—dark chestnut coloured .—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . Bhumichari Mushakaparni. M. Musekani.—Convolvulaceæ. subglobose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Mirchai. LOC. PARTS USED :—Seeds. bracts linear. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). cures inflammations. believed to be of American origin. Fl. Fr. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). Sk. Ganribij. Kaladanah. Shyamala-bijak. M. Undirkani. Sd. :—Western Peninsula. Fl. long tubular funnel-shaped. subglobose or ovoid. NS. Undirkani. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians.:—Throughout India. abdominal diseases. Sk. broad. sparsely hairy. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative.5 cm.. glabrous . LOC. . IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. :—An annual herb. The plant contains a glucoside. petioles hairy. FAM. L. fevers. M. H. blue tinged with pink. clothed with long hairs.—capsule. reniform or ovate-cordate. useful in liver and spleen diseases. diseases of head. bechic. filiform. headache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. diam. E. Nilpushpa. :—E.— 4-6. Vrishchikparni. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. K. anthelmintic. dries the phlegm. creeping and rooting at the nodes. in the Himalayas. bronchitis (Ayurveda). axillary. DISTR. :—A herb .—Sept. CHAR.) FAM. COM. scabies and biliousness.—capsule. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. LOC. Kalokumpo. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. removes bad humours from body (Yunani).—3. Fl.8-5 cm. stems many.-5-12. Deccan. Morning glory. See—Ornamental Plants. NS.—Convolvulaceæ. CHAR. S.— yellow. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses.5 cm. Indian jalap. carminative.
Malay Islands. when used alone . Nahatara. good in pain. Pithori. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Triputi. anthelmintic. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. Sk. Common in southern Gujarat. lungs.3-7 cm. mucronate. ovate or oblong. Rechani. Trivrit. HABITAT :—Wild . enclosed in enlarged sepals . fevers. K. like others of the genus . Mauritius. DISTR. Nishottara. Fl. much branched. 3. bladder. inflammations. carminative. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. L. COM. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Ceylon.—white. LOC. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. root long. white variety is a mild cathartic. Br. PARTS USED :—Root. heart and abdomen.—capsule. Kalaparni. expectorant.—in few flowered cymes. Fr. also in the Konkan and N. fleshy. often pinkish. rarely slightly lobed. t. good for weakness. wounds. laxative. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. long. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. NS.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Turbith root. Root with bark should be used. Nandi. useful in bilious tremors of body. antipyretic. useful in loss of consciousness. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani).—Convolvulaceæ. applied in diseases of eye and gums. G. acrid. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). LOC. pains of chest and joints. strangury.-Jany. CHAR. Nashotar. angled and winged. base cordate or truncate .8-5 cm. paralysis. useful in spleen enlargement. leucoderma. burning sensation and intoxication. Philippines. bechic. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. :— E. LOC. pungent. FAM. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. fistula. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). used in rheumatism and neuralgia. bronchitis. pedicels thickened upwards. stems very long. H.—5-10 X 1. Indian rhubarb. cooling. brain diseases. :—Throughout India. False-Indian jalap. muscular pains.—Oct. It is also alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. C. Nishoth. twining and twisted together. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. paralysis. Root— bitter. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. bracts large. purgative. tropical Africa and America.. inflammations and abdominal diseases . . removes bad humours. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. uterus. Kanaka. Fl. globose. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. useful in diseases of kidney. laxative. useful in bilious fevers. sometimes cultivated. urethral discharges. anæmia.
:—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Bakali. Guddedasal. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast.2-6. imparipinnate. Sk. tube long. HABITAT :—Cultivated . :—Bombay southwards . If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. 5-10 X 3. :—A large subscandent shrub. DISTR. pale when dry.—tubular. FAM.—July-Sept. Jai. oblong. Jajimalle. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. very common in Konkan and N. Flame of the woods .. COM. also along river banks.2-6. Fr. Jati. t. G.5 cm. purple when ripe. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes.—ripe carpels 2.—opposite. C. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. often tinged with pink outside. intermediate sessile . terminal rather larger. FAM. Bandhuka. Kisukare. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. Chambali. 3. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. Chambeli. Pankul. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. .—3. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. :—E. Ceylon. stipules . Fl. wild. sessile. smooth. size of a pea. Fr. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Fl. fleshy. LOC.—throughout the year. :—E. Fl. CHAR. :—Western Peninsula. Parali. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Priyanvada. obtuse.3 cm.3 coriaceous. across. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. white. K. NS.—opposite. DISTR. high. Surabhigandha. Raktaka. obtuse .9 m. FL—numerous. pale when dry. sessile. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. IXORA COCCINEA Linn.— Rubiaceæ. :—Cultivated throughout India. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Ajjige. Kepala. K. CHAR. Anemallige. LOC.—globose. lobes 4 (rarely). TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. petiole and rachis margined. of stems and roots. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. proximal petiolulate. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. oblong. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. leaflets 7-11. M. 5-12.—Oleaceæ. stipules with a long rigid point.8 cm. COM NS. Chambeli. Pendgul. t. very slender . L. H. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. L. coriaceous.. M.
ulcers. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. otorrhoea. emetic. LOC. vulnerary. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. L. Plant—deobstruent. Motia. caries of teeth. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. Fr. Flower has bitter taste . diseases of mouth. COM NS. softens skin. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. LOC. suppurative. headache and weak eyes. Vanchandrika. FAM. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. . Mogara. variable in shape. teeth. aphthae. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. expectorant. membranous. ear. Banmallika. useful in stomatitis. head. surrounded by calyx-teeth. Tuscan jasmine. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. anthelmintic. Ananga-mallika.—white. good for pains in joints and ear. See—Ornamental Plants. Fl. black. CHAR. scarcely climbing.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. alexiteric. abundant in April-May. base rounded or subcordate. rheumatism. stomatitis. diuretic. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. Leaves are also used in toothache. tonic to brain. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. very fragrant. Arabian Lily. given in blood diseases. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. useful in diseases of eye. eyes and ear. subglobose. Oil—lessens inflammations. biliousness (Ayurveda). biliousness. :—Cultivated throughout India. DISTR. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). cures "Tridosh" biliousness. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Navamallika. t. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. intoxicating. Mallige. :—A sub-erect shrub. Mogra. G. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. emmenagogue. soporific. leprosy.—ripe-carpels 1-2. cures headache. brain tonic . :—E. good in asthma. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. entire. alexiteric.—opposite. flowers and oil. allays fevers . it is used in cases of insanity. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Chamba. Pramodini. Fl.—Oleaceæ. aphrodisiac. LOC. alexiteric. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . mouth and skin. Mogro. The plant contains an alkaloid. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). See—Ornamental Plants. paralysis. Root—purgative. Flowers—tonic. Iravantige. H. Sk. Sambac. M.—more or less throughout the year . K. and for scabies (Yunani). In Goa.
:—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. Ratanjot.5 mm. long-petioled. thirst.— alternate. when applied to boils. cordate. subfleshy. male flowers. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. leaves. Virechani. Sutashreni. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch.—Euphorbiaceæ. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores.. Simeavadala. Fl. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. across. multifid. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. K.—Euphorbiaceæ. Mogali—Ran-erand. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. Jangali erandi. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. L. abdominal complaints.5-12. The seeds act as drastic purgative. Sk. yellow. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Coral plant. Dundigu. black. fistula. CHAR. :—Native of tropical America. M. Jangali—Pahari erand. DISTR. broadly ovate. PARTS USED :—Wood.—orbicular. juice sticky opalescent. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. FAM. stipules capillary. 10-15 X 7. diam. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. FAM.—capsule. NS. 7. useful in chronic dysentery. heartdiseases (Ayurveda).—E. biliousness. LOC. Fr. anaemia. Vilayati haralu. Jyotishka. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. Sk. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. Barbados Physic nut. palmately 3 or 5 lobed.— ovoid. Bhadradanti. LOC. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums .MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn.—monœcious. Sd. dull brownish black. The acrid.5-12. CHAR:—A handsome. :—E. disk of female flower urceolate. large. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Akhuparnika. . G. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. Fl. 1. fruits and seeds. L. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. long. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Fr. NS.5 cm. corolla lobes 5. 3-lobed. have suppurative effect. H. urinary discharges. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.8 cm. herpes. 7. French or Small physic nut. garden shrub . COM. COM. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). K.—ovoid oblong. " Tridosha". villous within. coral-red. longer than calyx. Kananerand.—in flat-topped cymes. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.5 cm. and also promotes healing. Seeds contain active principle curcin.
vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda).5 cm. Sk. LOC. 7.2 m. Leaves are used in scabies. fattening tonic . In Cambodia. K. LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. hot. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. COM. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. DISTR. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. bitter.—Acanthaceæ. rheumatism and dysentery. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. COM. Bhutakeshi. vaginal discharges. NS. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. tympanitis. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Karambal.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate.—Ghati pitpapda. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. Krishna-nirgundi. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. M.6-1. heating. CHAR. LOC. clavate glabrous. FAM. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . Fl. pains. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. purgative. branches subterete with raised lines. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. Nachukaddi. causes " Kapha ". Seed— oleaginous. HABITAT :—Shady positions. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. 5-12. in interrupted spikes. enlarged spleen. wild in Tenasserim. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. useful in piles. LOC. Shindhuka. NS. DISTR. Kala adulsa. high . Kalmashi. native of N. purple within. all over the State. Nilinirgandi. Nilmanjari. fevers. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). Karinchki. wounds.5-12. " Vata ' and "Pitta". long. :—H. .5 cm. skin-diseases. useful in bronchitis. Bakas.—white spotted. often met with in Bengal. Fr. eye diseases (Ayurveda).—Acanthaceæ. :—A native of China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. :—Bomb. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. America. inflammations. dry . leaves. L. M.—capsule.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated.
connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. t. Fl. Malaya. DISTR. vomiting. K. M. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. petioles channelled. Cultivated in gardens. Fl. ovate or lanceolate. Konkan.5 X 4. :—N.—in cylindric terminal spikes.:—Stemless herb. enriches blood. biliousness. intoxication. Maval in the Deccan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. COM.—612 from the centre of the plant. lying flat on the ground. LOC.—2. diuretic. aromatic. Sugandhavachai. L. good in spleen diseases. Malay Islands. :—Konkan. round. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. Chandramulika.—variable.—2-lipped. removes indigestion. softly pubescent. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede).—lobes lanceolate. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base.—Scitaminaceæ. constipating .. fugacious.—capsule. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. Panchgani. Sd. Madras State. tired feeling. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. diaphoretic. stomachic. fragrant. L. Sk. expectorant. LOC. tube funnel-shaped . deep green. strengthens lungs. oval. :—Western Peninsula. gives lustre to eyes. Fr. fever. Chandramala. purifies blood in skin diseases. :— H. Kachchura . :—More or less throughout India. LOC. C. Deccan. thirst. NS.—Oct.—finely tuberculate.— June-July. CHAR. burning of body. increases " Vata ". DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. thin. elliptic. pure-white. Australia. lower 3-lobed . PARTS USED :—Tubers. urinary discharges. upper lip notched. Plant diuretic. spreading horizontally. FAM. pale violet pink. Travancore. teeth. Western Ghats . stops vomiting. Kachri. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Fl. constricted between the seeds . South Konkan. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. Kapurkachri. P. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. obtuse at both ends.-Mar. wandering of mind. Tubers yield an essential oil. PROPERTIES AND LOC. . Ceylon. (Yunani). Fl.5-9 cm. t. good in leprosy (Ayurveda).. root-stock tuberous. 6. oblong shortly pointed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn.3-12.
Kanara. Travancore. L. midrib very stout. The whole plant. crowded in a globose bead . Fl. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Bottle-gourd. Calabash. coriaceous. furrowed. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. margins undulate. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Dudhya bhopala. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. K. Cochin. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bhuichampa . COM.—Scitaminaceæ. Katutumbi. very poisonous . LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. :—Stemless plant. anthers crowded. Dudhi. Bhuichapha.—15-37. petiole as long as blade. Vatsanabhi. CHAR. Bhuichampo . Tumbaka.. semicylindric. Fl. thick. S. Nelasampige . USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root..5-10 cm.8-5 cm. FAM. creeping. :—Mysore. K.— sweetly fragrant. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. t. :—An aquatic herb. Tubers yield an essential oil. HABITAT :—Cultivated. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. spathe 7. CHAR. FAM. DISTR. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. entire. FAM. NS. Fr. Malay Islands. simple.—Cucurbitaceæ. G.. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. PROPERTIES AND LOC.5-23 cm. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . oblong. yellow. :— G. DISTR. N. in many cycles.. M. Ceylon.— inflorescence. Kaddu. Danta-bija.-Apl. LOC. LOC. Fl.5 X 5-12. Dudio Tumbada.. —Feb. used in the form of poultice. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. HABITAT :—Marshy places.—Aroideæ. Bhuchampaka. Halagumbala. Kadu bhopala. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. L. :—M. female cylindric. of various shades of purple and white. NS.5 cm. promotes suppuration. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.—30X7. Labuka. tubular below. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . :—Konkan. elliptic-oblong. Sk. t.—globose 3. remedy for itch. long. Alkaddu. . :—E. Country. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. rootstock reaching 5 cm. Lauka. COM.-Mar. M. COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Coorg. H. diam. annulate .128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. H. M.—narrowly oblong. NS. Sk. inflorescence of many ovaries.
Nirbendeka: M. fruits and seeds. China. cures blood diseases. There are two varieties. USES :— Leaves are purgative. laxative. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. oleaginous. :—H. Bandhara. DISTR. refrigerant and anti-bilious. brain-tonic. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . muscular pains. Tarul.) FAM. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. dry cough. improves taste. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. cures asthma. Assam. anti-periodic. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. LOC. LOC:—North Kanara and S. flowers. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. antipyretic. anti-bilious. Arjuna. K. styptic. NS. fruits and seeds. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. Flowers cooling. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. Ceylon. earache. ulcers. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. pains (Ayurveda). Taman. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. COM. causes bronchitis. earache. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. Bark and leaves are purgative. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. cooling. emetic. Arjuna.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. Challa. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. diuretic. LOC. piles. in many cases only cultivated. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. seeds are narcotic. cures leucorrhoea. In the Andamans. :—Western Peninsula. bitter variety is diuretic. bitter. aphrodisiac. scalding of urine. Fruit good in bronchitis. See—Timbers. bark. leaves. cause haemoptysis. Holematti.—Lythraceæ. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . wild (rarely). fever. fattening. leaves. Ornamental Plants. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. lessens inflammations. See—Vegetables. increases "Vata". sweet. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. wholesome to fœtus. alexiteric. Malaya. Seeds emetic (Yunani). Seeds—good for hot constitution. PARTS-USED :—Root. flatulence. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. LOC. cardiac and general tonic. inflammations. Konkan Ghats. vulnerary. "Vata". . sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree.
(B. Fr. Gorantha.—Dec-May. dense terminal heads 2. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. silky beneath.—opposite or scattered. inflammation. . COM. COM. Grains contain vitamin A. Lakh. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Nakharanjaka. cooling. CHAR. bark mottled. Mendi. Medi. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. DISTR. Mehndi.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. Kassar.8 cm. D. G. Yavaneshta. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. enclosed in the perianth . Madaranga. Fl. lameness. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. yellow. FAM. causes much flatulence. tonic. Basu). PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. :—W. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Deccan hills. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Peninsula—Ceylon.5-3. oblong flat. :—E. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . K. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. heart-troubles. lobes 4. Sandika. burning. The bark is used to poison fish. Latri. Sk. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. Lang. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. common on the Supa Ghats. Rami.. M. common at Mahabaleshwar. Belgaum hills . USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. FAM. Rametha. 5-7. Country. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. NS. LOC. Chickling—White vetch. NS. Ragangi. (Ayurveda). FAM. Kanara. G. Mukute. oblong lanceolate. :—A much branched large shrub.—ellipsoid-oblong.5 X 2-2.—Lythraceæ. COM. diam. improves taste. glabrous above. but dangerous cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Triputi. pointed. N.—in erect. DISTR. M. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. K.—Thymelaeaceæ. swellings etc. :—E. Khesari. piles and wandering of the mind. Henna plant.. Sk. See—Food Plants. Kukurgal. subsessile. H. NS. Wooly-headed gnidia. L.5 cm. S. t. :—Konkan southwards. Medika. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. LOC. M. M. Tree mignonette. perianth-tube densely silky villous . :—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. pain.
Masur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. E.—opposite. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. Europe and in temperate W. expectorant. allay burning sensation. lumbago. indigenous in S. M. useful. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. mucronate. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. PARTS USED :—Leaves. dysentery. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Sk. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). :—E. DISTR.). fragrant. Flowers are refrigerant. stomatitis. Ceylon. amenorrhœa. Masur. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. supported by persistent calyx. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. flowers. many. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . bronchitis.—Apl-July. L. diuretic. Sura. cure strangury tumours. syphilitic sores. LOC. Leaves—bitter.—in terminal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. veined outside. NS. vulnerary. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. cure leucoderma. pyramidal and panicled cymes. scabies. ulcers. diseases of spleen. truncate. LOC. finger nails and hair. Masura. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . FAM. The oil and essence keep the body cool. G. PROPERTIES. white or rose coloured . AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. Belgaum and Poona districts. Fl. lateral branches 4-gonous. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. improve appetite. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. Chanangi. Lentil. The plant contains a glucoside. DISTR. wild in Arabia. Gurubija. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. Iran and Baluchistan.—angular.—capsule. COM. ophthalmia. Massur. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Fr. cure insanity (Ayurveda). They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. planted as hedge. Sd. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". globose. boils. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. HABITAT:—Cultivated. skin diseases . See—Dyes. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. in diseases of heart and of . Masuridal. enriches blood. often ending in spinous point. useful in headache. :—Grown in Nasik. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. Fl. K. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. H. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. diuretic. Ragadali. Asia. favours hair-growth. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. Gabholika. & Gib. t. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. seeds.
The covering is styptic and astringent. They are mucilaginous and laxative. bitter. Ahaliva. Suvasura.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). Hurfi. blood and skin diseases. Grains contain vitamins A and B. galactagogue. COM. Halim . cures dysentery . DISTR. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. FAM. See-Food Plants. tonic. Leaves are used as pot-herb. constipating.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. They contain vitamin B. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). :—Cultivated throughout India. M. chest complaints. Chandrashura. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. white. Asahio. Sk. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. L. affections of spleen. enrich blood. PARTS USED :—Root.—small. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). the lower petiolate. Seeds—indigestible. upper sessile. laxative. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. K. Seeds contain fatty oil. rheumatism. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. useful in diseases of chest. eye diseases (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac . Raktabija. See—Vegetables. very likely indigenous in W. good in inflammations. Fl. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. good for pain in abdomen. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. and muscular pains. aphrodisiac. Hot and dry. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup.—Cruciferæ. stomatitis . serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Fr. tumours and injuries. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. :—An erect glabrous annual. tonic. G. NS. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. :—E. . bechic. Ashalika. H. often with linear segments . Asia. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Garden cress . LOC. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Halim. CHAR. C—petals 2-4 or 0. Chandrika. Allibija. bronchitis. aperient. bronchitis. leaves and seeds. Kurutige. Chavnsar. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). LOC.
Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. DISTR. branchlets densely tomentose. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. hot. diuretic. FAM. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. G. CHAR.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. boils. burnt bark styptic and healing. M. 8-12 together in heads. Country. bad for eyesight.:—E. pale beneath. Maidalakadi. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Jivanika. . t. :—E. diam. cure leprosy. M. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. good for cough and kidney troubles. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. native country probably Egypt. Fl. Javas . HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. aphrodisiac. Linseed. LOC. Fibres. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. "Pitta". elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. Malina. NS. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. galactagogue. Roasted seeds are astringent. Haimwati. Sedhavi. "Kapha". :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Alsi.— globose.5 mm. H. Fr.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. inflammations. usually alternate. urinary discharges . H. Sk. Madagandha. seeds and oil. dysentery. Alshi. remove "Vata". yellowish. COM. Alasi. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. urinary complaints. bronchitis. Alashi. Maidelakri. Seeds—mucilaginous. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). emmenagogue. M. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. LOC. Alsi. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. Garbijaur.. :—Cultivated throughout India.—May-July.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Sk. black. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). Medini. perianth lobes wanting. Tisi. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). 7. gouty and rheumatic swellings. Common flax. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. glossy dark-green above. colds and throat complaints. supported by the thickened pedicel.—crowded at the ends of branches. NS. Tailottama. bark somewhat corky. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. FAM. K. lead to impotency. back-ache. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Seeds contain vitamin A. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. L.—Linaceæ. aphrodisiac . Kanara..—Lauraceæ. base narrowed. See—Oils. causes loss of appetite. Common tallow laurel. flowers. heal ulcers. Fl. leaves. tonic. used in consumption. remove biliousness. hard to digest. lenticellate.:—A small evergreen tree. Alashi.
Divali. cure cough. SK. M. "vata". midrib white. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Dhaval. Bibhishana. tonic. t. Jalini. Nal. much curved. pains in joints.—numerous. Wild tobacco. useful in biliousness. Dhamana. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. 1. Sk. Ceylon. Jhinga. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". lower much longer. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. C—2-lipped. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . DISTR. Kahire. FAM. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. M.5-3. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. Nali. Fl. bitter. heart. Sd. Devnal. Katukoshataki. fever. Deccan and S. opening by 2 valves. 2. COM. finely serrulate. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. Malay Islands. very small. light green. Kandele. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. COM. many. branched upwards. bark. all oblong. high.100 m. Devanala. consumption. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. NS. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. Leaves are mucilaginous. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. Australia. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. Mrityupushpa. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Karvituri. uterus. subglobose. yellowish brown . aphrodisiac. strangury. It acts as anodyne. burning sensation. lobes linear. K. G. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. CHAR. thirst. aphrodisiac. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. Narttaka. spleen diseases. Root—astringent. :—E. lanceolate. Narsala. Fl. aphrodisiac. L.—Cucurbitaceæ.2-3 m. biliousness. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds.—Lobeliaceæ. white. expectorant. Sthulanala.—alternate. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. acrid.9 cm. G. Kalahogesoppu. heating. Ghontali. :—Konkan. galactagogue. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). diuretic. hollow. bronchitis. burning sensation.—capsule. paralysis. K. stomachic.—Nov. diseases of blood. LOC. overheated brains. FAM. Fr.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism.—. long. LOC. stem stout. . throat troubles. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.-Mar. leaves. nearly sessile. fruits and seeds. H. LOC. Kadudodka. PARTS USED :—Root. leprosy (Ayurveda). AMARA Clarke. NS. 3 usually connate throughout . long. useful in inflammations. Ridge gourd. erysipelas (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . vagina. Country. Ranturai. H.
K. asthma. Hunage. haemorrhoids and leprosy. thrives in Deccan trap. alexiteric. Madhya Pradesh.—Sapotaceæ. Pokka. tonic to intestines. liver complaints. G. t. cures urinary discharges. carminative. :—E. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. COM. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. :—Plant is bitter. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). LOC. bitter. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. at first whitish and softly villous. tendrils usually 3-fid. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. "Kapha". Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). Root-bark is abortifacient. Mowa. piles. Mhowra.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State.—petals yellow with green veins . PARTS USED :—Leaves.—monœcious.) FAM. Ceylon. LOC. biliousness. ascites. M. Mahura. Bengal to the W. H. Mahua tree. Mowda. palmate. leaves. Moha. jaundice. DISTR. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. base cordate. Burma. DISTR. tuberculous glands. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. diuretic. leucoderma. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Madhuka.:—A large climber. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). NS. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. Mahuda. Kanara (rare) . useful in rat-bite. also in Konkan and N. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Doddippa. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). 5-7 lobed. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. Mahula. thick. females. long and about 2. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). acrid. Gudapushpa.. flowers and fruits.8 cm. Fl. USES. at length scabrid. C. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. hydrogogue. W. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. cough. L. Butter tree. Madhusrava. LOC. fruit and seeds.—obovoid. asthma. digestible. piles. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mahua. anæmia. laxative. recommended in splenic enlargement. solitary in the same axil as males. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. Fl. 5-10 cm. pale green.53. especially in western Peninsula. tonic and diuretic. bitter. cures "Vata". Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic.—Sept. Sk. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin.—small. cathartic. :—Throughout India. Fruit cures fever. uterine and vaginal tumours . MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. Fr. 10-ribbed. tumours. obtusely conical at both ends. stems 5-angled. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. .
Sk. :—-E.—Euphorbiaceæ. cooling. LOC. ulcers. cures blood diseases. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. :—Konkan. causes "Kapha". India . Moha. Movaro. Ippe. FAM. :—Western peninsula. Ceylon. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). and Kanara. consumption. fattening. fatigue . M. Kapilo. heals wounds . Oil is good for skin-diseases. Mahuva of S. Kambhal Raini. galactagogue. G. Kamala. tonic and nutritive. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility.) FAM. astringent. Famine Plants. Mohache jhad. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. K. Shendri. G. COM. often planted. good in heart diseases. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. . anthelmintic. Oils. Hullichillu. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch.. COM. cures biliousness. Oils. Movanuhjad. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. and Upper Burma. burning sensation. :—E. PARTS USED :—Bark. Huli. DISTR. thirst. and also a remedy for itch. Sk. expectorant. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Monkey-face tree. Liquors. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Honey tree. USES :—Astringent and emollient. yields two important products. Mehua. See—Timbers. NS. M. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. flowers act as a mild purgative. Kesarimavu. Mysore. LOC. K. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Flowers—oleaginous. There is a trace of alkaloid. Mahuda. leprosy. See—Timbers. fixed oil and a spirit. bronchitis. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. flowers and oil. aphrodisiac. Kapila. Flower—sweet. Kampillaka. H. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. carminative. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Flowers are regarded as cooling.—Sapotaceæ. Oil—emollient (Yunani). Kapila. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Fruit-tonic . Madhuka. used in fractures. and appetiser (Sushruta). Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. H. Mohwa. tonic. aphrodisiac. Karnatic. NS.
Fruit—heating. Kamarasa. thirst. liver. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. Chuta. Am. Khasia Hills. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). Cuckoo's Joy. Dyes. cooling. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. Gum . Bihar. COM. liver pain. China. Burma. clears brain. spleen. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). beautifies complexion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). tonic to body. urinary discharges. lessen intestinal pains. removes bad smell from mouth. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. LOC. good in dysentery. Malay Islands. good in cough. vaginal troubles. DISTR. piles. NS. purgative. stomachic. vermifuge and. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. styptic. :—-Throughout the State. fruits and seeds. Australia. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. vulnerary. wounds. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. :—E. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. it exudes a pink coloured gum. See—Timbers. hiccup. appetiser. dispels langour and burning of body.—Anacardiaceæ. tumours. sour. G. Sahakara. Sind. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. stone in bladder. enriches blood. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Ghats and the Satpudas. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. wild and cultivated. Kanara. useful in bronchitis. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. astringent to bowels. leaves. tonic. bad blood. in "Tridosh". aphrodisiac. improves complexion. Mango tree. ulcers. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. anthelmintic. dysentery. fruits and seeds. maturant. vomiting. improves cough. H. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. carminative. cure leucorrhoea. Amba. "Pitta". K. anthelmintic. Introduced. laxative. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. flowers. diseases of abdomen. FAM. leaves. cultivated throughout the State. sweet. throat troubles. Rasala. improve taste and appetite. :—Throughout tropical India. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Mavu. Sk. diuretic. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. purgative. Ambo. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. biliousness. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. alexiteric. Astringent. LOC. "Kapha". detergent. cooling. good in heart trouble. M. LOC. Sikkim. Mavin-mara. Amri. used in chronic diarrhœa. Ceylon. styptic. bronchitis. useful in skin-diseases. cause flatulence and constipation. heals ulcers. chronic dysentery and gleet. DISTR. a good collyrium (Yunani). :—Tropical Himalayas. cure "Vata". Amra. Bhutan.
urinary discharges. Hemajyoti-valli. Bevu. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Nimba. astringent to bowels. H. Fl. L. Java. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. older branches ash coloured. Kadulimb. overlapping to the right. G. flattened. Sk. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Sd. LOC. See—Timbers. M. stops nasal bleeding. Nakchhikni.—Asclepiadaceæ.—rotate with broad lobes. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. It is also anthelmintic.5 cm. good for dyspepsia. Nim or Margosa tree. Ceylon. H. Juice of kernel. cooling. aphrodisiac. Fruit Trees. inflammations. Fl. C.3-15 X 4. Hari. Kharkhodi.) FAM. corona lobes large. COM. Nim. Juss. Harandori. Balant nimba. t. Nimla. M. Madhumalati.5-10 cm. broadly ovate or suborbicular. K. COM. Ripe fruit is laxative. Sk. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. CHAR. tumours. Khandodi.—many. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. :—G. Dugdhike . NS. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Confection made from ripe mango juice.. if snuffed. coma copious .—Meliaceæ. few glands above the petiole cordate . Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Fr. :—A large twining shrub. Paribhadraka. DISTR.—6.—follicles. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. rugosely striate. Dodi. cures "Vata". USES. with lenticels and black dots. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. biliousness. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. piles. margined. useful in diseases of eye. asthma. rat-bite (Ayurveda). NS.—broadly ovate. leucoderma.) FAM. Assam.—Apl. Ambri. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Nimbaka. fleshy. :—-E. Limbada. green or yellowish green. alexiteric. LOC. :—Bengal. long. Suparnika. all plains districts of Madras State. antipyretic. M. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. useful in bleeding piles. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. pale yellowish brown.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Nimba. . Limbra. 7. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions.5-11. :—Deccan and S. burning sensation. Country.
M. tonic and antiperiodic. and loss of appetite. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. good for leprosy. rheumatism . aphrodisiac. LOC. swollen glands. convalescence. See—Timbers. for unhealthy ulcers. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. :—E. carminative. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. relieves "Kapha". Vanmethika. FAM. alexiteric. Tonic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). LOC. good in ophthalmia. tumours. fruits and seeds. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. skin diseases. stomachic. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. cures ulcers and inflammations . resolvant. valuable in consumption. it is a general vermifuge.. refrigerant. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. thirst. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. general debility. fatigue. lumbago. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. The flowers are stimulant. . leucoderma. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. bark. Ranmethi. DISTR. tonic. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. Small melilot. boils. expectorant. cough. Sk. piles. Oils. leaves. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections." vomiting. leprosy. fever. flowers. piles. lessens inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root. toothache. bad taste in the mouth. stimulant and stomachic. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. urinary discharges. useful in syphilitic sores. "pittadosh. pectoral.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. anthelmintic. anthelmintic. asthma. COM. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . blood complaints. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. burning sensation near heart. NS. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. astringent. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). biliousness. maturant. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. chronic leprosy. antiperiodic. H. Burma. maturant. insecticidal. Banmethi. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. earache. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. bruises. sprains. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan.
leaflets toothed. male fascicled on short peduncles.—monœcious . FAM. t.. L. slightly echinulate. oblong-ellipsoid. DISTR. especially in strained back. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda).—Cucurbitaceæ.—one.—variable in size. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. brown. tendrils simple. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Ghugri.—small. Ceylon. DISTR. Malaya and Africa. M. Fr. also in S. poultice or plaster for swellings. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. FAM. scabrid. Khasia.—pale yellow. young parts white-hairy. PROPERTIES AND LOC. standard exceeding the wings and keel. Fr. Fl. very hispid . Assam. LOC. Fl.— Jany. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. LOC. Europe. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. in spicate close racemes. Bilari.—size of a pea. Iran. G.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. deltoid-ovate entire. Corn-March mint. C. :—India (tropical zone). 30-45 cm. base cordate. K. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. glabrous or slightly hairy. :—E. :—Common in Deccan. H. ellipsoid. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. COM. of terminal rather long. Chatinmaragu. glabrous. at first green and variegated with yellow. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. Pudinah. :—Western Peninsula. :—An erect annual herb. finally red.—pod. rounded. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. COM. HABITAT :—In hedges. north Bengal. tapering at both ends. "Sikkim. truncate at the apex. Afghanistan. NS. Sd. introduced into many other regions.—3-foliate. stem angular. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. L. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. M. Fl. NS. :—H. Country and Gujarat. Pudina.—Labiatæ. Agamaki. high. . HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. M. lobes dentate or serrate . given as a gruel (Murray). oblanceolate. Externally used as a fomentation. females sessile. Pudina. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. leaves and seeds.
foul breath. flowers and fruits. USES :—Root. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. ovate. LOC. COM. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. :—E. hiccup. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. vomiting. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. biliousness. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. LOC. leaves. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic.-narrowed below. L. toothed. NS. and stimulant. cough. Europe. Assam Iron-wood. Nagsampige. Nagkesara. China. H. FAM. DISTR. expectorant. .—nutlets dry. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. good in asthma and sweats. small tumours. E. Ceylon Iron-wood. Fl. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. binding. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. In N. Naghas. M. Travancore. infusion is given in fevers. Fr. S. Oils. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). emmenagogue. Kashmir. :—A perennial erect herb . bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. none at the top. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Burma Tenasserim. PARTS USED :—Bark. Assam. sweats. lined with hairs and hairy outside. Nagkinjalka. digestive.—Guttiferæ. oblong. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda).—in axillary distant whorls. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. stalked. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. LOC. Kanara. lilac. dry. DISTR. smooth. lanceolate. cardiotonic. stem short. pains in joints (Ayurveda). hairy. used for cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. diuretic. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties.—sub-equally 4-lobed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. The plant is used in chutneys. Nagkesara. Carminative. Nagchapha. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Country. North and West Asia. blood and heart troubles. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Konkan and N. good for fevers. Suvarna. sorethroat. Gums and Resins. C. Nagakeshara. Andamans. skin diseases. thirst. :—Western Himalayas. indigestion and cephalagia. Himalayas. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. alexipharmic. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. the upper similar and large. useful in liver and spleen diseases. See—Timbers. :—E. headache. LOC. K. asthma. Sk. Ceylon. Bengal. MESUA FERREA Linn. tonic to kidneys .
glabrous above. nausea and fevers . PARTS USED :—Root. pinnae 1-2 pairs. See—Timbers.. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Surabhi. M. :—E. FAM. Sparshalajja. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. leaflets 15-20 pairs. long. high. stimulant.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. cultivated. slightly recurved. aphrodisiac. Nachike-gidda. Pilochampo. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Sk.—Magnoliaceæ. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. remove biliousness. Champaka. rheumatism. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Vanamallika. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Champa. Lajjavati. leaves. Ghats. Lajalu. pink. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Sonchampo. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . in vertigo. useful in cough. Lajalu. destroys poisons. Sk. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests .—4-merous. LOC. petioles hairy. Risemani.—bipin-nate. it is given with honey to relieve colic.-Oct. M. K. t. Suvarna champaka. NS. stems and branches sparingly prickly. COM. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Yunnan. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. LOC. NS. blood affections. G. Dyes. "Kapha". in globose heads. bark. Assam. Muthmurika. gout. Flowers-stomachic. Champo. evergreen rain-forest of N.. Flowers— expectorant. CHAR. good in leprosy. Burma. H. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Lajjika. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. bile. diaphoretic. Fl. Raktamula. Yellow champa . FAM. Golden champa. L. Sone-chapha. . :—A diffuse under-shrub. also used as purgative. rachis bristly. Kanara. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Sensitive plant. rheumatism. "Vata". India. Pivala chapha. COM. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. diuretic. H. :—Cultivated all over the State. Lajari. hairy beneath. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Fr. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Fruit. Humble plant. Lajja. removes worms. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Lajalu. clothed with glandular hairs . K. digitate. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia.-pod flat. ophthalmia. diuretic. Champaka. IndoChina. facilitates micturition.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). :—E. 45-90 cm. 57. S. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Champaka. Hem-pushpa. DISTR. flowers and fruits. Sampige.5 cm. near temples and in gardens.—Sept. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . W. sensative. G. Sankochini. acrid.
In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. DISTR. flowers and fruits acrid. Bakul. COM. fruits and seeds.—Sapotaceæ. inflammations. cures biliousness. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Juice is applied externally. :—G. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. headache. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Ceylon. burning sensation. leprosy. :—Naturalised throughout India. FAM. smallpox (Yunani). Vovali. Bark cardiotonic. Malaya. teeth and gum diseases. alexipharmic. Root is resolvent. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. Mulsari. ulcers. Kanara. cure blood diseases. Varsuli. LOC. Seeds fix loose teeth. PARTS USED :—Root. vaginal and uterine complaints. leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. sweet. cooling. H. Kalhala. Root. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. LOC. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. dysentery. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. piles. vulnerary. oleaginous. acrid. flowers. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. in piles and fistula. Kanara and Konkan. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. anthelmintic. Bakul. nose diseases. probably a native of tropical America. Fruit causes flatulence. stomachic. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in blood and bile diseases. bark. bilious fevers. blood diseases (Ayurveda). fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. alexipharmic. Mukul. fatigue. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Baphuli. Flowers give taste. asthma. Mugule. liver complaints. Sharadika. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Flowers—expectorant. cure biliousness. LOC. cultivated in gardens in pots. DISTR. It is also resolvent and alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. Sk. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. cures "Kapha". cooling. Borsalli. NS. alterative. cultivated in the tropics. jaundice. Ranjal. M. In Brazil root is used as emetic. Bakula. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. biliousness. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. leucoderma. astringent to bowels. Bakul. Bolsari. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). also used in discharges from mucous membranes .:—Western Peninsula. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Anangaka. good for gonorrhœa. often planted in gardens.
Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. COM. each one surrounded by an involucre. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. Fl. LOC. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck.—membranous. M. and rather fleshy stems . :—E. blackish. NS. Hagalkai. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. t. Guleaabbas . Fl. DISTR. H. :—A herbaceous plant. FAM. Hagala.—Nyctaginaceæ. Karelo. HABITAT -Cultivated.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. yellow. L. K. Karavalli. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. :—Grown throughout India. Leaves are maturant. Oils. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. See—Timbers.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Karela. K. Krishnakali.—continually in bloom. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. native of tropical America. FAM. often ribbed or rugose. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. Fr.—E. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.—large. Kandura. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. M. Chandra—Sanjimallige. See—Ornamental Plants. Gulbasa . lessen inflammations (Yunani). brightly coloured (dark crimson. H. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. COM. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. it is applied to relieve headache. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Sk. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. CHAR. Karli. Fruit Trees. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. It is also tonic and febrifuge. Karela. Kareli. LOC. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Carella fruit. G. Marvel of Peru. high with large perennial tuberous roots. cordate. Four o'clock plant. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. 30-75 cm. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . . NS. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. good for syphilitic sores. Karala. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ.
stomachic. all kinds of poisoning. :—Cultivated throughout India. piles. aphrodisiac. cooling. Malaya. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. etc. Kantolan. jaundice etc. appetiser. bronchitis. hot alexiteric. Ceylon. diseases of spleen and liver. excessive salivation. rheumatism. . K. cure "Tridosh". M. tropical Africa. antipyretic. Nagarali. FAM. digestible. urinary calculi. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. It is useful in gout. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. LOC. leaves and fruit. cures biliousness. Leaves act as galactagogue. anthelmintic. lessens expectoration . rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. Fruit is tonic.—Cucurbitaceæ. anthelmintic. Leaves—aphrodisiac. anæmia. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative and authelmintic. See—Vegetables. leaves and fruit. Country and Gujarat. China. "Kapha". juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). DISTR. Sk.'. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. antibilious. bronchitis. Gid-hagalu. Kantoli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. S. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. Vishakankini. burns. rheumatism. ulcers. laxative. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. :—Throughout India. Kartoli. sparingly in Konkan. Fruit—bitter. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. asthma. fever consumption. and America. and externally in ague as an absorbent. blood diseases. hiccup. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . H. Fruits contain vitamins A. anthelmintic. stomachic. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). carminative. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. Beksa. laxative. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. cure "Vata". B and C. urinary discharges. Kanta. NS. Fruit—very bitter. hearttroubles. COM. erysipelas (Ayurveda). eye and heart. asthma. Fruit— bitter. longpepper. :—G. tumours. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. LOC. Karehiballi. PARTS USED :—Root. boils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. Vandhya. leprosy. urinary discharges. also in Malaya. piles. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. used in syphilis. Plant cures diseases of blood. Karkotaki. M. Golkandra. tonic.
Ak. China. anthelmintic. Ugra. leaves. fattening. removes all kinds of pains.—Moringaceæ. Sk. tumours. astringent to bowels. Nuggi. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. "Kapha".—Rubiaceæ. Burma. HABITAT :—Cultivated . :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Murangi. makes blood impure . Sargavo.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Root-tonic to body and lungs. NS. Mochaka. alexiteric. Tagase . M. PARTS USED :—Root. Seglo. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. See—Vegetables. spleen enlargement. ulcers. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. H. useful in heart-complaints. COM. earache. Formosa. all "tridosha" fevers. Mochaka. bark. K. Introduced var. emmenagogue. Saraoji. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. :—E. K. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Tikshnamula. Al. LOC. LOC. G. aphrodisiac. See—Dyes. Famine Plants. Ashyuka. Sajina. fruits and seeds. flowers. M. cultivated throughout India and Burma. eye diseases. :—E. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Sk. H. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. Segua. Ainshi. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. "Vata". COM. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. dyspepsia. Indian mulberry. FAM. Mulgule. Bartondi. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Rochana. Munigha. Shevaga. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. leaves and fruits. PARTS USED :—Root. Achchuka. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Aal. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Guggala. Indian horse radish . Ab. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Drum-stick Tree. . analgesic. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. biliousness . improves appetite. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Haladipavate. DISTR. stuttering. Achi. inflammations. also in the Oudh forests. FAM. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . NS. causes burning sensation. DISTR. also wild. tuberculous glands in neck. digestible.
diarrhœa. Tut. aromatic and acid flavour. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Root is purgative. enlarged spleen or liver. expectorant. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. ulcerated intestines. good for brain. anthelmintic. Siahtut. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. :—E. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). increases biliousness. H. Tutri. obstinate asthma. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. wounds. Gums and Resins. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. rheumatism. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. appetiser. lumbago. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. COM. enriches blood. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. gout. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Leaf paste. Fruit—tonic. piles. epilepsy and hysteria. turmeric. salt and pepper. loss of appetite. B and C. Sk. it is cooling laxative. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. Shetur. Tuta. aphrodisiac. sour. PARTS USED :—Root. cooling. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. Ambat. See—Fruit Trees. heart. Karihannu. useful in small-pox. Kambali. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. burning sensation (Ayurveda). biliousness. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. diuretic. bark. good for inflammations of throat and chest. Fruits contain vitamins A. NS. Tut. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. . USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. fattening. DISTR. K. urinary discharges.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. Tuda. with garlic. Peninsula. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Fibres. spleen. stomatitis. enriches blood. diuretic. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. LOC.—Moraceæ. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Oils. cures gleet. common about villages in N. bronchitis. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. FAM. LOC. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . White mulberry. expectorant. lumbago. laxative. carminative. The plant contains an alkaloid. MORUS INDICA Linn. sweetish. leaves and fruit. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. M. Madhu pippali. Kanara. See—Vegetables.
Kadvare. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Kela. K. Sk. stem. HABITAT :—Humid areas .—pod. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. Urustambha. Kavatch.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. Banana. Hasaguni. Kivanch. Vanari. with honey is given in cholera. pods and seeds.. spermatorrhoea etc. Kunth.—Oct-Nov. Root—emmenagogue. :—An annual twiner. Adam's Fig. cures blood diseases. long. Dirghapatra. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Fl. COM. which produce intensa irritation of skin. DISTR. Plantain. 6-30 flowered. . flowers and fruit.—Scitaminaceæ. tonic. Rambha. Kela. Goncha. Seeds— alexipharmic.—5-6 small..3-11. :—E. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Sd. lateral very unequal sided. Maoz kela.2 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. Several forms are cultivated in Western India.3 cm. CHAR. M. cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. improves blood. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. laxative. MUSA PARADISIACA L. common in hedges. Sk. silky. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Fr. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Cowhage. G. H. Kapikachu. petioles 6. Fruit— aphrodisiac. DISTR. LOC. Kadali. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. NS.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). used in powder form in leucorrhcea. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. turgid-shaped.—3-foliate. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. grey-silky beneath. L. consumption. COM. Turashi. 5-7. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Fl. " Vata ". :—E. Kuhili. sometimes cultivated. Kavach. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Kela. LOC. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). SAPIENTUM O. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. HABITAT :—In hedges. :—Punjab plains.) FAM. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. t. Bale. Var.—in drooping racemes. Havanch. Himalaya up to 1200 m.5x1. Strong root infusion. leaves. G. NS. Kivanchha. They are used as anthelmintic. tonic. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Tikshna. K. H. Ceylon. biliousness . juice given for headache. M. Nayi songuballi. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . LOC. terminal smaller. leaflets membranous. Atmagupta. dark-purple. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics.
strangury. urinary discharges. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. Bellotti. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. pubescent. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. in thirst. Fr. flowers and fruit. C. FAM. anthelmintic. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. PARTS USES :—Root. tonic. thickens blood. B and C. :—H. leprosy. hairy. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. sore-throat. consumption and bronchitis. biliousness. menstrual disorders. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. :—Konkan and N. Tropical Himalayas. Assam. aphrodisiac. LOC. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. Bedina.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. lobes broadly ovate. very hairy outside. antidysenteric. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. broad at base. causes bronchitis . heart-burn and colic. M. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Serwadh. Hastygida. Kanara. Sk. LOC. linear. Andamans. subglobose. tube slender. astringent to bowels. astringent to bowels. dyspepsia.— berry. stipules twin. good for dry bronchitis. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Bhutakes.—tubular. PROPERTIES AND LOC. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. Burnt stem is vulnerary. kidney troubles (Yunani). . appetiser. CHAR. t.—Rubiaceæ. NS. indigestible . broadly elliptic. tonic. Shrivalli. :—A rambling shrub. Fibres. :—S. increases appetite. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. blood diseases. buds densely hairy. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa.— July-Oct. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. See—Fruit Trees. and are used in acidity. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa.--in terminal cymes. COM. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. diseases of uterus and vagina. diabetes. Root-juice. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. ear-pain.. Fruit—sweet. Fl. Fl. L. Nagavalli. useful in "Kapha". USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. deep golden yellow. aphrodisiac. K. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Ipparati. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. Lawsat. in " Vata". leaves. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. Root-juice is anthelmintic.
They are given in asthma. diuretic. CHAR. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. H. Murad. :—A shrub. LOC. axillary on slender peduncles. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. white. allaying pain. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . LOC.— Myristicaceæ. Himalayas. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. COM. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. NS. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. Myrtle. :— E. Kaiphal. NS. Dioscorides. L. Ram-patri. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). W. It is credited with opposite qualities. PARTS USED :—Leaves. is regarded as. ovate to lanceolate. :—Konkan and N. COM. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Malati. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. :—E. Sk. LOC. DISTR. small. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. used in stopping vomiting. emmenagogue. enriches blood.—small. ellipsoid. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. FAM. especially epilepsy. Kanara Ghats . Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. as . Pliny. Malabar. False nutmeg. black when ripe. FAM. fruits and oil. A decoction is employed. cures headache. PARTS USED:—Seeds. Kamuka. Condiments and Spices. M. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers.— solitary. applied locally to relieve pain. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. common in the Kumta taluka. See—Timbers. smoke beneficial to piles. Galen and the Arabian writers. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. all over the State. promotes growth of hair.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. It is used as a substitute for true mace. very sweet smelling. Fl. Kanage. Vilayantimendhi. K. Habules. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. DISTR. :—Western Peninsula.—Myrtaceæ. Malati. intermittent fevers and dropsy. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M.—berry.
:—A small branching undershrub.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. K. Kamal. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant.) FAM. H. :—W. 3-valved.—white. ovoid. LOC. DISTR. Fl. G. Nelanaringa . fleshy. alexiteric. long. Papra-vel. stem. 0. cells 2-seeded. Kapurbhendi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. Kamal. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. Goanese ipecacuanha. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Fr. Kamal. elliptic. Suriyakamal. :—E. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts.-Dec. Sk. Sd.—solitary. Ambuj. concave or cupped. leaves. M.5 cm. & A. Padma. Pankaja. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India.—July.—petals many 5-12. white or rosy. ulcers (Ayurveda). NS. muricate. Fl.. erect. Timpani. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Kandabahula. anthers with clavate appendages. spongy. CHAR. t.—capsule. petals 5. M. glabrous. rough with distant prickles . orbicular. Kamala. curved. bronchitis.. C. :—Konkan. petiole winged.—Nymphæaceæ. axillary.3-0. Pundarika. t. Sarasija. hæmorrhage. Tavari-bija or gadde. L. Indian sacred lotus. NS. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. COM.—Meliaceæ. K. Ambuja. Padam. entire. diam. peltate. high.—alternate. DISTR. Belakanji. Kanara. from Iran eastwards to Australia. Fl. ovoidglobose. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. radiately nerved. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. linear spathulate. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora.—pendulous.6 m. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. petioles very long.—membranous. Pitmari. LOC. free. Aravinda. Ripe carpels. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. with slender. L. 3-foliate. LOC.-Nov. cures asthma. :—E. 10-25 cm. vulnerary. Kandalu. dysentery. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Amlavalli. in diam. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Chinese water-lily. top flat. COM. :—A large aquatic herb. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. elongate. . biliousness. solitary or 2 together. FAM. See—Ornamental Plants. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. disk annular. Sk. torus 18 mm. CHAR.
K. small-pox. gives tone to breast. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. biliousness. flowers. Kanagile. stem. leaves. tapering into short petiole. Kanel. improves watery eyes (Yunani). rigid.—red. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . Pratihasa. FAM. Sind. dark green and shining above. Sweet scented oleander. Waziristan. diuretic. C. Upper Gangetic Plains. M. See—Ornamental Plants. coriaceous. at length separating. useful in piles. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. Cool. Ashwa-marak. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . allays thirst. Kanher. H. rose or white. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. LOC. also for dysentery and dyspepsia .—funnel-shaped. Sd. fever. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). good in blood-complaints. Karber.—Apocynaceæ. strangury. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". planted in gardens throughout the State. fruit. Cool. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . spermatorrhoea. also as a hedge plant. Sk. In China and Malaya dried red petals. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. chest-pains.—in threes. seeds. :—Madhya Bharat. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. allays thirst. :—E. L. menorrhagia.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. 10-15 cm. useful in fevers . removes worms. in fever and liverdiseases. fragrant. leaves. Vishavrikshanka. useful in burning sensation of the body. astringent to taste . NS. slightly bitter. vomiting. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. inflammations and poisoning. 15-23 cm. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. cures cough. Kaner. Karvira. S. DISTR. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. throat scaly. Filaments are astringent and cooling. Fr. long. Fl. Paddali. leucoderma. long. COM. LOC. lobes rounded. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan.—follicles. . flowers. India. Karvira. also recommended as cardiac tonic.—flowers more or less throughout the year. also cholera. Fl. Baluchistan. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. heart and brain tonic . Kaner. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. CHAR. t. G. diseases of skin and eye . :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. linear-lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . Salt Range. ulcers and sores of mouth. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. good in throat-troubles. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. honey.
Sk. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). :—Native of America. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. Root—aphrodisiac. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. a mental stimulant. skin diseases. useful in bronchitis. FAM.8 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). inflammations.—capsule. cultivated in all tropical countries. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. Tambakhu. water from hookha is diuretic. LOC. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. conical. inflammations. wounds. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. NS. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). carminative. anthelmintic. See—Ornamental Plants. tubercular glands of neck. LOC. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). scabies (Yunani). Fr. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases.—Solanaceæ. funnel-shaped. :—E. Tamarakuthika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. especially root.—alternate. useful in caries of teeth.—pink or white. COM. M. foul nose. tonic. The plant contains a glucoside. An ointment made . sedative and emetic. Tambak. also applied in leprosy. Tobacco. large (especially lower ones). G. tonic. Hoge soppu. DISTR. Tamaku. headache. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Flowers— aphrodisiac. across. about 1. USES :—All parts of plant. sores. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Fl. scabies.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. emetic. L. base wedgeshaped . nervous depression and sleeplessness. C. Kalanja. bronchitis. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. Bujjarbhang. M. dimness of sight. CHAR. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. oblong or elliptic. Poisonous to fish. asthma. very poisonous. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases.—in open corymbose panicles . caries of teeth. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Krimighni. the surface is plain or bullate. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. H. good for lumbago. Tamakhu. smoke constipating. disinfectant. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). laxative. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Tabak. Dhumrapatrika. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. lobes spreading. are poisonous and are used externally.
DISTR. Nalkumkuma. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. in terminal trichotomous cymes. obcordate or merely orbicular. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. COM. flowers and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. H. southwards to the Godavari. M. . Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . bark. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Har. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Shonapadma. Sephali. t. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. peduncles 4angled. M. Assam. C. L.3 cm.—Oleaceæ. a decoction of root. rough above with bulbous hairs. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Burma. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd.) FAM.5-6. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. NS.—opposite 5-10x2. bark. It is used with honey in chronic fever. :—E. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Bengal. solitary. Buds are tonic. stomachic. Lalkamal.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. young branches quadrangular. Nyadale huvu . abundant July-Sept. Sk. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye.—capsule. Kumuda. HABITAT :-Cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. Lotus. Parijata . cures fevers. Aravind. densely pubescent beneath. NS. Madhya Bharat. axillary. Parijata. CHAR. Kanval. Fl. ovate acute. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Fr. COM.—Nymphæaceæ. compressed.— fragrant. Prajakta. useful in bilious fevers. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Parijataka. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Nilophhal. 2-celled.. H. Har-singhar. Alipriya. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). Bark cures bronchitis. K. K. Bilitavarai. Harsing. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Cultivated in many parts of India. Prajakta. carminative. G. LOC. Chotakanwal. leaves. tonic to hair. astringent-to bowels. Sk. :—E. LOC. FAM. lessen inflammation. Kharapatraka. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. :—A large shrub or a small tree.— more or less throughout the year.—lobes white. scalp affections etc. Sephalika. (Ayurveda). Indian Mourner : G. hairy. Jayaparvati. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. tube orange-coloured. Kanwal.
glabrous or hispidly pubescent. Sabzah. stamens about 40. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. febrifuge.9 m. Philippines. diameter. Sabja. :—Large aquatic herb . Hungary. cooling .6-0. bitter. LOC. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Ajagandhika. chronic pain in joints. enlarged spleen. t.—all the year. open in the morning only. CHAR. stems and branches green or purplish. Sd.—2-lipped. fleshy. Manjarki. Damaro. Barbar. globose. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. :—Var. deeply cordate at the base. and nigropunctate above. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). ripening beneath the water. L. thyrsiflora.—Labiatæ. long. acute. Surabhi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. anthelmintic. Burma.—3 cm. entire. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Roots. H. Sabja. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. COM. leaves. pale rose or white. removes impurities from blood . diam. 15-25 cm. glabrous. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . improves taste .— ovoid. useful in diseases of heart and blood.— in whorled racemes . Rihan. white. glabrous or pubescent.5-20 cm. DISTR. lessens bile. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. LOC. Sk. cultivated throughout the greater part of India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. Ceylon. M. G. "Vata". terminal raceme longer than the lateral. C. stomachic. 7. itch. aphrodisiac . antipyretic . useful in diseases of heart and brain. ellipsoid. red. bitter taste. Common sweet basil. root stock tuberous. leaves and flower. L. diarrhœa and piles . Bahari. green. bracts stalked. biliousness. diuretic. Fr. :—An erect herb 0. "Vata". Fl. FAM. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. Java. long. across. Ramkasturi. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). DISTR. asthma. :—E. black and pitted.—petals about 12. Fl. K. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). filaments dilated at the base . submerged . roundish. alexipharmic. NS. high. cylindric. oblong. obtuse. 8-13 mm.—nutlets about 2 mm. petioles very long. "Kapha".—peltate.. rough. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. causes burning sensation.—ovate. Africa. Surasa. C. Sajjebija. peduncles very long . short. allays thirst. Fr. flowers and seeds. Fl. " Kapha". Tukhamariya . emmenagogue. Tungi. Plant has a sharp. pink or purplish. leucoderma.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. hot taste. See—Ornamental Plants. Barbar.—solitary. juice gives lustre to . :—Cultivated in many places in the State. erect. Var. purple stem. toothed or lobed. irregularly sinuate-dentate. Nasabo. LOC.
coarsely crenate-serrate. lower lip longer. good for griping and piles (Yunani). for which the juice warmed with honey is given. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. useful in vomiting. branched. earache. diuretic and demulcent properties. C.—2-lipped. H. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. CHAR. Deccan. M. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition.-July-Oct. they are also aphrodisiac. heating. fits. The flowers possess. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. FAM. heart. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. Plant has bitter. BanMal tulasi. :—A perennial shrub. causes insomnia (Ayurveda).— in simple or branched racemes.—6. good for toothache. COM. brown. L. Large basil.8—5.2—1. stems and branches subquadrangular . LOC. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Java. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. removes foul breath. . G.8 m. alexiteric. " Kapha". Avachi-bavachi. Rantulasi. NS. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. in close whorls . Country. Fl. :—Throughout India. elliptic-lanceolate. high. diuretic and stimulant. rachis quadrangular . Fr. DISTR. 1. pale greenish yellow. skin diseases. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. Sumukha. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. :—Konkan.3—12.—Labiatæ. useful in diseases of brain. inflammations.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. aphrodisiac . t. " Vata". mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. rugose. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. Lemon—shrubby basil. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve.—nutlets subglobose. Sk. M. S. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. It is also styptic. headache. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani).7 cm. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. Fl.5 X 3. Ram Tulasi. :—E. LOC. carminative. liver and spleen. During fever when the extremities are cold. gland-dotted. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties.. LOC. sharp taste . Ajaka. woody below . strengthens gums. stimulant. young ones pubescent. often cultivated : Ceylon. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. strangury . Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. Rama-Ran tulasi. Gujarat. pubescent.
G. alexiteric.—Labiatæ. Country. varying from 7. :—Throughout India. COM. Fl. bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. obtuse or acute. LOC.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. used in catarrh and bronchitis . strangury. L. hiccup. upper lip pubescent on the back. leucoderma. purulent discharge of ear. Papli. M. especially in children. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. Kala tulasi. L.2 cm. Suravallari. purplish. bitter. foul smells. Damanpaper.—Sept-Nov. cholagogue. asthma. Fl. Sk. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Tropical E. Parapate. K. Phapti. stems numerous.:—E. " Vata". USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. of children and in hepatic affections . LOC. NS. DISTR. NS. angular. usually 2-3 cm. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Arabia. pubescent. Tulasi. high.—subsessile. Fl. Vishnuvallabha. Sk. yellow with black marking. Pavitra. stomachic. margins recurved and scabrous. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in heart and blood diseases. West Asia. t. M. antipyretic.6— 3. globose or pyriform . :—Konkan. Krishna tulasi. linear or linear-lanceolate. elliptic-oblong. HABIT :—A common weed. purplish.5—38 cm. lumbago pains. LOC. Tulasa. CHAR. H.— capsule. Parpat. painful eye. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State.—on filiform pedicels. vomiting. Sd. See—Sacred Plants.— in racemes 15-20 cm.5-5 X 1. :—An annual herb. long in close whorls . :—G. . Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. lobes acute. stipules with bristles .— nutlets. long. clothed with soft hairs . 30-60 cm. Fr. stems and branches subquadrangular. DISTR. smooth. COM. " Kapha". Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. H. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. Vrinda. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system.—2. heating.—pale brown. and are given with honey. leaves and seeds. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Ceylon. Fr. entire or serrate. Malay Archipelago. Vranda. FAM. Deccan and S.—2-lipped.—Rubiaceæ. anthelmintic. Manjari. PARTS USED :—Root. Asia to Java and the Philippines. C. :—An annual plant. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. M. Australia. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Tulasi. minutely gland-dotted. Tulasi. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. CHAR. FAM. high.
M. DISTR. rather thin. or more high. good for leucoderma. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . yellow at the edges. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. Nagaphana. leucoderma.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. introduced into India. angular or warty.—7. perianth rotate. reddish at the tips. ascites. LOC. cures biliousness. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. inflammations. outer segments ovate red in the centre. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. lumbago. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. flowers and fruits. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. used in ophthalmia. Mullugalli. largest 3. Nagaphani. carminative. Fl. 3 m. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. Chorhothalo. spleen enlargement. Joints variable in size. yellow or orange. K. Phadyanivdung. across. juice cures earache (Yunani). anæmia. inner spathulate. NS. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. G. CHAR. :—E. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). LOC. Nagaphana. " Vata". (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. pyriform. digestive. long. vesicular calculi. obovate or elliptic. alexiteric.—5 cm. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions.5 mm. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . COM.5 cm. Prickly pear. loss of consciousness. Vajrakantaka. spleen enlargement. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. diuretic. L. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. Nagdali. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). dull bluish-green. Sk. cures bronchitis in children. cures inflammations. Grown as hedge. Zhoratheylo.—Cactaceæ. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. piles. H. Plant bitter. . it is also used in liver complaints. long. ulcers. Snuka. subulate. Sher. Slipper thorn. recurved. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Hathathoria. urinary complaints. Fr. purgative. xerophyte. tumours. liver complaints. Nagadru. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. laxative. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. stomachic. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. rusty brown.— berry. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. burning. reddish purple when ripe. Plant juice—heating. carminative. antipyretic.
USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. asthma. PARTS USED :—Grain. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. K. astringent to bowels . Tandula. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. Pharri. G. Tetu. K. Kanara ghats . LOC. Shyonaka. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Ceylon. FAM. Nivara. M. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. bronchitis (Ayurveda). USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. biliousness.—Bignoniaceæ. anthelmintic. R. FAM. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Seeds are purgative. bronchitis. fattening. Tetu. LOC. cooling. Sk. Indian trumpet flower. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Dyes. Mokka. Tetu. H. leucoderma. H. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Arlu. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Bagi. Malaya. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Tuntaka. It is astringent and tonic. aphrodisiac. improves appetite. piles. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Podval. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings.). Bhat. tonic. G. Shali. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). M. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Alangi. Vrihi. anal troubles. tonic. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). inflammations. DISTR. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. NS. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). diuretic. DISTR. fevers. LOC. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Rice . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Mayarjangha. Dirghavrinta. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. stomachic. :—E. Ullu. Araluka. :—The Konkan and the N. :—Widely cultivated. Ava. aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. vomiting.—Gramineæ. Fruit—acrid. Chokha. Akki. See—Timbers. intestinal worms. Tans. COM. improves taste. good in heart and throat diseases. Rice. Tandula. appetiser. oleaginous. Chaval. Ghats. COM. dysentery.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. useful in " Vata". NS. sweet. useful in biliousness . :—E. LOC. M. Sk.S. Cochin-China. Fruit—expectorant.
Dugdhike. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). Ambastha. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. easy to digest. gives great relief.—Asclepiadaceæ. inflamed piles. petioles very slender. dysentery and scurvy. L. to which a little lemon juice is added. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . COM. Shuklika. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . Dugdhica. :—G. bowels or kidneys. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Changeri. LOC. Dudhialata. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. Rice water. It is an excellent application to abscesses. In dysentery. pubescent. buboes. bruised. DISTR. Fr. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. obcordate. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. long. Fl. K. Marudbhava.—petals 5. CHAR. C. M. ulcers. diarrhœa. if applied to chest. PARTS USED :—Leaves. oblong. Indian Sorrel. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. See—Food Plants. brown. M. Dudhialata. :—E. Fl. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Jaladudhi. boils. NS. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. good appetiser . Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. base cuneate subsessile. . measles. Br. The grains contain vitamin C. rounded at the apex. FAM. Amrul. FAM. t. K.— capsule. :—Throughout the State. Kshiravi. yellow. margins ciliate. Ambuti.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. NS. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. beaked. 5-angled. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . removes " Kapha ". Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn.—palmately 3-foliate. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. sub-umbellate .2—2. It is a pleasant. transversely striate. also in burns and scalds. used externally. Sd.—Oxalidaceæ. Sk. Dugdhika. leaflets 1. Kyirin . Chukrita. Dudhatani. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. small-pox. astringent. cures dysentery. Amlalonika. stems rooting. H. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. scarlet fever.—axillary.5 cm. Sk. linear-oblong. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases.— Oct-May. ovoid. COM.— many. Dudhari. H. Ceylon. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. " Vata " and piles. Dudhani. LOC.
:—E. stems many. juice is used in gleet. Gandha-pushpa. useful in strangury and tumours. Fl. Giripriya. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. purple veined.—deciduous. t. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. mouth with pubescent ring.—very numerous. alexiteric. HABITAT :—Usually near water. X 3. CHAR. PARTS USED :-Root.3 cm. margins and midrib spiny. Kevada. 0. . Fr. much branched.8 mm. stem supported by aerial roots . causes flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. LOC. Ceylon. laxative. syphilis. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch.— large. pale rose or white. linear or linear-lanceolate. Dhulipushpika. Fl. leaves. Ketgi. Gogandhul. Ketaki. 4. FAM. Kedige.8-6. pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. anthers. M. often planted. coma present. L. anthelmintic. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. small-pox. Burma. pain in the muscles. expectorant. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. Kanara. S. Kewoda. LOC.—Pandanaceæ. Fr. Ketaka. C. Sd. fruit. scabies. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Screw pine. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. aphrodisiac. coriaceous ensiform. aphrodisiac. K. somniferous. :—Konkan and N. G. bitter. gonorrhœa. DISTR. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. Umbrella Tree. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. Sundarbans. PARTS USED :—Plant. Flowers improve complexion. :—A shrub up to 6 m. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. Sk.5-9 cm. M. long. Fruit—tonic. Kanara. L. indigestible.9—1. Fl. Chama-pushpa. female flower spadix solitary. black. diuretic. Mundige. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). diseases of heart and brain. dry. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). tonic. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". long. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. Andamans.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. corona staminal. 3. H. cough. aphrodisiac. palegreen.—dioecious. yellow or red. lobes ciliate. root. Poona Sangam. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. NS. leucoderma. :—Konkan.. DISTR.—Dec. Java.5 m. high.—follicles. milky juice. Anthers useful in pruritus. Keora.—glaucous green.—oblong or globose. strikingly handsome. LOC. with flavour. rarely erect. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes .—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. anthelmintic. fruit and oil from bracts. Leaves are useful in leprosy. COM. " Kapha ". roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Country— Belgaum. thin. Deccan. heat of body.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. Khaji. K. digestible. thirst. . PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Kharjuri. PARTS USED :—Seeds. DISTR. K. Boichand. :—E. long. COM. Dharwar. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. :—G. G. Ichela-mara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling.— pod. Kohesaru. biliousness. blood diseases. Koshila.3—2. LOC. See—Food Plants. Magavala. Kajuri. Vanmudga. M.—3-foliate. enrich blood. L. Shimbiparni. inflammations. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. NS. Tadi. astringent. light and astringent. Kalli-chalu. COM. dysentery. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. Kharjurika. Burma. Kurangika. " Kapha". good in fevers. broadly spathulate. Khandesh. prostrate. slightly recurved. dry. burning sensation. cough. yellow. petioles grooved. Afghanistan. Kashayi. mugawana. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. laxative. bronchitis. piles. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda).:—Very common throughout the State. Ahmedabad. peduncles 10-23 cm. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Deccan and Gujarat. Khajuri. The grains contain vitamins A and B. " Tridosh". bitter. Kidney diseases. wiry. LOC.—Palmæ. good for eyes. layer. Sd. Adabanmagi. DISTR. Siyindu. few flowered racemes. leaflets 1. Kapila. LOC. H. anthelmintic. throat inflammations. good for the eyes . stems numerous from a woody root-stock. Ranmath. and southwards to Ceylon.5—5 cm. Malay Islands. nose complaints. Abyssinia. CHAR. as a kharif crop. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Trianguli. FAM. Ahmednagar. Sk. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Mugani. eye troubles. Date sugar palm. Konkan. cure biliousness. headache. Kolaba and Kanara. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Shindi.5 cm. straight subcylindric. H.—Oct. NS. Fr. astringent to bowels. gout. long.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. Satara. styptic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—6-12. :—Largely grown in. Indian wine palm. antipyretic. t. Sk. FAM. Adavada. Seeds— tonic. glabrous or hairy. membranous. Swadi.—in sub-capitate. Kallu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. LOC. long. Sendhi. Ranmug. Fl. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Sind. Belgaum. wild date palm. cures consumption. 2. Kherk. Fl. :—Annual or perennial.
petioles compressed towards the apex. useful in diseases of heart. Fl. :—Tolerably common throughout India. constipating. scented. vomiting.—Verbenaceæ. pointed.—Jan-Feb. Coromandel Coast. Agnijwala..—white or pale-pink. oleaginous. COM.—Fibres. Jalapipali. Bhuiokra. cooling. pinnules many. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. fattening. 9-15 m. wandering of mind.—sessile. :—G. greyish-green. Siwalik. Mysore. t. angular. female spadix and spathe as in the male. LOC. high. Rohilkhand. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet.2 cm. Bengal. oblique. Bihar. crown hemispherical. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places.—2. t. :—A tall graceful palm. Ceylon. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. long. Sholapur. LOC. aphrodisiac. ensiform.—pinnate. NS. cardiotonic. Fl. usually along banks. wild or more often cultivated. Poona and Belgaum districts. Famine Plants. subsessile. Sk. and in beds of streams and water courses. DISTR. C. alexiteric. Africa. sharply serrate in upper part. aphrodisiac. deeply grooved on one side. Vashira. DISTR.—more or less all the year. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. clothed with appressed white hairs . good in heart and abdominal complaints. LOC. oblong-ellipsoid. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. orange-yellow. 15-45x2-2. Okra. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. male white. cooling. M. This is called neera. fruit and juice of the tree. :—Found fairly in Surat. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. Fr. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. . Fl. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich.5—3. outer Himalayas. 3-4. Fl. rounded at the apex. Ratoliya.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). L. See. Baluchistan. spinous. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. flowers distant.—opposite. flowers very many. large and thick. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. blood and eye. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. spadix 60-90 cm. Sd. CHAR. L. Ratuliyo. spiny at the base. erect. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). 2-lipped. fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid.5 m.—globose. spatulate. much branched. long.—rounded at the ends. Sharadi. H. rigid. :—A creeping perennial herb. densely fascicled. Langali. upper 2-lobed. stems rooting at the nodes. roundish. lower 3-lobed. :—Throughout India. oblong. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. Ratoliya. Jalpippali. long. Toyavallari. Fr.— dioecious. Jalapimpli. triangular.5 m.
6-13 X 3-6 mm . alexipharmic . . FAM. angular. disk of the male of minute glands. hiccup. Bhumyamali. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. Leaves are stomachic. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. cooling. asthma. urinary discharges. lobed. Infusion is a good tonic.—3-gonous. bronchitis. smooth. scabies. Jaramla. CHAR :—An annual herb. longitudinally ribbed on the back. H. Ajata. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman).—capsule. useful in thirst. leprosy. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. It is valuable in scurvy. Stomachic. females solitary. of female. biliousness. t. anæmia. high . fruit.useful in fevers. COM. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. good for sores and in chronic dysentery.— numerous. Amala.. :—G. ringworm (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. except Australia.— July-Aug. M. asthma. :—Konkan and Deccan. The whole plant. very numerous. leaves. :—Throughout India. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. LOC. Bhumyamalaki. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Bhumyamali. Ceylon. anuria. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Fl. maturant. milky-juice. stem branched at the base. Sk. NS. and without salt may be applied to bruises. DISTR. scarcely lobed. Plant—hot.—yellowish. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). L.—Euphorbiaceæ. good for ulcers. Kiranelligida. Vituntika. Bhuiavli. axillary. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. Sadahazurmani. very small. wounds. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). elliptic-oblong. 30-60 cm. LOC. K. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). sores. Fl. Bhuianvalah. Fr. males 1-3. wounds. diuretic. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. annular. distichous. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. Sd. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. thirst. Sukshmadala. LOC. dry. burning sensation. Tropics generally. globose. monœcious.
G. Menasu. bechic. Fresh leaves. foul smell in the mouth. stomachic. . Betel leaf vine. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. liver and muscular pains. Satara. cultivated in Konkan and N. given with milk in hysteria. Bhakshyapatra. LOC. Linn. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. FAM. alexipharmic. Black-pepper. NS. M. Marich. throat diseases. Kalaka. heart and liver. ozœna. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. asthma. Pan. removes all foulness from mouth. carminative and astringent. generally in Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. COM. Vileyad-ele. :—Wild in the N. Kalamiri. PARTS USED :—Fruits. useful in "Kapha". :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. night blindness. Poona. heating. K. H. FAM. styptic (Yunani). leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. aphrodisiac. Sholapur. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women.—Piperaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. Nagavalli. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Pan. tonic to brain. Menasin-kallu . Kanara forests. increases biliousness. Kalimiri. Sk. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. piles. G. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Golmirch .—Piperaceæ. purgative. spleen diseases. satyriasis and to allay thirst. tonic. Tambola. smeared with oil. :—E. carminative. Eleballi. bronchitis. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Saptashira. It sweetens breath. It increases saliva. :—E. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Kaphavirodhi. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Mensinballi. and fruits (rarely). Vata". laxative. " Kapha ". chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. inflammations. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. Pan. ozoena. Vidyache-pan. alterative. LOC. aphrodisiac. strengthens teeth . Kalamirich. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). improves appetite (Ayurveda). clears throat. useful in "Vata". improves voice. M. DISTR. Panu. NS. urinary discharges. Warm leaves. Tikshna. LOC. tonic and digestive. pains. Betel pepper. anthelmintic. hot. COM. Malimirich . leavs. vulnerary. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. useful in toothache. elephantiasis . carminative. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. H. Kanara. DISTR. K. Tambulavalli. See—Condiments and Spices. acrid. Betelleaf.
as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. paralysis . CHAR.5 cm. Fr. Vikhari. ophthalmia and phthisis. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. It yields an essential oil.— alternate. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. chest affections. Arcot and Salem. N. COM. entire or toothed.—Plantaginaceæ.5-12. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Bartang. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. Khandala (pretty common). DISTR. various forms of cutaneous diseases. Bark contains a glucoside. FAM. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. long. bruises. ovoid. Lahuriya. sciatica. lanceolate or greenish . NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. and possesses narcotic properties . facilitates menstruation. M. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. W. piles and some skin-diseases . Khasia Hills. In physiological action. sprains. Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. vertigo. the oil is alterative.—Pittosporaceæ. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. . NS. See—Condiments and Spices. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. coma. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. leprosy. piperidine and an essential oil. lumbago. ovate or oblong. See—Timbers. & A. used in chronic bronchitis. :—E. Greater plantain . as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. LOC. H. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . variable in width. dries body humours (Yunani).—lobes 4. FAM. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . COM. C. hills of S. Externally it is rubefacient.—capsule. tonic and a local stimulant.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. :—K. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. petiole longer than leaf-blade. chronic fevers. radial 2. Vehkali. Fl. base tapering into petiole. Tammata. Kanara in ghat forests. Deccan. L. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. LOC. weakness following fevers. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. used as febrifuge. It is a good expectorant. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Konkan.
Mahang. oblong. t.Sept. Chitra. striate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Baluchistan. Fire plant. Rosy-coloured leadwort. Lead-wort. dull-black. Raktachitraka. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . CHAR. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). erect. high. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. obtuse.-4-8. W.—Plumbaginaceæ. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. LOC. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Assam. limb wide. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Burma. alterative. Sk. :—Temperate Himalayas. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. Lalchita. Ceylon. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. DISTR. Ghats. angled.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. G. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. base passing into amplexicaul.—tube slender. Nilgiris. HABITAT :—Along river banks. HABITAT :—Cultivated. alterative and diuretic. DISTR. LOC. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. stems herbaceous.—3-5 cm.. Ratochatro. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. L. LOC. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. COM. Chitraka. :—Konkan : Deccan. exauriculate petiole.-Feb. H. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. :— E. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. rosy scarlet. Fl. leaves. PARTS USED :—Roots. PARTS USED :—Roots. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Lalachitraka. Agnishikha. Lalchitrak. K. t.. attenuate. FAM.—throughout the year. top coming off as a conical lid. Lalchitrak. Palni hills. Fl. long in long terminal axillary. M. Sd. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Malaya. zeylanica. LOC. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Fl.—large.Kempuchitramula. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. NS. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. lax spikes. Fattening. and seeds. afford relief. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. :—Cultivated throughout India. C.
t.—Plumbaginaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. Bile-Chitra-mula.—Aug. Vahni. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is used in procuring abortion. Agnishikha. NS. anasarca. Ind. Vallari. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. ascites. cultivated . Fl. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. itching. The use of Pl. It is used as a powerful sialogogue.6-1. alterative . entire. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. alexipharmic. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). carminative. . H. January 1933). stems 0. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. anthelmintic. " Tridosha" . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—thin. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. consumption. lobes 5. astringent to bowels. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). aborti-facient. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. spreading. hot. FAM. Chitraka. Fl. Chitaro Chitrak. Chitra. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. scabies. Medi. root-bark. a favourite medicine for flatulence. woody. bechic. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. Chitrak.—white. :—E. G. Chitranga. :—Throughout India. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. terete. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). oblong. vesicant. cure intestinal troubles. Journ. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. Root—bitter. In S. C. wild in Western Peninsula.—in elongate spikes. Malay Peninsula. and in leucoderma. pointed. leucoderma. attenuated into a short petiole. diseases of spleen. long. diarrhœa. M. laxative. expectorant. rachis glandular . it is useful in dyspepsia. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. striate. COM. skin disease. rheumatism. " Vata" and " Kapha". Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. dysentery. leaves. Res. juice. diseases of liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. Ceylon. leprosy. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles .-Sept. Chitramula. leucoderma. K. appetiser. Chitra . leaves are caustic.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. useful in laryngitis. piles. ring-worm. Tropics of the old world. DISTR.—capsule. ovate. Jyotishka. tonic. bronchitis. L. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Fr.5 m. stomachic. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. Chitra . inflammations. Bengal. a paste is made with milk. piles.
divaricate. smooth. Khairchapha. LOC.-Feb. G. stems and branches quadrangular. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. M. Frangipani.—Apocynaceæ. :—Native of tropical America. Fl. FAM. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. lower lip white. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). cylindrical. Golainchi..-May. 15-30 cm. common. Kanara. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. long. Champakam. Fl. Radha-champo. very fragrant. NS. Fr. leaves and milky juice. bark. Root-bark is purgative. inner face angular. upper lip white shot with purple. venereal sores. :—E. cultivated.—practically throughout the year. Phangla. abundant from Mar. Rhuruchapha.5-18x3. :—All throughout the State. :—M. COM. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. Mahabaleshwar. Country. t. Sk.—Labiatæ. heating. rarely maturing. 12 cm. whorls close.:—More or less throughout India. abundant. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. shining black. useful in leprosy. See—Ornamental Plants. carminative.— large. long.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. :—Konkan. H. Belchampaka.—follicles. with an intra-marginal vein. oblong-lanceolate. Fl. itching. :—A small shrub 1. t. FAM. high. Kadu-sampige. useful in gleet. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. urinary discharges. Goleurchampa.—salver-shaped. L. 7.—2-lipped. LOC. L.8 m. Devagangile. PARTS USED :—Root. ascites (Ayurveda). DISTR. . laxative .8-9 cm. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. white with a pale yellow centre.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. acute at both ends. entire. shining. K. Fl. DISTR. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. broadly ovate. ulcers. Deccan. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. S. CHAR. Fr. acrid. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch.-nutlets ellipsoid. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. LOC. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. 4-lobed. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. Pagoda tree. rounded. purple. COM.2—1. pains. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. CHAR. C.—Dec. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. C. many flowered. spirally arranged. pungent. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. M. irregularly doubly toothed. NS. Pangli. 3-lobed. HABITAT :—Hilly parts.
K. urinary discharges . rheumatic pains. Karanjmara. relieves inflammation. In Satara. Ustabunda . Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). :—G. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). COM. Sk. chronic fever. Kirmal. vagina. flowers. bruised. M. Agetha. leucoderma. LOC. Kanja. cures biliousness. Agnimandha. skin and in keratitis . Seeds—acrid . lumbago. good for tumour. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. skin diseases. Karanja. Indian beech. chronic fever and hydrocele. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Kanaji. carminative. Naktamala. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. leaves. cures eye diseases. lumbago. cure earache. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Oils. Sk. Arni. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. purify and enrich blood. Oil—styptic. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). DISTR. Gracie). . HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Huligili.—Verbenaceæ. NS. Jayanti. juice is given in colic and fever. G. Aran. " Vata ". See—Timbers. M. itching. wounds. USES :—The fresh leaves. Kanika. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. also planted. Karanja. ulcers. ascites.) FAM. fruits and seeds. wounds (Ayurveda). along Deccan rivers . Ichu. Oil—anthelmintic. Honge. piles. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. COM. FAM. J. Arni. NS. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Karanj. H. chest complaints. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. :—E. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. piles. leprosy. Karanj. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. K. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. Chamari. Arand. anthelmintic. LOC.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. F. " Kapha ". PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). good in scabies. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. H. Agnibijaka. alexipharmic . useful in diseases of eye. head and brain diseases. Gaura. Pavaka. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. bark. PARTS USED :—Root. liver pain.
Peru. stomachic. used in bronchitis. C. Fl. common about Karwar. laxative after food. useful in anaemia. L. Perala. . flowers. laxative. fruits and gum. chyluria. Anthers—dry wound. broadly elliptic. It is also employed in scurvy.—hard. Gova. Flowers cool body. Ceylon. cool heated brain.— globose.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). bark yellowish.3 cm. FAM. Jamb. Fruit—tonic. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. fever. cooling. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. causes "Kapha". good for liver complaints (Yunani). :—E. Peru . cooling.2-6. stomachic. Peruka. high. applied to sore eyes. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. entire or upper part dentate. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers.—Myrtaceæ. Jamphal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. See—Famine Plants. constipation. :—Cultivated all over the State. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. pungent. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. inflammations. Jamud-rukh. Root is laxative.—tubular. dyspepsia. Nicobars and Malaya. heating. Safedsafari. piles. Kanara. Gum is tonic. greenish yellow. smooth. Vastula. good in colic and for bleeding gums. Piyara. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. M. Dridhabija. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. bronchitis."Vata". cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). H. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. Amrut. Andamans. NS. seated on the calyx . DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. t. blue-black. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. as an astringent to bowels. Perala. lobes 4. LOC. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. DISTR. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Fr. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cylindric. LOC. for unhealthy ulcers. COM. LOC.. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. Fl. hairy in the throat.— June-July. diabetes.—5-9 X 3. sour. Sk. G. LOC. Young leaves are tonic in the . Guava tree. K. small. aphrodisiac . rough-tubercled . Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. Sd. It is given in the form of decoction.
good for leucoderma. Fl. Bhavanj. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). stomachic.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. " Rakta-pitta". mucronate.5—5 cm. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). white hairy. Bowach-chi. diuretic. Kushtaghni. Fr. . alterative. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. 0. Babachi. leprosy.6-1. Bukchi. t.—one. causes biliousness. solitary. M. alexiteric.—Aug-Dec. 10-30 flowered racemes . closely-pitted. biliousness. aphrodisiac. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. COM. Fl. vomiting. Babachi. heals ulcers. Seed—purgative. stimulant. cures "Vata". ovoidoblong. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. G. Sd. Konkan and S. bitter taste. nephrites and cachexia. raw one is used in diarrhœa. C. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. studded with glands and white hairs. anæmia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).8 X 2. See—Fruit Trees. leaves. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins.—in dense axillary. anthelmintic. skin diseases. HABITAT :—Waste places. L. improves hair and complexion. NS. Vanguji. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. PARTS USED :—Root. improves appetite. antipyretic. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. K. rounded and mucronate at the apex. DISTR. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. bronchitis. anthelmintic. LOC. M. CHAR. scabies. laxative. standard orbicular. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. stem and branches grooved. good for heart troubles. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. inflammation. black. urinary dis charges. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Seeds— refrigerant. piles. Chandralekha. clawed.2 m. FAM. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. difficulty in micturition. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". cures blood diseases . Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. :—An erect annual.—bluish purple . vulnerary.—simple. Sk. H. Bavachi. smooth. LOC. Bavachi. Country.—pod. :—E. Bakuchi. nigro-punctate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. high. Fruit—diuretic. 3. fruit and seeds. Kalameshi.
" Kapha ". PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. thirst. K. Kanara. DISTR. Valka-phala. tonic. burning sensation. Bia. Pitasar. in Akrani. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. earache. ascends to 1100 m. useful in eye troubles. prolapsus ani. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). cures " Vata ". sore eyes brain diseases. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Indian kino-tree.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. spleen complaints. Bibla. FAM. Gum. Anar. Khandesh and Dangs. PARTS USED:—Root. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. FAM. NS. Kabul and Baluchistan. Bijak. Sk. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter.—Punicaceæ. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. erysipelas. used in piles. laxative. LOC. Hulidalimb . leprosy. " Tridosh". laxative. styptic. biliousness. gleet. Hirdokhi. PARTS USED. used in sore throat. alterative . USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. Dalimb . H. heart-disease. DISTR. colic. Bibla. Sk. H. scattered but not gregarious . strengthens gums. griping. elephantiasis. Bija. Mahakutaj. Dadima. Flowers—check vomiting. Pomegranate tree. anal troubles. Flowers— improve appetite. Dharimb . M. flowers and fruits. Bigsah. Malabar kino-tree. COM. urinary discharges (Yunani). Dalimba. useful in biliousness. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Sunila. Honi. called kino. fever. M. diuretic. :—E. body eruptions. India. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. liver tonic. anthelmintic. flowers and gum. Dadima. vulnerary. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. ulcers. scabies. Bio. :—E. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). boils. Bibla. Benga. :—Western Peninsula and S. LOC. Honne. useful in all body diseases. sore-throat. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. K. leucoderma. bark. Gums and Resins. Dadam. good for biliousness. applied to hydrocele. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. G. Gum—bitter. cultivated in many parts of India. :—Leaves. Dadimba. allays thirst. blood diseases. also in Konkan. tonic. somewhat milder in action than catechu. useful in vomiting. fattening. G. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Raktabija-pushpa. COM. urinary discharges. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Common in N. ophthalmia. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS. LOC. enriches blood. See—Timbers. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. anthelmintic. chest troubles. Bark—astringent. Dhalim. stomatitis. Fruit-appetiser. :—Wild in Iran.
Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. COM. Malaya. Karigidda. calyx tube long. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic.—opposite.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. Gela. Gelphal. Fr. :—A strong climber. H. Chinese honeysuckle.5 cm. Annam. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. C—petals 5. Dharaphal. Rangoonchavel. jasmine . widely cultivated all over India.—Mar. :—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. CHAR. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. acuminate. glabrous above.—Rubiaceæ. In China. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. M. dark green. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) .— ellipsoid. K. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Karhar Mainphal. Barmasinivel. :—E. G. t. M. lanceolate . Fruit contains vitamin C. LOC. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. USES :—In Amboyana. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. M. FAM. H. See—Ornamental Plants. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. 7. base rounded. COM. long. Mindhola. Minkare. Sk. It is given in the form of decoction.—in axillary and terminal spikes. Madana. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. DISTR.-Aug. FAM. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. The rind of the fruit.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Lalchameli. LOC. G. Emetic nut. Konkan. Midhola. Rangoonkibel. Pinditak. nearly 6 cm. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. LOC. Fl. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. NS. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. S. at first white then deep red . hairy beneath.—Combretaceæ. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mangari-kai. pendant. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. acutely 5-angled. elliptic. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Country and Kanara. . L. numerous. NS. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Rangoon creeper.
useful in chronic bronchitis. carminative. Bitter. tonic. tumours. destroys "Vata". Bili Mulangi. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . good in tumours. E. Juice of .) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. sweet. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. cholera. amenorrhœa. aphrodisiac. Mura. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. NS. boils. certain and regular. it is equal to it in every respect. Hastidanta. muscular pains. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. See—Timber. It also contains an essential oil. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). leucoderma (Yunani). paralysis. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. inflammations. and all inflammations . carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. juice relieves earache. inflammations. laxative. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. Tropical Africa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. used in diseases of the brain. Muri. FAM. emetic. Mali. emmenagogue. LOC. Seeds-sharp. piles. K. leprosy. heating. Mula. Sk. emetic. Java. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. antipyretic. Mulak. China. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. hiccup. leprosy. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Ksharmula. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. stomachic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. Ruchira. skin-diseases. Sumatra. flowers. M. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—E. piles (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. its action is very safe. G. Muro. It is also used to poison fish. leaves. Radish.—Cruciferæ. bad taste. Mula. carminative. The plant contains glucoside saponin. good for spleen and in paralysis. useful in diseases of heart. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. :—Throughout India. eruptions. H. LOC. DISTR. bitter. binding. DISTR. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. purgative. Ceylon. cures abscesses. produce alopecia (Yunani). " Vata" and " Kapha". INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. alexiteric. asthma. fruit and seeds. S.
—in irregular corymbose cymes.3 cm. Sk. Fr. sedative. Group B — Serpentine. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. NS. C. Java. Kanara.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. CHAR. Doddapatike. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. Sivanabhi. :—H. LOC. with a long. often tinged with violet. shady open places near rain-forests. pale beneath..5-6. It is hypnotic. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. bright green above. Sk.—drupe. expectorant.—Apocynaceæ. .. acrid. Western Peninsula. yellowish root stock. nodular. FAM. Chandrika. t. Nai. ajmalicine. ulcers (Ayurveda). Nakulikand. Gaja-karni. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. L. COM. laxative. B and C. irregularly. LOC. Sarpakshi. lanceolate. sharp. pungent. ginger.5-18 X 2. COM. PARTS USED :—Root.— Mar. Ceylon. Harkaichand. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. diuretic. Sarpagandha.. Palakjuhi. Juipani. Fl.) FAM. and black salt. white. used in hyperpiesis . cures " Tridosha ". carminative. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. thin. black shining. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Chhotachand. specific for insanity. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Chandrika.-May. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. swollen a little above the middle. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. :—H.—Acanthaceæ. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. single or didymous. DISTR. leaves (rarely). Root contains vitamins A. serpentinine. anthelminitic . See—Vegetables. NS. Harki.-in whorls of 3. K. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica.9 m. Andamans. Yuthikaparni. In the Konkan. acute. M. 7. heating. ajamalinine.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. bright red . :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. seeds are considered peptic.—tubular. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Garudpatala. Mungusavel. :—An erect perennial shrub. Fl. K. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. corrective and emmenagogue. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings.
—5-10 X2-5 cm. vaginal pains. flowers and seeds. amenorrhœa (Yunani). Fl. Sk. elliptic lanceolate.-Jany. COM. Arand. pointed. useful in pains. increases "Kapha". Eranda. Ceylon (wild) . useful in heart diseases. stems obscurely angled. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Sholapur). Country (Dharwar. alterative. high. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. K. Madagascar (cultivated). tropical Africa. cultivated. strangury. Fr. Khandala. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. Seed and oil—cathartic. bracts ovate lanceolate. bronchitis. diseases of rectum and head. Vardhamana. asthma. boils. Fruit— appetiser. elephantiasis. Fl. white. ascites. pain in back. convulsions. piles.—Oct. hairy outside . H. Leaves—galactagogue. FAM. leprosy. entire. Belgaum. intestinal worms. LOC. some fevers. LOC. hills near Belgaum. paralysis. ascites. solitary. upper lip bifid . piles. Straits-Settlements. PARTS USED :—Root. increase biliousness. good for burns. Very little in other districts of the State. tumours. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. purgative. t. Mahabaleshwar. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. M.—Euphorbiaceæ. Triputiphala. velvety hairy Sd. eructations. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative.5 m. narrow. asthma. dropsy. DISTR. Chitrabija. LOC. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). widely cultivated in tropical countries. :—E. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Divaligo. L. 0. Castor oil plant. earache. generally cultivated. Root-bark—purgative. :—Probably of African origin. G. Cattle are fed with leaves for . M. pains. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. inflammations.—lipped. oil—anthelmintic.— tuberculate. glands.—capsule. carminative .9—1. Palma christi. useful in inflammations. Vardhaman. glandular. LOC. leprosy.—nearly sessile. Haralu. lumbago. HABITAT :—Hills. pubescent: C. useful in liver troubles. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". NS. Tirki. night-blindness. leaves. Divald. ascites. ring-worm. alterative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. body pains. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. aphrodisiac. Country. DISTR. liver and spleen diseases. useful in skin-disease. :—Deccan. inflammations. :—Throughout India. Java. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). leaves and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. Erand. fevers. rheumatism. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Erand. lumbago. anal troubles. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. :—Undershrub. black.. Erand. typhoid.
hairy. Fr. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Italy. LOC. ovate oblong. Ati-manjula. PARTS USED :—Flowers. LOC. :—Origin unknown.— usually corymbose. See—Oils. :—A perennial shrub. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. aphrodisiac. tooth-ache. removes bad odour from mouth. G. NS. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. Fl. red.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. Pannira. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. stems with stout and hooked prickles. Gulab. cephalic. cultivated all over India. 2. In constipation it is used as an enema. etc. head-ache. expectorant. intestinal affections. :—E. cures leprosy. Sk. t. burning sensation. Gulab. Flower—bitter. Lakshmipushpa. cooling. K. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. long. L.— all the year. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. antipyretic. benefits lungs. P. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. they are cold. Fl.—pinnate. stomatitis. petioles prickly. laxative. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. aperient removing bile and cold humours. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7).. acrid. Tarana. good for eyes. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. sometimes glandular. They are also applied to painful joints. laxative. cardiotonic. Ghazipur is a chief centre. double. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. Soumyagandha. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria.3 cm. liver. Sudburj. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . France. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. pink or white. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. astringent when dry (Yunani). tonic. kidneys. M. excessive perspiration. Punjab and U. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. cardiotonic. attaining 1. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. with a good odour. CHAR. seldom griping or causing flatulency. DISTR. improves appetite (Ayurveda). used in heat of body.—obovate . serrate.5-6. inflammations. Shatadala. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. chronic fevers.5 m. Gulab . adults. FAM. biliousness. " Vata". dry. See—Ornamental Plants. sometimes striped . HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. which is a powerful poison. H. .—Rosaceæ. Greece and Germany. sweetish. stipules scarcely dilated. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. mild and safe purgative. COM. much used in lotions and collyria .
Manjishtha. lactagogue. Country. Gulmketu. leucoderma. grooved. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. ovate. antidysenteric. diuretic. oleaginous . Malay Peninsula. petioles triangular. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. lower leaves larger. used in eye-sores. orbicular . roots very long. elliptic. urinary discharges. ulcers. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. spleen-enlargement.-Jany. :—E. Fl. Bladder. Ceylon. Root—bitter. valves hyaline. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. Leaves-sweet. analgestic. Sk.—white or pink. inner perianth-segments membranous. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. smooth. purplish black when ripe. Chuka. Raktasara. FAM. M. Majit. COM. lethargy. CHAR. Sorrel. the Konkan and S. L. bitter. rheumatism. diseases of uterus. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. erysipelas. leucoderma. leaves and fruit. vagina. NS. obtuse. Ambat Chuka. Aruna. stems very long.—in whorls of 4. liver complaints.. it powerfully affects the nervous system. Decoction tinges blood.5 cm. NS. and was much used in dropsy. alexiteric. 15-30 cm.—didymous or globose. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. L. ulcers and skin-diseases. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. improves voice and complexion . heating. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. jaundice. five-nerved. paralysis. laxative.5—7. Manjishha. LOC.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . tropical Africa. greenish. PARTS USED. Japan. Amlavetasa. Fl. COM. CHAR.—Polygonaceæ. :—Annual. prickly. paralysis. Indian Madder. eye. Tamravalli.—Rubiaceæ. Manjishtha. urine and even bones red. blood. base cuneate. M. dysentery. Java. Chitralata. :—E. :—Root. :—Perennial climbing herb. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. erect glabrous herb. . cordate or hastate. cylindric. FAM.—2. Rohini. analgesic. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. M. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Chukra. emmenagogue. Fl. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. all scabrous with white prickles. high. branched from the root. t-Oct. acrid. pains in joints. shining. cures " Kapha ". inflammations. DISTR. jaundice. H. ear. LOC. anthelmintic. Fr. uterine pains (Yunani). leucorrhoea. H. Fr.—in terminal panicled cymes. piles. with a thin red bark. Manjit.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Dock. one pair with longer petioles ovate. Sk. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. branches quadrangular . increase appetite. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic.
USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. dyspepsia. flatulence. aperient and diuretic. :—A herb . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. rugose with furrow. piles. Konkan. also considered as a vermifuge. G. Havananju. The juice allays tooth-pain. Nagadali. FAM. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. :—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Common—Garden-rue .—Nov. analgesic. stomachic. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. generally in the Deccan. bites and stings of poisonous animals.—white. Ghati pittapapada . HABITAT :—Common everywhere. roasted. stems usually decumbent. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. tonic. S. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. See—Vegetables. Sk. leucoderma. LOC. Deccan. acute. Persia. Satri. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). while fresh they are bruised. DISTR. LOC.—Acanthaceæ.—capsule. L. :—G. checks nausea and promotes appetite. Sadabu.—Rutaceæ. alcoholism. Trans-Indus Hills. t. Satap. CHAR. useful in scabies. Fl.—suborbicular. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. in dysentery. toothache. bronchitis. diseases of the spleen. :—Western Punjab.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. ovoid oblong. H. blue or pink. FAM. they are prescribed. tumours. constipation. laxative. Ceylon. USES :—Leaves are cooling. C. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. Afghanistan. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. upper emarginate. ciliate. Cooling. H. 2-lipped. Kanara. Sk. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. then erect. useful in heart troubles. with scarious faces and hard ridges. COM. DISTR. Sadapaha.— subsessile.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. Fr. Kharmor. Country. Parpatha. N.-Jany. with darker spots. Sd. pains. M. Khatselio . COM. pale brown. NS. acute . hiccup. oblong lanceolate. LOC. lower shortly 3-lobed. often rooting near the base. Africa. Satapa . :—Common throughout the State. The seeds have the same properties . asthma. vomiting. NS. M. . bracts elliptic. Pismarum Sadab. Vishapaha. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. K. Fl.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. Gudatrina. abortifacient. thirst. etc. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. emmenagogue. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. diuretic. in pots. Fr. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. particularly Deccan. M. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Gudakastha. Ukh . cultivated throughout India. Tanigarbu . oblong-obovate. Asia is very likely the original home of the species.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. There are three varieties . cooling. Naisakar. G. epilepsy. amenorrhœa. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. Satara. Sugarcane. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). S. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). yellowish. aphrodisiac. anti-aphrodisiac . Sk. obtuse .MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. flatulence. Ikshu. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. NS :—E. Rikhu. colic. and externally used as a rubefacient. :—Egypt and Algeria.—angled. diuretic..—petals 4. Sd.—capsule. flawed. HABIT :—Cultivated. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). H. digestive. K. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. Rasala. spathulate or linear-oblong . LOC. oleaginous. Madhuyashti. leprosy. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. petioled. decompound. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . it may be given internally in hysteria. Powdered and combined with aromatics. forest and mountain. DISTR. DISTR. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. LOC. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. LOC. L.-alternate. grown in gardens. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. heats body. The plant contains glucoside glutin. all over the State. :—Grown everywhere in India. M. Sherdi. Poona. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). laxative. See—Ornamental Plants. C. Ingotu. COM. heating to body . Kumad. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. Fl. FAM. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. S. Ganna. glandulose punctate. Us . increases mental activity. useful in fatigue. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. segments cuneate. tonic. garden.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. The oil is the best form for administration. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. . The plant is tonic. Kabbu. indigestible. :—A strong smelling herb .
leaves. ulcers. alexiteric. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Pilu. NS. Fr. improves appetite. good for lungs . corrective.—Salvadoraceæ. Sk. Fruits are deobstruent. dry regions of W. the Konkan and N. In the Punjab. bad for liver (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Bark. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. anæmia. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. COM. FAM. carminative and diuretic. often mucronate at the apex. diam. Khakan Mirjoli.. anthelmintic. Cane—sweet. Pilu. improve diuresis (Yunani). 3 mm. The juice contains vitamins A and B. branches numerous. Jal. tonic and aperient. Abyssinia. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). fruits seeds and oil. G. shining. Fl.-Feb. useful in nosetroubles. Pilu. LOC. analgesic. sometimes it raises blisters. pectoral and aphrodisiac. Tooth-brush tree. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. Pilu. purifies blood . numerous. piles. Ceylon. carminative. tonic to liver. Seeds—purgative. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. :—Drier parts of India. Kanara in littoral forests. scabies. opposite. See—Food Plants. :—Dry districts of the State. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. deeply cleft. Leaves—bitter. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. inflammations. Brihat madhu pilu. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. greenish-yellow. causes " Kapha. Sugar causes " Kapha". Fl. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. Kharijal. disorders and wind. useful in biliousness. lessen inflammation . Egypt. astringent to bowels. Fruit—aphrodisiac. fleshy.—very thin. LOC. C. Asia. L. useful in heat. diuretic. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . white. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. DISTR. M. LOC. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. Piludi. drooping. oil is digestible. Goni.". often planted near Muslim tombs.—Nov. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. smooth. Mahaphala. K. laxative. deobstruent. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Sind. :—E. stomachic . . sugar is considered heavy. bile. H. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). fattening. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. lobes much reflexed. red when ripe. finely striate. aphrodisiac . t. In cases of poisoning by copper. erysipelas. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. leucoderma. strengthen teeth.—drupe. It is good in calculous complaints. near the coasts of Gujarat . useful in biliousness. delirium.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. globose.
" Kapha ". DISTR. laxative. H. cures "Tridosha". alexipharmic. Chandal. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. LOC. Kugale. Kumblabijaka. useful in inflammations. See—Timbers. K. gleet. :—Western Peninsula. H. Ritha . Fruit—bitter. NS. Ringni. M. G. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Soap-Nut tree. aphrodisiac. cold in head. thirst. alexiteric. M. cholera. bronchitis. emetic. aphrodisiac. is applied to local inflammations. head-ache (Yunani). NS. Oils. gonorrhœa. Sandal. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. alexiteric. strangury. ground. allays uterine pains. Phenila. to temples in fever. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. tonic. Aritha. Ritha. FAM. biliousness. exhilarating. up with water into a paste. vaginal discharges. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. useful in chronic dysentery. in skin-diseases. useful in diseases of heart. Arishtaka. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. Burugukayi. Suket. Chandan. Sandal-wood Tree. . Root—expectorant. Mysore and parts of Madras State. burning sensation. Rishta. abortifacient. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . lumbago. LOC. USES :—Wood. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. fruit and seed. DISTR. Bhadrasara. epileptic fits of children. :—E. FAM. COM. Country and N. Mangalya. Oil. Cultivated elsewhere. Shrigandhalmara. G. LOC. COM.. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. often planted. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. :—E. Kanara. PARTS USED:—Wood. acts as diaphoretic. S. to allay heat and pruritus. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Sk.—Sapindaceæ. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Sk. Anthuvala. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Agarugandha. India. chiefly in S.—Santalaceæ. astringent to bowels . Sukhad . Phenilu. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. stomachic. small-pox (Ayurveda). Bhogivallabha. Arithan . tubercular glands. Bhadrasri. Chandan. Malayaja. :—Indian Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Root. paralysis. Chandan. antipyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Antharalo. hemicrania. K. much cultivated. M.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
and as an oildressing for ulcers. of eye and ear. etc. NS.—standard as broad as long. into claw. inflammations. long. cure menorrhagia. scabies. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. L.—pod. LOC. an emollient poultice is also made from them. cures . applied to gouty joints. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. diuretic. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. Sk. Jaya. leaflets 914 pairs. C. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. burning sensation. useful in diarrhœa. long. such as dysentery etc. They have been used to procure abortion.. strengthening. 4-5 m.—in lax. Baluchistan. few flowered axillary racemes. linear-oblong. H. oleaginous. probably a native of tropical Africa. useful in dry cough. lung diseases. useful in sorethroat. Janjhan. There are three varieties of seeds : black. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. septate between the seeds. Jayanti. indigestible . mottled with purple on the outside. in height. LOC. Fl. DISTR. gouty joints. :—Cultivated all over India. inflammations. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. tonic. Shewari. They are also emmenagogue.—20-30. suppurating wounds. Jinangi. strangury. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. Raysingani. FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 7. They are nourishing. :—A soft-wooded shrub. Waziristan. diuretic and lactagogue. oil.— abruptly pinnate. galactagogue. cooling. Rasin. diseases. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. branches striate. Sd. bark. enrich blood. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. opposite. Seed-oil—fattening. promote hair growth. Nadeyi. aphrodisiac. Jayanti. pendulous. Seeds contain vitamin A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. leaves. syphilitic ulcers. inflammations (Yunani). Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . Jayantika. small-pox.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. biliousness. applied to ulcers and piles. beaked. obscurely angled . M. seeds. seeds. urinary concretions. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. yellow. Fr. removes "Kapha". compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. alterative. 15-23 cm. white and red.5-15 cm. hair-tonic. anthelmintic. See—Oils. Jayat. COM. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. asthma. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). K. CHAR. Jayanti. eye diseases . :—G. Black variety is common. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. astringent to bowels. spleen troubles. slightly torulose. HABITAT :—Cultivated. carminative.
gout . Hatiya . In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. . LOC.—7. diabetes. Leaves—indigestible. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. Agathio. tumours . An infusion is given in small-pox. very showy. anthelmintic. Flowers—cooling. fruits. high. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. alexiteric. allays thirst. Vranari. improves taste.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. H.—in racemes . CHAR. Sk. biliousness. useful in ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. diarrhœa. long. gout. Australia. See—Vegetables. anthelmintic. maturant. linear oblong. 6-9 m. Munidruma. night-blindness. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). epilepsy. is applied in painful swellings. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Indigenous from Malaya to N.— pinnate. Dirghashimbi. DISTR.— flowers at various times. Kempagase. 50 cm. NS. "Kapha" and inflammation. bronchitis. dysentery and paludism. L. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. t. Bark—astringent. Fl. ulcers. M. cure itching. :—A soft wooded tree . astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. Basna. leucoderma. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. long. Agase. Agasta. 15-30-cm. COM.8 cm. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. Kanali. leprosy. Fr. improve appetite . useful In diseases of spleen. Fl. The plant contains vitamin A. FAM. Seeds—emmenagogue. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda).5-8. Leaves—purgative.— pod. Agasti. relieves throat-troubles. cure quartan fever. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). stimulant. 2-4 white or red. leaflets 16-30 pairs. :—G. long. Bark— astringent. rubbed into a paste with water. See—Fodder Plants. Ornamental Plants. useful in ozœna. Bak. leaves. Fruit—laxative . juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. cures " Tridosh " pains. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . fevers. is applied in rheumatism. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. anaemia. flowers. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. demulcent. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. LOC. K. Agati. Agusta. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). C.
LOC.—6-8 mm. Kherati. Fr. dorsal margins toothed. pedicel jointed about the middle. M. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Fl. Kumghi. Deccan and S. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. FAM. Baladana. black. t.-Oct. cooling.Dec. Khareti. awns 2.—2. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. PARTS USED :—Root.—Malvaceæ. " Kapha " .—smooth. linear . SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. COM. :—Hotter parts of India. Chikna. Bariara. upper margins ciliate. Kareta. HABITAT :—Moist places . Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Hettutti-gida. Batyalaka.5-6. with ginger. scabrid-hairy. DISTR. strongly reticulated . LOC. M. puberulous. useful in fever. Tukti. LOC. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine.. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. :—E. Prahasa. removes " Vata ". Sk.—solitary or few together.— yellow. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. a weed. ovate-oblong. Gujarat and S. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). carpels 7-10. obtuse. crenate. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. CHAR. Fl. carpels 5-9. L. astringent. Fl. minutely hairy. astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. Vatyapushpi. C. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. emollient. diuretic. Pata. stomachic and tonic. aphrodisiac . Country Mallow. dorsal scabrid. Chittuharatu. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fl. Samanga. cordate.—1-2 in each axil. :—Konkan. Sd. base rounded. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Barial.. M. yellow. Kisangi. strongly reticulated. NS.—5-6 mm. is given .3 cm. branches slender. softly hairy all over. leaves and seeds. long. DISTR. NS. decoction.. Bala.—2. Country. :—Konkan (common). L. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres.5-5 cm. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.-Nov. :—A shrub. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Chikna. bark. COM. LOC. diam. sharply serrate. K. Kharanti.—Malvaceæ. glabrous.—Nov. Country. Rajbala. bleeding piles. H. long. Bala. Fr. Root—cooling. useful in blood and throat diseases. H. G. CHAR. Bala. M. awns 2. lanceolate. pedicel jointed much above the middle. digestive. Jayanti. linear. Sk.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. diam. " Pitta ". FAM. t. Pata.
t. tinged with purple. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. 0. pappus 0. :—Deccan. Linn. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. cystitis.—achene. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux.2 m. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. slightly rough. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. antiscorbutic and sialogogue.-Dec. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn.—Nov. rhomboides Roxb. S. Katampu. black. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Ceylon. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. administered in hemiplegia. PROPERTIES AND LOC. triangular-ovate. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. M. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. :—A large annual herb. Fl. common. deeply and irregularly toothed. 5 inner boat-shaped. also in colic and tenesmus. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. . It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. LOC. all running down wing-like into petiole. diaphoretic.—heads small in leafy panicles . those of the ray red beneath. CHAR. noise in ears.—yellow. Country. stiff-neck. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. erect. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. and head-ache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Externally. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. facial paralysis. NS. stem stiff.6—1. M. FAM. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". high. Fl. juice is used for healing wounds. Fr. L. It is also used to favour menstruation. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. Pilibadkadi. COM. :—Throughout India. 5 outer clavate.—opposite. involucral bracts 2 rows. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. :—G. Fl. DISTR.—Compositæ.
The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. Sk. " Vata". beneficial in cardiac troubles . covered with stellate hairs. globose. Vengni.. prickly. stem stout.—5—15 X 2. Habba-Kirigulla.. COM. diam. Vrittaphala. eye diseases (Ayurveda). SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Nilaphala. ovate. Sd. bronchitis. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". improves appetite.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. :—E. China. subentire. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. Badanikai. It is seldom used alone. M. H. bad for piles if taken internally. Ranringni. " Kapha". LOC. astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. Ubhi-bhuringni. Vange. or triangular-ovate. base unequal-sided.—minutely pitted: Fl. Vartaki. recurved. :—E. Indian Nightshade. Hinguli. FAM. :—Widely cultivated in India. Bhanta. Fl.— berry. aphrodisiac. K. FAM. Philippines. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. maturant. K. petiole prickly. C.5 cm. very. Bhantaki. Brihati. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. anthelmintic. Hinguli. Vantak. DISTR. G. PARTS USED :—Root. Vayase.—Solanaceæ. Egg Plant. sharp. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. Rigana. M. prickles large. lobed. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. vomiting. laxative. Ceylon. 0. pain. high.5 m. t. leaves. Kattarta. Vadikadheri. Brinjal. fruit and seeds. Barhanta. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. L.-Oct. COM. clothed outside with purple hairs . Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. removes foulness of the mouth. pruritus ani. loss of appetite. LOC. Malpya. enriches blood. rarely wild. lessens inflammations.. Bhantaki.—Solanaceæ. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). 8 mm. G.5—7.—pale-purple. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. analgesic. DISTR. LOC. Kadusonde. fever. asthma. Dorli. cardiotonic. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. Baingan. Fruit—cardiotonic. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Mahotika. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). .-Aug. causes biliousness. useful in leucoderma. NS.3—1. Fr. Mhotiringni. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sk. dark-yellow when ripe. leaves (rarely) and fruits. Root is applied to lessen pain. :—Throughout tropical India. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. digestive. H.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn.
yellow. Kabaiya. useful in giddiness. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. Kakamunchi. minutely pitted . In S. taste. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). useful in diseases of eye. B and C. useful in heart and eye-diseases. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. good for neck ulcers. eye-diseases hydrophobia. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine.-Jany. dysentery. stem erect. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. tapering into petioles. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. bronchitis. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever.—discoid. fever. asthma. CHAR. alterative. M. Kamoni. itch. liver inflammation. tonic. Kakamachi. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. heating.. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache.—many. improves voice . In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. diarrhœa. COM. smooth. Kakamachi. shining. favours conception and facilitates delivery . all temperate and tropical regions of the world. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. The seeds are used as a stimulant. piles. 6 mm. 3-8 flowered cymes . FAM.— berry. subumbellate. Fl. :—Throughout India. leucoderma. in extra-axillary. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. LOC. Black Night-shade. entire or sinuate toothed. diam. C. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. improves appetite. Piludi. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. K.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . t. NS. cathartic and diuretic. bark. Morellel. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. etc. griping. H. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. " Tridosha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. Makoi.—Sept. LOC. worms in ear. Fr. chronic fever. Fl. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). gonorrhœa (Yunani). and used with success in psoriasis. Fruit contains vitamins A. in pains. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. much divaricately-branched . ovatelanceolate. It acts as a hydrogogue. bitter. bronchitis. G. inflammation. Sd. Sk. :—E. not to be given to pregnant women. fever. Root-bark—laxative . Tiktika. leaves and fruit. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. . Katuphala. Seeds—laxative. Vayasi. throat burning. vomiting. :—A variable annual herb .—Solanaceæ. DISTR. laxative. ear and nose . See—Vegetables. hiccup. dysuria and asthma. urinary discharges. Hound's Berry. Ceylon. inflammation. Gurkamai.—small. diuretic.
Nirgol. Fl. thirst. petiole prickly. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. pruritus . biliousness. :—G. fruits and seeds. fever. Sholapur.—berry.— June. Seeds—anthelmintic. base unequal-sided. dysuria. Sk. Yengara .—Gramineæ. hairy outside. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. :—Throughout India. Sundia . heart disease. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. CHAR. Jowar. Jolah. sterility in women. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Dhavani. LOC. H. Fruit—laxative. Durrah. urinary concretions. K. COM. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. K. DISTR. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. useful in bronchitis. straight. Vrittatandula. surrounded by enlarged calyx . diam. stone in bladder. sinuate or subpinnatifid. Sk. :—Common in the Deccan . Fl. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Chikka-sonde. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Africa. COM. M. Kenjal. Brihati. lobes deltoid.—Solanaceæ. Nidigdhika. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . muscular pains. catarrhal fever and chest pain. pains. Dirghashara. LOC. piles. :—E. heating. Konkan. NS. Sorgho. Yuvanala. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. stomachic.7 cm. Ceylon. stem zig-zag. Kateli.3 cm. laxative. long. Katai. bright green perennial herb . Ikshupatraka. Kantakini. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Jonera. It is used in asthma. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Fr. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Root—aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. Kantakari. lumbago.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr.. Jondhala.. M. C. Bhoyaringni. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . asthma. Jowari. "Vata" and " Kapha". fevers.5-5. Shalu. H. Jundri. Leaves—good application for piles. often exceeding 1. 3-2 cm. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). strangury. E. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). yellow or white with green veins. & Wendl. good in inflammation. FAM. :—A very prickly diffuse. anthelmintic . FAM. Great Indian millet. leaves. Bhui-Kate-ringni. hairy on both sides. they are used in the burning of feet.—purple. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers. Basu). t. D.-5-10 X 2. Sind. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. ovate or elliptic. Malaya. ozoena. tropical Australia. chronic bronchitis. Ringni. Nele-Rama-gulla . stems. yellow and shining. prickles compressed. NS. expectorant and febrifuge. asthma. S. Bijapur and E. appetiser. G.
SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Grains contain vitamin B. COM. :— E. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Rohani. on dry stony hills. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . indigestible. stem and branches cylindric. CHAR. leprosy and dysentery . ulcers. M. tonic and antiperiodic . Munditika. tumours (Ayurveda). diseases of blood. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. aphrodisiac. while Belgaum. Pravrajita. Rohina. biliousness. DISTR.—sessile. piles. :—Bark-acrid. LOC. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. good for sore-throat. useful in " Kapha". Mahamundi. L. :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. bladder and kidney complaints. aphrodisiac. K. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. M. Fibres. G. Sumbi. Poona.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Sk. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Sk. Aruna. Rawtarohan. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Rohini. hence used in intermittent fevers. Bodiakalara. :—G. ulcers. :—Dry forests of W. H. anthelmintic. Swami-mara. COM. DISTR. Karanda-gida. NS. FAM: —Compositæ. common in Gujarat. Vritta. Ruhin. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. :—Widely cultivated in India. glandular. :—Seeds. Juss. Some. See—Timbers. M. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area.—Meliaceæ. with toothed wings. PARTS USED. Agniruha. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. vaginal injections and enemas. Asia and Africa. improves appetite and taste. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. constipating. Bastard Cedar. hairy. PARTS USED. Khandesh and S. Ahmedabad. Dharwar. . Gums and Resins. See—Food Plants. general debility. H. Gorakmundi. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. NS. high. Rohun. Indian Red-Wood. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gorakhmundi. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Ceylon. Kumbhala. fevers. Gorakhamundi. introduced into America and Australia. FAM. refrigerant. :—The grain is cooling. K. laxative. Tans. HABITAT :—Open situations. Bijapur and E. cures " Tridosha ". Country.
They are given in powder form. cooling. anthelmintic. stalked.—Nov. Pappuso. sometimes grown in gardens. Fl. hemicrania (Ayurveda). Dharwar and Belgaum districts. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. glaborous. lessens inflammations . glandular hairy. ciliate near the ends . piles. :—Hot. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid.—in heads ovoid. leaves. with honey they are given in cough. C.. tuberculous glands. flowers and seeds. base usually acute. irregularly crenateserrate. enriches blood . cools brain. Akkalkara . Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. FAM. Fl. and tonic (Stewart) . vomiting. pain in uterus and vagina. dysentery. globose ovoid. digestible. :—Annual herb. boils. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic.—Compositæ. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. the latter when present minute. :—Root. epileptic convulsions. Tonic. CHAR. Fl.—opposite. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.. peduncles with toothed wings. . long. Fr. LOC. gleet. L. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. alterative. LOC. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. alexipharmic. asthma. solitary or subpanicled. :—Common in rice-fields. increases appetite. tonic.— achene. scalding of urine. :—Deccan. Akara-karava. Fr. HABITAT. H. M. M. compressed . bark. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic.—compound heads. truncate. :—Wild and cultivated. USES. Powdered root is given as tonic. ring-worm of waist. anæmia. Akarakara . good for eyesore. strangury. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. leucoderma. jaundice. :—Root. oblong. urethral discharges and jaundice. indigestion. NS. urinary discharges. DISTR. PARTS USED. laxative. peduncles reaching 10 cm. depurative. ovate. :—Throughout India. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. leaves and flower-heads. Australia. It is also used as fish and crab poison. biliousness. :—E. gives lustre to eyes . Malay Islands. chest diseases. DISTR. involucre bracts linear. t.—Achene. laxative. COM. stem and branches hairy. Celyon. all warm countries.—purple. Country and Kanara. scabies. t. They are chewed to relieve toothache. :—Common in the Konkan.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent.—Nov-Jany. serrate or dentate. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. bronchitis. elephantiasis. fattening. HABITAT. Africa. used also for local application. spleen diseases. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . used in insanity. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). in cases of worms and indigestion. S. useful in skin diseases. emmenagogue. :—Throughout India. Pellitary . Ceylon. rectal pain. looseness of breasts. ovate-oblong. Sk. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate.
Burma. Kapichuta. biliousness. astringent.8 cm. oblique. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Ceylon. long.. Kumbhi.8-7. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Anacardiaceæ. Fruit—indigestible. :—E. K. oblong. Pahad. :—Leaves-tasty. ulcers. leaves and fruit. Amrataka.— petals 4-5. entire. Country.. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Wild Mango. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Fl. Western Peninsula. widely planted. cures rheumatism. phthisis. Konkan. Amra.-Apl. Toyadhivasini. Dr. COM. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. L. high. 3. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. ash-coloured . The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. enriches blood . Tungi. :—Often planted throughout the State. :—H.. :—A tree 9-10. Kariguddada. S. Hude. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Padal. NS. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Amate. Indian Archipelago. Kanara. Gum is demulcent.-usually 1. Gujarat. good for sore-throat. pinkish green. :—Cultivated. Ran-amba . Ambada. DISTR. USES :—Bark is refrigerant.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. . H. C. PARTS USED.—Bignoniaceæ. Hulave. Kamduti. CHAR. M. Fr. K. Parur. Patala. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative.5 m. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. Fl. Sk. ovoid.—drupe. branches nearly horizontal. It has been found useful in dysentery. W. appetising. tonic. Pitana. Hongkong. Patala. Salt Range. Sk. hard. LOC. Ali-vallabha. Indian Hog-Plum. M. M. aphrodisiac. destroys " Vata ". Padal. Kalavrinta. Pandri. HABITAT. blood complaints . burning sensation. NS. :—Bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Andamans.Feb. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Giri Hadari. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Sd. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. bark smooth. round with furrows and cavities. trunk straight. Marahunise. Ambodha. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. FAM. yellow. ovate oblong. t. long.5-18 x 3. COM. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. stone woody. Padiala. Bile Tree. LOC.5 cm. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. refrigerant. Avatekayi. See—Gums and Resins. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis.
Ittangi. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. heating. See—Timbers. LOC. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). NS. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. fevers. eructations. :—Fruit-acrid. :—E. vomiting. LOC. Circars. tonic. bitter. Karaskara. It is regarded as cooling. Kanara. Kanara. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Travancore . asthma. useful in bilious diarrhœa. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). FAM. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. N. Kajavara. from Kashmir to Sikkim . leaves. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. tonic. Burma. LOC. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Kakatinduka. Planted in Ceylon. Kuchla. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. :—Root. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. Kupaka. DISTR. Kangira. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. :—In forests south of Bombay. anæmia. ulcers. K. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. Flowers— acrid . Karnatak. Poison Nut. H. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. ring-worm. Kelakutaka. fruit. "Vata". thirst. G. diuretic. Vishamushti. antipyretic. aphrodisiac. Hemushti. inflammation. Travancore. Sk. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Fruit—bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Nirmal. M. emmenagogue . Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. :—Root-bitter. loss of taste. heating. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Crow Fig. piles. jaundice. pungent. diuretic. west coast of Madras State. appetiser. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. PARTS USED. blood diseases. astringent to bowels. piles . Laos. itching. Kuchla. burning sensation. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . cures leucoderma. Ceylon. DISTR. flowers. "Kapha". :—More or less throughout tropical India. LOC. Indo-China. Kachita.—Loganiaceæ. tonic. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Visha-druma. cures pains in joints. heating. lumbago. Kajra. poisonous. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. PARTS USED. fruit. Kajra. Kuchala. blood diseases. :—Monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . :—Wood (rarely). seeds. sub-Himalaya. COM. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities ..
:—Root (rarely). jaundice. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. thirst. Ceylon. :—E. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. DISTR. astringent to bowels. gonorrhœa. Country. cures inflammations. alexiteric. improve eye-sight. Aduguchali-bija. anæmia. Kanara and Khandesh. Burma. :—Western Peninsula. lithotriptic. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Seeds—bitter. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. M. Clearing Nut Tree. See—Timbers. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Seeds—acrid. Ambuprasadini. urinary discharges. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. causes biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES. Madhya Bharat. (Rasendrasarasangraha). :—Root cures leucoderma. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. aphrodisiac. The demand for strychnine is increasing. fruit and seeds. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. emetic. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. HABITAT. LOC. Nivali. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. tonic. also in Konkan. diaphoretic. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. increases "Vata". COM. PARTS USED. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. poisoning. NS. M. relieve colic (Yunani). INDIAN PREPARATIONS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. :—Sand-stone hills of S. head-diseases (Ayurveda).—Loganiaceæ. diuretic. Kataka. Sk.. See—Timbers. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. Nelmal. Chittu bija. FAM. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. Nirmali. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Fruit useful in eye diseases. K. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. . LOC. Shodhanatmaka. :—Deciduous dry forests. H. alexipharmic. kidney complaints. hallucinations. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. good for liver. cure strangury.
Country. white with blue veins. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Deccan . 5-nerved . :—Konkan and N. M. diseases of blood. Shavaraka. Mahabaleshwar. cures cough. CHAR. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. E. C. PARTS USED. emmenagogue. etc. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda).—Symplocaceæ. C. Lodh Tree. Broughton). The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. :—M. decussate. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. Sk. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Balaloddujinamara. NS. Peninsula. dysentery. Lodhra . Lodh . Loder.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo.—very many in dense corymbose cymes .— lobes 4-5. high. LOC. China Nora. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe .. PROPERTIES AND USES. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Bhilli. useful in eye-diseases. :—India (W. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. alexiteric. K. :—The whole plant is bitter. 0. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr.—many.— sessile. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. NS.. H. Lodhraka. t. 2-valved. :—Bark. 4-winged. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. FAM. cooling. throughout N.— Oct. acrid. :—Hilly parts. Deccan. flowers (rarely). SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Tillaka. Burma. Dyes. M. Lodh. inflammations.—capsule. Kadu. Tiritaka. Chota Nagpur. Californian Cinchona. LOC. S. Fr. . biliousness. winged . Bark—bitter. useful in abortions . Sd. astringent to bowels. L. LOC. Lodhra.—Gentianaceæ. leprosy. COM. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Fl. Bose). Lodh is used in raw condition. colloturine and loturiaine. C. DISTR. Fl. HABITAT. eye-diseases and ulcers . quadrangular. Torna fort. vaginal discharges. PARTS USED. digestible. ovoid or oblong. COM. :—Western Ghats . :—W. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES.3-0. :—Root.9 m. :—Bark-acrid. in powder or in fresh decoction. :— E. FAM. Peninsula). stem densely leafy. :—An erect herb. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani).-Jany. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. See—Timbers. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. DISTR. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. broadly ovate. bleeding gums .
Pannerali. enriches blood. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. common along river banks. See—Timbers. sprouts. Jambul. Jambula. biliousness. fruits and seeds. also wild. increases "Vata". Australia. Jam. NS. Ceylon. :—Bark-acrid. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Pharenda. blood impurities. K. K. Jambura. :—Throughout the State. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Seeds—diuretic. carminative and diuretic. gargles and washes . bronchitis. Jambu-Nayinerale. Gulabjaman. Nenda. common at Mahabaleshwar. COM. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. Jambu. :—Bark. :—Throughout India. :—E. removes bad smell from mouth. Sk. DISTR. digestive. etc. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. astringent to bowels. M.) FAM. Shukapriya. good gargle for sore-throat. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in spleen diseases.—Myrtaceæ. Jambu. H. LOC.) FAM. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. Malaya. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. sweet. Jamen. dysentery. Surabhipriya. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. H. Fruit—acrid. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. . carminative . ulcers. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Jambul. Nilphala. M. both wild and cultivated. good for sore-throat. thirst. COM. Jambu.—Myrtaceæ. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. very often planted. Gulab-Jamb. G. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. dry. cooling. Kokileshta. Jambu. Malay—Rose apple. Fruit Trees. anthelmintic. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Sk. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Neralu. PARTS USED. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. :-Black-Java Plum. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. good lotion for ring-worm in head. LOC. Jamburaj. Nerate. asthma. Shukapriya. strengthens gums and teeth. fruit vinegar is tonic. Jambudi. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. also used in spongy and painful gums. astringent. NS. LOC. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel.
:—Bark is sweet." biliousness. and an essential oil.) FAM. DISTR. :—Bark. margins wavy. indigestible.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Cultivated in gardens. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. improves voice. :—E. CHAR. glossy green above. Seeds are astringent to bowels. Root chewed relieves toothache . Kottuhale. :—Sikkim Terai. H. Assam. Khasia Hills. Taggar. purgative. Root—bitter . acrid. Hills of Visakhapatanam. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES. bronchitis. Fr. heavy speech. Fl. tonic to brain.—snow-white. C—lobes overlapping to the left. pale beneath. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). . TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. M. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms.. salver-shaped. used in syphilis (Yunani). E. t. alexipharmic. Fruit—sweet and tasty. wood and oil. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. Tagar . emmenagogue.—Apocynaceæ. Burma. tonic to brain. PARTS USED. inodorous during the day. with milky juice . used in liver complaints. Yunnan to Australia. Br. Sk. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. See—Ornamental Plants. indigestible. L. thirst. hot. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. fruit and seeds. Chandani. across. Cultivated in many places. Maddarasa gida . The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. NS. 7. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. PARTS USED. lobes 5 in single. fatigue. useful in paralysis. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. cultivated in many parts. Nandi. :—Root is acrid. orange within. removes bad humours. Trinidad . dysentery. LOC. Ananta. divaricate. Fl. Bengal.5-5 cm. astringent to bowels. tonic. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. fragrant at night. Tagar. heating. used in asthma. Garhwal. G. :—Root. liver and spleen . bitter. HABITAT.— opposite. digestible. Wax flower.—follicles. LOC. Ashvathabheda. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. lessens pains in limbs and joints . The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. COM.5-5 cm. useful in "Kapha. Tagara.5-15 X 2. weakness of limbs. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. double. K. See—Timbers. 1-3 ribbed. strangury. . LOC. cures epilepsy. astringent to bowels.—rainy season.
Amala. Amli. Kalaga. oblong lanceolate . muscular pains. M.. H. DISTR. M. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Nagaskuda. COM. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. bitter. useful in scabies. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. t.. LOC. Kanara. COM. FAM. Teter. NS. Zanduga. FAM. French Marigold. Tintidika. Nuli. across in pedunculate cymes . Amlika. CHAR. Halmeti. kidney troubles. PARTS USED. divaricata.—opposite. astringent. L. Chinch. Nagakuda. HABITAT. Makhamali. Amli.—follicle. Sk. belching.2-7. Chinchika. :—Root.— tube inflated near the top.. Fr. Maddarssa. stomachic. good for teeth . their juice is given in ear-ache. :—Rain-forests. LOC. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Pandarakuda.4-4. :—Same as T. Sk. :—Leaves and flowers. bark grey. :—Native of Mexico. Guljharo. G. Amla. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Makhamal. Fl. common in rain-forests. yellow when ripe. Gultora. COM. Tamarind. internally they are said to purify blood. HABITAT. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. lessens inflammation . coriaceous. : K. LOC. grown in gardens all over India. Imli. Sandu. wood.5 m. Leaves—good for piles. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. NS. Chinch. NS. :—E. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. throughout the Konkan and N.. G. PARTS USED. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.5 cm. Sd. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Flower-pungent.—Apocynaceæ. :—Cultivated. Tintrani. Makhamala. K.— Mar-Apl. 7.5-20 X 3. Zendu. FAM. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . DISTR. C. oil.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . M. rough. :—Malabar. Genda. Flower—bitter. :—E.—Compositæ. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. . Sthulapushpa. H. carminative. :—A shrub or a small tree 2.000 m. Amlike. acrid. Travancore up to 7. HABITAT. 2. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES.—white. high. PROPERTIES AND USES.5 cm.—surrounded by red pulp. somewhat boat-shaped.
DISTR.—Verbenaceæ. Cultivated also. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Arna. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". DISTR. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Seeds are good astringent. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Seeds astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES. heals ulcers. Madhya Bharat. tumours. H. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Tegu. Sag. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. FAM. urinary discharges. Mahapatra. useful in liver-complaints. Circars. Condiments and Spices. Sagwan. such as body-burning. . flowers and seeds. thirst. Sagun. sore-throat. Tropics generally. Sag. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. carminative. G. heals wounds and fractures. Sagach. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. aphrodisiac. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Kanara. Flowers— appetising . Sagwan. laxative. wood. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Malay Peninsula. eye-diseases. Tega. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. K. flowers. boiled they are used as a poultice. Teka. Kanara. causes cough. indigestible. bark. anthelmintic.. Anil. COM. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. fruit and seeds. astringent to bowels. and for sizing materials. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. tonic to heart. Sk. laxative. See—Timbers. earache. Bark—astringent. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. digestive. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. heating. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. PARTS USED. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. stomatitis. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. :—Bark. abundant all along the slopes of W. costiveness. sweetish. :—Throughout India. vomiting. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. :—E. NS. scabies. leaves. and laxative. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. M. Sumatra and Java. LOC. Fruit-sour. intoxication &c. Teak. small-pox. tasty. Fruit—sour. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). biliousness. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood.. tonic. Burma. LOC. useful in giddiness and vertigo.
:—The whole plant. Sarphoka. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. spleen diseases.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes.-June. . cures diarrhœa . Deccan. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. M. bitter. linear. dry. alexiteric. leaflets 11—21. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. Wood good for head ache. glabrous above. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Empali. poisoning. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. Phanike. K.—5-6 . boils and pimples.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. spleen. :—Plant-digestible. oblanceolate. anthelmintic. FAM. Sk. Kogge. LOC. Plihari. fresh root-bark. Sarpankho. red. liver. L. Malay Peninsula. standard. allays thirst. expectorant. allays thirst. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. M. Kalika. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. NS. Konkan. blood. :—A perennial herb. Jhila. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. Fl. CHAR. pubescent on the back. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. syphilis. high. root. Bark is an astringent. Leaves—tonic to intestines . antipyretic. COM. Wood—acrid.—pod 3—4. S. long. along forest borders. Country. silkyhairy beneath. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). Fl. branches spreading. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . sedative to gravid uterus. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. enriches Blood . LOC. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . leprosy. tumours. See—Timbers. mucronate.8 X 0. it acts also as a vermifuge. Udhadi. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. Ghodakan. Gujarat. alterative. biliousness. :-G. burning pain over the region of liver. Sd. long. asthma. good in piles. ground and made into a pill.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. cooling. suborbicular. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in lung and chest diseases.. mucronate. leaves and seeds.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).5 cm. useful in bronchitis. "Root—diuretic. H. cures diseases of liver. biliousness. urinary discharges.—petals clawed. Sharapunkha. increase "Vata". Sarphonka.8—1. gonorrhœa (Yunani). It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. t. heart. cultivated lands and roadsides. ulcers. laxative. Unhali. DISTR. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. 2—2. C. HABITAT:—Open situations. inflammations. useful in bronchitis. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. LOC. Flowers—acrid. useful in piles. :—All over India. improve appetite. Fr.2 cm..—Oct. 30—60 cm. slightly curved. PARTS USED. Sharapunkha. asthma. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. useful in scabies.
Arjun Sadada. Koha. digestible.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Arjuna. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES. diuretic. Kakubha. :—E. Sk. Arjun-Sadada. blood-diseases. inflammation. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. urinary discharges. Madhya-Pradesh. heart disease. Hela. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. sore-throat. excessive perspiration. leaves. COM. styptic. Behada. M. leucoderma. Arjuna. Karshaphala. Madhya-Bharat. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). ulcers. tonic. Voting. strangury. intoxication. DISTR. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres.—Combretaceæ. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Madras State. useful in fractures. Ceylon. Burma. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Karvirak. LOC. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Baire. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. :—Bark.—Combretaceæ. very common in South Konkan. except in dry arid regions. anthelmintic . Shantimara. PARTS USED. Aksha. useful in bronchitis. Rajastan and Sind. Kushika. Tara. externally in wounds and fractures. in Khandesh Akrani. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. PARTS USED. in the sub-Himalayan tract. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). " Kapha". Bahaza. anæmia. :—Bark. G. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Sadura. :—Throughout the forests of India. Chota-Nagpur. :—Konkan and Deccan. LOC. M. biliousness. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. H. Sadado. Bastard Myrobalan. Kalidrum. Expectorant. G. with milk. COM. Kahu. Arjuna. Buhura.. useful in biliousness. Belleric Myrobalan. :—Alexiteric. NS. & A. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. . TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. aphrodisiac.. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tari. :—E. DISTR.. acrid. biliousness. Beheduk. fruit (rarely). tonic. NS. Indradruma. anthelmintic. H. Vibhata. Arjan. White Marudah. Bibhitiki. FAM. Bera. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Fruit-pungent. false presentation of fœtus. Bedda Nut. See—Timbers. FAM. Bahara. Dhanvi. Sk. K. strangury. fruit and seed. laxative. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Behedo. Vibhitika. LOC. Sagona. K.
tumours. urinary discharges. H. anthelmintic. :—Bark and fruit. useful in caries of teeth. Dyes. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. useful in asthma. is used as an application in ophthalmia. :—Fruit-dry. Burma.—Combretaceæ. —E. eyes. stomachic. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. Haritaki. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. Kernel has narcotic properties. bleeding and ulceration of gums. cold in head. sore-throat. Hirda. inflammations. Haria. PROPERTIES AND USES. expectorant. heating. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. Har. delirium (Ayurveda). Alate. piles. leucoderma. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. Black myrobalan. See—Timbers. piles. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. a valuable preparation used in many diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. useful in dyspepsia. hoarseness. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). Fruit-astringent. gout. diseases of eye. G. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. eye diseases etc. carminative. USES. anaemia. carminative. applied to eyes. tonic. enriches blood. PARTS USED. Jivanti. useful in thirst. biliousness. K. FAM. Ceylon. nose. tonic. Abhaya. piles and diarrhœa. heart and bladder. Jivantika. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. brain tonic (Yunani). Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. heart and bladder. strengthens brain. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". gums. constipation. vomiting. antidysenteric. LOC. itching pain. strangury. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. elephantiasis. vomiting. alterative . a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. dyspepsia. bleeding piles. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. Sk. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. which is considered a good digestive. Kanara. LOC. mixed with honey. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. Hirdo . used in paralysis (Yunani). Seed—acrid. tonic. typhoid fever. Ripe fruit—purgative. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. in Travancore. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. diseases of eye. Gums and Resins. Harade. diarrhœa. M. good in ophthalmia. Chebulic myrobalan. common in Khandesh Akrani. aperient. diseases of spleen. Haritaki. the fully ripe or dried fruit. Harara. hiccup. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. ascites. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. LOC. corneal ulcers. COM. bilious headache. vesicular calculi. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. NS. thirst. intoxicating. attenuant.
Tulip Tree. Burma. Parasipu. Ranbhendi. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Kanara. Paraspiplo. :—Coast forests of India. burning of body . Bengal. Sacred Plants. Suparshuakan.—Malvaceæ. . See—Timbers. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. G. produces worms in intestines .. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Bhend. See—Timbers. Kandarala. aphrodisiac . Bugari. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. :—E. Fibres. LOC. Bhandi. Portia Tree. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Sk. DISTR. especially centipedes. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. Kuberaksha. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ".212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. H. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. COM. :—Bark. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Bhindi. Paraspipal. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. flowers and fruit. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). :—Districts of Konkan and N. Hucerasi. Tans. Parisha. Mhaskar and Issac). :—Fruit-sour. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. NS. profuse discharge. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. also planted as roadside tree. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Phalisha. Dyes. FAM. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. difficult to digest. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Gandarati. Gajadanta. leaves. increases " Kapha " . The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. PARTS USED. K. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Arasi. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Jogiyarale. LOC. acrid . Paras-piper. M.
7—9 nerved. Ashvaghna. Jwaranashini. endocarp corky. HABIT :—In thickets. Heart-leaved moonseed. Gado. bright green and shining above. Fr. Gurch. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. :—Stem. FAM. eye-troubles. size of a pea .—in terminal cymes. very poisonous (Ayurveda). fevers. Exile or yellow Oleander. linear. Pila kaner.-spirally arranged. Burma. Fr. Gulhel. but its use is attended with considerable danger. lobes 5. :—Native of S.—membranous. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers.. Amritvalli. LOC. PARTS USED. bronchitis . Gulvel. Fl. male fascicled. bladder. females solitary. leucoderma. Sk.—Apocynaceæ. Pivali kanher.—generally 4. bark corky. dorsally convex. M. Indies . often planted in India. COM. ventrally flat. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. :—E. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. and blood vessels . NS. :—E. root. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. Vatsadani. 5 cm. Pila kanir. Amarvel. wounds. Haripriya. :—Throughout tropical India. Gulancha. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. Fl. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Andamans and Ceylon. Zard kunel. t. CHAR. C.—in axillary and terminal racemes. seeds and milky juice. :—An extensive climber. DISTR. piles. K. grooved . corona in the throat. 1—3. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. with milky juice. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. HABITAT. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. yellow. Amrita-Valli. Pittaghni. Shatakumbha. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. L.. Sk.. yellow.5 cm. red. exocarp fleshy. H. LOC. acrid. 5—10 cm. M. elliptic. 7. LOC. COM. tubular. Fl. NS.—Apl. Gulo. H. G. cures " Vata " . virgin uterus. :—Bark. DISTR. Sd. Karvira. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . FAM. PARTS USED. growing on mango and other trees. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. G. crowded . Gulvel. pungent.—drupes. America and W.5—12. it has no action on digestive enzymes . L. frequently planted.—broadly obovate. See—Ornamental Plants. Uganiballi.—Menispermaceæ. long. astringent to bowels. across. useful in urethral discharges. mesocarp bony. hot. worms. :—Often planted. CHAR. skin diseases. throat campanulate.
Sumatra. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. crenulate. Sk. vomiting. especially acid. tonic appetiser. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). chronic fever. Gangalaki. vaginal and urethral discharges. good in cough. unisexual. PARTS USED. Mirchi. . FAM.—Aug. China. giddiness. fever. leaves. Kumaon to Bhutan.. antipyretic. Ceylon. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine.— alternate. male flower bud globose. NS. size of a large pea. female flower buds oblong. LOC. ovary rudimentary. fruits. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. burning sensation. vomiting. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. dark shining green above. Forest Pepper. Limri. enriches blood. causes constipation. allays thirst. H. CHAR.—in axillary cymes. diarrhœa. coriaceous. :—Stem-bitter. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. diuretic. renews blood. Jangali-Mirchi. Kadu-menasu. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. tonic. juice useful in diabetes. :—E.-Jany. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. FT. 15 m. orange coloured. Root-bark is aromatic. stomachic. Fl.8. Fl. Konkan and Kanara. Kaduhakukare. jaundice. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. common in S. leaflets sessile. :—Root. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. bark. HABITAT. LOC. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. Lopezroot Tree. Root and stem are bitter. white. DISTR. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. 3-5 grooved. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). anæmia. PROPERTIES AND LOC. useful in skin diseases. oblong. also in the Deccan hills. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. digitately trifoliate. Dahan. stimulant and anti-periodic. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. stimulates bile secretion. Philippines. M. high. COM.—globose. Stem-bitter.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. USES. (Kirtikar). tropical Africa. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. pitted on the rind. Manger. K. cures jaundice. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. Macimullu.—Dehan. expectorant. piles. Java. armed with small hooked prickles . 5-7 lobed. :—Rain-forests. stigma sessile.—Rutaceæ. 5-10 X 1. t. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic.8-3. L. Khasia Hills. :—All over the Madras State . stomachic .
PARTS USED.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Shingoda. :—Aquatic (in tanks). aphrodisiac. K. :—E. astringent to bowels. blood diseases. of India). tonic. inflammation.) FAM. HABIT. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. LOC. Trikota. Ceylon. fatigue. Dyes. urinary discharges. See—Timbers. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Jalakantaka-valli. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Shingada. cardio-tonic. good for scabies and gleet. removes " Tridosha". :—E. Sk. Kuruk. Malaya. G. astringent to bowels. Tunika. Gums and Resins. astringent to bowels. Apina. PARTS USED. NS. Kalingi. Bark—bitter. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Gandhagarige. Tuni. Garige. biliousness. :—Fruit. useful in ulcers. often cultivated. :—Cooling . cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. headache.—Onagraceæ. Kanara. burning sensation. useful in . tropical Africa. Chittagong. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). M. itching. Tundu. antipyretic . Lud. Toon. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. aphrodisiac. Singhara. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. LOC. causes " Vata " . Assam. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Deodari. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). LOC. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. M. Kuberaka. H. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. biliousness. Trikone-phala. digestible. strangury. Kaechaka. :—Bark and flowers. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. "Tridosha". Burma. cures leprosy. NS. Sandal Neem. DISTR. DISTR. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani.—Meliaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. indigestible. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. fattening. expectorant. Water-chestnut. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Chota-Nagpur. Indian Mahogany. COM. cures fevers. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Mahalimbu. :—Bark-acrid. removes " Kapha ". burning sensation. H. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. anthelmintic. Waitz). Lim. FAM. Nand-vriksha. Tun. Shringa-kanda-taka. Mandurike. Singodi. leprosy. aphrodisiac. Sk. :—Throughout India.
Kantaphala. Pindara. pain. bronchitis.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Kere Padye. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. of 5 woody cocci. :—Plant is cooling tonic. Deccan and S. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Kurangaha. Gokharu. FAM. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. CHAR. Sarata. Assam. yellow. upto 3300 m. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. abruptly pinnate. young parts silky. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. sore-throat. COM. Gokhru. alexiteric. Malay Peninsula. COM. Java. G..—Euphorbiaceæ. Petari . each with 2 pairs of hard. bad-teeth (Yunani). Fibres. hairy. Country. See—Timbers. Gamhar. Sk. Calthrope. Karahate. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Pindara. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings.:—Saurashtra. Ceylon. Sk. solitary. Chhota gokhru. Fr. leaflets 3—6 pairs . The plant contains an alkaloid. t. See—Food Plants. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. in Kashmir. :—H. :—The whole plant. Seeds abound in starch. improves taste .—globose. They are also used in the form of poultice.—several in each coccus . bile and phlegm. PROPERTIES AND USES.. antipyretic. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. K. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . M. LOC. :—Throughout India.—opposite. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. NS. oblong. DISTR. thirst. base oblique. PARTS USED. Kanara.. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. one of each pair smaller than the other. sharp spines. along nalas and in swampy localities. Gokshura. DISTR. appetiser. Negalu . :—A procumbent herb. Gokshri. :—E. biliousness. Shadanga. Fl. M. FAM. mucronate. Sumatra. useful in chronic fevers. Tumri. Gujarat. used as food. one pair longer than the other . considered cool and sweet. Gokhura. NS. Hussuk. Gokhru. LOC. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed.—throughout the year.—Zygophyllaceæ. H. a common weed of the drier parts. Kadu Kange Kumbala. L. LOC. LOC. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. K. lumbago. Aphrodisiac. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. Sd. Ceylon. Trikantaka. stems and branches pilose. .
suppression of urine. leaves. Physiaran. bloody urine. oblong. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. Aja-dandi. cough. alleviating burning sensation. gonorrhœa. pain . reduces inflammation . Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa.—sessile. Brahmadandi. fruits. diuretic. USES :—Fruits are cooling. Mota-Motachor. asthma. NS. Kanara. M. :—A glabrous herb. increases menstrual flow. :—Wild in places. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. M. Country. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). DISTR. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. pruritus ani. Fl. :—The whole plant. diuretic. Fr. slender. tonic . :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. cures skin and heart diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. Diuretic. S. H. Konkan. removes " Tridosha ". urinary disorders and impotence. Central India. tonic. the Deccan.— Dec.—heads 6—8 mm. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). copious.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. Fl. aphrodisiac. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). CHAR. : — G. emmenagogue (Yunani). :—Hot. stomachic. S. inflammations. urinary discharges. seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. Talakanto. S. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). lumbago . PARTS USED. HABITAT.— purple. Abu. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. Sk. ovoid. LOC. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. linear-oblong or lanceolate. L. cures "Kapha". base of the cauline leaves not auricled . K. Brahma-dandi. COM. branches angled and ribbed. bitter. vesicular calculi. Brahmadandi. leprosy . Mt. enriches blood . Brahmadandi. stem erect. C. useful in strangury. t. long. —achene. pappus shorter than the achenes. Brahmadandi. purifies blood . USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). cures strangury. FAM. "Vata". LOC. which is taken in large quantities. . involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. piles. Kantapatraphala. :—Western Peninsula. fattening. reduces inflammation. :—Root. tonic. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. alterative . appetiser. :—Cooling . Kanara. improves appetite . good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . faintly ribbed. spinous toothed or serrate. gleet. LOC. yellowish brown. ciliate. West Rajastan.—Compositæ. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition.
Lal-indrayan. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . Betlada padaval. Mukal. long. H. chireta and honey. Panduka. DISTR. Katuka. erysipelas. the Deccan. scarlet when ripe. allays thirst.5—7. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). Perula. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. it is given in decoction with ginger. ovoid-fusiform. LOC. K. Sd. Jangali chichonda. paler beneath. tendrils 3-fid. Indrayan. Malay Peninsula. Ratan-indrayan. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.—2. dentate or serrate. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. useful for boils and intestinal worms. H. blood diseases. bitter. FAM . Australia. L. Fr. Makal.-5-12. females solitary. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. :—Root..5 cm. lobes ovate-oblong. COM. tendrils 3 cleft. :—A scandent annual.. Kadvi-padyal or patola .218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Patola. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. deeply 5-lobed. NS. cures itching. stomachic. pungent. alexiteric. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. PARTS USED. variable. leucoderma. eye diseases. Jyotsna. cures bronchitis. Sk. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Leaves—good for biliousness. Malaya.-male in axillary .—monœcious. Fl. reniform or broadly ovate. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. LOC. long. green with white stripes when raw. slightly hairy. white. FAM. — surrounded with red-pulp . dark-green above. Kiripodla. M. alterative. Kaundal. slender. Fruit—hot. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. CHAR. fruit. Jangli— Kadu padval.3-12. antipyretic. CHAR. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. base deeply cordate. Fl. male in axillary racemes.-6. stem robust. Avagude-hannu..5 m. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. HABITAT:-In hedges. Mahakala. headache and boils. NS. axillary.—July-Oct. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda).5 cm. orbicular. In Bombay. Wild Snake-gourd. furrowed. N. :—Throughout India. woody below. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. leaves. distantly denticulate. palmately 3-5 lobed. base cordate . laxative. with a long sharp beak. Fl. burning sensation. oil. :—E. leaf-juice is emetic. long as well as broad. K.3 cm. L. long. stems 3. anasarca and ascites.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Root-cathartic . —G. M. COM. ulcers. leprosy. asthma.—Cucurbitaceæ. t. Root-juice is very purgative. antipyretic. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. G.6—4.
Deccan and S. China. peduncles very long. cures hemicrania. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. DISTR. on the Himalayas. LOC. DISTR. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. petioles densely hairy. acute. M. bruises and wounds. t. PARTS USED.—1. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. Fruit—carminative. Country.75 X . rheumatism.—globose 3-8. ovate-elliptic. Malaya. . boiled with gingelly oil.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. :—Leaves. :—Abundant in the Deccan. :— Wild in Konkan. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. LOC. hairy. Fr. female solitary. Ekdandi. :—M.5 cm. very hairy.—many . high. Fr.-July. diam. N. Fl. heat of brain.—head solitary. :—Throughout India. stem and branches hairy. lessens inflammations . abortifacient. densely silky hairy. Fl. axillary.—petals wedge-shaped. Japan. COM. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. C. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. 3-partite. black. FAM. :—A perennial straggling herb. Sd. Kirkee. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect.— Apl. many years ago. PARTS USED. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. Australia. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. HABITAT. middle lobe smallest. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil.. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . outer involucral bracts ovate.—throughout the year. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. CHAR. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES.. t. bracts large. Ceylon. L. leprosy. sparsely white hairy. slender. purgative. Fl.—Compositæ. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. limbweakness. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. ophthalmia.75-1 in. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). fringed. which is found abundantly all over the country. used in epilepsy.— achene. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. 30-60 cm. Juice of fruit or root-bark. inner slightly longer than outer.. Ray flowers ligulate.. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. all over the State. :—Wild in hilly parts. :—Root and fruit. NS. ligules yellow. gargle good for toothache. white. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. glandular.
K. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. vomiting. roots many. Fl. LOC. suppurative. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. :—South of Bombay. FAM.—opposite. diarrhœa. greenish-yellow outside. HABITAT. large for the genus. Pitakari (Pitamari). piles. Methi . also in low and sandy localities. C. enlargement of spleen and liver.—follicles. COM.5-5. .— broadly ovate..—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sd. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off.—Asclepiadaceæ. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). Fenugreek . narrowed at the apex to a free point. tonic. astringent to bowels. Muthi. purplish within. FAM. S.. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. ovate or elliptic oblong. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. LOC. :—Hot. G. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. useful in dropsy. DISTR. L. :—Leaves and seeds. NS. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Fl. aperient. t. M. emmenagogue. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. cultivated in many parts of India. long. dysentery. they are also aphrodisiac. fleshy. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. bronchitis. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. :—Punjab. Nepala . long. and the seeds contain vitamin A. Methi. flatulence. "Vata". See—Vegetables. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. corona gibbous below. Pitabija Vedhini. Kashmir. H. with coma . FN. M. Sk. :—E. :—H. PROPERTIES AND USES. anthelmintic. tonic and carminative. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. enlargement of spleen and liver. LOC. COM. much used in colic. appetiser. removes bad taste from mouth. antipyretic.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. 5-10 x 2. tapering to a fine point at the apex. Hot and dry. Methi. Chandrika. diuretic. :—A twining perennial. Methini. PARTS USED. Methi. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Jyoti.—Aug. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda).—deeply lobed. :—Cultivated. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. NS. Country. Antamul. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Konkan. cures leprosy. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. dropsy. Janglipikvan. K. 7.—in umbellate cymes . base cordate. Menthe—palle. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. CHAR. M. chronic cough. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline.-Nov.7 cm. Kanara.5—10 cm.
— Liliaceæ. glabrous. C. 15-45 x 1. PROPERTIES AND LOC. flat. Fl. Rankanda. Ceylon. :—A perennial shrub. LOC. M. CHAR.3-2. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. :—Common on sandy shores. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). linear-oblong. tapering to both ends . Jaglipiaz. drooping. :—A herb. :—Sandy places. :—E. Shankaraja . G. Jangli-Ran-khanda. HABITAT. :—G. polished. USES. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. long. t. Vanapalandu. light-brown . W.. Thailand (Siam). Panjala. :—Throughout India. tropical Africa. linear. hairy beneath. :—Wild. Sd.— pod. HABITAT. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. NS.—purple. PARTS USED. 0. Borneo. FAM. USES. 20-30 cm.9-1. :—Bulb. black. :—Konkan. folded on one another. Sk. Pitavan . tropical Africa.— flattened. C. long. Malay Islands. Fr. ellipsoid. white. . catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. joints 3-6. long. Ceylon. Ranganja .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). 10-20 cm. COM..5 cm.. NS. stalks long. Fr.. LOC. scape erect 30-45 cm.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. 5-7 (rarely 9)..—Aug. stems downy with hooked hairs. Malay Islands. Dabra. :—Western Himalayas. Chota-Nagpur. Fl.—capsule. H. Indian Squill.8 m. perianth campanulate. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). PROPERTIES AND LOC. Peninsula. Sk. blotched with white above. DISTR. CHAR. Dried leaves are emetic. :—Throughout the plains of India.— petals lanceolate. Fl. high. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. L. KolaPutakand. M. pale lead-colored. COM. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha.— imparipinnate.—in racemes 15-30 cm. Prishna-parni. :—Roots and leaves. PARTS USED. Pitvan. Pithavan. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. H. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. URARIA PICTA Desv. found useful in dysentery. L. Burma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. FAM.. diaphoretic and expectorant. Philippines.-Sept.—appearing after the flowers. Bihar. DISTR.
lumbago. Fl. rheumatic pains. bronchitis.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. scilla of Great Britain. Nakula. FAM. Rasna. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid. useful in paralysis. renal calculi. and was found useful (Koman). Gaz. Root is bitter. and U. obtusely keeled. COM.3-2 cm. diseases of nose. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. W. L. A. toothache. LOC. Rasna. Sarpagandha. bronchitis. heating. useful in dyspepsia. antipyretic. Bihar. tip. column very short. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. long. internal pains (Yunani). bronchitis. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines .. (In Med. Rasna. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. CHAR. :—Konkan. heating. S. NS. Fl. alexiteric. tonic to brain and liver. LOC. stem 30-60 cm. long. M. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. Vanda. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. :—Root is bitter. inflammations. lip bluish dotted with purple. Peninsula. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. DISTR. 1931. Br.5—9 cm. :—Root and leaves.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. complicate. Vriksharuha. Ceylon. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. 2-lobed. tremors (Ayurveda). USES :—Expectorant. Persara. lessens inflammations . pollinia ellipsoid. good for piles.— July. Rasno. erect. :—An epiphyte. boils in the scalp. diuretic.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. skin diseases. :—Bengal. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. diseases of the abdomen. 15-20 X 1. purgative. Banda. anthelmintic.—thickly coriaceous. LOC. PARTS USED. emmenagogue. Chota-Nagpur. scandent by simple or branching roots . hiccup. long. anthelmintic. asthma. alexiteric. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Atiras.. :—G. recurved. stimulant and diuretic. stout. Bandanike. Travancore. praemorse. K. rheumatism. HABIT. acute. Gujarat and Kanara. dropsy. heals fractures (Yunani). and an acute interposed one. maritima of U.. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. :—The bulb is pungent. laxative. alexiteric.—Orchidaceæ. :—Epiphyte. Madhya-Pradesh. The bulb is stomachic. . clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur.—capsule. Fr. t. cardiac.
Coorg in Ghats. DISTR. Mysore. FAM. Ceylon. Sarjaka. whitish). Sandras. cures cough. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. rheumatism. boils and ringworm. with an offensive odour. Sekalyel. t. COM. dark. Kundura. alexipharmic. DISTR.-nut about 5 mm. Kaharub. M. Dhupa. Fr. PARTS USED. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. M.—petals 5. Madidhupa. entire or crenate. .—in large drooping terminal panicles. eardiseases. carminative.. Tenasserim. yellowish. debility and slight cases of fever. diarrhœa. Haruge. :—Madras State. Gums and Resins. LOC. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. tonic. greenish. useful in leprosy. stomachic. Oils. COM. NS. Raktavalli. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. diam. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. urinary discharges. CHAR. Ragatarshado. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil.. Bilidhupa. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani).—Rhamnaceæ. hemicrania. Malamaitra. acrid. Poppli. amenorrhœa. also planted.—Dec. useful in atonic dyspepsia.—Dipterocarpaceæ. NS. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Kanara and S. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. :—A large much branched woody climber. anæmia. Country. deciduous and monsoon-forests. PARTS USED. Sk. fruit.5-3. Pitti. Dhupa. Lokhandi. in chronic bronchitis. (T. L. See—Timbers. detergent. skin eruptions. :—Western India.. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. itch (Ayurveda). young branches and panicles pubescent. ulcers and wounds. Travancore. FAM. Khandvel. K. M. Shala. LOC. tuberculous glands. dysentery. bechic. abundant in S. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. :—Bark. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. expectorant.-Jany. C. USES. :—North Kanara. LOC. :—E. good for sore-throat. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . H. G.8 cm. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. :—E. Fl. Shandike. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. piles. buds 5-angled. 1-nerved wing. Fl. Sk. also in N. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Red Creeper. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). :—Bark.—5-10 X 2. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. tonic and stimulant. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Safed-damar. :—Bark-hot. Kubbila. resin. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. globular. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. Kanara.
is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. in equal proportions.—capsule. Somaraj. Kalejire. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. Sd. sub-globose. L.. rachis glandular pubescent. high . involucre bracts linear. C. robust. LOC. pappus reddish. China. CHAR. hairy. Kalijiri. Kutki. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.Feb. lobes 5. K. anthelmintic. Somaraj. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. :—An annual herb.8 cm. Sk. hairy. stem 0. hairy.9 m. yellow. truncate. G. :—Plant. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. :—Throughout India . Kulara.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. Fl. H.2 cm. :—Konkan . Vishamushti. CHAR. cure ulcers. on long petioles. t— Jany. 5—9 x 2. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. Kulhala. LOC. Ceylon .—Dec. squeezed out by pounding.) FAM. Fl. often cultivated. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. Java . Deccan . innermost the longest. M. erect.6-0.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Purple Fleabane. COM.—alternate. PROPERTIES AND USES. hairy on both sides. PARTS USED. :—E. Sundika. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). L. Fr. astringent to bowels. The juice of the whole plant. Agnibija. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall.. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle.5—3. M. Afghanistan. Fl. about 40-flowered. Gadar-tambaku. t. rounded.. Bhutakeshi. H. ofter cultivated. PARTS USED. Vapehi. Kalhara. Sk. DISTR. 10-ribbed. Fl. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. Gujarat. Country. Bakchi. with purple tips . mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. :—G. M.—Compositæ. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. HABITAT:-Waste places. DISTR. Vanajiraka. high. Kalizhiri. NS. lanceolate. LOC. leafy herb . all coarsely dentate.—heads subcorymbose. "Vata" and "Kapha". branched near the top. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. Kadvojiri. and leaves.—oblong. :—Throughout India. :—Seeds-acrid. The juice mixed with mustard oil. Fr.-rotate. compound or pinnatisect. COM. Seeds— anthelmintic. Ceylon. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. warted. lyrate. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. .—Scrophulariaceæ. K.-May.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. NS. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). coarsely serrate.. :—Annual. used in skin-diseases. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. stems 60—90 cm.-achene oblong cylindric.
tonic. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Sahadevi. Khas. Sadori. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate.-Feb. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. Koosa. COM. oblong. seeds. bronchitis . they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Dandotpala. clothed with white hairs . Devika.—Gramineæ. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Vecrnam. flowers. Bala. pappus white. Vala. are used in destroying pediculi. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. erect herb. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. stomachic and diuretic. G. Ash-coloured Fleabane . alternate.—Compositæ. Lavancha. a depilatory (Yunani). with lime-juice. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). t. pubescent. Ardhaprasadana.—Jan. Osari. astringent. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). LOC. G. They are also used as tonic. Mudivala. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. good for sores and itching of eyes. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. heads small. asthma. :—Throughout India. bruised seeds ground up in paste. FAM. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. stomachic. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Ushira. remove blood from liver. PARTS USED. . DISTR. applied in inflammatory swellings . tropical Asia. COM. Sahadevi. L. stem stiff. M. cold. LOC. cures "Tridosha". Sedardi. Sadodi. The plant with quinine. made into a bolus with lime-juice. :—Annual. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. H. The expressed juice is given in piles. K. Fl. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. :—A common weed throughout the State. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. kidney troubles. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. 15—75 cm. H. :—E.—achene. Sk. Sahadevi. NS. CHAR. consumption. Fl. hiccup . :—E. striate. Sind. used for asthma. silky on the back. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. awned. :—Plant. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). Australia. Africa ..— pinkish violet. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. Cuscus grass. Kuruvelu. M. high. NS. Fr.—simple. Panni. Valo . was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). plant is used in fever convulsions. LOC. FAM. K. Bena. In Ceylon.
blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. :—Throughout India. The otto is used as a tonic. inflammations. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Indrani. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. also cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nirgud. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. slender. soporific. stimulant and tonic. thirst. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. astringent. bitter. heating. bitter. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. refrigerant. Kanara in damp places. diuretic. Cooling to brain. up to over 1. FAM. asthma. racemes up to 5 cm. Nirgundi. H. USES :—Root is tonic. DISTR. bronchitis.. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. useful in spermatorrhoea. Lakki. :—Cooling. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. throughout the Malayan regions. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. strangury. LOC. Nigod. useful in burning sensation. :—G. inflammations and irritability of stomach. Bilenekki. high. Fl.—Verbenaceæ. long.—panicle up to 30 cm. bilious fevers.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Sessile spikelets. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). expectorant and diuretic. Culms stout. Nilpushpi. Nukki. spleen enlargement. Nirgari. long. Leaves are aromatic. Sind. Sinduvara. PARTS USED. febrifuge. pale green. sweats.. PARTS USED. foul breath. :—Throughout the State. cephalic. promotes hair-growth. colour varying from yellowish to black. alexiteric. NS. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. lower ones keeled and fan-like. Philippine Islands. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . tonic and vermifuge. :—Root. useful in eye diseases. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). margin spinously rough. Afghanistan. L. bitter. West-Indies and Brazil. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . astringent. COM. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. stomachic. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. Konkan and Deccan. head-ache. leaves. LOC. Ceylon. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. Sambhalu. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. K. usually sheathed all along. erect. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. M.8 m. biliousness. blood diseases (Yunani). Sk. Nirgundi. Nirgundi. rachis stout. DISTR. leucoderma. :—Roots. consumption. LOC. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge.-leaf sheaths compressed. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. The roots contain an essential oil. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. stomachic.
leaves. blood diseases. cooling . fattening. H. astringent to bowels. Draksha. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. NS. causes gases in the stomach. :—Deccan. piles. catarrh and jaundice. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. :—Cultivated. DISTR. Country. bad effects of drinking. sweet. COM. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. diuretic . sparingly in Poona. K. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. fever. G. flowers. Guchaphala. a remedy for skin diseases. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. produces alopecia. Ahmednagar. Draksha. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. Gujarat and S. and given in coughs. strangury. laxative. applied in scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES. Draksha. appetiser. jaundice. allays vomiting. diuretic. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". LOC. fattening . Angura. :—E. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. Yakshmaghni. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. Drakh . tonic to liver. There are numerous cultivated varieties. W. produces constipation. Grape-vine. asthma. cooling useful in thirst. Fruit— digestive. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. LOC. burning. fever. and traces of vitamins B and C. expectorant. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. The fruits contain vitamin A. Seeds—aphrodisiac.. emmenagogue. stomachic. stones in bladder. India. Sap of young branches. good for lungs. liver and kidney. good in chronic bronchitis .MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. cough. . :—Fruit-acrid. Madhurasa. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. See—Timbers. heat of body. seeds. allays vomiting. diarrhœa. Sk. Darakh. difficult to digest. M. good for eyes and throat. aphrodisiac. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). M. Flowers—expectorant. fruits. laxative. The plant contains an alkaloid. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Angur. Khandesh. emmenagogue. cooling. :—A native of western Asia. cures thirst. aperient. syphilis. Draksha. skin should not be eaten. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. purifies and enriches blood . In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Fruit is nervine. spleen inflammation. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. stops bleeding from mouth. FAM-—Vitaceæ. hoarseness and consumption. HABITAT. useful in old fevers. testicle swellings and piles. PARTS USED :—Stem.
Sd. abundant in Sind . Drakshasava—used as tonic. Hirimaddina-gadde. ovate. seeds. lumbago. Asan.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. long. Asoda.5 cm.—2-pinnate. Wagati. :—K. pretty common in the ghats.-Feb. leaves.—berry. Ghodasoda.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. hard. M. :—Drier regions. Sogada-beru. obovate. :—Deccan. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. entire. :—Tubers-bitter. Punir. coriaceous. green berries. Wagati. Ashvagandha. tonic.5-5 cm. Cape of Good Hope. HABITAT. Balada.. Canaries. aphrosidiac. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula.3-1. scabies. aphrodisiac. G. psoriasis. :—E. Kanara. dark-orange. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . NS. CHAR. See—Fruit Trees. anthelmintic. Sk. rachis grooved with soft hairs. H. branches terete. inserted on the top of.5 m. L. M. slightly 5-angled. Mediterranean regions. Gujarat. armed with prickles .—petals 5. Fl. pinnae 4-6 pairs. C.. Kamrupini. calyx-tube. FAM. linear oblong. senile debility. PARTS USED :—Root. high. NS. branches armed with recurved prickles . "Kapha". 6 mm. constricted between them. t. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. LOC. favours constipation (Yunani). bronchitis.—pod. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fr. COM. Fl. FAM. good in asthma. red. oblong.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). :—The roots are given in pneumonia . leucoderma. hoary tomentose . 7. anthritis. long.) DISTR. leaflets 5-7 pairs. Asgund. bony Fl.—Solanaceæ. insomnia. :—A robust woody climber. enclosed in inflated calyx. somewhat scurfy. 0. dark-green. Wakeri. Asgundh. . :—A branched erect undershrub. PROPERTIES AND LOC. asthma. :—Root and bark. Amangura. inflammations. heating. LOC. swollen above the seeds. K. PARTS USED.—3-4. Tuber—bitter. bronchitis. diam. Fl. spathulate. :—Konkan jungles.5-12. marasmus of children.— Sept. Winter-cherry. Sd. main rachis armed with prickles. t.—5-10 X 2. USES. alterative. chest troubles etc. alexipharmic. COM. long. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). Gandhpatri. tonic. L. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. Ceylon.—greenish or lurid yellow. emmenagogue . (not common. ulcers. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. inflammations. Deccan. oblong. useful in "Vata".-Jany. CHAR. Vajini. consumption. Kanchuki.—yellow.. Fr. 23-30 cm. acrid. DISTR. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. smooth. :—In the drier regions of India . Hooliganji. base dentate. minutely hairy.
USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Swetakutaj. :—Monsoon-forests. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. brown. China. toxic. dysentery. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. leprosy. on trap in the Akrani. Kalakuda. Dhawai. long. Sk. tropical Africa. Fl. L. LOC. :—G. debility from old age. Tamrapushpi. Kuda. anthelmintic . Sk.—numerous. Ornamental Plants. Dhavani. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Dhavani.) FAM. acrid. haemorrhoids. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Phulsatti.5 cm. H. blood diseases. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Dhaiti. Sd. Fr. irregularly dehiscent. Baluchistan. 1 cm. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. :—Bark and flowers. Santha. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Hale. :—Root is regarded as tonic. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Dhawadina. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. See—Tans. COM. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Hallunova. erysipelas. LOC. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. COM. Sumatra. H. NS. Fl. Kalikari. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Kanara near the sea-coast.—Lythraceæ. nigro-punctate beneath. velvety above. HABITAT. Dyes. :—G. alexiteric. M. :—Pungent. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). alterative. Indrajav.— numerous. Br. used in thirst. leaf-infusion is given in fever.-May. Hayamaraka. branches long. Ceylon. rheumatism. Bela. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Dec. ulcers and painful swellings . scarlet.3-2. . cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. t. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. useful in leucorrhoea. 5-9X 1. Vanhishikha.—Apocynaceæ. Khirni.—mostly opposite. Madhuindrayava. K. emaciation of children. It is narcotic. Dudhi. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. Indrajav. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. diuretic and deobstruent. PARTS USED. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Indrajav. M. The plant contains an alkaloid. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). smooth. uterine sedative. lumbar pains. Kodamurki.—capsule. Dhateki. DISTR.. simple. Madagascar. Madhavasini. K. and in derangement of liver . FAM. ovate-lanceolate. Dhaw. Japan. wedge-shaped. Java. :—Throughout India. Are. USES. NS. common in the Konkan and N.
PARTS USED. COM. irregularly incisoserrate . antipyretic. LOC.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. G. . LOC. especially root and fruit. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. In S. oblong ovoid.—Jany.Feb. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. 5-7. Gadrian. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. Shankhahuli. Sarpakshi. PROPERTIES AND USES. memory. LOC. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. tonic. Ceylon. Timor. DISTR.-E. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . LOC. Aristha. PROPERTIES AND USES. Itara. Sk. stout. H. L. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). Madhya Pradesh. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes.—many. West-Peninsula. hard and tough. :—The whole plant. 1-3 cm. with 2 erect beaks. fattening. Fr. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world.—Compositæ. laxative. ovoid in fruit. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. biliousness. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. DISTR. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. epilepsy. Bur-Weed. :—Cooling. long. t.. NS. PARTS USED. cures leucoderma.1-6. tonic. at the top. Dutundi. voice. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . long and broad. barren heads many. stem short. Fl. hairy on both sides. involucre of fertile head. Fl. rough with short hairs . USES :—Root is bitter. improves appetite. Banokra. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. the bark is specially useful in piles. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). FAM. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. Khandesh at 1050 m. axillary. alexiteric. :—Rajastan. in W. anthelmintic. :—Bark and seeds. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. antidysenterica (Yunani). Sankeshwar. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. compressed . Dumundi. salivation. M. poisonous bites of insects. fever. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. Clot-Cockle-bur. 3-lobed.. all over the State..5 cm. fertile heads few. digestive.achene. :—Annual herb . Kambu-Vanamalini. CHAR. complexion. See—Timbers. :— Throughout India.
Kuvali. bronchitis. expectorant. aphrodisiac. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . tongue and increases appetite. :—E. laxative. good in piles. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Ada. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. it is also given in the form of infusion. :—Cultivated. to prevent nausea and griping. LOC. HABITAT. flatulence. Sk. DISTR.—Rhamnaceæ. Bor. appetiser. carminative. Ber. vomiting. Adrate. pains. lumbago. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). COM. gives lustre to eye. anthelmintic. H. colic. It is stimulant. G. Chinese Date. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Alen. :—Rhizome-pungent. vomiting. M. useful in elephantiasis. Beri. See—Condiments and Spices. Koli. NS. NS. . and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. removes pain due to cold. PARTS USED. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Ipanji. aphrodisiac. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. M. :—Rhizome. Rhizome—pungent. loss of appetite and piles. "Kapha". Badari. inflammations. Indian Cherry. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. dyspepsia. piles. carminative. tonic. on poor soil and in rocky places. alexiteric. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Bor. rheumatism. asthma. Sk. Alen. "Vata".. Bordi. stomachic. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Anupama. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. FAM. COM. Gulmmula. it cleans throat. K. heating. head-ache. LOC. G. PROPERTIES AND USES. Hasisunthi. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Ber. Bogari. Shringavera. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. Kandara. Ardraka. pains (Yunani). HABITAT :—Open dry forests. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. K. Boyedi. Dridhabija. and dry situations. Plum. :—E. Bore. Ginger. stomachic. FAM. Alla Adrak. H. Egasi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Ajapriya. useful in heart and throat diseases.—Scitaminaceæ. eructations. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative.
abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Fruit— cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES. Africa. Fruit Trees. Seed—astringent. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). thirst. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Australia. causes cough. fruit. wounds and ulcers. See—Timbers. . Leaves—anthelmintic. good in consumption and blood-diseases. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Leaves antipyretic. on the laterite near the coast in N. :—Root. Ceylon. removes biliousness. :—Root-bitter. Kanara. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. abundant in the Deccan. Fruit—sweet and sour. cure asthma. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m.. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . biliousness. Leaves form a plaster to boils. seeds. tonic to heart and brain . Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. LOC. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. leaves. Root and Bark tonic. reduce obesity. head-ache. Burma. good in liver complaints. China. allays thirst (Yunani). burning sensation. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . useful in fevers.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Afghanistan. tonic. Fruits contains vitamin A. cooling. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. causes diarrhœa in large doses . indigestible. bark. laxative. Bark—causes boils . vomiting.
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