SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS
ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
relaxation of the uvula. Pegu. 5-10 cm. Saptata. anthelmintic. overlapping. :—Rajastan. leucorrhoea. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). H.8 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Fl. indigestion.-6-10 .MEDICINAL PLANTS
Kanti. :—Common in the Konkan and N.-t. bronchitis. :—Throughout India. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. In ulceration of the gums. Deccan. Burma. :—Common throughout the Stale . throat diseases. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Malay Islands. acrid.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis.—in fascicled globose heads.5X2-2. DISTR. Sk. boils. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. " Kapha ". Kanara forests. Kushthari. M. Khadira. fleshy when green. NS.
. anti-pyretic. antidysenteric. Sige-balli or kai. Phena. 7. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. aphrodisiac. COM. It is given in diarrhœa. Sikkim. Ritha. Kochi. yellow. psoriasis. erysipelas. hypertrophy of tonsils. Shikekai. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. K. Khandesh Akrani S. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.-July. Shige. Kanara (often on laterite). prurigo. Fr. tonic. L. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Sd. LOC.—bipinnate. Yajnika. along the coasts of Konkan and N.—pod. urinary and vaginal discharges. Soap-pod tree.. Dantadhavan. Lalkhair. piles. Himalayas up to 1700 m. strengthens teeth. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . heaviness. given in elephantiasis. Khair. wrinkled when dry . Fl. Dipta. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. China. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Dyes. ulcers.5-12. Vidula. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). " Vata ".. LOC. LOC. Charmakusha. gums. astringent to bowels. M. Western Peninsula. :—An extensive woody climber. CHAR. Manda-otte. leprosy.
FAM. See—Timbers. Kath-bole. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). cooling. Country and Gujarat. inflammations. M. Bhuriphena. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. :—E. G. sore-throat and tooth-ache. Sk. mouth troubles.
ACACIA CONCINNA DC. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Tans. linear-oblong. Chikakai. measles and other skindiseases. cures itching. Saradruma. long.-Mar.
H. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda).
ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. biliousness. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . blood-diseases. Gandhelo khair . Stinking acacia. Pissibabul. buboes. Vilavati kikar. ascites. bronchitis. cures " Kapha.
. causes " Vata". Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. blood diseases. Sauna jali. digestible. Girimeda.pungent. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Arimeda. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. ulcers. itching. tonic. deobstruent. cardio-tonic. cooling. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. alexiteric. Kari jali. expectorant and good emetic. In Philippines decoction. leucoderma. detergent. Sk. anthelmintic. often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Bark. anti-diarrhoeal. NS. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Jali. Devababhul. often planted . LOC.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). LOC.. Gums and Resins. burning sensation. Marudruma. Gum—sweetish.
FAM. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). leucoderma. piles. :—E.6
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. erysipelas. erysipelas. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. Sind. purgative. leaves and gum. K. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Cassia flower. M. not indigenous but naturalised. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. inflammations. caries of teeth. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. See—Timbers. DISTR. Kankri. HABITAT :—Moist situations. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. cures stomatitis. G. Jheri baval. COM. Gandhbabul. stomatitis. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. Internally they are aperient. LOC. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . prurigo. Sponge tree. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. anti-dysenteric. eczema. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea.
-Jany. brown. 2. Fl. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. elongate. Apamarga.— ovoid. somewhat 3-nerved.—monœcious. CHAR. 3. Fl. Chichra. PROPERTIES AND LOC. pale-brown. Prickly chaff-flower. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers.5-4. scattered.—opposite. Arittamanjaria. minute. oblong-cylindric. Chirchira. stem stiff. Khokla.57. Fr. Aghada . :—Annual.
. long in fruit. Ceylon. K. Fr. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. K.—utricle. 30-75 cm. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. H. M. crenate-serrate. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. Fl. The plant contains acalyphin. one-seeded. Sd. in lax. G.—greenish white. Kuppi-gida. :—Common in the Deccan and S. clustered near the summit of spike. NS. high.8-6. :—Throughout India. smooth. enclosed in perianth smooth. Kantarika. Kuppi. H. t. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS
ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. LOC.5 cm. Apang.5 cm.—Nov. elliptic obovate. axillary spikes . Var. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Philippines. :—An erect herb 0. erect. Sk.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. small. :—E. erect herb. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. NS. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. DISTR. Ksharamadhya.9 m. tropical Africa. few.. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. L. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. :—G. Chalmari. Sd. Vasira. It is used in congestive headache. hispid. rounded at base. pneumonia and rheumatism. Country. many.3 X 2.—Euphorbiaceæ. Merkati. COM. branches terete or quadrangular striate.—truncate at apex. CHAR. brown. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Uttrane .—June-Sept. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. LOC. about 50 cm. Sk. females. COM.
ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. Kharamanjiri. Khokali. angular. M. in elongate terminal spikes. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. softly hairy. Agheda-di. Utranigida. ascending. t. branches long.—Amarantaceæ. Vanchhikanto. Latjira .
FAM.3-0. perianth 4-5 segments. Fl. high.5x2-4. Khajoti. L. males. M..—capsule.
boils. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. long.. voice. brain-tonic. useful in dyspepsia. slightly curved. H. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. anthelmintic. spadix. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. bronchitis. and is considered useful in dropsy. heating. delirium. leaves. Europe and N. dyspepsia. useful in general weakness. laxative. thirst. throat. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. Fr. rat-bite. epilepsy. CHAR. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. loss of memory. flowers and seeds. G. See—Sacred Plants. piles. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. toothache. Sikkim. Vekhand . laxative. Ugragandha. COM. carminative. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Gorbach . abdominal pains. bright-green. kidney troubles.9-1. improves appetite. inflammations. alexiterie.8 X 1. emmenagogue . M. LOC. Godavaj. useful in vomiting. NS. tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery.
ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. improves appetite. Gandhilovaj. flatulence. carminative. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. bronchitis. DISTR. blood diseases (Ayurveda). "Vata". America. expectorant. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. heart diseases. margins wavy. HABITAT :—Marshy places. dysentery. Bhutnashini. PARTS USED : —Root. thickened in the middle.
FAM. dysentery. fevers. ascites. top pyramidal. Baluchistan. piles. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. spathe 15-75 cm. laxative. green . Ceylon.8
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
DISTR. obtuse. :—E. 5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. useful in abdominal pains. creeping and branching. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. prismatic. Throughout Asia. inflammations. hysteria. bitter. LOC. :—Throughout India. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. good for mouth diseases.8 cm.7-3. emetic. K. stomachic. Bach. Jatila. acute. Sweet flag . itching. etc. skin eruption etc. pungent. Africa. Tropical Asia.
. Bitter. leucoderma (Yunani). heating. anthers yellow. Australia. long. diuretic. stomatitis.—Araceæ. sepals scarious. :—An aromatic herb . Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. America. Sk. Vekhand. LOC. Baja .. L. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. 0. liver and chest pains.—turbinate. Vacha.
used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. H. Brahmamlika. :—E. Tudgensu . fevers and other maladies. Goremlichora . in children. Gorakhaamli. bark. M. Pichli. Gopali. leaf and fruit. Gorakhchinch. fever. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Bukha. Monkey-bread tree. useful in biliousness. HABITAT':—Cultivated. :—Western Peninsula.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains.:—Konkan. COM. indigenous in tropical Africa. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. LOC. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . G. Deccan. :—K. Gujarat. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. Gorakshi. COM. DISTR. dysentery.
ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. NS. PARTS USED : —Root. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS
loss of appetite. PROPERTIES AND LOC.. Baobab. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers.
ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. African calabash. Rukhdo . Panch-parnika. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and
.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . LOC. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. vomiting.
FAM. See—Timbers. Pisa.
FAM. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. Gorakamali. It is a good remedy in asthma. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). LOC. etc. K. Haggodgimara. colic. anti-pyretic. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.—Lauraceæ. NS. Powder is very effective insecticide. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. DISTR. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. :—Grown in many places in India . Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi.—Bombacaceæ. M. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Kanara evergreen forests. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Sage-leaved alangium. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Tamraphala. See—Timbers. Ankoli. gleet. lumbago. Kalshish.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. LOC. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). alterative. and fruit. " Vata "-pain. COM. M. Ceylon. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). biliousness. Kaloshirish. :—Throughout the State. S. G. Garso. Root-bark poisonous. Shirisha. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. it is said to stop after-pains. Ankota. Chinchola. rat-bite. Kathora. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Piloshirish. acute fever.
. anthelmintic. Sk. alexiteric. H. expectorant. tonic. Dodda-Hombage. inflammations. fish-poison. Ankoli. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K. Root-bark— used in piles. alexipharmic . poisonous bites. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. Ankola. DISTR. carminative.
ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. LOO.14
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. Seeds—cooling. spermatorrhoea. M. (Mimosaceæ). :—E. :—Throughout India.—Leguminosæ. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Shankiniphala.
FAM. :—E. See—Timbers. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. useful in worms. K. Tantia. cures erysipelas. Malaya. commonly planted along roadsides. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. pungent.)
FAM. LOC. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Shyamala. colic. Asroli. Kalosadasado. Dridhakantaka. Kullumavu. wasting diseases. NS. Sirsul. Gudhapatra. Ankola. aromatics or honey. leaves (rarely). Anedhera. H. G. China. Fruit—laxative. Sirisa. indigestible. COM.—Alangiaceæ. Ankola.
ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Vamaka. Juice—emetic. heating. burning of body. blood diseases. Philippines. dysentery. Shirish. Akoly. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Sk. Ankora. Sirai. useful in inflammations. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). lumbago (Yunani). Onkla. Ankotha. Krishnashirisha. often along banks of nalas in N. Ankol. diarrhœa. Uddanaka. Kanara. inflammations. anthelmintic. Shirish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. hydrophobia. cures " Kapha". stem. Karnapura. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Kalashirish. NS.
cures "Vata". Palandu. epistaxis. weakness. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves are used in ophthalmia.
FAM.. diarrhœa. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. tumours. maturant. Kanda. boils. which acts as a diuretic. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. Bark— anthelmintic. emollient. DISTR. H. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. erysipelas.: —Throughout India. Oil is used in leprosy. usually planted. paralysis. improves taste. M. etc. vomiting. scabies. alexiteric. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. eruptions and swellings. spleen diseases. syphilis. Seeds—fattening. inflammations. Leaves—good in night blindness. The plant contains vitamins A. and chronic bronchitis . Dungari. bronchitis. Bark and seeds are astringent. Root—astringent.K. appetiser. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. etc. cultivated everywhere. Bark-bitter. used in leprosy. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). prescribed in ophthalmia. Bulb—tonic. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda).
. ear-ache. leaves. itching. Burma. Seeds—tonic to brain. seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. See—Vegetables. NS.
ALLIUM CEPA Linn.:—E. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. Sk. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. body pains. It is an important garden crop. given in piles. useful in malaria. strengthens gums and teeth. tonic. flowers. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). B & C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. Onion. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. :—Native country probably Persia. asthma. useful in vomiting. skin-diseases. good in rat-bite. LOC. biliousness. seeds. ophthalmia.. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. stomachic. their smell useful in hemicrania. piles. relieves tooth-ache. LOC. blood diseases. enriches blood. Ceylon. G. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid.—Liliaceæ. leucoderma. bark. occasionally used in fever. deafness. bleeding piles. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. aphrodisiac. Rochaka. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. stimulant and expectorant. Ulageddi. and also in skin diseases . See—Timbers. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites.MEDICINAL PLANTS
DISTR. Piyaz. dropsy. COM. catarrh. piles. LOC. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). volatile oil. Flowers—aphrodisiac. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. excessive perspiration. Rajapriya. anthelmintic. Bengal. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. scabies.
—Liliaceæ. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. heating. epileptic fits.
FAM. aphrodisiac. Sk. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. paralysis. Korphad. LOC. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. It is an important garden crop. anthelmintic. oleaginous . COM. Kuvarpatha. useful in inflammations. leucoderma. Lolisara. Ugragandha. Country. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. caries of teeth. liver and lungs . LOC. M. complexion. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. In pulmonary phthisis. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Lahsan.16
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. low fevers. Kapila. Korkand. Lashuna.
. In Cambodia.
FAM. useful in diseases of eye and heart. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. piles. Kanya. fattening. clears voice. Garlic. See—Vegetables. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. improves appetite. sciatica. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. tonic. :—E. Lasan. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. leucoderma. H. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. Diuretic. " Vata ". Indian aloe. Bellulli. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Lasun. H. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. G. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. In cases of diphtheria. tumours.—Liliaceæ. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. carminative. aphrodisiac. asthma. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. M. hemiplegia. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. voice. lumbago. M. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. COM. NS. The plant contains vitamin C. Kattali. thirst. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. :—E. troubles of spleen. alexipharmic. body and joint pains. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Ghi-kumari. Rasonaka. inflammation. Lasan. NS. Ikshurmallika.
ALŒ VERA Linn. PARTS USED :—Bulb. G. thins the blood (Yunani). bronchitis. chronic fevers. good for lumbago. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. Kumari. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Kumari. thirst. K. digestive.
DISTR. stem short thick. :—Throughout India. bronchitis. biliousness (Yunani). scaly. useful in eye-diseases. Barbados. PARTS USED :—
. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Chatian. Kanara. Dita bark tree. Sk. milky juice. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. wild along the coast. Kadusale. yellow. pale-green. Hale. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. HABITAT :—Moist forests. L. scape longer than the leaves. skin diseases. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. Satwin. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. liver complaints. purgative. strangury. Ceylon. Bitter . perianth cylindric . :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. alexiteric. Africa. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. emollient and demulcent. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. asthma. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. fattening. vomiting. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. LOC. Jamaica. digestive. crowded. Br. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Satian. Mediterranean. West Indian Islands. :—E. Root. :—Wild along the coast in S. ulcers (Ayurveda). It also acts as a mild purgative. liver troubles.
ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. DISTR. carminative. isobarbaloin and emodin. anthelmintic. Java. tumours. The plant contains aloin. tonic. leaves. also cultivated. pendulous. :—A perennial herb . methritis. planted in Indian gardens . common in the rain-forests of N. piles. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. India. bark. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools.—in dense racemes .—sessile.—Apocynaceæ. E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. useful in splean inflammation. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. inflammations. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. K. gonorrhœa. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. COM. pain in muscles. LOC. used in fevers. fleshy. Saptachhada. simple or branched. tonic. lanceolate. somewhat divided. jaundice. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. NS. spleen enlargement. Kaduhale. Saptaparna. tropical Africa. Fl. purgative. aphrodisiac. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. cooling. and it is largely imported into India. ophthalmia. H. Australia. Satwin. margins spiny. C. Native of S. biliousness. lumbago. alterative.
leprosy. Kantalo dambho. apiculate. Drug Com.5 X 1. Mullarave-soppu. Cholai. rugose. obtuse. heating. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. ovate.. rat-bite. biliousness. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. antipyretic. tumours. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. Bark—acrid. tropical countries. also useful in catarrhal fever. high. diuretic. COM. numerous. sudorific and febrifuge. Tandulibija.3—3. M.2—7.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. LOC. K.8 cm. hallucination. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). good in diseases of the heart. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. Sk. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. LOC. H. laxative. Fl. long. stomachic. leucorrhoea. thickened at the top. ulcers. oleaginous. blood diseases.18
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. Kantanatia.— capsule. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. Tandulja. rubbish heaps and fields. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Tandulaja. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. digestible. leucoderma. Root—heating expectorant. bitter. :—An erect glabrous herb. CHAR. lanceolate. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. G. NS. female calyx oblong. Apamarisha.). antiperiodic and febrifuge.
AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. burning sensation. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). ovoid. Kante math. rubbish heaps .—Amarantaceæ. Kantanu-dant.
FAM. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. unisexual. L. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. asthma. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . male calyx acute. diseases of the blood. :—Throughout India. bronchitis. obtuse. Fr. entire. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. also in fields. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. DISTR. anthelmintic. Prickly amaranth. See—Vegetables. LOC. piles. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. Mulladantu. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. galactogogue. HABITAT :—In waste places. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. See—Timbers.
. 30-60 cm. Ceylon. Pathyashaka. boils and burns. :—E. improves appetite. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. alexiteric. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine.— 3. useful in " Kapha ". valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. often reddish. laxative. bristles pointed. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. " tridosha " pain.
much narrowed at the base. LOC. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. DISTR. sessile. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. constipating. Suran. NS. bronchitis. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. Konkan rivers. fresh or dried. Fr.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Grows wild on the banks of S. harmful in "Kapha". China. laxative. appetiser. LOC. globose. Gujarat and Kanara. Sk. Sd. Suran. Australia. H. Kuranti. LOC. Sk. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda).
FAM. high. Afghanistan. :—Throughout India in moist places. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Dadmari. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS
AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Ceylon." blood troubles. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). stomachic. irregularly circumsciss above the middle.
AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. :—E.
. COM. Elephant's foot. corm.—Araceæ. 8-65 cm. Sukaranda. Suran. Fl. the plant. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. depressed. Vikata. aphrodisiac. Kurendika. Kandala. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. Bitter and acrid . Deccan. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. G. increases appetite and taste. Kanthalla.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. tumours. strangury . removes " Kapha ". abdominal pains. acrid. used as an appetiser (Yunani). M. Blistering ammania. fevers etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Jangli mehandi. enlargement of the spleen. L. asthma. stomachic. LOC. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. K. PARTS USED :—Root.
FAM.—capsule. blood diseases. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Bharajambhul. Kandavardhan. In the Konkan. pungent. Malaya. :—An annual. Vatari. t. branches usually opposite. useful in piles. Jalavgiyo. Kuranda. Suran . COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. vomiting.—Nov. G. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. :—Cultivated widely in the State. red. erect or subscandent herb. It is also used as an emmenagogue. CHAR. Fl. elephantiasis . DISTR.—opposite. NS. causes itching sensation. PARTS USED :—Leaves.:— Konkan. " Vata. Tropical Africa. Arshaghna.—Lythraceæ.
It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant.5-12. Kempu— Turkaka geru .. 10-12 X 7. cordate or truncate. Kakamari. leaves. fever. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. The seed contains vitamin A. and trace of C. Corm is poisonous. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant.—Menispermaceæ. swollen peduncle of fruit. long. The plant contains Vitamins A. Crow-Fish Killer. & A. LOC. :—A native of tropical America. COM. :—E. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. COM. See—Timbers.—in panicles 25-35 cm. leucoderma. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. H. 5-nerved. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Kakamari. B. Cashew apple-nut. Oils. Kakamari. Sk. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications.5 cm. Kakkisoppugida . Kaju. :—E. LOC. Jermic. Sk. Prithagbija. Kakaphal. hot.
ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W.
ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn.
. . also cultivated. NS. M. PARTS USED :—Bark. corns and obstinate ulcers. Govamba. Kanara. USES :—Bark is alterative. Kakamari. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. Kakanashika. Agni-krita. bark vertically furrowed . HABITAT :—Coastal regions. anthelmintic. K. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". piles. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. tumours. Garalaphala.— subcoriaceous. Kakamari. dysentery. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. G. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. L. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy.20
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
When fresh. It is supposed to have restorative power. digestible. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. flowers. Upapushpika. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). ulcers. ringworm. Kaju.
FAM. broadly ovate. Gova. Gerubi.—Anacardiaceæ. ascites. Fish-Louse Berry. many flowered. K. Fl. NS. which is nutritious and emollient. DISTR. H. skin diseases. equal to almond oil. G.
FAM. sweet. See—Vegetables. Kaju . Sophara. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. CHAR. aphrodisiac. M. Kajutaka. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N.
HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Mahatit. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Kiryat. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. M. Ananas . good expectorant. from Orissa to Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Kiriyata. H. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. K. Parvati. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog.—Bromeliaceæ. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). petals absent. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Sk. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. N. Bengal. :—Khasia Hills. diaphoretic and refrigerant. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bhuinimba. fruits. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. black . LOC. :—Konkan. Sk. Olikiriyat. DISTR. Fl. dioecious. Creat. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. it is useful in jaundice. NS. Ama. NS. also allays gastric irritability in fevers.
FAM. See—Fruit Trees. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N.
. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. Assam. native of Brazil (tropical America). DISTR. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. cultivated. M. :—E. Mahateet. t. Ananas. Kanara. Olen kirayat. It acts also as diuretic. Ananas . Ananasa. PARTS USED :—Roots. Ananas hannu. also acts as a purgative. leaves and fruits. LOC. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. G.—Sept.
ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. causes cough and biliousness. COM. G.
ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees.—Acanthaceæ. Pine-apple .) LOC. removes gases from the intestines .
FAM. :—E.-Oct. Kirata. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. LOC. Ananas. Nelabevu gida. smooth. a poison to fish (Yunani). Kantak sanjika.MEDICINAL PLANTS
bud globular. H. E. to a certain extent in Gujarat. K.
L. rose coloured. alterative. lateral lobes small. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. DISTR. high.
FAM. C—2-lipped. Fl. bracts lanceolate. Oshthaphala. thickly woolly. PROPERTIES AND LOC. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Sundara. Gojivana. t.—in dense whorls .—many. pale above. acute. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic.-Nov. Plant is useful in general debility. lower lip very large and broad .—small.—lanceolate. and N. COM. very small. stem quadrangular. Fl. ellipsoid. Sundraphul. pale beneath.
ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. :—An erect branched annual 0. and anthelmintic. oblong-lanceolate. LOC. stomachic. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth.3-10 X 2-4. sometimes cultivated. distant. acute at both ends . undulate. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes.5 cm. Malabar Catmint.—Dec. C—2-lipped. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. and certain forms of dyspepsia. K. Karitumbe. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. 6. upper lip 2-toothed. Alamoda. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. white below. M. Chodhara. Sk.— capsule. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. smooth. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. :—An erect shrub. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—Deccan. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic.
. made into an electuary.22
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. Fr. lower 3lobed.. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. approximate above.-Oct.3-0. t.9 m. clothed with woolly hairs . yellowish brown. HABITAT.—Labiatæ. Vaikunth.2-1. distant. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Ceylon. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . :—S. Fl. Fr. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. Fl. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. LOC. G.—nutlets. :—Throughout India. DISTR. linear-oblong. Kanara. 1. Br. rugosely pitted. Malay Peninsula. :—E.—Ghats. NS. dyspepsia and fever from teething. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. crenate-serrate. Roots and leaves are febrifuge.—very thick. Green leaves. purple. CHAR. Sd. polished brown. :—Konkan and Kanara. solitary. forming a spicate inflorescence. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Karnatak. dysentery. high.8 m. extensively used in Bengal. tonic.
cooling. chronic diarrhœa. abortifacient. Sharipha. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". Krishnabija.
ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. enriches blood .
FAM. Sweet-sop. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Sitaphala. Dyes. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Ata. stimulant. useful in anaemia. K. Amritphala. K. enriches blood. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Dhavada. LOC. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Sugar apple. Pitaphala. Fruit—sweet. Dindala. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. tasty. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. Anuram. good tonic. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. :—E. Bahubijika. cooling . causes fever and furunculosis . bark. and eyesores. Sk. Seeds—difficult to digest. erysipelas. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Kanara border. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Ceylon. Bejjalu. increases muscular strength. H. Root—cathartic. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). COM. increases biliousness .—Anonaceæ. Dhava. Custard apple. Dohu. Bark is a powerful astringent. H. G. now cultivated throughout India. astringent to the bowels. bark. Dhava. Dhavada.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS
ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. M. Sitaphal. Dhamora. fruit and seeds.—Combretaceæ. DISTR. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . See—Timbers. Durangi. leaves. Sitaphala. Dabria. leaves and fruits. Dhavala. Sk. LOC. M. Sitaphala. G. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Damora. NS. flavoury. Anan. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. :—A native of West Indies . Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. PARTS USED :—Root. expectorant. NS. COM. sedative to heart. Bakla. Sitaphala. Shushkanga. improves taste and appetite . Button Tree. Dindiga. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with
. LOC. discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. useful in liver complaints. applied to skin-diseases.
FAM. produce ulcers in the eye. (Yunani). relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). LOC. Bark is bitter. :—E.
See—Timbers. is a good hairwash. causes biliousness when ripe. Sk. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Ceylon. Kadamb. acrid. mixed with gram-flour. wild or cultivated. PARTS USED :—Seeds. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. COM NS. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Kadam. Tennaserim. vulnerary. Kadamb . :—W. Nadija. LOC. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. COM. USES:—In the Konkan. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks.—Rubiaceæ. sweet. LOC. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. " Kapha". Jajpugri. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. PROPERTIES AND LOC. aphrodisiac. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). H. Fodder Plants. DISTR.24
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
gram-flour is used to destory vermin. See—Fruit Trees. Chandkuda. Burma. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Fruit—heating.
. Pegu. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Kaduve. stomachic. biliousness. Peninsula. Kadamb. bitter. Ashokari. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. M. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. sprouts and fruits. Kadubale. saline.—Moraceæ. Sacred Plants. PARTS USED:—Bark. LOC. They are detergent and their powder. Surabhi. Kanara . :—G. indigestible. Niv. Sprouts—acrid. Bairi. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. DISTR. good in uterine complaints. Karnapuraka. burning sensation. Kadamba. K. galactagogue. M. :—E.
FAM. Ajjanpatte. H.
ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Kadamb . opium and alum is applied round the orbit. It is generally considered tonic. Nipa. strangury. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. K. astringent to bowels. cooling. Sk. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. NS. :—Throughout India. often cultivated.
FAM. Seeds yield an oil and resin. alexiteric. Upas Tree.
ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Chandala. Chandkuda. common near Yellapur. In eye inflammations. Valkala. Malayan Peninsula. Malay Islands. sap of the tree. " Vata".
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. anthelmintic. traces of B and C. Bodi ajomoda. β-antiarin. Bhuimug. ascites. branching. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. Moda.—Umbelliferæ. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. apex toothed . W. rheumatism. Bhuimug.:—Foot of the N. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments.
ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. Glucoside apiin is present. CHAR. Fr. appetiser. astringent to bowels . Bhuchanak. Nelkadle. pedicels 6-16 . M. 0. See—Timbers. Bhuimug-chana. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. Afghanistan. Snehabijaka. Abyssinia. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. erect. Monkey-nut. The plant contains vitamins A. vittae broad. inflammations. DISTR. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. K. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Celery. Wild celery.MEDICINAL PLANTS
The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. Seeds—carminative. Ajmud. Europe. used in anasarca and colic. laxative. cauline 3-partite. Bori ajmud. L. Africa. Mungphali. H.. Fl. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges. tonic. Ugragandha. LOC. Sk. :—E. abortifacient. COM NS. Ajamoda.5-2 mm. chest-pains. Karafs. :—E. Fibres. :—A biennial plant. Sk. NS. Ground-Pea-nut. useful in ophthalmia. hiccup. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). bronchitis. and γ-antiarin. vomiting. good in ophthalmia. Markati. high. Chinimung. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. ridges narrow. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. See—Vegetables. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.4 m.
. Shimbika. amenorrhœa.— radial. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism.
APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Brahmakoshi. segments once or twice trifid. fever with cough. rays 5-10. cure " Kapha ". rectal troubles. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State.3-2.— in umbels. COM. cure asthma. scorpion and other stings. G. vomiting. abdominal pain. Asia. LOC. good for heart. G.
FAM. M. H. W. scabies. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. improve appetite . heart and spleen diseases. Java and Malaya.—1. " Vata " . Ajmoda . tooth-ache. nasal catarrh (Yunani). N.
FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). specially near large cities. Mandapi.
LOC. Nut astringent. Mysore. leaves (rarely). aphrodisiac. Chikka. gleet. fairly largely in the Konkan. COM. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Gujarat and S. LOC. Chhataphala. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Adki. USES. Poga. Country. seeds. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. Kaungu.
. improves appetite and taste. Betel-nut palm. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Oils. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. See—Food Plants. Supari. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder.—Palmæ. Assam. removes pus (Yunani). bleeding gums. In French Guinea. giddiness. cardiotonic. digestive. Bengal. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. cooling. Hopari. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Betta. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Indo-Malaya. H. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil.26
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT :—Cultivated. M.
ARECA CATECHU Linn. Gum pungent. Deccan. Tantusara. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. Kanara. Siam. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. NS. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Seed cooling. gum. DISTR. Sopari. Malabar. M. laxative. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. used for eye-inflammations.. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. diuretic. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in urinary disorders. :—Madras. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. emmenagogue. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Areca palm. indigestible. Sk. Suppiyari. Areca-nut palm. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Akota. G. Supari.
FAM. Pugiphal. Chikkan. Burma. :—E. DISTR. removes foul breath.:—Extensively grown in N. Pophal. K.
branching. This is said to bring the worm out at once. Srigalkanta. yellow. oblong-ovoid 2. Plant enriches blood. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. Sd. seeds and yellow juice. arecaidine. Shialkanta. Fl. sedative. 7.
. jaundice and cutaneous affections.—capsule. juice yellow. relieves blisters. and in pertussis and asthma. COM. Pirangi datturi. Fr. Sk. Fl. L. t. Indigenous in tropical America. Daruri.). useful is strangury. See—Timbers. Root anthelmintic. prickly. Bharbhand. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Mexican prickly poppy . diam. glaucous herb . Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. G. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Seeds—purgative. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. netted. inflammations and bilious fevers. brownish black. NS. arecoline. DISTR.3-0. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. India. USES :—Root is an alterative. stem 0. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. purgative.5-3. oblong.
ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn.—thistlelike. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Brahma dandi. stem clasping. It is also diuretic.8 cm. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. Darudi. K. :—A glabrous. Svarnakshiri. prickly. spinous. H. Ind.
FAM. 2. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. M. Pita-pushpa. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. veins white. antidote to various poisons. Bila dhatura. Balurakkisa. and guvacine. expectorant and demulcent. globose.— terminal. opening by 4-6 valves. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State .—all the year. sinuately pinnatifid. :—E. high. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. Seeds are laxative. Datturi. Fruit Trees. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. cures leprosy. LOC. LOC. emetic.—numerous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. nauseant. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine.—Papaveraceæ.5-5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS
Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. CHAR. good expectorant and aphrodisiac.12 m. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. various skin-diseases. Juice—used as a collyrium. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases.5-18 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. destroys worms . Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections.
—Aristolochiaceæ. Peninsula.— 3. perianth 2. COM. tip linear dark purple. prostrate. HABITAT.
FAM. Hastivalli. gonorrhœa. " Kapha" fevers. Vridhadaraka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. Fr. Gandali. Samandarka phal. Country. stems. Arabia. diuretic . Fl.8-7. pedicel with a large bract at the base. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Fl. Fl.3-2 cm. LOC. DISTR. Samudrashok. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic.3-25 cm. tubular. Bracteated Birth-wort. absorptive. M. (sometimes even larger). applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). :—A slender perennial.5-30 x 6. Sk. striate. Kitakaba. rose purple. painful joints. Gujarat and S. Samudraballi. :—E. LOC. cultivated. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. bracts large . Java. powdered root is given with milk.. Country. M. H. tube inflated.5 cm.— Aug. pubescent outside. NS. NS. Konkan. M. Samudrapatrashoh. base cordate. K. Varghoro. anthelmintic. M. Leaves are maturative. Krimighni. long and as broad as long. aphrodisiac. LOC.— 7. oblongellipsoid. weak. base subglobose. with revolute margins. G. stems stout. glabrous inside. white-tomentose L. base cordate with wide sinus .—deltoid with cordate base . :—E. :—A very large climber. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Throughout India.—Aug. Shyambhuna. Fr. long. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.-Sept. reniform or broadly ovate. G. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Soge. Ganda.
. K. t.— globose apiculate. Ceylon. Ajantri. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter .5 cm. Elephant Creeper. W. COM. white-tomentose.
ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz.—capsule.—in sub-capitate cymes. H. In synovitis. Kidamar. Sd. Adumuttadagida.-Nov. DISTR. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. :—Bengal. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. L.28
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. long. Samudrashosh. Kidamari. strangury.:—Konkan. used in gleet. Dridhadaru. C—5-6. 12-ribbed . the bands silky pubescent outside.—Convolvulaceæ. peduncles stout. Samardar sokh.3 cm. infundibuliform. CHAR. tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. Deccan and S. perhaps a native of Bengal. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. Kiramar. Fl. ovate glabrous above.5-4. white-tomentose beneath.—solitary. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. 1. Dhuma-patra. long. Kitamari. useful in " Vata".
G. Nagdamani. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. M. Bengal. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. bitter." pains in the joints. slender.. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children.)
FAM. also useful in dropsy. biliousness. Ishvari. entire with undulate margins. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Mastaru. :—A twining shrub. M. 6-valved. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Stem long. Nilpushpa. Nagduna. Arkamula. Gathona. Ruhimula. winged. Seeds useful in inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. LOC.
ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. The plant contains an alkaloid.3-2. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. woody at the base.—flat.:—Konkan and S. joint-pains. — capsule. :—Western Peninsula. Sapsan. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children.5 cm. dyspnoea of children. Dona. Sugandha. reaching 4. H.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Plant is used as an abortifacient. NS.—Aristolochiaceæ. COM. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. :—E. emmenagogue. L. Isharmula. Sd. Saraparni. alexiteric. dry cough. Mother or Mugwort. Fl.8-10 X 1.
FAM.—Compositæ. Manjipatri. CHAR.
. purgative (Yunani). Indian Birth-wort.. tonic. perianth greenishwhite. DISTR. :—E. obovate oblong 10-12. Sk.
ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. K. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Nakuli. COM. Country. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. M. t. Dhor-davana.—Nov. K.5 cm.5x7. LOC. NS. Arkamula. base vaiable. Dovana. 3. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. useful in " Tridosha. Majtari. Fr. Isvara balli beru . Indian wormwood. Nepal.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. Sk.—variable linear oblong. PARTS USED :—Roots. bract opposite the pedicel. globose-oblong. The plant contains an alkaloid. Fl. leaves and seeds. Flea-bane. Ceylon. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant.5 cm. long with globose inflated base. grooved. H.
LOC. tonic. aphrodisiac. temperate Asia.—heads ovoid or subglobose. Kantakaphala. Vanas.10x2. although very nutritious. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. asthma. ovate. lanceolate. Kujja. aromatic. oleaginous. H. oblong ellipsoid. tonic. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. petioled.4 m.—Jany. 0.30
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. hairy. LOC.—Urticaceæ.6-2. Panas. asthma and brain diseases.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. t. Fl. deobstruent and antispasmodic. leprosy. Tage. An infusion is given as a tonic. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. LOC. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Kanara. Java.:—A perennial shrub. enriches blood. toothed or again pinnatisect. aphrodisiac. Fruit Trees and Dyes. The unripe fruit is astringent. upper leaves smaller. aphrodisiac. " Kapha".
ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. :—Konkan. :—Widely cultivated. L— lower leaves 5. ulcers.
FAM. fattening. constipating (Ayurveda). grown in gardens also. Panos. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. outer flowers female. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Ceylon. pubescent above. white tomentose beneath. Fr. base lobed. itching (Ayurveda). Jack-Orange wood. Fl. DISTR. alexiteric. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. ripe fruit laxative. Ghats. Phanas. Sk. cooling. Panesa. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. high. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. "Vata". Kanthal. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. lobes entire. HABITAT. often planted along roadsides in N. COM. Externally it is used in fomentations. useful in biliousness. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). stems leafy.5-5 em. Thailand (Siam). The plant contains an essential oil. minute. inner hermaphrodite. Skandaphala. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. Phanasa. solitary or 2. Chakki.— achene. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fertile. Seeds sweet.-Hilly districts. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. M. See—Timbers. LOC. appetiser. Jack-fruit tree. G. K. DISTR. deeply pinnatisect. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. 3-fid or entire. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. :—E.
. cures "Kapha". but rather difficult to digest. NS. " Vata". involucral bracts villous. Halasina. fruit and seeds. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache.
oblong. t. PARTS USED:—Root. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. S. Fl. solitary. Tropical Africa. :—Extremely scandent. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. straight.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous.—lobes reflexed in flower. valvate in bud.—June-Sept. See—Ornamental Plants. NS.. Satavari.
.-Feb. linear. PARTS USED:—Root. Satavari. common in the Deccan. tumours. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. C. Sd. throat complaints. globose.3-2. tonic.-Dec. L.2 m. t. M. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. Satavari. high. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. :—G. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. spines recurved. Fl. DISTR. root-stock tuberous. abundant round about Poona. stomachic. CHAR. CHAR. from Kashmir eastwards. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. Fl. astringent to bowels. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. Fr. :—Deccan. spinous. thorn. Kuraki. indigestible. Svetmuli. H. inflammation. lanceolate. thin. Kaktundi. :—An erect undershrub.— follicles. undershrub. dark brown. biliousness. DISTR. COM. alterative.—linear with a stout spinous spur. K.5-10 X 1. erect. long. naturalised in many parts of India. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. red when ripe. Sk. 7. Var. and moist monsoon forests. galactogogue.—berry. cultivated as ornamental plant. useful in dysentery.5-5 cm. Fr. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.MEDICINAL PLANTS
ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. white.5 cm. :—E. LOC. segments. Satamulika. JAVANICA Baker. oleaginous. with coma. Java and Australia.ovoid. COM. 0. appetiser.000 m. 2. narrowed at both ends.
ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd.—opposite 7. LOC. Indies. curved. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places .—in simple raceme. NS. fragrant. Shatavari.—orange in axillary umbels. in the Himalayas. Asual Shatavari. A fibre is extracted from the plants.—Liliaceæ. :—Introduced from the W. leaves and flowers. Siprimuli.
FAM. cladodes in tufts.5 cm. Fl. blood and eye diseases.9-1. up to 1. M. tapering at both ends. Svadurasa. Country. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. cooling. M. Flower is a good styptic. aphrodisiac.
hypnotic. Vajrakantaka. tonic. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. tropical and S. PARTS USED :—Root. like leaves. scalding of urine.
. Ceylon. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Leaves good for cough. 4-8 seeded. Vikhara. gleet. CHAR. aphrodisiac. thirst. galactogogue. Talamkhan. Sk. bracts. urinary calculi and discharges. K. The root is sweet. aphrodisiac. stems fasciculate. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. laxative. hispid with long hairs. Gokhalkanta. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. Vishnu Taila. HABITAT:—Swampy places. widely 2-lipped. and dysentery.32
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
FAM. Kak-Kokilaksha. :—G. thickened at the nodes. tonic. constipation. linear oblong. DISTR. long. Africa. anuria.— purple blue. antispasmodic. leaves and seeds. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. (Yunani. M. colic. ascites. ciliate .
ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. abruptly swollen at the top. H.:—Common throughout the State.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. abdominal troubles. eyediseases. 18 X 3-3.—June-Jany. Ikshura. :—A stout herb. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. lanceolate. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Talamkhana. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). expectorant. Shrigalghant.) LOC.6-1. gonorrhoea. demulcent. Seeds cooling. aphrodisiac . inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. aphrodisiac . C. And. useful in diarrhœa. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. Konkan and Deccan.—capsule. Fl. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. L. tonic.— Acanthaceæ.—sessile. erect. aphrodisiac. lower deeply 3-lobed. leprosy. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. 4 inner small. 0. Fr. USES. Seeds fattening. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Ekharo. 3. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Fl. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. hairy. Gokhran. useful in jaundice and anasarca. subquadrangular.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . LOC. :—Throughout India. Kolavalike. 2 outer large. anæmia. Kalavankabija. and alterative tonic.5 cm.. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. high. t. tube. pointed. biliousness. Used in diarrhœa. COM. sedative to gravid uterus . LOC.2 cm. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. Talim-khana. dysentery. tonic. USES :—The root is refrigerant. diuretic. Narayana Taila. improve blood (Yunani). Gokshura. upper 2-fid.8 cm. lips sub-equal. Phalaghrita. NS.
it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Manduki. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. :—E. Kamarakh. LOC. tumours. COM. creeping herb. stems rooting at the nodes. laxative. rarely wild. See—Fruit Trees. dried fruit is given in fevers. K. Ceylon and all warm countries. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.. H. Tamarak. LOC. striate. Thyme-leaved graticula . also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. branches many ascending. enlargement of spleen.)
FAM. Kirihuli. lobes equal spangled. Karuka. Kamrang. causes biliousness (Yunani). Fr. 2-lipped. sessile. Sk. acute. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. Jany-May. digestible. M. "Vata". L. tonic. Kanara villages. 6-25 X 2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Fl. fleshy. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). CHAR. allays thirst. found wild near N. NS. Fruit sour. capsule. succulent. ovoid. COM. fruits. Karmal. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). solitary. C. Brahmi.:—Konkan and Deccan. axillary. Karmare .—Oxalidaceæ. HABITAT :—Damp places. Soumyalata. Brahmi. pale. decussate.:—Throughout India in wet places. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. M. obovate-oblong or spatulate. H. heating. also used in diarrhœa. Carambola apple. black dotted : entire. Nirbrahmi. Brahmi. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . Darehuli. Root is given in cases of poisoning. leprosy. G.:—E. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . astringent to bowels. t. Barambhi. emetic. ascites. useful in bad ulcers. :—A glabrous. LOC. when fresh. Sd. K. DISTR. pale blue or white. Bama.5-10 mm. Sk. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. Kamarakha. Mudgara. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics.—Scrophulariaceæ.
FAM. with shining dots. oblong. perhaps a native of Malaya. causes biliousness. pungent. Fl. Safed-Kammi. NS.
BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. anæmia.
. inflammations. sour. astringent to bowels . Karmar. indigestion. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kamaranga. Jalneam. DISTR. heats the body (Ayurveda). Coromandel gooseberry. Shiral. Fruits are used in pickles.MEDICINAL PLANTS
AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn.
Mukul. Uddipta. :—G. Jamalgota. capsule. piles. useful in insanity. alexiteric. Guggula. diseases of skin and abdomen. Gum gugul. K. LOC. Guggul. Burma. Fl. L. all male or with a few females below.
BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Chota Nagpur. purifies blood. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. epilepsy and hoarseness. Hakum.
FAM. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. leucoderma. Malaya. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Gugul. maturant and expectorant (Yunani).9-1. DISTR. G. COM. Danti. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. LOC.8 m.—Euphorbiaceæ. leucoderma. anthelmintic. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine.. Bengal. Seeds are poisonous. toothed. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. abundant on the hills of Karanja. good in scabies. Sd. COM. sinuate.
FAM. CHAR. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. wounds. jaundice (Ayurveda). the upper small. Vishodhini. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. :—A stout undershrub. t. Rechani. Jatala. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. PARTS USED :—Root. mottled. W. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Kanara. ellipsoid. Root and leaves are cathartic. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient.34
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Bitter. leaves and seeds. M. H. hairy. Guggula. K. branching from the roots. M. Danti. H.
BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. aphrodisiac . anaemia. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. :—E. Danti. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. yellowish. of three 2-valved cocci. smooth. obovoid. Guggula. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Dantimul. 0.
. Danti. in monsoon forests of N. conjoined with petroleum. purgative. Assam. inflammations. NS. They are used in dropsy. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. high. Fl. Dantika. NS. Kaduharalu. diuretic. or in monsoon forests. syphilis . Fr. Devdhup. Peninsula. useful in pains. :—Dry open Deccan plains. 2-glandular. N. enlarged spleen. itching.—Burseraceæ. Sk. anasarca and jaundice. Sk. Leaf-juice. :—Bihar. the lower large. Dec. often palmately 3-5 lobed. epilepsy and hoarseness. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
Kumaon. t. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. cures biliousness. Ash pumpkin. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). used as gargle in stomatitis. Seeds— cooling. Kondha. Shikhivardhaka. Timisha. asthma. Sikkim. LOC. "Kapha". tonic. fever. aphrodisiac. Fr. Sk. Budekumbalkai. urinary discharges and calculi. oil from the seeds.
FAM.-Apl. heart tonic (Ayurveda). seeds. anal troubles. tuberculous glands. burning sensation. Kushmanda. appetising. in dyspepsia and flatulence. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. bark and flowers.MEDICINAL PLANTS
claws. PARTS USED :—Fruit. USES :—Root-decoction is given. wounds and ulcers. ulcers. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. LOC. removes foul taste from mouth. given' to corpulent persons. thirst. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. Bark—astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated throughout the State. leprosy.-Feb. DISTR. flat. cures biliousness. vaginal discharges. Dorokaru. not indigenous. NS. There are two varieties. 15-20 X 1. Buds—indigestible. Golkaddu. tonic to liver.
BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. it is also anti-fat remedy. anthelmintic. cough. blood diseases. red and white. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. enriches blood. eye diseases. asthma. :—E. Root. cough. biliousness. " Tridosha". urethral discharges.
. Karkutika. LOC. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. used in strangury. PARTS USED :—Root.—Cucurbitaceæ. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. COM. dysmenorrhoea. Koholu. HABITAT :—Cultivated. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. used in piles. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms.10-15.—pod. used in dry cough. Fruit—antiperiodic.8-2. Sd. leucoderma. H. dehiscent. G. cures strangury. menorrhagia. blood impurities. DISTR. Kudimah. K. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. See—Ornamental Plants. Fl. diuretic. tuberculous glands. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. blood diseases . leprosy. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Bhuru-koholu. biliousness. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. M. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. Tallow-White gourd. tonic.5 cm. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Kohala. cardiac and general tonic. China. thirst.
—Compositæ. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. with a strong odour of turpentine. Jangali-muli. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. M. Kukkurdru. oblong. good in syphilis (Yunani). thirst.:—In plains south of Bombay. Bhamurdi. CHAR. finely silky pubescent on both sides. blood diseases.-achene. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. it is also useful in insanity. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial.—heads many. :—G. H. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. Kakaronda. t. Oil—is soporific. cures bronchitis. Fruit is made into confections.-Apl. haemoptysis. China. pubescent. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Fr. fevers. Ceylon. astringent. Malaya. See—Vegetables. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Deccan. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough.
FAM. it is given in bleeding piles. sweetish. L. Fl. :—Throughout plains of India. Kukurbanda. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. S. and nutritious tonic. cooling.40
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
thirst. :—Annual herb. often incised or lyrate. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. laxative. inner bracts with green midrib.
. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. burning sensation. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. heart diseases. Kalhar. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). Konkan. ash colored. pungent. LOC. Country. NS. good for the brain and liver. LOC. high. 0. febrifuge. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. sharply serrate-dentate. Fl. phthisis. base tapered. Sk. catarrh. bitter. densely glandular. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. etc. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Kakarunda.
BLUMEA LACERA DC.3—0. upper subsessile. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. not ribbed. mixed with black pepper. Tamrachuda. asthma. LOC. Australia. elliptic-oblong. COM. Mriduchhada. anti-pyretic.—Jany.—the lower ones petioled. Kanara. Pilokapurio. M.9 m. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. Tropical Africa. and diuretic. stem erect. DISTR. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. pappus white.
FAM. very glandular . Desert Palm. alexiteric. K. very small. Lekhyapatra. DISTR. Palmyra Palm. Burma. Plant contains large quantities of pot. :—E. Tad.—in corymbose umbels. spleen enlargement.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. heart diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani).3—2 cm. LOC. Indian Archipelago. tumours. Kolaba and Thana districts. Hogweed. Raktakanda. Vasu. LOC. Dhvajadruma. sub-orbicular. Persian Gulf. root large. pinkish. "Vata". Punarnava. whitish beneath. LOC.—Palmæ. common in S. Varshabhu. asthma. Bitter. 1. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. alterative. useful in lumbago. native of tropical Africa. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. green above.
BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. leaves and seeds. abdominal pains. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. It produces a very marked and persistent.
FAM. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. cooling . India. Fl. Moto-satodo. —Nyctaginaceæ. COM. COM. blood impurities. PARTS USED :—Root. Madhurasa. H. Tad. and dropsy. in pain of joints. L. :—Tropical India. G. Sk.—clavate. t. HABITAT :—A weed. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. scabies. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. cultivated. CHAR. useful in biliousness. Santhikari.. Shothaghni. Baluchistan. It is also laxative and anthelmintic.—in unequal pairs at each node. Seeds—tonic. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. K. Kommegida. leucorrhoea. P. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. inflammations. carminative. Tala. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. fusiform. Celyon. Tad. gonorrhœa.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. :—E. stem prostrate or ascending. anæmia. useful in ophthalmia.— Nov. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . NS. It is used in jaundice. G. Leaves— appetiser. NS. expectorant. Sk. H. Uttar Pradesh. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. DISTR. Asavardu. M. margins undulate. Fan Palm. Fr. (Ayurveda). Africa and America. :—A diffuse herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS
BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Brab tree. Dholia-saturdo. Ceylon.
. astringent to bowels . Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Talimara. Ghetuli. Fl. bluntly 5-ribbed. "Kapha" heating. M. generally found in poorer soils. cultivated and self-sown.
if taken regularly acts as laxative. fattening. allays thirst. invigorating. tonic. Luban. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. thirst and scalding of urine. PARTS USED :—Bark. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. dry. LOC. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. DISTR. Moddi. mouth-sores. vaginal discharges. expectorant. useful in skin and blood diseases. Loban. COM. Kundur. ulcers . removes "Kapha". Sugars. useful in intestinal troubles. aphrodisiac. NS. Vishesha-dhupa. cures dysentery. Gums and Resins. useful in biliousness. allays asthma. H.
BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. Bark-decoction. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. fatigue.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. binding. " Vata". antipyretic. with a little salt added. as a collyrium in ophthalmia.42
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PARTS USED :—Root.
. scabies. causes " Kapha ". Fermented juice—tonic. intoxicating. Gum is of five kinds . Gum—hot. Mukulsalai. Liquors. causes headache. fattening. Fruit—cooling. Salphali. convulsions. also found in Belgaum District. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Guggali. Salpe. diuretic . LOC. Dhupam. laxative. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). used for boils. intoxicating. heals wounds . antidysenteric. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Dup. cooling. Salashi. See—Timbers.—Burseraceæ. leaves. antiglycosuretic. bitter. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . skin diseases. bad throat. M. flowers. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. astringent to bowels. burning sensation. Sambrani.. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . "Vata". antibilious . improves taste. helps delivery. K. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). strengthens teeth. also used as antiperiodic. fevers. cough. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. bronchitis. flowers. diaphoresis. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. fruit and gum. :—E. Dhup. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. juice. thirst. blood complaints . tonic. hot. purifies blood.
FAM. biliousness. G. purifies blood (Yunani). with a good flavour. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. expectorant. may cause vomiting. allays. Indian olibanum tree. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. Guggula. fruits. asthma. Salgond. Salai. alexiteric.
if swallowed whole they are laxative. kill external parasites. bechic. appetiser. :—Cultivated in India. dispel fever . lessen oedema of body. Kali-rai. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. India. K. anthelmintic . Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. and toothache. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Asuri. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. vermicide. increase bile. cure nose. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Broach. cause burning . used with butter in syphilis . LOC. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. G. " Vata". Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases.—Cruciferae. See—Timbers. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. internal congestions. Jwalanti. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. See—Condiments and Spices. Khandesh. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. DISTR. NS. spleen. Taramira . HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. Kari Sasive . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. ear. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Dharwar and Belgaum. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Black-True mustard. increase appetite . Seeds act as digestive condiment . eye-troubles. stomachic. Rajika.
FAM. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. Gums and Resins. Kaira. Surat. Sk. rheumatism. LOC. cure enlargement of spleen.
. chiefly in Nasik. biles. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly.
BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Rai. Mohori. good in cough and for inflammations. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. spasmodic. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. H. :—E. cure skin-dissases. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. good for throat complaints. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. M. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). COM. Sarshapa. Seeds-laxative.
M. LOC. Manj. Fr.
FAM. CHAR. Philippines. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. useful in "Vata". smooth. bitter. corolla companulate. diam. and in fevers with flatulence. Gargumaru. NS. DISTR..
FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. Lingaja. glabrous . of Shivaling shape . 5-lobed. S. NS. LOC. Fl. :—G. heating. globose. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. Shivlingi. M.:—Throughout India. Fl.—yellowish brown. ovate-oblong. hemiplegia. Sd. 1 . Asana. Australia. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. Shivalingi.. Mullu-siru Honne.—Cucurbitaceæ. M.. tropical Africa. Goge. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. :—Deccan. paler and smooth beneath. :—An annual scandent herb. K. Apastambhini. lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. Ekadivi. tendrils 2-fid : L. Ekalkanto. Chandra. pungent. Sk. Shivavalli. Gauli. or few or many. Khaja. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. LOC. hot. subsessile. female flowers solitary. H. Asana. long. :—G.—baccate. stem grooved. Lingini. t.
.—Euphorbiaceæ. Mahavira. Sk. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). bark. Kaj. green and scabrid above.— Aug-Sept. H. lobes oblong lanceolate. Asana. Mauritius. Garige. See—Timbers. margins sinuate denticulate. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. 5 cm. Malaya. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. COM. Kassi. 3—2 . DISTR. deeply cordate base. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). 10-15 cm. Tans. Country. Asana. Suviraka. southward to Ceylon. bluish green.44
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng.
BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. COM. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Patharphoda. corolla as in the male . 5-partite. streaked with broad vertical lines . Ishawara-Shivalingi. Gunjan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. It is used in bilious attacks. alterative. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Kavodi.— membranous.
COM. Dhanu. also wild. Tapaspriya. Sk. alexipharmic.) FAM. binding. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. deciduous open forests.. NS. :—Konkan. fevers. vomiting. Panphuti. PARTS USED :—Roots. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world.—Jany. the older light-coloured. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).
BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. cooling. Zakhi-haiyat. Fr. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. with opposite branches .—pendant. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. HABITAT :—Dry. younger reddish. :—G. bruises. L. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants .—Anacardiaceæ. Leaf-juice digestive. when punctured. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). K. M. Country. Cambodia. See—Ornamental Plants. H. M. Charpoppu.MEDICINAL PLANTS
BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. purifies blood. ulcers. S. decussate. Murukali. Asthibhakshya. Charoli. S. reddish purple.3-1. purgative. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha".—small. Char.—Crassulaceæ. burning sensation on body. CHAR. It is a disinfectant. Charoli. :—Native of tropical Africa. astringent to bowels. cures blooddiseases. fruit. constricted in the middle. leaflets ovate. aphrodisiac. DISTR. t. Country. inflammations. :—H. fattening. high. leaves. gum (rarely). Sk. expectorant. LOC. M. speckled with white. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. Gujarat. :—Konkan. Pyalchar. Fl. upper 3-5-7 foliate. Stems obtusely 4-angled. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Lonnahadakana gida. Sd. Kolegeru. Piyal. useful in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. Deccan. Fl. Parnabija.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. lower usually simple. Char. Thailand (Siam). Deccan.2 m. the Dangs. :—Hot and drier parts of India. buds with root. Cochin-China. laxative. Snehabija. C. Priyal. thirst. elliptic. tonic. analgesic. COM. The bark is bitter and poisonous. occasionally compound. DISTR. Lalana. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. allays
. lobes triangular. in large panicles. K. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. Char. Panphui.—variable. cardio-tonic. Rajadana. "Vata" and biliousness. M. LOC. crenate or serrate.
FAM. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. carminative. NS.—swollen and octagonal at the base. boils and bites of venomous insects. seeds. Burma. LOC. Paira.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
thirst. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. Chichra. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. tonic. G. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. remove bad humours. purifies blood. leaves. skindiseases. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. useful in syphilis. ascends to 1200 m. used in diseases of chest and lungs. lessens inflammations. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and
. in the Khandesh Akrani. Palas. worms and piles. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. flowers. fractures.)
FAM. Gum—acrid. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. good in fevers. Leaf—very astringent. anthelmintic. Kuntz. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Dyes. cures excessive perspiration. tumours. K. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. See—Timbers. eye diseases. Sk. lessens lumbago. Bark—appetiser. piles.
BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. Kinshuk. corneal opacities. Khakhrao. anthelmintic. topically in piles and hydrocele. pimples. useful in elephantiasis. gout. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Ceylon. anthelmintic. Bark—appetiser. Gum—astringent to bowels. stomachic. thirst. if chewed. dysmenorrhoea. leprosy. biliousness. diuretic . Gums and Resins. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. H. pterygium. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. carminative. seeds. useful in piles. piles. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. gum. Palas. expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. hydrocele. tonic to liver. India. gonorrhoea. good in dysentery. Muttala. dysentery. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. dry. good in biliousness. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Flower—aphrodisiac. tonic. aperient used in urinary discharges. colic. Kshatadru. emmenagogue. buboes. prickly heat and itch. aphrodisiac. burning urine. used in liver disorders. gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. Kakria. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Seeds tonic to body and brain. DISTR. relieves abnormal thirst. COM. aphrodisiac. Yajnika. stomatitis. lessens biliousness. cold and cough. Khakda. Tripatrak. anthelmintic. Fruit and seed—hot. digestible. Oils. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . LOC. M. cures ulcers and tumours. cough. LOC. bark. useful in bone fractures. Dhak.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—E. LOC. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. Fruit and seeds—oily. astringent. Muttuga. Khakera. Bastard teak. cure tumours. Flowers—cure " Kapha". NS. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. Palash. cause headache (Yunani). and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. diseases of anus. inflammations. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). strangury. burning sensation.
very common near the sea-coast. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". etc. cures urinary discharges.—yellow. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. Gajjige.3 cm. Katkaleja. Gums and Resins. lead-colored 1. leucorrhcea. Fever nut. LOC. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. LOC. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. densely armed on the faces with prickles. astringent to bowels. NS. cures inflammation . K. Deccan hills. leaves. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. See—Timbers. piles. Dyes. Karanja. Gajaga. Fl. wounds. H. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.5 X 4.—1-2 oblong. Katkaranj.—pod. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . anthelmintic. oblong 5-7. CHAR. sprouts useful in tumours. Gajga.5 cm.
FAM. useful in colic.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ.—JulySept. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Sind. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion.) COM. 30-60 cm. flowers and fruit. Fruit—acrid. malaria. :—An extensive climber. long . prevents contagious diseases . act as rubefacient. anthelmintic . Physic nut. aphrodisiac and diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS
delicate women. L. :—Throughout India. G. Gum solution is applied to bruises. Kakechika. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Fl. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. hydrocele. the tropics generally. long. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. fevers. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. aphrodisiac. Flowers are astringent. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. ringworm. asthma and colic.5 cm. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. Sd. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. leaflets 6-9 pairs. pinnae 6-8 pairs. DISTR. t. skin-diseases. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Seed—styptic. 5-7. Leaves contain a glucoside. Kuberakshi.—abruptly pinnate. They are applied to orchitis.
. Sk. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. strongly mucronate.
CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. heating. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. shortly stalked. :—E. elliptic-oblong. leprosy (Yunani). :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. petioles prickly. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Tapasi. antiperiodic. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. Sagargota. Fr. M.
Madar. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action.. both surfaces tomentose. Vuma. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes... Surangi. :—E. :—Cultivated throughout India. The gum from wounded branches. Purasakeshera. :—E. Malaya. Sk. branches stout. gum. Arka. Undi. Punnaga. M. Polynesia.
. Undi. much branched. L. Ekke. Sk. mixed with bark strips and leaves. LOC. Arka. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Oils. Ark. lessens appetite. Australia. astringent. Sultanchampa. 10-20 X3. 2. COM. Mandara. used in chronic fevers. CHAR. Dholaakdo. K. LOC. Madar. Alexandrian laurel.. NS. Shuka-phala. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Ponne. G.48
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. East African Islands. See—Timbers. base cordate. Akand. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Br. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Kshirparni. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Tungakeshera. K. DISTR. sometimes amplexicaul.—Guttiferæ. M. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast.
CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. H. Ak. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. and for its oil. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Mandara. high. :—A large shrub.H. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Akdo. Surhonne.8-10 cm. Surpan. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers.— opposite..—Asclepiadaceæ. COM. thick. Kanara associated with littoral species. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. NS. covered with cottony pubescence.4-3 m. Kshiranga. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. often gregarious.
CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Rui.
FAM. Gigantic swallow-wort. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). and oil.
FAM. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. very common in N. Punnag. PARTS USED :—Bark. sessile. elliptic or ovate oblong. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. also cultivated as an ornamental plant.
Flowers—stomachic. lobes usually erect. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. See—Fibres.7—15 X 4. 9-10 cm. scabies. young parts white. leaves and flowers. ulcers. tumours. tonic and stomachic in action. subglobose.. coughs. depilatory. Flowers—digestive. Fr.5 cm. C. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. long. Ak. ellipsoid or ovoid.—Asclepiadaceæ. Mandara. good for liver (Yunani). acrid . cottony. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. eruption on body. across. Sd:—many. back much curved. LOC. tumours. rat-bite. asthma. :—An erect shrub usually 1.— Feb. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. DISTR. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). astringent.-July. used in cough. C. Ark. expectorant and anthelmintic.2 cm. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. cures piles and "Kapha". asthma. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.—in umbellate cymes.5 cm. dropsy.—lobes deltoid-ovate. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . Mandara. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha.
FAM. CHAR. buds ovoid. cures leucoderma. comose . also useful in intestinal worms. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. Fl. comose. M. purgative. L. purplish or white. heal wounds.— purplish in umbellate cymes.8-2. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion.. swellings.—broadly ovate. buds globose. liver and spleen enlargement. Fr. flattened tomentose. t. Fl.—7. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. Juice—anthelmintic. painful joints . elliptic or obovate. ringworm of scalp. laxative. Rajarka. NS. alterative and purgative properties. useful in leprosy. Sd.5-10 X 5-7. Safedak. broad. LOC.
CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. ascites and anasarca. cures leprosy. China. leaves applied to paralysed parts. cures asthma and syphilis. bark. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. India. Br. Milk— caustic. corona shorter than the column. very common is S. Milk— heating. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places .:—H. spleen and liver diseases. Madar. PARTS USED :—Root. apex with two auricles. green. diaphoretic. Sk. elephantiasis. Root-bark is diaphoretic. high.—subsessile. spongy. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. COM. catarrh and loss of appetite. very common. cures inflammations. bark corky.4 m.MEDICINAL PLANTS
Fl.5-8. oleaginous. ovate oblong. Flower—analgesic. usually 5. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. Malay Islands and S.—about 2.. Ceylon. ascites.
CANNA INDICA Linn. membranous. Abai. Gavria. The pods contain vitamin A. P.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Broad—Sword bean. oval or orbicular. Gigantea.
FAM. Shimbi. (Chopra). PARTS USED :—Pods. Kamakshi. PARTS USED :—Leaves. H. LOC.:—Perennial herb . they are given in cholera. Asishimbi..3 cm. G. Afghanistan. DISTR. green. greenish or colored. Fl. Iran. but doubtfully wild.:—Common in the dry parts of the State.—segments 2. COM. root-stock tuberous. on trees and hedges . the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. Sabbajaya.—Scitaminaceae. Hudingana. useful in burning sensations. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. biliousness. 1 linear
. Sema. M. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. CHAR. M. veins arching. H. hernia and colic. long. Akalabera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Indian shot. Sarvajaya. indigestible. NS. Sambe. Kardali. K. Khadsambal. stem 0. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Flowers used as detergent. bracts oblong. :—E. LOC. Kalehu. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. DISTR. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated.9-1. 3 sub-erect. Tarvardi. ulcers (Ayurveda)..2 m. cooling. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Devakeli. See—Vegetables. tonic. Egypt. appetiser. Nilashimbika. Sk. Sk. G. narrow. tropical Africa.
FAM. There is an alkaloid present in the pods.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. K. abundant in Sind.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. acrid.—15-45 X 10-20 cm.5 cm. Warm leaves used as poultice. spatulate. LOC. flowers and milky juice. Sarvajaya. Kadsambu. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. lanceolate to ovate. Waziristan. See—Fibres.
CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Paraholiya. Shitarambha. Arabia. staminodial segments. :—E. erect. Gavara. NS. Koshaphala. COM. Tamateballi. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Kadavare.50
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT :—Dry regions. high .
Sd. COM. L. usually 0. Central Asia. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. Hemp. DISTR. water extract anthelmintic. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. upper 1-3. tonic. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. tonic. alterative . oil-good for earache. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. also wild. NS. Vijaya. Fr.
CANNABIS SATIVA Linn.—small axillary.—achene. aphrodisiac.
FAM. female crowded under convolute bracts. excessive use causes indigestion. flowers. LOC. serrate. Bhangi.—more or less throughout the year. antidiarrhoeic. restlessness. male fascicled. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug.9-1. Fl. check vomiting.—Urticaceæ. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. soporific. cough. Not indigenous. dropsy.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. insanity. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. :—Throughout India. CHAR. female perianth hyaline. (3) Charas. Bhang. intoxicating. 3-lobed. cause headache. H. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). astringent. leaves. (2) Bhang. piles. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). melancholia.—sub-globose or oblong . Fr. Mohini. Shivapriya. globose. sepals 5. Sk. flowers and seeds. lower 3-8 foliate. Ganja. K. Harshini. lessen inflammation. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power
. LOC. Seeds—carminative.5 m. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—many. Female inflorescence is stomachic. good for hydrocele. Unmattini. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers.MEDICINAL PLANTS
revolute . LOC. intoxication. They are broken in small pieces. causes thirst. leaves. G. Bark—tonic. abortifacient. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. hot. shining. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ganja. imbricate. black. Leaves—bitter. Bhang. male flowers. aphrodisiac. impotence. useful in convulsions. heating. dioecious. hallucinations. echinulate . astringent to bowels. Wild in the Himalayas. useful in " Kapha". inflammations. Ganja. soporific. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). M. Siddhapatri. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. intoxication (Ayurveda). causes biliousness. high in its feral state. t. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—E. :—Widely cultivated in India. seeds and resin. Fl.—alternate or the lower opposite. causes thirst and biliousness. stomachic.
and dropsy. The plant contains cannabinin.
FAM. cholera. :—Extensively cultivated in S. erysipelas. COM. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. whooping cough. and flatulence. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. acute mania. NS. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. Cayenne-pepper. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. M. dyspepsia. G. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic.
CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Mirchi. Ujjvala. H. :—E. delirium (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Fruit. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Raktamaricha. spermatorrhoea. K. useful in brain complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. It is stomachic. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations.
. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. increases appetite. and is employed by Indian physicians. Mirchi. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Capsaicin and Solanin. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. Lanka mirchi. also in gout. LOC. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. LOC. Marichiphala. Vegetables. M. Chillies. Country in Deccan. Tivrashakti. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. DISTR.52
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
under fatigue. often found as an escape. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani).—Solanaceæ. muscular pains. dysuria. chronic ulcers. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. expectorant. Fibres. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). See—Condiments and Spices. Menshinkai. See—Gums and Resins. Sk. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. increases biliousness. Madana modak used in cough. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Narcotics. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. weakness of body. in the form of electuary. Marchu . Fruit—pungent. Tikshna. loss of consciousness. useful in indigestion. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Lalmirchi. diarrhœa. The fruit contains Capsisin. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. :—Cultivated all over India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. asthma. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash).
inciso-serrate. alexiteric. Root is considered diaphoretic. Sk. K. H. Malay Peninsula. leaves. Kumbhi.
CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. See—Timbers. Kumbhi. dry. Fruit—acrid. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Kalindi. and is administered in fevers. G. bronchitis. Kanphuti. Vakambi. Sd. The plant contains saponin. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. it is mucilaginous. piles. COM. bark. Gavvahannu. DISTR. HABITAT :—In hedges . DISTR.— alternate. useful in tumours. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. LOC. Kangu. Agni-erum. Konkan and W. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. rounded at the apex. Wild guava . Balloon vine.—capsule. Blister creeper. M. subglobose. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. NS. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. when moistened. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas.—Myrtaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. Kapalphodi. LOC. C. " Vata ". K. aphrodisiac. skin-diseases. 2-ternate. CHAR. dyspepsia. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. abscesses and ulcers. flowers and fruits. common in S. leaves and seeds.
FAM. Shaundi. diuretic and aperient. Karnasphota. stem wiry. Kumbha. anthelmintic. LOC.
FAM. Maniju balli. Sk. colic. deltoid. Thailand (Siam). COM. :—E. Fibres. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND LOC. black. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . :—E. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. introduced. :—Most warm countries. Ceylon. epileptic fits. NS. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. leucoderma. Hennumatti. Jyotish-mati. bark.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. Daddala. winged at the angles. Karolio. Sakralata.—globose. hot. :—Throughout India. Deccan. L. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. smooth. urinary discharges. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . bladdery . G. Ghats. Kumbi. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Fl.—white. very acute apex. petals 4. ultimate segments lanceolate. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. trigonous. Sind. M. Girikarnika.
good for eyes. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia.
CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. COM. H. of W. depilatory.—Caricaceæ. appetiser. appetiser . Leaves—hot. leprosy. Papayi. Kusumba. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. cause biliousness. Sk. White thin latex contains Papain. :— E. Popayi. Indies. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. NS. cures inflammation. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). enlargement of spleen. piles. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. H. cures insanity (Ayurveda). Oil—indigestible. G. in haemoptysis.54
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CARICA PAPAYA Linn. removes biliousness . See—Fruit Trees. Cultivated
PARTS USED:—Leaves. relieves obesity. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. Ahmednagar and Nasik. leucoderma. Barre. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Papita. "Kapha". Fruit—stomachic. scabies. laxative. Dyer's saffron. K. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. used. Kusumba. NS.
FAM. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Karada. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Pappayi. :—Native throughout India. seeds and oil.
. LOC. flowers. Nalikadala. diuretic. Sk. Chibda. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. digestive. it is used to procure abortion. "Tridosh". M. made into curries.—Compositæ. Pangi.
FAM. cure "Vata". DISTR. DISTR. Papaya. heating. LOC. Karrak. cures inflammations. :—Grown extensively in Poona. hypnotic. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. unripe fruit. diuretic. Papaya. Kusumbha. ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. bronchitis. :—E. wounds of urinary track. expectorant. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. diuretic. aphrodisiac. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. causes burning sensation . Seeds—oleaginous. Kusumbo. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. removes urinary concretions . increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Kusumba. LOC. Chirbhita. Kardai. Kamalottama. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Flower—tonic to liver. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Guppe. bile. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Agnishikha. Papaw. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. fruit and seeds. cooling. G. Papaya. Mexico and Brazil. astringent to bowels. Safflower. strangury. bleeding piles. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. carminative. cure urinary discharges. COM.
pungent. Datka pat. Baluchistan. Ajamo . give lustre to eyes. subsessile. Ringworm shrub. M. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. stomachic. stimulate intestines. paralysis. tonic. :—E. abdominal pain. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Oil—good in all diseases. vomiting. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. G. Sk. Ajamoda. The seeds bitter and hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. :—Cultivated extensively in India. See—Vegetables. Owa. Oma. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. Dyes. Oils. H. Sk. rachis
. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. chest pains. CHAR. Dodda sagate. laxative. good in weakness of limbs. diuretic. bechic. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Dadmardan. chest and throat pains. enlargement of spleen. Iran. dyspepsia. kidney troubles. and even in cholera. Omu . Dadamardana. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Tivragandha.
FAM.—Umbelliferæ. carminative. Dadrughna. carminative. LOC. Simyatase. cure ascites. enrich blood.
CARUM COPTICUM Benth. and diarrhœa. tonic and carminative properties. Dwipagasti. COM. K. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. anthelmintic. vomiting. bitter. atonic dyspepsia. improve speech and eyesight. emmenagogue and sedative. Bishops' weed . See—Condiments and Spices. Winged senna. Elgra. stimulant. Seeds—purgative. Ajowan.
FAM. 30-60 cm. H. Europe. Leaves contain vitamin A. good for old people. strengthening. M.
CASSIA ALATA Linn. K. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. COM. Egypt. liver. oblong-obtuse. Dipyaka. myrabolans and rock salt. spleen. oblique at the base. L. Ajwain. inflammation (Yunani). aphrodisiac. leaflets 10-12 pairs.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). USES :—Flowers are stimulant. They are administered in flatulence. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). they are used in jaundice . Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. LOC. aphrodisiac . abdominal tumours. mucronate. carminative. NS :— E. long. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . hiccup. purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS
improves complexion. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. appetiser. NS. good for heart and tooth-ache. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). cure catarrh. piles. downy beneath. good for ear boils. DISTR. pinnate. Afghanistan.
Sakusina. LOC. Peninsula.—Jany. Tangadi.—bright yellow with darker veins. L. leaves. and throat troubles.56
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
narrowly winged. Mukerji). Fl. 28-4-88).. K. alexipharmic . long. yellow with orange veins. Avarike.-July. skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). The whole plant. Indies.3-1. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). fruits and seeds. J. skin-diseases.5 X 10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. cm. Sk.) COM. good for ulcers. ringworm.-Oct. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Fl.. 10-20 X 1. Madhya Pradesh and W. rhombohedral. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. Gujarat and S. along the sea coast in laterite region. obliquely septate. asthma .—pod. N. across. Fr. HABITAT :—Planted. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan.—30-35.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. flowers. NS. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. nocturnal emissions. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. DISTR. reniform.—pod long.. leprosy. very likely a native of the W. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. Fr. LOC. Tarwad. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda).:—Dry regions of Rajputana.-50 or more. PARTS USED :—Root. mucronate.6 cm. Fl. CHAR. cure " Vata ". bark smooth. C. Burma. Tarwad. Charmaranga. H. :—E. oblong-obovate. stipules very large. rotundate. thirst. 20-25. pedunculate racemes . Sd. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. slightly overlapping. Avartki. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. Country. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). itching.
. DISTR. t. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. useful in thirst. 5 cm. Awal. pale beneath. " In eczema. :—Introduced into India. useful in vomiting.—in spiciform. buds in yellow bracts.
FAM. cures tumours. leaflets 8-12 pairs. cough. urinary discharges . In cases of bronchitis and asthma. Fl. vermicide (Ayurveda). Sd. M.—large. Tanner's cassia. asthma. Taroda. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. straight. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. anthelmintic. Bark has the same properties.—7. LOC. Ceylon. diabetes. rachis densely pubescent. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. reddish brown. Mayahari. M. Pitakilaka. LOC. Ahmed. t. membranous. Ph. dull green above. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve.
CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. causes flatulence . G.
Suvarnaka. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Burma. improve appetite. cures burning sensation. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. carminative. cause flatulence. leprosy.—in few flowered racemes. often purplish. fruit and seeds. See—Dyes. yellow.— Jany-March.) COM. Fl. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Amaltas.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Leaves lessen inflammation. Indian laburnum. C. Kasmarda. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. 15-20 cm. H. Aragina. juice given in erysipelas. Rechana. M. :—Throughout India. Negro coffee. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. LOC. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Sd. DISTR. Balla. Ornamental Plants.—pods. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. smooth. Chimkani.—petals 5.
CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Kacodari. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Konde. NS. base somewhat oblique. Sk. Chakinda. biliousness . faintly veined with orange .) COM. H. also planted. leaves. recurved.5 cm. Fruit—digestible. Bahava. LOC. flowers. and Famine Plants. Golden shower. PARTS USED :—Root. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. heal ulcers . K.
FAM. K. Fruit—antipyretic.
CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. antipyretic. corymbose. ovate-lanceolate. :—E. purgative. Tans. Vyadivata. rheumatism. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. safe for children and pregnant women. useful in chest and liver complaints. Sk. NS. Fr. M.—very foetid when bruised. Kasoda. demulcent. Flowers—purgative. Dodda-tagase. Bandartauri. :—E. Stinking weed. Pudding-pipe or stick. long. cooling. Leaves—anti-periodic . eye-diseases. Flowers—improve taste.—20-30. t. cure " Kapha ". G. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Arimarda. astringent. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism.. Rankasvinda. Hema-puspha. Kasundari. Rajataru. Fl.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Seeds— oily. Kasondi. Kakka. hard. Kasari. L. abortifacient. In Konkan. Arogyashimbi. syphilis. Kasonda. apex acute.MEDICINAL PLANTS
A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. long. used in rheumatism. 10—12. laxative. It is a mild laxative. transversely septate. See—Timbers. Ane sogate. Garmala. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. branches furrowed. purgative. CHAR. griping. throat-troubles.
. G. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. (Ayurveda). shining dark olive-green. Ceylon.
FAM. tuberculous glands. distinctly torulose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. cooling.
septate between the seeds . obtuse. See—Famine Plants. CHAR. DISTR. LOC. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. alexiteric. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. ovate. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. " Vata ". Kasamarda. Sd. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. cough.4-3 m. in Kutch. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. leaves and seeds. yellow. turgid. LOC. fevers. LOC. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Leaves—aphrodisiac.—18-23 cm.— Nov. L. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally.
FAM. elephantiasis. LOC.—in axillary.. high. annual or perennial. NS. leaves. asthma. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller).—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. Ran tankala. petals 5. hiccup. DISTR.—30-40 broadly ovoid. tonic and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Bark. cures ascites. The plant contains glucoside emodin. with a solitary conical gland near the base . Kasamarda. Baskikasondi. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. K. cure " Kapha". COM. base rounded. Fr. Kasondi. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . M. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. leaflets 6-10 pairs. At Kotra. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. t. long . :—A shrub 2. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. 7. USES :—The whole plant is purgative.58
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. H. dark brown . Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. In many countries root is considered diuretic.Jany. " tridosha " .
CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. :—G. heals wounds.—pod. Fl. rachis grooved . Banar. leaves and seeds. stomachic. opposite. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. See—Famine Plants. Kasundari. lanceolate. and seeds are cathartic. Talapota. Fl. C.510 cm. slightly recurved. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries.
. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). mixed with honey. few flowered corymbose racemes.. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. The bark. Seeds used in heat of the blood. are given in diabetes.
shining above. Sk. rachis grooved. Fl. obovate.
FAM. :—An annual foetid herb. DISTR. Taga. Chakramarda. NS. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. in drooping panicles.—after the rains. Black-oil tree. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. high. Svarnalata. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. globose. Sd.5 cm. base oblique. Malkangoni. hot. :—E. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Fl. 30-90 cm.3-10 X 3. Madras State. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.. Seeds—bitter. DISTR. leaflets 3 pairs. PARTS USED :— Root. Sd.
CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd.—pinnate. crenate. X 4. oblong. much curved when young. CHAR. Fr.8-7. long. LOC. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Takala.—Celastraceæ.5-10 cm. :—Large deciduous climber. Malkakni. laxative. NS. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. M. Foetid cassia. cause burning sensation. small yellowish-green. reddish brown.— petals 5. branches rough.
FAM. brain and liver tonic. powerful brain tonic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. unarmed. stem upto 23 cm. Tagache. H. Chagoche.5-20 cm. L. Burma. Dadamari. K. cure joint-pains.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. high. emetic. Velo . Tarota. Kanguni.) COM. Panevar.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Kangli. C. expectorant. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". Kangodi. Sphutabandhani. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). 1-6 completely covered with red. Malkamni. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. capsule. L. opposite (lowest smaller). Kangani. Fr. aphrodisiac. :—A very common weed all over the State.. K. ovate or obovate..—pod. H. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CASSIA TORA Linn. Pamad. Jyotishmati. Dadrughna. Malhangana. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. COM.5 mm. Ceylon. pale yellow. CHAR. 18 m. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. fleshy arillus. leaves and seeds.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . LOC. alternate. Intellect tree. Taragosi. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. appetiser. usually unisexual.
. 12. G. Chakunda. Seeds— acrid. 7. Sk. covered with lenticels. upper petal 2-lobed . obliquely septate. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. 6. Climbing-staff plant. in diam. t. bitter. bright yellow.
CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce.—tubular lobes 5. paralysis and leprosy. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. M.). aphrodisiac and stimulant. C. Lahanchirayat. :— E. NS. high.—capsule.60
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
paralysis and weakness. gout. Vallari . Kheta-Barik-chirayat. Fl. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium.—Umbelliferæ. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Sk. Jhinkun-kariatum. Vondelaga. Fl. cauline smaller. t. NS. persistent. spreading star-like . and is employed for external application. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. pink. they are also sudorific.
FAM. tonic. linear-oblong. cloves.
CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. Brahmi. CHAR. especially in Bengal. Seeds are hot. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. radical leaves revolute.—in fascicled umbels. Barmi. Don. :—Konkan. COM. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Brahmamanduki. H. hard-rugose.—4 mm.—Gentianaceæ. ovoid. rooting at the nodes. minute. good for cough and asthma.—opposite. Fl. pink. Fl. Brahmamanduki. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism.
FAM. Fr.—May-Nov. L. L.
. stem creeping with long internodes. long. M. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. Ekpani. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. K. Oil stomachic. G. t.-Apl. Mandukparni. base deeply cordate stipulate. :—A slender herbaceous plant. COM. :—Throughout India. LOC. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. CHAR. obovate or oblong. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). Fr. :—G. reniform. Deccan and S.—Feb. narrowly oblong . Jangli-karayatu. M.). Country. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. elliptic.—3 from each node. H. used in leprosy. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. orbicular. Mahaushadhi. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani).
spleen enlargement. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. cooling.—Apocynaceæ. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. carminative. " Kapha ".MEDICINAL PLANTS
HABITAT :—In moist situations. urinary discharges. asthma. :—K. bronchitis. twigs. water courses throughout the State. cures hiccup. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. digestible. alterative. M. alexiteric. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. blood diseases. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. sedative to nerves. Chanda. and a bitter substance odollin.
CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. abundant on the Malabar Coast. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. PROPERTIES AND LOC.
FAM. antipyretic. Malay Archipelago. clears voice and brain. fevers. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. soporific. scalding of urine. Leaf-powder. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. Australia Pacific Islands. For external use powder. biliousness. Leaves are also diuretic. stomachic. laxative. cures leucoderma. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. bronchitis. LOC. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. :—South Konkan and N. ointment. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. Sukanu. Tande. leaves and seeds). DISTR. thirst. voice. LOC.) DISTR. tonic. USES :—Bark is purgative. Honde. bechic. asthma. bitter. Plant—bitter. Kanara. plaster or bath are used. diuretic. LOC. cardio-tonic. headache . small-pox. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . COM. used in insanity (Ayurveda). improves appetite. :—Throughout India and Ceylon.
. See—Timbers. nut is narcotic and poisonous . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. NS. fruit. inflammations. memory. :—Throughout India near the coast. improves appetite (Yunani). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. milky juice. tonic. :—In moist situations (streams. China. anæmia. nallas. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin".
(PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. constipation.
FAM . Kari-Kempukadale. root and the seed are cathartic. Sk. Wild-spinach. Laveni. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. sour . :—E. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Rayara nelli. G.)
FAM. Chakwat. DISTR. useful in thirst. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Chania. laxative. also cultivated as a pot herb. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Goose-foot.62
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn.. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Agralohita.
CICCA ACIDA Merr. M. Sk. DISTR. anthelmintic. Balabhojya. NS. M. H. M. Sk. diuretic. Chana. fruit and seeds. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Fruit is very sour . spleen (Ayurveda). tonic. Chakravati. tonic to liver. Bengal—Common-gram. LOC. Ksharadala. COM. "Vata". COM. urinary concretions. biliousness.
. Chunna. throattroubles. Skandhaphala. G. H. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. heart. Country gooseberry. :—Cultivated in India. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. fragrant. Chalmeri. Chandanbedu. useful in bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. aphrodisiac.
CICER ARIETINUM Linn. NS. USES :— Root is purgative. "Kapha". Harparrevdi. Cheel. Lavali. Chick pea. Chana.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Kadale. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). acrid. :—Very common in the Deccan. Rai-avala. LOC.
FAM. Chakravarti. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. K. Kanchuki. eye-diseases. useful in biliousness. diseases of blood. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Widely distributed. oleaginous. Deccan and S. See—Fruit Trees.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—E. But. Chanaka. M. Harparauri K. NS. vomiting. piles . :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Tanko. Country. Pandu. H. Bathusag. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. improves appetite. abdominal pains. Harbara. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. piles. Chillika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. biliousness. COM. LOC. LOC. Vajibhakshya.—Chenopodiaceæ. :— E. The plant yields an essential oil.
and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. NS. etc. H. rectum and urinary diseases. COM. Lavange-hakke. bronchitis (Yunani). Oil—carminative. indigenous and cultivated. Oil—styptic.
FAM. foul mouth and fever.
. very common in the N. Dalchini. useful in loss of appetite. toothache. bronchitis. Nisane.—Lauraceæ. Valkala. useful in " Vata ". :—G. strengthens liver. flatulence. :—W. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. chest complaints. thirst. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Duk.
CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. pungent. causes flatulence. Kanara district. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. cold in head. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). heart. PARTS USED. Bark—tonic. biliousness. parched mouth. alexiteric. carminative. tonic to hair. Leaves contain vitamin A. itching. See—Food Plants. aphrodisiac. biliousness. useful in cold. tonic. refrigerant. anthelmintic. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh.MEDICINAL PLANTS
DISTR. useful in hydrocele. abdominal pains. appetiser. headache. piles. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. pains . aphrodisiac. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. K. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). abortifacient. enriches blood. Leaves—purgative. vomiting. causes salivation. tonic. leprosy. Sk. causes flatulence. aphrodisiac. headache. anthelmintic . liver-tonic . Kash. hiccup. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. Dalchini. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. heated brain. seed and acid exudation. improve taste and appetite. flatulence. LOC. LOC. Gudatwaka. blood troubles. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. Darchini. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Peninsula. cure bronchitis. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. emmenagogue. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. throat troubles. :— Bark and oil. It possesses carminative. Oils. carminative. Dalchini. diarrhœa. astringent to bowels . indigestion. DISTR. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Seed—indigestible. diarrhœa and dysentery. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. tonic . acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. expectorant. useful in inflammations. Burma. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. useful in bronchitis. Malay Peninsula. Seed—stimulant. toothache (Ayurveda). throat troubles. See—Condiments and Spices. cures thirst and burning. It checks nausea and vomiting. Dalchini. Ceylon. vomiting. aphrodisiac. LOC. cures skin diseases.
:—E. Fr. hairy. upto 25 cm. sub-globose. G. peltate. Venivel. dysentery. minute. M. Indrayan. an alkaloid. 1949). diarrhœa. Katurasa. 5-partite. Mahendravaruni.—Menispermaceæ.—Cucurbitaceæ. drupe. removes intestinal worms. Asso. Nirbisi.. :—In hills. Uthika. L. Tumtikayi. compressed. Sk. Indrayana. burning. Indraphal. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . F. alleviates vomiting. Venivalli. warm parts of Asia. solitary. Patha. diam. greenish outside. fever. subcampanulate. Ghorumba. itching . deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Fl. Annual Report. monœcious.— usually margined. Indrayan.—A climbing shrub. Fl. angular . H.
CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. 7. or twin. Sd. skin eruptions. COM. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Kanara.. Sk. also for prolapsus uteri.
.8-10 cm. mucronate. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. The active constituent of the drug. helps parturition. asthma . t. useful in hemicrania. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. has been isolated. Fr. orbicular or reniform. 3.e. smooth. :—An extensively climbing annual. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. margins ciliate. LOC. Trapusi. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. NS. yellow within. C. i. Velvet-leaf. diam. M. Pahadvel. 5-nerved.-Jany. which possibly has a cholinergic action. flesh juicy. Indruk. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha".—large. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. HABITAT. H. FL t. female flowers in elongate. PARTS USED :—Root. Pavamekke Kayi. R. Africa and America.
FAM. in conjunction with aromatics. long. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. cordate at the base. NS. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. axillary racemes . It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. CHAR. (Ind.—July-Sept. COM. leaves. male flowers in axillary cymes. piles. stem thick. waxy coated. subglobose. heart troubles. removes pain. tendrils bifid. Fl. CHAR. dropsy and cough. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). yellowish. uterine complaints. G.5-20 cm.
FAM. solitary. DISTR. :— E. Bitter apple. :—Deccan.64
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. greenish. Makal. Paharmul. Kaduvrindavan. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. young shoots woolly. somewhat hairy. branches more or less pubescent. K. red or yellowish white. red. Colocynth. LOC. E.—Nov. lobes obovateoblong. Chitraphala.
fortifies chest. dyspepsia. It is considered to be alexipharmic and
. Asia. Cardiotonic. elephantiasis . ascites. Narenj. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Sukkare-kanji. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. :— E. Kittale. epilepsy. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. tonic. tuberculous glands of neck. purgative. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. N. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). LOC. pain in joints. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. throat diseases. jaundice. bronchitis. laxative. aphrodisiac . Narange.—Rutaceæ. bowel complaints. carminative. good in vomiting and skin diseases. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. anæmia. H. constipation. aphrodisiac. and lumbago. NS. sweet and has agreeable flavour. ulcers. Naringa. leuco-derma. useful in piles. anthelmintic . chest troubles. relieves colds. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. G. good in fevers. LOC. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. enlargement of spleen. Naringi. Fruit—sour. anthelmintic. asthma. :—Konkan. useful in biliousness. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. fever and worms. astringent. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. In the Konkan fruit and root. LOC. Doddile. Nagaranga. DISTR. Tvakasugandha. Root and fruit cooling. tonic.
FAM. enlargement of spleen. " Kapha". cooling. Rind— anthelmintic. relieves vomiting and retching. diuretic. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. removes " Vata ".MEDICINAL PLANTS
HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. Sk. (Poona. LOC. cures tumours. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. Gujarat. constipation. removes biliousness. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). M. sea-shores. Also indigenous in Arabia. :—Widely cultivated in India.
CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). removes fatigue . Kirmirtvaka. Flower— stimulant. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Ceylon. W. DISTR. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Narangi. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Santra. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. with or without nux-vomica. Sunthura.
sharp. heating. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. :—Citron rind is hot. cough. :—E. seeds. though there are no regular plantations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. B and C. Lemon . VAR. Seeds—indigestible. K. See—Fruit Trees. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Paharinimbu . Balank. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Sk. Mahanimbu. gastric irritability in general and general debility. used in constipation and tumours. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. anasarca and chronic fever. Jambira. Ruchaka.
FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED. Rusaki. COM. Turanj. its preserve is used for dysentery. Fruit—sweet and sour. useful in abdominal complaints. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Thora-limbu. intoxication. Harale. M. Amlakeshara. flatulence. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Adam's apple. astringent to bowels . flowers.
CITRUS MEDICA Linn. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Mahaphala. :—Roots. Bijapurna. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . the fruit is an expellent of poisons. the pulp cold and dry. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. cough. H. LOC. G. DoddaGaja-nimba. juice refrigerant and astringent. Limonum. K.
. H. NS. anæmia. leaves and flowers hot and dry. :— E. tonic and astringent properties. jaundice. anthelmintic. The fruits contain vitamins A. hiccup. Bera nimbu. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. relieve vomiting. relieves sore-throat. useful in vomiting. M. oily. removes colic. Matulunga. Madala. Citron . Ghats. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. USES. According to Theophrastus. fruits and seeds. Devamadala. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. NS.—Rutaceæ. said to be wild in W.:—Grown in gardens in the State. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Motalimbu . asthma. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). stimulant. Mavalunga. also corrects foetid breath. Matalunga.66
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
disinfectant. Sk. with a sharp taste. bark and fruit. Mahaphala. Mahalunga. Idalimbu. asthma. thirst. Flowers—stimulant. G. dry and tonic . cures leprosy. the juice allays ear-ache. COM. Matunga. Bijoru. Bijaura. Kutla. LOC. increase appetite. digestible. rind of the fruit is bitter. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Turanj. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. LOC.
bronchitis . Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. eyes . Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. scarletina. it cures and prevents scurvy.—Ranunculaceæ.
FAM. Madhulika. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. :—E. :—An extensive climber. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Oil from rind. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Acid-Sour lime . Shodhana. Murhari. Murva. Sk. fatigue . good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Sk. Dhantiate. improves liver. constipation.
CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. H. Nebu. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. sharp taste. :—G. stomachic. anthelmintic. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). vomiting. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. LOC. Amlasara. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Devashreni. t. ovoid. not good in old age. hemicrania. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Rochana. measles. Nimbu. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. K. Khatalimbu. plethora. Kagadi limbu. whole plant tomentose. Limpaka. silky villous. NS. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. COM. heart.. but often found trailing amongst grass.—in axillary corymbose panicles. long ovate or orbicular. it helps digestion. blades 2-2. Lebu. Ranjai. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". relieves vomiting .Nov.—achenes. M. hairy outside. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. sepals 4-6. VAR. with flavour. Fr. relieves biliousness. M. cures abodominal complaints. H. L. Fl. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Fruit—sour. white. G. stimulant . Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . See—Fruit Trees. Fl. burning in the chest. CHAR.—Sept. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. also useful in rheumatism. where there is dry skin and much thirst. COM.—petals O. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). brain disorders.
. Limbu. Morata. Churhar. leaves (rarely). Limbe. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Nimbuka.5 cm. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PROPERTIES AND LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. petioles twinning. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . appetiser. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. lobes mucronate. NS. Acida. with long feathery tails . It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. Snuva. Nimbe. Morvel. Morhari. Nimbu. Moravel. loss of appetite.—simple or once ternate. throat trouble. Lebu.
Bharangi. CHAR. cooling. NS. useful in leprosy. Hulhul. good in malaria. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. very common in the Deccan. LOC. causes excessive biliousness. bitter.—Verbenaceæ. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. Kiritekki. stomachic.—Sept-June. Barbara. Karnasphota. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. NS. hairy. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. :—G. COM. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). LOC. DISTR. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Ghats. bitter taste and a strong odour. externally applied to boils. DISTR. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). COM. Brahmani.—brownish black.—axillary. t. gradually becoming shorter upwards. removes " Kapha". Harhuria. blood diseases. diuretic.
FAM. and dispel intestinal fermentation. K. Fl. Bharangi. Fl. Talvari. subglobose. astringent. LOC. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Juice— cures ear-ache. high. stems grooved and glandular. leaflets elliptic-oblong. used internally in thirst. H.
CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. Kasaghni. Kanphodi. mixed with oil. oblong-obovate. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. Jangali-harhar. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. Phanjika.68
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT. anthelmintic. terminal the largest. H. petioles of lower leaves longer. Sauri. Gantubarangi. laxative. hairy.—capsule. Konkan. Vatari. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. dryness and urethral discharges. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). stimulant. Fr. hot. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. :—W. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. and fevers. :—G. M. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Tinmani. Kanphutia.
. Sk. L. in lax racemes. M.—3-5 foliate. Bharang.
CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. yellow. erect.—petals 4. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard.
FAM. Tilwan. 30-90 cm. transversely striate. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Leaves—favour digestion. reduces tumours and inflammations . Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Tilparni. :—Common in grass lands. Bharangi. veined. Adityabhakta. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. Sd. Sk. C. obliquely striate. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. stimulates secretion of bile. :—Annual erect herb. K. laxative.—Capparidaceæ. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tapering towards both ends . Nayibela. HABIT :—A common weed.
fevers (Yunani). Fl. H. 3.3 cm. flat. smooth.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. biliousness. useful in ascites (Yunani).— drupe. CHAR. alexiteric. stomachic. diuretic. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. burning sensation.-Oct. :—A perennial twining herb. sharply serrate. leucoderma. leaves and seeds.—imparipinnate.—Shrub. ulcers of the cornea. tubercular glands. collectively forming a terminal panicle. black. elliptic oblong. 4 lobes flat.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). DISTR. Aparajita. Vishnukranta. Kajli. leaves and seeds. L.2 cm. LOC. stems terete. high. Malay Peninsula. burning sensation. K. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. Root increases appetite. lessens expectoration. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . PARTS USED :—Root. Ceylon.2 m. Sd.
CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. LOC.. spreading. anthelmintic. stems bluntly quadrangular.5-15 X 5. Gokarnika. tonic to the brain. Sk. oblong or elliptic.
FAM. long .5 X 2-3. ulcers (Ayurveda). Fl. t. 2-2. fleshy. epilepsy. pubescent. 0. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. tube hairy within. Gokarni. pains. anthelmintic. showy. Girikarniballi. inflammations. C. M. useful in bronchitis. COM. elephantiasis. useful in inflammation. obovoid.—many. hiccup. nearly straight.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. with an orange centre. The plant contains an alkaloid.— Aug. beaked. good for eye-diseases. bronchitis. consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. Koyala. Root is purgative and diuretic.. t— June-Jany. Girikarnika. headache. heating. Garani. acrid. inflammations.. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. Fr. LOC. Aparajita. tumours. Kalina. ozœna. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. NS.8-5 cm.9-2.—much exerted. standard bright blue or white. solitary. sometimes opposite. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork.—axillary. hairy. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. "Vata".—6-10 yellowish brown. asthma. asthma. laxative. DISTR. :—G. also found throughout the State. HABITAT :—In hedges. fevers. L. and blue flowered.—pale blue. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. blood diseases. 12. Fl. Kowa.7-6.:—More or less throughout India.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. the larger lower lobe dark purple. leaflets 5-7. Wowatheti. Fl.—ternately whorled. C.
. wounds (Ayurveda). tuberculous glands. cures "Tridosha". lower one deflexed. in lax dichotomous cymes. There are two varieties :—white flowered.
Ghobe. a hormone and an alkaloid. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Chireta. Bimba. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. PROPERTIES AND USES. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Faridburti. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. & A. Kambhoja. LOC. Broom-creeper. asthma. antipyretic . Bimbi.
FAM. Tana. Fruit is aphrodisiac. and jaundice. Kanduri. G. fruit.:—Cultivated in gardens. Vasantitikta. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. stops vomiting. biliousness. leaves. Vasandi. M. dried and powdered. Ink-berry. M. Gujarat. NS. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. PARTS USED :—Root. Vasanvel.—Menispermaceæ.)
FAM. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. useful in ascites and fevers. Galedu. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. M. aphrodisiac. USES:—In the Konkan. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. H. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. COM. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. K. Root bark. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. S. Deccan. :—G.
. See—Vegetables. Malaya.
COCCINIA INDICA W. given for uterine discharges.—E. Flowers cure itching. allays thirst. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Leaves—acrid. Sk.:—Root cooling. Konkan. Vevdi. galactagogue. H. Country. " Vata".—Cucurbitaceæ. Glum.
COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. tropical Africa. cures leprosy. Dirghvalli. Fruit— indigestible. K. Oshthi. flowers. NS. The plant contains an enzyme. Ceylon. Tundi. Bimb. COM. consumption. Sk. Jamtikibel. Parvel. Tondali. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Tundika. Bimbika. Seeds are purgative and aperient. Garudi. Hunder. Vevati. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. diseases of blood. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). LOC. wild in hedges.70
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. urinary losses. cause flatulence. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". burning of hands and feet. DISTR :—Throughout India. Tondeballi. HABITAT.
laxative. young parts densely Villous. it is used for coughs. lessens thirst. dysentery. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). lessens bile and burning sensation. tropical Africa.—Dec. Mad.8-6. Leaf-juice.3-3. H. aphrodisiac. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. Jataphala.
COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. urinary discharges. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . Mangalya. oil.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. bark.
FAM. indigestible. Arabia. blood diseases. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". rugose . Gujarat. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. Narial. S. with a few heads of pepper. 2-8 together. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—Palmæ. Mahaphala. mixed with water. LOC. smells sweetish and pungent. t. ovate-oblong. laxative and sudorific. burning sensation. laxative. ovate. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. K. useful in biliousness.—3. tumours.—dioecious. useful in leprosy. biliousness. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. Tengu. useful in diabetes. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. Toyagarbha. Nariyal. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Ceylon and throughout the tropics.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. seed. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. subdeltoid or subhastate. it is heating. fattening. size of a small pea. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). Malabar and Coromandel coasts. Deccan. which is taken internally with sugar. Naral. constipation. COM. aphrodisiac. "Kapha" and "Vata". China. Seed-cooling. flowers.—drupe. tuberculosis. Tenginmara. S. Flower-cooling . :—E. as a cure for gonorrhœa. and put on to sore-eyelids. Kanara. Fr. G.8 cm. Cocoanut palm. also in many places in the interior. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. It is also used as a refrigerant. DISTR. bronchitis. Common in Konkan and N. India and Ceylon. India.. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. fattening. enriches blood. Narikel. Konkan. thirst. L. DISTR. aphrodisiac. Pegu. In the Konkan. good in fractures. causes "Kapha".:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. keeled. Milk—cooling. villous . 3-5 nerved. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Fl. LOC.3 X 1. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. NS. tonic. alexipharmic . female in axillary clusters. cardiotonic. Antipyretic. M. LOC.
. Nalivar.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Fl. oleaginous. HABITAT :—In hedges. fermented juice.
—Gramineæ COM. Kasai. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). smooth.—10-15 x 2. Oil—sweet. Gojivha. t. piles . asthma. Japan. S. L.—monœcious racemes 2. Fl. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness .72
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Fermented juice intoxicating.3 cm. useful in fever. polished. H. LOC. Ran-jondhala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. bluish grey. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). Dabha. internodes smooth. Bengal. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. 6. useful in lumbar-pain. notched at the nodes . Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. above the bract stout. increases body weight. polished. G. incipient phthisis and cachexia. paralysis.5-5 cm. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. sheaths long. CHAR. fattening. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. abundant in standing water. long. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Gavedhu. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. it promotes growth of hair. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian
. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. It is also used for burns. Oil—indigestible. Fibres. spinously serrate margins. Malaya. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). tropical Asia-Africa. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Polynesia. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. America. lessens inflammations . stout. long. high or more. :—A tall leafy grass. base cordate. Jargadi. bronchitis. liver complaints. India. NS. tonic. midrib stout. diuretic.5-6.—broadly ovoid to globose. it also purifies blood. smooth. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. LOC.6-10 mm. :—E. B and C. piles and scabies (Yunani. :—Himalayas. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Sk. consumption. rooting at the lower nodes.. Gurlu .
COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. stem 90-150 cm. Assam. Madhya Pradesh.—Oct. HABITAT :—Gregarious.
FAM. LOC. diuretic . China. Oils.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. useful in urinary complaints. Madhya Bharat. Rajputana. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. M. Fr. fermented juice is intoxicating. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. DISTR. Job's tears. ulcers (Ayurveda). Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. See—Fruit Trees. It is refreshing and laxative. enriches blood. rachis within the bract slender. promotes hairgrowth.
smooth. anthelmintic. acute or acuminate. Fl. Gondan. M. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. H. The plant contains leucin. Rayagundo.5-10 X 2-3. Fr. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. See—Fodder Plants. brown. yellow. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Challa. Sebesten plum. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. Sd. carminative.
CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn.
. Mannadike.2 cm. Chaunchan . Kalasaka. L.
CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Pistan.— capsule. histidin. lanceolate. growing very tall under cultivation. diam. See—Fibres. astringent. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. Bhokar. C.—few in each cell. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. ridged and muricated.MEDICINAL PLANTS
countries . arginine and coicin. In jutegrowing districts. Col. Bhokar. 5-valved. Sk.:—E. Patta. wedgeshaped. K. fever. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Bhuselu. DISTR. serrate. Sk. Lassora. Bhukerbudara.— Sept.
FAM. Gujarat. Fl. :—Konkan. CHAR. Bargund. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Resalla. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. Jute . It is also used as a bitter tonic. :—E.—petals 4-5.—in short cymes. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. 12 mm. G. lysin. cultivated in most tropical countries. M. also efficacious in skin-diseases.—7. COM.—Boraginaceæ. buds obovoid. NS. tyrosin. Chhunchh . subglobose. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. not beaked. stomachic. G. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. and intestinal antiseptic. leaves and fruit. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. and dyspepsia. t. COM. also as antiperiodic. Hadige. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. laxative. NS. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice.—Tiliaceæ. :—An annual herb.
bechic. Fibres. stimulant. Egypt. burning of throat. :—Throughout India. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. also cultivated. :—Cultivated throughout India.—Umbelliferæ. used in dry cough. Cochin-China. carminative and antispasmodic. cures thirst. Dharika. cooling. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. removes bad humours. tonic to brain. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Coriander. jaundice. M. analgesic. biliousness. Mesapotamia and Greece. diseases of chest and urethra. Kothambri. Ghats. NS. stomatitis. G. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). useful in hiccup. leaves (rarely) and fruit. COM. bronchitis. stimulant. gleet. Leaves—hypnotic. biliousness.:—Throughout the State in W. anthelmintic. purgative. anthelmintic. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Fruit—diuretic. biliousness.
. used as an expectorant and astringent. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). gives appetite. causes suppuration. uterus and urethra. used in syphilis. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. vulnerary. tooth-ache. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. dyspepsia. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. stomachic. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. piles. pains in joints. bleeding gums. diuretic. scabies.:—E. expectorant. laxative. heart and liver.
FAM. LOC. anthelmintic. Allaka. widely known from Palestine. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. wild and cultivated. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). often planted. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Ceylon. thirst.
CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. highly esteemed in coughs. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Kothamir. Bark is used as a mild tonic. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Dhania. The plant and fruit— acrid. Hivija.74
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. H. Kanara. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Satpudas. Konphir. antipyretic. DISTR. Fruit is aromatic. tropical Australia. chronic fevers. Kothimbir. diseases of chest. inflammations. LOC. K. Fruits are used as spice. headache. tuberculous glands. maturant. indigestion. Syria. eye-pains. vomiting. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. Vitunnaka. DISTR. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). Kustumburi. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. Sk. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. PARTS USED :—Bark. aphrodisiac. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo.
Sk. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Ceylon. :—An erect plant 1. silky-pubescent beneath. COM. DISTR. Chikke. and " Vata". LOC. high. concave. fever. Castle Rock. Malay Islands. Kashmira. Var. Mahakapittha. Pinga. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. " Kapha". NS.— black with white aril. Sk. M. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. DISTR. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers.
FAM. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Karikuttu.
. sheaths coriaceous . rheumatism. also planted near Muslim tombs. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Madhya Bharat. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Fl. Sd. Varuna. useful in bronchitis.5 cm. Varvunna. subequal. Vayavarna. Varno. Pushkarmula. and aphrodisiac. The plant yields an essential oil. Changalkashta. Pushkarmula. many. bright red. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Keu.:—Konkan ghats.7 m. :—G.7-7. a tonic is prepared from it. inflammations. China. lobes ovate-oblong.—Capparidaceæ. Pakarmula. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Shura. Penva. H. Bilpatri. red. H. India. Biliana. depurative. stem sub-woody at the base . crisped. globosely 3-gonous. Var. Vayavarno. useful in catarrhal fevers. nalas. Kumaraka. lumbago.
FAM. Kushtha. oblong. M. C. Kust.MEDICINAL PLANTS
In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Kemuka. t. subsessile. Varuna.—capsule. COM. coughs and skin diseases. in moist and shady places. :—G. hiccup (Ayurveda). nurvala is the common form throughout the State.
COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. It is also astringent and digestive. Nervele. LOC. S. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. CHAR. M. :—More or less throughout India.— in very dense spikes. NS.-Oct. anæmia. Fl.— tube short. Barna.—Scitamineæ. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. bracts ovate. lip white with yellow centre. Country.2-2. L. Ajapa.—Aug. spirally arranged. mucronate. Fr. See—Condiments and Spices. K. By the earliest writers. K.
CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod.—15-30 X 5. root-stock tuberous. Khandala. Bitusi. S. Hadawarna. PARTS USED:—Root. dyspepsia. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. LOC.
antilithic. bark. USES:—Root is alterative.. LOC.—1 (rarely 2). linear lanceolate. Kanda-shalini. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). The plant contains saponin. "Pitta" and "Kapha". Nagdavana. tumours. CHAR. Nag-damani. act as rubefacient and vesicant. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Vishamungalli. chest. L. DISTR. expectorant. NS. leaves. thin. Sd. flowers and fruits. Fr. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. useful in biliousness.5 cm. Pindar. Ceylon.—15-50 in an umbel.:—G. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. useful in bronchitis. Nag-damani. fragrant at night. laxative. lung and spleen diseases. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. good in strangury. vesicant. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). scape 45-90 cm. anthelmintic. bulb 5-10 cm. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. LOC. K. Tonic. urinary concretions. antipyretic. Nagadown. Kanwal. white. bechic. 0. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. heating. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. gonorrhœa. laxative.76
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PARTS USED :—Root. and seeds. also wild. lobes 6. strangury. :—Throughout tropical India. See—Timbers. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. X 12. chest and blood diseases. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. digestive.5-10 cm. Visha-Mandalamardini. diuretic. cylindric.5-18 cm. H. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Patra-pushpi. leaves. carminative. Chindar. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Sk. vulnerary. bright green. Wild or cultivated.. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. urinary discharges. found wild in North and South Konkan. removes "Vata". increases secretion of bile. detergent. tuberculous glands. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. linear.9-1.
. it promotes appetite. long. Seeds—purgative. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. diam. COM.
CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. with a sheathing base. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani).—Amaryllidaceæ. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. bitter. toothache. diseases of vagina. perianth tube greenish-white. Kanmu. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. bracts 7. emmenagogue.
FAM. Bark promotes appetite. as long as the tube. anuria. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. flat. expectorant. vomiting.—subglobose. M. anthelmintic. night-blindness. Fl. then sweet. beaked.—20-30. lumbago. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. defective vision.
. China. H. emetic. :—Naturalised in S. Danti. As an application to sprains.—Euphorbiaceæ. Chota-Natpur.
CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. expectorant. LOC. Ieucoderma. Oil cathartic.
CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nepala . USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. good in sore eyes. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. nauseant and diaphoretic. :—Sylhet.—Euphorbiaceæ. excessive phlegm. K. Seeds contain an alkaloid. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. COM. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. LOC. Oil from the seed is purgative. The plant contains lycorin. Assam to Malacca. Nepala. naturalised or cultivated. etc. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. Ganasur. Purging croton . Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. See—Timbers. Burma. Jamalgota . fever. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Malay Islands. cathartic. Chucka . Burma. Western Peninsula. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. insanity. convulsions. :—E. Kanara.
. Jamalgota.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. DISTR. tonic. NS.
FAM. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. M. Bhutankusam. Sk. it is in great request. Madhya Pradesh. Konkan. Ceylon. :—Bengal. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. abdominal diseases. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Seeds cause burning sensation. :—Rare in the State. M. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). Japala. Nepal. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. bark. Bengal. useful in mental troubles. Jepal. COM. bruises and rheumatic swellings. carminative. Jayapala. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. NS. :—H. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. G. Ceylon . Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations.
FAM. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. leaves and seeds. Danti. PARTS USED :—Root. in small doses.
may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Sweet melon . LOC. used in liver and kidney troubles. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda).
FAM. wholesome. Kankadi. insanity. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. Shantanu. nutritive and diuretic. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. urinary discharges. aphrodisiac. thirst (Yunani). Mutrala. cures ophthalmia. Tarkakadi. Valaka.
.:—E. ascites. &c. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. Chibdu Shakarteti. Chibuda. MELO Var.78
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. in ascites and anasarca. They are edible. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. It is useful in apoplexy. PARTS USED :—Root. Karkali. Kakadi. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. M. Melon. allays fatigue. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Valungi. Kharbuja. dropsy. G. :—In Deccan.
COM. strengthens heart. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. colic. biliousness. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Kharbuja. Vrittervaru. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. insanity. cooling. diaphoretic. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. COM. LOC. obstinate constipation. DISTR. Said to be truly wild in India. :—G. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Sk. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. laxative. gives headache. chronic fever. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Seeds—lachrymatory. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. tonic. Rind—vulnerary. Lomashi. ascites. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. synovitis. Kalangida. Kharbuja. Kakni. Sk. may cause indigestion. K. DISTR. cures " Vata ". :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. It is given internally with great caution. and lock-jaw. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. convulsions. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Karkati. M. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. Fruit—tonic. NS. Mahanaracha Rasa. oily. NS. diuretic. LOC. diuretic. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. H. H. bronchitis.
C. Kakri. laxative. Pathira . Shadrekha.—Cucurbitaceæ. galactagogue. Kachra. See—Timbers. Ripe fruit—sweet. fruit and seeds. brain and body.
CUCUMIS MELO Linn.
M. margined . COM. Tansali.
FAM. fever. Santekayi. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. Khira. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). Takamaki. lobes obovate. Sk. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. Fl. melo var. LOC. cures biliousness.— suborbicular. See-Fruit Trees. are administered in throat affections. stem slender. NS. fatigue.—white. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. Fr.
CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. cures thirst. and C. Ripe one tonic. purgative. tendrils simple.
. Chitravalli. Kumbhakshi. Cultivated in all parts of India. enrich blood. Khira. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). B. Vishala. DISTR.
CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Yunani). Fruit—fattening . dry. Kakdi. lobulate or dentate . Seed oil used in fever. Seeds—diuretic. female peduncle longer than male. strangury. used in thirst. L. angled. allay thirst. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. :—A perennial climber. K. Kakari. Sudhavsa.—yellow segments elliptic. pulp bitter. Cucumber. NS. G. Karit. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. causes "Vata".—monœcious . They are nutritive. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. H. India is considered to be the original home. Trapusha. Sushitala. Seeds possess cooling properties. t. antipyretic. good for brain and body. stomachic. utilissimus (Ayurveda. Mrigadani. Tavasa. LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kothiban. fruits. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. pale yellow when ripe. they are also used as diuretic. See—Vegetables. hairy.
FAM.:—N. "Kapha" and flatulence.:—E. improve complexion. M. H. cooling. C. astringent. Kankdi. diuretic. roasted and powdered. HABITAT :—Cultivated. biliousness. Sd. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Sk. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. cordate at the base.—June-Sept. :—G.—subglobose or ellipsoid. LOC. Hislambhi. rigid. male in clusters. indigestible. COM. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat.
fruit is used to prevent insanity. COM. NS. Afghanistan.
FAM . G. Pumpkin. M. Kushmand. K. LOC. Safedkaddu . :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. :—E. stomachic. :—Cultivated.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. DISTR. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Ceylon. LOC. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo.
FAM. increases " Vata ". Kadimah. B and C. Seeds are used as taeniacide. Iran. Sk. Fruit contains vitamins A.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC.
CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Vegetables. Malaya. LOC.
. Kumbala. Dried fruit indigestible . In Malabar. tonic. cures cough. COM. Melon pumpkin. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Pitakushmand. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. etc.80
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT :—Jungles.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Throughout the greater part of India. allays thirst. Dudia. H. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Tambda bhopala. Australia. Kaddu. : — E. cultivated in many parts of India. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. improves taste (Ayurveda). The plant contains glucoside saponin.:—Considered to be a native of America. Koron.
CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Kumra. Karkarn. N. USES. LOC. Mithakaddu. HABITAT. Red squash gourd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. M. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bhopala. increases " Vata" . Punyalata. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. DISTR. fruits and seeds. astringent to bowels . H. unhealthy ulcers. Kumbala.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. K. Sk. carbuncles. G. Kushmand. Vegetable marrow. Dangari. indigestible. Kashiphala. on hedges.
FAM. laxative. See—Condiments and Spices. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Neltati gadde. inflammations. Neladati. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. H. ft contains vitamins A and C. Musali. antidysenteric. Jirige. fatigue. and the root for making these more potent. astringent to bowels. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. uterine stimulant. relieves hiccup. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. antipyretic. Talamulika. ulcers. astringent. carminative.
CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. emmenagogue.
. throat and eyes. sweet. M. haematinic. belching . Seeds anthelmintic. Sk.—Amaryllidaceæ. also a lactagogue. Jira. stomachic. cures leprosy. purifies blood (Ayurveda). analgesic. Kalimusali. leucoderma. stops epistaxis . NS. fever.—Umbelliferæ. Cures " Vata " tumours. cooling. Leaves—digestible. Zira. NS. Ajjika. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. tonic to intestine. Fruit astringent. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. scabies. Kapha " and " Vata ". M. K. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. beneficial in consumption. Kalimusali. :—G. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. vulnerary. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). G. K. Seeds are taeniacide. leprosy. bronchitis. COM. LOC. Sk. carminative. Gaurajerka. See—Vegetables. asthma. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. alexipharmic. fever. Mushalikand . heals corneal opacities. LOC. DISTR. anthelmintic. eye-diseases. LOC. diuretic and demulcent. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. :—E. H. Dipaka. abortifacient. fruit and seeds. tonic. increases appetite . scorpion sting (Ayurveda). biliousness.
FAM. Seeds—diuretic. remove biliousness. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PARTS USED :—Leaves. astringent to bowels. good for teeth. Jiru. COM. gonorrhœa. Cumin. Fruit—very cooling.
CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. tonic. PARTS USED :—Fruit. cure haemoptysis. Dirghaka. Girautmi. allays thirst. Fruit yields an essential oil. Jire. Kalimusali. enlargment of the spleen. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. appetiser. thirst. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. fattening. cures haemoptysis.
gleet. troubles in the mouth and ear.—capsule. jaundice. Amhaladi. :—E. 1545 X 1.. Kapurahaldi. Amragandha. :—Bengal.:—W. " Vata".— in autumnal spikes 7. piles. useful in bronchitis. perianth segments elliptic. causes "Vata". antipyretic. C—white or very pale-yellow. LOC. yellow. antipyretic. aphrodisiac. Sd. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. hydrophobia.—long petioled in tufts. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. LOC. cooling. indigestion. Peninsula. Java. useful in biliousness. emollient. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. :—Konkan and N.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. t. L. scape. stomatitis (Yunani). bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. L. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating.5 cm. bronchitis. tips sometimes rooting. appetising. colic. Malay Archipelago. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. alexiteric. very short.—Scitamineæ. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). sessile. with a beak . biliousness. COM.-Sept. Peninsula. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. alterative. appetiser. hiccup. pains in joints (Yunani).— May-June. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. alterative and tonic. tonic. inflammations (Ayurveda).
FAM. gonorrhœa. bitter. black. Bengal. Karpuraharidra. common at the beginning of rains. hairy on the back. Mango-ginger. scabies. Fl. 30-45x7. Ambahaldi. distichous. oblong. vomiting. Fr. DISTR. Sk. linear or linear-lanceolate . H.
CURCUMA AMADA Roxb.
. expectorant. tubers thick. :—Stemless herb. W. :—A small herb. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. oblong lanceolate.8-5 cm.— in racemes. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. clavate . all skin-diseases. diarrhœa. pale yellow inside . debility and impotence. ulcers on penis. Fl. flowering bract greenish-white.5-12. Assam. gleet. Root—carminative. cylindric or ellipsoid. oblong. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. during convalescence after acute illness. CHAR. maturant. root stock large. useful in inflammations. fatigue. Ambehalad. Kanara. :—Konkan and Gujarat.3-2. useful in piles. NS. Ambahaladara. LOC. Bitter. shining . USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. appetiser.—grooved. laxative.—sessile or petiolate. Fl. gonorrhœa. DISTR. ophthalmia. t.5-15 X 3. rhizome. lumbago. fattening. Fl. asthma. lumbago. diarrhœa.:—Sweet. aphrodisiac. K. G.82
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . diuretic. often cultivated. aphrodisiac.
lateral lobes oblong. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. the dorsal longer. NS. upper half funnel-shaped. LOC. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. :—Grown extensively in Deccan.—tube 2. PARTS USED :—Tubers. C. Haridra. G. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Bengal. long. Halad. COM. appetiser . Vanhaldara.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics.
FAM.. Mangalya. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Vanarishta. Sk. flowering bracts cymbiform.
. M. Sometimes cultivated. It is considered tonic and carminative. DISTR. pale green. LOC. flowers fragrant. H. Ran-halad. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. Arishina.-May. Yellow Zedoary. it is seldom used alone . useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda).—Scitamineæ. rounded at the tips. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Harita.
FAM. variegated above. Banharidra. NS.
CURCUMA LONGA Linn. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. Halada. See—Condiments and Spices. Cochin-Wild turmeric. :—E. lobes pale-rose. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. Sholika. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . Kapur-kachali. Also cultivated in Konkan. Fl. Fl.— flowering stem sheathed. palmately branched. L. K.5 cm. used as an application for skin-diseases.
CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Sholi. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. appearing before leafing stem. G. Aranyaharidra. in spikes 15-30 cm. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. :—E. sometimes cultivated. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. CHAR. COM. forming pouches for the flowers. annulate. Indian saffron.—Scitamineæ. lip yellow. long. DISTR. :—Stemless herb. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. Varnadatri. root-stock large. Jayanti. Banhaladi. :—Western Peninsula. t. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. base deltoid. M. green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. sessile. biennial. LOC. Halad. Turmeric.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. also stomachic. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. 3lobed.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. Sk.
and inflammatory troubles of the joints . See—Condiments and Spices. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. oblong-lanceolate. 30-60 cm. externally applied to leech-bites. appetiser. Fr. destroys foulness of breath. CHAR. useful in leucoderma. anthelmintic. Kachora. Narakachora. Bitter. LOC. asthma. vulnerary. taste bitterish spicy.:—E. bruises. scabies. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. swellings. emollient. vulnerary. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. In small-pox and chicken-pox. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. Zedoary. clouded with purple down the middle. Kachora. urinary discharges. oblong. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia.—Scitamineæ. 3-gonous. NS. useful in " Kapha". paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. bitter. bruises (Yunani). Fl. fragrant. boils. laxative. Karechura. internally administered in blood disorders. said to be Wild in E. good for liver affections. :—Cultivated in the State. carminative. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. used in prurigo. sprains (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. heating. small-pox. flowering bract green tinged with red . annulate tubers. Gandhamulaka sara. odour like camphor. bruises. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. cylindric. coma-bract crimson or purple . an alkaloid. boils and urticaria. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. M. The plant contains curcumin. Shathi. inflammations.
FAM . Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. "Vata ". bronchitis. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. piles. Kachuri. bitter. lip 3-lobed. tonic. LOC. long. long. heating. Hakhir. flowers yellow in spikes. In coryza. lobed .84
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. and yields an essential oil. Sk. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. deepyellow. L. Himalayas and Chittagong. H. :—Stemless herb. K. scabies. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis .—funnel shaped. G. improves complexion.—4-6 with long petioles. maturant. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. It contains vitamin A. pale-yellow inside. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa.—capsule. alexiteric. alexiteric. Jatala. fumes are used during hysteric fits . blood diseases. appearing before the leaves. clothed with sheaths. root-stock of palmately branched. itches etc. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. Kachari. jaundice. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda.
CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose.
. C. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing.— flowering stem 20-25cm. Tuber is used as a stimulant. diuretic. COM. urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. antipyretic. leucoderma.
applied to bruises and sprains. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. toothache (Yunani). sharp hot taste. of much use in typhoid fevers. Externally it is rubefacient. nodding. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. pains. furunculosis. COM. carminative. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. Bhustrina. upto over 90 cm. tuberculous glands of neck. Lemon grass. LOC. enlargement of spleen. LOC.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. Ligule very short. neuralgia. It is an excellent stomachic to children. Lilicha. and is of great value in cholera. NS. leprosy. emmenagogue. Majjige hullu. high. stimulant and carminative. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins..
. long. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. K. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. LOC. tonic to brain and heart. carminative. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. long. Putigandha.
FAM. good odour. sharp.:—E. sprains. Gandhatrina. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. L. epileptic fits. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. anthelmintic. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). inflammations. Takratrina. :—A tall perennial. it is also a good application for ringworm. G. expectorant. and other painful affections. sheaths of the culm tight. Sk. aphrodisiac. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. midrib whitish on the upper side. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. chronic rheumatism. also used as a tonic and depurative. emetic. bitter.8 m. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. it is stimulant. culm stout. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. sheaths terete .
CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. Bitter. useful in bronchitis. CHAR. Gavati-chaha. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. velvety at the nodes. M. appetiser.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. useful in griping of children. H. laxative. glaucous green. Purhati hullu. It is also aromatic.MEDICINAL PLANTS
tumours. probably of Indian origin. erect.—Gramineæ. hot. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. alexipharmic. up to over 1. laxative. PARTS USED :—Leaves. others narrow and separating.—linear tapering upwards to a point. Tubers yield an essential oil. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. DISTR. gastric irritability.
FAM. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass.. narrowly linear. straw coloured. Durva. Rohisha.5-5 cm. Harali. W. Roshagavat. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Roshdo.—spikes 2-nate. NS.4 m. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. particularly the Deccan trap areas. Fl. oblique or divaricate. high. :—Sourashtra.:—Grows all over the State. Sk. Sind. L. in the Himalayas. Fl. green or purplish. CHAR. :—E.—throughout the year. 12-18 mm. t. Shyamaka. margins scabrid. COM. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere.—2-10 cm. Burma. most warm countries.—Gramineæ. :—E. burning sensation. soft. H. Dhro. leprosy. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Rohisha. finely acute. H. prostrate . Shatagranthi. Baluchistan. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. COM. heart diseases. and Ceylon ascending to 3. long. wide below. M. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. skin
. LOC. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. L. long. Bujina. K. Country. through N. throat troubles. :—A perennial grass . G.—Gramineæ. :—Cosmopolitan .5-30 cm. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. G.
FAM. 1. Mirchiagand. bad taste in the mouth. useful in biliousness. See-Oils. long.3 cm. throughout India. useful in fevers. Fl. pains.—Oct.—grain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. 1 mm. Africa to Morocco. S. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. Durva. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. glaucous beneath. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). usually broad.—flat.
CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. subcordate or rounded at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. with erect flowering branches 7. LOC. DISTR. Fl. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. DISTR.000 m. Saugandhika. X 1 cm. stem. leprosy. Gujarat. thirst. CHAR. scabies. hallucinations. Konkan. Bhutika. fatigue. Fr. sweet. :—Punjab. bitter. forming matted tufts. M. Dhoboghas. epileptic fits. Shatamula. high. slender. Bahuvirya. Geramium grass. Garikehallu. Mangala. Afghanistan. leafy. stem. sheaths tight. cooling. long. LOC. Deccan. Durba. vomiting. widely creeping.t. Vasanchullu. smooth. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Rhusghas. pungent. M. carminative. Gharo. Ghats. bronchitis. Sk. upto 2. NS.86
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Kobbar.-Nov.5-2. K.
LOC. Nagarmotha. biliousness. epistaxis. spikelets 10-50 flowered. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. expectorant. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. it is diuretic. epilepsy. Koranarigadde. Tubers yield an essential oil. useful in leprosy. erysipelas (Ayurveda). bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. diarrhœa. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Nut—broadly ovoid. See—Fodder Plants. Motha. COM. Granthi. Fl. anthelmintic. blood diseases. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. useful in vomiting.—Cyperaceæ.— in simple or compound umbel. very troublesome weed. dysentery. Sugandhi-granthila. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. hiccup (Yunani). stolons elongate. biliousness. narrowly linear. appetiser. Root— diuretic. L. Ceylon. bruises. H. Sk Bhadramusta. blood diseases. trigonous. emmenagogue. In Ceylon. :—Throughout India. fevers. Mutha..—Sept-Nov. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. stomatitis.
FAM. M. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. dyspepsia.—shorter or longer than the stem. LOC. CHAR. :—G. LOC.5 cm. epilepsy and insanity. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. USES :—Roots are commonly. acrid. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. Bimbal. diarrhœa. :—Glabrous herb. Tungegaddo. greyish black.82. Fl.
CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. pain. K. difficult to eradicate. fever. fever. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. Motha.
. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. pruritis. thirst. ophthalmia. dysentery. useful for ulcers and sores. juice is used in hysteria.. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. urinary concretions (Yunani). vulnerary. Kachhola.MEDICINAL PLANTS
diseases. epistaxis (Ayurveda). Motha. stomachic. DISTR. diaphoretic. Mustaka. 0. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. most hot countries. astringent. erysipelas. vulnerary. Bitterish. vomiting. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Tubers. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. They are also diuretic and stimulant. NS. cooling. t.
—Asclepiadaceæ. Kaladhatura. a glucoside. reflexed. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. t. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. M.—follicle.
FAM.2-7. divaricately branched. Kanaka. solitary.
. Bhranta. e. Administered after the third stage of labour. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. tubular. funnel-shapped. entire or with large teeth or lobes. covered with straight sharp prickles. Fl. Gujarat. Fl. Kaladhatura. lobes spreading. usually pubescent.—7.:—E. Sk. across. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Throughout India in hotter parts.—Solanaceæ.—purple outside. acute. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). Kariyu-Um-Matta. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. Fr. t. spur acute. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. COM. greenish-yellow or dull-white. Sd.5 cm. stem hairy.—capsule. packed.g. G. LOC. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. 30-60 cm. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also.88
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. M. somewhat zigzag. :—Annual shrub. Unmatta. Fl. double. subglobose. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. HABIT :—A common weed. COM. C. 18 cm. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. Rajdhattura. outer truncate. Kala-dhotara. long. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. on curved stalk 3. :—Deccan.5 cm. glabrous above. and sub-involution of the uterus. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus .— tubular. CHAR. H.
DATURA FASTUOSA Linn.—Aug. ovate. yellowish brown. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. nodding.—many. DISTR. Kanaka. :—H. :—A perennial twining herb. Black-Purple datura. Fr. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. afterwards racemose. diam. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. high. ciliate. very unequal at the base. long 10-20. L.—thin. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice.2 cm. Ns. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". LOC. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). soft spiny. white inside.—Sept-Dec.5-15 X 3. Sd. corona outer and inner. green. beak long.. paralytic ileus. Country. Fl. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps.
FAM. velvety pubescent beneath. Sk. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Ceylon. Utarni. K: Dhattura.-Jany. Utran. CHAR. NS. inner curved high over the staminal column. Phalakantak. S. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. L.
GranthiPinda-Mula. alexiteric. headache. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. tonic. emetic. and antispasmodic properties. biliousness.
. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. black (Kala) and white (Safed). See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. febrifuge. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Garjara. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. emetic. DISTR. bronchitis. The whole plant is narcotic. febrifuge. (Ayurveda). Gajra. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. ulcers. in combination with subja. Gajjari. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. Leaf-juice is given internally. leaves and seeds. :—E. majum. nodes. with curdled milk. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. black variety is considered to be more powerful. relieves pain. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. anthelmintic. LOC. enlargement of testicles and boils. NS. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Leaf poultice. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. leaves and seeds. Shikkikanda.
FAM.—Umbelliferæ COM.. The plant as a whole has narcotic. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. aphrodisiac. heating. Seeds—narcotic. Carrot. Sk. Gajar. digestive and heating. G. :—Throughout the tropics. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. toxic. PARTS USED :—Root. toddy. chronic coughs. K. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. LOC. ganja. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. cause headache (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. H. equal in effect to atropine. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. bitter. Europe. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. painful tumours. Cultivated in many parts of India. anodyne. jaundice. in gonorrhœa. useful in leucoderma. Root—useful in reducing inflammation.MEDICINAL PLANTS
DISTR. anthelminitic . Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. nosetrouble. Gajar. M. mumps etc. piles.
DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. to increase their stupefying effect. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. PARTS USED :—Roots. skin-diseases. USES :—Out of the two varieties. Gajar. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye.
Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. tonic. alexipharmic. diuretic. Tonic. LOC. prevents death of fœtus in womb .2 m. Philippines.6-1. :—Konkan and N.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—A woody undershrub. Salparni. they are also diuretic. cures typhoid. Fl. t. astringent to bowels. COM. vomiting. LOC. hooked hairy. Fr. Fl. Malay Peninsula and Islands .—pod. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in chronic fevers. Salwan. cures leprosy. bronchitis. vomiting. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). Country. Salpan. biliousness. good for inflammation. :— G. C—violet or white. LOC. Ceylon. thirst. K. China. cures biliousness. Kanara . Ranbhal. urinary complaints. Root marmalade is refrigerant. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. antidysenteric. removes " Kapha".. alterative. See—Vegetables.
DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. aphrodisiac. Sk. nausea (Yunani). standard cuneate at the base . H. Vidarigandha. good for liver. Shaliparni. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). sub-falcate. margins wavy. Kitavinashini. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. " Tridosha ". corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). joints 6-8. asthma. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge.
FAM. piles. green and glabrous above. L. Darh. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. tropical Africa. cardiotonic. burning sensation. hiccup. urinary discharges. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. M. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. used in bronchitis. Deccan and S. B and C.—onefoliate. biliousness. hairy. high.—May-July. chronic affections of chest and lungs. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. " Vata". stems and branches angled. expectorant. tumours. M. Roots contain vitamins A. throughout India. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. other fevers. membranous. USES :—Externally. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. they produce a spirituous liquor. Dirghamula. chest troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. 0. DISTR. ovate-oblong. aphrodisiac. fattening. stomachic. vomiting and asthma. carminative. asthma. boiled with honey and fermented.
. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . Burma. thirst. paler and hairy beneath. Murele-honne. cough.90
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. astringent to bowels.—in terminal or axillary racemes. upper edge straight. Salwan. It is used in fevers. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. NS. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. piles. Salpani. pains. dysentery . anthelmintic. inflammations. indigestible. Salwan. CHAR.
DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf.—many. Tinduka. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Pavitra. Dab. branches short crowded. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. H. branched from the base.8 cm. CHAR. Riber ebony. biliousness. Syria. cooling. :—Throughout India. vesical calculi. Fl. Wild mangosteen. Sphurjaka. Temburni.
. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Kanara and the Konkan. Flowers—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. DISTR. jaundice. LOC. :—E. Egypt. in the beds of rivers and streams.3-3.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. astringent to bowels. Nubia. Thailand (Siam). sheaths glabrous. smooth. high. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). sedative to pregnant uterus. stout.—Ebenaceæ. vaginal discharges. reaching 50 cm. bark. Darbha. Sk. diseases of bladder. diuretic. NS. creeping. Gale.
DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. stems 30-90 cm. NS. skin eruptions. Zeeberwo. erect pyramidal or columnar. interrupted. stolon very stout. COM. Durva. margins hispid. fruit and seeds. PARTS USED :—Wood. useful in blood diseases. Kalaskandh. erect. the basal fascicled. tufted. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Fl.)
FAM. See—Fodder Plants. rootstock stout. K.—Dec. LOC. M. Gujarat. Davoli. Kalatendu. M. Konkan. Sacred Plants. LOC. G. COM. asthma. Kusha. Tumaki Mara. Gavandu. Tendu. :—Along the coasts of N. Fruit—oleaginous. Wood cures biliousness. rigid. Ceylon. Tumari. strangury. heating. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. diseases of blood. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. cures ulcers and " Vata". :—Perennial tall grass.. Banda. ligule a hairy line . Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Sk. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. thirst. Malay Archipelago. long. Makurkendi. Timbwini. flowers. H. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. used in biliousness and blood diseases. oleaginous. covered with shining sheaths. vomiting. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Dabha.—G. Darbha. clothed with sessile spikelets. t. good for lumbago. L. -panicle 15-45 X 1.:—Saurashtra.
PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Kulathi. pain in liver. It is demulcent in calculus affection. Sori two in each primary areole. variously lobed. hiccup. NS. ovate. cures hiccup. piles. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. short. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. HABITAT :—Cultivated.
DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. Kulitha. See-Food Plants. LOC. Nasik. eye troubles. Texture membranaceous to leathery. antipyretic. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. NS. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Kulthi. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Sk.
. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Kulith. :—Rhizome creeping. M. See—Timbers. ozoena. bronchitis. strangury. tumours.
FAM. COM. astringent to bowels. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). diseases of the brain and eyes. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Diuretic. cordate. Hurali. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. coughs etc. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. Konkan— Ratnagiri. M. urinary discharges.92
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. intestinal colic.
FAM. Horse-Gram. H. grown to a certain extent in S. Kulit. anthelmintic. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. :—E. Kulthi. appetiser. fattening. Grains contain vitamin A. Country—Belgaum. dry. K. Wandar bashing.Gahat. Bijapur and Dharwar. Tans. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. Sk. DISTR. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. base decurrent on the stipe. Kulithaka. Ashvakatri. inflammation. Sitetara. :—M. COM. CHAR. generally on trees and rocks. Jurali. Basingh. causes biliousness (Yunani). :—Tropics of the old world. Surfaces naked. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. leucoderma. G. PARTS USED :—Seeds. abdominal complaints. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. fertile ones long stalked. removes stone from kidney. improves complexion. liver troubles. piles. hot. asthma. enlargement of spleen. stout. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. emmenagogue. Kalvrinta.—Polypodiaceæ. heart-troubles. acrid.
DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. LOC. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. "Vata". :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. cures " Kapha".—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).
glabrous above. hectic fever. hysteria. analgesic. Country. Pitripriya.
FAM. COM. :—Konkan. high. densely villous. usually oblong-lanceolate.3—0.
ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. subentire. increases appetite. Garagadasoppu. improves taste. H. dyspepsia and cough. gleet. Dadhal. causes " Kapha". :—G. C. Deccan. cottony pubescent. strigose and hairy. Utkantaka. cooling. Fl.9 m. Utkanto. astringent to bowels . Root— abortifacient. Fr. used in strangury. antipyretic. t. Maka. bitter. involucre. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. bracts 3seriate. useful in brain-diseases. used in ophthalmia. LOC.—limb linear. Kalobhangro .—achene obconic. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). cottony. Balari. also cultivated to a certain extent. L. LOC.-Jany. It is used in hoarse cough. Kadechubak. COM. Mochand. sinuate and spinescent. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. tonic.— opposite. :—More or less throughout India. Fl. L. spiny. K.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. intermediate produced in sharp spine. pappus short. Utakatara. Utkatara. biliousness. hot. Bhangra. Kadigga-garaga. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. often rooting at the nodes.
ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. M. urinary discharges. Kantalu. :—Kanara. M. Sk.:—Throughout India. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Sk. long. :—G. sessile.—Compositæ. DISTR.
FAM. NS. H. globose. 0. Shulio. :—A much branched rigid annual. Afghanistan. deeply pinnatifid. LOC. Bhangra. DISTR. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. Seeds—wholesome. Konkan.— Nov. Plant stomachic.—Compositæ. Utanti. surrounded by strong white bristles. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. Keshrangana. spines 2. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. Utkanta. Sunilaka. Kantaphala. oblong. pain in joints. dyspepsia. wooly beneath. the lobes triangular and oblong. stimulates liver.5 cm. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. thirst. S. NS. diseases of heart. Bhringraj. Bhangro. yellowish.
.—sessile. inflammations. Markara. CHAR. Ajagara.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. branches widely spreading from the base. chronic fever. stems and branches strigose and hairy. CHAR. " Vata".—heads white.
The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. LOC. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. NS.
FAM. involucral bracts about 8 . Ela. tonic. K. ray flowers ligulate. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). heart and skin diseases. t. it is powdered and applied externally. See—Sacred Plants. a reputed and popular liver tonic. It relieves headache when applied with oil. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. asthma. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Fl.—achene. alexipharmic. DISTR. Kanara (Siddapur. hot. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Triputa. internal diseases. Elachi. expectorant.94
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Fl. Madhya Bharat. anæmia. C—often 4-toothed . USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . Gourangi. antipyretic.:—India (Bengal. lustre of eyes. hair. stomachic. Yalakki. eye diseases. cures vertigo (Yunani). LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. hemi-crania. teeth. good for spleen diseases. cuneate with a narrow wing. "Vata". Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. Burma. solitary or 2 together. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. Sk. Gandhkuti. Malaya. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) .
. eyes. fattening.— Oct. Panjab. Fr. M. Peninsula). improves colour of hair. There are two forms erect and prostrate. H.-Dec. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. Choti-Elachi. liver pain. Chandrabala. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. Bitter . G. fevers. alterative. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum.—Scitaminaceæ. axillary. toothache. Veldoda. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. and for strengthening gums. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Sind. :—Western valleys of N. It is given internally in scalding of urine. leucoderma. LOC. Velchi. Ceylon.. prevents abortion and miscarriage. W. bronchitis. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman).—in heads. anthelmintic. COM. Ilaji. "Kapha". Lesser—Malabar cardamom. hernia. cures inflammations. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle.
ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. :—E. disk ones tubular . good for complexion. cultivated. Bahula. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. syphilis. stomatitis. pappus 0. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Karangi. night blindness.
kidney. CUM. bronchitis. fruit and seeds. LOC. abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid.. scabies. useful in head. laxative. Sk.
FAM. Wavrung. DISTR. K.
FAM. It is said to be astringent. root is laxative and tonic. Nachani.
. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). pungent. chest and throat (Yunani). H. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. M. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. PARTS USED :—Root. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Bavato. PARTS USED :—Grain. piles. It is stomachic. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. M. Seed—fragrant. lessens inflammation. See-Food Plants. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. cooling.:—G. diuretic. causes thirst. Vavading. Navalo-nagali. clear head. tonic. diseases of bladder. rich or poor.—Gramineæ. Makra. Jantughna. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. Vavoding. stimulant and emmenagogue. bitter. useful in asthma. See—Condiments and Spices. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Rajika. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. tonic to heart. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). Narttaka. ear and tooth ache. :— G. NS. Nagali. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. diuretic. Pavaka. cause biliousness . most suitable to hard-working classes. India. Marua. strangury. pruritus.
EMBELIA RIBES Burm. LOC. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Vidariga. In S. cultivated. cooling. H.—Myrsinaceæ. stomachic. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. Varding. NS. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. fragrant.
ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn.MEDICINAL PLANTS
DISTR. brain and mouth. bad humours of liver. Vayuvitang. useful in biliousness. LOC.:—Western and S. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. Kanisha. carminative. Grains contain vitamin B. Bhasmaka. fruit is tonic. alexiteric . Boberang. K. stomachic. COM. Bidanga. Sk. Ragi. Rotka.
Adiphala. Ambala. Dhatri. fruit and seeds. :— E. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). branches long. alterative. 42-II-1932).
. cures tumours. LOC. Seed— acrid. laxative. jaundice. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. anthelminitic. Arch. Daula . bronchitis. Bitter. inflammations. Anola. shining above. mental diseases. cooling. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. Ther. strangury. K. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. Amalaka. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Deccan. Amlika. :—Hilly parts of the State. bronchitis. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. HABITAT :—Rain forests. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. many. Fr. " Tridosha ". et. :—Throughout India.—berry. urinary discharges. smooth. China. coriaceous. Nellika . alterative.)
FAM. NS. COM. Ceylon. anuria. reddens urine. bark. Konkan and N. alexiteric. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. Western Ghats. laxative. paler and silvery beneath. Amla. urinary discharges. K. Ceylon. tonic. internodes long. purgative. analgesic. dyspnoea. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. Malay Islands. leaves. Kanara. alexiteric. S. DISTR. Pharm. anthelmintic . sour. G. Sk. M. carminative. Fl. useful in burning sensation. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. slender. erysipelas. vomiting. S. DISTR. H. Bhoza . elliptic-lanceolate. black when ripe. biliousness. aphrodisiac. flexible. wild or planted. flowers.96
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. vulnerary. China. thirst. racemes minute. (Dymock). L. " Kapha'. piles. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. :—A large scandent shrub. poisoning. Dadi. sweats.—in lax panicles. succulent.—Feb. with a sharp bitter taste. Triphala. often planted in Konkan. bark studded with lenticels . Amlika. useful in asthma. Fl. LOC.
EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. leprosy. dries wound discharges . Int. t. good appetiser. Gokhale. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. anæmia.—alternate. PARTS USED :—Fruit. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. like a pepper corn when dried. Anward. Paranjpe and G. constipation. good for plethoric constitution. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Embelic myrobalan. hemicrania. Dhatriphala. diseases of heart. ascites. carminative. Malaya. greenish yellow. dry. Avala. nearly globose.—Euphorbiaceæ. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. cures bronchitis .
Tanavadi. Hallekayiballi. M. sour. Lady nut. improves appetite. useful in heart-diseases.)
FAM. CHAR. Fr.). R. t. eye troubles. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. Giant's rattle. high. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. rounded apex. biliousness. opposite. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. Sk. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. S.
FAM. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. H. 3-nerved.—Gentianaceæ. tonic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. cooling.—Aug. variable. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. COM. Doddakampi. :—G. Nagajivha. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea.
ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. NS.—sessile. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Dried fruits. Sind. Grey). white. stops nasal hæmorrhage.MEDICINAL PLANTS
Flowers—cooling. West Indies. M. Mackary bean. tropical Africa. sub-quadrangular or terete. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Dyes. Fl. narrowed at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. :—A perennial glabrous herb. anthelmintic. Tans. Madvinashi. L. ellipsoid. branched from the base. Chhotakirayat. See—Timbers. LOC. COM. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ".-Nov. Mabhipaka. lobes 5. Country. diuretic and laxative. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). piles. USES :—Root. aperient. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Garbe. Unripe fruit is cooling. liver complaints. LOC. Nahu. Fl. C—infundibuliform. Celyon.—sessile. Ind. NS. Fruit—acrid. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. thirst.— capsule. cold in the nose. Mamejavo . purifies body humours (Yunani). expectorant. Fruit Trees. Gujarat. stems erect or procumbent. Malaya. :—E. :—Konkan. bark and fruit are astringent. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). used as laxative and astringent. Garambi. astringent. vulnerary. Kadvinayi. mid-nerve strong.
ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Saurashtra. M. K. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Tiktapatra. in axillary clusters all along the stem. DISTR. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia.
. 10—50 cm.
bark used in dysentery.—pod. for grapevines in Nasik district. Indian coral-tree. long. Panarvo. leaves.98
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. Arakan. improve appetite. W. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. in debility and glandular swellings . Sk. thick.5-10 cm.. Raktapushpa. flowers. PARTS USED :—Seeds.. Sundribans. Mandara. 3. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . C. Mullumurige. pinnae 2—3 pairs. LOC. Fl.5-5-7 cm. H. along sea-coast above high-water. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.— Mar. smooth. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. often along river banks. stomachic. Kanara. Bangaro. orbicular. Dadap. Paribhadra. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. N. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. 30-90 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Mochi-wood. Tennaserim. Panjira. the tropics generally. Pangara. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. L. DISTR. glabrous. :—E. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. stalked. indented between the seeds. Kantakinshuka.)
FAM. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. shining and brown. rigidly coriaceous.. cure urinary discharges.—2pinnate. Pangara. cures " Kapha" and " Vata".—6-15. The plant is used as a fish-poison. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. compressed. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. K. slightly curved. LOC.7-5x7. branches terete. Salaki. woody. leaflets 7-5 x 2. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. COM.3-2 cm. Andamans and Nicobar. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. Fl. inflammations. DISTR. Pegu. bark. PARTS USED :—Root.—yellow. :—Coast forests of Malabar. mixed with spices. Var. Hongara. Halivan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. 4. :—Konkan and N.S. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. ORIENTALIS Merr. Sd.
ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. Planted as ornament. diam. Fr. dark green. Ceylon. USES :—Powdered kernel. Leaves—bitter. anthelmintic. long.
. Panderavo. they are given internally as an emetic. wide and 3-8 cm. Phandra . Nepal. G. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.-May. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Planted as support for pepper vines. M. Peninsula. hot. oblong or obovate. Mandara.
H. base unequal-sided. :—Annual herb. Dudhi. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Sahud. L. Pill-bearing spurge. erect or ascending. dark green above. K. bowel complaints and cough in children. Indian tree spurge. Achchegida. FL. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Nagpur 1931).MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. NS. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Ceylon.
EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Sc.
EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. G. Dandasruha. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. serrulate or dentate. COM. Duddi.—Euphorbiaceæ. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Paradeshi thora . Sd. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. reddish brown. CHAR. LOC. :— E. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . it is anthelmintic. Sk. Vajradruma. K. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. appressedly hairy. Fr. Shirthahar. t. Bottugalli. M. Nevli. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands.—involucres numerous. Milk hedge.
FAM. Australian asthma herb. Pusitoa. COM. G. Cong. globose. Govardhan. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dudhi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Kodukalli. pale beneath. gland minute. Dandalio thora. See—Timbers. high. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Dudanali. Mondukalli. M. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. rugose. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). and to relieve pain of the joints. Sendh. NS. branches often 4-angled. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. 18th Ind. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine.—Euphorbiaceæ. Plant is chiefly used for worms. H. —throughout the year. Sher. Milk bush.—capsule. with or without a limb. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Sk.—opposite. Dudhi.—ovoid-trigonous. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. :—E.)
FAM. Fl. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bahukshira. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. 15-50 cm.
M. carminative. more than 5 cm. asthma. branches erect. t. Jhinkiphudardi. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. globose.
EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). terete. employed to raise blisters. elliptic-oblong. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. usually clothed with long hairs . PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. epilepsy. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. alterative.-light blue. Vishnukranta. campanulate. K. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. DISTR. Shyamakranta . Vishnugandhi. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils.—many. axillary. brightens intellect. polished. :—Sind. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. H. about 6 m. Fl. :—G. t. :—A small tree. L.
. DISTR. whooping cough. LOC. linear. smooth. dropsy. leprosy and leucorrhoea. leucoderma. LOC. CHAR. Fr. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . 6-13 mm. useful in gonorrhœa. The plant contains an alkaloid. jaundice. smooth. base acute. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. silky hairy. cocci velvety. useful in biliousness.
FAM. Vishnukranti. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. thin. stems many. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Konkan and Gujarat. alexiteric. Fr. useful in bronchitis. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the State.100
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. long (appearing in rainy season) . Kalisankhavali. also as an alterative. anthelmintic. :—A perennial herb. milk is alexiteric. NS. stone in bladder (Yunani). peduncles very long. LOC.-Sep. tropical and sub-tropical countries. Sd— glabrous. Vishnukranta. thick like quill. Ceylon. teething of infants . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Nilpushpi. useful in abdominal troubles. Fl. tumours. wiry. carminative.— capsule. rootstock woody . tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). 4valved. and with oil to promote growth of hair. long. Fl.—Convolvulaceæ. Sk. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. tonic. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. enlargement of spleen. colic. mostly female.—small. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. solitary or sometimes 2. high.—ovoid. Juice is purgative. pungent. LOC. branchlets whorled. biliousness. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Sd. :—Native of East Africa.-July-Nov.-Aug.—capsule. spreading. naturalised in India. almost leafless. prostrate. L.
:— H. CHAR. the middle the largest. LOC. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. cures dysentery. in copious terminal cymes . L. obliquely obovate. Fr. typhoid. CHAR. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. urinary discharges. Upper Gangetic plains. small. in chronic bronchitis. 5-nerved.-Oct. glandular hairy. acute. removes "Vata. thirst. about 1. vomiting. Ustarkhar.—capsule. 1-3 foliate. fever. N. Atmamuli.—solitary. more or less glandular. ellipsoid. Ghats. toothache. pale rose-coloured. t. flattened. Baluchistan. long. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. stem. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. purifies blood (Ayurveda). pyramidal to the apex. :—A small spiny erect undershrub.2 cm. H.
FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. M. yellowish brown. smooth. Iran. DISTR. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. Dhanavi. C—lobes 4-5. Sd. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks.). it has got cooling properties. Ind.— ovoid. the upper blue. 1-seeded cocci.MEDICINAL PLANTS
EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. cooling. Udichirayat. Arabia. Cooling. ovate. NS. emmenagogue. lower half white. Coimbatore. LOC.—very variable in size and form sessile. t." asthma. arising from between the stipules . Punjab. :—Madras State. Barachirayat. Dusparsha. asthma.—Zygophyllaceæ. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Fl. high.
FAM. Country.—opposite. Deccan hills and S. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. alexipharmic. spitting of blood. stomatitis. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. reaching 60 cm. Waziristan. LOC. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. westwards to Afghanistan. leaflets linear. M. ophthalmia. L. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). sessile.
FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. :—G.-Nov. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. Rajasthan. Dhamaso .-Aug. W. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. also used in chronic fevers. elliptic or lanceolate. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. Fr. Fl. M. :— Sind. NS. petioles deeply striate. COM. Maval. FL.—Gentianaceæ. Mysore. scarcely branched. Prabhodhini. Bark is used in scabies. reduces tumours.
FAM.-Dec. Dhamasa. root fibrous. shining.
. Hinguna. erysipelas. Sk. Gujarat. COM. :—An erect annual. removes "Vata". Mediterranean. Circars. Kashaya. of 5. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields.— showy. good for liver troubles. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . DISTR. deeply 5-partite. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. quadrangular. Fl. smooth.
fatigue. Manmadha. Kothun. country and N. refrigerant. hiccup. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Goli. Fr. female.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W.. fruit and seeds. Kavit. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. " Vata ". " Tridosha". often cultivated. blood impurities. Seeds—antidote to poison. with male. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. LOC. with spreading branches. Vad. Grahiphala. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. COM.
. Vata. leucorrhoea. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. binding diuretic. strengthening to gums .— globose. acrid. alexipharmic. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Belada. COM. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. H. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. M. tumours. S. Byala. common in the Tapi Valley. G. cordate or rounded base. about 2 cm. Kathel.102
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
FAM. Ala. Kavath. shining above. Sk. Kanara. LOC. Malura. ovate to elliptic. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. :—E. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . H. consumption. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Fruit Trees. tonic to heart. Kotha. NS. NS. Bargat. Bar. Monkey fruit. CHAR. good for throat. Bahupada. Ghats. diam. aphrodisiac. refrigerant . L. astringent. Nyagrodha. Kathinyaphala. difficult to digest. :—Indigenous in S. K. DISTR. Bhringi.—coriaceous. :—Cultivated all over the State. :— E. Kapipriya. Kavitha. Sk. Vat. M. Self-sown. Dadhiphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Banian tree. G. Vadlo . Ceylon. Jatala. ophthalmia. dysentery. Bargad. heart diseases. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Elephant or wood apple. Kapitha. useful in biliousness. cures cough. Kait.
FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. LOC. often planted. Balin. 10-20 X 5-12. India. high. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa.5 cm.
FAM. removes biliousness. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaves—very astringent. liver and lungs . asthma. thirst. vomiting . and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. See—Timbers.—Moraceæ. Fruit—sour . Alada. M. Java. K.—Rutaceæ. Vad. Avaroha.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda).
COM. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). diuretic. W. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). ulcers. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. leprosy (Ayurveda). :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Afghanistan. useful in syphilis. Kakodumbar. Bijapur. vulnerary. root-fibres. Fig. LOC. inflammations. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache.
FICUS CARICA Linn. useful in leucoderma. LOC. dysentery. Anjir. weakness. bruises. LOC. nose-diseases. liver and spleen diseases. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Anjir. demulcent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. useful in "Vata". In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. DISTR. biliousness. boils and carbuncles. erysipelas. biliousness. alexiteric. ringworm. lithotriptic. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Simeyatu .
FAM. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district.MEDICINAL PLANTS
DISTR. NS. in rheumatism and lumbago. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts.
. useful in piles. leprosy. Sk. H. vomiting. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. W. leaves. hill ranges of S. Aerial root is styptic. paralysis. Root—tonic. Milky Juice—expectorant. Grown scattered elsewhere. Sacred Plants.—Moraceæ. Asia and Mediterranean. inflammation of liver (Yunani). Milky juice— aphrodisiac. vaginal complaints. Anjura. Anjir. nutritive. useful in "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Bark. seeds and milky juice. useful in inflammation . See—Famine Plants. G. aphrodisiac. Cultivated in N. :—Baluchistan. M. Fibres. India. :— E. thirst. pain in chest cures piles. fever. laxative. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Dharwar. tonic. maturant. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Anjir. India. K. stimulates hair-growth. Seeds are cooling and tonic. diseases of head and blood. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. lessens inflammations.
loss of voice. Pipal. H. :—Widely spread throughout India. ulcers. G. Udumbara. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Bark is cooling. LOC. leaves and fruits. Arani. COM. diseases of kidney and spleen. burning sensation. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). vulnerary. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Ashwatha mara. Umbro. Pipli. biliousness. blood diseases. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. M. Pippala. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Hemadugdha. See—Timbers. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Sk. good for bronchitis. Pavitraka.—Moraceæ. allays thirst. vagina. nose bleedings. PARTS USED :—Root. ground with onions. bark. Peepal tree . Demera. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. leaves. Ashvatha. NS. fruit. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. H. Pipal. LOC. planted all over. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. good for gravid uterus. DISTR. leucorrhoea. bark. Gular-Country fig. Atti. Fruit—astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Planted. Milk—aphrodisiac. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. urinary discharges. Umbar. useful in "Kapha". Rumadi. K.
. Jari. M. Lalka. uterus . K. Bark. cummin. Bark useful in asthma and piles. :—Throughout the State near villages. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Pimpal. DISTR. (Yunani). G. LOC. given in leucorrhoea. tonic. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. good for foul taste. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. :—E. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Pippala.—Moraceæ. NS. Umar. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Umar.
FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. menorrhagia. Vriksharaj. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Pipers. biliousness. COM.104
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. in diseases of blood. Shuchidruma. fatigue. Gular. useful. latex. Bodhidruma. Ragi. leprosy. styptic. Sacred Plants. galactagogue.
FAM. Yajnika. burning sensation. Sk. :—E.
Variali. Shateya. H. Katar. seeds. Fruit—purgative. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Soupa. Badishep. Sk. Variari. gum. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. aphrodisiac.
FAM. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. G. Finkel. M. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. N. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. W. Sacred Plants. and produces sterility in women. COM. See—Timber. astringent in leucorrhoea. common in the Peninsula. Handi Kandai. appetising and digestive. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. H. Young bark useful in bone fractures. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. good for lumbago. Circars. HABITAT :—Hills. Fennel. :—E. Swadukantaka. Ghats. Country and N. DISTR. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. heart diseases. promotes granulations. Satpura. Shalina. Kankod . Bhanber. Potika. Badisoppu. M. S. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Bilangra . M. Bhakal.MEDICINAL PLANTS
thirst. fruit. Paker. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Khandesh. Tapaspriya. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Akrani. upper Gangetic plain.—Umbelliferæ. LOC. Kanara Jungles. Sk. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Mullutari. checks vomiting (Yunani). Bhuripushpa.
. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Fodder Plants. bark. :— G. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Burma. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. COM NS. NS. The juice is employed in hiccup. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Tambat. Hettarimullu. SAPIDA Roxb. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Fruits are sweet. K.
FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. See—Timbers. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Root good for gout. Hunmunki.
FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn.—Flacourtiaceæ. Gajale.
FAM. cleans ulcers. LOC. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds.
M. NS. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. H. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. aphrodisiac. eye-diseases. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. Kanara. See—Condiments and Spices. fissures of lips. leaves and seeds. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. stimulant. common in S. wounds etc. Leaves—improve eyesight. FL.
. yellow. leprosy (Ayurveda). Kokam . dark green. appetiser.—in large umbels . G. useful in bleeding piles. anthelmintic. :—A tall glabrous. It is much used as a nutritive. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Apparently a native of S. DISTR. :—E. carpophore 2-partite. USES :—Bark is astringent. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Amlabija. often cultivated. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. Ghats south of Bombay. fruit and seeds. Tittidika .9 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. Atyamla. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments.6-0. See—Timbers. strengthen eyes (Yunani). causing constipation . fever. leaves (rarely).
GARCINIA INDICA Chois. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". aromatic and carminative.
FAM. laxative. kidney. difficult to digest. demulcent and emollient. ridges prominent. alexiteric. Kokam . pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). " Vata ". cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. thirst. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. Sk. LOC. Tintidika. LOC.— decompound. L. biliousness. improves appetite and allays thirst. Ratambi. Coorg.106
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. :—W. lessen inflammations. Kokam. seeds-carminative. anthelmintic. Wynaad. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. cures "Tridosh". wounds. K.—Guttiferæ. in headache. dysentery. :—Endemic in W. useful in diseases of chest. Oils. stomachic. high. Mulgala. cough and asthma. spleen. burning sensation. furrows vittate.—ellipsoid. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. Ghats. Murjinhalli. Fr. ultimate segments linear. USES :—used as stimulant. galactagogue. Wild mangosteen. tumours. COM. (Mhaskar and Caius). 0. PARTS USED :—Roots. LOC. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. annual. dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". cardiotonic. diuretic. DISTR. bracts and bracteoles absent. amenorrhœa. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms.
unarmed. 1-3 together. Dikkamalli. Dikamali. :—A deciduous shrub. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. C. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. first white then changing to yellow. high. COM. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. 4. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. about 1. Dikamari. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. See—Timbers.
GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition.—Rubiaceæ. Jantuka. Northern ghats of Madras State. NS. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). shining.MEDICINAL PLANTS
GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. DISTR. not fragrant. oblong or ellipsoid. LOC. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. DISTR. H. elliptic-obovate. lucida. Dikemali. Sk. Kanara.
FAM. oblong. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. G.-sessile.8 m. Fl. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. :—India (W.
FAM. -June. all dry districts of Madras State. HABITAT :—Open situations. Fl. K. Dakamali. LOC. astringent to bowels. LOC. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. relieves pain of bronchitis. See—Gums and Resins. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. :—E. Pinda. opaque. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. Cambi resin tree. Suvirya. Hingu. same as for G. LOC.—2. :—India. As sold in the bazar it is hard..-subsessile. COM. t. Burma. common on laterite in southern parts of N.8 cm. CHAR. long.—Feb. Peninsula). Dekamari. PARTS USED:-Gum. NS. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests.5-3.
. Bikke. Gums and Resins. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . L.—Rubiaceæ.-tubular. Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Gum. M. lucida (Ayurveda).5 cm. buds resinous. :—Common from Konkan southwards.5x22.
Indai. Kulhari. root-stock of arched. Kalihari. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. There are two varieties of the plant. Fl. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. alexiteric.2 cm. and crimson from blooming to fading. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. Akkitang hall.5 X 15 X 2-4. Karianag. linear-lanceolate. In case of retained placenta.—Liliaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent.5 cm.-July-Oct.3 cm. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. solid. Linn. useful in chronic ulcers. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. anthelmintic. Cochin-China. solitary. DISTR. stems annual. thirst. :—Herbaceous. Agnimukhi. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. The former is supposed to be male. 7.. abortifacient. L. heating. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2.. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Garbhapatani. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. Huliyuguru. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. Tuber— astringent. Ceylon. leaves and flowers. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. tall. M. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. changing colours from greenish yellow. Malay Peninsula. margins wavy. H. branching climber . Kalikari. Languli. piles. COM. acrid.—sessile. ovate lanceolate. Dudhio vachhonag. given off from young tubers . linear oblong. Fr. filaments long spreading. Sivasaktibalb . used to remove placenta from uterus. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. abdominal pains. K. scarlet. sometimes whorled. Tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State.108
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
GLORIOSA SUPERBA. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). scattered or opposite. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. leprosy. :—Throughout tropical India. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects.—capsule. In Guinea.. Kathari. axillary . PARTS USED :—Tuber. expectorant. inflammations. perianth segments reaching 6. bitter. :—G. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Nangulika. itching. FL. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. orange. LOC. NS. laxative.—large. LOC. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs.
FAM. Sk. CHAR.5-3. Khadyanag. t.
PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. NS. improves appetite . PARTS USED :—Root. Gupsi. Savan. DISTR. LOC. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Devakapus. fevers. Khandesh. Sk.
GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. Tree cotton. flowers and seeds. laxative.—Verbenaceæ. Devkapas. consumption and some catarrhal affections . G. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Ceylon. :— Bengal. :—Throughout India. Philippines. Sind. common on Satpuda. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. tonic. LOC. DISTR. Provinces. See—Timbers. Gumbhar. COM. Bachanige. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Flowers—astringent. Root taken with liquorice. Fruit— diuretic. Cashmere tree. useful in fevers . PROPERTIES AND LOC. scattered in monsoon forests. thirst.
.—Malvaceæ. Shiwan. indigestible. aphrodisiac. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. chronic cystitis. flowers and fruit. LOC. leprosy. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. strangury. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. thirst. Mahabhadra. burning sensation. Hanji. Shripani. consumption. H. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. :— E. COM. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Gandhari. anthelmintic . W. leaves. Sk. alterative. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. H. Malaya. Nurma . Coomb teak. Shiwan. Shivani. M. useful in "Vata". It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. piles. anæmia. Var. scalds etc. urinary discharges. Shivan . useful in hallucinations. Deokapas. Oils. NS. Root extract is bitter and tonic. stomachic. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. White teak.MEDICINAL PLANTS
GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Gambari. leaves. G. M. :—Throughout the State. In the Konkan. K. abdominal pains. Madhya Bharat. See—Fibres. useful in indigestion. the root. Gambhari.:—E. root is also stomachic and laxative. anasarca. Kashmari. promotes hair-growth. " Tridosha ".
FAM. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. catarrh of the bladder etc. made into paste. Karpasam. Kumbudi. Karibatti. Rajasthan and N. K. gleet.
FAM. expectorant and aphrodisiac. leaves. Tula. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Anagnika. aphrodisiac. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. good for all kinds of inflammations. digestible. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. cooling. cures inflammations.—Tiliaceæ. Hatti. Sk. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. U. LOC. acrid. K. Buttiyu-dippa. :—Cultivated in the State. PARTS USED :—Root. Kapus. :—G. :—Sind. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. S. probably in N. M. M. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Phalsa. Karpas.110
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. LOC. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Karihariyale. Syria. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. enrich blood. Seeds— ' galactagogue. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. tonic. leaf-juice good in dysentery. increase flow of urine. G. Parusha.. Sutrapuspha. heart and blood disorders. Roshana. DISTR. NS. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. scabies . (Yunani). A. H. in hypochondria. Egypt. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Ripe fruit—sweet. sour. Iran. removes " Vata" and biliousness. extensively cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. used in orchitis. F. In India they are used to procure abortion. COM. Arabia and Asia Minor. preventing their access to wounds etc. Seeds—aphrodisiac. extensively in Gujarat. Country.. Dhamin. NS. H. allay thirst. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. COM. Phalsi. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Badari. expectorant. fruit. Parapera. K. demulcent. Kapas . LOC. East Tropical Africa. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . restore consciousness. Rui. Afghanistan. Mediterranean. Seeds are laxative. Rui.
FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Kupas. M. bark. wild in Deccan. fomentation for burning eyes . poultice applied to burns' scalds.—Malvaceæ. fruits and seeds. Oils. Baluchistan. analgesic. Arali. Pharuah.
GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. in hills near Poona. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . :—E. Leaves remove " Vata " . All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. good for throat
. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. W. Tadasala. cure all ear-troubles. removes " Vata ". Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic. :— Cultivated in N. DISTR. Jana. Province (Pakistan). laxative .Phalse. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. Mesapotamia. See—Fibres. fevers and consumption. Gujarat and S.
SK. :—Throughout the State. much branched. Bedki. cornea. Ceylon. L. H. Tilparni. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. NS. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). sweet. Mardashingi.MEDICINAL PLANTS
troubles. strengthens chest and heart. asthma. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Ugragandha. Kavali. helps removal of dead fetus. CHAR. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. Hulhul. H. :—A large woody climber. NS. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). G. inflammations. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis.
GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. C. Periploca of the woods. usually single. yellow . The ease of administration. ovate. Fruit—sour. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. DISTR. Karalia .— opposite. See—Fruit Trees. Meshavalli. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. elliptic. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Churota. Shrikala. Pandhari tilwan. COM. COM.
GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. M. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Sd. FL. S. Arkapuspika.
. :— E. alterative.
FAM. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Kanara coast. LOC. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. K. Sanngera. Karnasphota. Bastagandha. ulcers. K. corona of 5 processes . common in hedges in Dharwar district. Kabari. — Asclepiadaceæ. M. t.— with thin marginal wing. Caravella.—in cymes .
FAM. Root and bark used in strangury. Tropical Africa. Kanphodi. alexiteric.-May. Tanmani. should not be eaten raw. piles. Merasingi. Vishani. LOC. Fl. good in heart-diseases. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). Meshashingi. Br. :E. G. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Fr. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). relieves thirst and hiccup. base rounded or cordate . lanceolate. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. :—Western Peninsula. Sati talvani. Gurmar.—Capparidaceæ. Vakundi. LOC. acrid. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. young stems densely pubescent. tonic. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). vitreous body) burning sensation.—follicle. Sk. Adiyakharan. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Hulhul. the stomachic stimulant. leucoderma. Mabli.— Apl. bronchitis. India. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Sannagerse. Mahabaleshwar and N. cooling. biliousness.— companulate .
with divaricate herbaceous branches . Murudseng. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers .-Feb.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. S. high. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. COM. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. tapering at both ends. t. Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.—3-5 foliate. M. Sinhgad hills. :—A small deciduous shrub. Kanara. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.—Oct. hairy on the nerves beneath. PARTS USED :—Root. acute. opposite. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. white or blue. :—G. producing copious exudation.6—1. viscid. China. M. L. DISTR. LOC.
HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. CHAR. Jonkaphal Maraphali. stomachic .
HELICTERES ISORA Linn. L. stem and branches hairy. hairy. leaves and seeds.. C.2 m.—Sterculiaceæ. DISTR. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar.—many.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. margins crenate-dentate. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. hills near Nagothana. pain. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. stipules triangular. HABITAT:—Hills. Sk. Fl. Murdasing. t. dark-brown . Marosi.—capsule. elliptic-lanceolate.. Katraj Ghat.8-9 cm. .—in dense bracteate racemes. pubescent. Fl. Fl. Kavargi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. elliptic-obovate. leaflets subsessile. K. Sd. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. pedicels viscid hairy. pink . petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . good in ascites.—June. LOC. tumours. (Kirtikar and Basu). sessile. ellipsoid . Gidesa Jitasai. earache. Murudi.—Rubiaceæ. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. Fr.
. long. COM. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. :—Deccan. removes "Vata". Fl.12. :—An annual erect herb 0. gynophore 2-2.
FAM.—muricate. long . NS. LOC.
FAM.—capsule. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). Mrigashringa. ulcers. Fr. :—M. NS.—rather rigid. vesicant.—petals 4 with long slender claws. Kewan. hills in Supa Taluka. 5-9 cm.5-20 X 3. Country. Edamuri. H.112
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. hairy. PARTS USED :—Root. Avartant.5 cm. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. glabrous or pubescent above. Sd.
— with silvery white coma . Anantmula. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. G. DISTR.—follicle cylindric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. astringent to bowels. Burma. rat-bites. Hindisalse. cures all skin-diseases. L. alexiteric.
FAM. diaphoretic. urinary discharges. greenish outside.—throughout the greater part of the year. thirst. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. epileptic fits. L. bronchitis. Country. antidiarrhœal. Fr. low appetite. Kapurimathuri. :— E. stems thickened at the nodes . FL. NS. useful in syphilis and leucoderma.-Dec. Konkan. LOC.Sd. Fl. 5-6. eye troubles. lessens griping.3 cm. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. astringent to bowels . t — Aug. uterine complaints. Indian sarsaparilla . Dhaval kashtha. India. Utpalashariva. Root and stem—laxative. Fl. :—Throughout the State. Sugandhi-balli. cough.— very variable. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub.— in cymes in opposite axils. dark-green. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. useful in piles. scabrous above. Fl. syphilis. long. Stem lessens inflammation. mildly astringent. liver and kidney diseases .
. Deccan and S. Upalsali. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Br. Kanara ghat forests. M. irregularly crowded.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. Malaya. useful in gleet. demulcent. fevers. Fr. C. burning sensation.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. Sk. tapering . and leaves. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. good for brain. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). foul body odour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. HABITAT :—In hedges. often variegated with white above. See—Fibres. stem. Root useful in hemicrania. diuretic. beaked.—tubular. angular . bark and fruit. LOC. poisoning. obliquely cordate. t. Anantmula. H. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N.-biferous. CHAR. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. anti-galactagogue.5 X 5-10 cm. :—Large shrub or small tree. Durivel.
HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. purplish inside. Magrabu. common in hedges.—Asclepiadaceæ. blood diseases. asthma. M. "Vata' dysentery.512. LOC. Australia and West Indies. PARTS USED :—Root. K. leucorrhoea. “tridosh". joint-pains. red at first fading to lead colour. :—Upper Gangetie plain. root-Stock woody . They are demulcent. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Ceylon. "Kapha". Hamadaberu . paralysis. DISTR.—follicle of 5-6.—numerous. 7. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). COM. Sd. ovate orbicular. diarrhœa. bilabiate. spirally coiled. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. Upalsari..
—short petioled. Jasuva. Harivallaba. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. piles. Native country probably China. It is also diuretic. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. syphilis and leucorrhoea. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. solitary. glabrous.—axillary. diam. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . urinary discharges. H. entire near the base. etc..—no fruits produced in India. Fr. Kempupundrika. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. yellow. remove burning of body. astringent. Raktapushpi. tonic.
. HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. bright red. useful in loss of appetite. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. LOC. :— E. pedicel jointed above the middle. Fl. Root roasted in plantain leaves. demulcent. NS. involucral bracts 5-7. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. bark and petals are demulcent.114
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. LOC. and mixed with ghee. Aruna. cm. irregularly serrate towards the top. C. tubular below. :—A perennial shrub.5. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India.—Malvaceæ. Jasavand. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). G. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. flowers. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. leaves. COM. cooling. Dasavala. CHAR. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. skindiseases. ovate or ovate lanceolate. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. magenta. fevers. M.—7. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda).
HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. crimson. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. uterine and vaginal discharges. It is said to purify blood. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. K. See—Ornamental Plants. red. Jasum. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Shoe flower. t. Japapushpa. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. Jasut. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Rudrapushpa.—during most of the year. DISTR. petals thrice as long as the calyx. Dasanihu. Sk. and as early as 1864.
FAM. Root is valuable in coughs. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. In the Konkan. seminal weakness. L.
The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Madhalata. NS. tropics of the old world. base cuneate.
FAM. Madhavi. C. Kampti. long. Patwa. beaked. Kanara. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. t. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. clawed. on the margins. Lal ambari. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. pepper. Sd. H. LOC.—in erect racemes. involucral bracts 10. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. orbicular. (lower leaves sometimes entire).
. entire glabrous.MEDICINAL PLANTS
HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn.—capsule. :—Cultivated. sedative and refrigerant. Fl. white. fringed. Kempupundrike. Vasanti. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. COM. globose.—1-3. black-brown.3-7. serrate. H.—large. DISTR. acuminate. :—G. Konkan.5 cm. hairy.—purple with darker centres. Grows abundantly on the W. young parts silky. Vasantduti. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. NS.—Malvaceæ. CHAR. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Fr. Haladvel. CHAR. Sd. petioles silky. K.—5-7. M. asafoetida and molasses. 3-5 lobed. Kamuka. L. Atimukta. Chandravalli. L. Madhumalati. 3-winged. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Fibres. elliptic-oblong. flowers. Madhavi. Deccan. COM. Fl. Pundi-bija or soppu. 1. Fl. :—E. Vasantduti. See—Vegetables. 10-18 X 4. purple. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. much used in curries. C. t. uppermost petal broader. mid-lobe the longest. Fr. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Lal ambadi. Madmalati. Red sorrel.5 cm. across.— Jany. ovoid. Ragotpiti. :—An annual. Fl. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. erect. Madhavi.—Malpighiaceæ.— solitary. purple. fragrant. Sk.—axillary. PROPERTIES AND LOC. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Ceylon. Ghats. stem and branches purple. glabrous.-Dec. Adimurtte Adirganti. calyx fleshy. :—Throughout the State.—petals 5. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. long. Rozelle. and adding a little salt. LOC.)
FAM. M.-Mar. Madhavi. Atimukta. G. 5th petal yellow at the base.2-2 cm. covered with minute hairs . HABITAT. Lal ambadi.
HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. K.—coriaceous.—Oct.. fruits and seeds.lobes oblong. Malati.
leprosy. Leavesastringent. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves.-June.—10-20 X 5-11. :—E. given in chest affections. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Karnatak. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Flowers— acrid. asthma. burning sensation. Dudhi. Kumaon. PROPERTIES. H. NS. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. acrid. throat hairy inside. tonic. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. M. fatigue. LOC. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). Kudsalu. fevers. C—tubular. China.
HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. acrid. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Thailand (Siam). CHAR. cause "Vata". Malay Peninsula. cylindric.. LOC. good in erysipelas. cool the brain. wounds. Madras State. K. Indrayana. smoke good for piles. Fl.. Kodasige. diuresis (Yunani). skin diseases. excessive menstrual flow. Ceylon. Circars. bleeding piles. good in chronic bronchitis. strengthens gums. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. appetiser cure blood diseases. heating. Seeds—carminative. white. biliousness.—Apocynaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants. skin and spleen diseases. remove "Tridosh". leucoderma . vulnerary. inodorous. Hath. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. Veppale. cures dysentery. insecticidal. COM. FL. cough. astringent to bowels cure pains. Karuindrayan. branchlets drooping. lessens inflammations. Kurchi tree. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. " Kapha". Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo
. Burma. tonic. main nerves conspicuous . long. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. Kaling. Pandhara Kuda. Sk. Assam. DISTR. flowers and seeds. Karohi. Kura. often dotted with white spots. good in headache. Andamans.—Feb. bitter. urinary discharges. biliousness. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. boils. vulnerary. burning sensation. thirst and inflammation. Bark—bitter. L. lumbago. N. piles. galactagogue. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Siwalik.— in terminal corymbose cymes . remove muscular pains . :—Throughout the State.5 cm. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. cooling. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kaduoindrajav. styptic.
FAM. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. leaves. aphrodisiac. broadly ovate or elliptic. G. LOC. leprosy.116
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
DISTR. Mt. Fr. thirst. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. ulcers. Conessi bark tree. anthelmintic. diarrhœa. Nepal. t.—follicles 20-48 cm. Kutaja. Kuda. Sd. colic. Hale. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Kuda. Abu. Seeds—appetiser.
H. They are astringent. Ind. —Cultivated chiefly in N. See—Food Plants. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. M. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant.
. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). good for ulcers. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. Suj. Yava. DISTR. Med. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. Java. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. :—E. useful in biliousness. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. allays thirst. sweetish. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. improves voice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. The grains contain vitamin B. LOC. asthma. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. and kurchicine. acrid. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. nor astringent. Shaktu. India. causes constipation. fevers (Yunani). Javegodhi. headache. dysentery and intestinal worms. biliousness. nor styptic. (R. Barley.
HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. diarrhœa.
Pharmacopœia. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. They are also used after delivery. K. LOC. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. especially cod-liver oil. widely cultivated in temperate regions. COM. Satu. useful in bronchitis. Hayapriya. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. fattening. inflamed gums. Aug. NS. bronchitis. with radicle attached to it. pains in chest. anæmia. aphrodisiac. stomachic. useful in fevers. kurchine. febrifuge. 1928). Jawa. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. Jav. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Tasteless. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). The bark contains alkaloids connesine. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Divya. Sk. G. malt sugar and diastase. burns. appetiser. Jav. lowers the pulse. Knowles. Gaz. Ymvah. PARTS USED :—Seeds. demulcent and expectorant. Germinated barley.—Gramineæ.
Sk. Amarachala. young parts brown pubescent. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. Fr. flat.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. L. size of small apple. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Bhutabi. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Garudphala. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Kadukavata. NS. Madhya Pradesh. DISTR.—Apl.)
FAM. camphor and lime-juice. Kanara evergreen forests. white. :—G.—solitary or in racemes. M. Niradivittulu.—Bixaceæ. DISTR. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Sk. t. more or less coriaceous. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. For scald-head. Dondru. COM. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. :—K. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Phaldu. Garudphala. Bharnarasalya. Bandaru. high. LOC. bitter. Country and Kanara. broadly ovate. Malabar. :—W.—Rubiaceæ. Southern and Western India. PARTS USED :—Seeds. increases taste and appetite. globose or ovoid. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . sometimes along river banks. See—Oils. 12. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. K. Sd.5-23 X 3. FL. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. COM.5 cm.8-7. good for the throat. dioecious . ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Dondra. Panch Mahals in Gujarat.
HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. acuminate. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Gandele. Betaga. Bihar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. Doti. M. S. Fl.
FAM. Bhringamallika.. NS. Bhoswar. C.—Jany. LOC.118
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. Kowti. Bhrijatuaka. Ugragandha.
.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Common in N. Bhanina. Peninsula. Bhorsal.—numerous. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. pungent. CHAR. sulphur.—berry. tomentose. Kshiradru. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Ghats. Kastel. H. common in Travancore.
straight or slightly curved.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC.5x 3.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white).. Karihambu. M. CHAR. See—Timbers.—1-5 flowered peduncles .—linear.—tube with narrow portion below.
FAM. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . Gorwiballi.
IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. elliptic oblong. LOC.—Apocynaceæ. K. middle portion much inflated. Ceylon. Chandangopa. :—Throughout the State. thick. Sk.
ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. fever. hollow. Fodder Plants. the powdered wood is used for herpes. Fl. vomiting. Fr. X 4 cm. :—A large twining shrub .—capsule. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). COM. L. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions.5 cm.—Convolvulaceæ. :—H. Kalaka. stalks and leaves. NS. FL. L. CHAR. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. cooling. LOC. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Kalaghantika. blood diseases. Siamalata. Java. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid.-Dec. Fl. cylindric . lobes obscure . Kalidudhi. slightly pubescent and pale beneath.8 cm. Common in the evergreen forests of N. glabrous above. t. :—G. very slender. Kalmisag. C.—4-5-7 X 2-3.—5-12. upper constricted.
. Kanara. rusty pubescent. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. :—Konkan.
FAM. Potuasaga. Australia. Country. DISTR. t. prostrate. NS. base rounded. Sariva. :—More or less throughout India.—4 or 2. black with white scanty coma. Br. 10-15 cm. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests.—in axillary and terminal. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Kanara. greenish white. Kantebhovari. trichotomous cymes. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. Krishnasariva. cordate or hastate. throat and tube dull purple . Kalambika. Sd.-Apl. :—Annual or biennial herb.2 -7. In Indo-China. biliousness. Nalanibhaji. acute. COM. numerous . " Vata ". rooting at the nodes . M. thirst. Nalichibhaji. C. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Pechuli. Sk. H. Fr. aphrodisiac. ovoid .—follicle. Karmi.— Nov. Shradhashaka. cures " Kapha ". Fl. The outer layer is tasteless. stems long. LOC. Bhadra.—Nov. Gopini. M. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Nadika. trailing on mud or floating. very common in Gujarat. pubescent. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.
Sd. See—Gums and Resins. Nila-kumbala. Root—heating. leaves. Africa. t. bronchitis. Swadu Vidarikand. LOC. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. improves voice and complexion. 4-valved. stomachic. K. Bhuikohala. Flower causes " Vata ". Bhumikushmanda. Leaves enrich blood. NS. Giant potato .—in. deeply palmately divided. M. diuretic. appetiser. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. lobes 5-7. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). LOC. thick. stem long. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. stimulant. :— E. " Kapha " . :—Throughout the Konkan and N.8—6. anthelmintic. COM. liver complaints. dry. to children in case of emaciation. galactagogue. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. often broader than long. America. glabrous. (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes.120
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
DISTR. LOC. biliousness. alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. Carminative. (Yunani). 4-celled. H. peduncle solitary axillary. indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. Fl. burning sensation. alterative. In Burma. :—Throughout India. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. PARTS USED :—Root. twining. purple.—Convolvulaceæ. flowers (rarely). Fl.
FAM. aphrodisiac.-July-Sept. anthelmintic . tropical Asia. also useful in liver complaints. Bhunichahragadde. enclosed in fleshy sepals. tonic. Fr. ovate-lanceolate. vomiting. pale.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. Sk. L. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.
IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. useful in fever. Africa and Australia.3 cm. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. demulcent and lactagogue. gonorrhœa and inflammation. CHAR.—capsule. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. ovoid. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . Kanara sea coast. long. debility and want of digestive power. biliousness and fevers. tropical Asia. galactagogue.
. lessens inflammation. useful in leucoderma. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. carminative. blood diseases. long. expectorant. leprosy. 3. entire. Ceylon. near sea coast.—10-15 cm. jaundice. cures biliousness. being regarded as tonic. useful in leprosy. useful in syphilis. (Yunani). The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. root large. Australia in moist climate. :—Perennial. Bilaikand .
Sk. subglobose.3-2.-Oct. Ganribij.. G. CHAR. Nilpushpa.5 cm.—Convolvulaceæ. The plant contains a glucoside.)
FAM. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. Morning glory. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. :—Western Peninsula. 3-celled.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . Kalokumpo. :—An annual herb. headache. LOC.—Convolvulaceæ. pains in joints. bronchitis (Ayurveda). and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). Fl. reniform or ovate-cordate. bechic. :—E. PARTS USED :—Seeds. See—Ornamental Plants. ovate-cordate. Musekani. abdominal diseases.—Sept. Vrishchikparni. glabrous . Sd. Kaladanah. filiform. CHAR. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Fr. in the Himalayas. COM. Purgative.— 4-6. useful in liver and spleen diseases. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. believed to be of American origin. surrounded by ciliate sepals. Nilvel. S.
IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). M. Country.-5-12. Deccan. axillary.—capsule. Sk. Kaladana. fevers. :—G. :—Konkan. tropical Africa. H. Fl.—3.—dark chestnut coloured . removes bad humours from body (Yunani).
. LOC. clothed with long hairs. C. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. leucoderma. DISTR. blue tinged with pink. bracts linear.— yellow. creeping and rooting at the nodes. sparsely hairy.MEDICINAL PLANTS
IPOMŒA NIL Roth.
FAM. long tubular funnel-shaped. scabies and biliousness. Undirkani. subglobose or ovoid. Sd. broad. lobes ovate. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. t. M. deeply three-Iobed. Ceylon. Bhumichari Mushakaparni.—1. Africa. cures inflammations. Shyamala-bijak. crenate. petioles hairy. L.5 cm. Undirkani. LOC. K. K. Fl. S.:—Throughout India. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians.—capsule.8-5 cm. anthelmintic. Indian jalap. diseases of head. M. NS. E. DISTR. H. stems twining. Fr. carminative. COM. stems many. diam. :—A herb . (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. dries the phlegm. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. Mirchai. NS. L.
—5-10 X 1. laxative. Fr. rarely slightly lobed. stems very long. It is also alterative. Nashotar. globose.3-7 cm. much branched. root long. Fl. Br.—white. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). useful in diseases of kidney. good for weakness. inflammations. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. Indian rhubarb. Nandi. anthelmintic. fleshy. bladder. leucoderma. Kanaka. strangury. Mauritius.122
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. often pinkish. paralysis. Turbith root. Common in southern Gujarat.
IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. pungent. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. urethral discharges.—capsule.-Jany. also in the Konkan and N.
. muscular pains. Root— bitter. G. twining and twisted together. lungs. Kalaparni. ovate or oblong. purgative. burning sensation and intoxication. heart and abdomen. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun).8-5 cm. wounds. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Triputi. Nishoth. :— E. enclosed in enlarged sepals . tropical Africa and America. Root with bark should be used. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. paralysis. K. M.. Fl. :—Throughout India. Nishottara. useful in loss of consciousness. False-Indian jalap. fevers. removes bad humours. LOC. uterus. PARTS USED :—Root. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases.—Convolvulaceæ. LOC. Sk. Trivrit. L. sometimes cultivated. Philippines. white variety is a mild cathartic. pains of chest and joints. acrid. 3. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. mucronate. bronchitis. long. COM. LOC. bechic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. H. anæmia. angled and winged. DISTR. good in pain. carminative. t. HABITAT :—Wild . fistula.
FAM. useful in bilious tremors of body. laxative. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. Nahatara. pedicels thickened upwards. antipyretic. base cordate or truncate . used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Pithori. expectorant. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic.—in few flowered cymes. CHAR. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. C.—Oct. useful in bilious fevers. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). applied in diseases of eye and gums. Rechani. brain diseases. NS. inflammations and abdominal diseases . like others of the genus . Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Ceylon. when used alone . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). bracts large. useful in spleen enlargement. cooling. Malay Islands.
pale when dry. 5-10 X 3. sessile. Flame of the woods . pale when dry. C. wild. Pendgul.—tubular. DISTR. :—E.. obtuse. Pankul. L. LOC. Sk. LOC. Fr. fleshy. Fl.—Oleaceæ. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery.
JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. also along river banks. oblong. HABITAT :—Cultivated .—opposite.2-6.9 m. obtuse .—July-Sept. very slender .—ripe carpels 2. H. Guddedasal. white.—3. proximal petiolulate. 3. lobes 4 (rarely). bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes.2-6. Raktaka. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. t. very common in Konkan and N. stipules . Fl. leaflets 7-11. terminal rather larger. Parali. Kisukare.—throughout the year. Chambeli. of stems and roots.5 cm. CHAR. oblong. COM NS. size of a pea. sessile. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. imparipinnate. Fl. :—Cultivated throughout India. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. :—Western Peninsula. petiole and rachis margined. Sk. DISTR. L.
FAM. across. G. Surabhigandha.8 cm. Jajimalle. Bandhuka. CHAR. M.3 cm. :—E. Anemallige. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Ajjige. Chambali.—opposite. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. FL—numerous. Bakali.— Rubiaceæ. t. K. :—A large subscandent shrub.3 coriaceous. Jati.
IXORA COCCINEA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS
Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. high. smooth.
FAM. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat.. purple when ripe. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. COM. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. NS. distal pair confluent with the terminal. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. stipules with a long rigid point. Fr. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Chambeli. 5-12. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. Priyanvada. Kepala.
. M. :—Bombay southwards . If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. See—Ornamental Plants. Jai. intermediate sessile . K. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. often tinged with pink outside. Ceylon. tube long. coriaceous.—globose.
soporific. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chamba. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). heating. rheumatism. entire. ulcers.124
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PARTS USED :—Root. COM NS. L. base rounded or subcordate. t. See—Ornamental Plants. intoxicating. LOC. Leaves are also used in toothache. Flower has bitter taste . Fl. stomatitis. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). expectorant. emetic. Iravantige. teeth. Vanchandrika. DISTR. LOC. flowers and oil. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. CHAR. M. G. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. given in blood diseases. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. The plant contains an alkaloid.
. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. In Goa. good in asthma. useful in diseases of eye. :—Cultivated throughout India. leprosy. it is used in cases of insanity. biliousness. Plant—deobstruent. ear. good for pains in joints and ear. Root—purgative. LOC. Fr. tonic to brain. paralysis. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Fl.—more or less throughout the year . otorrhoea. membranous. See—Ornamental Plants. Tuscan jasmine. Sambac. useful in stomatitis. abundant in April-May.—ripe-carpels 1-2. Ananga-mallika. black. headache and weak eyes. Banmallika. brain tonic . vulnerary. alexiteric. and for scabies (Yunani). the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. diseases of mouth. emmenagogue. head. caries of teeth. scarcely climbing. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. Arabian Lily. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. Pramodini. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared.—white. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Sk. softens skin. diuretic. alexiteric. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. alexiteric. aphthae. Flowers—tonic. Mogro. K. Mogra. Motia. anthelmintic. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. suppurative. Navamallika.
JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. cures headache.
FAM. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. very fragrant. Mogara. mouth and skin. surrounded by calyx-teeth. variable in shape. eyes and ear. Oil—lessens inflammations. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. :—A sub-erect shrub.—opposite. subglobose. biliousness (Ayurveda). H. allays fevers . :—E. aphrodisiac.—Oleaceæ. Mallige.
thirst. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Simeavadala. Mogali—Ran-erand.5-12. multifid. anaemia. NS. Vilayati haralu. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Fl.8 cm. Seeds contain active principle curcin.
.— alternate. and also promotes healing. across. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. L. herpes.—ovoid oblong.—capsule. Coral plant. cordate. Akhuparnika. disk of female flower urceolate. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments.
JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. Virechani. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. 7. long. :—Native of tropical America. French or Small physic nut. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). coral-red. Ratanjot.5-12. NS. diam. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. COM. :—E.—Euphorbiaceæ. LOC. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . LOC. " Tridosha".5 mm. Kananerand. 1.MEDICINAL PLANTS
JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. COM. broadly ovate. Dundigu. have suppurative effect. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores.
FAM. PARTS USED :—Wood. G.. 3-lobed. CHAR. 7. L. large. Jyotishka. male flowers. leaves. Jangali—Pahari erand.5 cm.— ovoid. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. fistula. urinary discharges. Sk. DISTR. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. Fr.
FAM. juice sticky opalescent. stipules capillary.—orbicular. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles.—in flat-topped cymes. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. subfleshy.—E. longer than calyx. M. Fl.5 cm. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). The acrid. useful in chronic dysentery. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. garden shrub . biliousness. abdominal complaints. K. Sutashreni. dull brownish black. CHAR:—A handsome. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. Barbados Physic nut. The seeds act as drastic purgative. 10-15 X 7. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. fruits and seeds. black. Fr. Jangali erandi. yellow. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. corolla lobes 5. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree.—monœcious. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. long-petioled. H. Sk. Sd. Bhadradanti. when applied to boils.—Euphorbiaceæ. villous within. K.
native of N.—Acanthaceæ. pains. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed.
FAM. high . Sk. rheumatism and dysentery. skin-diseases.
JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. useful in bronchitis. America. useful in piles. In Cambodia. DISTR. leaves. LOC. dry .—Acanthaceæ. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. Nilmanjari. 7. enlarged spleen.5-12. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic.5 cm. Fl. wounds. Kalmashi. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. DISTR. HABITAT :—Shady positions. fattening tonic . Kala adulsa.
JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. NS. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. wild in Tenasserim. all over the State. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. 5-12. often met with in Bengal. bitter. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). Fr. Karambal.
FAM. Bakas. heating. M. vaginal discharges.126
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT :—Cultivated. purgative. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . CHAR. K. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. purple within. long. LOC. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Seed— oleaginous. aphrodisiac. NS. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. Bhutakeshi. in interrupted spikes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. tympanitis. Karinchki.—Ghati pitpapda. inflammations. fevers.2 m.—capsule. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. clavate glabrous. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent.5 cm. L. M. branches subterete with raised lines. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. Leaves are used in scabies. Shindhuka.6-1.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. Krishna-nirgundi. " Vata ' and "Pitta". Nachukaddi.
. :—Bomb. Nilinirgandi. LOC. causes " Kapha ". latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. dyspepsia. hot.—white spotted. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. :—A native of China. :—H. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). COM.
Australia.—612 from the centre of the plant. petioles channelled. oblong shortly pointed. t. Travancore. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. LOC. fever. tube funnel-shaped . deep green.—Scitaminaceæ. :—Western Peninsula. tired feeling. South Konkan. diuretic. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. COM. gives lustre to eyes.:—Stemless herb. ovate or lanceolate. thirst.—lobes lanceolate. elliptic. :— H. P. Sd. biliousness. Fl. lying flat on the ground. removes indigestion.-Mar.5-9 cm. stops vomiting. :—N. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). diaphoretic. round. :—More or less throughout India.3-12. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. :—Konkan. Fl.
. wandering of mind. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. purifies blood in skin diseases.—2-lipped. pale violet pink. fugacious.—Oct.. Panchgani. Chandramala. Chandramulika. fragrant. strengthens lungs. Kachri. good in spleen diseases. Malay Islands. enriches blood. burning of body. PARTS USED :—Tubers. LOC. Ceylon. Sugandhavachai. K.
FAM. upper lip notched. L. thin. Fl. pure-white. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tubers yield an essential oil. stomachic. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it.—finely tuberculate. intoxication. LOC. softly pubescent. t. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). HABITAT :—In hilly parts. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). increases " Vata ". M. spreading horizontally. Deccan. Fl. DISTR. Konkan.—2. 6.— June-July.—capsule. aromatic. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. Fr. C. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. vomiting. Madras State. DISTR. Sk. oval. HABITAT :—Cultivated. urinary discharges. Western Ghats . aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases.. Kapurkachri. lower 3-lobed .—in cylindric terminal spikes. Plant diuretic. constricted between the seeds .—variable. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. constipating . (Yunani). teeth. L. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . obtuse at both ends. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.5 X 4. root-stock tuberous. expectorant. Kachchura . Cultivated in gardens. Malaya. Maval in the Deccan. NS.
KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections.
tubular below. oblong. Nelasampige . very poisonous . Sk. semicylindric. Coorg. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H.—Scitaminaceæ. Sk. creeping. coriaceous. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties.. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. NS.— sweetly fragrant. :—An aquatic herb. Bhuichapha. COM. Fl. The whole plant. Tubers yield an essential oil. Katutumbi. COM. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous..5-23 cm. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. simple. CHAR. margins undulate. NS. female cylindric. :—E. Lauka. Dudhya bhopala. M. L.—15-37. crowded in a globose bead . It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Dudhi. t. G. L. Ceylon.
FAM. Tumbaka. DISTR. Kadu bhopala. only 1 or 2 opening at a time .5 cm.
LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz.—globose 3. long. Kanara. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. rootstock reaching 5 cm. Bottle-gourd. —Feb. Bhuchampaka. spathe 7. t. annulate . in many cycles. Kaddu. entire.. Country. Dudio Tumbada. N.5-10 cm. yellow.
LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Fl. Halagumbala. Malay Islands. LOC. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike.
FAM.—30X7. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . Fr.
.-Apl.—narrowly oblong. CHAR. anthers crowded. petiole as long as blade. remedy for itch. COM. Vatsanabhi. Cochin. DISTR. inflorescence of many ovaries. :—Konkan. H. LOC. Calabash. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. M. of various shades of purple and white.—Cucurbitaceæ. thick.8-5 cm. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant.. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula..—Aroideæ. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. M. Fl. promotes suppuration.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. :—Stemless plant. S. :—M. Bhuichampo .— inflorescence. furrowed.5 X 5-12. Alkaddu. :—Mysore. Labuka. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Danta-bija. Bhuichampa . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. used in the form of poultice. elliptic-oblong. NS. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. midrib very stout. HABITAT :—Marshy places. diam. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. :— G. PROPERTIES AND LOC.-Mar. Travancore. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. K.
—Lythraceæ. Taman. China. vulnerary. wholesome to fœtus. laxative. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. :—H. PARTS-USED :—Root. flowers. cause haemoptysis. muscular pains. Konkan Ghats. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. K. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. fever. diuretic. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. aphrodisiac. antipyretic. COM. NS. "Vata". brain-tonic. Holematti. leaves. LOC:—North Kanara and S. bronchitis. fattening. alexiteric. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. wild (rarely). the Moluccas and Abyssinia .
LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. Fruit good in bronchitis. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . fruits and seeds.)
FAM. Bandhara. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. earache. increases "Vata". lessens inflammations. See—Timbers. Arjuna. LOC. Ceylon. cooling. USES :— Leaves are purgative. bitter.
. in many cases only cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. LOC. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world.MEDICINAL PLANTS
HABITAT Cultivated. causes bronchitis. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. Sk. Seeds—good for hot constitution. There are two varieties. Ornamental Plants. :—Western Peninsula. Seeds emetic (Yunani). In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. cures blood diseases. cures leucorrhoea. DISTR. sweet. refrigerant and anti-bilious. dry cough. anti-periodic. fruits and seeds. ulcers. piles. Tarul. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. emetic. Arjuna. Assam. Flowers cooling. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. Nirbendeka: M. styptic. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. leaves. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. bitter variety is diuretic. pains (Ayurveda). In the Andamans. anti-bilious. flatulence. cures asthma. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. improves taste. Malaya. Bark and leaves are purgative. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. earache. scalding of urine. oleaginous. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. See—Vegetables. inflammations. bark. seeds are narcotic. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. cardiac and general tonic. Challa. DISTR.
glabrous above. (Ayurveda). cooling. improves taste. :—W. Belgaum hills . perianth-tube densely silky villous .
LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. heart-troubles. S.
FAM. Sandika. Henna plant. :—E. DISTR. oblong lanceolate. Deccan hills. K. Kanara. The bark is used to poison fish.130
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. silky beneath. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. :—E. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—A much branched large shrub. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Fl. COM. M. subsessile. common at Mahabaleshwar. piles and wandering of the mind.8 cm.
. Tree mignonette.—Lythraceæ. Sk. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Khesari. Chickling—White vetch. K. Lakh. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. causes much flatulence. Peninsula—Ceylon. G. LOC. but dangerous cathartic. yellow. Mendi. bark mottled. NS. Wooly-headed gnidia.5 cm. tonic. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. swellings etc. inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels.5-3. t. Medi. Mukute. LOC. :—E. Medika. oblong flat. Fl. Ragangi. Rametha. lobes 4.5 X 2-2. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . common on the Supa Ghats.—Dec-May. pain.—opposite or scattered. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. diam.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Madaranga. burning. pointed. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. D.
FAM. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Lang.—in erect. G. Gorantha.
FAM. Basu). The oil from the seeds is a powerful. 5-7. Country. enclosed in the perianth . Sk. N. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. See—Food Plants. NS. lameness.
LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. dense terminal heads 2. Rami. Kassar. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India.—ellipsoid-oblong. Triputi. Nakharanjaka. Yavaneshta. COM. CHAR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. (B. Latri. Mehndi. M. Fr. Kukurgal. Grains contain vitamin A.. :—Konkan southwards.—Thymelaeaceæ. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. M. DISTR. L. COM.. M. H.
they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. DISTR. lateral branches 4-gonous. G. LOC.—angular. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. flowers. Lentil. NS. enriches blood. skin diseases . cure leucoderma. The plant contains a glucoside. often ending in spinous point. PROPERTIES. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. Fl. ulcers. veined outside. COM. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. wild in Arabia. H. lumbago. Chanangi. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. M. fragrant. Iran and Baluchistan. improve appetite. :—E. ophthalmia. globose. Fr. t. scabies. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. amenorrhœa.—opposite. PARTS USED :—Leaves.
LENS ESCULENTA Moen. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. stomatitis. vulnerary. finger nails and hair. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Europe and in temperate W. syphilitic sores. allay burning sensation. Sk. planted as hedge. supported by persistent calyx. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands.—in terminal. cure insanity (Ayurveda). Sura. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. useful in headache. Masura. :—Grown in Nasik. Gabholika.). The oil and essence keep the body cool. boils. Masur.
FAM. in diseases of heart and of
. LOC. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. Ceylon. seeds. cure strangury tumours. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Gurubija. diseases of spleen. Masur. L. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. Asia. Belgaum and Poona districts. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. & Gib. mucronate. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. indigenous in S. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . truncate. See—Dyes.—capsule. useful. diuretic. E.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). DISTR. Leaves—bitter. Ragadali. pyramidal and panicled cymes. diuretic. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. favours hair-growth. HABITAT:—Cultivated.—Apl-July. Masuridal. bronchitis. expectorant. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. Sd. Flowers are refrigerant. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. K. Massur. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. LOC. white or rose coloured . dysentery. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. many.
upper sessile.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. L. white. Kurutige. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. enrich blood. aphrodisiac. Seeds—indigestible. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Asahio. PARTS USED :—Root. Hurfi. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Hot and dry. constipating. Chandrika. bitter. Grains contain vitamins A and B. They are mucilaginous and laxative. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic.132
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
FAM. They contain vitamin B. good in inflammations. Suvasura. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. affections of spleen. Fr. good for pain in abdomen. eye diseases (Ayurveda). See-Food Plants. Raktabija.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. LOC. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . blood and skin diseases. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. galactagogue. G. Allibija. and muscular pains. useful in diseases of chest.—Cruciferæ. tumours and injuries. Ahaliva. Ashalika. Fl. Seeds contain fatty oil. the lower petiolate. K. bronchitis. Garden cress . The covering is styptic and astringent. diuretic. :—E. stomatitis . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). very likely indigenous in W. LOC. See—Vegetables. :—Cultivated throughout India. H. NS. DISTR. Halim . Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. aperient. aphrodisiac . cures dysentery . Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew).—small. COM. chest complaints. Chavnsar. LOC. Chandrashura. :—An erect glabrous annual. leaves and seeds. Sk.
LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. often with linear segments . pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Asia. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. bechic. tonic. rheumatism. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). C—petals 2-4 or 0. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles.
. tonic. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Halim. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. laxative. M. Leaves are used as pot-herb. CHAR. bronchitis.
FAM. H. tonic. cure leprosy.
FAM. bad for eyesight. Medini. H. Fibres. LOC. seeds and oil. hard to digest. flowers. heal ulcers. Linseed. Seeds—mucilaginous. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. yellowish. dysentery. Fl. Alasi. Tailottama. Fl. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Roasted seeds are astringent.—Lauraceæ. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Maidalakadi. :—E. urinary complaints. NS. DISTR. aphrodisiac. Sedhavi.—crowded at the ends of branches. Garbijaur. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. causes loss of appetite. aphrodisiac . M. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. t.:—E. COM. :—Cultivated throughout India. urinary discharges . COM. Sk. LOC. lead to impotency. L. black. 7. Alshi. LOC. boils. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. lenticellate. Alashi. NS.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. leaves. Country. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. Alsi.
. PARTS USED :—Bark. emmenagogue. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria.:—A small evergreen tree. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). gouty and rheumatic swellings. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson).MEDICINAL PLANTS
LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn... galactagogue. supported by the thickened pedicel. back-ache. bark somewhat corky. 8-12 together in heads. branchlets densely tomentose. Kanara. Maidelakri. M.—May-July. diam. diuretic. Tisi. pale beneath. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. Alsi. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. Common tallow laurel. bronchitis. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Common flax. burnt bark styptic and healing. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Jivanika. glossy dark-green above. native country probably Egypt. hot. Haimwati. Alashi. inflammations. remove biliousness. remove "Vata".— globose. good for cough and kidney troubles.5 mm. Fr. Sk. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. colds and throat complaints. Flowers—brain and heart tonic.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. Javas . Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. Malina. Seeds contain vitamin A. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. CHAR. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S.
LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. K. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. base narrowed. usually alternate. G. used in consumption. See—Oils. "Pitta". perianth lobes wanting.—Linaceæ. Madagandha.
Wild tobacco. thirst. :—E. burning sensation.
LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var.—Nov.2-3 m. :—E. paralysis. Fl. LOC. aphrodisiac. Ranturai. Narttaka. Kalahogesoppu. Ceylon.
. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . LOC.—. DISTR. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. Fl. lower much longer.134
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
DISTR. very small. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. stomachic. yellowish brown . SK. burning sensation.5-3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. 3 usually connate throughout . :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Bibhishana. tonic. Ridge gourd. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. :—Konkan. fruits and seeds. K. COM.100 m. diuretic. Fr. It acts as anodyne. Malay Islands. Kahire. Sthulanala. acrid. G. stem stout. Country. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. opening by 2 valves.—Lobeliaceæ. Mrityupushpa. long. L. C—2-lipped. Jalini. high. hollow. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . cure cough. t. Kadudodka. useful in biliousness. Devnal. H. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). throat troubles. NS. light green. "vata". lobes linear. heating. LOC. lanceolate.—capsule. galactagogue. midrib white. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. Nal.
LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. Ghontali. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. strangury.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. G. Karvituri. useful in inflammations. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . white. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. expectorant. CHAR. Dhamana. AMARA Clarke. M. spleen diseases. much curved. Dhaval. Australia. Kandele. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. many. bitter. branched upwards. all oblong. leprosy (Ayurveda). erysipelas (Ayurveda). subglobose. biliousness. Nali. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. 2. Leaves are mucilaginous. finely serrulate.
FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. long. Sk. K. vagina. uterus. consumption. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Jhinga. Narsala. heart. aphrodisiac. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice.—numerous. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts.-Mar. Deccan and S. M. Katukoshataki. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". fever. pains in joints.9 cm. Sd. aphrodisiac. H. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. diseases of blood. overheated brains. Divali. NS. Devanala. COM.
FAM. 1. bark. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. Root—astringent. M.—alternate. nearly sessile.
ascites. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai.—small. :—Plant is bitter. uterine and vaginal tumours . "Kapha". Fl. solitary in the same axil as males. 10-ribbed. digestible. Mahura. fruit and seeds. alexiteric. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Fl. females. Root-bark is abortifacient. HABITAT :—Common in hedges.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. :—Throughout India. liver complaints. thrives in Deccan trap. Mahua tree. piles. diuretic. t. laxative. Madhya Pradesh.—Sapotaceæ. 5-7 lobed. recommended in splenic enlargement. M. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. Burma. carminative. cough. 5-10 cm.—Sept. Sk. bitter. Mahuda. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. piles. NS. Fr. cures urinary discharges. Madhusrava. acrid. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. LOC. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. biliousness. tuberculous glands. Hunage.—obovoid. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). W. Mowda. bitter. useful in rat-bite. Doddippa. L. hydrogogue. base cordate. asthma. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. leucoderma. long and about 2. USES. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. thick. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). COM. cures "Vata". tonic to intestines. DISTR. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. obtusely conical at both ends. cathartic. Mahula. Bengal to the W. especially in western Peninsula. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). leaves.53. G. DISTR.:—A large climber. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic.—monœcious. tonic and diuretic.8 cm. Gudapushpa.)
FAM. Kanara (rare) . jaundice. anæmia. Mowa. H. Ceylon. Mhowra. stems 5-angled. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. at first whitish and softly villous.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. at length scabrid. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat).
MADHUKA INDICA Gmel.. C. asthma. inflammations. palmate.
. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent.—petals yellow with green veins . Mahua. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Pokka. flowers and fruits. Butter tree. tendrils usually 3-fid. Moha. Madhuka. K. LOC. tumours. Fruit cures fever. pale green. bronchitis. :—E. also in Konkan and N.
PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. often planted. Liquors. Sk. Mohache jhad. LOC. leprosy. and also a remedy for itch. thirst. tonic and nutritive. Oil is good for skin-diseases. See—Timbers. Kamala. tonic.. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. fatigue .)
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Mysore. Flower—sweet. Monkey-face tree. flowers and oil. anthelmintic. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. G. :—Konkan. astringent. cooling.—Euphorbiaceæ. heals wounds . M. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. and Kanara. cures blood diseases. consumption. COM. See—Timbers. K. burning sensation. Movaro. expectorant. yields two important products. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. :—Western peninsula. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. Madhuka. aphrodisiac. Kampillaka. galactagogue. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. NS. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. K. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. carminative. Honey tree. LOC. Mahuda. Mohwa. M. Movanuhjad. good in heart diseases. H. DISTR.
FAM. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Huli. Kambhal Raini. flowers act as a mild purgative. Oils. Hullichillu. Sk. Famine Plants. and appetiser (Sushruta). Ippe. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Shendri. Moha. Kapila. India .
MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. ulcers. Oils. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Mehua. :—E. Flowers—oleaginous.
MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. cures biliousness. Fruit-tonic . Kapila. G. Kesarimavu. There is a trace of alkaloid.
. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. PARTS USED :—Bark. Oil—emollient (Yunani). fixed oil and a spirit. causes "Kapha". USES :—Astringent and emollient. Ceylon. Mahuva of S.—Sapotaceæ. :—-E. COM. fattening. NS. Kapilo. Karnatic. used in fractures. and Upper Burma.
more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). tumours. stomachic. purgative. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers. China. Kanara. COM. Sk. :—Tropical Himalayas. LOC. Malay Islands. sweet. carminative. Ambo. fruits and seeds. good in cough. wounds. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Kamarasa. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. stone in bladder.
FAM. sour. Bhutan. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). laxative. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. :—E. :—Throughout tropical India. Rasala. diuretic. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. styptic. bronchitis. vomiting. tonic. tonic to body. clears brain. aphrodisiac. K. leaves. liver. Sikkim. cure "Vata". USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. liver pain. See—Timbers. flowers. Amra.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. spleen. H. a good collyrium (Yunani). good in heart trouble. Mavin-mara. alexiteric. anthelmintic. enriches blood. Introduced.
MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. :—-Throughout the State. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. Amri. Astringent. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. Cuckoo's Joy. thirst. removes bad smell from mouth. Ceylon. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. Mango tree. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. piles. cause flatulence and constipation. beautifies complexion. dispels langour and burning of body. maturant. hiccup. cooling. it exudes a pink coloured gum. Khasia Hills. cultivated throughout the State. in "Tridosh". DISTR. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). heals ulcers. "Pitta". chronic dysentery and gleet. appetiser. "Kapha". Bihar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. G. vermifuge and. improves cough. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Burma. astringent to bowels. styptic. Australia. M. wild and cultivated. Dyes. detergent. good in dysentery. Mavu. biliousness. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. LOC. useful in bronchitis. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. Chuta. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. Ghats and the Satpudas. improves complexion. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). throat troubles. bad blood. Gum
. Sind. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. dysentery. Am. anthelmintic. vulnerary. Sahakara. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Fruit—heating. useful in skin-diseases. vaginal troubles. urinary discharges. lessen intestinal pains. cooling. improve taste and appetite. cure leucorrhoea. NS.—Anacardiaceæ. diseases of abdomen. Amba. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. used in chronic diarrhœa. purgative. leaves. LOC. aphrodisiac. fruits and seeds.
USES. Nimba. See—Timbers.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs.5-11. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. green or yellowish green. DISTR.—rotate with broad lobes. useful in diseases of eye. COM. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. 7. Kadulimb. all plains districts of Madras State.—follicles.—6. aphrodisiac. Fr. antipyretic. Dugdhike . corona lobes large. astringent to bowels. NS. Fl. Bevu. pale yellowish brown. Java. K. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Hemajyoti-valli. Kharkhodi. Juss. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. tumours. M. Nakchhikni. cooling. if snuffed. long. :—Bengal. Confection made from ripe mango juice. G. :—A large twining shrub. Sd. Limbada. cures "Vata". :—Deccan and S. margined. Nimla. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Sk. Fl. NS. Hari. COM. Country.—broadly ovate. older branches ash coloured. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Ambri. LOC.)
FAM. urinary discharges. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Limbra. Sk.—Meliaceæ. L. Nim or Margosa tree. Ceylon.)
FAM. C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. :—G. H. Paribhadraka. Juice of kernel. few glands above the petiole cordate . Ripe fruit is laxative. Harandori. H. asthma. Nim. CHAR.138
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet.5 cm. Dodi. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses.
MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. overlapping to the right. Suparnika. LOC. piles.
MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn.. Khandodi. fleshy.
.3-15 X 4. burning sensation. Nimbaka. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. alexiteric.—Asclepiadaceæ. leucoderma.5-10 cm. M. M. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. rat-bite (Ayurveda).—Apl. biliousness. rugosely striate. :—-E. K. flattened. Madhumalati. Balant nimba. stops nasal bleeding. t. with lenticels and black dots. broadly ovate or suborbicular. inflammations. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Fruit Trees. It is also anthelmintic. Nimba. good for dyspepsia. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. coma copious .—many. useful in bleeding piles.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Assam.
biliousness. asthma. tumours. LOC. astringent. urinary discharges. cures ulcers and inflammations . Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. blood complaints. aphrodisiac.
MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. leaves. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. good for leprosy. carminative. :—E. leprosy. it is a general vermifuge. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. boils. convalescence.
. leucoderma. valuable in consumption. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. tonic. cough. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. anthelmintic. bruises. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. fruits and seeds. Burma. chronic leprosy. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. anthelmintic. Banmethi. thirst. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. skin diseases. maturant. Sk. Oils. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. "pittadosh. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. maturant. for unhealthy ulcers. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. tonic and antiperiodic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. COM. expectorant. burning sensation near heart. Tonic. See—Timbers. resolvant. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. NS. bark. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. piles. general debility. and loss of appetite. piles. earache." vomiting. fatigue. lessens inflammation. stimulant and stomachic. M. Ranmethi. useful in syphilitic sores. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. toothache. Small melilot.MEDICINAL PLANTS
HABITAT :—Dry regions. The flowers are stimulant. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . fever. swollen glands. pectoral. antiperiodic. good in ophthalmia. lumbago. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. flowers. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. alexiteric. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. sprains.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). insecticidal..
FAM. DISTR. Vanmethika. H. PARTS USED :—Root. rheumatism . Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. refrigerant. bad taste in the mouth. relieves "Kapha". stomachic. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases .
Bilari. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. L. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness.—variable in size.—monœcious . slightly echinulate.
MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Pudinah. t. M. ellipsoid. Iran.—size of a pea. Ceylon. H. finally red. leaves and seeds. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. :—An erect annual herb. Externally used as a fomentation. rounded. Assam. standard exceeding the wings and keel. C. glabrous or slightly hairy.—small. oblong-ellipsoid. at first green and variegated with yellow. :—India (tropical zone). Pudina. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Malaya and Africa. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb.— Jany. DISTR. Sd. Fr.—pod. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . young parts white-hairy. deltoid-ovate entire. :—Common in Deccan. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). Ghugri. G. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache.140
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. tapering at both ends. DISTR. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. scabrid. especially in strained back.
FAM. COM. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC.
. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. male fascicled on short peduncles. Europe. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Corn-March mint. Afghanistan. Fl. glabrous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. Country and Gujarat. females sessile.—3-foliate.. NS. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Fl. "Sikkim. COM. M. Fl. brown.—one. Khasia. Pudina. Agamaki. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. 30-45 cm. also in S. :—H. NS. :—Western Peninsula. L. of terminal rather long. poultice or plaster for swellings. introduced into many other regions.
FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. in spicate close racemes. HABITAT :—In hedges. truncate at the apex. M. Fr. north Bengal.—Labiatæ. S.
MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. CHAR. :—E. oblanceolate. stem angular. base cordate. lobes dentate or serrate . LOC. tendrils simple. very hispid . K. given as a gruel (Murray). high.—pale yellow. leaflets toothed. Chatinmaragu.
C. Travancore. NS. Assam Iron-wood. indigestion and cephalagia. Bengal. biliousness. sweats. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Konkan and N. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. digestive. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting.-narrowed below. tonic to kidneys . DISTR.—Guttiferæ. K. cough. H. LOC. and stimulant. diuretic. none at the top. alexipharmic. Nagsampige. infusion is given in fevers. M. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. North and West Asia. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Europe. Nagkesara. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. LOC. hairy. Fr. HABITAT :—Cultivated. vomiting. Burma Tenasserim. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. foul breath. Fl.
MESUA FERREA Linn. :—Western Himalayas. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. small tumours. L. emmenagogue. Sk. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. thirst. stem short. good in asthma and sweats. lined with hairs and hairy outside. Country. USES :—Root. toothed. headache. binding. expectorant. DISTR.—in axillary distant whorls. lanceolate. The plant is used in chutneys. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. blood and heart troubles. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. ovate. used for cough. Kashmir. :—A perennial erect herb . irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. COM. E. stalked. lilac. Nagakeshara. Assam. skin diseases. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. Carminative. asthma. Nagkesara. S. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). dry. smooth. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. Suvarna. sorethroat. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS
. Himalayas. See—Timbers. Oils.
FAM. Ceylon. Nagchapha. Andamans. PARTS USED :—Bark. flowers and fruits. useful in liver and spleen diseases. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). :—E. hiccup. oblong. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet.—nutlets dry. M. leaves. Kanara. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. pains in joints (Ayurveda). good for fevers. Gums and Resins. China.—sub-equally 4-lobed. the upper similar and large. Nagkinjalka. Ceylon Iron-wood. In N. Naghas. cardiotonic.
rachis bristly. L. Lajalu. Flowers— expectorant.
MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Sone-chapha. evergreen rain-forest of N. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. leaflets 15-20 pairs. G. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests .5 cm. Sk. near temples and in gardens. Sonchampo. remove biliousness. rheumatism. Vanamallika. LOC. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. petioles hairy. Suvarna champaka. clothed with glandular hairs . K.—Magnoliaceæ. :—Cultivated all over the State. Assam. flowers and fruits. Sk. pink. Champaka. Champaka.—bipin-nate. :—A diffuse under-shrub. digitate. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Golden champa.—Sept.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). long. See—Timbers. Kanara. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. bile. H. Sampige. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. glabrous above. facilitates micturition. S. :—E. Surabhi. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Raktamula.. in vertigo. K. it is given with honey to relieve colic. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . nausea and fevers .-pod flat. Champaka. Yellow champa . COM. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. NS. stimulant. high..
FAM. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Flowers-stomachic. also used as purgative. IndoChina. W.-Oct. Lajalu.—4-merous. gout. useful in cough. good in leprosy. CHAR. Fl. Lajja. in globose heads. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia.
. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. destroys poisons. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Sparshalajja. cultivated. M. Pilochampo. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. pinnae 1-2 pairs. 57. Hem-pushpa. Fl. COM. diuretic. DISTR. Dyes. "Vata". M. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. Fr. removes worms. Humble plant. Lajalu. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. sensative. :—E. Lajjavati. NS. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. hairy beneath. Risemani. diuretic. acrid. diaphoretic. Nachike-gidda. rheumatism. G. blood affections. Champa. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges.142
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn.
FAM. India. Sankochini. Pivala chapha. leaves. Yunnan. Lajjika. 45-90 cm. stems and branches sparingly prickly. slightly recurved. PARTS USED :—Root. Lajari. Ghats. Sensitive plant. LOC. Fruit. bark. "Kapha". Muthmurika. Champo. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. H. t. Burma. ophthalmia.
useful in blood and bile diseases. also used in discharges from mucous membranes
. H. astringent to bowels. Flowers—expectorant. Bakul. LOC. leprosy. Malaya. :—Naturalised throughout India. stomachic. Anangaka. cure blood diseases. M. flowers. cooling. :—G.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. vulnerary. dysentery. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. fruits and seeds. DISTR. alexipharmic. See—Ornamental Plants. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. fatigue. K. Bakula. cooling. liver complaints. leucoderma. flowers and fruits acrid. Root is resolvent. cure biliousness. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). alexipharmic. Juice is applied externally. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Vovali. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. In Brazil root is used as emetic. vaginal and uterine complaints. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. It is also resolvent and alterative. PARTS USED :—Root. jaundice. DISTR. burning sensation. NS. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.
FAM. Bakul. in piles and fistula. inflammations. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Root. Bolsari.—Sapotaceæ. Ceylon. piles. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. cultivated in the tropics. acrid. bilious fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Bakul. Mulsari. Kalhala. Mugule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. sweet. often planted in gardens. Sharadika. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). COM. LOC. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Seeds fix loose teeth. good for gonorrhœa. Kanara. bark. cultivated in gardens in pots. asthma. Mukul. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Ranjal. nose diseases. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. alterative. Flowers give taste. teeth and gum diseases. Sk.:—Western Peninsula. cures biliousness. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. blood diseases (Ayurveda). leprosy. Baphuli. Fruit causes flatulence. probably a native of tropical America. cures "Kapha". :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Bark cardiotonic. biliousness. oleaginous. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele.
MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. headache. Kanara and Konkan. Varsuli. smallpox (Yunani). Borsalli. LOC.
Karelo. Marvel of Peru. brightly coloured (dark crimson. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. :—E. Karela. often ribbed or rugose. NS. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. and rather fleshy stems . Sk. Guleaabbas . Kareli. COM. COM. HABITAT -Cultivated. :—A herbaceous plant. Kandura.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. each one surrounded by an involucre. DISTR. Chandra—Sanjimallige. H. LOC. Hagala. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds.—large. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.
MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Fl. Leaves are maturant. Gulbasa . In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Krishnakali.—membranous. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. NS. Karli. Hagalkai. lessen inflammations (Yunani). Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Fr. L. :—Grown throughout India. cordate. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Karala. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Fruit Trees. Sandhya-kali or Raga.
FAM. K. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. blackish. native of tropical America. See—Ornamental Plants. See—Timbers. Four o'clock plant. LOC. Karavalli. 30-75 cm.144
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
of bladder and urethra. yellow.—Cucurbitaceæ. t. It is also tonic and febrifuge. Karela. M.—continually in bloom. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. good for syphilitic sores. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Oils.
FAM.—E. K. CHAR. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation.—Nyctaginaceæ. G. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. it is applied to relieve headache. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate.
MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. H. Fl. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. M. Carella fruit.
Nagarali. leaves and fruit. LOC. Fruit is tonic. Fruit—bitter. Kantoli. rheumatism. Ceylon. fever consumption. jaundice etc. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Sk. blood diseases. Vishakankini. asthma. diseases of spleen and liver. HABITAT :—Cultivated. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. piles. bronchitis. COM. antipyretic. DISTR. Country and Gujarat. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. and externally in ague as an absorbent. Leaves act as galactagogue. M. tumours. anthelmintic. used in syphilis. longpepper. S. anthelmintic. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. Karkotaki. leprosy. tropical Africa. LOC. K. antibilious. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids.'. hot alexiteric. also in Malaya. Kantolan. cure "Tridosh". aphrodisiac.
FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. Vandhya. Golkandra. cures biliousness. M. See—Vegetables.
MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. lessens expectoration . DISTR. H. laxative. anthelmintic. stomachic. cooling. Leaves—aphrodisiac. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. piles. :—Cultivated throughout India. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. :—Throughout India. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. eye and heart. tonic. excessive salivation. Malaya. asthma. hearttroubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. laxative and authelmintic. boils. NS. hiccup. Karehiballi. China. erysipelas (Ayurveda). stomachic. urinary discharges. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. urinary discharges. cure "Vata". "Kapha". Beksa. Fruit—very bitter. B and C. It is useful in gout. appetiser. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. stomachic. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. LOC. etc. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. digestible. burns. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. ulcers. Gid-hagalu. anæmia. bronchitis. leaves and fruit. sparingly in Konkan. Fruit— bitter. all kinds of poisoning. urinary calculi. rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. carminative. laxative. and America. Fruits contain vitamins A.
. Kartoli. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. Plant cures diseases of blood. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanta.
Tikshnamula. NS. K. LOC. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Murangi. removes all kinds of pains.
MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. "Vata". aphrodisiac. flowers. :—E. tuberculous glands in neck. Burma. Ashyuka. Tagase . The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Ainshi. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Haladipavate. G. NS. Munigha. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Achi. M. Sargavo.
MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. PARTS USED :—Root. spleen enlargement. COM. Segua. See—Vegetables. Indian horse radish . quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. leaves. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. See—Dyes. DISTR. "Kapha". K. tumours. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. astringent to bowels. dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. Al. stuttering. LOC. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever.—Moringaceæ. Guggala. Drum-stick Tree. analgesic. Ab. G. Ak. Mochaka. Seglo. biliousness . makes blood impure . :—E. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. causes burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Root. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Sk. inflammations. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. Ugra. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Bartondi. Aal. Introduced var. COM. Rochana. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Indian mulberry. Mulgule. Famine Plants. earache. ulcers. useful in heart-complaints. digestible. Saraoji. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). DISTR. improves appetite. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State.
FAM. fruits and seeds. Formosa. H. cultivated throughout India and Burma. M.—Rubiaceæ. emmenagogue. all "tridosha" fevers. Achchuka. eye diseases. also wild. alexiteric. leaves and fruits. also in the Oudh forests.
FAM. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. fattening. Shevaga. Root-tonic to body and lungs.146
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Powder or infusion of dried fruit. China. Nuggi. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. Sajina. Sk.
useful in "Vata" and "Kapha".MEDICINAL PLANTS
laxative. urinary discharges. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). diarrhœa. useful in small-pox. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Madhu pippali.
FAM. aphrodisiac. Siahtut. DISTR. ulcerated intestines. Tutri. enriches blood. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. Leaf paste. heart. Root is purgative.
MORUS INDICA Linn. Tut. lumbago. sour. Fruits contain vitamins A. epilepsy and hysteria. it is cooling laxative. rheumatism. Peninsula. Shetur. lumbago. salt and pepper. The plant contains an alkaloid. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. LOC. bronchitis. increases biliousness. Fibres. sweetish. Oils. COM. expectorant. Seeds yield a fixed oil. M. wounds. carminative. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. Gums and Resins. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. Ambat. leaves and fruit. fattening. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). B and C. enlarged spleen or liver. H. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. cooling. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Tuda. Tut. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . diuretic. loss of appetite. diuretic. biliousness. burning sensation (Ayurveda).
. anthelmintic. LOC. expectorant. piles. Kanara. bark. Tuta. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Karihannu. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. aromatic and acid flavour. good for inflammations of throat and chest. spleen. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. common about villages in N. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. K. See—Vegetables. with garlic. G. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. good for brain. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. White mulberry. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. cures gleet. Fruit—tonic. Kambali. turmeric. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. appetiser. enriches blood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. internal inflammations and calculous affections. laxative. obstinate asthma. :—E. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. gout. See—Fruit Trees. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. stomatitis.—Moraceæ. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Sk.
USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. HABITAT :—Humid areas . They are used as anthelmintic. grey-silky beneath. Sk. G.148
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
MUCUNA PRURITA Hook.)
. Adam's Fig. Kavach. K. Fr. NS. 6-30 flowered. DISTR. flowers and fruit.—5-6 small. stem. Dirghapatra. NS. Atmagupta. Hasaguni. consumption. common in hedges. :—E. Maoz kela. Kivanchha. 5-7. H. spermatorrhoea etc. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. HABITAT :—In hedges. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. Sk. Vanari. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . COM. Himalaya up to 1200 m. long. Root—emmenagogue. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Kela. LOC. tonic. Cowhage. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Kuhili. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. improves blood. Sd. which produce intensa irritation of skin. biliousness . An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Kapikachu. Fruit— aphrodisiac. M. Goncha. :—Punjab plains. " Vata ". LOC. K. Banana. Kavatch. Kivanch.—3-foliate. COM. Fl. Kela. M. turgid-shaped.5x1. Seeds— alexipharmic. cures blood diseases. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—Oct-Nov. Turashi. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. petioles 6. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Kela. Pods are covered with stiff hairs.3 cm. H. Nayi songuballi. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. SAPIENTUM O. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. G. LOC. Ceylon. t. Plantain. lateral very unequal sided. Fl. Root useful for delirium in fevers. CHAR. Rambha. :—An annual twiner. leaflets membranous. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani).2 cm. DISTR. Urustambha. Kadvare. cultivated. Tikshna. terminal smaller.—Scitaminaceæ. Kunth. Strong root infusion. laxative. juice given for headache. Kadali. Seed is considered a nervine tonic.
FAM. PARTS USED :—Root.—in drooping racemes. tonic. leaves.. Havanch. Var. sometimes cultivated. with honey is given in cholera. L. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. dark-purple. pods and seeds. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations .—pod. silky.
MUSA PARADISIACA L. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system..
Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. useful in "Kapha". Fl. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. Bhutakes. Shrivalli. astringent to bowels. menstrual disorders. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. pubescent. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. Root-juice. t. antidysenteric. tube slender. in thirst. Hastygida. deep golden yellow. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Fl. Bedina. tonic. Nagavalli. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Root-juice is anthelmintic. LOC. Fr. thickens blood. dyspepsia.— berry. tonic. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium.— July-Oct. :—A rambling shrub. strangury. ear-pain. Kanara. consumption and bronchitis. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Lawsat. DISTR. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. :—Konkan and N. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. diseases of uterus and vagina.--in terminal cymes. Assam. Ipparati. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. M. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. PROPERTIES AND LOC. aphrodisiac. and are used in acidity.. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Bellotti. broad at base.—Rubiaceæ. Burnt stem is vulnerary. biliousness. :—H. hairy. leprosy. COM. urinary discharges. B and C. very hairy outside. anthelmintic. :—S. indigestible .
MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. stipules twin. Sk. flowers and fruit. leaves. kidney troubles (Yunani). Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. K.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Andamans. aphrodisiac. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. diabetes. causes bronchitis . Fruit—sweet. appetiser. astringent to bowels. sore-throat. heart-burn and colic. CHAR. linear. C. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. improves complexion (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. LOC. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. Serwadh. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. buds densely hairy. in " Vata". subglobose. good for dry bronchitis. Fibres. increases appetite. See—Fruit Trees. Tropical Himalayas. broadly elliptic. blood diseases.
. L. lobes broadly ovate. PARTS USES :—Root.—tubular.
NS. Pliny. :—E. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. intermittent fevers and dropsy. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. K. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani).
FAM. Myrtle. Kaiphal.—small. A decoction is employed. H. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. :—A shrub. :—Konkan and N. Himalayas. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates.
MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. smoke beneficial to piles.150
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. M. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism.— solitary. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Malabar. False nutmeg. small. :—Western Peninsula. black when ripe. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. PROPERTIES AND LOC. ellipsoid. M. is regarded as. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. very sweet smelling. promotes growth of hair. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. enriches blood. Murad. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. Kanage. DISTR. cures headache. white. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Fl. Sk.—Myrtaceæ. Condiments and Spices. common in the Kumta taluka. fruits and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative.
MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. See—Timbers. Kanara Ghats . CHAR. :— E. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. used in stopping vomiting. all over the State. emmenagogue. It is credited with opposite qualities. It is used as a substitute for true mace. PARTS USED:—Seeds. DISTR. Fr. Malati. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. especially epilepsy. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. COM. They are given in asthma. COM. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. diuretic. Dioscorides. LOC. L. LOC.— Myristicaceæ. ovate to lanceolate. Habules. LOC. as
. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action .—berry. applied locally to relieve pain. Malati. axillary on slender peduncles.
FAM. Kamuka. allaying pain. W. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Galen and the Arabian writers. NS. Vilayantimendhi. Ram-patri.
Papra-vel. muricate.—alternate. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. C.—white. L. free. Aravinda. from Iran eastwards to Australia. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd.. torus 18 mm. petiole winged. LOC. M. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. Timpani. long. leaves.—membranous. t. L. spongy. petals 5. M. with slender. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. CHAR. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd.
. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. :—W. :—A large aquatic herb.. Kapurbhendi. :—Konkan. 3-valved.-Dec.—July. ovoid. Amlavalli. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. :—A small branching undershrub. hæmorrhage. :—E. Belakanji. Kandabahula. 3-foliate. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa.—petals many 5-12. ovoidglobose. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. white or rosy. 10-25 cm. Goanese ipecacuanha. Sarasija. high. t.—pendulous. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. linear spathulate. dysentery. Fl. Fl. DISTR. Indian sacred lotus. fleshy. ulcers (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. vulnerary. K. solitary or 2 together.—Nymphæaceæ. disk annular. radiately nerved. Fr. concave or cupped. Padam. Chinese water-lily. in diam. alexiteric. Fl. NS.—capsule. cells 2-seeded. anthers with clavate appendages. See—Ornamental Plants. Kandalu. axillary. Kamala. Kamal. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. CHAR.—solitary.-Nov.
FAM. Sk. Padma. Ripe carpels. Pundarika. cures asthma. Tavari-bija or gadde.—Meliaceæ. bronchitis. G. erect. Pitmari. Ambuj. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. COM.)
FAM. diam. & A. curved. entire. stem. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla.6 m.MEDICINAL PLANTS
a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae.
NAREGAMIA ALATA W. Fl. NS. Sk. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Suriyakamal. LOC. Ambuja. petioles very long.
NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn.3-0.5 cm. Pankaja. elongate. top flat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. orbicular. H. DISTR. :—E.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. Kamal. peltate. rough with distant prickles . Kanara. glabrous. COM. elliptic. biliousness. LOC. K. Nelanaringa . Kamal. 0.
Cool. Ashwa-marak. cures cough. flowers. H.—follicles. gives tone to breast. L. See—Ornamental Plants. Kanagile.—in threes. long. :—Madhya Bharat. heart and brain tonic . fever. astringent to taste . improves watery eyes (Yunani). good in throat-troubles. Sk. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. in fever and liverdiseases. Kaner. DISTR. also recommended as cardiac tonic.—red. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". K. Salt Range. ulcers and sores of mouth.
NERIUM ODORUM Soland. menorrhagia. Sind. C. M. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. S. Vishavrikshanka. allays thirst. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . aphrodisiac. Karvira. Sd. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. Filaments are astringent and cooling. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. long.
. Paddali. vomiting. Kanel. linear-lanceolate. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. Cool. leaves. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. CHAR. fruit. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. Karber. also as a hedge plant. useful in fevers . coriaceous. inflammations and poisoning. honey. throat scaly. :—E. slightly bitter. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . India. dark green and shining above. useful in burning sensation of the body. LOC. at length separating. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). removes worms. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . Fl. small-pox. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Baluchistan. Pratihasa.—Apocynaceæ. 10-15 cm. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Kanher. Sweet scented oleander. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. chest-pains. LOC. 15-23 cm. G.—funnel-shaped.152
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PARTS USED :—Root. rose or white. leucoderma. also cholera. leaves. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. stem. useful in piles. seeds. rigid. Fl.—flowers more or less throughout the year. biliousness. tapering into short petiole. NS. Upper Gangetic Plains. Karvira. allays thirst. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . fragrant. diseases of skin and eye . extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. t. flowers. In China and Malaya dried red petals. planted in gardens throughout the State. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Kaner. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . spermatorrhoea. Waziristan. Fr. lobes rounded. good in blood-complaints.
FAM.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. strangury.
disinfectant. L. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. Tambakhu. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. tubercular glands of neck. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). H.
FAM. good for lumbago.—pink or white. Sk. also applied in leprosy.—alternate. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. skin diseases. Tamakhu. asthma.—in open corymbose panicles . DISTR. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). scabies. PARTS USED :—Leaves. K. are poisonous and are used externally. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. tonic. nervous depression and sleeplessness.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—All parts of plant. emetic. large (especially lower ones). very poisonous. M. CHAR. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. a mental stimulant.
NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. An ointment made
. oblong or elliptic. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. funnel-shaped. Tambak. Tamarakuthika. Flowers— aphrodisiac. C. Krimighni. cultivated in all tropical countries. sedative and emetic. COM. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. anthelmintic. inflammations. :—E. The plant contains a glucoside. Dhumrapatrika. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. carminative. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. the surface is plain or bullate. Tamaku. smoke constipating.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. LOC. Bujjarbhang. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings.8 cm. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. across. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. useful in caries of teeth. scabies (Yunani). conical. caries of teeth. tonic. NS. G. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. bronchitis. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). See—Ornamental Plants. Fr. Fl. Root—aphrodisiac.—capsule. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. inflammations. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). dimness of sight. Kalanja. wounds. Poisonous to fish. about 1. Tobacco. Tabak. headache. foul nose. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. useful in bronchitis. LOC. :—Native of America. water from hookha is diuretic. sores. LOC.—Solanaceæ. especially root. Hoge soppu. lobes spreading. base wedgeshaped .
Kumuda. Kanwal. Bilitavarai. NS.—opposite 5-10x2. bark. southwards to the Godavari. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Madhya Bharat. hairy. peduncles 4angled. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. :—E. Lalkamal. NS. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). DISTR. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Har. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. :—E. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn.—Nymphæaceæ. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic.)
FAM. M. carminative. H.—capsule. See—Ornamental Plants. abundant July-Sept. bark. :—A large shrub or a small tree. tonic to hair. Parijata. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Aravind. Kanval. densely pubescent beneath. Fr. ovate acute. Alipriya. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. H. young branches quadrangular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . flowers and seeds. HABITAT :-Cultivated.
FAM. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Lotus. PARTS USED :—Root. scalp affections etc. Sk.— fragrant.5-6. Nalkumkuma. M. Assam. Nilophhal.154
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. cures fevers. Har-singhar.
NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd.— more or less throughout the year. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Prajakta.3 cm. Parijata . found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Sephali. 2-celled. Chotakanwal. Bengal. Fl. Indian Mourner : G. Jayaparvati. lessen inflammation. Cultivated in many parts of India. L. Parijataka. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Fl. leaves. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Nyadale huvu . Harsing. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. G. CHAR. K. Prajakta. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Sephalika.
. t. COM.—lobes white. in terminal trichotomous cymes. It is used with honey in chronic fever. compressed. COM. K. LOC. tube orange-coloured.
NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. C.—Oleaceæ. Shonapadma. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. astringent-to bowels. LOC. stomachic. axillary. a decoction of root. Bark cures bronchitis. rough above with bulbous hairs.. (Ayurveda). obcordate or merely orbicular. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Burma. Sk. Buds are tonic. solitary. useful in bilious fevers. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Kharapatraka.
Bahari. stamens about 40. filaments dilated at the base . USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. diuretic. Tukhamariya . K. useful in diseases of heart and brain. "Vata". Sd. CHAR. improves taste . LOC. Sabja. :—Var. diarrhœa and piles . t. COM. ellipsoid.—all the year. erect. asthma. C. LOC. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Fl. chronic pain in joints. stomachic. Rihan. LOC. bracts stalked. lessens bile. causes burning sensation. useful in diseases of heart and blood.—3 cm. allays thirst. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). petioles very long. Ramkasturi. pale rose or white. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). peduncles very long . acute. Surasa. glabrous or pubescent. bitter. roundish. H. L. Java. Common sweet basil. submerged . Ajagandhika. hot taste. pink or purplish. short. cooling . Fr. leaves and flower. Africa. red. Manjarki. Tungi. toothed or lobed.—peltate. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. biliousness.9 m. :—Large aquatic herb . black and pitted. white. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. diam. and nigropunctate above. G. :—An erect herb 0.— in whorled racemes .—ovate. Philippines. thyrsiflora. across.
FAM. glabrous. Sabja.5-20 cm. Sk. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda).. enlarged spleen. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . leucoderma. antipyretic . :—E. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. leaves. globose. 15-25 cm. purple stem.—nutlets about 2 mm. inflammations. " Kapha". M. diameter. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. 8-13 mm. open in the morning only. Barbar.6-0. Burma. flowers and seeds. anthelmintic.
OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. ripening beneath the water. Barbar. cylindric. high.—2-lipped. entire. 7. fleshy. "Kapha". C. Nasabo. Damaro. rough. febrifuge. Fl. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. alexipharmic. bitter taste. "Vata". removes impurities from blood . emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. oblong. Ceylon. long. deeply cordate at the base. stems and branches green or purplish. Surabhi. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. aphrodisiac . green. Hungary. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.— ovoid. :—Cultivated in many places in the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. juice gives lustre to
. irregularly sinuate-dentate.—petals about 12. PARTS USED :—Roots. Var. DISTR.—Labiatæ. Plant has a sharp. Fr. NS.—solitary. Sajjebija.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. root stock tuberous. Fl. obtuse. Sabzah. L. See—Ornamental Plants. itch. long.
Rantulasi. removes foul breath. brown. Country. gland-dotted. heating. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. rugose. good for toothache. :—Konkan. 1. LOC.156
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
eye. Large basil. It is also styptic. BanMal tulasi. stems and branches subquadrangular . G. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling.—Labiatæ. carminative. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. rachis quadrangular . NS. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children.— in simple or branched racemes. useful in diseases of brain. Deccan. L. :—A perennial shrub. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm.—2-lipped. :—Throughout India. :—E. pale greenish yellow. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. COM. strengthens gums. stimulant. skin diseases. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. DISTR. elliptic-lanceolate. M. Plant has bitter. diuretic and stimulant. The flowers possess. pubescent. useful in vomiting. high. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. aphrodisiac .7 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. often cultivated : Ceylon. Ram Tulasi. they are also aphrodisiac.8 m. LOC. " Vata".5 X 3. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague.8—5. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. in close whorls . On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. alexiteric.3—12. LOC. Gujarat.2—1. H. fits. t. lower lip longer. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. M. liver and spleen. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. Fr. " Kapha". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective.—6. Sumukha. C. sharp taste . woody below .-July-Oct. CHAR. heart. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Avachi-bavachi. good for griping and piles (Yunani). Sk. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. S. Rama-Ran tulasi. Lemon—shrubby basil.—nutlets subglobose. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. headache. Fl.
. During fever when the extremities are cold.
OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). causes insomnia (Ayurveda). coarsely crenate-serrate. branched. earache. young ones pubescent. Ajaka.. Java. strangury . USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. diuretic and demulcent properties. inflammations.
K. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. CHAR.—Labiatæ. pubescent. Manjari.— capsule. Fl. LOC. stomachic. :—An annual plant. 30-60 cm.5-5 X 1. Sd. high. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. globose or pyriform . H. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. purplish. high.—Sept-Nov.—on filiform pedicels. antipyretic. Papli. L. vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS
OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. L. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Sk. used in catarrh and bronchitis . hiccup. stipules with bristles . :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. C.5—38 cm.2 cm. :—G. M.— nutlets. Fr. Damanpaper. DISTR. obtuse or acute.
FAM. lumbago pains. especially in children. Tropical E. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. elliptic-oblong.
OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. H. usually 2-3 cm. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. CHAR.—subsessile. alexiteric. Malay Archipelago. COM.
. NS. minutely gland-dotted. :—Konkan. clothed with soft hairs . heating. Tulasi. Asia to Java and the Philippines. Sk. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . " Vata". Krishna tulasi. Vishnuvallabha. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). :—Throughout India. leaves and seeds. Tulasi. Phapti. Vrinda. COM. Deccan and S. asthma. M.—2-lipped. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. strangury. of children and in hepatic affections . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Parapate. painful eye. and are given with honey.—2.
FAM. Vranda. NS. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. Pavitra. purulent discharge of ear. Kala tulasi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. LOC. Australia.6— 3. foul smells. LOC. See—Sacred Plants. G. bronchitis. angular. Ceylon. Suravallari. Fl. Fr. DISTR. smooth. purplish. M.— in racemes 15-20 cm.—Rubiaceæ. varying from 7. yellow with black marking. Parpat. :—An annual herb. bitter. West Asia.:—E. useful in heart and blood diseases.—pale brown. upper lip pubescent on the back. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Tulasi. margins recurved and scabrous. stems and branches subquadrangular. Country. t. Fl. anthelmintic. cholagogue. stems numerous. Tulasa. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. HABIT :—A common weed. leucoderma. long in close whorls . " Kapha". entire or serrate. lobes acute.. long. linear or linear-lanceolate. Arabia.
Hathathoria. pyriform. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. spleen enlargement. across. used in ophthalmia. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. H. lumbago.5 cm. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. angular or warty. yellow or orange. Chorhothalo. carminative. NS. CHAR. xerophyte. purgative. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. Nagaphana. L. LOC.—Cactaceæ. diuretic. spleen enlargement. Fl. tumours. Zhoratheylo. cures inflammations. digestive. long. laxative. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. inflammations. COM. ulcers. cures bronchitis in children.—7. loss of consciousness. rusty brown. urinary complaints. reddish at the tips. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. recurved. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. Nagadru. antipyretic. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions .
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Phadyanivdung. yellow at the edges. liver complaints. Mullugalli. Grown as hedge. rather thin. LOC. Nagaphana. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. carminative. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. outer segments ovate red in the centre. :—E. alexiteric. anæmia. subulate. M. Joints variable in size.
. Vajrakantaka. Sher. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. K. G. reddish purple when ripe.— berry. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration.
OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. Fr. Plant bitter. inner spathulate. obovate or elliptic. ascites. " Vata". Nagdali. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. leucoderma.—5 cm. or more high. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. piles. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . Sk. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. dull bluish-green.5 mm. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. cures biliousness. DISTR. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. Plant juice—heating. juice cures earache (Yunani). good for leucoderma. long. Snuka. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. flowers and fruits. Prickly pear. burning. introduced into India. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. 3 m. Nagaphani. it is also used in liver complaints. largest 3. stomachic. vesicular calculi. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. Slipper thorn. perianth rotate.
It is astringent and tonic. Ullu. Tuntaka. Tandula. Malaya. :—E. Tetu. biliousness. Podval. fattening.—Bignoniaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. useful in leucoderma (Yunani).—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. K. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Ava. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. LOC. Rice
. cooling. COM. useful in biliousness . asthma. Seeds are purgative. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Tans. Bhat. LOC.—Gramineæ. Akki. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. DISTR. sweet. R. stomachic. NS. Tetu. good in heart and throat diseases. Arlu. aphrodisiac. improves appetite. intestinal worms. Ceylon.
ORYZA SATIVA Linn.
OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. G. Vrihi. bronchitis (Ayurveda). COM.
FAM. oleaginous. bronchitis. LOC. H. vomiting. HABITAT :—Aquatic. inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS
I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area.S. Fruit—expectorant. Araluka.
FAM. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Cochin-China. Sk. :—E. Chaval. K. tonic. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Nivara. leucoderma. M. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). improves taste. Bagi. Chokha. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Mayarjangha. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Dyes. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Indian trumpet flower. :—Widely cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. appetiser. anal troubles. LOC. H. diuretic. fevers. tonic. Tetu. useful in " Vata". K. Rice. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Fruit—acrid. Shyonaka. Kanara ghats . G. :—The Konkan and the N. NS. PARTS USED :—Grain. Dirghavrinta. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. dysentery. Ghats. Pharri. piles. Sk. DISTR. aphrodisiac. Alangi. M. anthelmintic. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. M. astringent to bowels . Mokka. Shali. Tandula.).
Dugdhike. stems rooting. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. removes " Kapha ". ovoid. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. brown. LOC. NS. yellow. bruised. Shuklika. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. base cuneate subsessile. Marudbhava. :—E. M. leaflets 1.—palmately 3-foliate.5 cm. Fl. The grains contain vitamin C. Indian Sorrel. good appetiser . L. K. ulcers. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. NS. " Vata " and piles. Fr.
. :—G. Changeri. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. CHAR. t. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. inflamed piles. if applied to chest. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. small-pox. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Br. scarlet fever. Sk. Chukrita.—Oxalidaceæ. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. Dudhari. oblong. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts .
OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Fl. obcordate. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Ceylon. Dudhatani. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. to which a little lemon juice is added. bowels or kidneys. Sk. H. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers .—Asclepiadaceæ. Sd. K. Dugdhika. easy to digest.
FAM. petioles very slender. pubescent. Kyirin . gives great relief. Rice water. Jaladudhi. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. transversely striate. margins ciliate.—petals 5. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). diarrhœa.—axillary. buboes. See—Food Plants. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. long. M. Kshiravi. COM. sub-umbellate .— many.
OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn.— Oct-May. also in burns and scalds. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. linear-oblong. It is a pleasant. In dysentery. dysentery and scurvy. Dudhialata. Ambuti. boils. used externally. Ambastha. C. COM. Amlalonika.2—2. DISTR. Dugdhica. astringent. beaked. measles.160
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
conjee is good.— capsule. cures dysentery. H. LOC. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . Dudhialata. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. 5-angled. Amrul.
FAM. rounded at the apex. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. :—Throughout the State. Dudhani.
8 mm. Ketaki. 0. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Kedige. root. palegreen. useful in strangury and tumours. Fr. long. indigestible. with flavour. aphrodisiac.5 m. pain. Fl. expectorant. diseases of heart and brain. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Screw pine. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. L. high. Poona Sangam. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Giripriya. corona staminal. Fr. milky juice. stems many. somniferous. causes flatulence. Kewoda. t. PARTS USED :-Root. leaves.. Fruit—tonic. Gogandhul. DISTR. purple veined. rarely erect. Ketaka. anthers. aphrodisiac. Leaves are useful in leprosy. bitter. female flower spadix solitary.
FAM. margins and midrib spiny. mouth with pubescent ring. cough. yellow or red. Kevada. much branched. G. Umbrella Tree. Java. 4.— large. M. :—A shrub up to 6 m. C. :—Konkan. Flowers improve complexion.—deciduous. anthelmintic.9—1.—Dec.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. Deccan. often planted. LOC. M. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. Anthers useful in pruritus.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). juice is used in gleet. Sk.—very numerous. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. scabies. long. " Kapha ". Mundige. coriaceous ensiform. diuretic. dry. laxative. fruit. DISTR. pale rose or white.—follicles. pain in the muscles. strikingly handsome. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda).—glaucous green. fruit and oil from bracts. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. K. LOC. L. black. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. leucoderma. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. coma present. thin. lobes ciliate. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. heat of body. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Dhulipushpika. ovoid-lanceolate tapering.—oblong or globose. Fl.—Pandanaceæ. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Keora. Sd. Chama-pushpa. gonorrhœa.
. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Usually near water. COM. Country— Belgaum. stem supported by aerial roots .
PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn.—dioecious. tonic. Kanara. LOC. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Plant. syphilis. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. :—Konkan and N. Sundarbans. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". 3. :—E.8-6. anthelmintic. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. Gandha-pushpa. Kanara. linear or linear-lanceolate. aphrodisiac.5-9 cm. H.3 cm. Fl. small-pox. Ketgi. S. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . Burma. X 3. Andamans.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
H. Malay Islands. Shimbiparni. Vanmudga. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever.—Palmæ. Seeds— tonic. layer. :—Largely grown in. Khajuri. COM. Khaji. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. G. astringent to bowels. light and astringent. piles. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. anthelmintic. wiry. cure biliousness. long. wild date palm. Ranmath. laxative. LOC. eye troubles. Kalli-chalu. mugawana. good for eyes. Belgaum.5—5 cm. good for the eyes . glabrous or hairy. Ahmednagar. M. Magavala. long. Konkan. bitter. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. L. Sind. Adabanmagi. yellow. Kidney diseases. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).3—2. Kharjurika.—6-12.
. enrich blood. M. Adavada. peduncles 10-23 cm. Deccan and Gujarat. throat inflammations. and southwards to Ceylon. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Kohesaru. :—G. antipyretic.—Oct.—in sub-capitate. petioles grooved.— pod. LOC. NS. blood diseases.—3-foliate. slightly recurved. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. as a kharif crop. gout. Khandesh. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Swadi.
FAM. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). Tadi. :—E. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Abyssinia. See—Food Plants. biliousness. Ahmedabad. long. LOC. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Sd. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. " Tridosh". straight subcylindric. Date sugar palm. good in fevers. DISTR. prostrate. Kapila. Boichand. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. Siyindu. Sk. Koshila. dysentery. Sk. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kolaba and Kanara. t.:—Very common throughout the State. Ranmug. Mugani. K. NS. H. Indian wine palm. styptic. Sendhi. broadly spathulate. Dharwar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. burning sensation. Shindi. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. cough. Kashayi. digestible. " Kapha". 2. Afghanistan. Kallu. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. CHAR.
PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. K. Burma. :—Annual or perennial. Kharjuri. leaflets 1. nose complaints. Kajuri. The grains contain vitamins A and B. Trianguli. few flowered racemes. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. COM. cures consumption. membranous. Satara.
FAM. Kurangika. Ichela-mara. Fr. headache. astringent. inflammations. DISTR. Fl. Kherk. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration.
PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. dry. thirst. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. aphrodisiac.5 cm.166
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
—white or pale-pink. and in beds of streams and water courses. Famine Plants. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. Coromandel Coast.— dioecious.—Jan-Feb. 2-lipped. fruit and juice of the tree. oblique. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. greyish-green. constipating. much branched. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. oblong. :—Tolerably common throughout India. fattening. aphrodisiac. densely fascicled. blood and eye. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. high. Fl. cardiotonic. See. Fr.—pinnate. Okra. petioles compressed towards the apex. Bengal. aphrodisiac. 9-15 m.)
FAM. deeply grooved on one side. Fl..5 m. long. oblong-ellipsoid. :—A tall graceful palm. L. Sharadi. pointed. This is called neera. DISTR. Mysore. Rohilkhand. Poona and Belgaum districts. wild or more often cultivated. Baluchistan. C. Toyavallari. Ceylon. t. Ratuliyo. spadix 60-90 cm. crown hemispherical. alexiteric. rounded at the apex. Siwalik.2 cm. Jalapimpli. anthelmintic. COM. vomiting. Fr. sharply serrate in upper part. large and thick. flowers distant. Sk.—Fibres. pinnules many. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. LOC. :—Found fairly in Surat. oleaginous. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. triangular. LOC. flowers very many. Vashira.—2. female spadix and spathe as in the male. cooling.
PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Sd.—sessile. outer Himalayas. Sholapur. useful in diseases of heart. scented. Fl. Jalapipali. :—A creeping perennial herb.5—3.—rounded at the ends. lower 3-lobed. 15-45x2-2.—more or less all the year. LOC. wandering of mind. spatulate. spiny at the base. fevers. NS. long. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility.
. rigid. Agnijwala. subsessile. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). angular. 3-4. long. Bhuiokra.—Verbenaceæ. good in heart and abdominal complaints. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage.5 m. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. CHAR. Ratoliya. Jalpippali. spinous.—opposite. male white. Langali. t. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). :—G. Ratoliya. Bihar. L. usually along banks. Fl. upper 2-lobed. Africa. :—Throughout India. H. stems rooting at the nodes. ensiform.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. M. cooling.—globose. erect. clothed with appressed white hairs . The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. orange-yellow. DISTR. roundish. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice.
6-13 X 3-6 mm . elliptic-oblong. Tropics generally. DISTR. Bhumyamali. Bhumyamalaki. and without salt may be applied to bruises. hiccup. except Australia.168
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
improves taste. maturant. It is valuable in scurvy. Plant—hot. Leaves are stomachic. fruit. of female. useful in thirst. disk of the male of minute glands. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. Stomachic. Amala. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). Kiranelligida. bronchitis. LOC. :—Throughout India.. H. bronchitis. Infusion is a good tonic. Ceylon. dry. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. asthma.
FAM. NS. very numerous. urinary discharges.— July-Aug. diuretic. anæmia. L. very small. CHAR :—An annual herb. Bhumyamali. M. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). Bhuianvalah. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). males 1-3. ringworm (Yunani). USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. :—G. globose. K. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Ajata. distichous. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. smooth. Sk.useful in fevers. Fr. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. burning sensation. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Konkan and Deccan. Sukshmadala. Fl. annular. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. milky-juice. leprosy. scabies. angular. biliousness. lobed. longitudinally ribbed on the back. good for ulcers. COM. Sadahazurmani. Vituntika.—3-gonous. axillary. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. scarcely lobed. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. high . t. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. leaves. stem branched at the base.—yellowish. Jaramla. sores. Fl.
PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. females solitary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.
.—capsule. alexipharmic . In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. wounds. LOC. LOC. asthma. Sd. The whole plant. cooling. anuria. thirst. monœcious. Bhuiavli.— numerous. wounds. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. 30-60 cm.
Kaphavirodhi. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. Black-pepper. Kanara. inflammations. purgative. Mensinballi. Panu. aphrodisiac. Tikshna. vulnerary. night blindness. improves voice. LOC. Betel pepper. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Malimirich . tonic to brain. H. Marich. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Linn. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. bronchitis.
FAM. laxative. It increases saliva. Pan. increases biliousness. styptic (Yunani).—Piperaceæ. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. pains. Kalaka. :—E.
FAM.—Piperaceæ. Vata". Vidyache-pan. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. acrid. Sk. improves appetite (Ayurveda). NS. Bhakshyapatra. Tambola. It contains an aromatic essential oil. ozoena. K. Poona. Menasin-kallu . Saptashira. foul smell in the mouth. strengthens teeth . M. :—Wild in the N. It sweetens breath. alexipharmic. piles. Vileyad-ele. NS. LOC. K. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. asthma. and fruits (rarely). Pan. Menasu. Nagavalli. H. useful in "Vata". It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. tonic. useful in toothache. hot.
PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Tambulavalli. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. heart and liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. COM. tonic and digestive. useful in "Kapha". Kanara forests. Betelleaf. generally in Konkan. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Eleballi. given with milk in hysteria. Fresh leaves.
. G. bechic. Pan. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Golmirch .MEDICINAL PLANTS
PIPER BETLE. G. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. M. LOC. removes all foulness from mouth. urinary discharges. Sholapur. Kalimiri. alterative. ozœna. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. PARTS USED :—Fruits. " Kapha ". cultivated in Konkan and N. Sk. carminative and astringent. spleen diseases. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Kalamiri. DISTR. COM. carminative. smeared with oil. Warm leaves. Satara. clears throat. satyriasis and to allay thirst. elephantiasis . liver and muscular pains. stomachic. heating. throat diseases. DISTR. leavs. Betel leaf vine. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Kalamirich. carminative.
USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic.— alternate. Konkan. petiole longer than leaf-blade. Vehkali. H. piperidine and an essential oil. various forms of cutaneous diseases. leprosy. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. PROPERTIES AND LOC. used in chronic bronchitis. LOC. weakness following fevers. M.5 cm. long.
PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. tonic and a local stimulant. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. coma. See—Condiments and Spices.
. :—K. NS. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. DISTR. sciatica. vertigo. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. Bartang. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism.170
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
FAM. Kanara in ghat forests. base tapering into petiole. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. radial 2. See—Timbers.
FAM. ophthalmia and phthisis. Fr. lanceolate or greenish . COM. used as febrifuge. CHAR. chronic fevers. ovate or oblong. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. chest affections. the oil is alterative.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . variable in width. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . W. Arcot and Salem. C. sprains.—lobes 4. Greater plantain . Deccan. Khasia Hills. facilitates menstruation.—capsule. piles and some skin-diseases . LOC. Externally it is rubefacient. It is a good expectorant. In physiological action. & A. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. bruises.—Plantaginaceæ. Bark contains a glucoside. Burma. paralysis . It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . :—E. entire or toothed. NS. N.5-12. dries body humours (Yunani). and possesses narcotic properties . Tammata. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. ovoid. lumbago. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat.—Pittosporaceæ. L. Lahuriya. hills of S. Vikhari. Khandala (pretty common).
PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. COM. Fl. It yields an essential oil.
PARTS USED :—Roots. Lalachitraka. Fl. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. zeylanica. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. LOC. Lead-wort. oblong. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections.—throughout the year. W. and seeds.
PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Fire plant. t. :—Temperate Himalayas. NS. L. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Sd. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). rosy scarlet. angled. Fl. Mahang. alterative and diuretic.Kempuchitramula. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. :—Cultivated throughout India. HABITAT :—Along river banks. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). DISTR. Lalchita. CHAR.—3-5 cm. attenuate. Chitra. Baluchistan. t. Burma. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Lalchitrak. Malaya. erect. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. afford relief. Fl. C. top coming off as a conical lid. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. leaves. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Nilgiris. high. HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. LOC. long in long terminal axillary. Ratochatro.MEDICINAL PLANTS
dehiscing a little above the base. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic
. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. limb wide.
FAM. Palni hills. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. exauriculate petiole. PARTS USED :—Roots. Lalchitrak.—large. stems herbaceous. Rosy-coloured leadwort. LOC.—Plumbaginaceæ.—tube slender. H. LOC. alterative. :— E. obtuse. Chitraka. Ghats. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling.Sept. Agnishikha. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. dull-black. K. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating .. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. COM. DISTR.-4-8. :—Konkan : Deccan. Ceylon. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. M. base passing into amplexicaul. The plant contains glucoside aucubin.. lax spikes. Assam.-Feb. Fattening. striate . Raktachitraka.
lobes 5. a paste is made with milk. cultivated .—in elongate spikes. cure intestinal troubles. vesicant. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . useful in laryngitis. laxative. Root—bitter. a favourite medicine for flatulence. C. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. " Vata" and " Kapha". India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. entire. NS. carminative. Chitra .5 m. pointed. stems 0. M. consumption. H. leaves are caustic. Ceylon. rachis glandular . inflammations. G.
. It is used in procuring abortion.—white. Fr. Jyotishka. See—Ornamental Plants. alterative . Chitra . The use of Pl. " Tridosha" . juice. itching.
PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. piles. :—Throughout India. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Agnishikha. aborti-facient. stomachic. skin disease. attenuated into a short petiole. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Chitramula. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. Fl. LOC. terete. Vallari. anasarca. ring-worm. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. diseases of spleen.—Aug. Res. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. and in leucoderma. leprosy. leaves. wild in Western Peninsula. Medi. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. oblong. ascites. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk.—thin. L. LOC. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. rheumatism. leucoderma. hot. Tropics of the old world. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). Ind. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. it is useful in dyspepsia. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. Bile-Chitra-mula. Fl. Chitaro Chitrak. Malay Peninsula. stomachic. striate. astringent to bowels. leucoderma. K. spreading. bechic. Chitra. Vahni. Journ. diarrhœa. DISTR. January 1933). Chitraka.—Plumbaginaceæ. scabies. alexipharmic. :—E. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. tonic. Chitrak.172
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
poison. bronchitis. dysentery. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. Bengal. t. appetiser. woody. piles. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. expectorant. ovate. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. root-bark.6-1.-Sept. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. diseases of liver. See—Ornamental Plants. In S.
FAM. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort.—capsule. long. Chitranga.
. with an intra-marginal vein. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. S. C. venereal sores. ulcers. white with a pale yellow centre. Belchampaka. shining. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). cylindrical. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. Champakam. carminative. laxative . L. COM.-Feb. entire. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. purple. CHAR.—Dec. Kanara. LOC.
POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. PARTS USED :—Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. cultivated. :—Konkan. Pagoda tree. 15-30 cm.-May. LOC. long. Rhuruchapha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. rarely maturing. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. :—M. DISTR. 4-lobed. DISTR. oblong-lanceolate. Khairchapha. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. acute at both ends. :—Native of tropical America.— large. rounded. Radha-champo. Country. t. Mahabaleshwar. pains. t. urinary discharges. many flowered.—Labiatæ. Fl. CHAR.2—1. M. useful in leprosy. spirally arranged. Fl. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. M. ascites (Ayurveda). high. :—A small shrub 1. G. abundant. Root-bark is purgative. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. 12 cm. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. Frangipani. Fr. irregularly doubly toothed. Deccan. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours.-nutlets ellipsoid. 3-lobed. :—All throughout the State. very fragrant. Fl. LOC. bark.8 m. K.
. useful in gleet.—salver-shaped. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. itching. See—Ornamental Plants. smooth. lower lip white. Goleurchampa. acrid. whorls close. 7.—2-lipped.—Apocynaceæ. Fr.
FAM. C. Phangla.—follicles. inner face angular.8-9 cm. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. shining black. heating. common. long. Kadu-sampige. COM. NS. pungent. leaves and milky juice. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings.:—More or less throughout India. :—E.—practically throughout the year. Sk. upper lip white shot with purple. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. broadly ovate. H. abundant from Mar.5-18x3. Devagangile. Golainchi. L. NS. divaricate. stems and branches quadrangular. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough.
Kanika. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Seeds—acrid . herpes and other cutaneous diseases. fruits and seeds. skin and in keratitis . F. Oil—anthelmintic. NS.
FAM. Kirmal. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Arni. Gaura. Jayanti. ulcers. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. ascites. carminative.
PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Agnibijaka. LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil.
. skin diseases. urinary discharges . Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms.—Verbenaceæ. H. wounds (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. wounds. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. :—E. piles. good for tumour. Pavaka. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Arand. LOC. Agetha. Karanj.)
FAM. cures biliousness. head and brain diseases. bark. piles. J. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Karanj. Chamari. chronic fever. Huligili. liver pain. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Sk. K. Ustabunda . Karanjmara. :—G. COM. chest complaints. DISTR. lumbago. Indian beech. Aran.
PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. M. Gracie). USES :—The fresh leaves. also planted. H. cures eye diseases. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Naktamala. itching. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. G. Sk. vagina. NS. leprosy. Oils. K. Kanaji. leucoderma. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. useful in diseases of eye. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Karanja. leaves. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Kanja. COM. " Kapha ". cure earache. " Vata ". anthelmintic. Agnimandha. chronic fever and hydrocele. In Satara. along Deccan rivers . Honge.174
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PROPERTIES AND LOC. purify and enrich blood. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. bruised. alexipharmic . juice is given in colic and fever. Ichu. Arni. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. See—Timbers. good in scabies. lumbago. rheumatic pains. Oil—styptic. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Karanja. relieves inflammation. flowers. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. enlargement of spleen and abdomen.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).
sour. fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. cylindric. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. M. Peru. stomachic.— globose. entire or upper part dentate. greenish yellow. lobes 4. flowers. dyspepsia. Peruka. aphrodisiac . laxative after food. Sk. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Jamphal. seated on the calyx . Root is laxative. K. LOC. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. It is also employed in scurvy. Flowers cool body. laxative. Fl. small. for unhealthy ulcers. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. blue-black. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. piles. Piyara. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. COM. used in bronchitis. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. diabetes. It is given in the form of decoction. common about Karwar. causes "Kapha".
PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn.3 cm. Guava tree. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. Nicobars and Malaya. Amrut.—tubular. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). bark yellowish. Anthers—dry wound. Dridhabija. Fruit—tonic. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. LOC. Jamud-rukh. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children.— June-July. useful in anaemia. LOC.. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Gova. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Peru . broadly elliptic. Fl. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. high. Jamb. :—A small tree reaching 9 m.—Myrtaceæ. H. Kanara. constipation.—hard. DISTR. :—Cultivated all over the State. stomachic. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. L. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. inflammations.—5-9 X 3.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Perala. good in colic and for bleeding gums. rough-tubercled . trunk and branches sometimes thorny.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). Safedsafari. t. Sd. applied to sore eyes. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. cooling. NS. Young leaves are tonic in the
. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. pungent. Perala. See—Famine Plants. smooth. cool heated brain. fruits and gum. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. hairy in the throat. cooling. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). bronchitis. chyluria. good for liver complaints (Yunani). G. C. as an astringent to bowels. LOC."Vata". Ceylon. :—E. heating.2-6. Fr. Andamans.
FAM. Gum is tonic. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Vastula.
Sd.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).6-1. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. white hairy. standard orbicular. vomiting. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. good for heart troubles.—pod. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). laxative. leprosy. black. closely-pitted. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. Bhavanj. anthelmintic. fruit and seeds. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. solitary. clawed.—simple. scabies. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. 3. 0. CHAR. Seed—purgative. Kushtaghni. diuretic. high. leaves. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Fr. G.
FAM. Fruit—diuretic. Bavachi.2 m.176
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
diseases of the digestive functions. :—An erect annual. Babachi. LOC. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea.
PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. cures blood diseases .—bluish purple . The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". Bavachi. Bakuchi. biliousness. COM. vulnerary. bronchitis.—Aug-Dec. C. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. ovoidoblong. piles. Country. M. nephrites and cachexia. improves hair and complexion. Sk. skin diseases. mucronate. Fl. L. inflammation. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. stem and branches grooved. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani).5—5 cm. alexiteric. K. DISTR.
. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. Bukchi. smooth. M.8 X 2. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. bitter taste. HABITAT :—Waste places. cures "Vata". LOC. H. difficulty in micturition. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. good for leucoderma. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. antipyretic. improves appetite. Konkan and S. nigro-punctate. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Vanguji.—in dense axillary. :—E. anthelmintic. t. heals ulcers. Chandralekha. " Rakta-pitta".—one. Seeds— refrigerant. urinary dis charges. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. raw one is used in diarrhœa. anæmia. stimulant. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. Fl. Kalameshi. studded with glands and white hairs. 10-30 flowered racemes . NS. See—Fruit Trees. causes biliousness. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). Babachi. alterative. Bowach-chi.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. flowers and fruits. " Kapha ". HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Gums and Resins. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda).
PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. used in piles. tonic. Dharimb . G. :—E. scabies. Fruit-appetiser. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. LOC. anthelmintic. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. M. applied to hydrocele. Honne. LOC. biliousness. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). chest troubles. Sunila. Bijak. in Akrani. Malabar kino-tree. NS. elephantiasis. spleen complaints. NS. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. anthelmintic. boils. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Valka-phala. allays thirst.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Raktabija-pushpa. :—Western Peninsula and S. Kabul and Baluchistan. Dadam. good for biliousness. prolapsus ani. Honi. Bibla. tonic. leprosy. stomatitis. anal troubles. flowers and gum. LOC. styptic. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Bark—astringent. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. Bia. DISTR.—Punicaceæ. PARTS USED. Kanara. somewhat milder in action than catechu. useful in all body diseases. Flowers—check vomiting. body eruptions. scattered but not gregarious . " Tridosh". ophthalmia. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. leucoderma. Bibla. Dalimb . It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. vulnerary. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. laxative. Pitasar. useful in eye troubles. See—Timbers. Sk. Dhalim. useful in biliousness. enriches blood. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). sore eyes brain diseases. COM. ascends to 1100 m. Dadima. called kino. laxative. urinary discharges (Yunani). G. Common in N. Dalimba. thirst. diuretic. Pomegranate tree. Khandesh and Dangs. Hirdokhi. fever. griping. :—E. Anar. K. H. India. bark. earache. Dadima. cultivated in many parts of India. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. urinary discharges. liver tonic. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). strengthens gums. useful in vomiting. also in Konkan. alterative . sore-throat. Flowers— improve appetite. :—Leaves. :—Wild in Iran. Bio. blood diseases. DISTR.
. Mahakutaj. Indian kino-tree. burning sensation. M. erysipelas. Bija. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Sk. colic. cures " Vata ". antipyretic. heart-disease. Dadimba. COM. Gum. fattening. Benga. Ceylon.
FAM. Gum—bitter. Hulidalimb . used in sore throat. Bibla. PARTS USED:—Root. H. Bigsah. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. gleet. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis.
PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. dark green. Mangari-kai. :—E. lanceolate .5 cm. acuminate. NS. Dharaphal. Rangoonchavel.
QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. M. glabrous above. Madana. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. Malaya. Gela. 7. Fl. Country and Kanara. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. The rind of the fruit.—in axillary and terminal spikes. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen.—Rubiaceæ.
RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. at first white then deep red . widely cultivated all over India. Barmasinivel. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. hairy beneath. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. S. L. jasmine . long.
FAM. numerous. COM. :—A strong climber. nearly 6 cm.—Mar. See—Ornamental Plants. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. M. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. H. Minkare. elliptic. Lalchameli. Karhar Mainphal. Emetic nut.178
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. Pinditak. It is given in the form of decoction. DISTR. pendant. Chinese honeysuckle. calyx tube long. Fruit contains vitamin C. LOC. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. acutely 5-angled. LOC. H. M. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Sk. Mindhola. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. Karigidda.
.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. NS.—Combretaceæ. :—E. Fl. CHAR.— ellipsoid. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. G. t.-Aug. USES :—In Amboyana. Gelphal. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . G. Annam. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. In China.
FAM. Konkan. Rangoon creeper. Midhola. COM. Fr. K.—opposite. C—petals 5. Rangoonkibel. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. base rounded.
DISTR. COM. bad taste. inflammations. emmenagogue. Sumatra.
FAM. Mulak. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. heating. useful in diseases of heart. LOC. amenorrhœa. S. Radish.MEDICINAL PLANTS
There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). leucoderma (Yunani). Seeds-sharp. leprosy. produce alopecia (Yunani). It is also used to poison fish. LOC. leprosy. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. skin-diseases. good for spleen and in paralysis. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. emetic. hiccup. K. See—Timber. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. paralysis. NS. sweet. Java. piles (Ayurveda). inflammations. piles. tumours. flowers. Juice of
.—Cruciferæ. certain and regular. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . Ruchira.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent.
RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. Bitter. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. :—E. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. Mula. E. Ceylon. ulcers. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. binding. Hastidanta. juice relieves earache. good in tumours. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bili Mulangi. antipyretic. purgative. used in diseases of the brain. Muri. It also contains an essential oil. China. muscular pains. Muro. DISTR. H. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. asthma. cholera. useful in chronic bronchitis. and all inflammations . emetic. bitter. Tropical Africa. Mura. Ksharmula. fruit and seeds. aphrodisiac. leaves. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. its action is very safe. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . M. it is equal to it in every respect. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. destroys "Vata". laxative. carminative. tonic. eruptions. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. anthelmintic. boils. carminative. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Mula. carminative. " Vata" and " Kapha". Mali. Sk. alexiteric. cures abscesses.
RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. swollen a little above the middle. single or didymous. lanceolate. diuretic. and black salt. DISTR.—Acanthaceæ. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. acrid. M.
RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Harki. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis.3 cm. NS. Ceylon. Fr. Palakjuhi. serpentinine. ajamalinine. Nai. Nakulikand. C. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions.)
FAM. expectorant. Java. ajmalicine.. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. shady open places near rain-forests. :—H. corrective and emmenagogue. Doddapatike. :—An erect perennial shrub. HABITAT :—Moist forests. See—Vegetables. sedative.-May. In the Konkan. sharp. LOC.9 m. Kanara. Sarpagandha. Chandrika. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. L. with a long. M.—tubular. ginger. Gaja-karni. Group B — Serpentine. bright red . white. Sk. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Mungusavel. Root contains vitamins A. black shining. 7.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. B and C. Fl. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. acute. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. bright green above. Chandrika. irregularly. Andamans. COM. thin. Garudpatala. Fl. :—H.
FAM. carminative. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings.. CHAR.—drupe. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. anthelminitic . yellowish root stock. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. ulcers (Ayurveda).180
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. t. nodular. leaves (rarely).5-18 X 2. specific for insanity. It is hypnotic. often tinged with violet. Chhotachand. Harkaichand. used in hyperpiesis .5-6. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. cures " Tridosha ".—Apocynaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. COM.-in whorls of 3. Sivanabhi. K.—in irregular corymbose cymes. K.— Mar. seeds are considered peptic. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. laxative. NS. pale beneath.. Juipani. heating. LOC. pungent. Western Peninsula.
USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). generally cultivated. leaves and seeds. Fl. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. :—Deccan. 0. DISTR.—5-10 X2-5 cm. H. Chitrabija. rheumatism. carminative .
RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in heart diseases. glands. Sholapur). Eranda. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. S. vaginal pains. black. tumours.-Jany. useful in skin-disease. ring-worm. Fr. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk.—capsule. Ceylon (wild) . white. Arand. Vardhamana. diseases of rectum and head.—nearly sessile. K. stems obscurely angled. Country (Dharwar. LOC. elliptic lanceolate. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. upper lip bifid . intestinal worms.9—1. Madagascar (cultivated). inflammations. useful in inflammations. fevers.. Sk. anal troubles. asthma. asthma. G. strangury. COM. ascites. ascites. HABITAT :—Hills. Erand. cultivated. leaves. aphrodisiac. Seed and oil—cathartic. :—Undershrub. body pains. solitary. Java. alterative. increases "Kapha". :—Throughout India. bronchitis. Belgaum. ascites. piles. convulsions. :—Probably of African origin. eructations.—lipped. earache. t. L. :—E.—Oct. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. good for burns. M. inflammations. boils. Leaves—galactagogue. LOC. Tirki. some fevers. velvety hairy Sd. lumbago. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. glandular. Mahabaleshwar. Castor oil plant. Cattle are fed with leaves for
. Palma christi. alterative.5 m. Fl. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. elephantiasis. hills near Belgaum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. LOC. M. useful in pains. NS. bracts ovate lanceolate. Vardhaman. pointed. Triputiphala.
FAM. pain in back. leprosy. typhoid. pubescent: C.— tuberculate. high. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. purgative. tropical Africa. dropsy. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. flowers and seeds. Erand. paralysis. piles. leprosy. DISTR. Country. entire. widely cultivated in tropical countries. liver and spleen diseases. pains. Straits-Settlements. narrow. night-blindness. useful in liver troubles. Erand.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". Fruit— appetiser. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). hairy outside . M.—Euphorbiaceæ. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. Divaligo. increase biliousness. Divald. Very little in other districts of the State. Khandala. Root-bark—purgative. amenorrhœa (Yunani). oil—anthelmintic. Haralu. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. lumbago.
M. Lakshmipushpa. France. kidneys. with a good odour. much used in lotions and collyria . :—Origin unknown. astringent when dry (Yunani). pink or white. Gulab. CHAR. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth.—Rosaceæ. expectorant.3 cm. ovate oblong. cephalic. L. long. burning sensation. sometimes glandular. aperient removing bile and cold humours. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Fl. t. inflammations.5 m. Flower—bitter.
ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. Ati-manjula. LOC. stomatitis. In constipation it is used as an enema. Gulab. cardiotonic. biliousness. etc. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. 2.
.— all the year. adults. sometimes striped .— usually corymbose. good for eyes. :—A perennial shrub. Sk. K.—obovate . Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . serrate. acrid. " Vata".. dry. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. Pannira. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. cardiotonic. Ghazipur is a chief centre. See—Ornamental Plants. H. NS. sweetish. aphrodisiac. seldom griping or causing flatulency. LOC. double. removes bad odour from mouth. Gulab . USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. P. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. head-ache. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. :—E. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . See—Oils. antipyretic. Fl. attaining 1.—pinnate. tonic. used in heat of body. they are cold. chronic fevers. intestinal affections. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. benefits lungs. excessive perspiration. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Soumyagandha. hairy. red. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. Fr. Punjab and U. Tarana. cooling. liver. Italy. tooth-ache. laxative. DISTR. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. cultivated all over India.182
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
the same effect. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. COM. stems with stout and hooked prickles.
FAM. PARTS USED :—Flowers. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . G. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. They are also applied to painful joints. which is a powerful poison. Greece and Germany. mild and safe purgative. Sudburj. laxative. cures leprosy.5-6. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. stipules scarcely dilated. Shatadala. improves appetite (Ayurveda). It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). petioles prickly.
:—E. inflammations. rheumatism. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Ceylon. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. anthelmintic.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . one pair with longer petioles ovate. ear. and was much used in dropsy. orbicular . alexiteric. jaundice. heating. Root—bitter. tropical Africa. Ambat Chuka. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Fl. shining. 15-30 cm. M. Sk. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. cordate or hastate. LOC. acrid. antidysenteric. Chukra. diuretic. it powerfully affects the nervous system.-Jany. used in eye-sores. COM. cylindric. leaves and fruit. Java. leucoderma. erect glabrous herb. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. stems very long. H. Fl. liver complaints. Manjishtha. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Japan. erysipelas. NS. COM. :—E. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. paralysis. increase appetite.. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS
RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn.—didymous or globose. Fr. analgestic. DISTR. Amlavetasa. antipyretic. emmenagogue. Fr. ulcers and skin-diseases. Sk. L. Country. laxative. base cuneate. CHAR. lower leaves larger. Leaves-sweet. pains in joints. Decoction tinges blood. eye. Tamravalli. Gulmketu. ovate. L. valves hyaline. LOC. Fl. dysentery. uterine pains (Yunani). inner perianth-segments membranous. Manjit. improves voice and complexion . purplish black when ripe. oleaginous . NS.5 cm. Manjishha. :—Root. piles.—Rubiaceæ. M. ulcers. blood. PARTS USED. leucorrhoea. leucoderma. greenish. all scabrous with white prickles. Malay Peninsula. roots very long. Rohini.
FAM. analgesic. Raktasara. t-Oct. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions.
FAM.—Polygonaceæ. diseases of uterus. prickly. Aruna. lactagogue.—in whorls of 4.
. smooth. spleen-enlargement. vagina. five-nerved. CHAR. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. branched from the root. obtuse. grooved. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. cures " Kapha ". Chuka. lethargy. high.—white or pink. urine and even bones red.5—7. Bladder. urinary discharges. Dock. Sorrel. Chitralata. with a thin red bark. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic.—in terminal panicled cymes. petioles triangular. the Konkan and S. HABITAT :—Higher ghats.
RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn.—2. Majit. H. branches quadrangular . bitter. :—Annual. K. paralysis. :—Perennial climbing herb. jaundice. Indian Madder. elliptic. Manjishtha.
—capsule. S. COM. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. C. bronchitis. rugose with furrow. Havananju. tumours. acute. DISTR. alcoholism. useful in scabies. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. Common—Garden-rue .184
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
. ciliate. Sk. Fl. Africa. stomachic. LOC. :—Common throughout the State. piles. t. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). H. Fr. N. Satap. ovoid oblong. Parpatha. with darker spots. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. tonic.— subsessile. Cooling. Country. PROPERTIES AND LOC. they are prescribed. NS. See—Vegetables. pale brown.
RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. then erect. often rooting near the base.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. dyspepsia. lower shortly 3-lobed. Afghanistan.—Acanthaceæ. COM. :—A herb . Satri. constipation. L. leucoderma. toothache. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. Konkan. Fl. G. Sk. in dysentery. :—Western Punjab.—Nov. Kharmor. LOC. The seeds have the same properties . :—G. hiccup. analgesic. USES :—Leaves are cooling. 2-lipped. H. The juice allays tooth-pain.—white. aperient and diuretic.-Jany. generally in the Deccan. M. Deccan. Satapa . Trans-Indus Hills. vomiting. DISTR. Khatselio . CHAR. useful in heart troubles. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). upper emarginate. Sd. blue or pink. M. Persia. NS. Vishapaha. Nagadali.
RUNGIA REPENS Nees.—suborbicular. oblong lanceolate. stems usually decumbent. diseases of the spleen. checks nausea and promotes appetite. while fresh they are bruised. bites and stings of poisonous animals. laxative. Sadapaha. asthma. acute . roasted. Pismarum Sadab. flatulence. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Ghati pittapapada . bracts elliptic.
FAM. Ceylon. K. Sadabu. with scarious faces and hard ridges. also considered as a vermifuge. :—E. pains.
FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour.—Rutaceæ. Kanara.
chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. :—Egypt and Algeria. :—Grown everywhere in India. Poona. amenorrhœa. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . it may be given internally in hysteria. The plant contains glucoside glutin. Ingotu. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). yellowish. Satara. flawed. Us . The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). The plant has strong antispasmodic properties.—capsule.. Sugarcane. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil.—Gramineæ. Gudakastha. diuretic.-alternate. Fl. glandulose punctate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. Kumad. all over the State. Madhuyashti. Rasala. G. particularly Deccan. tonic. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. Sd.
. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia.
SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. grown in gardens. There are three varieties . LOC.—angled. Fr. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. NS :—E. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS
CHAR. HABIT :—Cultivated. heats body. thirst. leprosy.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. segments cuneate. emmenagogue. Ikshu. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. in pots. and externally used as a rubefacient. increases mental activity. DISTR. garden. obtuse . Rikhu. epilepsy. flatulence. petioled. LOC. cooling. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. K. H. oleaginous. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). indigestible. S. DISTR. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. decompound. Powdered and combined with aromatics. C. cultivated throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. M. abortifacient. digestive. heating to body . Gudatrina.
FAM. Kabbu. etc. Sk. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). :—A strong smelling herb . Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. forest and mountain. L. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. The plant is tonic. spathulate or linear-oblong . Naisakar. oblong-obovate. Ganna. Tanigarbu . anti-aphrodisiac . useful in fatigue. M. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. diuretic.—petals 4. laxative. Ukh . Sherdi. colic. S. See—Ornamental Plants. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. The oil is the best form for administration.
H. deobstruent. Fruit—aphrodisiac. improve diuresis (Yunani). Jal. G. LOC. diuretic. improves appetite. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). deeply cleft. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Piludi. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Kanara in littoral forests. smooth. red when ripe. C.—drupe. tonic and aperient. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. aphrodisiac . Brihat madhu pilu. scabies. causes " Kapha. fruits seeds and oil. the Konkan and N.
FAM. LOC. anæmia. near the coasts of Gujarat . leaves. diuretic. shining. LOC. tonic to liver. COM. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. Leaves—bitter. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. inflammations. fattening. laxative. Pilu. often planted near Muslim tombs. Pilu. bad for liver (Yunani). Fruits are deobstruent. strengthen teeth. Cane—sweet.
SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. analgesic. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. fleshy. M.—Salvadoraceæ. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. In the Punjab. :—E. purifies blood . good for lungs . lessen inflammation . DISTR. Sugar causes " Kapha". Ceylon. white. drooping. useful in biliousness. Sind. :—Drier parts of India. The juice contains vitamins A and B. L. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. In cases of poisoning by copper. Fl. oil is digestible. stomachic . useful in heat. erysipelas. pectoral and aphrodisiac.. sometimes it raises blisters. Tooth-brush tree. Pilu. t. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. K.—Nov. lobes much reflexed. leucoderma. Pilu. Khakan Mirjoli. Egypt. dry regions of W. useful in biliousness. alexiteric.-Feb. Goni. finely striate. anthelmintic. It is good in calculous complaints. diam. bile. globose. 3 mm. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. See—Food Plants. Asia. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. branches numerous. Sk.". Fl. delirium. piles. Fr.
. disorders and wind. :—Dry districts of the State. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. Kharijal. useful in nosetroubles. often mucronate at the apex.—very thin. Mahaphala. sugar is considered heavy. Seeds—purgative. greenish-yellow. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . numerous. corrective. NS. ulcers. carminative and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac.186
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
intestinal troubles. carminative. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). opposite. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. astringent to bowels. Abyssinia.
diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. NS. G. Antharalo. Sandal-wood Tree. Burugukayi. Aritha. in skin-diseases.—Sapindaceæ. gonorrhœa. Kumblabijaka. astringent to bowels . Ritha. G. useful in diseases of heart. DISTR. Bhadrasri. tubercular glands. Phenilu. Malayaja. PARTS USED:—Wood. is applied to local inflammations. fruit and seed.—Santalaceæ. antipyretic. paralysis. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. LOC. Bhogivallabha. useful in inflammations. :—Indian Peninsula. Sk. Agarugandha.
SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. H. aphrodisiac. :—Western Peninsula. aphrodisiac. to allay heat and pruritus. much cultivated. emetic. Chandan. :—E. Ringni. Rishta.
FAM. abortifacient. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . hemicrania. M. often planted. cures "Tridosha". Shrigandhalmara. biliousness. Phenila. Ceylon. ground. LOC. vaginal discharges. thirst. Country and N. Mangalya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Fruit—bitter. laxative. Chandal. Oils. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. Anthuvala. Mysore and parts of Madras State. gleet. Bhadrasara. up with water into a paste. to temples in fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. strangury. M. Kugale. Wood—tonic to heart and brain.
. diarrhœa. K. Oil. cholera. Kanara. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. chiefly in S. alexipharmic. lumbago. Root—expectorant. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. stomachic. tonic. Ritha . alexiteric. Chandan. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. head-ache (Yunani). A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. USES :—Wood. useful in chronic dysentery. S. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . allays uterine pains. Arithan . epileptic fits of children. Sk. K. Suket. bronchitis. Sandal. India. cold in head. alexiteric. Chandan. COM. :—E. M. DISTR. Arishtaka. LOC. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. H. exhilarating. COM. acts as diaphoretic. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests.
SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. small-pox (Ayurveda).. Cultivated elsewhere. See—Timbers. Soap-Nut tree. burning sensation. " Kapha ". Sukhad . Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
of eye and ear. COM.192
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
DISTR.— abruptly pinnate. Sk. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. Jinangi. Baluchistan. Fr. diuretic and lactagogue. CHAR. branches striate. LOC. hair-tonic. promote hair growth. an emollient poultice is also made from them.—standard as broad as long. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. leaves. They are nourishing. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. M. biliousness. enrich blood. diseases. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Shewari. 7. strangury. and as an oildressing for ulcers.
FAM. linear-oblong. Jayat. opposite. Fl. 15-23 cm. Rasin. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). applied to gouty joints. suppurating wounds. burning sensation. leaflets 914 pairs. obscurely angled . white and red.5-15 cm. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. NS. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. inflammations. seeds. cures
. few flowered axillary racemes. alterative. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. DISTR. gouty joints. seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. Jayanti. Black variety is common. beaked.—in lax. Waziristan. bleeding piles. H. Nadeyi. :—A soft-wooded shrub. cure menorrhagia. cooling. septate between the seeds. LOC. etc. inflammations (Yunani). long. L. oleaginous. long. into claw. :—Cultivated all over India. pendulous. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. See—Oils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. Jayanti. Seed-oil—fattening. applied to ulcers and piles. inflammations. bark. galactagogue. Jayantika. 4-5 m. small-pox. useful in dry cough. spleen troubles. :—G. useful in sorethroat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. probably a native of tropical Africa. Jayanti. carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—20-30. Janjhan. Raysingani. asthma. such as dysentery etc. They are also emmenagogue. mottled with purple on the outside. strengthening. slightly torulose. There are three varieties of seeds : black. scabies. leaves. syphilitic ulcers. in height. K. Sd. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. indigestible . :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. Jaya. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets .
SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir.. diuretic. oil.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). urinary concretions. useful in diarrhœa. yellow. They have been used to procure abortion.—pod. tonic. eye diseases . astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. C. Seeds contain vitamin A. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. tonic. removes "Kapha". lung diseases. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea.
brightens intellect (Ayurveda).— pod. diabetes. 2-4 white or red. Kanali. LOC. leaves. Indigenous from Malaya to N. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Bark— astringent. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. M. fruits. alexiteric. Agasti. anaemia. See—Vegetables.5-8. fevers. anthelmintic. NS. "Kapha" and inflammation. COM. leprosy.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). leucoderma. cure quartan fever. 6-9 m. is applied in rheumatism. linear oblong.8 cm. Agusta. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. bronchitis. tumours . useful In diseases of spleen. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. Bark—astringent. DISTR. See—Fodder Plants. relieves throat-troubles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. allays thirst.—in racemes . improves taste. long.MEDICINAL PLANTS
tuberculous glands. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. Agati. Vranari. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani).—7. flowers. Fruit—laxative . Seeds—emmenagogue. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). stimulant. Fl. leaflets 16-30 pairs. gout . Agathio. long.
SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Leaves—indigestible. cures " Tridosh " pains. Fr. Leaves—purgative. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. rubbed into a paste with water. Hatiya . LOC. LOC. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. The plant contains vitamin A. Dirghashimbi. :—A soft wooded tree . Flowers—cooling. gout. maturant. CHAR. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . is applied in painful swellings. useful in ozœna. useful in ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". 15-30-cm. 50 cm. Kempagase. Munidruma. demulcent. long. biliousness. ulcers. anthelmintic.
FAM. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic.— flowers at various times. diarrhœa. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. high. Agasta. C. Sk. K. cure itching.
. Basna. An infusion is given in small-pox. epilepsy. L.— pinnate. Ornamental Plants. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. night-blindness. dysentery and paludism. very showy. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. :—G. Agase. improve appetite . astringent. H. t. Fl. Bak. Australia.
upper margins ciliate. Country Mallow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. carpels 7-10. astringent. cordate. is given
. DISTR. :—Hotter parts of India. Sk. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. Samanga. " Pitta ". :—A shrub. Vatyapushpi. black. Bala. bleeding piles. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fl. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. G. Kumghi. obtuse. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. linear. lanceolate. NS.—solitary or few together.5-5 cm. strongly reticulated. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. CHAR. stomachic and tonic. Baladana. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges.. glabrous. digestive. Bala. decoction. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Jayanti. t. Chikna. leaves and seeds. removes " Vata ". LOC. Country.—smooth. base rounded. with ginger. Root—cooling. Bala.—Nov. Khareti. Sd.194
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. Kherati. awns 2. H. L. Barial. diam. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. diam. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Pata. aphrodisiac . dorsal margins toothed.
SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. M.— yellow. H.. carpels 5-9. COM. Chittuharatu.—1-2 in each axil. :—Konkan. Deccan and S. t. useful in blood and throat diseases. CHAR. :—G. Country.-Oct. Fl. emollient.—Malvaceæ. " Kapha " . NS.
FAM. Fl.Dec. Rajbala. COM.3 cm.-Nov. K. pedicel jointed much above the middle. strongly reticulated . awns 2. M.. PARTS USED :—Root. diuretic. sharply serrate.5-6. crenate. minutely hairy. LOC. Batyalaka. Fr. Hettutti-gida. yellow. bark. pedicel jointed about the middle. DISTR. Prahasa. L. Kharanti. astringent. M. M. :—Konkan (common).—2. Fl. Pata. Kisangi. long. HABITAT :—Moist places . long.—5-6 mm. scabrid-hairy. Sk. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). cooling. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Tukti. linear . Kareta. puberulous.—6-8 mm. branches slender.
FAM. a weed. Bariara. LOC. Chikna. :—E. Gujarat and S. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . LOC.—2.—Malvaceæ. dorsal scabrid. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. ovate-oblong. Fr. C. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. softly hairy all over. useful in fever.
Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. 5 inner boat-shaped. :—Throughout India. Country.-Dec. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. COM. :—A large annual herb.2 m.—opposite. LOC. pappus 0. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn.—heads small in leafy panicles .6—1. M. administered in hemiplegia. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Pilibadkadi. Linn. common. Fl. diaphoretic. deeply and irregularly toothed.—Nov. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. those of the ray red beneath.—achene. 0. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. high. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". triangular-ovate. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. Katampu. 5 outer clavate. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. Bala—Sida cordifolia. juice is used for healing wounds. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is also used to favour menstruation. t.—Compositæ.—yellow. rhomboides Roxb. Seeds are called " Bijaband ".
. :—G. facial paralysis. Externally. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. and head-ache. L. erect. stem stiff. stiff-neck. Fl. all running down wing-like into petiole. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS
in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. :—Deccan. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased.
FAM. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. involucral bracts 2 rows. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. also in colic and tenesmus. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. NS. DISTR. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. slightly rough. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. noise in ears. black. cystitis. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. tinged with purple.
SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Fl. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Fr. S. Ceylon.
—Solanaceæ. petiole prickly. Ceylon. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. base unequal-sided.. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. G. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. recurved. Philippines. useful in leucoderma. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. " Kapha". rarely wild. Dorli. lessens inflammations. pruritus ani. C. prickles large. M. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine.—5—15 X 2. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Hinguli. aphrodisiac. Hinguli. G. globose. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Rigana. leaves (rarely) and fruits. " Vata". sharp.. Egg Plant. Kadusonde. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). It is seldom used alone. loss of appetite. H.. or triangular-ovate. :—E. Mahotika. laxative. 0.—pale-purple. maturant. COM. Kattarta. subentire. astringent to bowels. LOC. COM.-Aug. bronchitis. Bhanta. fever. Vrittaphala. China. removes foulness of the mouth. :—E. Root is applied to lessen pain. Mhotiringni.3—1. Sd. NS. M. high. very. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. Vantak. LOC. Fl. NS. DISTR. Habba-Kirigulla. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. Ubhi-bhuringni. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root.
. Malpya. Brinjal.196
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. Fr. DISTR. dark-yellow when ripe.— berry. Bhantaki. beneficial in cardiac troubles . asthma.5—7. PARTS USED :—Root. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha".5 cm.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. Bhantaki. L. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. Badanikai. pain. fruit and seeds. digestive. Sk. leaves. eye diseases (Ayurveda). enriches blood. Indian Nightshade.
FAM. stem stout.-Oct. diam. Vadikadheri. improves appetite. Vange. K. ovate. Barhanta.—minutely pitted: Fl.
SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. causes biliousness. 8 mm.—Solanaceæ.
FAM. Vayase. lobed. Baingan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. bad for piles if taken internally. Brihati. H. Nilaphala. Fruit—cardiotonic. t. Vengni. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides.5 m. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. prickly. clothed outside with purple hairs . cardiotonic. anthelmintic. Sk. LOC. covered with stellate hairs. Ranringni. Vartaki. :—Throughout tropical India. analgesic. vomiting. :—Widely cultivated in India.
useful in heart and eye-diseases. diarrhœa. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. not to be given to pregnant women.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. urinary discharges. Piludi. Kamoni. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. improves voice . bark. Kakamunchi. 3-8 flowered cymes . inflammation. useful in giddiness. Ceylon. piles. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. dysentery. LOC. COM. tonic. and used with success in psoriasis. favours conception and facilitates delivery .—Solanaceæ. smooth. G. taste. Kakamachi. minutely pitted . Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet.—many.—discoid. asthma. Fr. The seeds are used as a stimulant. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. Morellel. liver inflammation. fever. diam. improves appetite.-Jany. subumbellate. Sk. hiccup. leaves and fruit. Katuphala. :—A variable annual herb . Black Night-shade.
SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. " Tridosha". cathartic and diuretic. Tiktika.
FAM. H. in pains. Gurkamai. Root-bark—laxative . B and C. tapering into petioles. Kakamachi. t.—Sept. Fruit contains vitamins A. K.—small. vomiting. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). inflammation. Makoi. laxative. ear and nose . eye-diseases hydrophobia. griping.. See—Vegetables. DISTR. stem erect. In S.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . diuretic. Fl. :—Throughout India. bitter. yellow.— berry. Vayasi. CHAR. C. shining. bronchitis. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. leucoderma. aphrodisiac. etc. worms in ear. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. Hound's Berry. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. Sd. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. entire or sinuate toothed. fever. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). alterative. ovatelanceolate. :—E. It acts as a hydrogogue. Fl. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. heating. Kabaiya. L.
. LOC. chronic fever. throat burning. Seeds—laxative. 6 mm. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. gonorrhœa (Yunani). in extra-axillary. bronchitis. M. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. good for neck ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. itch. much divaricately-branched . useful in diseases of eye. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. dysuria and asthma.
Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. LOC. Jonera. H. fruits and seeds. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. PARTS USED :—Root. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B.—Solanaceæ. Root—aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. t. muscular pains. laxative. flowers. Nele-Rama-gulla . Kantakini. piles.
FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. biliousness. base unequal-sided. lobes deltoid. heating. Malaya. CHAR. L. COM. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat.
SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. NS. hairy outside. surrounded by enlarged calyx . asthma. lumbago. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . S. Durrah. Ikshupatraka.— June. stomachic. Africa. yellow or white with green veins. Vrittatandula..—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Basu). In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. Nidigdhika.7 cm. & Wendl. they are used in the burning of feet. aphrodisiac.5-5. M.198
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. :—G. Chikka-sonde.—berry. Dirghashara. Sorgho. Jowar. straight. Jondhala. Ringni. :—Common in the Deccan . pains. Sundia .
FAM. stem zig-zag. Shalu. Dhavani. :—E. LOC. Sk. G. K. Sind. chronic bronchitis. Kenjal. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. C. Great Indian millet. bright green perennial herb . Yengara . fevers. LOC. petiole prickly. Seeds—anthelmintic.. useful in bronchitis. "Vata" and " Kapha". H. urinary concretions. M. Jundri. NS. stone in bladder. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. expectorant and febrifuge. Sholapur. Fl. anthelmintic . Jolah. good in inflammation. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Sk. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Leaves—good application for piles. yellow and shining. prickles compressed. :—Throughout India. asthma. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). catarrhal fever and chest pain. Fl. pruritus . 3-2 cm. Bijapur and E. Jowari. diam. thirst. Konkan. sterility in women. strangury. Katai. It is used in asthma.—Gramineæ. K. Khandesh claim about three-quarters
. appetiser. Ceylon. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. D. heart disease. hairy on both sides. Fr.—purple. fever. often exceeding 1. dysuria. Nirgol. :—A very prickly diffuse. Bhui-Kate-ringni. ozoena. COM. Bhoyaringni.3 cm. Kantakari. Kateli. DISTR. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. E. stems. Yuvanala. leaves. tropical Australia.-5-10 X 2. long. Brihati. sinuate or subpinnatifid. Fruit—laxative. ovate or elliptic.
aphrodisiac. See—Food Plants. Gums and Resins. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . on dry stony hills. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Rohun. Bodiakalara. G. :—Dry forests of W. bladder and kidney complaints. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . M. Grains contain vitamin B. Pravrajita. vaginal injections and enemas. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. diseases of blood. :—Seeds. piles. aphrodisiac. while Belgaum. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. indigestible.—sessile. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe.—Meliaceæ. NS. :—The grain is cooling. M. Country. M. refrigerant. Gorakhamundi. hence used in intermittent fevers. Sumbi. constipating. tumours (Ayurveda). Fibres. CHAR. HABITAT :—Open situations. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. See—Timbers. Ceylon. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Bijapur and E. ulcers. Rohini. with toothed wings. :—G. anthelmintic. hairy. Munditika. Indian Red-Wood. ulcers. introduced into America and Australia. common in Gujarat. Sk. Bastard Cedar. Khandesh and S. cough and asthma (Ayurveda).
SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Kumbhala. Some.
. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Asia and Africa. COM. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery.
SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. K. :—Bark. leprosy and dysentery . Gorakhmundi. K. NS. improves appetite and taste. LOC. useful in " Kapha". Tans. Agniruha. Poona. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. H. general debility. :—Bark-acrid. PARTS USED. Ruhin. glandular.
FAM: —Compositæ. Rohina. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm.
FAM. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Swami-mara. Ahmedabad. :— E. PROPERTIES AND USES. laxative. Dharwar. fevers. Aruna. DISTR. tonic and antiperiodic . the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. good for sore-throat. PARTS USED. stem and branches cylindric. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS
of the rabi area. biliousness. Vritta. Juss. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Sk. Rawtarohan. Karanda-gida. L. high. DISTR. cures " Tridosha ". :—Widely cultivated in India. Mahamundi. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Gorakmundi. Rohani. COM.
used in insanity. cools brain. useful in skin diseases. Africa. used also for local application. anæmia. elephantiasis. Australia. gleet. oblong. Fr. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic.—Compositæ. irregularly crenateserrate. enriches blood . Akara-karava. :—Deccan. S. :—Common in rice-fields. peduncles reaching 10 cm. Fl. digestible.—Achene. :—E. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. :—Hot. CHAR. DISTR. bronchitis.. and tonic (Stewart) . flowers and seeds.
. tuberculous glands. Powdered root is given as tonic. urinary discharges.200
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
decurrent. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).—in heads ovoid. bark. emmenagogue. piles. PARTS USED. :—Throughout India. asthma. base usually acute. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. good for eyesore. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. stem and branches hairy. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. Celyon. L. HABITAT. rectal pain. t. pain in uterus and vagina. Pellitary . Malay Islands. Fl. glandular hairy. strangury. hemicrania (Ayurveda). all warm countries. involucre bracts linear. :—Root. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. urethral discharges and jaundice. ring-worm of waist. LOC.— achene. USES. :—Root. lessens inflammations . indigestion.—compound heads. :—Throughout India. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. compressed . :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. jaundice. Tonic. scabies. peduncles with toothed wings. serrate or dentate. globose ovoid. HABITAT. the latter when present minute. vomiting. leucoderma. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. laxative. ovate. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . Pappuso. Fl. Dharwar and Belgaum districts.—purple. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. spleen diseases. glaborous. cooling. biliousness. chest diseases. looseness of breasts.—Nov-Jany. laxative. truncate. Akkalkara . It is also used as fish and crab poison. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. Akarakara . :—Annual herb. tonic. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic.
SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. DISTR. epileptic convulsions. PARTS USED. depurative. boils. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. ovate-oblong. H. leaves. anthelmintic. dysentery. fattening. sometimes grown in gardens. gives lustre to eyes . COM. t. increases appetite. :—Wild and cultivated. biliousness. NS. They are given in powder form. :—Common in the Konkan. alterative. scalding of urine.
FAM. They are chewed to relieve toothache. leaves and flower-heads. C. with honey they are given in cough.. Fl. M. Sk. Fr. in cases of worms and indigestion. Ceylon. stalked. long. ciliate near the ends .—Nov. Country and Kanara. solitary or subpanicled.—opposite.
Ambodha. ovate oblong. oblique. Padal. NS.8-7. Pitana. refrigerant. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards.5 cm. HABITAT. trunk straight. pinkish green.
. blood complaints . Wild Mango. Fl. phthisis. NS. Amrataka.-Apl. good for sore-throat. 3. round with furrows and cavities. Ambada. PARTS USED. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. Fr. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. Amra. Hongkong.MEDICINAL PLANTS
In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. appetising. M. oblong. cures rheumatism. K. Western Peninsula. Sd. W.-usually 1. Hulave. M.. Kapichuta. widely planted. Patala. Ali-vallabha. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. aphrodisiac. S. Sk. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. COM.. Sk.—drupe. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Bile Tree. CHAR. entire. H. COM. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC)
FAM. Andamans. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Pandri.— petals 4-5. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache.—Bignoniaceæ. Kariguddada. Salt Range.
STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. C. Pahad. M. long. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. :—E. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. Fl. Marahunise. K. Gujarat. high. Country.—Anacardiaceæ. Amate. biliousness. Avatekayi. Tungi. leaves and fruit. Kumbhi. Fruit—indigestible. Burma. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Konkan. ovoid. Kanara.
SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. :—Bark. Giri Hadari. Dr.5 m. L. Padiala.8 cm. tonic. ash-coloured . burning sensation. :—Leaves-tasty. Gum is demulcent.Feb. enriches blood . Toyadhivasini. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. yellow. long. hard. Hude. :—Cultivated. bark smooth. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. ulcers. branches nearly horizontal. DISTR. t.
FAM. Ceylon. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Parur. Ran-amba . :—Often planted throughout the State. Kalavrinta. astringent. Indian Archipelago. Patala.5-18 x 3. LOC. stone woody. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry.. :—A tree 9-10. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. :—H. Kamduti. Padal. It has been found useful in dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. See—Gums and Resins. Indian Hog-Plum. destroys " Vata ".
:—More or less throughout tropical India. Kajavara. Flowers— acrid . astringent to bowels. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. eructations. NS. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Fruit—useful in hiccup. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. :—Monsoon-forests. appetiser. useful in bilious diarrhœa.—Loganiaceæ. Crow Fig. Kanara. It is regarded as cooling. lumbago. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. H. Kangira. poisonous. :—Very common in Konkan and N. LOC. tonic. Kuchala. asthma. tonic.
STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. Kajra. "Vata". seeds. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). emmenagogue . Planted in Ceylon. Kupaka. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Sk. COM. bitter. Ittangi. Kuchla. Kelakutaka. fevers. Kanara. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. PARTS USED. LOC. Burma. west coast of Madras State. :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES. blood diseases. PARTS USED. N. Hemushti. Travancore . Ceylon. Poison Nut. inflammation. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. DISTR. thirst.
FAM. heating. fruit. flowers. antipyretic. cures pains in joints. Kajra. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. Laos. Kuchla. aphrodisiac. leaves. blood diseases. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). anæmia. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Karnatak. itching. See—Timbers. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . PROPERTIES AND USES. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. heating. DISTR.. fruit. LOC. K. Karaskara. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. sub-Himalaya. heating. ring-worm. vomiting. "Kapha". Kakatinduka. Nirmal. Indo-China. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . G. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with
. :—Fruit-acrid. :—E. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". piles. Vishamushti. M. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). piles . LOC. :—Wood (rarely). Travancore.202
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT. ulcers. Kachita. Circars. Fruit—bitter. pungent. cures leucoderma. burning sensation. :—Root-bitter. diuretic. :—In forests south of Bombay. tonic. Visha-druma. loss of taste. jaundice. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. diuretic.
It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. K. Burma. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. alexiteric. Aduguchali-bija.
FAM. Ceylon. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord.. The demand for strychnine is increasing. See—Timbers. causes biliousness. Sk. cure strangury. fruit and seeds. urinary discharges. Ambuprasadini. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. improve eye-sight. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. M. M. good for liver. aphrodisiac. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Country. :—E. gonorrhœa. :—Root cures leucoderma. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Nivali. hallucinations. H. increases "Vata". thirst. poisoning. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis.
. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa.—Loganiaceæ. Shodhanatmaka. jaundice. Madhya Bharat. Fruit useful in eye diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS
aromatics are given in colic. Nirmali. :—Root (rarely). India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. diuretic. Seeds—bitter. Kanara and Khandesh. Nelmal. COM. also in Konkan. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. tonic. DISTR. :—Western Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. Seeds—acrid. cures inflammations. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa.
STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. emetic. Kataka. NS. Chittu bija. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. anæmia. alexipharmic. head-diseases (Ayurveda). lithotriptic. kidney complaints. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. LOC. LOC. diaphoretic. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. relieve colic (Yunani). :—Deciduous dry forests. Clearing Nut Tree. See—Timbers.
1 nectary at the base of each lobe . Lodhra.3-0. bleeding gums . NS. Peninsula. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". :—The whole plant is bitter. Tillaka.
FAM.— sessile. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. :—Konkan and N. acrid. biliousness. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. Country. Lodh is used in raw condition. :—Western Ghats . Lodhraka. ovoid or oblong. t. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. Shavaraka. in powder or in fresh decoction. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Deccan. Mahabaleshwar. C. leprosy. Lodh Tree.— lobes 4-5. 5-nerved . Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas.—Gentianaceæ. high. Loder. Torna fort. Broughton).
. :—M. useful in eye-diseases. Fl. Sk. PARTS USED. Tiritaka. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. emmenagogue. :—India (W. 2-valved. flowers (rarely). 0. LOC. Dyes.— Oct. NS. Sd. HABITAT. Bhilli. C. vaginal discharges. DISTR. C.
SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Fl. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. CHAR. white with blue veins.—many. E. Fr. :—W. PROPERTIES AND USES. stem densely leafy. Kadu. H. alexiteric. Deccan . :—Root. digestible. M. :— E. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. eye-diseases and ulcers . astringent to bowels. :—Hilly parts. LOC. quadrangular. etc.9 m. throughout N.-Jany. China Nora. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Chota Nagpur. :—Bark-acrid. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. inflammations. useful in abortions . M. Lodhra .—Symplocaceæ... Bark—bitter. Balaloddujinamara. Lodh . :—An erect herb.—capsule. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . cooling. Peninsula). COM. COM. Burma. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Lodh.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . 4-winged. colloturine and loturiaine. Bose). astringent and useful in bowel complaints.204
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. dysentery. DISTR. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. cures cough. Californian Cinchona. S. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. aphrodisiac.
FAM. winged . PARTS USED. :—Bark. broadly ovate. diseases of blood. decussate. L. K.
stop urinary discharges (Yunani). strengthens gums and teeth. Gulabjaman. Shukapriya. Surabhipriya. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. sweet. H. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Fruit Trees. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic.—Myrtaceæ. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Jambudi. common along river banks. Sk. Jambu-Nayinerale. PARTS USED. useful in spleen diseases. :—Bark-acrid. :—Bark. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. enriches blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS
SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Jamen. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. gargles and washes . ulcers. K. also used in spongy and painful gums. Sk. asthma. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. G. DISTR. Pharenda. astringent to bowels. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. LOC. cooling. Jambu. astringent. sprouts. common at Mahabaleshwar. thirst. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. NS. Shukapriya. PROPERTIES AND USES. dry. very often planted. M. LOC. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Nilphala. also wild. good lotion for ring-worm in head. good for sore-throat. good gargle for sore-throat. H. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. Nerate. See—Timbers. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. fruit vinegar is tonic. digestive. etc. Kokileshta.)
FAM. Jambura. Pannerali. Ceylon. biliousness.—Myrtaceæ. Fruit—acrid. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. fruits and seeds. carminative . Australia. Malay—Rose apple. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. increases "Vata". dysentery. Jambu. Jambul. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. Jam. blood impurities. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Jambu. K. :—Throughout the State. carminative and diuretic. both wild and cultivated. :—Throughout India. Neralu. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. NS.)
SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Jambul. bronchitis. LOC. anthelmintic. M.
. Seeds—diuretic. :—E. removes bad smell from mouth. Jambula. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Nenda. Jamburaj. Gulab-Jamb. astringent to bowels. Malaya. :-Black-Java Plum. Jambu. COM.
(TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. E. H. Assam.5-5 cm. useful in paralysis. pale beneath. Ananta. Taggar. alexipharmic. :—Sikkim Terai. Yunnan to Australia. purgative. Trinidad .)
FAM. margins wavy. astringent to bowels. heating.
. See—Ornamental Plants. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. Tagara. Wax flower. astringent to bowels. Bengal. M. used in asthma. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Sk. glossy green above." biliousness. :—Bark is sweet. C—lobes overlapping to the left. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. Cultivated in many places. weakness of limbs. blood-diseases (Ayurveda).— opposite.
TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. G. across. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. liver and spleen . fragrant at night. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. tonic.—snow-white.. . strangury. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. :—E. acrid. improves voice. COM. PARTS USED. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. used in syphilis (Yunani). Fr. Fl. with milky juice . :—Cultivated in gardens. bitter. 1-3 ribbed. The plant contains an alkaloid. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. Maddarasa gida . Nandi. See—Timbers. salver-shaped. aphrodisiac.206
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
DISTR. emmenagogue. :—Bark. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani).—Apocynaceæ.—follicles. PROPERTIES AND USES.—rainy season. Burma. used in liver complaints. 7. orange within. digestible.5-15 X 2. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. tonic to brain. K. useful in "Kapha. and an essential oil. bronchitis. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. inodorous during the day. Kottuhale. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. Tagar. :—Root is acrid. heavy speech. double. :—Root. tonic to brain. lobes 5 in single. HABITAT. CHAR. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). LOC. cultivated in many parts. indigestible. indigestible. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Br. Seeds are astringent to bowels. PARTS USED. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. LOC. lessens pains in limbs and joints . dysentery. cures epilepsy. Garhwal. removes bad humours. Root chewed relieves toothache . DISTR. Khasia Hills. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. Fruit—sweet and tasty. NS. Tagar . L. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. astringent to bowels. t. Root—bitter . Ashvathabheda. fatigue. fruit and seeds. Chandani.5-5 cm. hot. wood and oil. Fl. divaricate. thirst.
2-7. :—Flower-pungent. rough. Maddarssa. NS. Imli. Amli. Fl. Kalaga. CHAR. oblong lanceolate . Leaves—good for piles. Kanara. Teter. somewhat boat-shaped. G. Amla. Amlike. stomachic. internally they are said to purify blood.. t. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Guljharo. Pandarakuda. PROPERTIES AND USES. acrid. :—Rain-forests.
FAM. M. high.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). PARTS USED. C.—Compositæ. See—Ornamental Plants. PARTS USED. DISTR. H. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). K. kidney troubles.— Mar-Apl. grown in gardens all over India. Makhamal. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. H. bark grey. lessens inflammation . DISTR. coriaceous. 2. COM. good for teeth . Travancore up to 7. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs .
TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. belching. Halmeti. :—E. astringent. divaricata.. Sk. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. their juice is given in ear-ache. HABITAT. :—Root. useful in scabies. Nagaskuda.000 m. M. :—Native of Mexico. Amala.MEDICINAL PLANTS
TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall.— tube inflated near the top. Nagakuda. Zendu. muscular pains. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. NS. Sk. LOC. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles.
TAGETES ERECTA Linn. NS. Tintidika. Zanduga.5 cm. Sd. :—Leaves and flowers. HABITAT. Amli. G. Chinchika. bitter.—Apocynaceæ. :—E.—white. Makhamali.4-4.5 m. Tamarind. French Marigold. Makhamala. PROPERTIES AND USES. Genda.. Tintrani. Amlika. L.—surrounded by red pulp. carminative. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. :—Cultivated. Chinch. Nuli. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. M. Sthulapushpa. throughout the Konkan and N. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Sandu. Fr.—opposite. :—Same as T. oil. across in pedunculate cymes .5-20 X 3.—follicle. : K. Gultora. common in rain-forests.
FAM. COM. yellow when ripe. LOC.. :—Malabar.5 cm. Chinch. Fl. LOC. wood. COM. Flower—bitter. 7.
laxative.—Verbenaceæ. scabies. boiled they are used as a poultice. Seeds are good astringent.208
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
. :—E. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Sagwan. Flowers— appetising . heals ulcers. Mahapatra. heating. anthelmintic. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. fruit and seeds.. Sk. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. sweetish. DISTR. Burma. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. biliousness. eye-diseases. intoxication &c. DISTR. LOC. thirst. Sumatra and Java. Arna. tasty. Circars. PROPERTIES AND USES. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. small-pox. Seeds astringent. PARTS USED. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. M. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. indigestible. Condiments and Spices. Sagach. Cultivated also. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). abundant all along the slopes of W. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". such as body-burning. PARTS USED :—Root. costiveness. Tegu. sore-throat. Kanara. digestive. Fruit—sour. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. :—Bark. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. flowers. tumours. Teak. Anil. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests.
TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. leaves. LOC. K. useful in giddiness and vertigo. urinary discharges. Kanara. useful in liver-complaints. COM. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. :—Throughout India.
FAM. flowers and seeds. heals wounds and fractures. Sag. laxative. bark. Malay Peninsula.. and laxative. tonic. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. causes cough. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. stomatitis. carminative. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Tega. NS. Tropics generally. G. vomiting. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Teka. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. earache. See—Timbers. Sagwan. astringent to bowels. Sag. Sagun. tonic to heart. wood. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Fruit-sour. Bark—astringent. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. and for sizing materials. H. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Madhya Bharat.
Flowers—acrid. leaflets 11—21. Jhila. urinary discharges. Gujarat. allays thirst. leprosy. anthelmintic.5 cm. cultivated lands and roadsides. gonorrhœa (Yunani). NS. Leaves—tonic to intestines . fresh root-bark. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon.-June. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . slightly curved. Sarphonka. spleen. Sarpankho. high. biliousness. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. LOC. useful in piles.—pod 3—4. Ghodakan. inflammations. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. mucronate. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa.
FAM. Empali. syphilis. anthelmintic. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). spleen diseases. standard. linear. leaves and seeds. poisoning. root. asthma. expectorant. CHAR. t. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. "Root—diuretic.—Oct. DISTR. boils and pimples. :—Plant-digestible. :-G. LOC. Sarphoka. :—All over India. long. Udhadi. dry. M. alterative. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). cures diseases of liver. glabrous above. ulcers.
TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. Wood good for head ache.. Bark is an astringent. 30—60 cm. laxative. See—Timbers. Malay Peninsula. L. 2—2. M. Kalika. Konkan. Phanike.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. pubescent on the back.—5-6 . biliousness.
.2 cm. :—A perennial herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. branches spreading. antipyretic. improve appetite. Kogge. burning pain over the region of liver.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Country. Sk. cooling. silkyhairy beneath. alexiteric. Wood—acrid. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. long. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. heart. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). it acts also as a vermifuge. useful in bronchitis. increase "Vata". Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial.. suborbicular. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. enriches Blood . Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. H. useful in bronchitis. C. mucronate. Sharapunkha. cures diarrhœa . bitter. oblanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES. Deccan. useful in scabies. blood. tumours. sedative to gravid uterus.—petals clawed. good in piles. Fl. liver. :—The whole plant. Fr. Unhali. Plihari. LOC. useful in lung and chest diseases. PARTS USED. S. red.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. along forest borders. HABITAT:—Open situations. K. Fl. Sharapunkha. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. COM.8 X 0. allays thirst. Sd.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. asthma. ground and made into a pill.8—1.
:—Throughout the greater parts of India. fruit and seed. sore-throat. Shantimara. PARTS USED. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. M. useful in fractures. Sadura. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. DISTR. Kakubha. H. Burma.
FAM. with milk.
FAM. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). :—Bark. K. tumours. useful in biliousness. leucoderma. Tari. Behedo. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Dhanvi. Arjuna. Kahu. LOC. Kalidrum. inflammation. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Rajastan and Sind. Arjuna. Vibhitika. Bahaza. :—Bark. tonic. asthma. intoxication. biliousness. Koha. fruit (rarely). White Marudah. Karvirak. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Voting. Bastard Myrobalan. Arjuna. Arjan.—Combretaceæ. See—Timbers. anthelmintic . Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti.. Vibhata. anthelmintic. DISTR. Fruit-pungent. Ceylon. LOC. blood-diseases. Behada. acrid. urinary discharges. Tara. Karshaphala. H. Kushika. in the sub-Himalayan tract. leaves.. Arjun-Sadada. Beheduk. very common in South Konkan. strangury. :—Throughout the forests of India. PROPERTIES AND USES. Indradruma. laxative. aphrodisiac. tonic. PARTS USED.. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Bera. :—E. :—Konkan and Deccan. Aksha. anæmia. biliousness. false presentation of fœtus. Bibhitiki. NS. G. Madhya-Pradesh. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). M. Bedda Nut. externally in wounds and fractures. Hela. Sk. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. PROPERTIES AND USES. digestible. Sadado. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. :—E. Expectorant. LOC. Chota-Nagpur. Madhya-Bharat. heart disease. K. Belleric Myrobalan.210
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. excessive perspiration. Bahara. COM. NS. diuretic. Sagona. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams.—Combretaceæ. Sk. except in dry arid regions. in Khandesh Akrani. Buhura. Arjun Sadada. useful in bronchitis. COM. G. Madras State. :—Alexiteric.
TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. strangury. " Kapha".
TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Baire. styptic. & A. ulcers. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m.
Hirdo . H. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. ascites. enriches blood. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. elephantiasis. NS. heating. cold in head. thirst. LOC. alterative . useful in caries of teeth. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. aperient. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. diseases of eye. Jivantika. tumours. delirium (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Black myrobalan. See—Timbers. Abhaya. LOC. LOC. in Travancore. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. vesicular calculi. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts.—Combretaceæ. diseases of eye. G. PARTS USED. Dyes. common in Khandesh Akrani. K. Burma. gout. Ripe fruit—purgative. —E. Gums and Resins. heart and bladder. attenuant. is used as an application in ophthalmia. vomiting. DISTR. M. useful in dyspepsia.
TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. piles and diarrhœa. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. Harara. eyes. typhoid fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS
asthma. Jivanti. Alate. carminative. leucoderma. Ceylon. gums. tonic. piles. applied to eyes. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. expectorant. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. :—Bark and fruit. mixed with honey. Haria. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. carminative. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. diarrhœa. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. biliousness. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. vomiting. eye diseases etc. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. :—Fruit-dry. tonic. nose. which is considered a good digestive. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. constipation. Seed—acrid. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. inflammations. urinary discharges. antidysenteric. brain tonic (Yunani). sore-throat. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES. useful in thirst. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. good in ophthalmia. Kanara. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. useful in asthma. used in paralysis (Yunani). Hirda. itching pain. bleeding and ulceration of gums. bleeding piles. heart and bladder. diseases of spleen. a valuable preparation used in many diseases.
FAM. tonic. Harade. corneal ulcers. stomachic. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". the fully ripe or dried fruit. Haritaki. strengthens brain. Har. hoarseness. Fruit-astringent. hiccup. strangury. Haritaki. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects
. dyspepsia. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). intoxicating. antipyretic. Kernel has narcotic properties. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. bilious headache. Chebulic myrobalan. piles. anaemia. Sk. COM.
Kandarala. burning of body . increases " Kapha " . The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. See—Timbers. :—E. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". profuse discharge.
THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Kuberaksha. LOC. aphrodisiac .
FAM. Parasipu. Phalisha. leaves. produces worms in intestines . :—Bark. G. DISTR. Paras-piper. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Gandarati. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. LOC. Parisha. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Eastern and Western Peninsula. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. difficult to digest. Dyes.. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. acrid . HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores.
. Tans. Paraspipal. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Sacred Plants. Bhend.212
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Burma. :—Fruit-sour. It is also used in chronic dysentery. also planted as roadside tree. Bugari.—Malvaceæ. COM. Suparshuakan. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Tulip Tree. Hucerasi. M. Arasi. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. Bengal. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Ranbhendi. Jogiyarale. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Bhandi. Gajadanta. Kanara. Portia Tree. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). See—Timbers. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Sk. Bhindi. Fibres. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Mhaskar and Issac). flowers and fruit. NS. K. Paraspiplo. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. :—Coast forests of India. especially centipedes.
tubular. 7—9 nerved. Pivali kanher. Amrita-Valli. Zard kunel. lobes 5. bark corky. :—An extensive climber. Gulo. PARTS USED. fevers. crowded .
TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. it has no action on digestive enzymes . throat campanulate. exocarp fleshy. America and W. yellow. pungent. dorsally convex. :—Stem. See—Ornamental Plants. CHAR. acrid. DISTR. L. :—Often planted. Gulvel. mesocarp bony. HABITAT. Uganiballi. PARTS USED. Gado. grooved . ventrally flat. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS
THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. elliptic. Exile or yellow Oleander. yellow. Fr. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. Ashvaghna. Gurch. Fr. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . male fascicled. often planted in India. Sk. astringent to bowels. Pila kaner. Amritvalli. long. LOC. wounds. Burma.—Menispermaceæ. M. G. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). COM. Gulancha. Vatsadani. seeds and milky juice. females solitary. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. :—Bark. hot. size of a pea . Indies . bladder. G. cures " Vata " .—in axillary and terminal racemes. H. linear.—membranous. 5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. leucoderma. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. endocarp corky. :—E. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. eye-troubles. virgin uterus.
FAM. HABIT :—In thickets. Pittaghni.. Fl. Shatakumbha. :—E. H.5—12. NS. red.—in terminal cymes. L. DISTR.—Apocynaceæ. Andamans and Ceylon. LOC. very poisonous (Ayurveda). Gulvel. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. C. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. but its use is attended with considerable danger.
FAM. t. Amarvel. Sd. :—Throughout tropical India. Fl. growing on mango and other trees. Pila kanir. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.—generally 4. root. useful in urethral discharges.
. 5—10 cm. corona in the throat. with milky juice. Heart-leaved moonseed. 1—3. LOC.—drupes. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine.—broadly obovate. Jwaranashini. worms.—Apl. NS. Gulhel. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. across. K.-spirally arranged. and blood vessels . COM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. frequently planted. Sk. CHAR. M. skin diseases. bronchitis . 7. Karvira..5 cm. Haripriya. bright green and shining above.. piles. :—Native of S.
good in cough. chronic fever. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil.—Aug. Root and stem are bitter. Sk. digitately trifoliate. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). enriches blood. Java. Manger. unisexual. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine.8. M.—Dehan. vomiting. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. anæmia. common in S. stimulates bile secretion. causes constipation. tropical Africa. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. antipyretic. Philippines. Limri. LOC. Fl. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. FT. Mirchi. tonic. diuretic. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. Fl. :—E. L.
TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. fever. Dahan. Jangali-Mirchi. expectorant. stomachic . diarrhœa. :—Rain-forests. coriaceous.
. stimulant and anti-periodic. male flower bud globose. Gangalaki. Kadu-menasu. t. HABITAT. especially acid. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. oblong. 15 m. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. stomachic. 3-5 grooved. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. CHAR. armed with small hooked prickles . leaves. K. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. cures jaundice. Ceylon. (Kirtikar). :—All over the Madras State .—in axillary cymes. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. dark shining green above. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. Khasia Hills. useful in skin diseases. DISTR. :—Stem-bitter. leaflets sessile. Sumatra. PROPERTIES AND LOC. ovary rudimentary. female flower buds oblong. Konkan and Kanara. tonic appetiser. allays thirst.. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. size of a large pea. pitted on the rind.-Jany. PARTS USED. juice useful in diabetes. giddiness. :—Root. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. Lopezroot Tree. piles. stigma sessile. fruits. H.— alternate. renews blood.—globose. COM. Kaduhakukare. Stem-bitter. orange coloured. Kumaon to Bhutan. Forest Pepper. bark.214
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PROPERTIES AND USES. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent.—Rutaceæ. burning sensation. white. jaundice. vaginal and urethral discharges. crenulate. China. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. 5-7 lobed. also in the Deccan hills.
FAM. LOC. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State.8-3. Macimullu. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). vomiting. high. 5-10 X 1. NS. Root-bark is aromatic. USES.
indigestible. Gums and Resins. Mahalimbu. Jalakantaka-valli. Burma. astringent to bowels. Chittagong.)
FAM. H. Sandal Neem. Deodari. :—Aquatic (in tanks). :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Mandurike. Lim. fatigue. Garige. HABIT. good for scabies and gleet. M. aphrodisiac. Singhara. expectorant. COM. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. inflammation. LOC. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani.MEDICINAL PLANTS
TOONA CILIATA Roem. Tunika. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. cures leprosy. Gandhagarige. Sk. :—Fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES. Singodi. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES. "Tridosha". H. cures fevers. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. headache. Shringa-kanda-taka. fattening. often cultivated. Kalingi. aphrodisiac. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. cooling. urinary discharges. astringent to bowels. Ceylon. Bark—bitter. :—Throughout India. Tuni. Chota-Nagpur. :—E. anthelmintic. useful in
. itching. Dyes. cardio-tonic. NS. useful in ulcers. Nand-vriksha. Kanara. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. burning sensation. Lud. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Waitz). Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). PARTS USED. Sk.—Onagraceæ. digestible. Tun. aphrodisiac. :—E. biliousness. Water-chestnut.—Meliaceæ. PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. Shingada. G. Trikota. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. :—Bark-acrid. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). biliousness. DISTR. See—Timbers. Malaya. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. of India). removes " Kapha ". tonic. Trikone-phala. leprosy. tropical Africa. LOC. :—Throughout the State in tanks. DISTR. Apina. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. K. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Kaechaka. Kuruk. :—Bark and flowers. Shingoda.. causes " Vata " . Kuberaka. NS. Tundu. blood diseases. Assam. strangury.
TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. :—Cooling . removes " Tridosha". Indian Mahogany. antipyretic . Toon. burning sensation. M. COM. LOC.
M. leaflets 3—6 pairs . young parts silky.
FAM. Gokshura. K.—Zygophyllaceæ. The plant contains an alkaloid. one pair longer than the other . USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings..—Euphorbiaceæ.—opposite. NS. Pindara. bronchitis. COM. Gokhru. sharp spines.—globose. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Fibres. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. used as food. antipyretic. yellow. Karahate. Deccan and S. Gokhura. Country. Seeds abound in starch. Gujarat. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Chhota gokhru. G.
. Gokshri. Tumri. :—E. a common weed of the drier parts. :—Throughout India. stems and branches pilose. DISTR. :—Plant is cooling tonic. useful in chronic fevers. See—Food Plants. LOC. abruptly pinnate. NS. alexiteric. :—A procumbent herb. solitary.—several in each coccus . Sk.:—Saurashtra. Sd. improves taste . M. Kere Padye. Hussuk. Sk. Assam. PARTS USED. LOC. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Malay Peninsula.
FAM. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Sumatra. sore-throat. Kurangaha.. t. Shadanga. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese.216
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). upto 3300 m. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. considered cool and sweet. Negalu . base oblique. Java. each with 2 pairs of hard. lumbago. DISTR. Fr. Trikantaka. :—The whole plant. along nalas and in swampy localities. See—Timbers. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Gamhar. one of each pair smaller than the other. They are also used in the form of poultice. biliousness.
TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Ceylon. hairy. Calthrope. Pindara.
TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Ceylon. Petari . In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. :—H. M. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. L. Gokharu. Sarata.—throughout the year.. CHAR. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. K. COM. LOC. oblong. H. Gokhru. Fl. Kanara. of 5 woody cocci. LOC. Aphrodisiac. bile and phlegm. bad-teeth (Yunani). the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. Kantaphala. appetiser. pain. thirst. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. in Kashmir. Kadu Kange Kumbala. mucronate.
calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). COM. tonic. cures strangury. Abu. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. cures skin and heart diseases. oblong. fattening. Talakanto. branches angled and ribbed. pappus shorter than the achenes. Sk. PARTS USED. ciliate. M. alterative . alleviating burning sensation. :—Hot. suppression of urine.
FAM. long. gleet. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. West Rajastan. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh).— purple. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). S. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder.—sessile. stomachic. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . USES :—Fruits are cooling. gonorrhœa. S.—heads 6—8 mm.— Dec. asthma. :—Western Peninsula. leaves. improves appetite . spinous toothed or serrate. :—A glabrous herb. Kanara. LOC. DISTR. : — G. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . :—Wild in places. C. Mt. Country. NS. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. pain . Brahmadandi. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. lumbago . K. Brahmadandi. Fl. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. L. Fl. t. cough. faintly ribbed. :—Root. Brahmadandi. Kantapatraphala. HABITAT. diuretic. piles. slender. fruits. H. :—The whole plant. Central India. pruritus ani. tonic . aphrodisiac. Konkan. Mota-Motachor. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue (Yunani). reduces inflammation.
. vesicular calculi. leprosy . useful in strangury. bitter. reduces inflammation . which is taken in large quantities. increases menstrual flow. —achene. Brahma-dandi. LOC.
TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. enriches blood . linear-oblong or lanceolate. the Deccan. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). copious. Brahmadandi. inflammations. removes " Tridosha ". seeds.—Compositæ. "Vata". CHAR. stem erect. Kanara. tonic. urinary discharges. appetiser.MEDICINAL PLANTS
PARTS USED. urinary disorders and impotence. bloody urine. yellowish brown. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. cures "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Cooling . M. Physiaran. LOC. Aja-dandi. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. Fr. purifies blood . S. diuretic. ovoid. Diuretic. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition.
DISTR. L. stem robust. long. blood diseases.-5-12. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. leucoderma. COM. Malaya. male in axillary racemes. white. dentate or serrate. Sd. K. variable. LOC. In Bombay.. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Kiripodla. the Deccan. alterative. :—Throughout India. eye diseases. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Jyotsna.5—7. long. cures bronchitis. stems 3. — surrounded with red-pulp . dark-green above. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Fl. distantly denticulate.—July-Oct. orbicular. Mahakala. Katuka. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.5 cm. Panduka.—Cucurbitaceæ. Ratan-indrayan. Patola. HABITAT:-In hedges. females solitary. ulcers.3 cm. slightly hairy. deeply 5-lobed. long. Avagude-hannu. oil. Australia. Fruit—hot.
FAM . paler beneath. axillary. lobes ovate-oblong. alexiteric. L. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. tendrils 3 cleft. Lal-indrayan. long as well as broad. fruit.-6. PARTS USED. base cordate . laxative.3-12. Kadvi-padyal or patola . :—A scandent annual. Fr. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. leprosy. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. COM.—monœcious.. Root-juice is very purgative.5 cm. LOC. anasarca and ascites. it is given in decoction with ginger. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Wild Snake-gourd. erysipelas. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Malay Peninsula. CHAR. G. ovoid-fusiform.. H. reniform or broadly ovate.-male in axillary
. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. bitter. slender.—Cucurbitaceæ. pungent. leaves. cures itching.5 m. Mukal.—2.218
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn.
FAM. M. green with white stripes when raw. tendrils 3-fid. asthma. Ceylon. Leaves—good for biliousness. leaf-juice is emetic.6—4. Indrayan. furrowed. Sk. Perula. woody below. Jangali chichonda. t. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. M. NS. allays thirst. stomachic. Sk. Fl. The seeds are good for stomach disorders .
TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. NS. :—Root-cathartic . H. scarlet when ripe. PROPERTIES AND USES. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. palmately 3-5 lobed. CHAR. Betlada padaval. :—E. antipyretic. —G. chireta and honey. Fl. base deeply cordate. K. :—Root. N. burning sensation. headache and boils. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. useful for boils and intestinal worms. antipyretic. with a long sharp beak. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). Kaundal. Jangli— Kadu padval. Makal.
Malaya. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. Fruit—carminative. very hairy. C. :—Root and fruit. Fl. hairy. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). bracts large. Country. Fl.—throughout the year. L.. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens.—many . LOC. Kirkee. black. Japan. petioles densely hairy. Ekdandi. heat of brain. fringed. NS.—globose 3-8.—head solitary. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. Sd.. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). :—Leaves. many years ago.75 X . PROPERTIES AND USES.— Apl. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils.—1. used in epilepsy. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. DISTR. lessens inflammations . PARTS USED. abortifacient.5 cm. 3-partite. high. HABITAT. middle lobe smallest.—petals wedge-shaped. glandular. N. outer involucral bracts ovate. Fr. acute. on the Himalayas. diam. densely silky hairy. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. Deccan and S. PROPERTIES AND USES.MEDICINAL PLANTS
5-10 flowered racemes. cures hemicrania. :—Abundant in the Deccan. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. the smoke causes hæmatemesis..75-1 in. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. COM. ophthalmia. Ceylon. axillary.. female solitary. DISTR. M. PARTS USED.-July. t. rheumatism. Fr. sparsely white hairy. slender. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. purgative. bruises and wounds. limbweakness. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. :—Wild in hilly parts. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks .
. t. Australia. ovate-elliptic. gargle good for toothache. leprosy. LOC.
TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. :—M. ligules yellow. all over the State. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. boiled with gingelly oil. 30-60 cm. Ray flowers ligulate.— achene. LOC. Juice of fruit or root-bark. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. China. Fl. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. stem and branches hairy. :—Throughout India. white. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. :— Wild in Konkan. inner slightly longer than outer. peduncles very long.—Compositæ. which is found abundantly all over the country.
FAM. CHAR. :—A perennial straggling herb.
dyspepsia with loss of appetite. much used in colic. See—Vegetables. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. H. removes bad taste from mouth.—Aug. enlargement of spleen and liver. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. long. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. Fenugreek . cures leprosy. ovate or elliptic oblong. diarrhœa. G. vomiting. :—Leaves and seeds. astringent to bowels.
FAM. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. Sk. corona gibbous below. also in low and sandy localities. aperient. LOC. :—H. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Pitakari (Pitamari). emmenagogue.—in umbellate cymes . Muthi. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda).. Jyoti. CHAR. K. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State.
TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Methi. cultivated in many parts of India.—deeply lobed. diuretic. purplish within. DISTR. Chandrika. tonic.—follicles. PARTS USED. appetiser. suppurative. Methi. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). Sd. Kashmir. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink.5-5. Hot and dry. t. NS.—opposite. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. chronic cough. HABITAT. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. L. fleshy. M. Fl. LOC. Janglipikvan. M. Kanara.
. 7.7 cm. flatulence. FN. Antamul. useful in dropsy. Country. with coma . Pitabija Vedhini. bronchitis. piles. antipyretic.220
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. :—A twining perennial. :—Cultivated..—Asclepiadaceæ. anthelmintic. Nepala .— broadly ovate. they are also aphrodisiac. Fl. LOC. dropsy. COM. large for the genus. K. tapering to a fine point at the apex. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. base cordate. enlargement of spleen and liver. C. :—E. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. "Vata". :—Hot.-Nov. tonic and carminative. COM. :—South of Bombay. narrowed at the apex to a free point. long.
FAM. Menthe—palle. 5-10 x 2. M. greenish-yellow outside. roots many. Methini. dysentery. :—Punjab. Konkan. Methi.5—10 cm. S. PROPERTIES AND USES. Methi . and the seeds contain vitamin A. NS.
glabrous. :—Roots and leaves. Fl. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. perianth campanulate.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sk. :—G. joints 3-6. Dabra.
. long. Dried leaves are emetic. Fr. C. M. :—Western Himalayas. W. drooping.— Liliaceæ. Sd. stalks long.— pod. Ranganja .
FAM. 0. light-brown . 10-20 cm.. PARTS USED. Rankanda. Peninsula. 15-45 x 1.— petals lanceolate. hairy beneath. Prishna-parni. tapering to both ends . It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. :—Bulb. :—A perennial shrub. stems downy with hooked hairs. USES. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Jangli-Ran-khanda.
URGINEA INDICA Kunth. ellipsoid.— flattened. Malay Islands. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Vanapalandu. tropical Africa.-Sept. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.
URARIA PICTA Desv. Chota-Nagpur. pale lead-colored. Bihar. :—Sandy places. :—Throughout the plains of India. :—Konkan. linear-oblong. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. M. LOC.—appearing after the flowers. Philippines. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS
DISTR. Borneo.9-1. diaphoretic and expectorant. high.5 cm.— imparipinnate. CHAR. white. polished. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Pitvan. HABITAT. scape erect 30-45 cm. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). :—Common on sandy shores. DISTR. Thailand (Siam). t.—purple. black.. CHAR. Panjala. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. tropical Africa. found useful in dysentery. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. DISTR. Malay Islands. 20-30 cm. C. COM. Pitavan . USES.—Aug... linear.—in racemes 15-30 cm. PARTS USED. :—Wild. Ceylon. LOC. L. Burma. NS. flat. L. long. COM. Ceylon. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. H. Indian Squill. :—Throughout India. G.. Fr. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery.
FAM. NS. blotched with white above. KolaPutakand. Shankaraja .—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Jaglipiaz.—capsule. Fl. folded on one another. 5-7 (rarely 9).. :—E. H. :—A herb.8 m. long. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Pithavan. HABITAT.3-2. Fl. Sk.
obtusely keeled. bronchitis. laxative. and U. PARTS USED. Sarpagandha. Rasno. Peninsula. The plant contains an alkaloid.
FAM. :—The bulb is pungent. long.
. diuretic. LOC. Br. L. lessens inflammations . useful in paralysis.3-2 cm. alexiteric. DISTR. :—An epiphyte. CHAR. long. internal pains (Yunani). inflammations. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Rasna. bronchitis. useful in dyspepsia. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. stem 30-60 cm.. rheumatism. purgative. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). indica is in no way inferior to the official U. alexiteric. Gujarat and Kanara. LOC. NS. maritima of U. Ceylon. Chota-Nagpur. Fl. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever.. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U.— July. column very short. and was found useful (Koman).
VANDA ROXBURGHII R. Fl. dropsy. heals fractures (Yunani). Madhya-Pradesh. S. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. and an acute interposed one. lip bluish dotted with purple.222
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
PROPERTIES AND USES. toothache. LOC. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. bronchitis. good for piles. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. long. diseases of nose. :—Bengal.5—9 cm. asthma. :—Epiphyte. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. Sk. Gaz. acute. Atiras. anthelmintic. M. :—Root and leaves. Fr. 15-20 X 1. tip. 1931. USES :—Expectorant. cardiac. :—G. :—Root is bitter. Nakula. The bulb is stomachic. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Rasna. praemorse. heating. rheumatic pains. :—Konkan. heating. boils in the scalp.—Orchidaceæ. (In Med. Bihar.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. 2-lobed. Persara. lumbago. stimulant and diuretic. Banda.. K. Rasna. diseases of the abdomen. scandent by simple or branching roots . renal calculi. W. PROPERTIES AND USES. erect. tremors (Ayurveda).—capsule. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. HABIT. Root is bitter. Vriksharuha.—thickly coriaceous. H. complicate. antipyretic. COM. stout. alexiteric. emmenagogue. A. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. t.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. hiccup. Vanda. skin diseases. pollinia ellipsoid. scilla of Great Britain. recurved. Travancore. Bandanike. anthelmintic. tonic to brain and liver.
CHAR. 1-nerved wing. skin eruptions. ulcers and wounds. alexipharmic. Malamaitra. Bilidhupa. Gums and Resins. Sk.
. diarrhœa.. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. Fl. stomachic. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. abundant in S. Poppli. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Oils. :—Western India. useful in atonic dyspepsia. also planted.-nut about 5 mm. with an offensive odour. eardiseases. tonic. urinary discharges. also in N. H. G. amenorrhœa. Sarjaka. Kundura. USES. H. carminative. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. boils and ringworm. COM. Dhupa. whitish). smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). :—Bark. yellowish. DISTR. NS. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. DISTR.. Khandvel. dark.—petals 5. deciduous and monsoon-forests. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. LOC. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Country. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. Fr.—Rhamnaceæ. :—Bark-hot. tuberculous glands. LOC. Pitti. Kanara. Ceylon. Haruge. :—E. detergent. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. Sekalyel. Mysore. PARTS USED. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree.—in large drooping terminal panicles. :—North Kanara. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. Tenasserim. Red Creeper. Safed-damar.
FAM. COM. alexipharmic.—5-10 X 2. Raktavalli. t. Shala. (T. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. bechic. entire or crenate.-Jany. good for sore-throat. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests .
VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. :—Bark. Sk. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. M. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. greenish. piles. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). diam. globular. tonic and stimulant. prolonged into a linear-oblong. LOC. cures cough. C.
FAM. rheumatism. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. :—Madras State.8 cm. Kaharub. buds 5-angled. dysentery. Kanara and S. M. PARTS USED. itch (Ayurveda). NS. useful in leprosy. Lokhandi.MEDICINAL PLANTS
VATERIA INDICA Linn.. resin. K. Kubbila. Coorg in Ghats. in chronic bronchitis. Fl. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. acrid. Dhupa. L. See—Timbers.5-3. expectorant. debility and slight cases of fever. anæmia. Madidhupa. young branches and panicles pubescent.—Dec. :—A large much branched woody climber. Ragatarshado. hemicrania. PROPERTIES AND LOC. fruit. Sandras. :—E.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Travancore. Shandike.
VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. The juice mixed with mustard oil.-rotate. Sk. Bakchi. Kadvojiri. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kalejire. Kalijiri. with purple tips . USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. anthelmintic. LOC. stem 0.. filament densely bearded with purple hairs.224
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. yellow.—Scrophulariaceæ. Fl. 10-ribbed. :—Plant. Bhutakeshi. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Afghanistan.9 m. compound or pinnatisect. Seeds— anthelmintic. H. warted. :—E. :—Annual. t.2 cm. t— Jany. astringent to bowels. CHAR. L. China. on long petioles. lanceolate. Country. and leaves.-May. truncate. DISTR. hairy.—heads subcorymbose. hairy. 5—9 x 2. high. all coarsely dentate. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). hairy on both sides. Gadar-tambaku. in equal proportions.5—3. Purple Fleabane. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. Deccan . Vapehi. Fl.—oblong. Agnibija. L. lyrate. Sundika. LOC. COM.—Dec. The juice of the whole plant. lobes 5.
FAM. :—G. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. Kutki. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages.. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. C. :—An annual herb. Somaraj. M. Kalizhiri. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. M. high . ofter cultivated. Sd. :—Throughout India.—Compositæ. NS. sub-globose. :—Seeds-acrid. Kadu-Kala Jiriga.Feb. "Vata" and "Kapha".. Fl. Ceylon . Vanajiraka. K. CHAR.—alternate.—capsule. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. Fr. PARTS USED. involucre bracts linear.)
FAM. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. M. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. H.8 cm. Java . pappus reddish. :—Konkan . Vishamushti. erect. Kulhala. Fr. COM. K. robust. squeezed out by pounding. Ceylon. innermost the longest. NS. often cultivated. rounded. DISTR. :—Throughout India . cure ulcers. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Kalhara. Gujarat.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. G.-achene oblong cylindric. stems 60—90 cm. rachis glandular pubescent. used in skin-diseases. Fl.
. LOC.. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. Sk. Somaraj. PROPERTIES AND USES. branched near the top. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. Kulara.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. PARTS USED.6-0. hairy. leafy herb . coarsely serrate. HABITAT:-Waste places.
G. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). Fl.
VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. Ash-coloured Fleabane . high.—achene. LOC. Bala. PARTS USED.. consumption. L. Sahadevi. Vecrnam.
FAM. Sahadevi. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). Africa . made into a bolus with lime-juice. erect herb. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. bruised seeds ground up in paste. silky on the back. Fl. tonic. are used in destroying pediculi. Sedardi. alternate. clothed with white hairs . Koosa. kidney troubles.— pinkish violet. Sk. asthma. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. heads small. Dandotpala. Australia. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. plant is used in fever convulsions. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. G. stomachic and diuretic. stem stiff. oblong. The plant with quinine. H. Osari. bronchitis . irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate.—Jan. COM. applied in inflammatory swellings . 15—75 cm. They are also used as tonic. LOC. Kuruvelu. Panni. In Ceylon.—Compositæ. Sadodi. Sahadevi. M. remove blood from liver. astringent. :—E.-Feb. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil.—Gramineæ. DISTR. flowers. cold.MEDICINAL PLANTS
purgative. Valo . Cuscus grass. striate. :—E. Fr. a depilatory (Yunani). Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. The expressed juice is given in piles. NS. Sk. pubescent. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). :—Annual. Lavancha. Bena. LOC.
. good for sores and itching of eyes. awned. Devika.—simple. t. COM. Sadori.
FAM. hiccup . Vala.
VERNONIA CINEREA Less. with lime-juice. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. :—Throughout India. Ardhaprasadana. NS. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. K. H. Ushira. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. K. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. :—Plant. tropical Asia. M. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. stomachic. Khas. seeds. Sind. cures "Tridosha". Mudivala. used for asthma. :—A common weed throughout the State. pappus white. CHAR.
:—Cooling. colour varying from yellowish to black. slender.
FAM.8 m. Sambhalu. long. usually sheathed all along. DISTR. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Nirgundi. Bilenekki. Sinduvara. Sind. Indrani. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. Culms stout.
VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Konkan and Deccan. Nirgari. Nilpushpi. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache.—panicle up to 30 cm. throughout the Malayan regions. USES :—Root is tonic. Nigod. blood diseases (Yunani). Philippine Islands. stimulant and tonic. Sessile spikelets. useful in burning sensation. racemes up to 5 cm. stomachic. LOC. useful in spermatorrhoea. :—Throughout India. head-ache. inflammations. heating. H. soporific. NS. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. useful in eye diseases. Sk. Kanara in damp places. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. stomachic. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. bronchitis. leaves. inflammations and irritability of stomach. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. up to over 1. rachis stout.. bilious fevers. asthma.226
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR. Nirgundi. Nukki. West-Indies and Brazil. febrifuge. DISTR. :—Roots. bitter. expectorant and diuretic. L. :—Common in Gujarat and N.. strangury. promotes hair-growth. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Lakki. The otto is used as a tonic. biliousness. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. diuretic. anthelmintic. astringent.-leaf sheaths compressed. Ceylon. Nirgud. :—G. long. :—Root. Leaves are aromatic. LOC. bitter. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. PARTS USED. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. margin spinously rough. lower ones keeled and fan-like. foul breath. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. Nirgundi. LOC. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and
. pale green. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. cephalic. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . painful teething of children (Ayurveda). sweats. The roots contain an essential oil. refrigerant. M. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. Afghanistan. spleen enlargement. alexiteric. Cooling to brain. also cultivated. COM. erect. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. PARTS USED. tonic and vermifuge. astringent. bitter. thirst.—Verbenaceæ. consumption. high. K. :—Throughout the State.
leaves. flowers. produces alopecia. tonic to liver. PARTS USED :—Stem. expectorant. sparingly in Poona. laxative. HABITAT. purifies and enriches blood . "Vata" and "Vatarakta". useful in old fevers. good in chronic bronchitis . There are numerous cultivated varieties. :—A native of western Asia. Country. cooling. piles. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). good for eyes and throat. M. heat of body. :—E. Sk. strangury. H. Draksha. Angur. Angura. Ahmednagar. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). W. spleen inflammation. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. :—Cultivated. produces constipation. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. LOC. difficult to digest. stomachic. Draksha. PROPERTIES AND USES. seeds. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. fattening. :—Fruit-acrid. Gujarat and S. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Fruit is nervine. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. Guchaphala. testicle swellings and piles. aperient. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. hoarseness and consumption. G. syphilis. Yakshmaghni. appetiser. sweet. catarrh and jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS
scrofulous sores. diarrhœa. cooling useful in thirst. fattening . allays vomiting. blood diseases. a remedy for skin diseases. Drakh . liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. liver and kidney. cough. fruits. bad effects of drinking. fever. Draksha. skin should not be eaten. diuretic . Leaf-juice cures head-ache.
FAM-—Vitaceæ. DISTR. Khandesh. Fruit— digestive. cures thirst. India. Darakh. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Draksha. fever.. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. applied in scabies. asthma. The plant contains an alkaloid. Seeds—aphrodisiac. burning. emmenagogue. laxative. allays vomiting. Sap of young branches. stones in bladder. NS. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. and traces of vitamins B and C. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. See—Timbers. emmenagogue. cooling . M. causes gases in the stomach.
VITIS VINIFERA Linn. K. LOC. stops bleeding from mouth. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. diuretic. good for lungs. The fruits contain vitamin A. Madhurasa. :—Deccan. Flowers—expectorant. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. and given in coughs. COM. Grape-vine.
. jaundice. Stem-ashes good for joint pains.
6 mm. psoriasis. ovate. dark-orange. Asan. long. anthritis.5 cm. :—In the drier regions of India . PROPERTIES AND USES. diam. inserted on the top of. Mediterranean regions. asthma. :—Root and bark. somewhat scurfy.
FAM. NS. CHAR. leaves. Canaries. Fl.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm.—yellow. M. LOC.
FAM. Winter-cherry. high. Hooliganji. Sogada-beru. pretty common in the ghats. :—Konkan jungles. swollen above the seeds. :—K.—5-10 X 2. entire. leucoderma. Asgund. K. pinnae 4-6 pairs. branches armed with recurved prickles . main rachis armed with prickles. smooth. red. aphrodisiac. 0. Ceylon. alexipharmic. t. dark-green. heating.-Jany. coriaceous. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases.5-12. HABITAT. long. PARTS USED. ulcers. :—Tubers-bitter. Kanara. hard. C.. slightly 5-angled. useful in "Vata". chest troubles etc. calyx-tube. :—A branched erect undershrub. senile debility. Fr. emmenagogue . Vajini. H. seeds.5-5 cm. rachis grooved with soft hairs.— Sept. long. abundant in Sind . hoary tomentose . leaflets 5-7 pairs. 23-30 cm. aphrosidiac. scabies. inflammations. Deccan. Wagati. enclosed in inflated calyx.—3-4. bony Fl. insomnia. Amangura. Asgundh.—Solanaceæ. :—Drier regions. PARTS USED :—Root.3-1. Sd.-Feb. Fr. base dentate. Cape of Good Hope. minutely hairy. anthelmintic. branches terete. :—E.. Fl. (not common. :—A robust woody climber. good in asthma. linear oblong. acrid. COM. Punir. G. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. bronchitis. ghats near Mahabaleshwar.—berry. Ashvagandha. Gujarat.
. :—Deccan. USES. Tuber—bitter. obovate. green berries.5 m. bronchitis. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . See—Fruit Trees. t.—greenish or lurid yellow.
WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. Sk. Balada. constricted between them. LOC. Wagati. alterative. Hirimaddina-gadde. PROPERTIES AND LOC. armed with prickles ..—2-pinnate. Kamrupini. Wakeri. Sd. Gandhpatri. tonic. favours constipation (Yunani). Asoda. NS. Ghodasoda. "Kapha". :—The roots are given in pneumonia .
WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal.—petals 5. oblong. spathulate. L. oblong. lumbago. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). marasmus of children. COM. 7.228
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. consumption. L.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). CHAR. inflammations.) DISTR. Fl. Kanchuki. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Drakshasava—used as tonic.—pod. M. DISTR. tonic.
smooth. alexiteric. tropical Africa. Indrajav. used in thirst. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES.-May. China. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). haemorrhoids. common in the Konkan and N. leaf-infusion is given in fever.)
FAM. Phulsatti. Fl. ovate-lanceolate.3-2.—numerous. debility from old age. HABITAT. Khirni. and in derangement of liver . acrid. ulcers and painful swellings . anthelmintic . on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. 5-9X 1. :—Pungent. :—G. Hale. See—Tans. Dhawai. blood diseases. Sk. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS
LOC. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Bark-infusion is used for asthma. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Madhavasini. COM. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Kanara near the sea-coast. Dudhi. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. LOC. irregularly dehiscent. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Ornamental Plants. Bela. USES. lumbar pains. DISTR. Sk. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED. LOC.
WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Dhaw. Dhaiti. toxic. long. useful in leucorrhoea.5 cm.
WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz.— numerous. :—Monsoon-forests. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Kalikari. H. :—Root is regarded as tonic. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. Tamrapushpi. dysentery. Kalakuda. Kodamurki. Japan. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. rheumatism. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . K. wedge-shaped. simple. leprosy. Br. Swetakutaj. Hallunova.—capsule. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Ceylon. NS. branches long. Dhavani. on trap in the Akrani. Are. 1 cm. uterine sedative. :—Bark and flowers. Indrajav. Java.—Lythraceæ. Dec. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. scarlet. Madhuindrayava. Indrajav. velvety above. Baluchistan. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dyes. Fl. Dhavani. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). :—G. Santha. Dhawadina. Fr. L.. t. cooling. Hayamaraka. Sumatra. emaciation of children. Kuda. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. diuretic and deobstruent. alterative. nigro-punctate beneath.—mostly opposite.
. M. Sd. It is narcotic. brown. Madagascar. COM. Dhateki. NS. Vanhishikha.—Apocynaceæ. M. H.
USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. USES :—Root is bitter. G. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks.—many. with 2 erect beaks. In S. improves appetite. anthelmintic. hairy on both sides. Shankhahuli. epilepsy. Aristha. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. Dumundi. axillary. CHAR. hard and tough. 1-3 cm. especially root and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Jany. fattening.. DISTR. all over the State. Sankeshwar. :—Bark and seeds. barren heads many.Feb. Sk. PARTS USED. complexion. voice. salivation.5 cm. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. t. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. West-Peninsula.
XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. 3-lobed. long and broad. at the top. tonic. NS. M. Fl. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. Ceylon. Clot-Cockle-bur. LOC. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda).—Compositæ.1-6. memory. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . :—The whole plant. H. alexiteric. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. stem short. biliousness.achene.
FAM. Kambu-Vanamalini. COM. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. irregularly incisoserrate . stout. :—Rajastan. antipyretic. Khandesh at 1050 m. the bark is specially useful in piles. poisonous bites of insects. laxative. :— Throughout India. Dutundi. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. in W. fever. Gadrian. Madhya Pradesh. Itara. digestive. cures leucoderma. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. Banokra.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. ovoid in fruit. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. :—Annual herb . long. compressed . Fl. Timor. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. antidysenterica (Yunani). DISTR.-E. rough with short hairs . fertile heads few. involucre of fertile head. 5-7. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . Bur-Weed. Sarpakshi.230
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. Fr. oblong ovoid. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance.. PARTS USED. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. :—Cooling.. tonic. LOC. L. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts.
and dry situations. carminative. heating. loss of appetite and piles. K. Indian Cherry. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. on poor soil and in rocky places. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Egasi. aphrodisiac. Sk. Bor. :—Rhizome. Shringavera. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Dridhabija. aphrodisiac. Badari. gives lustre to eye. Hasisunthi. HABITAT. See—Condiments and Spices. Alen.
ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. Bor. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. "Kapha".
FAM. it is also given in the form of infusion. to prevent nausea and griping. laxative. Ber. good in piles. Chinese Date. G.
. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. lumbago. :—Rhizome-pungent.—Scitaminaceæ. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Koli. Plum. inflammations. appetiser. expectorant. LOC. H. it cleans throat. Ipanji. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. :—E. It is stimulant. head-ache. Kuvali. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Sk. useful in elephantiasis. :—Cultivated. LOC. useful in heart and throat diseases. asthma. removes pain due to cold. NS. dyspepsia. Alen. eructations. alexiteric.—Rhamnaceæ. stomachic. Anupama. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Boyedi. bronchitis. stomachic. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS
ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. DISTR.
FAM. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. carminative. pains (Yunani). anthelmintic. rheumatism. G. COM.. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. colic. tonic. M. Gulmmula. K. vomiting. Ber. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Bordi. Ginger. Ada. flatulence. Kandara. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rhizome—pungent. Adrate. COM. Ajapriya. pains. Ardraka. Bogari. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. NS. tongue and increases appetite. M. Alla Adrak. Beri. H. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. piles. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . "Vata". Bore. vomiting. PARTS USED.
head-ache. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Burma. Leaves—anthelmintic. LOC. biliousness. leaves. thirst. :—Root. bark.. reduce obesity. Fruit—sweet and sour. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. Afghanistan. causes diarrhœa in large doses . abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. fruit. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. PROPERTIES AND USES. cooling. :—Root-bitter. good in liver complaints. abundant in the Deccan.
. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. indigestible. allays thirst (Yunani). Australia. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. laxative. See—Timbers. Ceylon. wounds and ulcers. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion.232
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. useful in fevers. tonic. Bark—causes boils . good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Kanara. on the laterite near the coast in N. Root and Bark tonic. causes cough. good in consumption and blood-diseases. aphrodisiac. Fruits contains vitamin A. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. tonic to heart and brain . vomiting. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Africa. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . Seed—astringent. removes biliousness. Fruit Trees. Leaves form a plaster to boils. seeds. DISTR. China. PARTS USED. Fruit— cooling. Leaves antipyretic. cure asthma. burning sensation. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds.