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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
urinary and vaginal discharges. Kochi. Phena. See—Timbers. relaxation of the uvula. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). It is given in diarrhœa. Saradruma. Khadira. M. Kath-bole. :—Common in the Konkan and N.. throat diseases. Khandesh Akrani S. :—Common throughout the Stale . yellow. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. M. Sd. :—Rajastan. Western Peninsula. " Vata ". leprosy. ulcers. sore-throat and tooth-ache. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Malay Islands. Country and Gujarat. " Kapha ". Pegu.—pod. Fl. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Fl. DISTR. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Manda-otte. FAM. inflammations.-t. indigestion. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests.5X2-2. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. 5-10 cm. bronchitis. Deccan. K. mouth troubles. wrinkled when dry . erysipelas. Kanara (often on laterite). Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). astringent to bowels. Lalkhair. Khair. M. Dipta. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. strengthens teeth. H. Chikakai. Sikkim. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. overlapping. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . :—E. acrid. Burma. Dyes. fleshy when green. Dantadhavan. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. LOC.. piles. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Saptata.8 cm. 7. Himalayas up to 1700 m. psoriasis. CHAR. :—Throughout India. Charmakusha.—in fascicled globose heads. L. cures itching. boils. Shikekai.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. G. COM. Fr. gums.-July. along the coasts of Konkan and N. China. Kanara forests.—bipinnate. leucorrhoea. measles and other skindiseases. heaviness. tonic. NS. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. In ulceration of the gums. :—An extensive woody climber. Soap-pod tree. cooling. Sige-balli or kai. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. leaflets 10-20 pairs. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. Bhuriphena. Vidula. Ritha. long. prurigo. Sk. antidysenteric. Yajnika. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. DISTR. Kushthari. hypertrophy of tonsils. linear-oblong. . LOC.-6-10 . Shige.5-12. anti-pyretic. Sk. given in elephantiasis. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful.-Mar. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Tans.
anthelmintic. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. deobstruent. Gandhbabul. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. LOC. blood diseases. detergent. purgative. :—E. COM. blood-diseases.pungent. ascites. Jheri baval. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Kari jali. leucoderma. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. K. Vilavati kikar. LOC. buboes. Arimeda. often cultivated. Sind. erysipelas. externally they are applied to leprous patches. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. cures " Kapha. Devababhul. eczema. improves appetite. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). piles. tonic.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). expectorant and good emetic. anti-dysenteric. prurigo. stomatitis. Girimeda. Gum—sweetish. biliousness. leaves and gum. cardio-tonic. digestible. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. M. Sauna jali. not indigenous but naturalised. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Bark. causes " Vata". USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. inflammations. In Philippines decoction. . Internally they are aperient. Cassia flower. Pissibabul. anthelmintic. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . ulcers. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Moist situations. Marudruma. alexiteric. H. Gandhelo khair . ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Jali. itching. cooling. Kankri. Gums and Resins. FAM. NS.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. See—Timbers. leucoderma. Sponge tree. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. DISTR. Stinking acacia. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. caries of teeth. often planted .. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. G. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . cures stomatitis. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. bronchitis. LOC. anti-diarrhoeal. Sk. erysipelas.
erect herb. Fl. NS. Vasira. The plant contains acalyphin. Fr. small.5-4. :—Annual. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. CHAR. Kuppi-gida. FAM. Khokla. minute.3-0. Merkati. Sd. pale-brown. smooth. scattered. Fr. Chalmari. Sk. high.5x2-4. Latjira . perianth 4-5 segments. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. t. :—Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.—Euphorbiaceæ. K. COM. Utranigida. rounded at base. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. H. Kharamanjiri. Vanchhikanto. angular. 2. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. in elongate terminal spikes. H.5 cm. Khajoti. erect. PROPERTIES AND LOC. in lax. Arittamanjaria. :—Common in the Deccan and S.—truncate at apex. long in fruit.57. It is used in congestive headache. brown. axillary spikes . Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases.8-6. M. many.—capsule. Aghada . FAM. softly hairy.—opposite. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. brown. Uttrane . . enclosed in perianth smooth. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Kuppi. Philippines.—utricle.. ovate or rhomboid-ovate.— ovoid. asthma.—monœcious. Prickly chaff-flower. oblong-cylindric. branches long. Fl. males. Ksharamadhya. females.—Amarantaceæ. branches terete or quadrangular striate.5 cm. high. Chirchira.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. elliptic obovate. G. Chichra. hispid. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. somewhat 3-nerved. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Fl. CHAR. Kantarika. Apang. Khokali. :—An erect herb 0.3 X 2. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. COM. :—G. K.—Nov. :—E. Country. Var.—June-Sept. M. tropical Africa. Apamarga. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. clustered near the summit of spike. LOC.-Jany. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. Agheda-di. 30-75 cm. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.. t. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. M. Sd. ascending. about 50 cm. NS. few.—greenish white. pneumonia and rheumatism. Fl. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. Ceylon. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. stem stiff. crenate-serrate. Sk. L. 3.9 m. elongate. LOC. L. one-seeded.
diuretic. flatulence. PARTS USED : —Root. blood diseases (Ayurveda). stomatitis. inflammations. flowers and seeds. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. liver and chest pains. brain-tonic. L. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. bitter. bronchitis.8 cm. FAM. and is considered useful in dropsy. ascites. spathe 15-75 cm. laxative. prismatic. Sk. DISTR. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. pungent. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent.. emmenagogue . :—Throughout India. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. Throughout Asia. skin eruption etc. top pyramidal. worms in the ear (Ayurveda).9-1. See—Sacred Plants. Bach. Ceylon. 5-10 cm. piles. hysteria. M. abdominal pains. leaves. sepals scarious. toothache. useful in general weakness. Baluchistan. emetic.. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. Bitter. Fr. "Vata". Africa. Sikkim. America. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. dysentery. Europe and N. Sweet flag . thickened in the middle. PARTS USED :—Root. anthers yellow. improves appetite. LOC. boils. slightly curved. Baja . itching. heating. heating. voice.7-3. Jatila. long. bright-green. spadix. Australia. Gandhilovaj. fevers. CHAR. epilepsy. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. expectorant. . Vekhand . root-stock as thick as the middle finger. acute.—Araceæ. kidney troubles.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Vacha. dyspepsia. NS. carminative. loss of memory. laxative. bronchitis. improves appetite. dysentery. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. :—An aromatic herb .8 X 1. LOC. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. long. throat. carminative. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. thirst. Godavaj. green . HABITAT :—Marshy places. leucoderma (Yunani). carminative. heart diseases. Tropical Asia. useful in vomiting. Ugragandha. alexiterie. America. LOC. Gorbach . :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. creeping and branching. stomachic. H. obtuse. G. good for mouth diseases. Bhutnashini. Vekhand. rat-bite. 0. delirium. useful in dyspepsia. inflammations. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. etc. :—E. useful in abdominal pains. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. laxative. margins wavy. anthelmintic. piles. K.—turbinate.
Powder is very effective insecticide. M.. Kanara evergreen forests. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. NS. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. anti-pyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. Pichli. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children.:—Konkan. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis.—Lauraceæ. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is a good remedy in asthma. dysentery. HABITAT':—Cultivated. Goremlichora . With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Rukhdo . Gorakshi. :—Grown in many places in India . LOC. :—Western Peninsula. leaf and fruit. FAM. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. Bukha. K. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. FAM. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Gorakhaamli. Sk.—Bombacaceæ.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . Gorakhchinch. Pisa. fever. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Baobab. See—Timbers. fevers and other maladies. NS. COM. in children.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. useful in biliousness. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. Tudgensu . colic. Gopali. Brahmamlika. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. Gujarat. indigenous in tropical Africa. LOC. bark. DISTR. Gorakamali. :—E. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. G. H. vomiting. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . aerial parts yield a volatile oil. Deccan. COM. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. Haggodgimara. M. :—K. Panch-parnika. Monkey-bread tree. N. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). African calabash. LOC. PARTS USED : —Root.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
lumbago. Ankol. anthelmintic. fish-poison. diarrhœa. Sirsul. Anedhera. rat-bite. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. LOO. aromatics or honey. Kullumavu. Ankotha. inflammations. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. COM. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. leaves (rarely). Kaloshirish. Asroli. G. hydrophobia.—Alangiaceæ. Ankota. often along banks of nalas in N. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. See—Timbers. See—Timbers. it is said to stop after-pains. commonly planted along roadsides. biliousness. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda).14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. blood diseases. . useful in inflammations. Ankola. carminative. Juice—emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Kalosadasado. heating. tonic. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. (Mimosaceæ). Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Ankora. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). K. NS. Ankoli. Garso. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. pungent. Vamaka. " Vata "-pain. dysentery. Malaya. acute fever. alterative. Akoly. :—E. aphrodisiac. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Shankiniphala. indigestible. FAM. wasting diseases.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. COM. Shyamala. Shirish. burning of body. Dridhakantaka. Uddanaka.) FAM. DISTR. Kathora. Shirisha. stem. colic. poisonous bites. Onkla. K. LOC. Karnapura. inflammations.—Leguminosæ. Sirai. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Tantia. Sirisa. M. Ankoli. LOC. Shirish. cures erysipelas. Philippines. Root-bark poisonous. anthelmintic. Seeds—cooling. Piloshirish. :—Throughout the State. Fruit—laxative. Ankola. Dodda-Hombage. :—Throughout India. S. Root-bark— used in piles. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. lumbago (Yunani). spermatorrhoea. Kalshish. Krishnashirisha. expectorant. Sk. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. :—E. Sk. Kanara. G. China. Sage-leaved alangium. and fruit. useful in worms. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Gudhapatra. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. H. Ankola. Kalashirish. blood diseases. NS. Chinchola. alexipharmic . Tamraphala. M. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. gleet. alexiteric. cures " Kapha". H.
maturant. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. See—Vegetables. Burma. FAM. Rajapriya. boils. ear-ache. anthelmintic. ophthalmia. Rochaka. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. leaves. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. seeds. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. Oil is used in leprosy. deafness. piles. Dungari.. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. blood diseases. Ulageddi. occasionally used in fever. PARTS USED :—Root. tumours. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). tonic. catarrh. Seeds—tonic to brain. seeds. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. cultivated everywhere. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. dropsy. and also in skin diseases . bronchitis. LOC. NS. stomachic. It is an important garden crop. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. Bark-bitter. usually planted. syphilis. Leaves—good in night blindness. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. which acts as a diuretic. etc. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. inflammations. Kanda. prescribed in ophthalmia. useful in malaria. given in piles. body pains. Bengal. Flowers—aphrodisiac. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. Ceylon. and chronic bronchitis . G. Piyaz. piles. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. erysipelas. volatile oil. itching. aphrodisiac. LOC. enriches blood. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils.. B & C. eruptions and swellings. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. skin-diseases.—Liliaceæ. used in leprosy. Sk. :—Native country probably Persia. H. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. stimulant and expectorant. bark.K.: —Throughout India. cures "Vata". biliousness. alexiteric. cooling. Seeds—fattening. paralysis. weakness. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). relieves tooth-ache. COM. flowers.:—E. Root—astringent. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. improves taste. diarrhœa. appetiser. M. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. good in rat-bite. epistaxis. Onion. emollient. . their smell useful in hemicrania. leucoderma. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. LOC. etc. spleen diseases. Bulb—tonic. Palandu. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). vomiting. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. useful in vomiting. asthma. Bark and seeds are astringent. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). The plant contains vitamins A. bleeding piles. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. strengthens gums and teeth. excessive perspiration. Bark— anthelmintic. scabies.
COM. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. sciatica. caries of teeth. K. asthma. tonic. In pulmonary phthisis. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. M. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. improves appetite. leucoderma. thins the blood (Yunani). K. Ugragandha. oleaginous . M. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. clears voice. piles. Kumari. fattening. Rasonaka. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers.—Liliaceæ. low fevers. :—E. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. hemiplegia. carminative. body and joint pains. " Vata ". paraplegia and convulsive affections. M. chronic fevers. bronchitis. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. The plant contains vitamin C. Kapila. thirst. :—E. Lahsan. Ghi-kumari. Lasan. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. lumbago. LOC. Lasun. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. H. G. good for lumbago. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. COM. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. complexion. FAM. Sk. digestive.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. NS. Lolisara. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. leucoderma. epileptic fits. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. Kuvarpatha. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Kanya. ALŒ VERA Linn. heating. PARTS USED :—Bulb. . Sk. troubles of spleen. H. useful in diseases of eye and heart. In Cambodia. Lashuna. NS. ear-ache (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables. Ikshurmallika. In cases of diphtheria. aphrodisiac. FAM. alexipharmic. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. Korphad. voice. Indian aloe. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. liver and lungs . HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Korkand. Kattali. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula.—Liliaceæ. useful in inflammations. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Kumari. G. Country. Bellulli. Lasan. Diuretic. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. It is an important garden crop. Garlic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. thirst. LOC. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. tumours. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. paralysis. inflammation.
LOC. Dita bark tree. pale-green. cooling. Mediterranean. planted in Indian gardens . H. Satwin.—Apocynaceæ. NS. also cultivated. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. piles. :—Throughout India. jaundice. tumours. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. ophthalmia. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. simple or branched. stem short thick. DISTR. E. liver complaints. crowded. skin diseases. tropical Africa. M. useful in splean inflammation. purgative. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. gonorrhœa. West Indian Islands.—sessile. margins spiny. alterative. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Barbados. FAM. Africa. HABITAT :—Moist forests. C. Satian. purgative. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. Root. leaves. Bitter . pain in muscles. carminative. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. scape longer than the leaves. digestive. isobarbaloin and emodin. biliousness (Yunani). Satwin. common in the rain-forests of N. scaly. Hale. The plant contains aloin. COM. bronchitis. LOC. aphrodisiac. lanceolate. It also acts as a mild purgative.—in dense racemes . PARTS USED :—Leaves. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. ulcers (Ayurveda). inflammations. fattening. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Ceylon. Chatian. emollient and demulcent. K. Fl. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. and it is largely imported into India. liver troubles. Sk. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. alexiteric. somewhat divided. Australia. methritis. Saptaparna. Saptachhada. PARTS USED :— . fleshy. perianth cylindric . :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. L. tonic. Kanara. India. milky juice. used in fevers. Java. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. Br. Jamaica. strangury. useful in eye-diseases. Kadusale. DISTR. LOC. asthma. Kaduhale. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. tonic. vomiting. bark. used in form of paste in pleurisy. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. spleen enlargement. :—A perennial herb . :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. biliousness. lumbago. wild along the coast. Native of S. pendulous. :—Wild along the coast in S. anthelmintic. yellow.
Apamarisha. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . galactogogue.2—7. bronchitis. Tandulaja. Prickly amaranth. LOC. FAM. COM. G. entire. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. also in fields. CHAR. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. rat-bite. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. ovoid.— capsule. piles. heating. improves appetite. M. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda).— 3. :—An erect glabrous herb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. HABITAT :—In waste places. Pathyashaka. Bark—acrid. leucorrhoea.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. DISTR. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. high.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. useful in " Kapha ". it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. oleaginous. Cholai. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. antiperiodic and febrifuge. Root—heating expectorant. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. obtuse. Mullarave-soppu. laxative. burning sensation. also useful in catarrhal fever. boils and burns. :—E. Mulladantu. male calyx acute. H. Kante math. :—Throughout India. Kantanu-dant. See—Vegetables. Kantanatia. numerous. sudorific and febrifuge. 30-60 cm. hallucination. K. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Ceylon. biliousness. apiculate. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. rubbish heaps and fields. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. leprosy. tropical countries. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. LOC. Fr. blood diseases. diuretic. NS. long. female calyx oblong. obtuse. bitter. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. rugose. anthelmintic. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. . Fl. thickened at the top. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery.). See—Timbers. " tridosha " pain. L. Tandulibija. unisexual.5 X 1.8 cm. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. ulcers. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa.—Amarantaceæ. asthma. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. appetiser.3—3. tumours. Tandulja. digestible. laxative. Kantalo dambho. good in diseases of the heart. bristles pointed. Drug Com. diseases of the blood. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda).. rubbish heaps . antipyretic. LOC. alexiteric. often reddish. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. stomachic. lanceolate. ovate. Sk. leucoderma.
—capsule. LOC. " Vata. strangury . Sd. COM. pungent.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Grows wild on the banks of S. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Afghanistan. causes itching sensation. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Gujarat and Kanara.—Araceæ. G. red. Sk. M. Blistering ammania. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. :—E. globose. Vatari. bronchitis. constipating. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Suran. harmful in "Kapha". tumours. Dadmari. Jangli mehandi. Fl. LOC. :—E.—Lythraceæ. :—Cultivated widely in the State. COM. PARTS USED :—Leaves. fresh or dried." blood troubles. NS. depressed. blood diseases. increases appetite and taste.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. corm. L. used as an appetiser (Yunani). enlargement of the spleen. Deccan. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. t. Kandavardhan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. elephantiasis . especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. useful in piles. aphrodisiac. DISTR. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. appetiser. 8-65 cm. much narrowed at the base. Kurendika. Kanthalla. DISTR. Sk. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). acrid. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. Konkan rivers. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sukaranda. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Australia. LOC. Fl. Kuranda. Suran . :—Throughout India in moist places. vomiting. Vikata. PARTS USED :—Root. Suran. Kuranti. sessile. FAM.:— Konkan. Tropical Africa. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). asthma. Elephant's foot. CHAR. Bitter and acrid . abdominal pains. Malaya. branches usually opposite. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. H. China. FAM. NS. stomachic. laxative.—opposite. LOC. Suran. Jalavgiyo. Bharajambhul. K. Arshaghna.—Nov. fevers etc. Ceylon. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Fr. . erect or subscandent herb. the plant. Kandala. removes " Kapha ". H. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. In the Konkan. G. :—An annual.
20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. COM.5 cm. DISTR. B. Kempu— Turkaka geru . NS. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Bark.—Menispermaceæ. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. many flowered. which is nutritious and emollient. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. sweet. Crow-Fish Killer. Sk. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. :—E. Upapushpika.— subcoriaceous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. Govamba. Kaju . The seed contains vitamin A. H. bark vertically furrowed . See—Vegetables. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. Prithagbija. flowers. dysentery. Garalaphala. tumours. Kakanashika. Agni-krita. ascites. ulcers. COM. Kakamari. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. and trace of C. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. K.—Anacardiaceæ. Gerubi. skin diseases. Kakamari. long. Cashew apple-nut. Kakamari. fever. CHAR. ringworm. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. :—A native of tropical America. Sophara. Kakkisoppugida . LOC. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. Gova. L. corns and obstinate ulcers. & A. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . HABITAT :—Coastal regions. Kajutaka. hot. M. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. . :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. G. Jermic. K. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Fl. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. USES :—Bark is alterative. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. Kakamari.. M. piles. . also cultivated. Corm is poisonous. NS. Kaju. Kakamari. leucoderma. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). equal to almond oil. Oils. The plant contains Vitamins A. digestible. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. 5-nerved. See—Timbers. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. FAM. LOC. G. :—E. Kakaphal.5-12. broadly ovate. cordate or truncate. Kaju. swollen peduncle of fruit. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". 10-12 X 7. Fish-Louse Berry. Kanara. leaves. Sk. It is supposed to have restorative power.—in panicles 25-35 cm. FAM. H.
and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. Ananas. Bengal. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. FAM. Olikiriyat. black . useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. G.-Oct.—Bromeliaceæ. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. Assam. dioecious. Ananasa. removes gases from the intestines . also acts as a purgative. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. Parvati. smooth. it is useful in jaundice. :—Konkan. LOC. PARTS USED :—Roots. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. Ananas . DISTR. Creat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. LOC.) LOC. Ama. M. fruits. Ananas hannu. :—E. K. :—Khasia Hills. petals absent. M. from Orissa to Ceylon. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. :—E. LOC. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. COM. Kirata. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . COM. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. leaves and fruits. Kanara. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. good expectorant. K. . E. Kiriyata.—Acanthaceæ. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Kiryat. t. also allays gastric irritability in fevers.—Sept. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. cultivated. See—Fruit Trees. a poison to fish (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Sk. Mahatit. Bhuinimba. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. DISTR. Ananas . Sk. Kantak sanjika. N. Nelabevu gida. to a certain extent in Gujarat. NS. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). diaphoretic and refrigerant. NS. Olen kirayat. native of Brazil (tropical America). Mahateet. causes cough and biliousness. H. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. G. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. Pine-apple . FAM. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2).MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. It acts also as diuretic. Ananas. H. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Fl.
Fr.— capsule. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. Sundara. tonic.. :—An erect shrub. clothed with woolly hairs . During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. distant.8 m. :—An erect branched annual 0. C—2-lipped. pale above. FAM. high.—very thick. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. :—Throughout India. Malabar Catmint.3-10 X 2-4. ellipsoid. Fl. Sundraphul. Alamoda. undulate. upper lip 2-toothed.-Oct. Kanara. NS. dyspepsia and fever from teething. DISTR. and N. Sd. oblong-lanceolate. made into an electuary. acute at both ends . C—2-lipped. Oshthaphala. Sk. :—Konkan and Kanara. Fl.—in dense whorls .-Nov. smooth. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. very small. Karnatak. :—Deccan. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. Fr.—small. Fl. Chodhara. alterative. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. 1. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CHAR. Vaikunth.—nutlets. white below. Fl. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels.—lanceolate. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. HABITAT. L. linear-oblong. K.—Labiatæ. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. 6. lower 3lobed. sometimes cultivated. dysentery.—Ghats. bracts lanceolate. .3-0. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. :—S. approximate above. Karitumbe. Ceylon. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. solitary. polished brown. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. DISTR. Gojivana. LOC. Br. lower lip very large and broad . rose coloured.5 cm. Plant is useful in general debility. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. Malay Peninsula.9 m. thickly woolly. high. Green leaves. purple. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part.—many. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. COM. :—E. M. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. lateral lobes small. forming a spicate inflorescence. distant. rugosely pitted.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. and certain forms of dyspepsia. G. acute. stem quadrangular. and anthelmintic.2-1. L. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. t. PROPERTIES AND LOC. yellowish brown. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. crenate-serrate. LOC. t. pale beneath.—Dec. extensively used in Bengal. stomachic.
Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. DISTR. (Yunani). Root—cathartic. Krishnabija. now cultivated throughout India. M. bark. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . K. Custard apple. Button Tree. Anuram. Pitaphala. Dhamora. Dhavada. stimulant. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . increases muscular strength. cooling. fruit and seeds. Sitaphala. enriches blood . Amritphala. LOC. astringent to the bowels. Ata. Sk. discharges. useful in anaemia. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in liver complaints. Dyes. flavoury. LOC. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". causes fever and furunculosis . improves taste and appetite . FAM. G. Dindala.—Combretaceæ. :—A native of West Indies . leaves and fruits. COM. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Kanara border. Sitaphala. leaves. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. tasty. :—E. Dhava. Durangi. Damora. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Bakla. H. chronic diarrhœa. abortifacient. bark. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Sharipha. G. increases biliousness . applied to skin-diseases. LOC. Fruit—sweet. COM. Dabria. NS. Shushkanga. enriches blood. sedative to heart. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda).:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Sugar apple.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. Bejjalu. Anan. Dhava. Sitaphala. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. erysipelas. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. Bahubijika. Dhavala. Sitaphala. expectorant. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. LOC. Ceylon. FAM. Dhavada. produce ulcers in the eye. See—Timbers. Dindiga. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. :—E. and eyesores. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Sk. Bark is bitter. K. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Seeds—difficult to digest. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). cooling .—Anonaceæ. Sitaphal. good tonic. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Dohu. Sweet-sop. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Bark is a powerful astringent. H. M.
Ajjanpatte. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. :—G. alexiteric. Jajpugri. Valkala. saline. burning sensation. NS. sap of the tree. sweet. bitter. PARTS USED:—Bark. FAM. USES:—In the Konkan. See—Timbers. galactagogue. PROPERTIES AND LOC. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva.—Moraceæ. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. aphrodisiac. is a good hairwash. Kadamb. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Kaduve. In eye inflammations. biliousness. cooling. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). " Kapha". Surabhi. Burma. H. LOC. from the Himalayas to Ceylon.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. DISTR. Nipa. Kadamba. LOC. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Kanara . causes biliousness when ripe. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. It is generally considered tonic. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Sprouts—acrid. Chandala. indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Kadamb. Malayan Peninsula. Bairi. Malay Islands. See—Fruit Trees. Chandkuda. They are detergent and their powder. DISTR. Sacred Plants. blood diseases. M. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. Kadamb . strangury. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. sprouts and fruits. " Vata". :—Throughout India. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Seeds yield an oil and resin. K. COM. Kadam. acrid. Ceylon. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. Karnapuraka. Sk. Ashokari. :—W. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. H. vulnerary. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Nadija.—Rubiaceæ. Upas Tree. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Fodder Plants. . COM NS. Fruit—heating. Tennaserim. mixed with gram-flour. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. common near Yellapur. Peninsula. FAM. Niv. wild or cultivated. Chandkuda. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Pegu. aphrodisiac. :—E. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. astringent to bowels. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. good in uterine complaints. LOC. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. Kadubale. Sk. often cultivated. stomachic. K. Kadamb . M.
" Vata " . Shimbika. rays 5-10. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. astringent to bowels . CHAR. appetiser. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. good in ophthalmia.3-2. W. amenorrhœa. cure asthma. DISTR. Bori ajmud. urinary discharges. erect. β-antiarin. abdominal pain. Fl. 0. L. branching. Ajmud. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. . Mungphali.4 m. Ugragandha. vomiting. Ajmoda . bronchitis. M. Monkey-nut. abortifacient. G. :—E.—Umbelliferæ. Africa. tooth-ache. K. Markati. Bhuimug-chana. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. and γ-antiarin. Chinimung. LOC. tonic. Bhuchanak. Sk. Snehabijaka. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. Asia. Moda. segments once or twice trifid. used in anasarca and colic. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. :—E. FAM. N. improve appetite . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Mandapi. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. rectal troubles. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism.. heart and spleen diseases. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn.— in umbels. Fr. Wild celery. G. traces of B and C. NS. H. M. inflammations. chest-pains. vittae broad. good for heart. Java and Malaya.:—Foot of the N. pedicels 6-16 . W.5-2 mm. Afghanistan. See—Timbers. Sk. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. cure " Kapha ". Celery. ridges narrow. anthelmintic. rheumatism. H. See—Vegetables. apex toothed .— radial.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. fever with cough. Seeds—carminative. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Bhuimug. Karafs. Bhuimug. nasal catarrh (Yunani). Abyssinia. :—A biennial plant. Ajamoda. COM NS. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. COM. high. Fibres. cauline 3-partite. hiccup. Nelkadle. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). scorpion and other stings. laxative. vomiting. Glucoside apiin is present. aphrodisiac. The plant contains vitamins A. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Ground-Pea-nut. Brahmakoshi. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. useful in ophthalmia. specially near large cities. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Europe. Bodi ajomoda. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds.—1. scabies. ascites. LOC.
M. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Areca palm. NS. leaves (rarely). diuretic. Oils. Seed cooling. used for eye-inflammations. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. cardiotonic. Siam. improves appetite and taste. laxative. digestive. seeds. See—Food Plants.—Palmæ. Nut astringent. giddiness. Pophal. removes pus (Yunani). Pugiphal. gum. Tantusara. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Betel-nut palm. removes foul breath. indigestible. Supari. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. . Malabar. fairly largely in the Konkan. LOC. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. cooling. Burma. Adki. Sk. Gum pungent. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Gujarat and S. Betta. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. LOC. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Chikkan. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. COM. USES. Kaungu. gleet. H. DISTR. Hopari. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Country. :—E. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder.. Sopari. Mysore. Kanara. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Akota. Assam. Chikka. Suppiyari. K. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. LOC. Bengal.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Supari. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda).:—Extensively grown in N. Indo-Malaya. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Chhataphala. LOC. bleeding gums. FAM. In French Guinea. Areca-nut palm. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in urinary disorders. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. DISTR. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. ARECA CATECHU Linn. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Poga. M. aphrodisiac. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. emmenagogue. :—Madras.
veins white. destroys worms . glaucous herb . NS. antidote to various poisons. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. cures leprosy. Fr. Bila dhatura. Pita-pushpa. arecaidine. Srigalkanta. relieves blisters. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases.—Papaveraceæ. inflammations and bilious fevers. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. netted. It is also diuretic. Daruri. :—A glabrous. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated.3-0. juice yellow. branching. See—Timbers. :—E. DISTR. spinous. Brahma dandi. Juice—used as a collyrium. Bharbhand.—all the year. prickly. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). Balurakkisa.12 m. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). oblong. nauseant. G. stem clasping. . prickly.— terminal. 7. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. and in pertussis and asthma. Darudi. L. Indigenous in tropical America. Fruit Trees. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. high. Root anthelmintic. India. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part.—numerous. USES :—Root is an alterative. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient.5-3. Sk. Seeds—purgative. yellow. seeds and yellow juice. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. emetic. opening by 4-6 valves.). Seeds are laxative.5-5 cm. FAM. sedative. COM. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. arecoline. This is said to bring the worm out at once. Fl. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). globose. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. CHAR. expectorant and demulcent. diam. purgative. M. Pirangi datturi. PARTS USED :—Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Ind. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. jaundice and cutaneous affections.8 cm. t. useful is strangury.5-18 cm. H. oblong-ovoid 2. Datturi. Plant enriches blood. Shialkanta. stem 0. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. sinuately pinnatifid. 2. Fl.—capsule. Sd. Svarnakshiri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. K. Mexican prickly poppy .—thistlelike. various skin-diseases. brownish black. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. LOC. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . LOC. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. and guvacine.
striate. COM. :—E. rose purple.— Aug.5-30 x 6. Country. Sk. stems stout. Fl. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. the bands silky pubescent outside. pedicel with a large bract at the base. 1. with revolute margins.5 cm. absorptive. Gujarat and S. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system.. M. long. base cordate. FAM.-Sept. long and as broad as long.3 cm. infundibuliform. :—A slender perennial. CHAR. :—A very large climber. glabrous inside. Kidamar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . NS. useful in " Vata". Samudrashok. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. prostrate.3-25 cm. FAM. Dridhadaru. Ceylon.—solitary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. Samudrashosh. reniform or broadly ovate. Sd. Krimighni. tip linear dark purple. strangury. tube inflated.:—Konkan. DISTR. oblongellipsoid. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. :—E. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). tubular.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet.— 7. diuretic . white-tomentose L. Ajantri. white-tomentose.8-7.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Kitamari. Varghoro. NS.— 3. K. Gandali.—Convolvulaceæ. cultivated. Sk. tropical Africa. pubescent outside. In synovitis. Kidamari. ovate glabrous above. painful joints. anthelmintic. H. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Dhuma-patra. t.5 cm. long. Samudraballi. stems. G. Bracteated Birth-wort. . Fl. Shyambhuna. weak.—Aristolochiaceæ. LOC.— globose apiculate. Peninsula. Hastivalli. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. COM. CHAR. Fr. used in gleet. Fl. DISTR. bracts large . (sometimes even larger). ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. See—Ornamental Plants. Konkan. gonorrhœa. LOC. perhaps a native of Bengal. K. L. Leaves are maturative. H. Kitakaba. W. M. Country. Arabia. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. G. perianth 2. Fl. long. t. Elephant Creeper. M. base cordate with wide sinus . Kiramar. Adumuttadagida. 12-ribbed . Samudrapatrashoh. C—5-6. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. M. white-tomentose beneath.-Nov. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Java. powdered root is given with milk. Deccan and S. peduncles stout. :—Throughout India. base subglobose. :—Bengal. Ganda.5-4. " Kapha" fevers. aphrodisiac.—in sub-capitate cymes. LOC. Vridhadaraka.—capsule. HABITAT.—deltoid with cordate base . Samardar sokh. Samandarka phal. Fr.—Aug. Soge.3-2 cm. chronic ulcers (Yunani).
K. FAM. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. PARTS USED :—Roots. DISTR. M. bract opposite the pedicel. useful in " Tridosha. 6-valved.. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Sk. Arkamula. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Saraparni. Indian wormwood.8-10 X 1. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn.5 cm. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. winged. Nilpushpa. M.—variable linear oblong. Isharmula. purgative (Yunani). L. NS.—flat. H. Nakuli. Manjipatri. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. Fr. t. woody at the base. :—A twining shrub. Mother or Mugwort. LOC. Flea-bane. CHAR. Indian Birth-wort. Fl. Gathona. NS. Sd. Sapsan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. reaching 4. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Arkamula. Bengal. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Ishvari. Country. The plant contains an alkaloid. LOC. Seeds useful in inflammation. M. Isvara balli beru . leaves and seeds. — capsule. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Sugandha. Nagduna. 3. Nagdamani. alexiteric. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dona. Mastaru. base vaiable. obovate oblong 10-12. Ruhimula. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. long with globose inflated base. dyspnoea of children.—Aristolochiaceæ. entire with undulate margins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.) FAM.. H. Fl. :—E. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. bitter." pains in the joints. :—Western Peninsula. globose-oblong.5 cm. dry cough. also useful in dropsy. COM. and is also applied externally to the abdomen.—Nov. slender.5x7. emmenagogue. grooved. perianth greenishwhite. G. COM. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. joint-pains. Stem long.3-2. Dhor-davana. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children.—in few flowered axillary racemes.—Compositæ. Sk.5 cm. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Dovana. Ceylon. K. Majtari. biliousness. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp.:—Konkan and S. . tonic. :—E. Nepal. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children.
involucral bracts villous. aphrodisiac. Thailand (Siam). ripe fruit laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent.10x2. hairy. NS. Panos. 0. aphrodisiac. ulcers. FAM. Phanas. cooling. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes.—Urticaceæ.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. lobes entire. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions.—Jany. base lobed. t.:—A perennial shrub. oblong ellipsoid. Tage. Ceylon. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. pubescent above. useful in biliousness. high. alexiteric.5-5 em. petioled. lanceolate. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Seeds sweet. LOC. LOC. Kujja. Jack-Orange wood. diuretic. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. oleaginous. minute. 3-fid or entire. Fl. K. COM. LOC. Sk. The plant contains an essential oil. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. :—Throughout hilly districts of India.-Hilly districts. Skandaphala. fertile. Halasina. . ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. LOC. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. HABITAT. deobstruent and antispasmodic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. DISTR. but rather difficult to digest. Kantakaphala. tonic. solitary or 2. asthma. outer flowers female. deeply pinnatisect. Chakki. temperate Asia. "Vata". The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. itching (Ayurveda). Externally it is used in fomentations. stems leafy. Fruit Trees and Dyes. asthma and brain diseases.4 m. cures "Kapha". :—Konkan. " Kapha". upper leaves smaller. Fr. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Ghats. Jack-fruit tree. enriches blood. Java. aphrodisiac. Phanasa. The unripe fruit is astringent. M. constipating (Ayurveda). inner hermaphrodite. :—E. Kanara. ovate. white tomentose beneath. fattening. See—Timbers.—heads ovoid or subglobose. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. toothed or again pinnatisect.6-2. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. although very nutritious. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. :—Widely cultivated. grown in gardens also. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. Panas. Fl. L— lower leaves 5. Vanas. Kanthal. appetiser. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. aromatic. " Vata". The young leaves are used in skin diseases. leprosy. H. An infusion is given as a tonic. often planted along roadsides in N. Panesa. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria.— achene. fruit and seeds. G.
FAM. white. Kuraki.—in simple raceme. lanceolate. M. Sd. A fibre is extracted from the plants. stomachic. Fr. Satamulika.3-2. L.. Svadurasa. undershrub. thin. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. blood and eye diseases. :—Introduced from the W. abundant round about Poona. oblong. Siprimuli. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.5 cm. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . t. M. :—Extremely scandent. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. 2. tonic.-Feb. CHAR. . Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. dark brown.5 cm.9-1. fragrant. Country. LOC.— follicles. Satavari. Asual Shatavari. curved. L. with coma. :—G. segments. S. Tropical Africa. PARTS USED:—Root.—berry. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. inflammation.—June-Sept. linear. CHAR. 7. Satavari. throat complaints. useful in dysentery. Fl. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. FAM. See—Ornamental Plants. cladodes in tufts. in the Himalayas.-Dec. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds.—lobes reflexed in flower. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. leaves and flowers.5-10 X 1. Fl.2 m. COM. PARTS USED:—Root. Svetmuli. PROPERTIES AND LOC. appetiser. :—Deccan. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. high. DISTR. valvate in bud. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. naturalised in many parts of India. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. common in the Deccan.5-5 cm. Indies. Fr.000 m. Var. long. indigestible. globose. thorn. up to 1. COM. NS. red when ripe. K. tapering at both ends. 0. :—E. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. spinous. NS. root-stock tuberous. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. Kaktundi. Flower is a good styptic. DISTR. spines recurved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. M. straight. :—An erect undershrub. H. cultivated as ornamental plant.—linear with a stout spinous spur. narrowed at both ends. t. alterative. and moist monsoon forests.ovoid. Fl. Satavari. Sk. solitary.—orange in axillary umbels. cooling. Shatavari. JAVANICA Baker. oleaginous. Java and Australia. tumours. C. from Kashmir eastwards. biliousness. galactogogue.—Asclepiadaceæ. Fl.—opposite 7. erect. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. LOC.—Liliaceæ.
Gokhalkanta. :—G. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. high. t. thirst. HABITAT:—Swampy places.5 cm. Seeds fattening. Phalaghrita. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. improve blood (Yunani). Vishnu Taila.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . Gokhran. hispid with long hairs. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. subquadrangular. lower deeply 3-lobed. constipation. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. antispasmodic. DISTR. aphrodisiac. The root is sweet. Kolavalike. Ikshura. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees.) FAM. tonic. Africa. Gokshura. diuretic.—June-Jany.2 cm. Talim-khana. and dysentery. stems fasciculate. leprosy. night-blindness (Ayurveda). widely 2-lipped. Fr. galactogogue. C. tropical and S. COM. LOC. 4-8 seeded. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. tonic. leaves and seeds. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. tonic. USES :—The root is refrigerant. useful in jaundice and anasarca. Konkan and Deccan.—capsule. Shrigalghant. colic. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. bracts. Vajrakantaka. Talamkhan. biliousness. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. tonic. hypnotic. Fl. lips sub-equal.:—Common throughout the State. scalding of urine. . It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. And. L.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. inflammations. Used in diarrhœa. :—Throughout India. gonorrhoea. Leaves good for cough. gleet. erect. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. urinary calculi and discharges. Sk. sedative to gravid uterus . eyediseases. NS. ciliate . pointed. 4 inner small. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. 18 X 3-3. aphrodisiac . M. dysentery.— Acanthaceæ. CHAR. hairy. aphrodisiac. :—A stout herb. Vikhara. Ceylon. LOC. lanceolate. thickened at the nodes. Seeds cooling.— purple blue. expectorant. abdominal troubles. and alterative tonic. Narayana Taila. long. 3. anæmia. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic.6-1. ascites. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. Kalavankabija. tube. 2 outer large. upper 2-fid. (Yunani.) LOC. aphrodisiac . Fl. linear oblong. abruptly swollen at the top.. 0. anuria.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. H. demulcent. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). useful in diarrhœa. USES. like leaves. Ekharo. laxative.—sessile.8 cm. K. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. Kak-Kokilaksha. Talamkhana.
tonic. L. Barambhi. fleshy. leprosy. pungent. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. :—E. Coromandel gooseberry. Fl. Karmare . Kanara villages. Karuka. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. NS. decussate. tumours. heating. capsule. acute. pale blue or white. sour. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). striate. Ceylon and all warm countries. K. astringent to bowels . fruits.:—Konkan and Deccan. causes biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet.5-10 mm. Brahmi. indigestion. Mudgara. M. allays thirst. M. Jalneam. axillary. HABITAT :—Cultivated. oblong. lobes equal spangled. G. ascites. perhaps a native of Malaya. LOC. H. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles .:—Throughout India in wet places. emetic. succulent. heats the body (Ayurveda). K. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. obovate-oblong or spatulate. Darehuli. Jany-May. Kamaranga. ovoid. when fresh. Thyme-leaved graticula . Brahmi. LOC. FAM. sessile. COM. Karmal.—Oxalidaceæ. Kamarakh. Soumyalata. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). laxative. Fruit sour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. stems rooting at the nodes. pale. C. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Manduki. Sd.) FAM.. 2-lipped. Safed-Kammi. :—A glabrous. COM. inflammations. found wild near N. Sk. NS. astringent to bowels. Karmar. solitary.:—E. Carambola apple. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . Bama. useful in bad ulcers. black dotted : entire. dried fruit is given in fevers. . :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. Root is given in cases of poisoning. DISTR. Sk. HABITAT :—Damp places. Brahmi. anæmia. Nirbrahmi. creeping herb. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. t. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Fruits are used in pickles.—Scrophulariaceæ. Shiral. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. 6-25 X 2. rarely wild. branches many ascending. Kamrang. digestible. causes biliousness (Yunani). DISTR. LOC. "Vata". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. See—Fruit Trees. H. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. also used in diarrhœa. Kirihuli. Fr. with shining dots. Fl. Kamarakha. Tamarak. enlargement of spleen.
Assam. Danti. Fr. DISTR. mottled. often palmately 3-5 lobed. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. anthelmintic. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root. good in scabies. :—G. :—Bihar. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. NS. enlarged spleen. itching. FAM. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. LOC. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. Root and leaves are cathartic. abundant on the hills of Karanja. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. M. Rechani. L.. Malaya. Fl. Guggula. Devdhup. Guggula. G. LOC. hairy.9-1. aphrodisiac . Guggula. COM. leucoderma. Dantika. Dantimul. leucoderma. W. diuretic. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Mukul. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Hakum. inflammations. capsule.—Burseraceæ. t. obovoid. conjoined with petroleum. NS. Guggul. :—E. Bengal. It is a direct cardiac tonic. all male or with a few females below. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). FAM. Sk. the lower large. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. anaemia. epilepsy and hoarseness. Leaf-juice. Gugul.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. 0. H. :—Dry open Deccan plains. yellowish. high. Kaduharalu. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Gum gugul. ellipsoid. purgative. Vishodhini. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. sinuate. toothed. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Burma. or in monsoon forests. :—A stout undershrub.—Euphorbiaceæ. anasarca and jaundice. K. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. They are used in dropsy. wounds. 2-glandular. Sd. N. . leaves and seeds. CHAR. piles. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. syphilis . USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Uddipta. Danti. K.8 m. useful in insanity. Jatala. jaundice (Ayurveda). branching from the roots. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. purifies blood. smooth. Peninsula. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Fl. epilepsy and hoarseness. alexiteric. M. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. of three 2-valved cocci. COM. LOC. the upper small. diseases of skin and abdomen. Seeds are poisonous. useful in pains. Danti. Chota Nagpur. H. Danti. Dec. in monsoon forests of N. Sk. Jamalgota.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
" Tridosha". :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. NS. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. leucoderma. it is also anti-fat remedy. cures biliousness.5 cm. Koholu. cures strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. blood diseases. diuretic. "Kapha". Tallow-White gourd. tonic to liver. flat. blood diseases . not indigenous. dysmenorrhoea. Sd. DISTR. cough. . bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. Karkutika. Bark—astringent to bowels. vaginal discharges. Burma. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). anal troubles. 15-20 X 1. PARTS USED :—Fruit.8-2. Shikhivardhaka. aphrodisiac.—pod. removes foul taste from mouth. urinary discharges and calculi. urethral discharges. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. seeds. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). burning sensation. tonic. used in piles. wounds and ulcers. given' to corpulent persons. cures biliousness. :—Cultivated throughout the State. astringent. heart tonic (Ayurveda). fever. Kohala. Budekumbalkai. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. thirst. aphrodisiac. ulcers. FAM. :—E. DISTR. Kondha. tuberculous glands. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. tuberculous glands. leprosy.10-15. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. There are two varieties. USES :—Root-decoction is given. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. appetising. menorrhagia. M. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration.-Apl. Dorokaru. G. Fruit—antiperiodic. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. Buds—indigestible. eye diseases. LOC. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. Golkaddu. Fl. enriches blood. biliousness. Timisha. asthma. used as gargle in stomatitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. blood impurities. cardiac and general tonic. dehiscent. Kudimah. in dyspepsia and flatulence.—Cucurbitaceæ. COM. leprosy. China. Seeds— cooling. used in dry cough. Kushmanda. cough. Fr. asthma. Sikkim. bark and flowers. Ash pumpkin. red and white. anthelmintic. used in strangury. H. Bhuru-koholu. thirst. Root.-Feb. K. Kumaon. tonic. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. LOC. t. oil from the seeds.
Oil—is soporific.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Konkan. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. anti-pyretic. t. CHAR. Kukkurdru. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. Tamrachuda. not ribbed. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. haemoptysis.:—In plains south of Bombay. S. stem erect. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. Ceylon. pappus white. Fr. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. Kalhar. LOC. Australia. phthisis. Fl. L. sharply serrate-dentate. Kakarunda. :—Throughout plains of India. cooling. LOC. upper subsessile. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Country.9 m. H.—Jany. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda).—the lower ones petioled. Kakaronda. cures bronchitis. 0. and nutritious tonic. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. FAM. laxative. base tapered. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. heart diseases. Jangali-muli. Bhamurdi. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot.—heads many. Sk. See—Vegetables. BLUMEA LACERA DC. high. burning sensation. astringent. pungent. mixed with black pepper. bitter. densely glandular. Pilokapurio. thirst. NS. M. with a strong odour of turpentine. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. ash colored. good in syphilis (Yunani). and diuretic. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. elliptic-oblong. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. it is also useful in insanity. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. sweetish. Malaya. . good for the brain and liver.—Compositæ. febrifuge. oblong. it is given in bleeding piles. M. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. :—Annual herb. COM. catarrh. Deccan.-achene. LOC. Kanara. asthma. Tropical Africa. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. pubescent. inner bracts with green midrib. finely silky pubescent on both sides. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). DISTR. blood diseases. often incised or lyrate.-Apl. China. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Fl. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. Mriduchhada. fevers. etc. Kukurbanda.3—0. Fruit is made into confections.
useful in lumbago. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Talimara. "Vata". COM. Baluchistan. bluntly 5-ribbed. Ghetuli. Ceylon. asthma. It is used in jaundice.. Varshabhu. L. useful in biliousness. Seeds—tonic. :—E. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. fusiform. K. P. Tad. (Ayurveda). very small. FAM. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). root large. DISTR. Fr. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. heart diseases. spleen enlargement. leaves and seeds.—Palmæ. LOC. India. NS. Raktakanda. Sk. :—E.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. FAM. Tad. LOC.—clavate. Kolaba and Thana districts.—in corymbose umbels. H. expectorant. cultivated and self-sown. Desert Palm. Kommegida. . Sk. COM. leucorrhoea. very glandular . t. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. blood impurities. tumours. Santhikari. Persian Gulf. Tala. —Nyctaginaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. carminative. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. Madhurasa. common in S. G. Indian Archipelago. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. Fan Palm. Moto-satodo. alterative. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. stem prostrate or ascending. Fl. alexiteric. Asavardu. native of tropical Africa. Africa and America. NS.— Nov. green above. Vasu. Shothaghni. :—A diffuse herb. Dholia-saturdo. HABITAT :—A weed. Plant contains large quantities of pot. generally found in poorer soils. Dhvajadruma. Lekhyapatra. Celyon. Leaves— appetiser. sub-orbicular. DISTR. in pain of joints. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Burma. gonorrhœa. Bitter. G.3—2 cm. 1. It produces a very marked and persistent. cooling . PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). useful in ophthalmia.—in unequal pairs at each node. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. LOC. margins undulate. H. Hogweed. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Brab tree. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. Uttar Pradesh. Tad. M. CHAR.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. astringent to bowels . Punarnava. M. K. and dropsy. :—Tropical India. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. inflammations. whitish beneath. abdominal pains. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Fl. cultivated. anæmia. "Kapha" heating. PARTS USED :—Root. pinkish. Palmyra Palm. scabies.
Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. with a little salt added. Luban. "Vata". alexiteric. H. Guggali. Fruit—cooling. used for boils. juice. expectorant. expectorant. Fruit—aphrodisiac. heals wounds . astringent to bowels. with a good flavour. DISTR. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. causes headache. Sambrani. allays asthma. leaves. COM. Fermented juice—tonic. Guggula. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). if taken regularly acts as laxative. flowers. aphrodisiac. biliousness. strengthens teeth. also used as antiperiodic. also found in Belgaum District. Vishesha-dhupa. fruits. antiglycosuretic. Sugars. fruit and gum. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). improves taste. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. :—E. helps delivery. fatigue. Mukulsalai. intoxicating. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Bark-decoction. ulcers . may cause vomiting. bad throat. Salgond. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. allays. PARTS USED :—Bark. useful in intestinal troubles. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . purifies blood (Yunani). skin diseases. fattening. fattening.—Burseraceæ. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. intoxicating. Gums and Resins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. FAM. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. cures dysentery. Salai. Kundur. blood complaints . antidysenteric. causes " Kapha ". bronchitis. Salpe. Liquors. LOC. asthma. K. Gum—hot. vaginal discharges. Moddi. . antibilious . dry. flowers. Loban. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. " Vata". diuretic . Flower— good for spleen enlargement. Sk. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Gum is of five kinds . Dhup. Salashi. Dhupam. invigorating.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. M. allays thirst. Dup.. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. fevers. tonic. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). hot. useful in biliousness. Indian olibanum tree. laxative. tonic. NS. scabies. aphrodisiac.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. thirst. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . cooling. useful in skin and blood diseases. Salphali. binding. bitter. thirst and scalding of urine. burning sensation. cough. mouth-sores. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . removes "Kapha". G. antipyretic. See—Timbers. purifies blood. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. diaphoresis. convulsions.
vermicide. ear.—Cruciferae. LOC. good in cough and for inflammations. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. Sarshapa. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. Taramira . increase appetite . It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. anthelmintic . M. Rai. chiefly in Nasik. increase bile. Kaira. dispel fever . Rajika. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. LOC. . Asuri.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. COM. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. India. stomachic. lessen oedema of body. used with butter in syphilis . Seeds act as digestive condiment . Broach. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. G. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. See—Condiments and Spices. biles. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Gums and Resins. FAM. Khandesh. Kari Sasive . :—Cultivated in India. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . NS. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. H. :—E. cause burning . Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). spleen. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. See—Timbers. DISTR. bechic. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Seeds— remove cough tumours. eye-troubles. cure nose. " Vata". cure skin-dissases. Jwalanti. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. internal congestions. Seeds-laxative. kill external parasites. K. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Dharwar and Belgaum. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. good for throat complaints. Sk. cure enlargement of spleen. rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Mohori. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. and toothache. appetiser. Kali-rai. Surat. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Black-True mustard. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. spasmodic.
LOC. hemiplegia. H. Shivavalli. K. Mullu-siru Honne. t. 1 . The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Manj. FAM. Asana. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills.—Euphorbiaceæ. Gauli. deeply cordate base. :—G. female flowers solitary. Asana. Asana.—baccate. :—An annual scandent herb. Lingaja. M. bitter. globose. 10-15 cm. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. . Australia. Kassi. Patharphoda. southward to Ceylon. NS.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. Asana. alterative. Ekalkanto. Gunjan. DISTR. H. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. Lingini.— membranous. Garige. LOC. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. heating. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. Chandra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Fr. COM. Shivalingi. lumbago. diam. long. smooth. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. corolla companulate. 5-partite. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. :—Deccan. 5-lobed. COM. Gargumaru. 5 cm. pungent. tropical Africa. 3—2 . bluish green. streaked with broad vertical lines . Kavodi. Philippines. NS.— Aug-Sept. green and scabrid above. Mauritius. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). ovate-oblong. Apastambhini. hot. corolla as in the male . subsessile. Shivlingi.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Tans. glabrous . useful in "Vata". Malaya. DISTR. Country.. stem grooved. Kaj. paler and smooth beneath. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties.. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. FAM. M.. Ekadivi. margins sinuate denticulate. :—G. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Suviraka. S. Sk.—yellowish brown. Sd. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Ishawara-Shivalingi. CHAR.:—Throughout India. Fl. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). and in fevers with flatulence. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. Goge. See—Timbers. Fl.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is used in bilious attacks. M. Mahavira. or few or many. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Khaja. lobes oblong lanceolate. of Shivaling shape . bark. tendrils 2-fid : L.
Sd. ulcers. Country.—swollen and octagonal at the base. Deccan. alexipharmic. Burma. Stems obtusely 4-angled. thirst. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. burning sensation on body. Murukali. HABITAT :—Dry. Pyalchar. aphrodisiac. Priyal. "Vata" and biliousness. Charoli. Fl. Parnabija.. K. also wild. leaflets ovate. Cambodia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. binding. Panphui. t. younger reddish. deciduous open forests. leaves. fattening. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. C. occasionally compound. Kolegeru. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Konkan. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". elliptic. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Roots. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. speckled with white. allays .2 m. bruises.) FAM.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. It is a disinfectant. M. M. lobes triangular. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. cardio-tonic. The bark is bitter and poisonous. M.—Jany. K. NS. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). carminative. vomiting. FAM. buds with root.—variable. H. reddish purple. purifies blood. high. gum (rarely). Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . M. Char. :—H. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Paira. L. Zakhi-haiyat. cooling. in large panicles. fruit. Thailand (Siam). Cochin-China. crenate or serrate. DISTR. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. purgative. inflammations. Leaf-juice digestive. Panphuti. LOC. astringent to bowels. Asthibhakshya. :—Native of tropical Africa. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). :—G. lower usually simple. Char. seeds. Piyal.—pendant. Gujarat. Rajadana. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. Fl.3-1. Dhanu. COM. expectorant. LOC. LOC. Charpoppu. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. smooth. Deccan. the Dangs. Lalana.—Crassulaceæ. with opposite branches . aphrodisiac. Snehabija. constricted in the middle. useful in diarrhœa. Tapaspriya. upper 3-5-7 foliate. Char. fevers. laxative.—small. tonic. Fr. when punctured. boils and bites of venomous insects. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. :—Konkan. Charoli. Country.—Anacardiaceæ. Lonnahadakana gida. :—Hot and drier parts of India. cures blooddiseases. Sk. S. analgesic. the older light-coloured. decussate. NS. CHAR. S.
cause headache (Yunani). Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. aphrodisiac. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Khakda. anthelmintic. Flowers—cure " Kapha". :—E. Khakhrao. K. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). colic. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. India. Palas. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. Bastard teak. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. Kinshuk.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leaf—very astringent. Sk. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . Flower—aphrodisiac. Ceylon. aperient used in urinary discharges. buboes. anthelmintic. Yajnika. aphrodisiac. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. diuretic . (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. digestible. skindiseases. ascends to 1200 m. Leaves—good for eye diseases. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . eye diseases. bark. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Fruit and seeds—oily. Gum—astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. biliousness. tumours. Oils. good in fevers. Kuntz. anthelmintic.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. gonorrhoea. Kshatadru. useful in bone fractures. gout. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. anthelmintic. corneal opacities. Tripatrak. cures ulcers and tumours. tonic. dysentery. Muttala. if chewed. DISTR. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. remove bad humours. COM. laxative. Kakria. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. tonic. Bark—appetiser. lessens biliousness. expectorant. stomachic. good in dysentery. NS. Palash. seeds. Seeds tonic to body and brain. Khakera. cold and cough. leaves.) FAM. gonorrhœa. leprosy. pterygium. in the Khandesh Akrani. useful in elephantiasis. LOC. Chichra. pimples. inflammations. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. good in biliousness. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. hydrocele. cures excessive perspiration. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. emmenagogue. prickly heat and itch. Dhak. lessens lumbago. diseases of anus. fractures. astringent. cough. lessens inflammations. burning urine. gum. LOC. flowers. G. piles. Palas. Gum—acrid. topically in piles and hydrocele. piles. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). cure tumours. stomatitis. M. relieves abnormal thirst. See—Timbers. useful in syphilis. Dyes. Muttuga. used in liver disorders. dysmenorrhoea. worms and piles. Fruit and seed—hot. Bark—appetiser. thirst. Gums and Resins. dry. carminative. strangury. LOC. tonic to liver. burning sensation. H. purifies blood. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh.
branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. heating.—1-2 oblong. ringworm. useful in colic. shortly stalked.5 cm.—pod.5 X 4. prevents contagious diseases . Dyes. K. Fever nut. Sk. cures urinary discharges. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. They are applied to orchitis. piles. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. See—Timbers. sprouts useful in tumours. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. 5-7.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. etc. Fr. H. aphrodisiac and diuretic.—JulySept. 30-60 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. malaria. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda).—abruptly pinnate. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. Sind. :—An extensive climber. flowers and fruit.5 cm. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. Deccan hills. cures inflammation . Karanja. oblong 5-7. densely armed on the faces with prickles. lead-colored 1. asthma and colic. Kakechika. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. Gajaga. long . Gum solution is applied to bruises. anthelmintic . Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. elliptic-oblong. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. leaflets 6-9 pairs. hydrocele. strongly mucronate.) COM. Gajjige. act as rubefacient. Sagargota.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. Seed—styptic. NS. CHAR. M. fevers. skin-diseases. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. Gajga. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Katkaleja. t. very common near the sea-coast. astringent to bowels. LOC. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. leprosy (Yunani). Fl. leucorrhcea. Katkaranj. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Fruit—acrid. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Kuberakshi. Sd. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . Physic nut. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. LOC. the tropics generally. leaves. Flowers are astringent. .—yellow. aphrodisiac. wounds. anthelmintic. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. :—Throughout India. antiperiodic. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Fl. Gums and Resins. long. petioles prickly.3 cm. L. Leaves contain a glucoside. :—E. DISTR. Tapasi. G.
Kanara associated with littoral species.H. Polynesia. and oil. Ekke. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. branches stout. Purasakeshera. Ceylon. Rui. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). elliptic or ovate oblong. East African Islands. PARTS USED :—Bark. NS. DISTR. Vuma. K. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. and for its oil.. base cordate. Punnaga. astringent. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Kshirparni. Arka. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Undi.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—A large shrub. thick. Australia. very common in N. Punnag. Malaya. :—E. Undi. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Madar. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Alexandrian laurel. COM. NS. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. FAM. both surfaces tomentose. COM. 2. Gigantic swallow-wort. used in chronic fevers. M. covered with cottony pubescence. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Mandara. Surangi.. M. Br. Oils. Akdo. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". mixed with bark strips and leaves. K. FAM.—Guttiferæ. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Ak. Sultanchampa. See—Timbers. Sk. Arka.8-10 cm. Dholaakdo. Surhonne. Akand. L. lessens appetite. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. improves complexion (Ayurveda). LOC. Ponne. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. CHAR. Kshiranga. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. . sessile. The gum from wounded branches.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. H. G. Madar. Sk. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. :—Cultivated throughout India. gum. LOC. Tungakeshera. high. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. :—E.4-3 m. sometimes amplexicaul.— opposite. 10-20 X3.. Shuka-phala. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties.. Mandara. much branched. Ark. Surpan. often gregarious..
Fr. spongy. corona shorter than the column. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. DISTR. diaphoretic. Br. rat-bite. used in cough. acrid .7—15 X 4. Fl. very common. cures leprosy. back much curved. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. scabies. NS. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. alterative and purgative properties.4 m. lobes usually erect. Mandara. ascites and anasarca. eruption on body. Flower—analgesic. . C.. apex with two auricles.5-10 X 5-7. elliptic or obovate. cures asthma and syphilis. piles. Fr.— purplish in umbellate cymes. buds ovoid. China. elephantiasis. laxative. very common is S. India. good for liver (Yunani).5 cm. oleaginous. Ceylon. Juice—anthelmintic. leaves applied to paralysed parts. Root-bark is diaphoretic. Flowers—digestive. cottony. 9-10 cm. C.—follicles. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.:—H.—lobes deltoid-ovate.8-2. flattened tomentose. leaves and flowers. young parts white. ascites.—about 2. tonic and stomachic in action. Malay Islands and S.—broadly ovate. asthma.5-8. heal wounds. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. ovate oblong. Milk— caustic. long. L. across. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. astringent. Madar. LOC. bark. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . broad.. FAM. purplish or white. cures leucoderma. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. Fl. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. subglobose.-July. usually 5. green. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. tumours. LOC. Milk— heating.. COM. comose . M. Flowers—stomachic. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. Ark. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. coughs.— Feb. useful in leprosy. Rajarka. Sd:—many. ulcers. :—An erect shrub usually 1. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. also useful in intestinal worms. expectorant and anthelmintic.—subsessile. ellipsoid or ovoid. purgative. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. :—Throughout warmer parts of India.—in umbellate cymes. CHAR.2 cm. spleen and liver diseases. Sk. t. Sd. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). depilatory.—7. swellings.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. bark corky. comose. Safedak. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. ringworm of scalp. dropsy. cures inflammations.—Asclepiadaceæ. liver and spleen enlargement.5 cm. high. catarrh and loss of appetite. Ak. tumours. cures piles and "Kapha". buds globose. Mandara. See—Fibres. asthma. painful joints .
Gavara. Sema. NS. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. oval or orbicular. FAM. tonic.:—Perennial herb . Devakeli.:—Common in the dry parts of the State.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. lanceolate to ovate. DISTR. indigestible. Sk. Flowers used as detergent. Arabia. DISTR. Khadsambal.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Abai. Tamateballi. LOC. appetiser. tropical Africa. Sarvajaya. Kadsambu. Kamakshi. they are given in cholera. but doubtfully wild. Warm leaves used as poultice. Sarvajaya. green. LOC. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Iran.. Kalehu. abundant in Sind. Tarvardi. Kadavare. biliousness. Afghanistan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Hudingana. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. The pods contain vitamin A. Nilashimbika. CHAR. (Chopra). :—E. bracts oblong. G. COM. CANNA INDICA Linn. Asishimbi. 3 sub-erect. Shitarambha. hernia and colic. FAM.. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM.3 cm. Koshaphala. 1 linear . M.9-1. Fl. greenish or colored. NS. Waziristan. L. Sambe. high . P. useful in burning sensations.—segments 2. staminodial segments. PARTS USED :—Leaves.5 cm. membranous. See—Fibres. Sk. Gigantea. H.—Scitaminaceae. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. erect. on trees and hedges . cooling. Sabbajaya. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. See—Vegetables.2 m. acrid.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. K. Indian shot. PARTS USED :—Pods. Gavria. G. flowers and milky juice. Egypt.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. Paraholiya. spatulate. narrow. Shimbi. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. long. K. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. Broad—Sword bean. Akalabera. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. :—E. M. Kardali. veins arching. stem 0. H. root-stock tuberous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C.
H. COM. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. leaves. (2) Bhang.—more or less throughout the year. FAM. (3) Charas. K. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. upper 1-3. Hemp.5 m. Siddhapatri. Shivapriya. HABITAT :—Cultivated. soporific.—many. insanity. See—Ornamental Plants. Leaves—bitter.—Urticaceæ. also wild. sepals 5. excessive use causes indigestion. Bhang. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). intoxicating. alterative . Fl.—alternate or the lower opposite. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. echinulate . L. piles. cough. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Ganja. serrate. :—Widely cultivated in India. dioecious. lessen inflammation. :—Throughout India. male fascicled. Female inflorescence is stomachic. Ganja. antidiarrhoeic. useful in convulsions. heating. PROPERTIES AND LOC. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. LOC. flowers and seeds. abortifacient. Fr. impotence. Seeds—carminative. CHAR.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. soporific. M. causes thirst and biliousness. Not indigenous. aphrodisiac. melancholia. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. good for hydrocele. LOC. astringent. Unmattini. useful in " Kapha". :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. water extract anthelmintic. female perianth hyaline. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Bark. female crowded under convolute bracts. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. flowers. t. usually 0. Fr. leprosy. hallucinations. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. seeds and resin. tonic. tonic. intoxication (Ayurveda). CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. G. leaves. aphrodisiac. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. check vomiting. Harshini.—small axillary.—sub-globose or oblong . black. shining. causes biliousness. 3-lobed. Mohini. PARTS USED :—Roots.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . cause headache. hot. Bark—tonic. Sk. Bhang. intoxication. oil-good for earache.9-1. high in its feral state. Vijaya. Central Asia. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. Ganja. NS. male flowers. DISTR. :—E. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). causes thirst. They are broken in small pieces. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. imbricate. Bhangi.—achene. globose. Sd. dropsy. astringent to bowels. lower 3-8 foliate. stomachic. restlessness. DISTR. Fl. LOC. Wild in the Himalayas.
it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. G. and is employed by Indian physicians. K. diarrhœa. Ujjvala. Mirchi. DISTR. cholera. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. The fruit contains Capsisin. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. LOC. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. Vegetables. Country in Deccan. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. The plant contains cannabinin. Fibres. loss of consciousness.—Solanaceæ. chronic ulcers.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. See—Condiments and Spices. Menshinkai. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. acute mania. in the form of electuary. M. Marchu . dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Chillies. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. :—E. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. increases biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. whooping cough. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). It is stomachic. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Mirchi. See—Gums and Resins. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Fruit. dysuria. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. M. Marichiphala. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. Tikshna. H. Raktamaricha. delirium (Ayurveda). Tivrashakti. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. asthma. . often found as an escape. NS. and flatulence. weakness of body. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. muscular pains. expectorant. dyspepsia. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). COM. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. useful in indigestion. Lanka mirchi. and dropsy. also in gout. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. spermatorrhoea. Sk. FAM. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). Narcotics. Cayenne-pepper. erysipelas. LOC. Fruit—pungent. Lalmirchi. Capsaicin and Solanin. Madana modak used in cough. :—Cultivated all over India. useful in brain complaints. increases appetite.
M. leaves. Fl. useful in tumours. H. . ultimate segments lanceolate. CHAR. bark. NS. anthelmintic. :—E. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Sk. M. inciso-serrate. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers and fruits. Root is considered diaphoretic. LOC. Kumbhi. See—Timbers. Daddala. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. and is administered in fevers. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. " Vata ". skin-diseases. Karolio. bark. bronchitis. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. PARTS USED :—Root. Root. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Shaundi. The plant contains saponin. Malay Peninsula. Fr. rounded at the apex. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. urinary discharges. Sakralata. Sind. introduced. Kumbhi. Jyotish-mati. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Kapalphodi. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Hennumatti. :—Throughout India. black. DISTR. G. trigonous.—globose. Karnasphota. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. colic. alexiteric. Kanphuti.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. winged at the angles. G. bladdery . K. 2-ternate. dyspepsia. epileptic fits.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Sk. NS. Deccan. Ghats. Sd. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. it is mucilaginous. Maniju balli. Kumbi. when moistened.—Myrtaceæ.—white. leaves and seeds. COM. :—Most warm countries. Blister creeper. FAM. Thailand (Siam). common in S. petals 4. dry. hot. C. K. Vakambi. COM. very acute apex. Balloon vine. L. Konkan and W. subglobose. Gavvahannu. DISTR.—capsule.— alternate. deltoid. smooth. Wild guava . leucoderma. Fibres. piles. :—E. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb.—Sapindaceæ. stem wiry. Kalindi. Fruit—acrid. LOC. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . LOC. Agni-erum. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. Girikarnika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. abscesses and ulcers. diuretic and aperient. Kangu. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . Kumbha. HABITAT :—In hedges . FAM. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas.
useful in expulsion of lumbrici. astringent to bowels. See—Fruit Trees. leucoderma. fruit and seeds. Kardai. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. seeds and oil. Kusumbo. Sk. expectorant. appetiser. Papita. diuretic. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. DISTR. LOC. of W. FAM. scabies. Papaya. flowers. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. H. Papaya. Kusumba. strangury. causes burning sensation . dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. laxative.—Caricaceæ. COM. DISTR. M. unripe fruit. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Papaya. Karrak. Barre. good for eyes. wounds of urinary track. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. :—Native throughout India. NS. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. ringworm. Agnishikha. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. heating. Sk. :— E. used. "Tridosh". it is used to procure abortion. bile. G. Dyer's saffron. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. carminative. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. Chibda. Flower—tonic to liver. Kusumba. NS. . :—Grown extensively in Poona. leprosy. cure urinary discharges. M. bleeding piles. Chirbhita. Popayi. diuretic. FAM. cure "Vata". Ahmednagar and Nasik. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Guppe. HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. hypnotic. cures inflammation. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). cures insanity (Ayurveda). in haemoptysis. H. made into curries. Kamalottama. Nalikadala. Kusumba. K. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Karada. cooling. "Kapha". appetiser . cures inflammations. Fruit—stomachic. digestive. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Leaves—hot. removes biliousness . depilatory. piles. aphrodisiac. Pangi.—Compositæ. Oil—indigestible. LOC. Kusumbha. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). Safflower. bronchitis. removes urinary concretions . PARTS USED :—Leaves. K. G. Indies. Mexico and Brazil. :—E. cause biliousness. Papaw. White thin latex contains Papain. relieves obesity. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Pappayi. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. COM. Seeds—oleaginous. LOC. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. enlargement of spleen.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Papayi.
diuretic. tonic. See—Vegetables. Omu . The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. Elgra. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. and even in cholera. abdominal pain. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. Europe. Dwipagasti.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). long. Dipyaka. bechic. hiccup. LOC. NS. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. they are used in jaundice . leaflets 10-12 pairs. :—E. improve speech and eyesight. 30-60 cm. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). oblique at the base. CASSIA ALATA Linn. carminative. cure catarrh. good for heart and tooth-ache. laxative. Dyes. rachis . give lustre to eyes. appetiser. liver. Ringworm shrub. COM. :—Cultivated extensively in India. CHAR. The seeds bitter and hot. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. chest and throat pains. vomiting. piles. Oil—good in all diseases. oblong-obtuse. H. Tivragandha. strengthening. pungent. M. Oma. Ajwain. NS :— E. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. stomachic. and diarrhœa. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. M. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. Sk. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. Baluchistan. kidney troubles. Dadmardan. dyspepsia. pinnate. Simyatase. L. Dadrughna. carminative. Iran. myrabolans and rock salt. Ajamoda. abdominal tumours. paralysis. stimulant. subsessile. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. FAM. aphrodisiac . They are administered in flatulence. Oils. atonic dyspepsia. Leaves contain vitamin A. COM. K. H. Dadamardana. Ajamo . Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. Afghanistan. Sk. good in weakness of limbs. mucronate. Egypt. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). vomiting. bitter. K. purgative. FAM. good for ear boils. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . Seeds—purgative. carminative. G. Winged senna. Ajowan.—Umbelliferæ. chest pains. good for old people. anthelmintic. cure ascites. downy beneath. Dodda sagate. enlargement of spleen. Bishops' weed . spleen. Owa. enrich blood. stimulate intestines. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. emmenagogue and sedative. See—Condiments and Spices. inflammation (Yunani). DISTR. Datka pat. LOC. aphrodisiac. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. tonic and carminative properties.
Peninsula. reniform. H. Fl. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. asthma . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Charmaranga. causes flatulence . J. Awal. cures tumours. good for ulcers. Avartki. yellow with orange veins. pedunculate racemes . Mayahari. Fl. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day.. cough. rhombohedral. Ceylon. Tangadi. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. HABITAT :—Planted. Sakusina. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb).. NS. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. useful in vomiting. LOC. along the sea coast in laterite region. M. nocturnal emissions. Taroda. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda).) COM. Madhya Pradesh and W.—pod. 28-4-88).. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. straight. rotundate. N. Mukerji).6 cm. buds in yellow bracts. Bark has the same properties. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. :—E. Tarwad. 5 cm. bark smooth. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. mucronate. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. pale beneath. " In eczema.3-1. Fl.—Jany. :—Introduced into India. DISTR.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Tanner's cassia. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. skin-diseases. fruits and seeds. Tarwad.—pod long. Sd.5 X 10 cm. useful in thirst. Sk. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). skin diseases. Pitakilaka. 20-25. and throat troubles. Avarike. Fr. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. . ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. vermicide (Ayurveda). LOC. thirst. slightly overlapping. The whole plant. Country. FAM. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Gujarat and S. membranous. stipules very large. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). asthma.-50 or more. dull green above. very likely a native of the W. C. L. Fr.—bright yellow with darker veins. K. leprosy. t. alexipharmic . LOC. diabetes. cm.—30-35. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. Fl. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. itching. M. leaflets 8-12 pairs. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan.-July. ringworm. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets .—in spiciform. anthelmintic. Ahmed. oblong-obovate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. Ph. LOC.-Oct. rachis densely pubescent. across. Sd. 10-20 X 1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric.—large. reddish brown. G. cure " Vata ". obliquely septate. Burma.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. t. urinary discharges . Indies. flowers. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. leaves. long. DISTR.—7.
:—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. Golden shower. Chimkani. Flowers—improve taste. Fruit—antipyretic. LOC. Fl. Pudding-pipe or stick. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Negro coffee.—in few flowered racemes. Burma. Kasmarda. M. It is a mild laxative. cause flatulence. :—Throughout India. . Kasoda. recurved. Arogyashimbi. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Tans.—very foetid when bruised. Vyadivata. griping. Ceylon. shining dark olive-green. Leaves lessen inflammation.—petals 5. eye-diseases. H.) COM. Kasundari. Sk.— Jany-March. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). K. :—E. Sk. See—Timbers. cure " Kapha ". tuberculous glands. leaves. faintly veined with orange . K. corymbose. juice given in erysipelas. Chakinda. In Konkan.—pods. laxative. NS. cures burning sensation. Kacodari. antipyretic. base somewhat oblique. Leaves—anti-periodic . C. transversely septate. Garmala. biliousness . Sd. Suvarnaka. Kasonda. long. apex acute. long. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Dodda-tagase. Ornamental Plants.) COM. carminative. astringent. :—E. Fl. G. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Konde. ovate-lanceolate. Kasondi. Kakka. abortifacient. purgative. Amaltas. lessens inflammation and body-heat. CHAR. safe for children and pregnant women. Indian laburnum. also planted. throat-troubles. Fruit—digestible. See—Dyes. distinctly torulose. Rechana. and Famine Plants. 10—12. fruit and seeds. Stinking weed. DISTR. FAM. cooling. Aragina. NS. Hema-puspha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. t. (Ayurveda).—20-30. hard. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. purgative. Bandartauri. often purplish. H. heal ulcers . Fr. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. demulcent. cooling. L. used in rheumatism. Rankasvinda. useful in chest and liver complaints. LOC. Ane sogate. Balla. flowers. smooth. rheumatism. Kasari. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Bahava. Flowers—purgative. leprosy. syphilis. yellow. leaflets 3-5 pairs. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Seeds— oily. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. G. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Arimarda.5 cm. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn.. FAM. branches furrowed. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. 15-20 cm. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. improve appetite. Rajataru.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.
LOC. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. :—A shrub 2. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Seeds used in heat of the blood. septate between the seeds .510 cm. ovate. leaves and seeds. leaves. Fr. heals wounds. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. leaflets 6-10 pairs. obtuse. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. K. The bark. yellow. LOC. See—Famine Plants. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. Fl. " tridosha " . At Kotra. Kasamarda. M. long . plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). PARTS USED :—Bark. slightly recurved.4-3 m. PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. 7. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. alexiteric. hiccup.Jany. Talapota. turgid. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. cures ascites. L. Baskikasondi. leaves and seeds. are given in diabetes. rachis grooved . Ran tankala. . medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. Sd.. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). The plant contains glucoside emodin. DISTR.—18-23 cm. :—G. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. COM. asthma. tonic and febrifuge.— Nov. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. LOC. Kasundari. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. annual or perennial. and seeds are cathartic. See—Famine Plants. few flowered corymbose racemes. cough.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—30-40 broadly ovoid. C. Fl. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. petals 5. dark brown . DISTR. Kasamarda. fevers. high. elephantiasis. FAM. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. Banar. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Sk.—pod. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. opposite. Kasondi. lanceolate. In many countries root is considered diuretic.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. stomachic. " Vata ". PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. in Kutch.—in axillary.. mixed with honey. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. LOC. H. NS. with a solitary conical gland near the base . Leaves—aphrodisiac. cure " Kapha". Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . base rounded.
—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. opposite (lowest smaller). Intellect tree. 7.—after the rains. H. rachis grooved. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). FAM. 1-6 completely covered with red. Sd.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Sk. Sphutabandhani. M. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets.—pinnate. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Takala. capsule. Seeds— acrid. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. small yellowish-green. L. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. PARTS USED :— Root. much curved when young. obliquely septate. L. :—An annual foetid herb. fleshy arillus. emetic. Kanguni. bitter. usually unisexual. Fr. :—Large deciduous climber. Kangodi.5 mm. Foetid cassia. C. base oblique. Sk. Kangani.3-10 X 3. Svarnalata. leaves and seeds. reddish brown. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. aphrodisiac.—pod. NS. Pamad. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.5 cm.—Celastraceæ.5-20 cm. ovate or obovate. Chakunda.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. K.. M. alternate. powerful brain tonic. remove "Vata" and "Kapha".5-10 cm. obovate. FAM. Malkakni. Tarota. in drooping panicles. Malkangoni. Burma. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. t. Malkamni.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . X 4. long. :—A very common weed all over the State.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Fl. Black-oil tree. cause burning sensation. appetiser. Malhangana. LOC. Kangli. CHAR. LOC. Dadrughna. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. high. Fr. Tagache. Madras State. hot. The plant contains glucoside emodin. in diam. Jyotishmati. unarmed. 18 m. CHAR. Climbing-staff plant. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. upper petal 2-lobed . K.8-7. leaflets 3 pairs. branches rough. high.) COM. 6.— petals 5. stem upto 23 cm. shining above. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. cure joint-pains. Sd. expectorant. Dadamari. pale yellow. oblong. globose. laxative. DISTR. Ceylon. Taragosi. brain and liver tonic. Chagoche.. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. Chakramarda. :—E. 12. covered with lenticels. COM. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. G. :—E.. crenate. Fl. . 30-90 cm. H. bright yellow. Panevar. DISTR. Velo . In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Taga. Seeds—bitter. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally.
Country. Deccan and S. rooting at the nodes. Don. radical leaves revolute. Fl. Sk. good for cough and asthma. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. ovoid. elliptic. stem creeping with long internodes. :—Throughout India. Brahmamanduki. L. COM. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. FAM. NS. Fl. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. Mandukparni. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. COM. Jhinkun-kariatum. .—capsule. CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—opposite. Jangli-karayatu. spreading star-like . they are also sudorific. Fl. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). Seeds are hot. Ekpani. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. G. Vondelaga. and is employed for external application.—3 from each node. long. Brahmi. high. Mahaushadhi. DISTR. Fl. Brahmamanduki. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. especially in Bengal. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. M. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. C. :—G.—Umbelliferæ. cauline smaller. aphrodisiac and stimulant. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. L. :—Konkan. minute. base deeply cordate stipulate. Fr. Oil stomachic. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). K. pink.). Vallari . pink. cloves.—tubular lobes 5. :— E. used in leprosy. gout. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. FAM. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. NS.-Apl.—4 mm. Barmi. M. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. M. tonic.—Feb. linear-oblong. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. CHAR. orbicular. obovate or oblong.). hard-rugose. :—A slender herbaceous plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. LOC.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. H. t.—in fascicled umbels. paralysis and leprosy. Fr. t. reniform.—May-Nov. H. LOC. narrowly oblong . persistent. Lahanchirayat. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness.—Gentianaceæ. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm.
ointment. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. memory. alterative. spleen enlargement. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. voice. :—South Konkan and N. China. PROPERTIES AND LOC. For external use powder. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. :—K. Australia Pacific Islands. diuretic. :—In moist situations (streams. nut is narcotic and poisonous . FAM.) DISTR. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. cures leucoderma. antipyretic. LOC. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. improves appetite. DISTR. improves appetite (Yunani). tonic. Leaves are also diuretic. asthma. blood diseases. Sukanu. bechic. NS. COM. Tande. digestible. urinary discharges. asthma. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. Honde. Plant—bitter. tonic. soporific. . tropical and subtropical regions of the world. alexiteric. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. " Kapha ". See—Timbers. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. cardio-tonic. clears voice and brain. water courses throughout the State. leaves and seeds). Chanda. small-pox. thirst. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. sedative to nerves. :—Throughout India near the coast. milky juice. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . twigs. nallas. cures hiccup. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. scalding of urine. carminative. anæmia. abundant on the Malabar Coast. LOC. M. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. headache . fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. and a bitter substance odollin. bronchitis. laxative. bitter. PARTS USED :—Bark. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. fruit. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Malay Archipelago.—Apocynaceæ. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. biliousness. cooling. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. plaster or bath are used. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. Leaf-powder. stomachic. USES :—Bark is purgative. Kanara. fevers. bronchitis.
Fruit is very sour . acrid. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Chick pea. LOC. sour . spleen (Ayurveda). used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Ksharadala. The fruit is acrid and astringent. But. "Vata". Chana. H. Tanko. COM. G. Lavali. COM. Chakravarti. fragrant. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. M. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. tonic to liver.—Chenopodiaceæ. Kanchuki. Pandu. Chillika. Chakravati. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. Kadale. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Harparrevdi.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. NS. Chakwat. Chandanbedu. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Harparauri K. Rayara nelli. COM. LOC. urinary concretions. also cultivated as a pot herb. abdominal pains. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Country. Balabhojya. LOC. FAM. vomiting. M. CICCA ACIDA Merr. useful in bronchitis. eye-diseases. useful in thirst. LOC. biliousness. See—Fruit Trees. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Deccan and S. Country gooseberry. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar.—Euphorbiaceæ. piles. throattroubles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). G. DISTR. Chania. tonic. diseases of blood. :—E. constipation. piles . Skandhaphala. Kari-Kempukadale. Vajibhakshya. . biliousness. "Kapha". Chunna. laxative. FAM .) FAM. M. Harbara. Rai-avala. NS. Cheel. Goose-foot. NS. improves appetite. Laveni. root and the seed are cathartic. Agralohita. :—E. :—Widely distributed. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. M. Chalmeri. H. fruit and seeds. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Chana. Sk. oleaginous.. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in biliousness. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. diuretic. USES :— Root is purgative. :—Very common in the Deccan. :— E. LOC. Bathusag. Bengal—Common-gram. heart. Sk. H. Sk. Chanaka. The plant yields an essential oil. Wild-spinach. :—Cultivated in India.
Sk. aphrodisiac. Oil—styptic. very common in the N. It possesses carminative. Dalchini.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Darchini. bronchitis. improve taste and appetite. parched mouth. thirst. See—Condiments and Spices. biliousness. aphrodisiac. :—W. useful in inflammations. :— Bark and oil. strengthens liver. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. anthelmintic. leprosy.—Lauraceæ. Leaves contain vitamin A. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. enriches blood. toothache (Ayurveda). good for diseases of liver and spleen. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Peninsula. cure bronchitis. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. Nisane. diarrhœa and dysentery. vomiting. Oils. LOC. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. blood troubles. piles. seed and acid exudation. headache. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. useful in cold. rectum and urinary diseases. Oil—carminative. liver-tonic . aphrodisiac. biliousness. Dalchini. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. expectorant. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. tonic. headache. useful in hydrocele. Malay Peninsula. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. causes flatulence. heated brain. LOC. Kash. toothache. carminative. pains . indigestion. Dalchini. throat troubles. etc. cures thirst and burning. vomiting. flatulence. tonic . Leaves—purgative. carminative. anthelmintic. useful in " Vata ". Valkala. alexiteric. Seed—indigestible. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. Burma. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. abdominal pains. Bark—tonic. causes salivation. Kanara district. abortifacient. It checks nausea and vomiting. diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. bronchitis (Yunani). H. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. :—G. useful in bronchitis. tonic to hair. appetiser. K. flatulence. See—Food Plants. causes flatulence. Duk. anthelmintic . foul mouth and fever. tonic. Gudatwaka. indigenous and cultivated. useful in loss of appetite. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. LOC. refrigerant. Ceylon. cures skin diseases. FAM. DISTR. heart. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. NS. pungent. Lavange-hakke. throat troubles. Seed—stimulant. cold in head. Dalchini. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. emmenagogue. chest complaints. M. hiccup. itching. COM. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani).
:—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. COM. heart troubles. i. FL t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . skin eruptions. which possibly has a cholinergic action.—Nov. dysentery. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). Africa and America.. diarrhœa. Chitraphala. mucronate. C. E. Mahendravaruni. Katurasa. LOC. hairy. flesh juicy. axillary racemes . has been isolated.-Jany. Sd. Pahadvel. somewhat hairy. lobes obovateoblong. red.—Menispermaceæ. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. t. cordate at the base. L. Trapusi. orbicular or reniform. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. helps parturition. fever. removes pain. asthma . useful in hemicrania. Patha. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. 5-partite. H..—July-Sept. LOC. young shoots woolly. sub-globose. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. Fl. angular . diam. G. subcampanulate. G. Sk. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. Sk. an alkaloid. CHAR. dropsy and cough. Ghorumba. greenish outside. piles. in conjunction with aromatics. Indraphal. FAM. burning.8-10 cm. :—E. tendrils bifid. Indrayana. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". waxy coated. Velvet-leaf. Colocynth.—Cucurbitaceæ. upto 25 cm. COM. itching . it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. removes intestinal worms. Venivalli. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. stem thick. solitary. HABITAT. Indruk.—A climbing shrub. peltate. Kanara. Fr. FAM. :— E. :—In hills. Pavamekke Kayi. Uthika. Kaduvrindavan. NS. M. DISTR. solitary.— usually margined. K. minute. subglobose. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. Fl. smooth. (Ind. Fl. yellowish. female flowers in elongate. F. Fr. 3. Indrayan. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Asso. warm parts of Asia. also for prolapsus uteri. Venivel. drupe. NS. deeply divided or but moderately lobed.—large. Annual Report. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. male flowers in axillary cymes. H. Tumtikayi.5-20 cm. 5-nerved. CHAR. Nirbisi. PARTS USED :—Root.e. diam. L. Indrayan. leaves. red or yellowish white. or twin. Paharmul. :—Deccan.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. 1949). alleviates vomiting. margins ciliate. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. Makal. :—An extensively climbing annual. long. yellow within. branches more or less pubescent. Bitter apple. monœcious. 7. The active constituent of the drug. compressed. R. uterine complaints. . It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. greenish. M.
aphrodisiac. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. constipation. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. Narangi. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Doddile. K. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . asthma. COM. ascites. Narenj.—Rutaceæ. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Deccan. ulcers. Ceylon. DISTR. pain in joints. removes fatigue . bowel complaints. anæmia. In the Konkan fruit and root. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. W. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. LOC. Sunthura. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. removes biliousness. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. jaundice. Cardiotonic. laxative. anthelmintic. with or without nux-vomica. Rind— anthelmintic. constipation. cooling. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. Kittale. urinary discharges. bronchitis. enlargement of spleen. chest troubles. N. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. carminative. :—Widely cultivated in India. good in vomiting and skin diseases. anthelmintic . fortifies chest. cures tumours. useful in biliousness. tonic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). NS. fever and worms. Naringa. Asia. Nagaranga. aphrodisiac . diuretic. relieves vomiting and retching. removes " Vata ". relieves colds. Narange. Also indigenous in Arabia. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. astringent. Santra. sea-shores. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. and lumbago. Fruit—sour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. LOC. Tvakasugandha. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). dyspepsia. " Kapha". FAM. :—Konkan. epilepsy. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). (Poona. :— E. good in fevers. enlargement of spleen. tuberculous glands of neck. purgative. leuco-derma. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Root and fruit cooling. Sk. Naringi. DISTR. LOC. tonic. sweet and has agreeable flavour. H. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. M. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Flower— stimulant. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. elephantiasis . G. Gujarat. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Kirmirtvaka. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. throat diseases. Sukkare-kanji. LOC. useful in piles.
COM. relieves sore-throat. jaundice. K. Seeds—indigestible. asthma. Ruchaka. cures leprosy. the pulp cold and dry. leaves and flowers hot and dry. Bera nimbu. Matunga. Motalimbu . removes " Vata" and " Kapha". K. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. increase appetite. bark and fruit. M. seeds. useful in abdominal complaints. Lemon . Mahanimbu. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. Madala. used in constipation and tumours.:—Grown in gardens in the State. :—Citron rind is hot. though there are no regular plantations. LOC. Kutla. cough. Rusaki. B and C. anasarca and chronic fever. :— E. PARTS USED :—Root. also corrects foetid breath. the juice allays ear-ache. useful in vomiting. LOC. . Sk. tonic and astringent properties. Devamadala. Mahaphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. COM. Balank. flatulence. Sk. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Citron . heating. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Adam's apple. According to Theophrastus. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). M. juice refrigerant and astringent. H. flowers.—Rutaceæ. hiccup. Turanj. Thora-limbu. H. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Bijapurna. DoddaGaja-nimba. Bijaura. rind of the fruit is bitter. oily. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Mahalunga. VAR. LOC. G. dry and tonic .66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. fruits and seeds. sharp. aphrodisiac. anæmia. Fruit—sweet and sour. NS. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Harale. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Jambira. astringent to bowels . cough. The fruits contain vitamins A. removes colic. :—E. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. said to be wild in W. digestible. Mavalunga. Matulunga. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mahaphala. Turanj. PARTS USED. intoxication. with a sharp taste. Flowers—stimulant. Limonum. Paharinimbu . thirst. relieve vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. Matalunga. Amlakeshara. See—Fruit Trees. FAM. Idalimbu. tonic. :—Roots. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. stimulant. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Ghats. G. USES. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. asthma. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. anthelmintic. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . NS. Bijoru. its preserve is used for dysentery.
relieves vomiting . throat trouble. loss of appetite. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). both as a prophylactic and as a curative. brain disorders. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Devashreni. NS.—Ranunculaceæ. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. heart. with flavour. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. M. sharp taste. Dhantiate. Amlasara. petioles twinning. COM. Churhar. Morvel. long ovate or orbicular.—simple or once ternate.—petals O. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. anthelmintic. fatigue . Ranjai. white. Nimbu. K. Limbe. L. relieves biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. H. See—Fruit Trees. hairy outside. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Snuva. Lebu. Fl. COM.—achenes. burning in the chest. :—An extensive climber. blades 2-2. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. but often found trailing amongst grass. Morata. it helps digestion. ovoid. Kagadi limbu. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Shodhana. Moravel. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. scarletina. sepals 4-6. CHAR. Oil from rind.. Limbu. Fruit—sour. plethora. Madhulika. lobes mucronate.5 cm. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Acid-Sour lime . it cures and prevents scurvy. not good in old age. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. leaves (rarely). M. with long feathery tails . stimulant . . cures abodominal complaints. Sk. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . bronchitis . removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Sk. G. eyes . H. also useful in rheumatism. Khatalimbu. Acida. constipation. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Rochana. Lebu. measles. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. Nimbu. :—E. whole plant tomentose. silky villous. LOC. vomiting. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Murva. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. t. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Limpaka. Fr. Nimbe. C. improves liver. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Nebu. :—G.Nov. where there is dry skin and much thirst. NS. Morhari. VAR. stomachic. Nimbuka. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth.—Sept. K. hemicrania. Murhari. appetiser.
high. tapering towards both ends . in lax racemes. FAM. DISTR. Karnasphota. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. Fl.—brownish black. blood diseases. anthelmintic. laxative. Brahmani. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. NS. :—Common in grass lands. leaflets elliptic-oblong. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. causes excessive biliousness. t. reduces tumours and inflammations . bitter. stimulates secretion of bile. very common in the Deccan. M. astringent. :—W. Kanphutia. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. obliquely striate. Barbara. Talvari. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Tilwan. subglobose. hairy. Fl. Kiritekki. :—G. gradually becoming shorter upwards. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. useful in leprosy. L. Jangali-harhar. Vatari. COM. K. Adityabhakta. Phanjika. erect. Juice— cures ear-ache. :—Throughout the tropics of the world.—3-5 foliate. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. veined. Nayibela. transversely striate.—petals 4. and fevers. externally applied to boils. Harhuria. Bharang. Tilparni. cooling. :—G. laxative.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT.—capsule. .—Capparidaceæ. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. hairy. Ghats. COM. Gantubarangi. K. stomachic. terminal the largest. oblong-obovate. stems grooved and glandular. HABIT :—A common weed. Sk. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn.—Verbenaceæ. Bharangi. Kanphodi. Kasaghni. used internally in thirst. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. removes " Kapha". dryness and urethral discharges. mixed with oil. Tinmani. Konkan. H. and dispel intestinal fermentation.—Sept-June. good in malaria. petioles of lower leaves longer. LOC. M. stimulant. CHAR. LOC. NS. :—Annual erect herb. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Sauri. C.—axillary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. Bharangi. 30-90 cm. Leaves—favour digestion. Hulhul. diuretic. Fr. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. yellow. Sd. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. H. bitter taste and a strong odour. hot. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. Bharangi. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. LOC. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). DISTR.
—much exerted. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. tumours. in lax dichotomous cymes. stems bluntly quadrangular. hairy. C. anthelmintic.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. solitary. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. sometimes opposite. with an orange centre. heating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. the larger lower lobe dark purple. Garani.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). consumption. hiccup. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . FAM. standard bright blue or white. anthelmintic. smooth. "Vata".5-15 X 5. ulcers of the cornea. obovoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling.. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. inflammations. wounds (Ayurveda). Sk. Fl. :—G. COM. NS. K. inflammations. burning sensation.2 cm. fleshy. There are two varieties :—white flowered. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. Kalina. tonic to the brain. burning sensation..-Oct.—imparipinnate. L. long . leucoderma. :—A perennial twining herb. Aparajita. ulcers (Ayurveda). CHAR. t.— drupe. Root is purgative and diuretic. Fr. DISTR. 4 lobes flat. Vishnukranta.—axillary. also found throughout the State. L. flat. . PARTS USED :—Root. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. Girikarniballi. fevers. Malay Peninsula. high. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. Fl. stems terete. laxative. LOC. Fl. Kowa.7-6. t— June-Jany.—ternately whorled. 12.—pale blue. Gokarnika. biliousness. Aparajita.2 m. leaves and seeds. pains. and blue flowered. H. Root increases appetite. oblong or elliptic.3 cm. alexiteric. The plant contains an alkaloid. beaked. 0. showy. elliptic oblong. PARTS USED :—Root. Kajli. Koyala. lower one deflexed. sharply serrate. tube hairy within. useful in bronchitis. cures "Tridosha". M. tuberculous glands. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. Sd.—6-10 yellowish brown. Ceylon. acrid. leaves and seeds. DISTR. Fl. bronchitis. collectively forming a terminal panicle. headache. good for eye-diseases.. epilepsy. leaflets 5-7. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. blood diseases. lessens expectoration.:—More or less throughout India..—Shrub. spreading.8-5 cm. Wowatheti.— Aug. asthma. useful in inflammation.9-2. asthma. nearly straight. Fr. pubescent.—many. Gokarni. elephantiasis. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. HABITAT :—In hedges. fevers (Yunani). LOC. diuretic. LOC. black.5 X 2-3. Girikarnika. C. 2-2. stomachic. useful in ascites (Yunani). tubercular glands. ozœna.
Parvel. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). useful in ascites and fevers. M. H. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. PARTS USED :—Root. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Garudi. Seeds are purgative and aperient.—Cucurbitaceæ. & A. Tundika. cures leprosy. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. See—Vegetables. asthma. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Malaya. Chireta. Sk. Tana. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Flowers cure itching. Tundi. Konkan. LOC.—Menispermaceæ. dried and powdered. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). DISTR :—Throughout India. Hunder. FAM. Ghobe. Gujarat. USES:—In the Konkan. Bimbika.—E. tropical Africa. leaves. NS. flowers. cause flatulence. Bimb. . antipyretic . Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. burning of hands and feet. LOC. K.:—Root cooling. Kambhoja. M. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. M. wild in hedges. galactagogue. Broom-creeper. Dirghvalli. Ceylon. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. Vasanvel. stops vomiting. COM. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Oshthi. and jaundice. Tondeballi. Bimbi. Leaves—acrid. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Deccan. Glum. Vasandi. The plant contains an enzyme.:—Cultivated in gardens. astringent to bowels. S. Vevdi. diseases of blood. Galedu. H. Faridburti. Bimba. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. " Vata". Kanduri. Jamtikibel. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. G. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Fruit— indigestible. a hormone and an alkaloid. Sk. Root bark. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Country. biliousness. Vevati. Ink-berry. COM. given for uterine discharges. Vasantitikta. aphrodisiac.) FAM. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Tondali. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. HABITAT. allays thirst. consumption. fruit. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). :—G. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). urinary losses. COCCINIA INDICA W.
H. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. Leaf-juice.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. K. Tenginmara. as a cure for gonorrhœa. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. Seed-cooling. it is used for coughs. aphrodisiac. and put on to sore-eyelids. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Kanara. NS. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Antipyretic.3-3.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. bronchitis. COM. Naral. biliousness. In the Konkan. DISTR. 3-5 nerved. LOC. smells sweetish and pungent.—dioecious. alexipharmic .—Dec. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". HABITAT :—In hedges. young parts densely Villous. FAM. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. male in small axillary cymose panicles. laxative. Cocoanut palm. Sk. tumours. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. also in many places in the interior. Deccan. rugose . tropical Africa.—drupe.—3. Fl.8 cm. Mad. Konkan. Gujarat. seed. enriches blood. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Jataphala. Common in Konkan and N. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. 2-8 together. G. Narial.:— A straggling scandent shrub. causes "Kapha". urinary discharges. female in axillary clusters. useful in diabetes. oleaginous. Mahaphala. cardiotonic. useful in biliousness. good in fractures. burning sensation.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Mangalya. lessens thirst..—Palmæ. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. laxative. fattening. ovate-oblong. villous . India. mixed with water. lessens bile and burning sensation. :—E. Tengu.3 X 1. indigestible. DISTR. Narikel. LOC. It is also used as a refrigerant. M. China. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). appetiser. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. tonic. useful in leprosy. Nariyal. fattening.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. Pegu. it is heating. Arabia. dysentery. with a few heads of pepper. Fr. keeled. Fl. subdeltoid or subhastate. which is taken internally with sugar. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). flowers. Flower-cooling . t. "Kapha" and "Vata". LOC. ovate. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. India and Ceylon. blood diseases. bark. L. constipation. S. Milk—cooling. oil. aphrodisiac. Nalivar. Toyagarbha. laxative and sudorific. fermented juice. S. thirst. . tuberculosis. size of a small pea.8-6. aphrodisiac. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn.
long. it promotes growth of hair. Bengal.5-5 cm. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. fermented juice is intoxicating. smooth. Gojivha. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Kasai. asthma. See—Fruit Trees. consumption. diuretic . LOC. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. Oils.6-10 mm. Sk. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. above the bract stout. liver complaints. Oil—sweet. sheaths long.—10-15 x 2. it also purifies blood. t. long. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A.5-6. tonic. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. :—Himalayas. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). abundant in standing water. LOC. promotes hairgrowth. rachis within the bract slender. M. It is refreshing and laxative. FAM. incipient phthisis and cachexia. L. piles and scabies (Yunani. Fibres. increases body weight. Gavedhu. Jargadi. lessens inflammations . America. Madhya Pradesh. Fl. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. fattening. Rajputana. It is also used for burns. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. polished. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. Oil—indigestible. stem 90-150 cm. useful in lumbar-pain. smooth. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. Madhya Bharat. CHAR. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. Job's tears. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility.—Oct. Japan. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy.—monœcious racemes 2. B and C. polished. high or more. paralysis. India. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. ulcers (Ayurveda). notched at the nodes .72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. G. 6. strengthening and agreeable vegetable.—Gramineæ COM.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). NS. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. S. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). midrib stout. DISTR. Dabha. useful in fever. HABITAT :—Gregarious.—broadly ovoid to globose. diuretic. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. :—A tall leafy grass.3 cm. internodes smooth. piles . spinously serrate margins. Fl. Malaya. LOC. useful in urinary complaints. Gurlu . stout. Ran-jondhala. China. enriches blood.. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Polynesia. base cordate. tropical Asia-Africa. H. bronchitis. rooting at the lower nodes. Assam. bluish grey. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness .
G. wedgeshaped. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Fr. brown. L. NS. serrate. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. Jute . lysin. t. lanceolate. LOC. COM. Chaunchan . M. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. :—An annual herb. Bhuselu. Sk. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. stomachic. Gondan. See—Fodder Plants. K. Bhukerbudara. Challa. yellow. tyrosin.—7.:—E. Fl. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China.— Sept.5-10 X 2-3. buds obovoid. histidin. smooth. In jutegrowing districts. anthelmintic. 5-valved. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. :—Konkan. FAM. also efficacious in skin-diseases. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. See—Fibres.2 cm. DISTR. Rayagundo. Bargund. also as antiperiodic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. Col. Gujarat. cultivated in most tropical countries. C. H. COM. acute or acuminate. Kalasaka. and dyspepsia. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. CHAR. carminative. Hadige. Sk. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. .— capsule. Resalla. It is also used as a bitter tonic. The plant contains leucin. Sd.—Tiliaceæ. FAM. leaves and fruit. astringent. Mannadike. laxative. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Bhokar. M.—in short cymes. Lassora. Chhunchh . Bhokar.—few in each cell. NS. diam. Pistan. subglobose. fever. 12 mm.—Boraginaceæ. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . not beaked. arginine and coicin. Patta. and intestinal antiseptic.—petals 4-5. PARTS USED :—Root. ridged and muricated. growing very tall under cultivation. Sebesten plum. G. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. :—E.
eye-pains. carminative and antispasmodic. indigestion. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. cooling. Fruits are used as spice. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). causes suppuration. Satpudas. diseases of chest and urethra. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. The plant and fruit— acrid. jaundice. uterus and urethra. vomiting. Egypt. biliousness. often planted. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. heart and liver.—Umbelliferæ. stomatitis. Konphir. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. expectorant. Syria. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. diseases of chest.:—E. used as an expectorant and astringent. :—Throughout India. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. tonic to brain. bleeding gums. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Seeds—aphrodisiac. bechic. vulnerary. stimulant.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. analgesic. DISTR. antipyretic. K. gleet. NS. stimulant. Ghats. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. stomachic. Kustumburi. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. useful in hiccup. gives appetite. Ceylon. LOC. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. tooth-ache. purgative. Fruit—diuretic. thirst. M. widely known from Palestine. Hivija.:—Throughout the State in W. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. burning of throat. H. PARTS USED :—Bark. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). lessens thirst and scalding of urine. headache. biliousness. Coriander. aphrodisiac. used in syphilis. biliousness. also cultivated. . Mesapotamia and Greece. Sk. wild and cultivated. anthelmintic. Fruit is aromatic. LOC. Dharika. bronchitis. Leaves—hypnotic. chronic fevers. Dhania. piles. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). inflammations. removes bad humours. maturant. dyspepsia. LOC. pains in joints. cures thirst. tuberculous glands. used in dry cough. Cochin-China. Kothambri. highly esteemed in coughs. Fibres. DISTR. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Kanara. diuretic. Vitunnaka. :—Cultivated throughout India. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. Kothamir. tropical Australia. LOC. Kothimbir. FAM. laxative. G. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Allaka. prevents coryza and bronchitis. scabies. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. COM.
seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Castle Rock. Fr. concave. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. M. :—G. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). t. H. spirally arranged.— in very dense spikes. COM.:—Konkan ghats. Changalkashta. CHAR. mucronate. Sd. India. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers.—15-30 X 5. and " Vata".7-7. Vayavarno. red. " Kapha". Barna. M. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . coughs and skin diseases. oblong. Penva. S. Shura. lumbago. PARTS USED:—Root. globosely 3-gonous. Varno. and aphrodisiac.— tube short. Madhya Bharat. rheumatism.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Nervele. LOC. Kashmira.—capsule. depurative. Malay Islands. useful in catarrhal fevers. subequal.—Capparidaceæ. LOC. DISTR. Hadawarna. dyspepsia.— black with white aril. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham.—Scitamineæ. C. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. FAM. K. Fl. bright red. Kushtha. L. Chikke. Varuna. anæmia. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Biliana. fever. lobes ovate-oblong. Pushkarmula. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Keu.2-2. S. a tonic is prepared from it. China. root-stock tuberous. :—G. :—An erect plant 1. Var. silky-pubescent beneath. See—Condiments and Spices. in moist and shady places. Bitusi. Var. Pushkarmula. Mahakapittha.5 cm. also planted near Muslim tombs. M. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. The plant yields an essential oil. NS. Varvunna. H. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Ajapa. COM. NS. Ceylon. Fl. Kust. Pinga. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Vayavarna. . Kemuka.—Aug. By the earliest writers. Bilpatri. Sk. Karikuttu. inflammations. FAM. Sk. K. useful in bronchitis. many. :—More or less throughout India. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. DISTR. subsessile. Varuna. crisped. Kumaraka. high. bracts ovate. sheaths coriaceous . Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Khandala. Pakarmula. lip white with yellow centre. nalas. hiccup (Ayurveda).7 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Country. LOC. It is also astringent and digestive. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places.-Oct. stem sub-woody at the base .
Vishamungalli. urinary discharges. linear lanceolate.—subglobose. L. diseases of vagina. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). heating. Ceylon. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. toothache. Tonic.5 cm. linear. bulb 5-10 cm. detergent. as long as the tube. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. antilithic. anthelmintic.5-18 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated. found wild in North and South Konkan. Nag-damani. fragrant at night. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. X 12. Nagadown. Nag-damani. Kanda-shalini. cylindric. antipyretic.—20-30. chest and blood diseases. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. thin. Visha-Mandalamardini. strangury. flowers and fruits. long. . bright green. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. with a sheathing base.5-10 cm. then sweet. carminative.—Amaryllidaceæ. tumours. Pindar. bitter. it promotes appetite. and seeds. increases secretion of bile. stomachic. useful in biliousness. night-blindness. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. LOC. act as rubefacient and vesicant. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. tuberculous glands. white. "Pitta" and "Kapha". diam. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. 0. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. Kanmu. CHAR. vulnerary. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. beaked. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. also wild. Wild or cultivated. anuria. aphrodisiac. Bark promotes appetite. bark.—1 (rarely 2).. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout tropical India. NS. vesicant. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. Fl. Patra-pushpi. Sd. vomiting. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. expectorant. scape 45-90 cm. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). laxative. Seeds—purgative. lumbago. Kanwal. laxative. diuretic. flat. Nagdavana. lobes 6. COM. gonorrhœa. expectorant. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). digestive. defective vision. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. LOC. Chindar. H. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. M.9-1. useful in bronchitis. leaves. leaves. Fr. perianth tube greenish-white.. FAM. The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers. USES:—Root is alterative. bechic. urinary concretions. Sk.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.—15-50 in an umbel. lung and spleen diseases. anthelmintic. DISTR. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . good in strangury. bracts 7. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn.:—G. K. chest. emmenagogue. removes "Vata". In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism.
leaves and seeds. Assam to Malacca. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes.—Euphorbiaceæ. fever. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. emetic. Bhutankusam. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. G. :—E. As an application to sprains. COM. cathartic. it is in great request. Nepala . useful in mental troubles. :—Bengal. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. The plant contains lycorin. NS. Oil from the seed is purgative. bark. :—H. :—Naturalised in S. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Kanara. tonic. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. Japala. Ieucoderma. good in sore eyes. See—Timbers. Seeds cause burning sensation. Konkan.. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. carminative. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nepala. Burma. China. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. convulsions. FAM. nauseant and diaphoretic. Western Peninsula. Seeds contain an alkaloid. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Jamalgota . CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. NS. H. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Malay Islands. abdominal diseases. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. etc. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N.—Euphorbiaceæ. Danti. in small doses. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. LOC. excessive phlegm. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). Chucka . naturalised or cultivated. Ceylon . Danti. Chota-Natpur. Ganasur. :—Rare in the State. Purging croton . :—Sylhet. Ceylon. Nepal. inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. COM. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. insanity. M. expectorant. Oil cathartic. Madhya Pradesh. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. DISTR. Jamalgota. LOC. . Sk. Jepal. Bengal. K. Jayapala. M.
urinary discharges. It is given internally with great caution. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). LOC. used in liver and kidney troubles. . HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. They are edible. Lomashi. ascites. Kharbuja. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Fruit—tonic. MELO Var. K. Karkati. cures ophthalmia. Ripe fruit—sweet. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. insanity. chronic fever. LOC. synovitis. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. LOC. Mutrala. Valungi. biliousness. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. H. C. Sweet melon . M. fruit and seeds. bronchitis. nutritive and diuretic. thirst (Yunani). diuretic. NS. Karkali. Shadrekha. Sk. Shantanu. convulsions. diaphoretic. allays fatigue. galactagogue. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. may cause indigestion. COM. Sk. Kakni. Chibdu Shakarteti. strengthens heart. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kakadi. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Kachra. Valaka. G. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. DISTR. Melon. NS. cooling. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. oily. Kankadi. laxative. COM. brain and body. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. :—In Deccan. ascites. Pathira . Tarkakadi. Rind—vulnerary. wholesome. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Kalangida. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. :—G. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. M. laxative. It is useful in apoplexy. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. fattening. obstinate constipation. insanity. FAM. aphrodisiac. Seeds—lachrymatory. in ascites and anasarca. Mahanaracha Rasa. Kharbuja. dropsy. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. tonic. cures " Vata ". applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. &c. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. and lock-jaw. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. diuretic. gives headache. Vrittervaru. Said to be truly wild in India. PARTS USED :—Root.:—E. See—Timbers. H. Kharbuja. colic. DISTR. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Chibuda. Kakri.
stomachic. LOC. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Khira. Hislambhi. Yunani). Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). FAM. Tansali. male in clusters. enrich blood. cordate at the base. Cultivated in all parts of India. cures biliousness. COM. India is considered to be the original home. M. M. Sk. good for brain and body. cooling. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Ripe one tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stem slender. "Kapha" and flatulence. L. LOC. tendrils simple. Seed oil used in fever. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. used in thirst. Fl.:—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. dry. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. G. diuretic. See-Fruit Trees. and C. allay thirst. Mrigadani. NS. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. COM. Kakari. PARTS USED :—Leaves. angled. cures thirst. melo var. Takamaki. seeds. purgative.—monœcious . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. Chitravalli. causes "Vata". H. Karit. Santekayi. Sushitala. astringent. Kumbhakshi. See—Vegetables. Vishala. female peduncle longer than male. Sd. are administered in throat affections. margined . lobes obovate. Trapusha. pale yellow when ripe. Kakdi.—white. Fruit—fattening . t.—subglobose or ellipsoid. pulp bitter. Khira. . improve complexion.— suborbicular. C. :—G. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Fl. H. with 10 green longitudinal stripes.—Cucurbitaceæ. K. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. Seeds possess cooling properties. utilissimus (Ayurveda.—June-Sept. CHAR. strangury. fruits. :—A perennial climber.:—N. Kothiban. DISTR. B. They are nutritive. indigestible. Sk. lobulate or dentate . biliousness.—yellow segments elliptic.—Cucurbitaceæ. fever. hairy. they are also used as diuretic. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Seeds—diuretic. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. roasted and powdered. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. rigid. Cucumber. Tavasa. Sudhavsa. Kankdi. FAM. LOC. antipyretic. Fr. fatigue. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). NS.
DISTR. Koron. fruit is used to prevent insanity. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Tambda bhopala. USES. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. indigestible. allays thirst. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. Ceylon. stomachic. Kaddu. Karkarn. unhealthy ulcers. . Kushmand.:—Considered to be a native of America. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated. improves taste (Ayurveda). etc. carbuncles.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. See—Vegetables. Red squash gourd. Pitakushmand. Pumpkin.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. M. Iran. Sk. :—Throughout the greater part of India.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. Kadimah. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Kushmand. cures cough. Kumbala. Seeds are used as taeniacide. B and C. Fruit contains vitamins A. : — E. HABITAT. G. K. LOC. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. PARTS USED :—Root. increases " Vata ". The plant contains glucoside saponin. LOC. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Kashiphala. LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Cultivated. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Melon pumpkin. Dangari.—Cucurbitaceæ. Mithakaddu. Safedkaddu . Kumra. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. N. NS. Dried fruit indigestible . Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Vegetable marrow. K. FAM. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Malaya. Punyalata. astringent to bowels . :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Bhopala. COM. Kumbala. :—E. tonic. COM. cultivated in many parts of India. LOC. Sk. FAM . NS. Afghanistan. Dudia. increases " Vata" . fruits and seeds. Australia. M. In Malabar. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. H. on hedges. G. LOC.
COM. laxative. increases appetite . Gaurajerka. scabies. leucoderma. fever. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. :—G. ft contains vitamins A and C. aphrodisiac. Neladati. . DISTR. LOC. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). also a lactagogue. bronchitis. FAM. Girautmi. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. asthma. LOC. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Seeds—diuretic. remove biliousness. allays thirst. diuretic and demulcent. K. stops epistaxis . COM. ulcers. good for teeth. fruit and seeds. fever. NS. Fruit astringent. tonic to intestine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. uterine stimulant. Jirige. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. cures leprosy. fatigue.—Umbelliferæ. inflammations. enlargment of the spleen. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn.—Amaryllidaceæ. Zira. heals corneal opacities. M. eye-diseases. gonorrhœa. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Cures " Vata " tumours. G. LOC. NS. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. emmenagogue. antipyretic. antidysenteric. cooling. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. H. K. Kalimusali. Jiru. M. Talamulika. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. belching . :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. carminative. cure haemoptysis. sweet. relieves hiccup. See—Vegetables. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). Kalimusali. FAM. H. Sk. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Seeds anthelmintic. cures haemoptysis. Seeds are taeniacide. tonic. :—E. haematinic. Leaves—digestible. Kapha " and " Vata ". astringent to bowels. appetiser. Cumin. carminative. Jire. tonic. and the root for making these more potent. throat and eyes. purifies blood (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. thirst. Kalimusali. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. anthelmintic. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. biliousness. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. astringent. fattening. Mushalikand . Neltati gadde. Dirghaka. Fruit yields an essential oil. carminative. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Sk. stomachic. Ajjika. Musali. Jira. beneficial in consumption. analgesic. leprosy. abortifacient. astringent to bowels. Dipaka. Fruit—very cooling. vulnerary. See—Condiments and Spices.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves.
biliousness.5-15 X 3. antipyretic. Bitter. L. .:—W. oblong lanceolate. colic.:—Sweet. oblong. appetising. " Vata". G. Bengal.8-5 cm. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Amhaladi.— May-June. lumbago. Peninsula.3-2. Ambehalad. shining .5 cm. debility and impotence. useful in inflammations. Kapurahaldi. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. expectorant. scabies. with a beak . FAM.5 cm. aphrodisiac. jaundice. sessile. pale yellow inside . :—Konkan and N. gleet. bitter. appetiser. all skin-diseases. L. during convalescence after acute illness. Sd. perianth segments elliptic. useful in biliousness. tubers thick. cooling. hairy on the back. t. yellow. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. DISTR.5-12. Peninsula. Fl. pains in joints (Yunani). Java. ophthalmia. Karpuraharidra.—long petioled in tufts. clavate . black. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. NS. LOC. emollient. bronchitis. cylindric or ellipsoid. oblong. antipyretic.—capsule. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. gonorrhœa.— in racemes. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. diarrhœa. K. scape. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. Fr.—sessile or petiolate. diuretic. Fl.—Scitamineæ. Mango-ginger. C—white or very pale-yellow. alterative and tonic. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . useful in piles.—grooved. useful in bronchitis. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. causes "Vata". 30-45x7. :—Konkan and Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Root. appetiser. linear or linear-lanceolate . W. indigestion. ulcers on penis. :—Stemless herb. COM. Fl. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. LOC.— in autumnal spikes 7. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . hydrophobia. fattening. lumbago. distichous. Malay Archipelago. diarrhœa. DISTR. 1545 X 1. maturant. stomatitis (Yunani). Ambahaladara. LOC. root stock large. :—E. inflammations (Ayurveda). roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. Kanara. rhizome.. vomiting. laxative. M. piles. CHAR. H.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. aphrodisiac. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. very short. gleet. t. Sk. fatigue. :—Bengal. flowering bract greenish-white. :—A small herb. Fl. alterative. gonorrhœa. Root—carminative. hiccup. asthma. often cultivated. tonic. common at the beginning of rains.-Sept. Ambahaldi. tips sometimes rooting. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. Amragandha. troubles in the mouth and ear.
sessile. Sholi. LOC. long. appetiser . base deltoid. DISTR. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. 3lobed. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. variegated above. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. Fl. Sometimes cultivated. C. :—Stemless herb. FAM. Indian saffron. Aranyaharidra. Sk. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Halad. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. annulate. Bengal.—Scitamineæ. Also cultivated in Konkan. Varnadatri. It is considered tonic and carminative. Harita.— flowering stem sheathed. Vanhaldara. forming pouches for the flowers. lip yellow. :—E. Vanarishta. Fl. . PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Haridra. LOC. :—Western Peninsula. Kapur-kachali. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. H.—tube 2. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. G. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. Arishina. L. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . M.-May. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. K.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Halada. upper half funnel-shaped. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. it is seldom used alone . rounded at the tips. Sk. Jayanti. root-stock large. NS. appearing before leafing stem. Mangalya. tubers yellow and aromatic inside.. palmately branched. in spikes 15-30 cm. lateral lobes oblong. green. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). biennial. NS. :—E. Turmeric. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. FAM. used as an application for skin-diseases. Sholika. M. PARTS USED :—Tubers. sometimes cultivated. Banharidra. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Yellow Zedoary. Ran-halad. also stomachic. G. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. pale green.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. the dorsal longer.5 cm. LOC. flowering bracts cymbiform. H. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. long. Banhaladi. CHAR. See—Condiments and Spices. t. DISTR. COM.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. Halad. flowers fragrant. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb.—Scitamineæ. COM. lobes pale-rose.
sprains (Ayurveda). turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. bruises. inflammations.—funnel shaped. emollient. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. blood diseases. oblong-lanceolate. CHAR. The plant contains curcumin. itches etc. anthelmintic. good for liver affections. Kachari. deepyellow. used in prurigo. carminative. Shathi. C. H. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. urinary discharges. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. Gandhamulaka sara. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in " Kapha". boils and urticaria. piles. laxative. taste bitterish spicy. improves complexion. root-stock of palmately branched. clothed with sheaths. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. See—Condiments and Spices. lobed . vulnerary. Bitter. appetiser. Sk. externally applied to leech-bites. appearing before the leaves. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. L. alexiteric.:—E.—Scitamineæ. M. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. cylindric. diuretic. K. It contains vitamin A. scabies. bitter. Narakachora.— flowering stem 20-25cm. COM. . clouded with purple down the middle. pale-yellow inside. oblong. Kachora. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. anthelmintic. flowering bract green tinged with red . annulate tubers. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. tonic. coma-bract crimson or purple . Jatala. jaundice. internally administered in blood disorders. Hakhir. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. vulnerary. alexiteric. heating. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. scabies. In coryza. leucoderma. long. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . odour like camphor. Kachora. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. :—Stemless herb. useful in leucoderma. Zedoary. Himalayas and Chittagong. Kachuri. 3-gonous. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. urinary discharges. said to be Wild in E. Fl. flowers yellow in spikes. bronchitis. bitter. LOC. maturant. an alkaloid.—capsule.—4-6 with long petioles. :—Cultivated in the State. DISTR. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. asthma. boils. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. bruises. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. and yields an essential oil. fragrant. NS. "Vata ". mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. In small-pox and chicken-pox. antipyretic. Karechura. fumes are used during hysteric fits . Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . 30-60 cm. LOC. lip 3-lobed. long. FAM . small-pox. G. destroys foulness of breath.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. heating. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. bruises (Yunani). swellings. Tuber is used as a stimulant. Fr.
Sk. LOC. midrib whitish on the upper side. emetic. H. it is also a good application for ringworm. nodding. velvety at the nodes. Putigandha. carminative. of much use in typhoid fevers. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. Purhati hullu. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Ligule very short. sharp. neuralgia. good odour. alexipharmic. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state.:—E. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. sheaths terete . throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. and other painful affections. bitter. K. aphrodisiac. others narrow and separating. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. M. Lemon grass. and is of great value in cholera. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. chronic rheumatism. expectorant. emmenagogue. furunculosis. COM. also used as a tonic and depurative. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). gastric irritability. sheaths of the culm tight. tonic to brain and heart. laxative. epileptic fits. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. sharp hot taste. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. sprains. Bhustrina. erect. NS. LOC. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). CHAR. Gavati-chaha. It is an excellent stomachic to children. . appetiser. Bitter. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. It is also aromatic. G. pains. long. L. stimulant and carminative. Externally it is rubefacient. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. Gandhatrina. inflammations.—Gramineæ. long. probably of Indian origin. leprosy. laxative. up to over 1. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. FAM. it is stimulant. enlargement of spleen. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy.8 m. DISTR. Tubers yield an essential oil. glaucous green. :—A tall perennial. carminative. Lilicha. high. useful in griping of children. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Takratrina. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. Majjige hullu. useful in bronchitis. LOC. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. upto over 90 cm. hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. tuberculous glands of neck. alexipharmic. culm stout. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.—linear tapering upwards to a point. applied to bruises and sprains.. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. toothache (Yunani).
thirst.—Gramineæ. K. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. K. G. long. COM. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. fatigue. green or purplish.—2-10 cm. Shatamula. :—A perennial grass . long. CHAR. Konkan.—grain.. Burma. :—Punjab. high.5-5 cm. sheaths tight.000 m.5-2. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. forming matted tufts.—Gramineæ. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Gujarat. W. :—E. heart diseases. H. Fl. L. narrowly linear. Afghanistan. M. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. scabies. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. Fl. Sk. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. 1 mm. Roshdo. Kobbar. Durva. prostrate . FAM. See-Oils. 1. through N.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. Gharo. Country. DISTR. X 1 cm. throughout India. finely acute. with erect flowering branches 7. Fr. M. Sk. epileptic fits.—spikes 2-nate. widely creeping. Mirchiagand. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. long. Durba. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. particularly the Deccan trap areas. FAM. high. leprosy. Rhusghas. t. soft. glaucous beneath.—throughout the year. wide below. Bahuvirya. Africa to Morocco. margins scabrid. pains.—flat. COM. Dhoboghas. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. G. Shatagranthi. Baluchistan. most warm countries. LOC. Ghats. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. 12-18 mm. smooth. LOC. Harali. S. Vasanchullu. Shyamaka. subcordate or rounded at the base.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Saugandhika.t. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. Roshagavat. sweet. upto 2. :—Sourashtra.4 m.5-30 cm. NS. Garikehallu. throat troubles.—Oct. Rohisha. slender. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. vomiting. Fl. useful in biliousness. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. Dhro. Fl. burning sensation. straw coloured. bad taste in the mouth. useful in fevers. carminative. Mangala. Deccan. in the Himalayas. CHAR. DISTR. skin . long. Sind. stem. and Ceylon ascending to 3. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. usually broad. M. cooling. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). NS. :—Cosmopolitan . L. Durva. hallucinations.:—Grows all over the State. oblique or divaricate.3 cm. Bhutika. stem. H. Geramium grass. leafy. bitter. :—E. leprosy. pungent. bronchitis. LOC.-Nov. Bujina. Rohisha.
A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. See—Fodder Plants. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. Koranarigadde. fevers. narrowly linear. greyish black. M. epistaxis (Ayurveda). DISTR. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. astringent. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . LOC. fever. Mustaka. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. stomatitis. Bimbal. Tungegaddo. LOC. very troublesome weed. epilepsy and insanity. K. diarrhœa. Kachhola. Root— diuretic. Ceylon. erysipelas (Ayurveda). . used as a diaphoretic and astringent. spikelets 10-50 flowered. erysipelas. Tubers yield an essential oil. stomachic. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. trigonous. LOC. t. bruises. Sugandhi-granthila. NS. :—G. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. Mutha. CHAR. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. useful in vomiting. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. dysentery..—Sept-Nov. ophthalmia. appetiser. :—Throughout India. cooling.—Cyperaceæ. pain. it is diuretic. Fl. diaphoretic.—shorter or longer than the stem. Nut—broadly ovoid. useful for ulcers and sores. anthelmintic. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. pruritis. dysentery. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. hiccup (Yunani). urinary concretions (Yunani).82. most hot countries.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. difficult to eradicate. They are also diuretic and stimulant. thirst. burning sensation. COM. Fl. epilepsy. Nagarmotha. fever. juice is used in hysteria. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. PARTS USED :—Tubers. diarrhœa. useful in leprosy. Bitterish. Granthi. blood diseases. anthelmintic.— in simple or compound umbel. epistaxis. Motha. acrid. USES :—Roots are commonly. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. :—Glabrous herb. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. biliousness. vulnerary. dyspepsia. FAM. Sk Bhadramusta. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. vomiting. L. blood diseases. H. stolons elongate. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. biliousness. 0. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. Motha. expectorant. emmenagogue. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. vulnerary. In Ceylon.. Motha.
.—Aug. NS.—follicle. Kanaka.:—E. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. Fl. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain).2 cm. solitary. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions.5-15 X 3. LOC.—thin. glabrous above. diam. :—A perennial twining herb. a glucoside. Ns. green. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals.—Solanaceæ. 18 cm. Fr. Fl. LOC. FAM. K: Dhattura. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. spur acute. t. Sk. soft spiny.—Asclepiadaceæ. packed. Kaladhatura. usually pubescent. inner curved high over the staminal column.g. and sub-involution of the uterus. Rajdhattura. acute. Phalakantak. ovate. M. 30-60 cm. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. white inside.—purple outside. beak long. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. paralytic ileus. H. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Black-Purple datura. :—Annual shrub. Fl. subglobose. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. COM. L. has been isolated and its mode of action studied.—Sept-Dec. Kariyu-Um-Matta. reflexed. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also.—capsule.5 cm.. tubular. M. corona outer and inner. t. C. CHAR. ciliate. CHAR. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. M. Ceylon. Sk. :—Deccan. G. covered with straight sharp prickles. Unmatta. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Sd. Utran. greenish-yellow or dull-white. very unequal at the base. HABIT :—A common weed. Kala-dhotara.-Jany. double. Gujarat. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. long. yellowish brown. COM. afterwards racemose. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. entire or with large teeth or lobes. on curved stalk 3. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". Fl. Country. nodding.— tubular. long 10-20. Kanaka. Bhranta.—many. Fr. divaricately branched. outer truncate.5 cm. stem hairy. DISTR. Sd. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . Kaladhatura.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. FAM. high. e. across.2-7. velvety pubescent beneath. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. S. Utarni. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. Administered after the third stage of labour. somewhat zigzag. lobes spreading. funnel-shapped.—7. :—H.
black (Kala) and white (Safed). Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes.. Leaf-juice is given internally. Gajar. tonic. G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves and seeds. majum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. jaundice. febrifuge. K. H. Leaf poultice. black variety is considered to be more powerful. (Ayurveda). LOC. anodyne. with curdled milk. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. skin-diseases. Gajar. The whole plant is narcotic. Gajar. toxic. USES :—Out of the two varieties. M. to increase their stupefying effect. emetic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. bitter. GranthiPinda-Mula. biliousness. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. equal in effect to atropine. Shikkikanda. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Root. Garjara. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. NS. nodes. ulcers. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. and antispasmodic properties. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. FAM. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. emetic. toddy. painful tumours. DISTR. bronchitis. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. digestive and heating. . :—E. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. LOC. febrifuge. cause headache (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Roots. mumps etc. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. nosetrouble. heating. chronic coughs. Cultivated in many parts of India. Gajra. Gajjari. Seeds—narcotic. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. leaves and seeds. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. Sk. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. Europe. :—Throughout the tropics. enlargement of testicles and boils. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. piles. ganja. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. Carrot. useful in leucoderma.—Umbelliferæ COM. anthelmintic. relieves pain. in gonorrhœa. The plant as a whole has narcotic. aphrodisiac. in combination with subja. headache. anthelminitic .
thirst. H. inflammations. thirst. removes " Kapha". " Tridosha ". cough. indigestible. vomiting and asthma. bronchitis. " Vata". DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. cures typhoid. chest troubles. useful in chronic fevers. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. :— G.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. stomachic. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. M.—onefoliate. LOC.—in terminal or axillary racemes. prevents death of fœtus in womb . aphrodisiac. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). Salwan. Fr. Kitavinashini. fattening. 0. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Roots contain vitamins A. :—A woody undershrub. LOC. Murele-honne.—May-July. Darh. NS. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . sub-falcate. cures biliousness. China. Ranbhal. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. pains. See—Vegetables. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. astringent to bowels. C—violet or white. they produce a spirituous liquor.6-1. FAM. Salwan. carminative. upper edge straight. urinary discharges. asthma. alexipharmic. It is used in fevers. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. biliousness. diuretic. alterative. Salpani. urinary complaints. good for inflammation. vomiting. Shaliparni. USES :—Externally. stems and branches angled. Tonic. COM. Dirghamula. anthelmintic. tropical Africa. Country. vomiting. piles. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Fl. high. good for liver. used in bronchitis. Salpan. burning sensation. Vidarigandha. membranous. chronic affections of chest and lungs. Kanara . piles.—pod. hairy. margins wavy. boiled with honey and fermented. B and C. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). Malay Peninsula and Islands . K. cures leprosy. hooked hairy. Deccan and S. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Sk.2 m. other fevers. aphrodisiac. green and glabrous above. Root marmalade is refrigerant. antidysenteric. ovate-oblong. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. Burma. standard cuneate at the base . . dysentery . they are also diuretic. tonic. M. L. paler and hairy beneath. DISTR. asthma. biliousness.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. throughout India. tumours. Salwan. cardiotonic. expectorant. Philippines. CHAR. :—Konkan and N.. hiccup. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. Salparni. Fl. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. nausea (Yunani). Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. joints 6-8. t. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. astringent to bowels.
H. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. vesical calculi. Pavitra. Timbwini. H. oleaginous. asthma. Gale. Malay Archipelago. thirst. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). diseases of blood. useful in blood diseases. :—Along the coasts of N. L. rootstock stout. Wild mangosteen. creeping. stout. erect pyramidal or columnar. bark. biliousness. fruit and seeds. aphrodisiac. CHAR.) FAM. the basal fascicled. branches short crowded. rigid. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. LOC. Makurkendi. covered with shining sheaths. Fruit—oleaginous. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. reaching 50 cm. heating. Kalatendu. . Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Kalaskandh. Riber ebony.—many.—G. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Tumaki Mara.—Dec. Temburni. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Fl. NS. smooth. Dabha. astringent to bowels. Konkan. Anilsara. stems 30-90 cm. skin eruptions. Syria.:—Saurashtra.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Sacred Plants. Tumari.. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Davoli.—Gramineæ. strangury. Dab. sedative to pregnant uterus. See—Fodder Plants. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). cooling. Tendu. used in biliousness and blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. :—Perennial tall grass. Sk. Tinduka. Darbha. DISTR. Ceylon. Egypt. Zeeberwo. LOC. t. vaginal discharges. high. Gujarat. branched from the base.3-3. NS. M. -panicle 15-45 X 1. G. LOC. Thailand (Siam). :—E. Kusha. stolon very stout. flowers. FAM. interrupted. PARTS USED :—Wood. COM. Durva. Sphurjaka. Gavandu. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. erect. tufted. Darbha. ligule a hairy line . cures ulcers and " Vata". jaundice. clothed with sessile spikelets. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Nubia. DISTR. M. good for lumbago.8 cm. Wood cures biliousness. in the beds of rivers and streams. sheaths glabrous. Sk. diseases of bladder. long. Kanara and the Konkan. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. margins hispid. diuretic. Fl.—Ebenaceæ. K. Banda. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. COM. :—Throughout India.
Kulthi. PARTS USED :—Seeds. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. astringent to bowels. Ashvakatri. dry. Nasik. CHAR. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. NS. grown to a certain extent in S. COM. pain in liver. variously lobed. Sitetara. Sk. antipyretic. Bijapur and Dharwar. cordate. Kulith. M. NS. enlargement of spleen. emmenagogue. H. stout. Kulithaka. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Kulitha. heart-troubles. intestinal colic. :—Tropics of the old world. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. abdominal complaints. "Vata". piles. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. strangury. Sk. removes stone from kidney. Kulathi. acrid. FAM. causes biliousness (Yunani). coughs etc. hot.Gahat. :—E. Kalvrinta. LOC. Kulthi. G. bronchitis. Basingh. generally on trees and rocks. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. ovate. Horse-Gram. liver troubles. piles. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. fertile ones long stalked. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. :—M. Grains contain vitamin A. LOC. anthelmintic. Sori two in each primary areole. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. appetiser. inflammation. Jurali. diseases of the brain and eyes. K. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Tans. hiccup. Wandar bashing. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. ozoena.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Diuretic. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. cures hiccup. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. improves complexion. cures " Kapha". fattening. FAM. Kulit. See-Food Plants. See—Timbers. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). COM. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Cultivated. short. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. asthma. Konkan— Ratnagiri. Texture membranaceous to leathery. Hurali. .—Polypodiaceæ. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Surfaces naked. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. tumours. DISTR.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. urinary discharges. base decurrent on the stipe. Country—Belgaum. M. :—Rhizome creeping. It is demulcent in calculus affection. leucoderma. eye troubles.
C. gleet. L. pappus short.—achene obconic. globose.— Nov. It is used in hoarse cough. cottony pubescent. COM. high. :—Kanara. DISTR. :—Konkan. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. chronic fever. strigose and hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. Kantalu.—heads white. Bhangro. sinuate and spinescent. bracts 3seriate. Sk. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). yellowish.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. cottony. Bhringraj. Deccan. CHAR. used in ophthalmia. spines 2.—Compositæ. Root— abortifacient. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. analgesic. subentire.:—Throughout India. astringent to bowels . Seeds—wholesome. S. diseases of heart. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). DISTR. CHAR. LOC.—limb linear. Utkanta. Mochand. Fr. FAM. biliousness.9 m. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. Sk. tonic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. wooly beneath. NS. involucre. long. used in strangury. Kalobhangro . COM. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. Country. Utkatara. causes " Kapha". also cultivated to a certain extent. often rooting at the nodes. dyspepsia. Pitripriya. Afghanistan. hectic fever. oblong.—sessile. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots.3—0. branches widely spreading from the base. Plant stomachic. pain in joints. stems and branches strigose and hairy. Bhangra. sessile. Kantaphala. t.—Compositæ. Fl. :—More or less throughout India. useful in brain-diseases. Bhangra. H. FAM. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Kadechubak. stimulates liver. Dadhal. increases appetite. hot. Utanti.5 cm. " Vata". Konkan. . Utakatara.— opposite. dyspepsia and cough. LOC. Markara. improves taste. LOC. antipyretic. H. hysteria.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. M. spiny. thirst. Utkantaka. Utkanto. :—G. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Keshrangana. Ajagara. urinary discharges. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). :—G. Shulio. surrounded by strong white bristles. bitter. the lobes triangular and oblong. 0. L. Maka. cooling. :—A much branched rigid annual. Fl. K. usually oblong-lanceolate. inflammations. Balari.-Jany. densely villous. deeply pinnatifid. Sunilaka. M. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. glabrous above. M. Kadigga-garaga. Garagadasoppu. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice.
USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. improves colour of hair. cures inflammations. stomachic. lustre of eyes. Velchi. . Burma. fevers. Triputa. LOC. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). It is given internally in scalding of urine. asthma. good for complexion. Gourangi. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. Chandrabala. good for spleen diseases. Bitter . axillary. M. hemi-crania. hot. Karangi. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Yalakki. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Fr. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. heart and skin diseases. Bahula. C—often 4-toothed . Ela. Ceylon. eyes. liver pain. Choti-Elachi. alexipharmic. night blindness. Kanara (Siddapur.:—India (Bengal. Panjab. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . Elachi. antipyretic.— Oct. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. DISTR. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. a reputed and popular liver tonic. Madhya Bharat. it is powdered and applied externally.—achene. Sk. NS. Peninsula). stomatitis. pappus 0. tonic. Ilaji. :—Western valleys of N. Malaya. prevents abortion and miscarriage. teeth.—in heads. It relieves headache when applied with oil. H. Sind. internal diseases. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. See—Sacred Plants. COM. bronchitis. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. toothache.—Scitaminaceæ. ray flowers ligulate. G. solitary or 2 together. and for strengthening gums.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. involucral bracts about 8 . syphilis. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. FAM. "Kapha". cures vertigo (Yunani). K. hair. LOC. Veldoda.. There are two forms erect and prostrate. eye diseases. :—E. anthelmintic. leucoderma. expectorant. anæmia. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Gandhkuti. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). disk ones tubular . Fl. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. t. hernia. cultivated. W. cuneate with a narrow wing.-Dec. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. alterative. fattening. "Vata".
NS. Wavrung. K. ear and tooth ache. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. chest and throat (Yunani). Vavoding. rich or poor. stomachic. lessens inflammation. fruit is tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Sk. Vavading. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Bavato. stomachic. cause biliousness . Kanisha. Vidariga. Rajika. alexiteric . Nachani. M. FAM. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. Navalo-nagali. bronchitis.—Myrsinaceæ. FAM. Sk. Makra. pruritus. :— G. LOC. consumption. Pavaka. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. H. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Varding. fragrant. piles. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bidanga. tonic to heart. diuretic. tonic. diuretic. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. In S. brain and mouth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. H. Grains contain vitamin B. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. most suitable to hard-working classes. Boberang. strangury. It is stomachic. Narttaka. Nagali. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. carminative.:—Western and S. bad humours of liver. useful in head. It is said to be astringent. diseases of bladder.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. PARTS USED :—Grain. bitter. K. kidney. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). CUM. . DISTR. abortifacient.. COM. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. laxative. root is laxative and tonic. M. See-Food Plants. useful in asthma. stimulant and emmenagogue.:—G. pungent. Bhasmaka. Ragi. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. Seed—fragrant. LOC. India. NS.—Gramineæ. cooling. Jantughna. Marua. LOC. scabies. clear head. Vayuvitang. PARTS USED :—Root. Rotka. cooling. useful in biliousness. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. causes thirst. See—Condiments and Spices. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. fruit and seeds. cultivated.
biliousness. China. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. S. carminative. wild or planted. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. Dhatriphala.—in lax panicles. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . antipyretic. et. strangury. Ceylon. NS. elliptic-lanceolate. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). slender. K.—berry. nearly globose. branches long. Dadi. Kanara. Paranjpe and G. racemes minute. Ambala. purgative. Bhoza . flexible. China. Malay Islands. bark. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). . Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. dyspnoea. Seed— acrid. hemicrania. Pharm. DISTR. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. coriaceous. Sk. often planted in Konkan. K. anuria. cures bronchitis . leaves.—alternate. like a pepper corn when dried.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Root.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. poisoning. t. Amalaka. LOC. H. bark studded with lenticels . urinary discharges. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). constipation. Avala. many. anthelmintic . jaundice. L. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. good appetiser. dries wound discharges . analgesic. Int. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. ascites. " Kapha'. COM. Ther. S. good for plethoric constitution. inflammations. Adiphala. Dhatri. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. useful in asthma. anthelminitic. leprosy. Anward. laxative. diseases of heart. black when ripe. succulent. G. (Dymock). anæmia. urinary discharges. Triphala. fruit and seeds. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. mental diseases. smooth. carminative. Konkan and N. Amlika. cures tumours. shining above. Amla. vomiting. flowers. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. alterative. Gokhale. erysipelas. Deccan. LOC. M.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. greenish yellow. Nellika . bronchitis.—Feb. Anola. Fl. 42-II-1932). tonic. piles. Western Ghats. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. DISTR. with a sharp bitter taste. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Malaya. Embelic myrobalan. Amlika. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). thirst. paler and silvery beneath. dry. :—Throughout India. useful in burning sensation. vulnerary. HABITAT :—Rain forests. alexiteric. " Tridosha ". LOC. Fl. Arch. sour. sweats. alexiteric. Bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. laxative. PARTS USED :—Fruit. :—Hilly parts of the State. internodes long. :—A large scandent shrub. cooling. Daula . Fr. Ceylon. alterative. reddens urine. :— E.
thirst. See—Timbers.—Aug. Saurashtra. piles. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. anthelmintic. ellipsoid. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. cooling. West Indies. Malaya.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ).) FAM. useful in heart-diseases. COM. Chhotakirayat. NS. Celyon. diuretic and laxative. sub-quadrangular or terete. t. CHAR. R. Gujarat. FAM. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Ind. stops nasal hæmorrhage. purifies body humours (Yunani). M. Doddakampi. Fruit Trees. Fr. Fl. C—infundibuliform. Grey). :—A perennial glabrous herb. astringent. Fruit—acrid. K. eye troubles. Nahu.).—Gentianaceæ. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. white. :—E. Mackary bean. mid-nerve strong. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Sk. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. LOC. . It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm.—sessile. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Country. Lady nut. Unripe fruit is cooling. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa.-Nov. DISTR. tropical Africa. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. variable. Hallekayiballi. Dried fruits. :—Konkan. Dyes. lobes 5. COM. L. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". 10—50 cm. aperient. Sind. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). rounded apex.— capsule. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. sour. H. Mamejavo . Tanavadi. Mabhipaka. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Garambi. opposite. M. Tiktapatra. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. M. in axillary clusters all along the stem. cold in the nose. Garbe. 3-nerved. high. NS. branched from the base. Kadvinayi. liver complaints. expectorant. USES :—Root. narrowed at the base. used as laxative and astringent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. S. bark and fruit are astringent. LOC. Giant's rattle. Tans. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. stems erect or procumbent. Fl. vulnerary. Nagajivha. biliousness. LOC. :—G. improves appetite. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Madvinashi.—sessile.
Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Planted as support for pepper vines. PROPERTIES AND LOC. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. inflammations. L. mixed with spices. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). :—E. Var. Pangara. branches terete.—2pinnate. Phandra . 3. Fl. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. shining and brown. glabrous. slightly curved. LOC. Raktapushpa. flowers. C. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. bark used in dysentery.3-2 cm. G. Hongara. stomachic. DISTR. bark. leaves.— Mar. leaflets 7-5 x 2. compressed.. t. often along river banks. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. improve appetite.5-5-7 cm. Halivan.—6-15.-May. pinnae 2—3 pairs. USES :—Powdered kernel.—pod. they are given internally as an emetic. Paribhadra. Panderavo. Mandara. ORIENTALIS Merr. Planted as ornament. the tropics generally. stalked.. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. Dadap. Kantakinshuka. Kanara. Sd. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Mochi-wood. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. K.. diam. orbicular. Sundribans. woody.S. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Salaki. long. Mullumurige. cure urinary discharges. :—Coast forests of Malabar. M. Arakan. COM. Ceylon. Mandara.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.7-5x7. Fl. thick. smooth. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. rigidly coriaceous. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. Fr. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. Indian coral-tree.5-10 cm. Bangaro. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . DISTR. anthelmintic.) FAM. Leaves—bitter. 30-90 cm. dark green. Panarvo. Peninsula.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). . Sk. along sea-coast above high-water. Pangara. oblong or obovate. Andamans and Nicobar. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara.—yellow. Tennaserim. in debility and glandular swellings . Nepal. Panjira. hot. W. for grapevines in Nasik district. N. 4. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. wide and 3-8 cm. Pegu. long. indented between the seeds.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—Konkan and N. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam.
most tropical and sub-tropical countries. NS. Dudhi. Sk. Dandasruha. Nagpur 1931). K. Shirthahar. Milk bush. COM. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. dark green above. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious.—Euphorbiaceæ.—opposite. bowel complaints and cough in children. Plant is chiefly used for worms. H. M. Pill-bearing spurge.—ovoid-trigonous. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. :—E. gland minute. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. t. Mondukalli. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Sc.—capsule. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Govardhan. it is anthelmintic. Kodukalli. CHAR. erect or ascending. LOC. Pusitoa. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Dudanali. Milk hedge. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Cong. Indian tree spurge. Fr. Sendh. COM. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Vajradruma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. NS. Sk. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Nevli. Bottugalli.—involucres numerous. Dudhi. Sd. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. reddish brown. M.—Euphorbiaceæ. globose. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. Achchegida. and to relieve pain of the joints. Dandalio thora. Australian asthma herb. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Sahud. 18th Ind. high. FAM. appressedly hairy.) FAM. branches often 4-angled. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Dudhi. —throughout the year. :— E. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). G. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. base unequal-sided. :—Annual herb. serrulate or dentate. Bahukshira. G. Ceylon. rugose. . See—Timbers. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . 15-50 cm. K. FL. Paradeshi thora . Sher. Fl. H. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. pale beneath. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. L. with or without a limb. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Duddi.
DISTR. tumours. polished. linear. alexiteric. Vishnugandhi. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). pungent. DISTR. Fl. Fl.-light blue. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. useful in bronchitis. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. teething of infants . USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. LOC. campanulate. Vishnukranta. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. brightens intellect. Juice is purgative. spreading. stone in bladder (Yunani). K. :—Native of East Africa. :—A perennial herb. dropsy. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). peduncles very long. useful in biliousness. L. :—A small tree. LOC. Jhinkiphudardi. stems many. carminative.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fl. L. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. tropical and sub-tropical countries. about 6 m.—capsule. enlargement of spleen.—small. :—Throughout the State. Ceylon. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. also as an alterative.-Aug. Sd— glabrous. wiry. Sd. M.-July-Nov. tonic. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. biliousness. elliptic-oblong. FAM. terete. Shyamakranta . Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. COM. H. branchlets whorled. LOC.—many. dyspepsia. carminative. thin. t. base acute. naturalised in India. cocci velvety. thick like quill. Nilpushpi. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. smooth. milk is alexiteric. 6-13 mm.-Sep. Fr. t. usually clothed with long hairs . mostly female. epilepsy. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. and with oil to promote growth of hair. employed to raise blisters.—Convolvulaceæ. . CHAR.— capsule. alterative. globose. useful in abdominal troubles. Vishnukranti. asthma. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. Konkan and Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. Vishnukranta. jaundice. Fr. 4valved. long (appearing in rainy season) . leprosy. LOC. almost leafless. useful in gonorrhœa. leprosy and leucorrhoea. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. smooth. :—Sind. solitary or sometimes 2. more than 5 cm. leucoderma. rootstock woody . Kalisankhavali. long. high. prostrate. colic. :—G. axillary. branches erect.—ovoid. whooping cough. NS. silky hairy.
Dhamasa. westwards to Afghanistan. Barachirayat. COM. ophthalmia. FL. LOC. Sd. t. about 1.). USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . FAM. :— Sind. DISTR. spitting of blood. Udichirayat. :— H. the middle the largest. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. Mysore. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. yellowish brown. root fibrous. glandular hairy. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers.—Zygophyllaceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. Ghats.—solitary. vomiting. Dhanavi. smooth. removes "Vata. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. Fl. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Coimbatore. in chronic bronchitis. CHAR. more or less glandular. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. cures dysentery. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. scarcely branched.—opposite. Baluchistan. NS. ovate. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. smooth. removes "Vata". :—G. reaching 60 cm. :—Konkan. t. W.— showy. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning.—capsule. pyramidal to the apex. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. of 5. stomatitis.—Gentianaceæ. NS. in copious terminal cymes . CHAR. typhoid. stem. Deccan hills and S. cooling. Atmamuli. elliptic or lanceolate. L. M. arising from between the stipules . 1-seeded cocci. pale rose-coloured. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). FAM.-Aug. Waziristan. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. sessile. ellipsoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. shining. Country.— ovoid. M. Bark is used in scabies. Circars. Dusparsha. the upper blue.-Oct. Ind. Maval. N. petioles deeply striate. long. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. Rajasthan. Prabhodhini.2 cm. . H.—very variable in size and form sessile. high.-Nov. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. erysipelas. flattened. :—Madras State. LOC. obliquely obovate. emmenagogue. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. deeply 5-partite. acute. also used in chronic fevers. quadrangular. purifies blood (Ayurveda). Fl. LOC. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Cooling. Ustarkhar. Fl. COM. it has got cooling properties. leaflets linear. Gujarat. L. Punjab. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Hinguna. Mediterranean. Fr. Fr. C—lobes 4-5. Upper Gangetic plains. fever. reduces tumours. good for liver troubles. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant." asthma. 1-3 foliate. DISTR. 5-nerved. urinary discharges.-Dec. asthma. toothache. thirst. small. Kashaya. :—An erect annual. Arabia. Iran. lower half white. Dhamaso . alexipharmic.
country and N. Sk. FAM. DISTR. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Kothun. COM. tumours. astringent. fatigue. often cultivated. " Vata ". relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). which afterwards develop into separate trunks. vomiting . binding diuretic. ophthalmia.— globose. blood impurities. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). dysentery. Vad. H. Nyagrodha. cures cough. Sk. LOC. Ghats. Ceylon. useful in biliousness. Bahupada. leucorrhoea. fruit and seeds. " Tridosha". Leaves—very astringent.—Rutaceæ.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Elephant or wood apple. LOC. Bhringi. G.—coriaceous. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. Self-sown. common in the Tapi Valley. PARTS USED :—Leaves. H. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. :—Cultivated all over the State. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. refrigerant. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Belada. strengthening to gums . M. G. NS. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . with male. Grahiphala. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Kavitha. Kathinyaphala. aphrodisiac. Malura. shining above. Kotha. alexipharmic. CHAR. liver and lungs . Vad. K. Balin. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. with spreading branches. female. COM. L. India. Bargat. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. :—Indigenous in S. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. asthma. Manmadha. Vadlo . Fr. Jatala. heart diseases. thirst. Kathel.—Moraceæ. diam. 10-20 X 5-12. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children..5 cm. M. Goli. NS. Avaroha. often planted. Kavath. good for throat. . antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Seeds—antidote to poison. Fruit—sour . Monkey fruit. Bargad. M. difficult to digest. high. about 2 cm. tonic to heart. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Ala. Byala. refrigerant . Banian tree. Kapipriya. K. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. ovate to elliptic. removes biliousness. S. acrid. Fruit Trees. Kapitha. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Kanara. :—E. Alada. Dadhiphala. Vata. hiccup. LOC. :— E. Bar. Kait. cordate or rounded base. Kavit. Vat. consumption. Java. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia.
gonorrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. leaves. NS. paralysis. Sacred Plants. Cultivated in N. W. useful in "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. thirst. :—Baluchistan. USES :—Fruit is emollient. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Afghanistan. LOC. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. Bijapur.—Moraceæ. useful in syphilis. Root—tonic. ulcers. Anjir. Fibres. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Anjir. leprosy. . Dharwar. :— E. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. boils and carbuncles. diseases of head and blood. hill ranges of S. useful in leucoderma. biliousness. bruises. M. erysipelas. LOC. Simeyatu . leprosy (Ayurveda). inflammation of liver (Yunani). In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. laxative. Sk. Milky Juice—expectorant. K. nose-diseases. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. weakness. G. dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. India. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. alexiteric. root-fibres. inflammations. vulnerary. lessens inflammations. Fig. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. H. Anjir. Grown scattered elsewhere. LOC. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. ringworm. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). stimulates hair-growth. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. useful in piles. useful in inflammation . aphrodisiac. Anjir. useful in "Kapha". tonic. lithotriptic. demulcent. in rheumatism and lumbago. Anjura. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). W. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. PARTS USED :—Bark. vomiting. Asia and Mediterranean. vaginal complaints. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Aerial root is styptic. nutritive. pain in chest cures piles. liver and spleen diseases. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. FICUS CARICA Linn. maturant. India. Kakodumbar. seeds and milky juice. Seeds are cooling and tonic. biliousness. diuretic. DISTR. See—Famine Plants. fever. COM.
NS. Umar. Atti. bark. DISTR. Ashwatha mara. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). uterus . Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. K. Yajnika. styptic. Udumbara. acrid. G. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. M. Pipal. bark. Bark is cooling. ground with onions. H. LOC. Bark. Fruit—astringent to bowels. good for bronchitis. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. . Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Pimpal. Ashvatha. LOC. vagina. Ragi. Demera. blood diseases. Gular-Country fig. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. planted all over. useful. Umbro. nose bleedings. biliousness. given in leucorrhoea. Bark useful in asthma and piles. galactagogue. Sacred Plants.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. Milk—aphrodisiac. Umar. burning sensation. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. menorrhagia. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Arani. Leaves—astringent to bowels . :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. ulcers. LOC. leprosy. leaves. fatigue. loss of voice. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. latex. See—Timbers. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. in diseases of blood. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. FAM. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Rumadi. tonic. HABITAT :—Planted. :—E. K. COM. Pippala. Pipers. Jari. Sk. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. biliousness. fruit. Umbar. allays thirst. burning sensation. COM. DISTR. Pavitraka. H. Pipal. Pippala. vulnerary. leucorrhoea. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. M. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. :—Throughout the State near villages. useful in "Kapha". Gular. Hemadugdha.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. G. Lalka. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar.—Moraceæ. Pipli. Fruit— useful in dry cough. cummin. urinary discharges. good for foul taste. Sk.—Moraceæ. (Yunani). Shuchidruma. Vriksharaj. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. :—Widely spread throughout India. Bodhidruma. leaves and fruits. diseases of kidney and spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Peepal tree . FAM. good for gravid uterus. common in Western Ghats and Konkan.
Fruits are sweet. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Katar. :— G. Fodder Plants. Sk. Gajale. Mullutari. Bilangra . The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Sacred Plants. The juice is employed in hiccup. seeds.—Umbelliferæ. Paker. aphrodisiac. Akrani. Hettarimullu. Burma. Finkel. Young bark useful in bone fractures. COM. and produces sterility in women. Shateya. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. M. upper Gangetic plain. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. gum. Ghats. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. SAPIDA Roxb. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. S. Khandesh. W. fruit. Shalina. K. DISTR. Badishep. Potika. Tambat. See—Timbers. bark. Bhakal. heart diseases. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Kankod . good for lumbago. Sk. Fruit—purgative. Variari. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Tapaspriya. cleans ulcers. G. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. PROPERTIES AND LOC. promotes granulations. Badisoppu.—Flacourtiaceæ. Satpura. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. checks vomiting (Yunani). H. NS. astringent in leucorrhoea. FAM. Bhuripushpa. HABITAT :—Hills. common in the Peninsula. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. :—E. LOC. Kanara Jungles. appetising and digestive. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). . M. Soupa. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Country and N. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. COM NS. Handi Kandai. Swadukantaka. Root good for gout. Fennel. Variali. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. K. N. H. See—Timber. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. M. Circars. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. LOC. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Hunmunki. Bhanber.
Wild mangosteen. spleen. alexiteric. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". anthelmintic. diuretic. :—Endemic in W. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. wounds.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. annual. stomachic. galactagogue. :—A tall glabrous. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Ratambi. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". USES :—used as stimulant. See—Condiments and Spices. cough and asthma. Murjinhalli. useful in diseases of chest. USES :—Bark is astringent. stimulant. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. aphrodisiac. causing constipation . See—Timbers. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases.— decompound. 0. dysentery. anthelmintic. leaves (rarely). leprosy (Ayurveda). Ghats south of Bombay. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Roots. aromatic and carminative. DISTR. M. PARTS USED :—Bark. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. fissures of lips. cures "Tridosh". ultimate segments linear.—ellipsoid.—in large umbels . " Vata ". Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. yellow. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. :—W. eye-diseases. :—Apparently a native of S. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence.6-0. dysentery. Coorg. carpophore 2-partite. fever. Wynaad. Atyamla. difficult to digest. COM. DISTR. seeds-carminative. amenorrhœa. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. LOC. Oils.9 m. kidney. Tittidika . Sk. wounds etc. tumours. Kokam. dark green. LOC. Ghats. leaves and seeds. appetiser. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. Kokam . furrows vittate. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. Kokam . laxative. :—E. L. cardiotonic. FL. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). demulcent and emollient. bracts and bracteoles absent. Amlabija. strengthen eyes (Yunani). burning sensation. NS. common in S. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. Konkan and N. FAM. high. LOC. . Fr. improves appetite and allays thirst. fruit and seeds. It is much used as a nutritive. HABITAT :—Cultivated. biliousness. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. useful in bleeding piles. thirst. Mulgala.—Guttiferæ. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. ridges prominent. Kanara. Tintidika. LOC. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. in headache. K. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. Leaves—improve eyesight. lessen inflammations. (Mhaskar and Caius). H.
8 m. opaque. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. Cambi resin tree. C. Suvirya. long.—2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. Dikemali. As sold in the bazar it is hard. buds resinous. Dekamari. Fl.—Rubiaceæ. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). Peninsula). elliptic-obovate. DISTR. Dikamali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. LOC.-tubular.8 cm. Dikamari. common on laterite in southern parts of N. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition.5-3. LOC. M.5 cm. lucida (Ayurveda). :—India (W.—Feb. COM. :—A deciduous shrub. lucida. Dikkamalli. .—Rubiaceæ. oblong or ellipsoid. Fr. See—Gums and Resins. Northern ghats of Madras State. FAM. H. t. LOC. Pinda. HABITAT :—Open situations. high..-subsessile. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. See—Timbers. Kanara. oblong. :—Common from Konkan southwards. Western Peninsula. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . Bikke. CHAR. Dakamali. 4. :—E.5x22. not fragrant. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. -June. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Jantuka. first white then changing to yellow. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. unarmed. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. Fl. G. FAM. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. NS. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. same as for G. PARTS USED :—Gum. NS. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. about 1. relieves pain of bronchitis. :—India. COM. PARTS USED:-Gum. DISTR. L. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. 1-3 together. LOC. astringent to bowels. K. Sk. shining. Gums and Resins. Hingu.-sessile. all dry districts of Madras State.
7. given off from young tubers . Khadyanag. Huliyuguru.5 X 15 X 2-4. Ceylon. alexiteric. Dudhio vachhonag.5 cm. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).. branching climber . Sk. linear-lanceolate. solitary. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. perianth segments reaching 6. tall. used to remove placenta from uterus. LOC. margins wavy. COM. bitter. scarlet. Karianag. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. ovate lanceolate. acrid. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. In Guinea. Agnimukhi. . inflammations.. Fl.—sessile. Tropical Africa.-July-Oct. scattered or opposite. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. Kulhari. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kalikari. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Linn.3 cm. :—G. piles. changing colours from greenish yellow. leprosy. Tuber— astringent. Nangulika. FAM. axillary . Indai. filaments long spreading. Cochin-China. abortifacient. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. solid. Languli. Malay Peninsula. t. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. There are two varieties of the plant. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. expectorant.—capsule. sometimes whorled.2 cm. useful in chronic ulcers. :—Throughout tropical India. anthelmintic.5-3.. L. linear oblong.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. CHAR. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. laxative. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Kathari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. heating. Kalihari. The former is supposed to be male. Garbhapatani. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. DISTR. and crimson from blooming to fading. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. M. H. Sivasaktibalb . itching. NS. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. PARTS USED :—Tuber. leaves and flowers. abdominal pains. thirst. In case of retained placenta.—Liliaceæ. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). FL. Akkitang hall. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. root-stock of arched. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. K.—large. LOC. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. orange. Fr. :—Herbaceous. stems annual.
In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. White teak. Provinces. piles. promotes hair-growth. Khandesh. laxative. DISTR. consumption. improves appetite . Root taken with liquorice. Madhya Bharat. Rajasthan and N. useful in hallucinations. M. Gumbhar. Devakapus. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). tonic. flowers and fruit. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. :—Throughout the State. :— E. Karpasam. FAM. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. H. NS. DISTR. abdominal pains. See—Timbers. Root extract is bitter and tonic. ulcers. Var. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Bachanige. Sk. Oils. Mahabhadra. Malaya. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. In the Konkan.—Malvaceæ. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Shripani. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Savan. made into paste. Shiwan. alterative. scattered in monsoon forests. FAM. Gandhari. Philippines. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Shivan . Hanji. aphrodisiac. :— Bengal. W. chronic cystitis. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. LOC. anasarca. " Tridosha ". G. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Gupsi. fevers. Shivani. COM. LOC. . anæmia. Kumbudi. burning sensation. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. scalds etc.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. strangury. leaves. Kashmari. stomachic. H. Coomb teak. Flowers—astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. :—Throughout India. Deokapas. the root. common on Satpuda.:—E. See—Fibres. NS. root is also stomachic and laxative. Gambari. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. thirst. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in indigestion. catarrh of the bladder etc. useful in "Vata". Sind. flowers and seeds. Gambhari. Nurma . useful in fevers . Sk. gleet. leaves. Cashmere tree. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. Devkapas. Tree cotton. COM. Karibatti. LOC. consumption and some catarrhal affections . K. Shiwan. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Ceylon. leprosy. thirst.—Verbenaceæ. K. indigestible. Fruit— diuretic. anthelmintic . urinary discharges. G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M.
110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Iran. See—Fibres. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Rui. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . leaf-juice good in dysentery. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. FAM. Seeds are laxative. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Phalsa. Sutrapuspha. in hypochondria. H. tonic. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Country. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Mesapotamia. laxative . cure all ear-troubles. good for throat . preventing their access to wounds etc. Parapera. :— Cultivated in N. removes " Vata" and biliousness. Badari. wild in Deccan. W. heart and blood disorders. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). bark. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections.—Tiliaceæ. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . NS. Phalsi. Mediterranean. DISTR. Syria. fevers and consumption. PARTS USED :—Root. Kapas . Karpas. expectorant. Roshana. Dhamin. Rui. digestible. :—Cultivated in the State. scabies . In India they are used to procure abortion. :—G. M. Arali. fruits and seeds. NS. COM. Tadasala.. (Yunani). Sk. in hills near Poona. Kapus. allay thirst.Phalse. Parusha. Cotton . LOC. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. aphrodisiac. analgesic. restore consciousness. Leaves remove " Vata " . :—Sind. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. K. demulcent. Hatti. Oils. removes " Vata ". Karihariyale. Ripe fruit—sweet. Egypt. K. LOC. extensively in Gujarat. Kupas. used in orchitis. Anagnika. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. F. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. LOC.—Malvaceæ. leaves. probably in N. Gujarat and S. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. HABITAT :—Cultivated.. cures inflammations. Tula. U. A. fomentation for burning eyes . Province (Pakistan). S. COM. sour. H. acrid. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Pharuah. tonic. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Seeds— ' galactagogue. FAM. Baluchistan. Afghanistan. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. fruit. Arabia and Asia Minor. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. expectorant and aphrodisiac. extensively cultivated. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. :—E. M. cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. Sk. increase flow of urine. good for all kinds of inflammations. Seeds—aphrodisiac. enrich blood. Jana. G. East Tropical Africa. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Buttiyu-dippa. DISTR.
piles. The ease of administration. FAM. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. C. G. :— E. India. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. t. FL. helps removal of dead fetus. Karalia . a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. anthelmintic. H. Fr. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. CHAR. elliptic. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. cooling. lanceolate. much branched. Mardashingi. vitreous body) burning sensation. usually single. Small Indian ipecacuanha.-May. . asthma. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. COM. Caravella. LOC. good in heart-diseases. Arkapuspika. :—Throughout the State. Sk. Sd. COM. L. base rounded or cordate . acrid. tonic. ovate. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". stomachic. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. G. FAM. young stems densely pubescent. Bedki. Periploca of the woods.— with thin marginal wing. Bastagandha. Churota. Vishani. bronchitis. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens.— Apl. K. S. Root and bark used in strangury. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Hulhul. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. alexiteric. should not be eaten raw. Ugragandha. Mabli. Sati talvani. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). Mahabaleshwar and N. Merasingi. common in hedges in Dharwar district. Meshavalli. DISTR.— companulate . See—Fruit Trees. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Fl. Pandhari tilwan. sweet. M. Kanara coast. the stomachic stimulant. Tropical Africa. :—A large woody climber. Fruit—sour. NS. LOC. yellow . Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Kanphodi. NS.—in cymes . Meshashingi. Hulhul. ulcers. Kabari. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani).—follicle. Ceylon. H. Br. cornea. Sanngera. relieves thirst and hiccup. K. Shrikala. Sannagerse. inflammations. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. corona of 5 processes .— opposite. leucoderma. LOC. Vakundi. :E. — Asclepiadaceæ.—Capparidaceæ. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). SK. Tanmani. Kavali. :—Western Peninsula. Adiyakharan. Karnasphota. Gurmar. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. alterative. strengthens chest and heart. Tilparni. M.
Sd. LOC. Country. FAM. elliptic-lanceolate.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. :—G. tumours. CHAR. COM. glabrous or pubescent above. (Kirtikar and Basu). :—Konkan—Karanja Island. long.—capsule. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Kavargi. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil.—petals 4 with long slender claws. NS. earache. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus.-Feb. Fr. removes "Vata". in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles.—Sterculiaceæ. opposite. margins crenate-dentate. hairy.12. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb.—in dense bracteate racemes. Gujarat. Katraj Ghat. pubescent. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar.—June. t.—Oct. K. tapering at both ends.8-9 cm. pain. Jonkaphal Maraphali. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. LOC. stem and branches hairy. Sinhgad hills. M.. :—Deccan. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Sd.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. hairy on the nerves beneath. stipules triangular.—muricate.—capsule. long . COM. elliptic-obovate. dark-brown . Gidesa Jitasai. ellipsoid . Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. NS. hills in Supa Taluka. hairy. DISTR. stomachic . Fr.—rather rigid.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. L. ulcers. good in ascites. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. Murudseng. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . China. 5-9 cm. Fl. Murdasing.—3-5 foliate. FAM. sessile. Fl. Kanara. gynophore 2-2. pedicels viscid hairy. Avartant.. H. Kewan.2 m. Mrigashringa. DISTR. .5 cm. C. S. with divaricate herbaceous branches . vesicant. L. acute.—Rubiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. high.—many. :—A small deciduous shrub. Marosi. producing copious exudation. leaves and seeds.5-20 X 3. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. :—M. Fl. HABITAT:—Hills. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda).6—1. :—An annual erect herb 0. Edamuri. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. M. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. viscid. white or blue. LOC. hills near Nagothana. Fl. leaflets subsessile. Murudi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. pink . . t. PARTS USED :—Root.
urinary discharges.— with silvery white coma . Ceylon. Fl. :—Throughout the State. Malaya. t — Aug. useful in piles. low appetite. obliquely cordate. FAM. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. :—Upper Gangetie plain. G. Konkan. Magrabu. . astringent to bowels. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery.—tubular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant.-Dec. Upalsali. dark-green. poisoning. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. Fl. lessens griping. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. FL. LOC. :—Large shrub or small tree. C. fevers. Root useful in hemicrania. common in hedges. stem. diaphoretic. blood diseases. greenish outside. Br. antidiarrhœal. LOC. spirally coiled. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R.3 cm. Fr.—follicle of 5-6. ovate orbicular. demulcent. tapering . angular . paralysis. Stem lessens inflammation. Hindisalse. irregularly crowded. foul body odour. Utpalashariva.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. stems thickened at the nodes . Australia and West Indies. Anantmula. NS. M. India. mildly astringent. Root and stem—laxative.—throughout the greater part of the year. asthma. cough. uterine complaints. leucorrhoea. thirst. Kapurimathuri. scabrous above. bronchitis. Deccan and S. DISTR. syphilis. asthma. :— E. Sugandhi-balli. alexiteric. Fl.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic.—numerous. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). cures all skin-diseases. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub.— in cymes in opposite axils.—follicle cylindric.—Asclepiadaceæ. often variegated with white above. 5-6. M. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. "Vata' dysentery. K. Kanara ghat forests. Country. Upalsari. astringent to bowels . Anantmula. DISTR.-biferous. Indian sarsaparilla . See—Fibres. bark and fruit. epileptic fits. 7. good for brain.. burning sensation. LOC. useful in gleet. Durivel. Dhaval kashtha. diuretic. Sk. and leaves. COM. HABITAT :—In hedges. L. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S.512. red at first fading to lead colour. beaked. Hamadaberu . PARTS USED :—Root. purplish inside. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). anti-galactagogue. “tridosh". Burma. H. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N.5 X 5-10 cm. L. rat-bites. bilabiate. eye troubles.— very variable. root-Stock woody . joint-pains. "Kapha". Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). long. t. CHAR. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections.Sd. liver and kidney diseases . diarrhœa. They are demulcent.
Fl. Jasut. Jasum. Raktapushpi. Root is valuable in coughs. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. Dasanihu. PARTS USED :—Root. cooling. fevers. It is also diuretic. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). t. crimson. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient.—no fruits produced in India. See—Ornamental Plants.—axillary. yellow. involucral bracts 5-7. Japapushpa. Aruna. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. :— E. piles. ovate or ovate lanceolate. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic.—short petioled. DISTR. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. flowers. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Fl. Root roasted in plantain leaves. K.. demulcent. M.—7. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. pedicel jointed above the middle. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. COM. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. uterine and vaginal discharges. G. solitary. . Harivallaba. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). tonic. remove burning of body. and mixed with ghee. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Fr. Jasavand. urinary discharges. bark and petals are demulcent. :—A perennial shrub. L. irregularly serrate towards the top. Jasuva. red. petals thrice as long as the calyx. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. astringent. entire near the base. It is said to purify blood. diam. LOC. leaves. NS. Rudrapushpa. In the Konkan. Native country probably China. LOC. glabrous.—during most of the year. skindiseases. Dasavala.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. etc. bright red. and as early as 1864. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. cm. seminal weakness. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup.—Malvaceæ. C. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tubular below. magenta. CHAR. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Shoe flower. syphilis and leucorrhoea. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. useful in loss of appetite. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). H. FAM. Kempupundrika.5. Sk.
See—Vegetables. Haladvel. G. L. on the margins.—large. Vasantduti. :—An annual. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. asafoetida and molasses.—coriaceous.—Oct. C. Kanara. Vasanti. Sk. Lal ambari.-Dec. ovoid. Rozelle. purple. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Kempupundrike. Patwa. Fr. Madhalata. Atimukta. base cuneate.—Malpighiaceæ. Lal ambadi.-Mar. Red sorrel.— Jany. Sd. Madmalati. Vasantduti. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. M. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. sedative and refrigerant. COM. elliptic-oblong.— solitary. fringed. t. Madhavi. glabrous. Chandravalli. Deccan. CHAR.) FAM. 1. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. tropics of the old world. fragrant.—petals 5. Fl. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.—in erect racemes. NS. stem and branches purple. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Grows abundantly on the W. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. Sd. calyx fleshy. LOC. FAM.—purple with darker centres. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. globose. beaked. NS. H. Ragotpiti. LOC. HABITAT. Ceylon. DISTR. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. M. K. COM. Madhavi. flowers. H. 10-18 X 4. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. petioles silky. white. Atimukta. 3-winged.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. :—Cultivated. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. entire glabrous. Madhumalati. C. L.—5-7.—1-3. black-brown. serrate.5 cm. Fibres.3-7. pepper. K. covered with minute hairs . :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. t. hairy.2-2 cm. fruits and seeds. Fl. mid-lobe the longest. Fr. Adimurtte Adirganti. Pundi-bija or soppu.. Fl. . much used in curries. :—E. across. Kamuka. orbicular. Ghats. :—Throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Madhavi. clawed. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. acuminate. and adding a little salt. :—G. Madhavi. CHAR. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. purple. often blotched with purple with darker centre.5 cm. involucral bracts 10. 5th petal yellow at the base.lobes oblong. long. uppermost petal broader.—Malvaceæ. young parts silky. long. erect.—axillary. 3-5 lobed. Malati. Kampti.—capsule. Lal ambadi. Konkan. Fl.
used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. wounds. LOC. acrid. vulnerary. white. insecticidal. asthma. Sd. leucoderma . Flowers— acrid. Pandhara Kuda. Nepal. lessens inflammations. Siwalik. PARTS USED :—Bark. burning sensation. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. cough. Conessi bark tree. Kudsalu. COM. long. :—Throughout the State.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs .— in terminal corymbose cymes . cooling.-June. Malay Peninsula. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. flowers and seeds. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. Sk. thirst and inflammation. biliousness. fevers. :—E. piles. anthelmintic. good in headache. bleeding piles. bitter. remove "Tridosh". Abu. Kurchi tree. throat hairy inside. Karuindrayan. Mt. Assam. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Veppale. lumbago. FL. acrid. C—tubular.—10-20 X 5-11. diuresis (Yunani). cylindric. Kura. Andamans. DISTR. branchlets drooping. H. astringent to bowels cure pains. skin and spleen diseases. colic. Fl.—follicles 20-48 cm. remove muscular pains . cures dysentery. burning sensation. leprosy. Seeds—carminative. LOC. smoke good for piles. Fr. good in chronic bronchitis. cause "Vata". M. leprosy. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. K. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. appetiser cure blood diseases. Kuda. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Kumaon.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Kaling.. Madras State. Burma. biliousness. good in erysipelas. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Hale. fatigue.5 cm. tonic. cool the brain. Kodasige. often dotted with white spots. Seeds—appetiser. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. urinary discharges. excessive menstrual flow. ulcers. PROPERTIES. tonic. Kutaja. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. styptic. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.—Feb. Karohi. Kaduoindrajav. L. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). " Kapha". broadly ovate or elliptic. CHAR. Hath. Leavesastringent. See—Ornamental Plants. heating. diarrhœa. inodorous. boils. N. Karnatak. G. main nerves conspicuous . NS. given in chest affections. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Bark—bitter. thirst. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Kuda. Circars. Thailand (Siam). galactagogue. strengthens gums. Indrayana. China. Dudhi. skin diseases.. aphrodisiac. leaves. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. LOC. vulnerary. Ceylon.—Apocynaceæ. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. FAM. hallucinations (Ayurveda).
USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia.—Gramineæ. Javegodhi. Jav. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Jawa. India. fattening. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Suj. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. H. causes constipation. especially cod-liver oil. Divya. with radicle attached to it. Ind. Java. NS. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. malt sugar and diastase. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). dysentery and intestinal worms. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. The grains contain vitamin B. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. :—E. Med. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. Aug. Ymvah. inflamed gums. M. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. LOC. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. sweetish. FAM. useful in fevers. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Germinated barley. Jav. Barley. aphrodisiac. lowers the pulse. pains in chest. allays thirst. febrifuge. Sk. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). good for ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. LOC. kurchine. improves voice. nor astringent. DISTR. acrid. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. diarrhœa. appetiser. useful in bronchitis. (R. stomachic. See—Food Plants. headache. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. bronchitis. COM. asthma. Tasteless. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. burns. Gaz. G. and kurchicine. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. demulcent and expectorant. Knowles. nor styptic. useful in biliousness. They are also used after delivery. Shaktu. 1928). HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Hayapriya. They are astringent. —Cultivated chiefly in N. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . anæmia. Yava. fevers (Yunani). biliousness. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. Satu. K. widely cultivated in temperate regions. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion.
M.—Apl. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Bhrijatuaka. Ugragandha. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Dondru. L. pungent. FAM. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Bhanina. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Garudphala. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. :—W. Bhutabi.—Rubiaceæ. Fr. S. . globose or ovoid. :—K. broadly ovate. C. size of small apple. Sd. good for the throat. Gandele. NS. common in Travancore. Sk. COM. Sk. Bharnarasalya. Phaldu. Madhya Pradesh. Peninsula. 12. Kowti. Bandaru. Kshiradru. NS. Amarachala. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. See—Oils.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. DISTR.—Bixaceæ. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). LOC. Niradivittulu. increases taste and appetite. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. CHAR. Betaga. Bhoswar. Kadukavata.—Jany. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. :—G. flat. M.8-7. sometimes along river banks. DISTR. M.. more or less coriaceous. white. LOC. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. bitter. camphor and lime-juice. acuminate. Garudphala. FL. Kastel.5-23 X 3. Bhorsal. high. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Southern and Western India.—berry.—numerous. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. COM.—ovate or oblong lanceolate.) FAM. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Doti. Kanara evergreen forests. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. dioecious . For scald-head.—solitary or in racemes. young parts brown pubescent. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. sulphur. Common in N. K. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Fl. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Country and Kanara. Malabar.5 cm. Bihar. tomentose. Bhringamallika. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Dondra. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Ghats. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. H. t.
S. t. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Fl. :—Throughout the State. Pechuli. " Vata ". It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. Kantebhovari. Nalichibhaji. L. Kalambika. throat and tube dull purple . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Chandangopa. Krishnasariva. COM. stalks and leaves. aphrodisiac. FAM. C. Nadika. Fr. vomiting. Kanara. Nalanibhaji. stems long. very slender. base rounded. numerous . DISTR. . CHAR.5x 3. CHAR. X 4 cm. Karmi. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). Kalmisag. M. COM.5 cm. Fr. slightly pubescent and pale beneath.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . Country. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. fever.—4-5-7 X 2-3. rusty pubescent.—Nov. PARTS USED :—Root.8 cm. prostrate. 10-15 cm.—linear. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Java. M.-Dec. Kalaghantika. M.—Apocynaceæ. greenish white. C. Sk. Fl. The outer layer is tasteless. FAM. :—More or less throughout India. Sd.—Convolvulaceæ. Shradhashaka. lobes obscure . IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. :—H. biliousness. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. Ceylon.-Apl. H. middle portion much inflated.—4 or 2.—capsule. trichotomous cymes. Sariva. the powdered wood is used for herpes. t.— Nov. K. Bhadra. NS. Kanara. cordate or hastate.2 -7. Australia. Br. very common in Gujarat. cooling. See—Timbers. :—A large twining shrub . glabrous above.. straight or slightly curved. LOC. cures " Kapha ". cylindric . LOC.—5-12. Fl. In Indo-China. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. Kalidudhi.—tube with narrow portion below. :—G. elliptic oblong. :—Konkan. Siamalata. :—Annual or biennial herb.—in axillary and terminal. Sk. thirst. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Gorwiballi. upper constricted. acute. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. Gopini. LOC. black with white scanty coma. NS. Fodder Plants. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.—follicle. Sd. rooting at the nodes . Potuasaga. Karihambu. Kalaka. Common in the evergreen forests of N. hollow. thick. ovoid .—1-5 flowered peduncles . trailing on mud or floating. blood diseases. L. pubescent. FL.
COM. H. cures biliousness. thick. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. Fl. Fl. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. liver complaints. also useful in liver complaints. Africa and Australia. pale. useful in leprosy. enclosed in fleshy sepals. NS. leprosy. tonic. deeply palmately divided. purple. peduncle solitary axillary. improves voice and complexion. leaves. useful in syphilis. Giant potato .—Convolvulaceæ. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). lobes 5-7. Swadu Vidarikand. indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. appetiser. often broader than long. LOC. entire. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions .—capsule. anthelmintic. Flower causes " Vata ". Kanara sea coast. debility and want of digestive power. tropical Asia. diuretic. aphrodisiac.—in. long. K. :— E. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. glabrous. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. useful in leucoderma.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. near sea coast. t. alterative. (Yunani). lessens inflammation. Bhunichahragadde. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties.—10-15 cm. See—Gums and Resins. Bhumikushmanda. anthelmintic . FAM. biliousness and fevers. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases.-July-Sept.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. Root—heating. (Ayurveda). 4-valved. vomiting. LOC. carminative. long. being regarded as tonic. Sd. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. gonorrhœa and inflammation. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility.8—6. biliousness. demulcent and lactagogue. Fr. . expectorant. " Kapha " . Africa. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. alterative. LOC. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac. flowers (rarely). Australia in moist climate. (Yunani). Leaves enrich blood. Ceylon. Nila-kumbala. bronchitis. stem long. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. M. useful in fever. root large. ovoid. twining. galactagogue. burning sensation. blood diseases. DISTR. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. stomachic. to children in case of emaciation. 4-celled. In Burma. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. galactagogue. L. stimulant. jaundice. tropical Asia.3 cm. America. ovate-lanceolate. CHAR. Carminative. dry. Sk. 3. Bilaikand . Bhuikohala. :—Perennial. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.
L. stems many. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. K. :—G. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. G. Fl. deeply three-Iobed. See—Ornamental Plants. surrounded by ciliate sepals. Vrishchikparni. Kaladanah. ovate-cordate. diseases of head.. believed to be of American origin. K. M. Nilpushpa.) FAM. COM. long tubular funnel-shaped. Sd. carminative. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. H. broad. Sk. subglobose or ovoid. S. fevers. in the Himalayas. diam. sparsely hairy. cures inflammations. Morning glory. Fl. :—Western Peninsula. Musekani. M. lobes ovate. M. stems twining. bechic. Undirkani.— yellow. Fr. DISTR. S. Fl. useful in liver and spleen diseases. headache.5 cm. reniform or ovate-cordate. :—Konkan. . and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). :—A herb . and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). glabrous . scabies and biliousness. blue tinged with pink. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. subglobose. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative.—1. CHAR. Kalokumpo. Fr.— 4-6.5 cm.-Oct.8-5 cm. COM. pains in joints. L. Africa. :—E.:—Throughout India.—capsule.—capsule. filiform. CHAR. tropical Africa.—Sept.—Convolvulaceæ. NS. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Deccan. 3-celled. clothed with long hairs. :—An annual herb.3-2.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth.—dark chestnut coloured . creeping and rooting at the nodes. anthelmintic. Ceylon. H. NS.—Convolvulaceæ. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. crenate. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m.—3. bracts linear. dries the phlegm. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Country. Purgative. petioles hairy. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. Nilvel. PARTS USED :—Seeds. DISTR. The plant contains a glucoside. t. Ganribij. Mirchai. axillary. abdominal diseases. Indian jalap. Shyamala-bijak. Kaladana. Sd. bronchitis (Ayurveda). FAM. E.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes .-5-12. leucoderma. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). LOC. Undirkani. C. LOC. LOC.
DISTR. fevers.. good in pain. Nandi. uterus. FAM. NS. Pithori. C. Rechani. also in the Konkan and N. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. good for weakness. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. applied in diseases of eye and gums. H. False-Indian jalap. purgative. expectorant. useful in bilious tremors of body. Kanaka. fistula. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Ceylon. Turbith root. paralysis. muscular pains. Common in southern Gujarat. Mauritius. Fl. lungs. LOC. bechic. sometimes cultivated. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Triputi. inflammations and abdominal diseases . Root— bitter. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. Trivrit. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. acrid. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun).—5-10 X 1. bracts large. bladder. wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. root long. :—Throughout India. anæmia. tropical Africa and America. Fr. 3. useful in loss of consciousness. long. enclosed in enlarged sepals .-Jany. pungent. often pinkish. carminative. white variety is a mild cathartic. Sk. when used alone . PARTS USED :—Root. useful in bilious fevers. rarely slightly lobed. useful in diseases of kidney. globose. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). G. urethral discharges. burning sensation and intoxication. Br. Indian rhubarb. laxative. Fl.3-7 cm. :— E. Nishottara. K. inflammations. antipyretic. useful in spleen enlargement. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). pains of chest and joints. M.—Convolvulaceæ. cooling. much branched. It is also alterative. Nishoth. base cordate or truncate . COM. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. twining and twisted together. L. anthelmintic. mucronate. pedicels thickened upwards. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. HABITAT :—Wild .—in few flowered cymes. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. Kalaparni.—capsule. like others of the genus . brain diseases.—Oct. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). Philippines. laxative. strangury. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. ovate or oblong. removes bad humours. LOC. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bronchitis. fleshy. . Root with bark should be used. angled and winged. Nahatara.8-5 cm. t. Nashotar. Malay Islands.—white. heart and abdomen. CHAR. leucoderma. stems very long. paralysis. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). LOC. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice.
obtuse. Jajimalle. Sk. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. intermediate sessile . often tinged with pink outside. Fl.—throughout the year. Chambali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Jai. sessile. :—E. Sk. terminal rather larger. CHAR. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. . lobes 4 (rarely).. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. t. Bakali. FAM. pale when dry. :—Cultivated throughout India. Surabhigandha. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. Fl.8 cm. wild. petiole and rachis margined. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. fleshy.. L. imparipinnate. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. distal pair confluent with the terminal. across. stipules with a long rigid point. coriaceous. :—Bombay southwards . Bandhuka.2-6. M.—3.—opposite. oblong. G. Raktaka. C. very common in Konkan and N. size of a pea. Pendgul. Parali. Ajjige. DISTR.— Rubiaceæ. 5-10 X 3. See—Ornamental Plants. Fr.3 coriaceous. Guddedasal. Pankul. Anemallige. Priyanvada. also along river banks. pale when dry. Fl. K.3 cm. Ceylon.—ripe carpels 2. tube long. LOC. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. high. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Kisukare. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. smooth. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. L. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. M. very slender . :—Western Peninsula. t. stipules . white. oblong. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. K. FAM. 3. Chambeli. Chambeli.—July-Sept. sessile.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.5 cm. Jati. proximal petiolulate. COM NS.—Oleaceæ.—tubular. :—E. NS. of stems and roots. :—A large subscandent shrub.2-6. 5-12. LOC.—opposite.—globose. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. leaflets 7-11.9 m. purple when ripe. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. COM. Kepala. Fr. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. Flame of the woods . H. DISTR. obtuse . FL—numerous.
See—Ornamental Plants. Navamallika. very fragrant. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. variable in shape. Vanchandrika. . PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. LOC. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. Flowers—tonic. expectorant. Mogro. HABITAT :—Cultivated.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. given in blood diseases. M. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Tuscan jasmine. caries of teeth. K. abundant in April-May. ear. head. Sambac. Mogra. allays fevers . ulcers. rheumatism. DISTR. surrounded by calyx-teeth. useful in stomatitis. Fl. soporific. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Arabian Lily. Root—purgative. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. Mogara. intoxicating. weakness of sight and affections of mouth.—opposite. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. biliousness. good for pains in joints and ear. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. Fr. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Oil—lessens inflammations.—Oleaceæ. flowers and oil.—white. heating. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. G. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. paralysis. useful in diseases of eye. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. alexiteric. suppurative. vulnerary. and for scabies (Yunani). Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. :—E. otorrhoea. good in asthma. :—Cultivated throughout India. Pramodini. COM NS. Leaves are also used in toothache. Ananga-mallika. cures headache. tonic to brain. eyes and ear. entire. aphrodisiac. membranous. aphthae. base rounded or subcordate. LOC. softens skin. anthelmintic. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. stomatitis. See—Ornamental Plants. H. Banmallika. Mallige. The plant contains an alkaloid. emmenagogue. leprosy. scarcely climbing. FAM. Motia. headache and weak eyes. Fl. alexiteric. it is used in cases of insanity. In Goa. Iravantige. emetic. L. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). brain tonic . biliousness (Ayurveda). teeth. Plant—deobstruent. alexiteric. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. diseases of mouth. :—A sub-erect shrub. subglobose. CHAR. black. Sk. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. mouth and skin.—ripe-carpels 1-2. Chamba. Flower has bitter taste . diuretic.—more or less throughout the year . t.
NS.. abdominal complaints. stipules capillary. villous within.—in flat-topped cymes.—E. COM. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. French or Small physic nut. anaemia. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. DISTR. M. Virechani. Ratanjot. long-petioled. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. LOC. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. Jangali erandi. L. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. L. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock).5-12. FAM. leaves. Fl. cordate.—Euphorbiaceæ. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. have suppurative effect. biliousness. Akhuparnika. Barbados Physic nut.—orbicular. 10-15 X 7. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. multifid. Jyotishka.—monœcious. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. G.—Euphorbiaceæ. thirst.5 mm. Fl. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). The acrid. black. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo.8 cm. when applied to boils.—ovoid oblong. Dundigu. 3-lobed. Simeavadala. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.5 cm. long. urinary discharges. garden shrub . Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. Fr. K.5 cm. corolla lobes 5.5-12. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. Bhadradanti. FAM. longer than calyx. disk of female flower urceolate. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. 7. herpes. diam. 7. Sk. :—E. useful in chronic dysentery. Kananerand. subfleshy. Sutashreni. CHAR:—A handsome. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Vilayati haralu. K. Jangali—Pahari erand. Mogali—Ran-erand. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Fr. fruits and seeds.— ovoid. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. " Tridosha". CHAR. large.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. Sk. 1. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. . coral-red. Sd. yellow.—capsule. fistula. dull brownish black.— alternate. and also promotes healing. PARTS USED :—Wood. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. NS. juice sticky opalescent. :—Native of tropical America. male flowers. broadly ovate. LOC. COM. across. The seeds act as drastic purgative. Seeds contain active principle curcin. H. Coral plant.
Fr. wild in Tenasserim. rheumatism and dysentery. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly).5 cm. dyspepsia. L.—capsule. long. K. NS. Shindhuka. wounds. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. useful in bronchitis. useful in piles. DISTR. LOC. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . NS. America. M. LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. heating. Fl.6-1. FAM. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn.—Acanthaceæ. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. CHAR. aphrodisiac. FAM. pains. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. HABITAT :—Shady positions. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. COM. purgative. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). tympanitis.—Acanthaceæ. 5-12. In Cambodia. :—H. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. M. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. Kala adulsa. hot. high . JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. " Vata ' and "Pitta". Krishna-nirgundi. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. :—A native of China. leaves. Nilmanjari. 7. clavate glabrous. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Bakas. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Nilinirgandi. skin-diseases. in interrupted spikes. LOC. fattening tonic . :—Bomb.5 cm. native of N. COM. Karinchki.—Ghati pitpapda. enlarged spleen. all over the State.5-12. branches subterete with raised lines. Bhutakeshi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent.2 m. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis.—white spotted. bitter. Seed— oleaginous. fevers. dry . DISTR. Nachukaddi. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. purple within. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. Sk. Leaves are used in scabies. often met with in Bengal.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. .—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. Kalmashi. eye diseases (Ayurveda). causes " Kapha ". vaginal discharges. Karambal.
root-stock tuberous. purifies blood in skin diseases. C. :—N. constricted between the seeds . . (Yunani). Western Ghats . vomiting. t. Fl.—finely tuberculate. Australia. upper lip notched. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). DISTR. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Maval in the Deccan. thin. fragrant. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base.—variable. petioles channelled. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Kachri. Sugandhavachai. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. L. pure-white. COM. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. aromatic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. Madras State. expectorant. Malaya. lower 3-lobed . Kachchura . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Chandramala. stops vomiting.-Mar. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . Travancore. increases " Vata ". Fl. oblong shortly pointed. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5-9 cm. round. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tube funnel-shaped .—612 from the centre of the plant. Konkan. intoxication..—Scitaminaceæ.—in cylindric terminal spikes. Fl. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). Malay Islands. diuretic. pale violet pink. strengthens lungs. fever.5 X 4. thirst.— June-July. burning of body. urinary discharges. Fr.—2. Tubers yield an essential oil. good in spleen diseases. DISTR. Chandramulika. ovate or lanceolate. LOC. enriches blood. K. tired feeling. t. oval. :— H. Cultivated in gardens. LOC.—lobes lanceolate. P. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. :—More or less throughout India. FAM. Fl. M. Deccan. wandering of mind. removes indigestion. PARTS USED :—Tubers. obtuse at both ends. deep green. teeth. Ceylon. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie).3-12. fugacious. Sk. 6.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. constipating . Panchgani. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. lying flat on the ground. Kapurkachri. Plant diuretic. L. CHAR. spreading horizontally. softly pubescent. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections.—Oct. diaphoretic. NS.. :—Western Peninsula. elliptic. biliousness. stomachic.—capsule. :—Konkan.:—Stemless herb.—2-lipped. Sd. gives lustre to eyes. South Konkan. LOC.
Dudhya bhopala. Sk. spathe 7. The whole plant. COM. Bottle-gourd. simple. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Tubers yield an essential oil. t. Labuka. DISTR. CHAR. yellow. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M.—Aroideæ. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Cochin. Bhuichampo . PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. inflorescence of many ovaries.. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Bhuichapha.5-23 cm.—narrowly oblong. of various shades of purple and white. t. H. Tumbaka. Kaddu. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. :—M. remedy for itch. —Feb. semicylindric.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. rootstock reaching 5 cm. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Fr. promotes suppuration. K. S. FAM.— sweetly fragrant.—Scitaminaceæ. :—Konkan.. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Halagumbala. furrowed. LOC. NS. midrib very stout. petiole as long as blade. Malay Islands.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nelasampige . . Calabash. Bhuchampaka.. :—Stemless plant. creeping.-Apl. Fl. Danta-bija. very poisonous .8-5 cm. FAM. :—An aquatic herb. Vatsanabhi. in many cycles. female cylindric. G.—15-37. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. Dudio Tumbada. CHAR. oblong. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. M. HABITAT :—Marshy places. diam. annulate . :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous.5-10 cm. entire. Kadu bhopala. Bhuichampa . In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. Ceylon. NS.—30X7. crowded in a globose bead . Fl. L. tubular below. N. Fl. elliptic-oblong. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . Alkaddu. margins undulate.—globose 3. K.. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Country. Kanara. H. long. Dudhi. Travancore. DISTR. used in the form of poultice.— inflorescence. coriaceous. :— G. Sk. COM.-Mar. LOC. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.5 X 5-12.—Cucurbitaceæ. Coorg. thick. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . L. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. anthers crowded. NS. :—Mysore. M.. Katutumbi. FAM. Fl. COM. Lauka.
LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. LOC. vulnerary. Seeds emetic (Yunani). alexiteric. refrigerant and anti-bilious. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. Sk. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. K. antipyretic. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. See—Timbers. Malaya. NS. Ceylon. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. brain-tonic. earache. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. :—Western Peninsula. bitter. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. fattening. Bandhara.) FAM. USES :— Leaves are purgative. fruits and seeds. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . Konkan Ghats. emetic. scalding of urine. See—Vegetables. Challa. Fruit good in bronchitis. dry cough. fruits and seeds. cures blood diseases. increases "Vata". earache. LOC:—North Kanara and S. wild (rarely). It is considered stimulant and febrifuge.—Lythraceæ. Holematti. Flowers cooling. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. causes bronchitis. DISTR. styptic. sweet. "Vata". anti-bilious. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. inflammations. Arjuna. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. muscular pains. :—H. cooling. . Seeds—good for hot constitution. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. fever. Bark and leaves are purgative. aphrodisiac. Tarul. Nirbendeka: M. bark. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. LOC. Arjuna. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. in many cases only cultivated. bronchitis. seeds are narcotic. flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. flowers. improves taste. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Taman. piles. In the Andamans. There are two varieties. bitter variety is diuretic. DISTR. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. leaves. PARTS-USED :—Root. leaves. cause haemoptysis. cures asthma. cures leucorrhoea. Assam.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. cardiac and general tonic. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. China. LOC. ulcers. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. Ornamental Plants. anti-periodic. pains (Ayurveda). diuretic. wholesome to fœtus. oleaginous. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. lessens inflammations.
Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K. S. Khesari. lameness. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Nakharanjaka. DISTR. The bark is used to poison fish. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. heart-troubles. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Kukurgal. Madaranga. Basu). NS. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. M. oblong flat. Deccan hills. D.—Thymelaeaceæ.5 X 2-2. Sandika.8 cm. lobes 4. yellow. diam.5-3. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. PROPERTIES AND LOC. subsessile. . Lakh. See—Food Plants. CHAR. glabrous above. Fr. FAM.. Sk. Medika. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Lang. G. M. Rami. Gorantha. Country. COM. NS. :—E. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. DISTR. Peninsula—Ceylon.—opposite or scattered. inflammation. :—E.—in erect. COM. Fl. tonic. K. silky beneath. swellings etc. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. perianth-tube densely silky villous . improves taste. Rametha. Latri.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). dense terminal heads 2. :—W.—ellipsoid-oblong.5 cm. oblong lanceolate. Tree mignonette. Chickling—White vetch. (Ayurveda). Grains contain vitamin A.. COM. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Mehndi. bark mottled.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. Triputi. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. piles and wandering of the mind. Henna plant. FAM. Kanara. :—Konkan southwards. Ragangi. pain. t. Sk. :—A much branched large shrub. Mukute. M.—Dec-May. enclosed in the perianth . HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. NS. Yavaneshta. but dangerous cathartic. Kassar. pointed. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. H. Mendi. LOC. FAM. common on the Supa Ghats. 5-7. Wooly-headed gnidia. cooling. G. N. common at Mahabaleshwar. L. Belgaum hills . :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. causes much flatulence. Medi.—Lythraceæ. burning. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. (B.
veined outside. cure strangury tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. syphilitic sores. HABITAT:—Cultivated. & Gib. LOC. Ceylon. Massur.—opposite. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. The plant contains a glucoside. favours hair-growth. boils. L. t. Gurubija. amenorrhœa. mucronate. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. lateral branches 4-gonous. Masur. Sura. Asia. fragrant. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet.—Apl-July. :—Grown in Nasik. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. stomatitis. H. See—Dyes. K. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. diseases of spleen. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. lumbago. Sk. Masura. Fl. Sd.—angular. Leaves—bitter. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. in diseases of heart and of . Fr. ulcers. skin diseases . supported by persistent calyx. Iran and Baluchistan. Masur. Europe and in temperate W.—capsule. Fl. Lentil. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. useful in headache. Chanangi. enriches blood. PROPERTIES. DISTR. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. :—E. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. ophthalmia. white or rose coloured . NS. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. truncate. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. vulnerary. allay burning sensation. M.). cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. cure leucoderma. Gabholika. useful.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Masuridal. many. indigenous in S. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . expectorant. improve appetite.—in terminal. E. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. Belgaum and Poona districts. globose. DISTR. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. scabies. COM. diuretic. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. LOC. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. diuretic. LOC. cure insanity (Ayurveda). seeds. Flowers are refrigerant. FAM. pyramidal and panicled cymes. wild in Arabia. finger nails and hair. The oil and essence keep the body cool. often ending in spinous point. G. bronchitis. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. dysentery. planted as hedge. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . flowers. Ragadali. PARTS USED :—Leaves.
Suvasura. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. bitter. tumours and injuries. Kurutige. bechic. galactagogue. good for pain in abdomen. tonic. Fr. DISTR. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. bronchitis.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Hot and dry. good in inflammations. L. :—An erect glabrous annual. chest complaints. :—Cultivated throughout India. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . laxative. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). affections of spleen. Halim .—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. The covering is styptic and astringent. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. See—Vegetables. C—petals 2-4 or 0.—small. Fl. eye diseases (Ayurveda). white. Raktabija. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). They are mucilaginous and laxative. blood and skin diseases. upper sessile. very likely indigenous in W. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Sk. tonic. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. bronchitis. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. They contain vitamin B. FAM. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . enrich blood. Ahaliva. Hurfi. leaves and seeds. Chandrashura. Ashalika. LOC. Chavnsar. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. See-Food Plants. cures dysentery . Leaves are used as pot-herb. often with linear segments . useful in diseases of chest. G.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). Asahio. the lower petiolate. Seeds contain fatty oil.—Cruciferæ. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). and muscular pains. diuretic. Asia. CHAR. COM. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. rheumatism. constipating. Grains contain vitamins A and B. Seeds—indigestible. K. Garden cress . Chandrika. stomatitis . LOC. Halim. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. LOC. H. aperient. aphrodisiac . Allibija. :—E. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood.
—Lauraceæ. . H. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. M. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). urinary complaints. FAM. Alashi. Malina. perianth lobes wanting. COM. Haimwati. hard to digest. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. lenticellate.—Linaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. emmenagogue. "Kapha". Alsi. remove "Vata". Sk. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. diuretic. aphrodisiac . remove biliousness. tonic.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. NS. Sk. bronchitis. Alshi. Javas . heal ulcers. H. Medini. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. Common flax. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. boils. Alsi. lead to impotency. used in consumption. colds and throat complaints. Linseed. Maidalakadi. yellowish. K. LOC.. aphrodisiac. Tisi. LOC. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Fibres. gouty and rheumatic swellings. urinary discharges . inflammations. good for cough and kidney troubles. Roasted seeds are astringent. M. causes loss of appetite. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. base narrowed. Seeds—mucilaginous. leaves.:—E. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. L. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Maidelakri. Fl. back-ache. cure leprosy. pale beneath. 8-12 together in heads. FAM. black. Seeds contain vitamin A. See—Oils. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. CHAR. burnt bark styptic and healing. Alasi. Common tallow laurel. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. :—E. Fl. 7. branchlets densely tomentose. PARTS USED :—Bark. t. bark somewhat corky. Madagandha. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. G. Fr.5 mm. glossy dark-green above. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. Jivanika. diam. "Pitta". Garbijaur. bad for eyesight. Country.:—Throughout the Konkan and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. DISTR. Tailottama. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). seeds and oil. galactagogue. COM. native country probably Egypt.. usually alternate.:—A small evergreen tree. M. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Kanara. flowers. hot. LOC.— globose.—May-July. Sedhavi. dysentery. :—Cultivated throughout India.—crowded at the ends of branches. supported by the thickened pedicel. Alashi.
Root—astringent. :—Konkan. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. G. AMARA Clarke. much curved.9 cm.—Nov. thirst. K. leprosy (Ayurveda). Australia. useful in biliousness. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. lower much longer. NS. Karvituri. consumption. Katukoshataki. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts .—numerous. stem stout. midrib white. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. Dhamana. :—E. SK. branched upwards. many. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. cure cough. M. throat troubles. Ranturai. burning sensation. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. diseases of blood. H. Dhaval. COM. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . pains in joints. Bibhishana. acrid. expectorant.100 m. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Fl. M. white. Mrityupushpa. LOC. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. fruits and seeds. vagina. Sk. tonic.—Lobeliaceæ. heating. erysipelas (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. bronchitis. finely serrulate. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). "vata". very small. LOC. useful in inflammations. hollow. G. Kalahogesoppu. M. Ghontali. 3 usually connate throughout . Malay Islands. Narsala. biliousness. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. stomachic. nearly sessile. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Devanala.—. burning sensation.—Cucurbitaceæ. light green. .5-3. Kandele. Deccan and S. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. lobes linear. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. K. Nali. high. Jalini. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. FAM. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. Country. 1.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Sthulanala. heart. CHAR. Jhinga. long. FAM.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. galactagogue. all oblong.2-3 m. Sd. t. Fl. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. bitter. Divali.-Mar. lanceolate. aphrodisiac. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Wild tobacco. uterus. LOC. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. yellowish brown . USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. Narttaka. Ceylon. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. paralysis. fever. L. NS. Devnal. Fr. overheated brains. diuretic. subglobose. Ridge gourd. Leaves are mucilaginous. 2. Kadudodka. :—E. long. strangury. Kahire. H. leaves. Nal. bark.—alternate.—capsule. spleen diseases. DISTR. COM. opening by 2 valves. C—2-lipped. It acts as anodyne.
thrives in Deccan trap. females. Moha. Mahua. Mowda. Mahuda. DISTR. at first whitish and softly villous. Mhowra. uterine and vaginal tumours . jaundice. asthma. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis.—monœcious. inflammations. Burma. piles. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. G. L. especially in western Peninsula.—petals yellow with green veins . cures urinary discharges. biliousness. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. LOC. Mahura. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). cathartic. "Kapha". NS. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). Madhusrava. K.—Sept. tumours. COM. :—E. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat).:—A large climber. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. 5-7 lobed. Fr. at length scabrid. diuretic. base cordate. anæmia. recommended in splenic enlargement. t. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. LOC. tuberculous glands. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. digestible. fruit and seeds. liver complaints. pale green.) FAM. useful in rat-bite. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. Gudapushpa. Fruit cures fever. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). :—Throughout India.53. :—Plant is bitter. solitary in the same axil as males. Fl. palmate. bitter. asthma. 10-ribbed. piles. leaves. acrid. bronchitis. cough. cures "Vata". . Pokka. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. tonic and diuretic. DISTR. laxative. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. Root-bark is abortifacient. tonic to intestines. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic.8 cm. obtusely conical at both ends. ascites. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. Bengal to the W. LOC. also in Konkan and N. M.—obovoid. alexiteric. Madhya Pradesh. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. PARTS USED :—Bark.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. C. thick. Fl. Mowa. carminative. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. tendrils usually 3-fid. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. hydrogogue. USES. Madhuka. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Hunage. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). flowers and fruits. Doddippa. H. stems 5-angled. W. bitter. Butter tree..—Sapotaceæ. Mahula. Mahua tree. Kanara (rare) . 5-10 cm. long and about 2. Ceylon. Sk. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent.—small.
Kapilo. Kamala. and Kanara.) FAM. Shendri. NS. and Upper Burma. Oil is good for skin-diseases. used in fractures. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. K. flowers act as a mild purgative. Famine Plants. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Oils. Ceylon. Sk. Sk. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. and appetiser (Sushruta). USES :—Astringent and emollient. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Honey tree. Monkey-face tree. :—Konkan. Fruit-tonic . heals wounds . fatigue . cooling. good in heart diseases. COM. G. M. carminative. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Flowers—oleaginous. leprosy. burning sensation. See—Timbers. Kapila. COM. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. India . Kapila. NS. bronchitis. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. :—E. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. astringent. Moha. Liquors. ulcers. K. Flowers are regarded as cooling.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. LOC. Mysore. M. Movanuhjad. :—-E. and also a remedy for itch. Kambhal Raini. flowers and oil. causes "Kapha". There is a trace of alkaloid. G. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. H. Mohwa. Kampillaka. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. often planted. H. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). :—Western peninsula. Flower—sweet. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. yields two important products. LOC. galactagogue. Mehua. .. aphrodisiac. tonic and nutritive. tonic. anthelmintic. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient.—Euphorbiaceæ. Huli. expectorant. consumption. fixed oil and a spirit. cures blood diseases.—Sapotaceæ. Madhuka. Mahuva of S. Kesarimavu. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. thirst. Oils. Oil—emollient (Yunani). USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. cures biliousness. Mohache jhad. Movaro. fattening. See—Timbers. Mahuda. aphrodisiac. DISTR. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. PARTS USED :—Bark. Karnatic. FAM. Ippe. Hullichillu.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. tonic to body. throat troubles. Amba. Am. Mango tree. Sind.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. Sahakara. bad blood. stomachic. dysentery. Introduced. LOC. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. FAM. appetiser. alexiteric. carminative. enriches blood. Rasala. NS. Astringent. anthelmintic. heals ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. improve taste and appetite. diuretic. aphrodisiac. "Kapha". stone in bladder. Amri. DISTR. urinary discharges. clears brain. a good collyrium (Yunani). M. chronic dysentery and gleet. cause flatulence and constipation. cure leucorrhoea. diseases of abdomen. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). useful in skin-diseases. See—Timbers. China. cooling. purgative. good in heart trouble. vomiting. detergent. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. fruits and seeds. laxative. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. thirst. beautifies complexion. aphrodisiac. LOC. cure "Vata". Fruit—heating. good in dysentery. improves cough. leaves. improves complexion. it exudes a pink coloured gum. DISTR. removes bad smell from mouth. tumours. good in cough. piles. sweet. Kamarasa. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Chuta. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Burma. :—Tropical Himalayas. Bhutan. Mavin-mara. used in chronic diarrhœa. useful in bronchitis. Sikkim. Australia. Bihar. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). wounds. ulcers. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). sour. biliousness. anthelmintic. maturant. purgative. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. hiccup. K. styptic. Mavu. :—-Throughout the State. Gum . Ambo. LOC. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Sk. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Ceylon. fruits and seeds. astringent to bowels. vermifuge and. wild and cultivated. Khasia Hills.—Anacardiaceæ. :—E. vaginal troubles. styptic. liver pain. Kanara. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. liver. flowers. spleen. :—Throughout tropical India. "Pitta". cooling. vulnerary. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. H. Amra. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. dispels langour and burning of body. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Cuckoo's Joy. in "Tridosh". Malay Islands. Dyes. tonic. COM. leaves. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). G. Ghats and the Satpudas. cultivated throughout the State. lessen intestinal pains.
M. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. slightly tapering to a very blunt point.—broadly ovate. :—Deccan and S. USES. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Fr.—Apl. urinary discharges. C. Dodi. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Java. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Kadulimb. margined. cooling. older branches ash coloured. antipyretic. Dugdhike . :—-E.5-10 cm. DISTR. K. fleshy. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. overlapping to the right. Sk. biliousness. few glands above the petiole cordate .—Meliaceæ. pale yellowish brown.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. Limbra. coma copious . Nimbaka.) FAM. Harandori. stops nasal bleeding. COM. 7. :—A large twining shrub. corona lobes large. piles. Paribhadraka. Balant nimba. . NS. Juss. t. Khandodi. Nakchhikni. Fruit Trees. Sk. Fl. cures "Vata". Suparnika. Nim or Margosa tree. good for dyspepsia. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. H. H. G. useful in bleeding piles. :—Bengal. LOC. COM.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet.5 cm.—many. Madhumalati. leucoderma.—Asclepiadaceæ. M. CHAR. Hari.5-11. Nimla. inflammations. rat-bite (Ayurveda). Assam.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. It is also anthelmintic. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. all plains districts of Madras State. astringent to bowels. M.—rotate with broad lobes. aphrodisiac. flattened. Confection made from ripe mango juice. :—G. green or yellowish green. L.) FAM.—6.. long. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. useful in diseases of eye. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Hemajyoti-valli.—follicles. Sd. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Ripe fruit is laxative. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Kharkhodi. alexiteric. Bevu. LOC. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Limbada. K. with lenticels and black dots. if snuffed. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. NS. asthma. burning sensation.3-15 X 4. Nim. Ambri. Nimba. Nimba. Ceylon. Fl. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. rugosely striate. tumours. Country. Juice of kernel. See—Timbers.
aphrodisiac.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). LOC. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. COM. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. for unhealthy ulcers. valuable in consumption. maturant. fever. H. leucoderma. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. Small melilot. NS. relieves "Kapha". chronic leprosy. bruises. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . boils. :—E. Tonic. Vanmethika. Banmethi. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . Burma. stomachic. . tumours. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. PARTS USED :—Root. Oils. leprosy. "pittadosh. LOC. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . thirst. good in ophthalmia. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. general debility. resolvant. asthma. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. it is a general vermifuge. pectoral. earache.. convalescence. toothache. stimulant and stomachic. FAM." vomiting. burning sensation near heart. and loss of appetite. refrigerant. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. carminative. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. Sk. cures ulcers and inflammations . skin diseases. M. astringent. fruits and seeds. tonic. fatigue. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. alexiteric. Ranmethi. antiperiodic. lessens inflammation. good for leprosy. useful in syphilitic sores. cough. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. leaves. biliousness. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. sprains. expectorant. anthelmintic. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). common in the Deccan and Karnatak. The flowers are stimulant. bad taste in the mouth. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. maturant. insecticidal. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. bark. blood complaints.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. lumbago. rheumatism . urinary discharges. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. tonic and antiperiodic. See—Timbers. piles. DISTR. piles. swollen glands. flowers. anthelmintic. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water.
DISTR. also in S. Externally used as a fomentation. especially in strained back. tapering at both ends. base cordate. Malaya and Africa. t. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Fr. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn.—pale yellow. finally red. slightly echinulate.—small. Fl. poultice or plaster for swellings. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. . Pudinah. Sd. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Bilari. :—H. young parts white-hairy. LOC. Ceylon. L. male fascicled on short peduncles. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. M. M. :—India (tropical zone).. Khasia. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. at first green and variegated with yellow. in spicate close racemes. "Sikkim. COM. FAM.—3-foliate. Fl. HABITAT :—In hedges. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. H. M. stem angular.—variable in size.—size of a pea. G. standard exceeding the wings and keel. leaflets toothed. lobes dentate or serrate . NS.—Labiatæ. :—Common in Deccan. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. Fr. Europe. Iran. Ghugri. glabrous. females sessile. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. introduced into many other regions. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. oblanceolate. FAM.—monœcious . deltoid-ovate entire. Pudina. :—E. oblong-ellipsoid. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . Assam. rounded. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. Pudina. high. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. :—An erect annual herb. :—Western Peninsula. scabrid. L. very hispid .140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Agamaki. Country and Gujarat. CHAR. given as a gruel (Murray). Afghanistan. north Bengal. It has expectorant properties to some extent.—Cucurbitaceæ. Chatinmaragu. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. Corn-March mint. truncate at the apex. LOC. NS.—one.—pod. tendrils simple. Fl. C. brown. of terminal rather long. ellipsoid. 30-45 cm. leaves and seeds. glabrous or slightly hairy. K.— Jany.
:—Western Himalayas. Europe. Kanara. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. M. skin diseases. lined with hairs and hairy outside. Sk. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Kashmir. In N. hiccup. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. cardiotonic. foul breath. emmenagogue. LOC. infusion is given in fevers. COM. hairy. headache. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. NS. and stimulant. dry. :—A perennial erect herb . Assam. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). E. none at the top. Fl. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. indigestion and cephalagia. MESUA FERREA Linn. L.—in axillary distant whorls. :—E. H. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. the upper similar and large. Himalayas. diuretic. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. small tumours. The plant is used in chutneys. LOC. Suvarna. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. North and West Asia. Konkan and N.—Guttiferæ. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. Nagkesara. stalked. Nagsampige. Naghas. alexipharmic.-narrowed below. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst.—nutlets dry. good for fevers. Andamans. lilac. Country. Nagkesara. Carminative. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. oblong. . useful in liver and spleen diseases. blood and heart troubles. DISTR. good in asthma and sweats. Gums and Resins. pains in joints (Ayurveda). Nagakeshara. stem short. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. FAM. sorethroat. toothed. See—Timbers. lanceolate. Bengal.—sub-equally 4-lobed. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. LOC. Oils. sweats. K. Nagchapha. thirst. Burma Tenasserim. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. smooth. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES :—Root. flowers and fruits. binding. vomiting. asthma. Ceylon. M. S. tonic to kidneys . cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). used for cough. biliousness. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. ovate. Assam Iron-wood. digestive. Ceylon Iron-wood. Travancore. :—E. Fr. leaves. DISTR. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Nagkinjalka. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. cough. China.
—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ).142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. t. Ghats. Fl. diaphoretic. Fl. Yellow champa . also used as purgative. G. Champaka. Fruit. NS. rheumatism. near temples and in gardens. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Dyes. Burma. Lajjika. Hem-pushpa. Sonchampo. S. destroys poisons. Nachike-gidda. Lajalu. :—A diffuse under-shrub. facilitates micturition. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Suvarna champaka. nausea and fevers . Risemani. Sensitive plant. "Kapha". IndoChina. K. Raktamula. Yunnan.-pod flat. L. sensative. acrid. remove biliousness. M. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. DISTR. rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. evergreen rain-forest of N. Humble plant. "Vata". They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. bile. Sampige. Flowers— expectorant. leaflets 15-20 pairs. removes worms. See—Timbers. K.-Oct. Lajalu. good in leprosy.5 cm. H. Champo.—bipin-nate. high. glabrous above. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . flowers and fruits. Champaka. 57. H. stimulant. pinnae 1-2 pairs.. Surabhi. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Sk. Lajja. :—E. Champaka. Sparshalajja. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. :—E. LOC. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Pivala chapha. hairy beneath. aphrodisiac. diuretic. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. petioles hairy. pink. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. diuretic. Lajalu. it is given with honey to relieve colic. LOC. Pilochampo. 45-90 cm.—Sept. slightly recurved. Golden champa. COM.—4-merous. :—Cultivated all over the State. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . COM. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. rachis bristly. stems and branches sparingly prickly. long. Sk. gout. Champa. Sone-chapha. India. W. Assam. NS. Lajari. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. in vertigo. Sankochini. bark. blood affections. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Lajjavati. FAM. CHAR. . Vanamallika. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. leaves. Kanara.. ophthalmia. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. useful in cough. in globose heads. FAM. M. cultivated. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). clothed with glandular hairs . Muthmurika.—Magnoliaceæ. G. digitate. Flowers-stomachic.
jaundice. alterative. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). leprosy. Mukul. cure biliousness. Root is resolvent. In Brazil root is used as emetic. Bolsari. Varsuli. piles. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Sharadika. DISTR. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. DISTR. Baphuli. flowers and fruits acrid. LOC. Borsalli. LOC. sweet. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. cultivated in the tropics. burning sensation. cooling. useful in blood and bile diseases. LOC. Kalhala. cure blood diseases. cures "Kapha". NS. dysentery. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. inflammations. vaginal and uterine complaints. Bakul. Fruit causes flatulence. alexipharmic. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. headache. :—G. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. ulcers. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. See—Ornamental Plants. liver complaints. cooling. Flowers—expectorant. :—Naturalised throughout India. Vovali. FAM. asthma. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Ranjal. acrid. PARTS USED :—Root. Bakula. It is also resolvent and alterative. H. M. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). Bakul. Mulsari. Kanara and Konkan. cultivated in gardens in pots. blood diseases (Ayurveda). fatigue. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. probably a native of tropical America. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. COM. Juice is applied externally. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. leprosy. Root. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. biliousness. Anangaka. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Sk. oleaginous. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. bilious fevers. astringent to bowels. flowers. teeth and gum diseases. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. good for gonorrhœa. in piles and fistula. often planted in gardens. K. bark. Ceylon. smallpox (Yunani). alexipharmic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. leucoderma. nose diseases. Mugule. Kanara. Malaya. fruits and seeds. Bakul. Bark cardiotonic. Flowers give taste.—Sapotaceæ.:—Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. vulnerary. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Seeds fix loose teeth. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. cures biliousness. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn.
Karavalli. each one surrounded by an involucre. NS. H. Fl. . It is also tonic and febrifuge.—continually in bloom. K. Four o'clock plant. NS. Guleaabbas . clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. COM. Kareli. good for syphilitic sores. :—A herbaceous plant. cordate. FAM. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Kandura. COM. DISTR. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Karela. M. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. M. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . Chandra—Sanjimallige. LOC. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. Karala. and rather fleshy stems . See—Timbers. LOC. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. high with large perennial tuberous roots. :—E. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. HABITAT -Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Leaves are maturant. native of tropical America. Sk. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. brightly coloured (dark crimson. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Hagalkai. Marvel of Peru. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. Fl. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Karela. lessen inflammations (Yunani). Hagala. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Karelo. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fr.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. yellow. H. FAM. K.—E. See—Ornamental Plants. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. often ribbed or rugose. Fruit Trees. L. G.—membranous. 30-75 cm. Karli. t. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.—Nyctaginaceæ.—large. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. CHAR. it is applied to relieve headache. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. Sandhya-kali or Raga. :—Grown throughout India. Gulbasa . Krishnakali. blackish. Oils. Sk. Carella fruit.
laxative. hearttroubles. jaundice etc. Fruits contain vitamins A. Gid-hagalu. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. digestible.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. :—Throughout India. longpepper. antibilious. Vandhya.—Cucurbitaceæ. leaves and fruit. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. NS. Malaya. B and C. hot alexiteric. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. Karehiballi. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. bronchitis. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. antipyretic. urinary calculi. urinary discharges. aphrodisiac. hiccup. M. carminative. . etc. anthelmintic. See—Vegetables. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Kantolan. Karkotaki. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. rheumatism. DISTR. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. Fruit—very bitter. cooling. tumours. also in Malaya. piles. Leaves—aphrodisiac. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. and externally in ague as an absorbent. K. DISTR. It is useful in gout. boils. piles.'. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. lessens expectoration . Nagarali. stomachic. appetiser. Leaves act as galactagogue. Fruit— bitter. :—G. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. burns. Kanta. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. anthelmintic. ulcers. stomachic. Beksa. anæmia. LOC. asthma. bronchitis. Kartoli. :—Cultivated throughout India. leprosy. M. China. laxative and authelmintic. sparingly in Konkan. cure "Tridosh". S. cures biliousness. excessive salivation. Fruit—bitter. tropical Africa. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. "Kapha". Fruit is tonic. and America. Country and Gujarat. leaves and fruit. urinary discharges. FAM. laxative. used in syphilis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. COM. H. Sk. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. all kinds of poisoning. asthma. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. Vishakankini. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Kantoli. cure "Vata". fever consumption. Golkandra. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). rheumatism. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. LOC. Ceylon. Plant cures diseases of blood. diseases of spleen and liver. eye and heart.
—Rubiaceæ. DISTR. leaves. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. DISTR. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). digestible. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. leaves and fruits. useful in heart-complaints. LOC. Aal. Tikshnamula. dyspepsia. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. earache. Indian horse radish . bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Sk. Murangi. G. fruits and seeds. COM. "Vata". PARTS USED :—Root. alexiteric. Ugra. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. . PARTS USED :—Root. Mochaka. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Indian mulberry. HABITAT :—Cultivated . emmenagogue. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Seglo. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. K. M. makes blood impure . NS. causes burning sensation. FAM. See—Vegetables. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. M. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. tuberculous glands in neck. also wild. improves appetite. G. removes all kinds of pains. anthelmintic. Formosa. "Kapha". Bartondi. Introduced var. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. spleen enlargement. stuttering. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . :—E. LOC. See—Dyes. Drum-stick Tree. Sk. China. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. aphrodisiac. H. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. Mochaka. Tagase . Ashyuka. cultivated throughout India and Burma. NS. Guggala. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. bark. Achi. eye diseases.—Moringaceæ. also in the Oudh forests. FAM. Burma. Nuggi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Ab. inflammations. Ak. Mulgule.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. :—E. COM. Saraoji. Munigha. Famine Plants. biliousness . astringent to bowels. Sargavo. tumours. Shevaga. Rochana. K. Segua. flowers. Ainshi. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. Haladipavate. Al. Achchuka. analgesic. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. fattening. ulcers. all "tridosha" fevers. Sajina.
spleen. M. . laxative. Gums and Resins. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. Leaf paste. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. piles. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . enriches blood. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). good for inflammations of throat and chest. appetiser. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. LOC. useful in small-pox. increases biliousness. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). with garlic. bark. NS. Kanara. diuretic. bronchitis. Fibres.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. White mulberry. cooling. Tut. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. expectorant. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. good for brain. anthelmintic. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. expectorant. leaves and fruit. diarrhœa. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. diuretic. Root is purgative.—Moraceæ. Tutri. FAM. Sk. COM. DISTR. aphrodisiac. See—Vegetables. sour. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. salt and pepper. Tuta. common about villages in N. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Karihannu. wounds. PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. stomatitis. The plant contains an alkaloid. enlarged spleen or liver. carminative. H. See—Fruit Trees. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. B and C. urinary discharges. loss of appetite. G. LOC. Tut. it is cooling laxative. Oils. internal inflammations and calculous affections. aromatic and acid flavour. epilepsy and hysteria. Shetur. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. biliousness. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. gout. Fruit—tonic. lumbago. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. ulcerated intestines. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". rheumatism. K. obstinate asthma. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. cures gleet. heart. Fruits contain vitamins A. turmeric. MORUS INDICA Linn. Madhu pippali. burning sensation (Ayurveda). lumbago. enriches blood. Tuda. Siahtut. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Kambali. sweetish. Peninsula. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Ambat.
Sk. M. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Ceylon. laxative. CHAR. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Maoz kela. Rambha. Hasaguni. with honey is given in cholera. K. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Kavach. Kivanchha. Strong root infusion. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Banana. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. cultivated.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). G.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Himalaya up to 1200 m. terminal smaller. G. Kuhili. Kunth. 6-30 flowered. FAM. :—E.—3-foliate. They are used as anthelmintic. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. HABITAT :—In hedges. which produce intensa irritation of skin. :—An annual twiner. " Vata ". COM. Seeds— alexipharmic. M. Turashi. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. common in hedges. Tikshna. Fl. tonic. Urustambha. Bale. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. cures blood diseases. spermatorrhoea etc. Sd.—in drooping racemes. Root—emmenagogue. Plantain. Havanch. Vanari. turgid-shaped. Kela. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant.. LOC. :—Punjab plains. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. tonic. improves blood. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. consumption. DISTR. Kela. H. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated.3 cm. covered with tawny stinging hairs. DISTR. Kapikachu. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Atmagupta. leaflets membranous. silky. Fr. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). :—E. juice given for headache. Kadvare. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . SAPIENTUM O. Dirghapatra.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Root.3-11.. stem. K. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . Goncha. . lateral very unequal sided.—Oct-Nov. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak.2 cm. petioles 6. L. pods and seeds. NS. Kela. biliousness . dark-purple. grey-silky beneath. COM.—Scitaminaceæ. flowers and fruit.—pod. Fl.5x1. Kivanch. leaves. Cowhage. 5-7. LOC. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). MUSA PARADISIACA L. Var. LOC. Nayi songuballi. HABITAT :—Humid areas . sometimes cultivated. Kadali.—5-6 small. t. Kavatch. Sk. Adam's Fig. long. H.
Fl. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. Andamans. menstrual disorders. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. and are used in acidity. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Ipparati. broad at base. Kanara. good for dry bronchitis. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. diabetes. in thirst. flowers and fruit. indigestible . Fruit—sweet. :—Konkan and N. astringent to bowels. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. anthelmintic. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. urinary discharges. dyspepsia. Assam. in " Vata". with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Bellotti. C. L. CHAR. Tropical Himalayas. astringent to bowels. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Bedina. broadly elliptic. tube slender. tonic. LOC. deep golden yellow. :—H. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. Nagavalli.—Rubiaceæ. :—A rambling shrub. DISTR. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. consumption and bronchitis. Shrivalli. Fibres. t. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. ear-pain. blood diseases. Sk. sore-throat..— berry. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. Root-juice is anthelmintic. FAM. NS. hairy. appetiser. antidysenteric. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Hastygida. M. . subglobose. increases appetite. aphrodisiac. diseases of uterus and vagina. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. Fl. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. aphrodisiac. Fr. lobes broadly ovate. very hairy outside. heart-burn and colic. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. Root-juice. stipules twin. Burnt stem is vulnerary. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Lawsat. leaves. kidney troubles (Yunani). Serwadh. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. tonic. COM. :—S. pubescent. leprosy. B and C. useful in "Kapha". causes bronchitis .— July-Oct. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. Bhutakes. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. biliousness. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. linear. strangury. thickens blood.--in terminal cymes. See—Fruit Trees. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages.—tubular. buds densely hairy. LOC. PARTS USES :—Root. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium.—opposite or 8nately whorled.
PARTS USED :—Leaves. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Myrtle. M. axillary on slender peduncles. LOC. diuretic. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. PARTS USED:—Seeds. Condiments and Spices. DISTR. as . Kamuka. It is used as a substitute for true mace. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . Pliny. Malati. LOC. It is credited with opposite qualities. Fr. Habules. emmenagogue. Fl.— solitary. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative.— Myristicaceæ. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. cures headache. CHAR. M. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. K. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. promotes growth of hair. A decoction is employed. ovate to lanceolate. COM. Kaiphal. all over the State. very sweet smelling. used in stopping vomiting. allaying pain. white. Ram-patri. Galen and the Arabian writers. They are given in asthma.—Myrtaceæ. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Dioscorides. Vilayantimendhi. Sk. especially epilepsy. black when ripe. FAM. fruits and oil. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. common in the Kumta taluka. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Malati. applied locally to relieve pain.—small. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. :—A shrub.—berry. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. W. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Murad. enriches blood. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. See—Timbers. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. ellipsoid. H. FAM. LOC. :—Konkan and N. small. DISTR. intermittent fevers and dropsy. Malabar. smoke beneficial to piles. Kanage. NS. L. :—Western Peninsula. NS. :— E. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. is regarded as. Himalayas. Kanara Ghats . COM. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. False nutmeg.
. bronchitis. spongy. Ripe carpels. cells 2-seeded. 3-valved. Tavari-bija or gadde. entire. Indian sacred lotus.-Nov. erect. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. Fl. long. leaves. vulnerary. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Kamal. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. biliousness. petioles very long. t. rough with distant prickles . 0. Fr. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. torus 18 mm. glabrous.. Timpani. K.—July. Goanese ipecacuanha. free. 3-foliate. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. anthers with clavate appendages. cures asthma.5 cm. Sarasija.6 m. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk.-Dec. G. ovoid. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. :—A large aquatic herb. Fl.—solitary. linear spathulate. ovoidglobose. Kandalu. Pitmari. disk annular.3-0. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. in diam. Fl.—alternate. petiole winged. white or rosy. Kamal. top flat. Kamala. Pankaja. Papra-vel.) FAM. diam. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. & A.—Nymphæaceæ. C. petals 5. DISTR. Kamal. L. :—A small branching undershrub. L. radiately nerved. concave or cupped. Kandabahula. LOC. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. high. orbicular. COM. Chinese water-lily. 10-25 cm. curved. Kapurbhendi. Pundarika.—petals many 5-12.—capsule. :—Konkan. stem. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. K. Amlavalli. ulcers (Ayurveda). elongate. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. COM. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. muricate. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Sd. solitary or 2 together. :—E. H. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Belakanji. LOC. dysentery. . peltate. Padma. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla.—pendulous. Aravinda. hæmorrhage. Suriyakamal. CHAR. :—E. Sk. Nelanaringa .MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. t. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. :—W. M.—white. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. See—Ornamental Plants. fleshy.—membranous. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Fl. LOC. elliptic. NS. axillary. FAM. Kanara. M. NS. DISTR. Ambuj.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. Ambuja. Padam. alexiteric. with slender. from Iran eastwards to Australia.—Meliaceæ.
—flowers more or less throughout the year.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations and poisoning. vomiting. also cholera. throat scaly. Paddali. L. cures cough. Kaner. FAM. useful in piles. LOC. flowers. small-pox. NS. :—E. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". good in blood-complaints. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . India. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. gives tone to breast. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. also as a hedge plant. diseases of skin and eye . long. also recommended as cardiac tonic. G. planted in gardens throughout the State. seeds. slightly bitter. allays thirst.—funnel-shaped. biliousness. M. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter.—in threes. Pratihasa. Salt Range. leaves. Cool. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. heart and brain tonic . :—Madhya Bharat. rose or white. improves watery eyes (Yunani). t. honey. long. Waziristan. astringent to taste . Kanel. Karvira. leucoderma. tapering into short petiole. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). ulcers and sores of mouth. H. stem. good in throat-troubles. spermatorrhoea. Fr. useful in burning sensation of the body. C.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. Sk. at length separating. aphrodisiac. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. . LOC. rigid. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. Upper Gangetic Plains. Karvira. 10-15 cm. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. DISTR. S. strangury. menorrhagia. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Ashwa-marak. Sind. chest-pains. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . See—Ornamental Plants. Sweet scented oleander. fever. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Fl. leaves. Fl. Kanagile. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. fruit. in fever and liverdiseases. Vishavrikshanka. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. allays thirst. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanher. useful in fevers . They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. fragrant. lobes rounded. K. CHAR.—red. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Baluchistan. removes worms.—Apocynaceæ. Filaments are astringent and cooling. linear-lanceolate. 15-23 cm. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . coriaceous. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. Cool. diuretic.—follicles. Kaner. Karber. dark green and shining above. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. In China and Malaya dried red petals. Sd. flowers.
COM. dimness of sight. cultivated in all tropical countries. headache. Tamaku.—in open corymbose panicles . FAM. asthma. funnel-shaped. H. Flowers— aphrodisiac. especially root. Tamakhu. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating.—pink or white. wounds. Dhumrapatrika. tubercular glands of neck. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. foul nose.—capsule. Tamarakuthika. Sk. about 1. laxative. Hoge soppu.—Solanaceæ. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). large (especially lower ones). Tambak. See—Ornamental Plants. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Fr. also applied in leprosy. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). inflammations. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). sores. K. inflammations. conical. L. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). sedative and emetic. useful in caries of teeth. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. M. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. C. M. The plant contains a glucoside. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. USES :—All parts of plant. lobes spreading. the surface is plain or bullate. caries of teeth.—alternate. G. anthelmintic. An ointment made .) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. carminative. NS. emetic. Bujjarbhang. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Root—aphrodisiac. across. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. :—E. nervous depression and sleeplessness. useful in bronchitis. Fl. CHAR. very poisonous. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. oblong or elliptic. :—Native of America. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. scabies (Yunani). used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. LOC. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. good for lumbago. are poisonous and are used externally. tonic. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. water from hookha is diuretic. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Tabak. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia.8 cm. Tambakhu. Poisonous to fish. skin diseases. a mental stimulant. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. smoke constipating. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. scabies. base wedgeshaped . Krimighni. disinfectant. Kalanja. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. LOC. bronchitis. Tobacco.
Sk. Bark cures bronchitis. Buds are tonic.—lobes white. southwards to the Godavari. . solitary. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. leaves. Chotakanwal. Kanval. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. a decoction of root. Kanwal. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. NS. obcordate or merely orbicular. useful in bilious fevers. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. densely pubescent beneath.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. Shonapadma. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. 2-celled. ovate acute. Nyadale huvu . Bilitavarai. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Alipriya. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. C. Nilophhal. See—Ornamental Plants. Lalkamal. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants.—Oleaceæ. It is used with honey in chronic fever. :—E. DISTR. K. M. H. COM. scalp affections etc. FAM. Fr. young branches quadrangular. L.) FAM. LOC. peduncles 4angled. NS. Lotus. compressed. Sephali. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. lessen inflammation. Har. Fl. stomachic. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. carminative. Aravind. in terminal trichotomous cymes. H. abundant July-Sept. Nalkumkuma. Prajakta. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Sk. Madhya Bharat. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Parijataka.—Nymphæaceæ. K. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. cures fevers. Cultivated in many parts of India. Burma. Indian Mourner : G.5-6. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine.— fragrant. tonic to hair. flowers and seeds. LOC. :—E. Jayaparvati. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Parijata . tube orange-coloured. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). M. Kumuda. COM. Harsing. t.—opposite 5-10x2.3 cm. Sephalika.. Parijata. bark. Assam. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. Kharapatraka. Bengal. axillary. HABITAT :-Cultivated. G. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Prajakta. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root.— more or less throughout the year. :—A large shrub or a small tree. hairy.—capsule. Har-singhar. rough above with bulbous hairs. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Fl. (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . bark. astringent-to bowels. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement.
—all the year. LOC. pale rose or white. itch. useful in diseases of heart and brain. biliousness. leucoderma. Ceylon. long. 8-13 mm. ripening beneath the water. peduncles very long .—3 cm. FAM. PARTS USED :—Roots. "Vata". hot taste. alexipharmic. Sabzah. Surasa. oblong. Plant has a sharp.—2-lipped. diarrhœa and piles . :—Cultivated in many places in the State. Philippines. Manjarki. red. across. Sd. Fl.5-20 cm. bitter. roundish. :—An erect herb 0. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Rihan. Fr. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Tungi. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . bitter taste. Java. M.—nutlets about 2 mm. stamens about 40. submerged .— ovoid. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. purple stem. LOC. open in the morning only. COM.—solitary. filaments dilated at the base . orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate).— in whorled racemes . Sk. "Kapha". diam. flowers and seeds. 7. acute. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts.—ovate. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. CHAR. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. "Vata". antipyretic . obtuse. See—Ornamental Plants. Sabja. Common sweet basil. Nasabo. petioles very long. black and pitted. entire. and nigropunctate above. ellipsoid. G. C. Surabhi. erect. deeply cordate at the base. Barbar. Barbar.6-0.. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). H. rough. febrifuge. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. stems and branches green or purplish. Africa. Ramkasturi. 15-25 cm. short. removes impurities from blood . cylindric. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. stomachic. globose.—peltate. LOC. Damaro.—Labiatæ. Hungary. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. lessens bile. aphrodisiac . Ajagandhika. leaves and flower. Burma. anthelmintic. :—Var. Var. inflammations. :—Large aquatic herb .MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. irregularly sinuate-dentate. asthma. glabrous. white. L. diameter. C. diuretic. root stock tuberous. high. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. NS. Sajjebija. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. Sabja. fleshy.—petals about 12. emmenagogue. :—E. cooling . causes burning sensation.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. long. pink or purplish. green. DISTR. enlarged spleen. improves taste . " Kapha". allays thirst. thyrsiflora. K. leaves. DISTR. chronic pain in joints. cultivated throughout the greater part of India.9 m. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). L. toothed or lobed. useful in diseases of heart and blood. t. Bahari. Tukhamariya . Fl. glabrous or pubescent. Fr. bracts stalked. juice gives lustre to .
mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. carminative. NS. Large basil. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. M. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. liver and spleen. :—A perennial shrub. useful in vomiting. CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fr. :—Konkan. aphrodisiac . C. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails.8—5.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. During fever when the extremities are cold. stems and branches subquadrangular . branched.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. stimulant. heating. BanMal tulasi. Deccan. alexiteric. fits. M.—nutlets subglobose. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). Country. woody below . The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. pubescent. Java.2—1. L. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. skin diseases. S. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. G. The flowers possess.8 m. Gujarat. good for griping and piles (Yunani). Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. coarsely crenate-serrate.-July-Oct. :—E. gland-dotted. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. brown. LOC. useful in diseases of brain. It is also styptic. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). sharp taste . lower lip longer.3—12. strangury . Sk. elliptic-lanceolate. H. diuretic and demulcent properties. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Avachi-bavachi. Ram Tulasi. Sumukha. in close whorls . often cultivated : Ceylon. good for toothache. Plant has bitter. Rama-Ran tulasi. pale greenish yellow. earache.5 X 3. DISTR. Fl. they are also aphrodisiac. for which the juice warmed with honey is given.—6. removes foul breath. FAM. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. young ones pubescent. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. Fl. rugose. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties.7 cm. diuretic and stimulant. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. LOC.—2-lipped. Lemon—shrubby basil. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. high. headache. COM. rachis quadrangular . " Vata". Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. . Rantulasi. heart. 1. strengthens gums. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. Ajaka. inflammations. " Kapha". t. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. :—Throughout India. LOC.— in simple or branched racemes.—Labiatæ.
FAM. Kala tulasi. high. LOC.5—38 cm. linear or linear-lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. upper lip pubescent on the back. Malay Archipelago. :—An annual plant. strangury. Fl. Fr.— in racemes 15-20 cm. asthma. Parpat. Fr. K. obtuse or acute. . USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos.—2. G. Asia to Java and the Philippines. :—Throughout India. Australia. t. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). stipules with bristles . Vranda. and are given with honey. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Pavitra. antipyretic. See—Sacred Plants. COM. L. foul smells.—pale brown. smooth. lumbago pains. margins recurved and scabrous. high. M. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. Deccan and S.—Rubiaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Parapate.—subsessile. pubescent.2 cm. NS. M. :—An annual herb. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough.—Sept-Nov. purulent discharge of ear. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.:—E. Damanpaper. Ceylon. of children and in hepatic affections . Fl. alexiteric. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). L. FAM. long in close whorls . :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. Tulasi. LOC. entire or serrate. CHAR. angular. :—Konkan. Arabia. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. lobes acute. Papli. stems numerous. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. heating. Tulasi. stems and branches subquadrangular. HABITAT :—Cultivated. purplish. Sd. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. DISTR.—2-lipped. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Vishnuvallabha. vomiting. especially in children. LOC.— capsule. M. minutely gland-dotted. :—G. clothed with soft hairs . long. globose or pyriform . CHAR. Tulasa. Sk. Suravallari. yellow with black marking. HABIT :—A common weed. Sk. anthelmintic. useful in heart and blood diseases. cholagogue. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. H. 30-60 cm. Phapti. Tropical E. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. usually 2-3 cm. H. COM. leucoderma. painful eye. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. West Asia. Krishna tulasi. Manjari. stomachic. Country. varying from 7. " Vata". :—Throughout India (cultivated) . DISTR. hiccup.6— 3. purplish. Vrinda.—on filiform pedicels. Fl. C.—Labiatæ. bitter.— nutlets. elliptic-oblong.5-5 X 1. used in catarrh and bronchitis . " Kapha".. NS. Tulasi. leaves and seeds.
158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . juice cures earache (Yunani). Slipper thorn. good for leucoderma. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. Plant bitter. purgative. Hathathoria. cures inflammations. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. subulate. yellow or orange. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . recurved.— berry. reddish purple when ripe. laxative. across. Joints variable in size.—Cactaceæ. used in ophthalmia.5 mm. obovate or elliptic. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. Nagaphani. cures bronchitis in children. 3 m. Snuka. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. ulcers. Fl. DISTR. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever.5 cm.—5 cm. rather thin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. cures biliousness. Plant juice—heating. carminative. M. loss of consciousness. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. it is also used in liver complaints. pyriform. Nagadru. Nagdali. tumours. Nagaphana. Mullugalli. CHAR. K. diuretic. Fr. " Vata". perianth rotate. NS. yellow at the edges. G. inner spathulate. Phadyanivdung. outer segments ovate red in the centre. stomachic. burning. inflammations. antipyretic. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. urinary complaints. xerophyte. LOC. Zhoratheylo. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. :—E. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. flowers and fruits. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. largest 3. . introduced into India. H. liver complaints.—7. Nagaphana. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. alexiteric. anæmia. Grown as hedge. leucoderma. Prickly pear. angular or warty. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). dull bluish-green. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. or more high. lumbago. digestive. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. spleen enlargement. FAM. ascites. carminative. long. L. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. LOC. Chorhothalo. long. vesicular calculi. Sk. reddish at the tips. Vajrakantaka. piles. Sher. rusty brown. COM. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. spleen enlargement.
leucoderma. COM. M. Seeds are purgative. aphrodisiac. Nivara. LOC. Araluka. M. Tetu. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Akki. DISTR. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. bronchitis (Ayurveda). R. anal troubles. Ghats. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Malaya. inflammations. Rice . FAM. stomachic. appetiser. Tandula. biliousness. Rice. Ullu. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit.—Gramineæ. K. Bhat. Indian trumpet flower. Tandula. Bagi. Fruit—acrid. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). DISTR. improves appetite. Tans. Dirghavrinta. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Mokka. useful in " Vata". Fruit—expectorant. Dyes. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Pharri. fevers. Alangi. Sk. NS.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Ceylon. Shyonaka.). PARTS USED :—Grain. K. Arlu. Mayarjangha. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. good in heart and throat diseases. Cochin-China. H. astringent to bowels .—Bignoniaceæ. tonic. Kanara ghats . Tuntaka. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Tetu. improves taste. H. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. LOC. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. COM. See—Timbers. asthma. Tetu. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. intestinal worms. NS. :—E. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. piles. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. K. G. G. It is astringent and tonic. FAM. LOC. :—The Konkan and the N. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. diuretic. Chaval. sweet.S. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). dysentery. tonic. Vrihi. anthelmintic. fattening. Chokha. :—E. useful in biliousness . Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Shali. :—Widely cultivated. Podval. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Ava. oleaginous. M. cooling. Sk.
rounded at the apex. long. Jaladudhi. The grains contain vitamin C. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. H. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers.—axillary. inflamed piles. :—E. Dugdhike. Br. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. petioles very slender. :—G. COM. Sd. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). Dudhialata. beaked. LOC. ovoid. It is a pleasant. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. brown. used externally. Ambastha. if applied to chest. good appetiser . Rice water. removes " Kapha ".— many. . Shuklika. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. also in burns and scalds.2—2.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. easy to digest. oblong. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. C. small-pox.—petals 5. cures dysentery. Amlalonika. Chukrita. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. boils. margins ciliate. measles. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . buboes. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. Dudhialata. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Fl. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea.—palmately 3-foliate. " Vata " and piles. Indian Sorrel. Sk. Changeri. CHAR. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. transversely striate. Fr. Dudhatani. 5-angled. Kyirin . Ambuti. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. In dysentery. obcordate. Marudbhava. gives great relief. yellow. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. ulcers. Amrul. Dugdhika. t. diarrhœa. Fl. NS.5 cm. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kshiravi. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. bruised. astringent. sub-umbellate . leaflets 1. dysentery and scurvy. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. linear-oblong. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . FAM. K. DISTR. NS. LOC. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. FAM. stems rooting.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—Throughout the State. Dudhani. pubescent. Dugdhica. M. scarlet fever. H. Sk.— Oct-May. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. COM.— capsule. bowels or kidneys. to which a little lemon juice is added. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. Dudhari. See—Food Plants. K.—Oxalidaceæ. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Ceylon. L. base cuneate subsessile.
anthelmintic. Anthers useful in pruritus. Keora.—dioecious. H. " Kapha ". USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Dhulipushpika. Gandha-pushpa. small-pox. somniferous. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. yellow or red. S. high. rarely erect. Kevada. gonorrhœa. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. laxative. Burma. Fl. stems many.—deciduous. Fr. mouth with pubescent ring. Ketgi. purple veined. coriaceous ensiform. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. tonic. COM. diuretic. Ketaka. Sk. HABITAT :—Usually near water. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). Andamans. milky juice. scabies. 3. C. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. with flavour. Fl. LOC. DISTR. :—A shrub up to 6 m. Ketaki. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. Java. Ceylon. Gogandhul. . lobes ciliate. aphrodisiac. Poona Sangam.5 m.5-9 cm. M. useful in strangury and tumours. fruit. alexiteric. NS. Screw pine.—Dec. anthelmintic. FAM. heat of body. LOC. PARTS USED :—Plant. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. :—Konkan and N. thin. black. X 3. indigestible.—glaucous green.8-6. female flower spadix solitary. much branched.9—1. Fruit—tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. coma present.— large. syphilis. M. 0. stem supported by aerial roots . causes flatulence. Chama-pushpa. Sundarbans. strikingly handsome. aphrodisiac. fruit and oil from bracts. root. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice.—very numerous. leaves. Leaves are useful in leprosy. Kewoda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. corona staminal. CHAR. 4. often planted. leucoderma. aphrodisiac. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. :—E.. anthers. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Fl. Giripriya. Sd.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb.8 mm.—oblong or globose. cough. Fr. DISTR. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. Mundige. Flowers improve complexion. margins and midrib spiny. Country— Belgaum. Kanara. G. dry.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). juice is used in gleet. Kanara. long. diseases of heart and brain. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". pale rose or white. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . LOC. expectorant. Deccan.—Pandanaceæ. bitter. Umbrella Tree. long. Kedige.3 cm. PARTS USED :-Root. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. linear or linear-lanceolate. pain. palegreen. K. :—Konkan. L.—follicles. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. t. L. pain in the muscles.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Kapila. Kohesaru. L. LOC. prostrate.—Oct. piles. cures consumption. Satara. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. Sk. good for the eyes . and southwards to Ceylon.3—2.5—5 cm.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. " Kapha". HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. bronchitis. NS. Fl. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. broadly spathulate. CHAR.—in sub-capitate. cure biliousness. Abyssinia. Swadi. Adabanmagi. long. Kurangika. Kalli-chalu. See—Food Plants. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. biliousness. light and astringent. wiry. dysentery. enrich blood. Khaji. Ahmednagar. few flowered racemes. . as a kharif crop. LOC. COM. Kharjurika. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). throat inflammations. nose complaints. mugawana. Sk. K. LOC. Kolaba and Kanara. Deccan and Gujarat. astringent to bowels. The grains contain vitamins A and B. Kashayi. FAM. Shimbiparni. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. t. Sind. Ichela-mara. anthelmintic. Fr. DISTR. yellow. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. petioles grooved. Burma. Belgaum. 2. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. M. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. Konkan. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Siyindu. PARTS USED :—Seeds. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. :—Largely grown in. K.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). blood diseases. thirst. :—Annual or perennial. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. burning sensation.—Palmæ. Khajuri. Kharjuri. bitter. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. :—G. COM. FAM. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Ranmath.:—Very common throughout the State. Kidney diseases.— pod. Vanmudga. Shindi. Afghanistan. Kajuri. Tadi. layer. Indian wine palm.—3-foliate. Mugani. Magavala. eye troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. leaflets 1. aphrodisiac. Dharwar. long. peduncles 10-23 cm. Koshila. antipyretic. digestible. Kherk. slightly recurved. Khandesh. Date sugar palm. LOC. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. laxative. cough. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. Ahmedabad. M. DISTR. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. astringent.—6-12. styptic. Sd. membranous. gout. NS. Trianguli. good in fevers. Adavada. glabrous or hairy. Ranmug. Malay Islands. dry. headache. long. straight subcylindric. " Tridosh". wild date palm.5 cm. inflammations. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. Boichand. Kallu. Sendhi. :—E. Seeds— tonic. good for eyes. Fl. H.
clothed with appressed white hairs . 3-4. fevers. long. Sd. DISTR. good in heart and abdominal complaints. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . crown hemispherical. DISTR.—Fibres. Fr.. greyish-green. Siwalik. :—Throughout India.—globose.) FAM. spiny at the base.—more or less all the year. NS. 9-15 m. alexiteric. . PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). rounded at the apex. t. Jalapipali. Famine Plants. pinnules many. anthelmintic. oblique. Fl. subsessile. Jalpippali. cooling. t. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. 2-lipped. spadix 60-90 cm.5 m. :—G. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Mysore. ensiform. Baluchistan. Fl. triangular. large and thick. Ratoliya. Bhuiokra. fruit and juice of the tree. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. oleaginous. CHAR. wild or more often cultivated. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars.—rounded at the ends. aphrodisiac.5—3. Africa. 15-45x2-2. oblong-ellipsoid. Fl. H. and in beds of streams and water courses. orange-yellow. lower 3-lobed. Langali. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. female spadix and spathe as in the male. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. constipating. high. :—A creeping perennial herb. useful in diseases of heart. L. upper 2-lobed. vomiting. Rohilkhand. Sholapur.—pinnate. :—Tolerably common throughout India.—sessile. Ceylon. Poona and Belgaum districts. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda).—Verbenaceæ. Coromandel Coast. Sharadi. C. COM. LOC. Sk. Agnijwala. Fl. fattening. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. spatulate. Ratuliyo. Jalapimpli. much branched. :—Found fairly in Surat. Toyavallari. roundish. LOC. Okra. cooling. petioles compressed towards the apex. See. Bihar.—opposite. stems rooting at the nodes. outer Himalayas. cardiotonic. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR.—Jan-Feb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. pointed. male white. wandering of mind. Ratoliya. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. deeply grooved on one side. spinous.—white or pale-pink. LOC. long. flowers very many. flowers distant. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. blood and eye. rigid. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. This is called neera.5 m. angular. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. usually along banks.2 cm. scented. oblong. erect. :—A tall graceful palm.— dioecious. long. Fr. Vashira.—2. densely fascicled. sharply serrate in upper part. M. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Bengal.
leprosy. wounds. Stomachic. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. of female. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. wounds. very small. Amala. DISTR. axillary. FAM. leaves. bronchitis. useful in thirst.— July-Aug. annular. Fl. ringworm (Yunani).168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. Sukshmadala. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). L. globose. t. NS. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. scarcely lobed. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Bhumyamalaki. dry. Bhumyamali. urinary discharges. Ceylon.—3-gonous. burning sensation. high . elliptic-oblong. Infusion is a good tonic. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). LOC. Vituntika. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. thirst.. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. Bhuianvalah. COM. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. The whole plant. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . Plant—hot. Sadahazurmani. M. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). lobed.—yellowish. H. anæmia. monœcious.— numerous. LOC. hiccup. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. LOC.—capsule. except Australia. asthma. smooth. CHAR :—An annual herb. stem branched at the base. Sk. diuretic. Sd. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. and without salt may be applied to bruises. scabies. Bhuiavli. maturant. Bhumyamali. angular. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. longitudinally ribbed on the back. milky-juice. females solitary.—Euphorbiaceæ. good for ulcers. . biliousness. cooling. bronchitis. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. Leaves are stomachic. very numerous. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. 30-60 cm. anuria. :—Konkan and Deccan. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. males 1-3. It is valuable in scurvy. :—Throughout India. alexipharmic . PARTS USED :—Root. Ajata. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. Fl. fruit. disk of the male of minute glands. Kiranelligida. sores.useful in fevers. Fr. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. K. distichous. Jaramla. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. asthma. Tropics generally.
Kalimiri. G. Pan. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. K. bechic. . NS. throat diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. Sk. Kalaka. Bhakshyapatra. Nagavalli. Sholapur. H. Satara. Pan. Kaphavirodhi. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. bronchitis. M. strengthens teeth . Menasu.—Piperaceæ. tonic. Eleballi. Black-pepper. heart and liver. COM. Golmirch . Panu. Marich. urinary discharges. Menasin-kallu . :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. acrid. K. styptic (Yunani). pains. foul smell in the mouth. Warm leaves. carminative. stomachic. :—Wild in the N. liver and muscular pains. improves appetite (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. tonic and digestive. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. Betel pepper. Kanara forests. improves voice. ozoena. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. tonic to brain. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. LOC. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. See—Condiments and Spices. carminative and astringent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. inflammations. " Kapha ". :—E. useful in "Kapha". useful in "Vata". Kanara. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Poona. It sweetens breath. Tambulavalli. COM. Mensinballi. purgative. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). NS. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Malimirich . leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. G. night blindness.—Piperaceæ. generally in Konkan. Saptashira. M. hot. elephantiasis . LOC. asthma. Betel leaf vine. Vata". H. ozœna. Vidyache-pan. carminative. spleen diseases. cultivated in Konkan and N. alterative. Linn. useful in toothache. Fresh leaves. LOC. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. laxative. DISTR. vulnerary. removes all foulness from mouth. satyriasis and to allay thirst. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. aphrodisiac. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. piles. clears throat. Vileyad-ele. DISTR. Tikshna. leavs. alexipharmic. smeared with oil. given with milk in hysteria. Tambola. Pan. heating. Kalamirich. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Kalamiri. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. increases biliousness. FAM. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. FAM. PARTS USED :—Fruits. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Betelleaf. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. :—E. Sk. It increases saliva. aphrodisiac. and fruits (rarely).
NS. It is a good expectorant. piles and some skin-diseases . lanceolate or greenish . In physiological action. Burma. :—K. FAM. coma. CHAR. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. PROPERTIES AND LOC. used as febrifuge. DISTR. paralysis . chest affections. petiole longer than leaf-blade. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. & A. radial 2. long. piperidine and an essential oil. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. LOC.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . ovoid. Fr. Konkan. Khandala (pretty common). It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. N. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. and possesses narcotic properties . lumbago. used in chronic bronchitis. :—E. L. H. chronic fevers. variable in width. Deccan.—capsule.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. facilitates menstruation. vertigo. See—Timbers.—Pittosporaceæ. tonic and a local stimulant. Externally it is rubefacient. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. bruises. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Arcot and Salem. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. Bark contains a glucoside. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism.5 cm. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. Bartang.— alternate. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. It yields an essential oil. Greater plantain . Vikhari. Kanara in ghat forests. base tapering into petiole. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. COM. sciatica. M. leprosy. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. NS.5-12. ophthalmia and phthisis. hills of S. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. dries body humours (Yunani). ovate or oblong. LOC. Fl. . Tammata. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. various forms of cutaneous diseases. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . COM. C. entire or toothed. Vehkali. sprains. the oil is alterative. Khasia Hills. W.—lobes 4. FAM. See—Condiments and Spices. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. weakness following fevers.—Plantaginaceæ. Lahuriya.
Lead-wort. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Fl. Rosy-coloured leadwort. PARTS USED :—Roots. limb wide. Fattening. Malaya.Kempuchitramula. COM. Palni hills. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Ceylon. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. alterative and diuretic. lax spikes. erect. Raktachitraka. long in long terminal axillary. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. and seeds. Baluchistan. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Mahang. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Chitra. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. oblong. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. H. dull-black.. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. striate . NS. exauriculate petiole. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . W. :—Temperate Himalayas. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers.—Plumbaginaceæ. Lalchita. Lalchitrak. rosy scarlet.-Feb.—3-5 cm. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. high. Ratochatro. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. top coming off as a conical lid. Burma. Assam. zeylanica. attenuate. t. stems herbaceous. Agnishikha. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. K. Ghats. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. M. Chitraka. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. CHAR. LOC.—throughout the year. afford relief. Sk. C. Fl. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). :— E. DISTR. :—Konkan : Deccan. HABITAT :—Along river banks. PARTS USED :—Roots. Nilgiris. Lalachitraka. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . alterative. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). LOC. t. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. LOC. Fl. obtuse. :—Cultivated throughout India. L. LOC. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling.. leaves. Lalchitrak. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—tube slender. Sd. angled.—large.-4-8. base passing into amplexicaul. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn.Sept. Fire plant. G. DISTR.
expectorant. aborti-facient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. diarrhœa. useful in laryngitis. . piles. K. leucoderma. LOC. consumption. H. DISTR. terete. inflammations. skin disease.—Plumbaginaceæ. Res. carminative. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Chitramula. juice. :—Throughout India. diseases of spleen. Bile-Chitra-mula. FAM. L. Chitrak.—Aug. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. leaves. anthelmintic. Tropics of the old world. See—Ornamental Plants. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. Ceylon. stomachic. bronchitis. " Vata" and " Kapha". itching. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. root-bark. Root—bitter. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). M. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. attenuated into a short petiole. tonic. Sk.—white. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. leaves are caustic. leucoderma. LOC. Chitranga. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. Vallari. spreading. stems 0. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. appetiser. Chitra . vesicant. COM. Jyotishka. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Medi. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. stomachic. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. alterative . a favourite medicine for flatulence. It is used in procuring abortion. See—Ornamental Plants. rheumatism. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. cure intestinal troubles. In S. scabies. diseases of liver. t. pointed. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . entire. Agnishikha. " Tridosha" . G. woody. dysentery. The use of Pl.6-1. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. Chitaro Chitrak. piles. :—E. Fl. Bengal. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. anasarca. long. Fr. NS.—thin. wild in Western Peninsula. lobes 5. Chitraka. Fl. ring-worm. alexipharmic. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. Journ. ascites. ovate. bechic. hot. January 1933). HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places.5 m. cultivated . Chitra .172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. Vahni. and in leucoderma. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). it is useful in dyspepsia. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. oblong. a paste is made with milk. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga.—capsule. rachis glandular .—in elongate spikes. leprosy. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. Ind. Chitra. striate. astringent to bowels. C. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies.-Sept. Malay Peninsula.
FAM. Phangla. smooth.:—More or less throughout India. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. 4-lobed. :—E. Rhuruchapha. acrid. Pagoda tree. acute at both ends. NS. Radha-champo. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. many flowered. DISTR. carminative. spirally arranged. K. 3-lobed. L. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. stems and branches quadrangular. urinary discharges. C.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised.—Apocynaceæ. Country. 15-30 cm. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). LOC.—salver-shaped.8-9 cm. leaves and milky juice. L. upper lip white shot with purple. M. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. 12 cm. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. M. :—M. :—A small shrub 1.—2-lipped. oblong-lanceolate. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. abundant. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough.-May. venereal sores. high. 7. :—Native of tropical America. whorls close. Frangipani. long.—follicles. C. laxative . . Fl. COM. useful in gleet. FAM. long. Belchampaka. Kadu-sampige. CHAR. t. LOC. G.—practically throughout the year.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. rarely maturing. bark. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter.— large. Fl. lower lip white. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. heating. purple. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. Fl.8 m.-Feb. abundant from Mar.. Root-bark is purgative. Goleurchampa. Pangli. t. cultivated. Fr. shining. Fl. LOC. rounded.-nutlets ellipsoid. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. broadly ovate. white with a pale yellow centre. NS. cylindrical. ascites (Ayurveda). with an intra-marginal vein. Devagangile. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers. useful in leprosy. Mahabaleshwar. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. common.—Labiatæ.2—1. Deccan. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. entire. itching. pungent. See—Ornamental Plants. S. pains. Khairchapha. Kanara. CHAR. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. :—Konkan. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. shining black. H. Champakam. very fragrant. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.5-18x3. :—All throughout the State. Golainchi. irregularly doubly toothed. Fr. Sk.—Dec.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. COM. inner face angular. divaricate.
head and brain diseases. good in scabies. Agnimandha. M. M. leucoderma. DISTR. G. K. Huligili. COM. Gracie). Chamari. wounds.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. leaves.—Verbenaceæ. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Oil—anthelmintic. Ichu. leprosy. skin diseases. Karanja. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. alexipharmic . Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. also planted. Pavaka. USES :—The fresh leaves. Agetha. chronic fever. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Kanika. Seeds—acrid . skin and in keratitis . urinary discharges . herpes and other cutaneous diseases. LOC. Kanja. Oils. along Deccan rivers . FAM. LOC. cures biliousness. Arni. liver pain. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). In Satara. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. chronic fever and hydrocele. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Karanj. Ustabunda . Gaura. ulcers. Karanj. juice is given in colic and fever. . Naktamala. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. COM. Honge. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. chest complaints. wounds (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. piles. piles. H. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. lumbago. Agnibijaka. fruits and seeds. NS. Indian beech. cures eye diseases. Arand. :—E. flowers. rheumatic pains. H. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. useful in diseases of eye. J. See—Timbers. :—G. purify and enrich blood. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. " Vata ". throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. bruised. Kanaji. " Kapha ". good for tumour. Sk. ascites. vagina.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Aran. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. relieves inflammation. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). carminative. bark. Oil—styptic. itching. Karanjmara. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. lumbago. Kirmal. F.) FAM. anthelmintic. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Karanja. cure earache. Jayanti. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). NS. Arni. Sk.
—in paniculate corymbose cymes. See—Famine Plants. seated on the calyx . :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Kanara. M. LOC. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Peruka. useful in anaemia. fever. bark yellowish.. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.2-6. COM. cooling. Sd. cylindric. hairy in the throat. L. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Perala. cooling. Safedsafari. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. It is given in the form of decoction. broadly elliptic. It is also employed in scurvy. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Nicobars and Malaya. rough-tubercled . Fl. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Root is laxative.—hard. Fruit—tonic. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). small. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. stomachic. Young leaves are tonic in the . entire or upper part dentate."Vata". LOC.—5-9 X 3. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. as an astringent to bowels. inflammations. Dridhabija. used in bronchitis. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. Guava tree. NS. for unhealthy ulcers.3 cm. Perala. :—E. Gova. diabetes. laxative after food. Anthers—dry wound. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. dyspepsia. high.— globose. K. constipation. good in colic and for bleeding gums. Jamb. FAM. Andamans. Vastula. cool heated brain. sour. smooth. H. Amrut. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative.—Myrtaceæ. bronchitis. applied to sore eyes. stomachic. Jamphal. fruits and gum. DISTR.—tubular. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Gum is tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. lobes 4. . Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). heating. Peru. greenish yellow. aphrodisiac . Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Jamud-rukh. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. t. pungent. :—Cultivated all over the State. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. common about Karwar. blue-black. Peru . Fl. flowers. piles. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Piyara. G. Sk. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. chyluria. Fr. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries.— June-July.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. DISTR. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. C. Ceylon. causes "Kapha". Ash—caustic (Yunani). LOC. Flowers cool body. laxative. LOC.
" Rakta-pitta". M. Fl.5—5 cm. inflammation. cures "Vata".6-1. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. nephrites and cachexia. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). fruit and seeds. DISTR. raw one is used in diarrhœa. Fruit—diuretic. studded with glands and white hairs.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). good for heart troubles. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins.—bluish purple . piles. diuretic. . Ripe fruit is a good aperient. C. antipyretic. anthelmintic. stem and branches grooved. 3. Bowach-chi.2 m. alexiteric. Babachi. stomachic. cures blood diseases . rounded and mucronate at the apex. leprosy. Sk. alterative. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Chandralekha. heals ulcers. scabies. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate.—pod. :—Throughout India and Ceylon.—Aug-Dec. Kalameshi. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. vomiting. mucronate. smooth. L. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. bronchitis. CHAR. Sd. nigro-punctate. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. black. biliousness. FAM. Seeds— refrigerant. PARTS USED :—Root. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea.—in dense axillary. NS. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). M. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Vanguji. Country. white hairy. Fl. t. Babachi. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. skin diseases. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. :—E. See—Fruit Trees. good for leucoderma. stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. LOC. COM. causes biliousness. Bavachi. high. ovoidoblong. leaves. standard orbicular. H. laxative. G. difficulty in micturition. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. Konkan and S. Bavachi. anæmia. K. bitter taste.8 X 2. Bhavanj. improves appetite. clawed.—one. improves hair and complexion. HABITAT :—Waste places. vulnerary. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. solitary. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. LOC. Bukchi. urinary dis charges. Seed—purgative.—simple. aphrodisiac. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). 10-30 flowered racemes . closely-pitted. anthelmintic. Kushtaghni. :—An erect annual. Fr. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. 0. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. Bakuchi.
Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. allays thirst. sore-throat. tonic. " Tridosh". USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. sore eyes brain diseases. applied to hydrocele. " Kapha ". NS. tonic. Gums and Resins. anthelmintic. LOC. Bia. Indian kino-tree. Flowers— improve appetite. Flowers—check vomiting. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Bija. useful in all body diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. K. DISTR. gleet. elephantiasis. earache. griping. Gum—bitter. Bark—astringent. G. PARTS USED. LOC. Anar. K. Valka-phala. Common in N. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). Dadimba. :—Western Peninsula and S. prolapsus ani. FAM. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. H. anal troubles. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. colic. Flowers—useful in epistaxis.—Punicaceæ. Pomegranate tree. Fruit-appetiser. strengthens gums. Kanara. used in piles. fever.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in biliousness. Benga. leprosy. LOC. diuretic. biliousness. . useful in eye troubles. Bigsah. Honne. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. good for biliousness. ophthalmia. cultivated in many parts of India. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. burning sensation. urinary discharges. Bibla. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). laxative. Dalimb . Gum. vulnerary. bark. ulcers. FAM. Malabar kino-tree. Mahakutaj. erysipelas. styptic. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Dharimb . Dadam. scabies. body eruptions. cures " Vata ". flowers and fruits. boils. Pitasar. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. flowers and gum. thirst. antipyretic. COM. M. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. leucoderma. chest troubles. called kino. :—E. Dadima. :—Wild in Iran. liver tonic. Kabul and Baluchistan. See—Timbers. Bibla. Bibla. enriches blood. :—E. DISTR. somewhat milder in action than catechu. anthelmintic. G. H. Dhalim. :—Leaves. Honi. urinary discharges (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. used in sore throat. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. laxative. Sk. scattered but not gregarious . Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). ascends to 1100 m. fattening. stomatitis. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). alterative . M. India. spleen complaints. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. Sunila. Hirdokhi. heart-disease. blood diseases. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. NS. Raktabija-pushpa. Hulidalimb . Dadima. useful in vomiting. Sk. PARTS USED:—Root. Dalimba. Bio. Bijak. also in Konkan. in Akrani. Khandesh and Dangs.
-Aug. See—Ornamental Plants. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. K. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. 7. C—petals 5. M. Karigidda. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. widely cultivated all over India. FAM. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. long. calyx tube long. Konkan. NS. L. acuminate. Gelphal. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual.— ellipsoid. Fl. Malaya. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Fr. COM. Dharaphal. Fl. Madana. CHAR.—Rubiaceæ. Fruit contains vitamin C. elliptic. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis.—opposite. Country and Kanara. Mangari-kai. Pinditak. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) .—in axillary and terminal spikes. H. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . pendant. glabrous above. Minkare. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Rangoonchavel. G. base rounded. hairy beneath. dark green. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. USES :—In Amboyana. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. DISTR. numerous.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. In China. Chinese honeysuckle.—Mar. :—A strong climber. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. Annam. Rangoon creeper. LOC. S. The rind of the fruit. Rangoonkibel. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. G. Sk. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. . H. t. Lalchameli. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Midhola. Barmasinivel. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking.—Combretaceæ. at first white then deep red . Gela. :—E. lanceolate . Karhar Mainphal. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. COM.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. HABITAT :—Cultivated. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. Mindhola. M. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Emetic nut. It is given in the form of decoction. NS. :—E. nearly 6 cm. M. LOC. jasmine . LOC.5 cm. acutely 5-angled. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn.
tonic. skin-diseases. FAM. Mura. Mula. laxative. M. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. binding. K. Muri. destroys "Vata". ulcers. It is also used to poison fish. fruit and seeds. leprosy. Muro. E. muscular pains. purgative. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. emmenagogue. Ruchira. LOC. useful in chronic bronchitis. useful in diseases of heart. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . Seeds-sharp. cures abscesses. See—Timber. G. Bili Mulangi. bitter. amenorrhœa. Ceylon. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. certain and regular. emetic. Mulak. Bitter. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. its action is very safe. carminative. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. good for spleen and in paralysis. juice relieves earache. " Vata" and " Kapha". emetic. The plant contains glucoside saponin. NS. Java. Tropical Africa. stomachic. carminative. S. :—Throughout India. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. piles (Ayurveda). Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). alexiteric. antipyretic.—Cruciferæ. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. H. eruptions. and all inflammations . Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. produce alopecia (Yunani). The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . hiccup. DISTR. piles. DISTR. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. anthelmintic. leucoderma (Yunani). Juice of . carminative. sweet. good in tumours. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. :—E. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. boils. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. bad taste. Sumatra. Mula. COM. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. flowers. heating. LOC. China. It also contains an essential oil. leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. PARTS USED :—Root. cholera. used in diseases of the brain. Radish. tumours. leaves. inflammations. Ksharmula.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. Sk. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. Hastidanta. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Mali. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. paralysis. it is equal to it in every respect.
Harkaichand.5-18 X 2. Andamans. LOC.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. often tinged with violet.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. sharp. diuretic. Sk. M. yellowish root stock. anthelminitic . 7. COM. Garudpatala. lanceolate. Sarpakshi. laxative. Root contains vitamins A. seeds are considered peptic.. M. NS. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. and black salt. It is hypnotic. Fl. irregularly. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. corrective and emmenagogue. serpentinine. Fr. Harki. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. :—H. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. pungent..) FAM. Sarpagandha. swollen a little above the middle. B and C. HABITAT :—Moist forests. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Chandrika. thin. bright green above. bright red . Roots and seeds contain an essential oil.—Apocynaceæ. Fl. L. white. pale beneath. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Sivanabhi. K. LOC. heating. carminative. single or didymous. PARTS USED :—Root. Yuthikaparni. Gaja-karni. Doddapatike.9 m. ginger. Juipani. CHAR. Sk. C.-May. acute. Java. ajmalicine. Group B — Serpentine. NS.3 cm. specific for insanity. :—An erect perennial shrub. Mungusavel. shady open places near rain-forests. nodular. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. Chhotachand. used in hyperpiesis .. cures " Tridosha ". . expectorant.— Mar. K. t. ulcers (Ayurveda). In the Konkan.5-6. Chandrika. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. COM. DISTR. black shining. sedative. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. leaves (rarely).—in irregular corymbose cymes. Nai.—drupe.-in whorls of 3. FAM. Ceylon. with a long. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Palakjuhi. See—Vegetables. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. acrid.—tubular. Western Peninsula. Kanara. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. :—H. Nakulikand. ajamalinine.—Acanthaceæ.
—lipped. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. COM. :—Probably of African origin. fevers. Leaves—galactagogue. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. ascites. convulsions.-Jany. M. K. anal troubles. useful in liver troubles. amenorrhœa (Yunani). strangury. hairy outside . tropical Africa. white. stems obscurely angled. useful in pains. leaves. inflammations. Belgaum. Root-bark—purgative. Straits-Settlements. alterative. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. Castor oil plant. diseases of rectum and head. M. Country. ascites. Ceylon (wild) .9—1. Seed and oil—cathartic. hills near Belgaum. purgative. t. Country (Dharwar. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. elephantiasis.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Undershrub. oil—anthelmintic. NS. intestinal worms. Cattle are fed with leaves for . bracts ovate lanceolate. asthma. increase biliousness. LOC. increases "Kapha". useful in skin-disease. G. S. DISTR. paralysis. some fevers. eructations. narrow. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. :—Throughout India. :—Deccan. Divald. carminative .MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. vaginal pains. pubescent: C. LOC. inflammations. 0. black.. pain in back. useful in heart diseases. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). boils. Arand. velvety hairy Sd. high. H. upper lip bifid . :—E. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Palma christi. DISTR. Vardhaman. good for burns. Fruit— appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in inflammations. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. LOC. Sholapur). entire. Sk. body pains. lumbago. typhoid. Haralu. Very little in other districts of the State. generally cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Chitrabija. Divaligo. cultivated. tumours. glandular.5 m. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". piles. Mahabaleshwar. liver and spleen diseases.—nearly sessile.—Oct. night-blindness. Erand. FAM. Tirki. Khandala. flowers and seeds. leprosy. bronchitis. ring-worm. Fl.—capsule.—5-10 X2-5 cm. alterative. Fl. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). M. solitary. Eranda. Madagascar (cultivated). aphrodisiac. L. HABITAT :—Hills. Erand. pointed. asthma. Vardhamana. elliptic lanceolate. Triputiphala. Erand. pains. LOC. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. dropsy. glands.— tuberculate. leprosy. piles. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. widely cultivated in tropical countries. lumbago. Java. ascites. earache. leaves and seeds. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. rheumatism.
attaining 1. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. kidneys. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect.5 m. Fr. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. tooth-ache. In constipation it is used as an enema. Fl. laxative. Italy. CHAR. expectorant. much used in lotions and collyria . Gulab. with a good odour. sometimes striped . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. P.5-6. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Sudburj.—pinnate.3 cm.—Rosaceæ. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. used in heat of body.. good for eyes. tonic. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . long. sometimes glandular. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. improves appetite (Ayurveda). aperient removing bile and cold humours. L. COM. t. Shatadala. stipules scarcely dilated. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. they are cold.— usually corymbose. cephalic. See—Ornamental Plants. G. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth.—obovate . dry. See—Oils. seldom griping or causing flatulency. NS. hairy. liver. sweetish. ovate oblong. chronic fevers. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. acrid. Tarana. Flower—bitter. They are also applied to painful joints. France. intestinal affections. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. :—E. FAM. adults. M. cardiotonic. laxative. Gulab . 2. K. :—Origin unknown. PARTS USED :—Flowers. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . aphrodisiac. H. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. :—A perennial shrub. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. Gulab. " Vata". Soumyagandha. DISTR. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. petioles prickly. Lakshmipushpa. Ati-manjula. mild and safe purgative. benefits lungs. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. cures leprosy. which is a powerful poison. excessive perspiration. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. head-ache. Punjab and U. inflammations. antipyretic. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . LOC. Greece and Germany. .— all the year. biliousness. serrate. stomatitis. etc. Pannira. double. pink or white. cooling. Fl. cultivated all over India. astringent when dry (Yunani). cardiotonic. burning sensation. Ghazipur is a chief centre. Sk. removes bad odour from mouth. LOC. stems with stout and hooked prickles. red.
liver complaints. LOC. roots very long. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. lethargy. prickly. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet.—Polygonaceæ. high. all scabrous with white prickles. cylindric. FAM. ulcers and skin-diseases. lower leaves larger. CHAR. L.—in terminal panicled cymes. rheumatism. NS. paralysis. base cuneate. one pair with longer petioles ovate. anthelmintic. Chukra. . H. urine and even bones red. Ceylon. vagina. and was much used in dropsy. M. pains in joints.-Jany. inner perianth-segments membranous. purplish black when ripe. leaves and fruit. spleen-enlargement.—white or pink. inflammations. elliptic. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. Sorrel. cures " Kapha ". heating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. COM. diseases of uterus. analgestic. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. acrid. increase appetite. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin.—2. Java. leucorrhoea. obtuse. Rohini. L. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. shining.5—7. Fl. Chuka. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. five-nerved. Aruna. Leaves-sweet. Indian Madder. greenish. Fr. Malay Peninsula. DISTR. Tamravalli. smooth. Majit.5 cm. CHAR. M. Ambat Chuka. dysentery. laxative. ear. cordate or hastate. Fr. K. :—Perennial climbing herb. H. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. it powerfully affects the nervous system. valves hyaline. uterine pains (Yunani). petioles triangular. erect glabrous herb. leucoderma. piles. emmenagogue. 15-30 cm. antidysenteric. :—E. Sk. Chitralata. eye. ovate. stems very long. alexiteric. t-Oct. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. urinary discharges. paralysis. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. Gulmketu. jaundice.—Rubiaceæ.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . with a thin red bark. :—Root. Fl. the Konkan and S. :—Annual. branched from the root. Manjishtha.—in whorls of 4. grooved. tropical Africa. bitter. branches quadrangular . Dock. lactagogue. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. leucoderma. used in eye-sores. erysipelas. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Bladder. orbicular . Japan. analgesic. NS. blood. Root—bitter. antipyretic. Country. LOC. jaundice. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. Fl. improves voice and complexion . Amlavetasa. M. Manjishha. Sk. Manjishtha. oleaginous . :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. Manjit. :—E. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). FAM. Decoction tinges blood. PARTS USED. COM. diuretic.—didymous or globose.. Raktasara. ulcers.
leucoderma. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. rugose with furrow. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. bites and stings of poisonous animals. Sk. acute. constipation. hiccup. with darker spots. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CHAR. oblong lanceolate. Fr. Deccan.— subsessile. dyspepsia. generally in the Deccan. stomachic. Ceylon.—white. aperient and diuretic. FAM. Africa. Ghati pittapapada . HABITAT :—Common everywhere. .-Jany. Satapa . COM. bracts elliptic. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. L. Trans-Indus Hills. flatulence. :—G. stems usually decumbent. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Pismarum Sadab. lower shortly 3-lobed.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. :—Common throughout the State.—Nov. upper emarginate. vomiting. NS. M. LOC. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. Kharmor. M. ovoid oblong. LOC. DISTR. Sadabu. t. ciliate. also considered as a vermifuge. Satri. NS. Afghanistan. Satap. asthma. Sd. tonic.—Acanthaceæ. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. Country. H. DISTR. Kanara. Persia.—capsule. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. pale brown. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. K. Sk.—suborbicular. analgesic. while fresh they are bruised. 2-lipped. toothache. Fl. G. C. H. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). useful in heart troubles. Khatselio . :—E. alcoholism. often rooting near the base. laxative. roasted. Nagadali. diseases of the spleen.—Rutaceæ. The seeds have the same properties . N.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. acute . S. bronchitis. See—Vegetables. Parpatha. Fl. The juice allays tooth-pain. FAM. checks nausea and promotes appetite. :—A herb . with scarious faces and hard ridges. Cooling. tumours. in dysentery. they are prescribed. M. :—Western Punjab. blue or pink. Sadapaha. Common—Garden-rue . Vishapaha. pains. COM. Konkan. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). USES :—Leaves are cooling. Havananju. useful in scabies. LOC. piles. then erect.
removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). Rasala. K. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. Naisakar. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. particularly Deccan. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. :—Grown everywhere in India. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR.—angled. oleaginous. G. L. laxative. flawed. yellowish. :—A strong smelling herb . The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. cooling. cultivated throughout India. DISTR. The plant is tonic. FAM. emmenagogue.—Gramineæ. indigestible. Ingotu. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. Fl. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. oblong-obovate. all over the State. anti-aphrodisiac . petioled. colic. :—Egypt and Algeria. Rikhu. Gudakastha. etc. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. segments cuneate. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. . Kumad. HABIT :—Cultivated. glandulose punctate. tonic. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). LOC. amenorrhœa. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Gudatrina.-alternate. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. forest and mountain. decompound. flatulence. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). useful in fatigue. digestive. Sherdi. S. diuretic. Kabbu. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Sk. Fr. heats body. Madhuyashti.. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. grown in gardens. heating to body . See—Ornamental Plants. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Sd. it may be given internally in hysteria. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. in pots. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. The oil is the best form for administration. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). epilepsy. Us . The plant contains glucoside glutin. NS :—E. obtuse . leprosy.—capsule. Ikshu. There are three varieties . C. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. Tanigarbu . M. Powdered and combined with aromatics. Ganna. spathulate or linear-oblong . Ukh . abortifacient. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn.—petals 4. Satara. M. thirst. Poona.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. S. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. Sugarcane. COM. LOC. LOC. garden. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. and externally used as a rubefacient. increases mental activity. diuretic.
white. strengthen teeth.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. LOC. tonic and aperient. bad for liver (Yunani). finely striate. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. PARTS USED :—Bark.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. pectoral and aphrodisiac. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine.-Feb. Fl. It is good in calculous complaints. C. NS. near the coasts of Gujarat . carminative. useful in nosetroubles.—drupe. globose. Ceylon. LOC. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . deobstruent. M. Sind. ulcers. useful in heat. smooth. COM. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. oil is digestible. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. 3 mm. Khakan Mirjoli. leaves. red when ripe. Kharijal. fattening. anæmia. diuretic. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. deeply cleft. :—Dry districts of the State. K. Kanara in littoral forests. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. LOC. inflammations. H. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. The juice contains vitamins A and B. leucoderma. greenish-yellow. Cane—sweet. the Konkan and N. useful in biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. lessen inflammation . HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. piles. shining. sugar is considered heavy. Brihat madhu pilu. In the Punjab. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. See—Food Plants. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. Abyssinia. Sk. Fruit—aphrodisiac. erysipelas. sometimes it raises blisters. often mucronate at the apex. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. analgesic. diuretic. Pilu. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). opposite. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. :—E. carminative and diuretic. Sugar causes " Kapha". numerous. Piludi. anthelmintic. G. stomachic .". Egypt. delirium. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. Pilu. Fl. L. t. purifies blood . drooping. Pilu. fleshy.—Nov. Pilu. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Fr. Tooth-brush tree. DISTR. FAM. disorders and wind. Seeds—purgative. improve diuresis (Yunani). alexiteric. good for lungs . dry regions of W. corrective. laxative.—Salvadoraceæ. causes " Kapha. improves appetite. Mahaphala. fruits seeds and oil. scabies. Goni. diam. . bile. lobes much reflexed. Jal. Fruits are deobstruent. In cases of poisoning by copper. tonic to liver.—very thin. often planted near Muslim tombs.. Asia. astringent to bowels. :—Drier parts of India. branches numerous. useful in biliousness. aphrodisiac . Leaves—bitter.
:—Indian Peninsula. Ceylon. COM. useful in diseases of heart. FAM. Mysore and parts of Madras State. Arishtaka. thirst. ground. Kanara. Mangalya. Chandal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. " Kapha ". K. chiefly in S.—Sapindaceæ. Chandan. Ritha . emetic. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. M. Phenila. LOC.—Santalaceæ. Burugukayi. is applied to local inflammations. Oils. :—Western Peninsula. Aritha. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. M. Sukhad . Wood—tonic to heart and brain. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). LOC. DISTR. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Phenilu. Antharalo. Rishta. in skin-diseases. Root—expectorant. PARTS USED:—Wood. tonic. much cultivated. USES :—Wood. cold in head. bronchitis. small-pox (Ayurveda). :—E. COM. Bhadrasri. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. H. useful in chronic dysentery. vaginal discharges. Sandal-wood Tree. astringent to bowels . Cultivated elsewhere. aphrodisiac. epileptic fits of children. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . DISTR. diarrhœa. NS. biliousness. fruit and seed. acts as diaphoretic. alexiteric. antipyretic. Malayaja. Kumblabijaka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. to allay heat and pruritus. M. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. . used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. Chandan. Ritha. LOC. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Oil. lumbago. G. alexiteric. NS. Shrigandhalmara. aphrodisiac. tubercular glands. exhilarating. strangury. Soap-Nut tree. See—Timbers. cures "Tridosha". hemicrania. laxative. Agarugandha. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Suket. FAM. useful in inflammations. India. Bhadrasara. H. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. S. to temples in fever. gleet. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Country and N. K. PARTS USED :—Root. abortifacient. head-ache (Yunani). Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). paralysis. Arithan . Fruit—bitter. Ringni. Kugale. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. :—E. Anthuvala. often planted. gonorrhœa. Chandan. Bhogivallabha. cholera. stomachic. alexipharmic. G. allays uterine pains. burning sensation. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Sandal. Sk. Sk. up with water into a paste..
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
leaflets 914 pairs. inflammations (Yunani). suppurating wounds. promote hair growth. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world.—standard as broad as long. such as dysentery etc. septate between the seeds. Seeds contain vitamin A. aphrodisiac. scabies. Jaya. obscurely angled . syphilitic ulcers. slightly torulose. burning sensation.. diseases. applied to ulcers and piles. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. hair-tonic. Raysingani. Baluchistan.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Sk. bleeding piles. Nadeyi. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. etc. few flowered axillary racemes.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Cultivated all over India. They are also emmenagogue. Fl. enrich blood. Jayanti. alterative. cures . Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. mottled with purple on the outside. useful in diarrhœa. NS. urinary concretions. useful in sorethroat. opposite. Jayantika. asthma. in height.5-15 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. seeds. Rasin. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. oleaginous. useful in dry cough. long. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. probably a native of tropical Africa. cure menorrhagia. Janjhan. Waziristan. lung diseases. :—G. linear-oblong. Sd. indigestible . Jayat. inflammations.—pod. removes "Kapha". CHAR. long. diuretic. an emollient poultice is also made from them. white and red. 4-5 m. anthelmintic. There are three varieties of seeds : black. strangury. into claw. Black variety is common. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. galactagogue. Jayanti. 7. spleen troubles. They are nourishing. leaves. M. 15-23 cm. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. See—Oils. seeds. pendulous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. gouty joints. small-pox. L. bark. C. H. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. HABITAT :—Cultivated. oil. FAM. astringent to bowels. strengthening. Seed-oil—fattening. tonic. diuretic and lactagogue. biliousness. cooling. DISTR. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. eye diseases . branches striate. applied to gouty joints.— abruptly pinnate. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). COM. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. Shewari. Fr. and as an oildressing for ulcers. :—A soft-wooded shrub. LOC. tonic. inflammations. yellow. K. PARTS USED :—Root. carminative. LOC. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles.—20-30. Jinangi. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . They have been used to procure abortion.—in lax. beaked. of eye and ear. Jayanti.
is applied in rheumatism. Agasti. Agusta. NS. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Bark—astringent. LOC. Basna. dysentery and paludism. fevers. :—G. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. :—A soft wooded tree .5-8. FAM. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. night-blindness.8 cm. tumours . long. "Kapha" and inflammation. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. diabetes. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. 50 cm. C. allays thirst. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. The plant contains vitamin A. Agati. Indigenous from Malaya to N. high. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". diarrhœa. relieves throat-troubles. K. Dirghashimbi. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. 2-4 white or red. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). brightens intellect (Ayurveda). long. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Hatiya . Fl. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache.— pod. Seeds—emmenagogue. Flowers—cooling. cure quartan fever. leaves. Fr. leaflets 16-30 pairs.—7. astringent. anthelmintic. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Kempagase. Agase. Australia. anthelmintic. improve appetite . Kanali. flowers. leucoderma. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. cures " Tridosh " pains. maturant. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). is applied in painful swellings.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). LOC. Vranari. epilepsy. Agasta. DISTR. cure itching. fruits. gout . See—Vegetables. leprosy. Bak. Bark— astringent. CHAR. Fruit—laxative . Munidruma. long. LOC. See—Fodder Plants. stimulant. very showy.— flowers at various times.—in racemes . Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. 6-9 m. t. 15-30-cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sk. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. H. Fl. ulcers. COM. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. useful in ozœna. rubbed into a paste with water. improves taste. M.— pinnate. . heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). useful in ophthalmia. demulcent. bronchitis. alexiteric. gout. biliousness. linear oblong. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Ornamental Plants. An infusion is given in small-pox. anaemia. Agathio. Leaves—indigestible. Leaves—purgative. useful In diseases of spleen.
petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Barial. Country. long. leaves and seeds. aphrodisiac . L. LOC. DISTR. Rajbala. sharply serrate. DISTR. CHAR. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. Vatyapushpi. Bala. minutely hairy. softly hairy all over. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Khareti. Fl. Chikna. emollient.—Nov. long. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . a weed..Dec. Pata.. ovate-oblong. carpels 5-9. removes " Vata ". crenate. Chittuharatu. Baladana.—Malvaceæ. puberulous. awns 2. Bariara. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. pedicel jointed much above the middle. dorsal scabrid. M. strongly reticulated. astringent. Root—cooling. Samanga. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic and tonic. useful in fever. Gujarat and S. Kherati.-Oct. H. t. base rounded. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. Sk. diuretic. " Kapha " . LOC. H. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. cordate. Bala. Pata. is given . with ginger. Kisangi. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). :—G. carpels 7-10. HABITAT :—Moist places . cooling. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).—5-6 mm. M. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. scabrid-hairy.—2. M. K. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. linear. Batyalaka. Country Mallow. Fr. M. LOC. black. upper margins ciliate. CHAR. K. C. lanceolate.3 cm.-Nov. Sk. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. diam. astringent.. Fl. Bala. G. Jayanti. Tukti. FAM. obtuse. Kareta. branches slender. :—Konkan.—smooth.—6-8 mm. Fl. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Deccan and S. decoction. glabrous. Country. Kharanti. yellow. :—Hotter parts of India. Prahasa. Fl. t.—1-2 in each axil. bleeding piles.5-5 cm. " Pitta ".—Malvaceæ. :—Konkan (common). digestive. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi.— yellow. Fr. NS. :—E.—solitary or few together. pedicel jointed about the middle. strongly reticulated . L. Sd.5-6. COM.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.—2. LOC. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. NS. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. awns 2. Chikna. linear . :—A shrub. COM. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. useful in blood and throat diseases. bark. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Kumghi. Hettutti-gida. diam. dorsal margins toothed. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains.
M. diaphoretic. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. those of the ray red beneath. L. NS.-Dec. S.—yellow. :—G. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. noise in ears. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. triangular-ovate. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. and head-ache. black. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. :—Deccan. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Ceylon. Fl.—heads small in leafy panicles . deeply and irregularly toothed.—Nov. pappus 0. :—A large annual herb.—achene. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. common. :—Throughout India. tinged with purple.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering.—Compositæ. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. It is also used to favour menstruation. Country. COM. stem stiff.—opposite.2 m.6—1. Externally. . HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. 5 inner boat-shaped. Linn. high. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Bala—Sida cordifolia. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. FAM. administered in hemiplegia. M. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. facial paralysis. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Pilibadkadi. also in colic and tenesmus. LOC. 5 outer clavate. DISTR. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. cystitis. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. Fl. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. involucral bracts 2 rows. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. erect. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. rhomboides Roxb. stiff-neck. CHAR. Fr. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. juice is used for healing wounds. 0. Katampu. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. slightly rough. all running down wing-like into petiole. PROPERTIES AND LOC. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. t. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. Fl.
196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. fruit and seeds. useful in leucoderma. ovate. :—Widely cultivated in India.—Solanaceæ. Ranringni. covered with stellate hairs. pruritus ani. H. laxative.3—1.—Solanaceæ. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). :—E. LOC. 8 mm. loss of appetite. Brinjal. Sd. Root is applied to lessen pain. eye diseases (Ayurveda). " Kapha". G. sharp. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. Bhantaki. Dorli. Barhanta. asthma. :—Throughout tropical India. Vayase. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. LOC. very. C. Ubhi-bhuringni. maturant. globose. stem stout. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Habba-Kirigulla. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. Nilaphala. It is seldom used alone. Fr. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. lessens inflammations. anthelmintic. G. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. DISTR. aphrodisiac. :—E. Bhanta. recurved.5—7. Hinguli. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Mahotika. COM. improves appetite. petiole prickly. vomiting. Egg Plant. or triangular-ovate. FAM. lobed. removes foulness of the mouth. t. prickly. .—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. FAM.—5—15 X 2. fever. Fl. bad for piles if taken internally. Bhantaki. high. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. prickles large. China.. NS. leaves (rarely) and fruits. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine.—minutely pitted: Fl. Vadikadheri. 0. Vange. base unequal-sided. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Kattarta. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections.5 m. Hinguli. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Badanikai. Sk.-Aug. astringent to bowels. cardiotonic. Philippines. Malpya. subentire. Vartaki. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. H. K. analgesic. rarely wild. Rigana. Vrittaphala. Mhotiringni. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha".— berry. COM. Baingan. M. leaves. clothed outside with purple hairs . Vantak. Indian Nightshade. diam. dark-yellow when ripe. Fruit—cardiotonic.. Kadusonde. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria.5 cm. pain.-Oct.—pale-purple.. bronchitis. digestive. Vengni. L. Brihati. causes biliousness. Ceylon. K. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). enriches blood. NS. " Vata".
tapering into petioles. bitter. NS. diarrhœa. diuretic. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. itch. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. CHAR. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. dysentery. In S. hiccup. gonorrhœa (Yunani). asthma. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. alterative. in pains. :—Throughout India. favours conception and facilitates delivery . It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. Katuphala. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. diam. H. Vayasi. See—Vegetables. Kamoni. Fruit contains vitamins A. The seeds are used as a stimulant. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. G. shining. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. etc. . useful in giddiness. tonic. :—E.—Sept. bronchitis. dysuria and asthma. entire or sinuate toothed. taste. Kakamachi. ear and nose .MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. liver inflammation. useful in heart and eye-diseases. Ceylon. stem erect. M. ovatelanceolate. urinary discharges. bronchitis. Seeds—laxative. in extra-axillary. throat burning. inflammation. subumbellate. :—A variable annual herb . fever. Sk. Root-bark—laxative .—many. bark. K. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. " Tridosha". LOC. Kakamunchi.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . improves appetite. inflammation. Sd. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. minutely pitted . Makoi. B and C. fever. 6 mm.—small. Kabaiya. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. and used with success in psoriasis. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. piles. Fl. Fl. smooth. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers.—discoid. Morellel. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. Piludi. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. aphrodisiac. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. vomiting. not to be given to pregnant women. Black Night-shade. Kakamachi. eye-diseases hydrophobia. Tiktika. griping.—Solanaceæ. good for neck ulcers. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. leucoderma. Fr. much divaricately-branched . laxative. yellow. L. 3-8 flowered cymes . It acts as a hydrogogue. cathartic and diuretic. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. useful in diseases of eye.. Gurkamai. LOC. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). Hound's Berry. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow).— berry. C.-Jany. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. DISTR. t. chronic fever. worms in ear. COM. leaves and fruit. heating. improves voice .
H. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Fl. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. K. biliousness.. NS. E. piles. FAM. NS. Vrittatandula. yellow or white with green veins. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. hairy outside. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. good in inflammation. ozoena. Sk. stem zig-zag. expectorant and febrifuge. Seeds—anthelmintic. often exceeding 1. FAM. Ringni. Great Indian millet. Katai.—berry. :—G. sterility in women. sinuate or subpinnatifid. G. Bhui-Kate-ringni. pruritus . :—Common in the Deccan . leaves. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Dhavani. S. bright green perennial herb . appetiser. Bijapur and E. Sorgho. Leaves—good application for piles. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Chikka-sonde. laxative. Jolah. Yuvanala. LOC. 3-2 cm. urinary concretions. thirst. dysuria. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Fl. D. straight. Jonera. M. Kenjal. Konkan.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Jowari. Malaya. yellow and shining. COM. petiole prickly. Ikshupatraka.7 cm. Durrah. long. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Sholapur. heart disease. Jondhala. lobes deltoid. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. they are used in the burning of feet. Brihati. strangury. :—A very prickly diffuse. ovate or elliptic. Africa. Kantakini. Root—aphrodisiac. Kateli. PARTS USED :—Root. H. anthelmintic . pains. C. :—Throughout India. Dirghashara. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. Kantakari. K. :—E. Jundri. chronic bronchitis. heating. COM. flowers. Shalu. Basu). L. fruits and seeds. prickles compressed. Fruit—laxative. It is used in asthma. Nirgol. asthma. & Wendl. stems.5-5. fevers. LOC.—purple.. good for boils and scabies (Yunani).— June. DISTR. Nidigdhika. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. muscular pains. Bhoyaringni.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr.3 cm. Fr. LOC. Yengara . t. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. useful in bronchitis. asthma. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Jowar.-5-10 X 2. hairy on both sides. stone in bladder. stomachic. CHAR. M. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State .—Gramineæ. Sk. surrounded by enlarged calyx . HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. diam. Nele-Rama-gulla . Sundia . Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. lumbago. Sind. tropical Australia. aphrodisiac. fever. base unequal-sided. "Vata" and " Kapha".—Solanaceæ.
M. DISTR. HABITAT :—Open situations. Some. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. :—Bark-acrid. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. L. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. anthelmintic. leprosy and dysentery . Agniruha. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. G. . Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). :—Seeds. M. biliousness. general debility.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. NS. Vritta. K. M. Rohani. Bastard Cedar. useful in " Kapha". CHAR. Rohun. while Belgaum. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. refrigerant. tonic and antiperiodic . Asia and Africa. H. Dharwar. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bodiakalara. Ahmedabad. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . :—Widely cultivated in India. NS. Karanda-gida. FAM: —Compositæ. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). DISTR. aphrodisiac. Bijapur and E. See—Timbers. Rohina. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. with toothed wings. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. COM. aphrodisiac. See—Food Plants. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Gorakhmundi. indigestible. Tans. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Pravrajita. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. ulcers. diseases of blood. bladder and kidney complaints. Sk. Rohini. LOC. hence used in intermittent fevers. Poona. Indian Red-Wood. hairy. piles. Juss. COM. ulcers. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. H. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. :—Bark. vaginal injections and enemas. Khandesh and S. K. Munditika. Kumbhala. Ceylon. glandular.—Meliaceæ. :— E. Country. tumours (Ayurveda). improves appetite and taste. LOC. :—Dry forests of W. on dry stony hills. Gorakmundi. Sumbi. FAM. high. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Rawtarohan. :—G. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Swami-mara. Ruhin. Gums and Resins. Sk. Aruna. PARTS USED. :—The grain is cooling. laxative. PARTS USED. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Mahamundi. common in Gujarat. introduced into America and Australia. stem and branches cylindric.—sessile. Gorakhamundi. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . constipating. cures " Tridosha ". fevers. good for sore-throat. Grains contain vitamin B. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Fibres.
ovate. scabies. enriches blood . laxative. used also for local application. C. :—Annual herb. Pellitary . Fl. HABITAT.—opposite. Celyon. long. irregularly crenateserrate. strangury. :—Deccan. leaves. cools brain. PARTS USED. H. ciliate near the ends . asthma. LOC. lessens inflammations . ray flowers and ligules very often absent. vomiting. used in insanity. :—Throughout India. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. :—Throughout India. :—Common in the Konkan. involucre bracts linear. indigestion. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. bronchitis. depurative. Australia. sometimes grown in gardens. base usually acute. glandular hairy.—in heads ovoid. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. alterative. Akarakara . compressed . :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part.. useful in skin diseases. Country and Kanara. anæmia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. boils. flowers and seeds. Fr. chest diseases.—Compositæ.—purple. elephantiasis. in cases of worms and indigestion. M. :—Hot. gives lustre to eyes . fattening. stem and branches hairy. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . solitary or subpanicled. oblong. urethral discharges and jaundice. piles. Malay Islands. laxative. leaves and flower-heads. ovate-oblong. good for eyesore. the latter when present minute. cooling. :—Common in rice-fields. with honey they are given in cough. and tonic (Stewart) .— achene. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative.. DISTR. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. COM. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Pappuso. increases appetite.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. tonic. Fl. spleen diseases. PARTS USED. anthelmintic. They are given in powder form. stalked. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tonic. M. glaborous. :—Root. Akkalkara . PROPERTIES AND USES. bark. They are chewed to relieve toothache. Akara-karava. ring-worm of waist. truncate. :—Wild and cultivated. Fl. leucoderma. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. peduncles with toothed wings. biliousness. FAM. emmenagogue. t.—Nov. USES. pain in uterus and vagina. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).—Achene. digestible. epileptic convulsions. . LOC. looseness of breasts.—Nov-Jany. Ceylon. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. t. dysentery. Fr. LOC. rectal pain. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. :—Root. DISTR. globose ovoid. Sk. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. NS. Powdered root is given as tonic.—compound heads. gleet. Fl. :—E. all warm countries. HABITAT. urinary discharges. alexipharmic. scalding of urine. hemicrania (Ayurveda). Africa. biliousness. CHAR. peduncles reaching 10 cm. S. tuberculous glands. jaundice. serrate or dentate. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr.
stone woody. ulcers. :—H. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. entire.—Anacardiaceæ. Pahad. Padiala. :—A tree 9-10. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. Salt Range. It has been found useful in dysentery. L. Fr.—drupe. t. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. tonic. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. astringent. DISTR. round with furrows and cavities. Sk. Fl. aphrodisiac. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. oblong. blood complaints . In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. Fl. M. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES. Pandri. Kanara.8-7. :—E. ovate oblong. oblique. Kapichuta. M. :—Bark. refrigerant. Pitana. bark smooth. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Konkan. Tungi. Hulave. Western Peninsula. trunk straight. LOC. Gum is demulcent. Patala. Country. See—Gums and Resins. branches nearly horizontal. phthisis. Parur. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching.5 m. CHAR. burning sensation. Indian Archipelago. appetising. hard. good for sore-throat. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery.-Apl. :—Cultivated. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Bile Tree. biliousness. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. Kamduti. PARTS USED. C. Ran-amba . It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. NS. Amate. M. . Patala. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Kalavrinta. COM. Amrataka.—Bignoniaceæ. Ceylon. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. COM. yellow. Sk. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. :—Often planted throughout the State. K. Indian Hog-Plum. Ali-vallabha. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Kariguddada. W. Hude. Giri Hadari. Hongkong. H. Amra. LOC.5 cm. Sd.8 cm. enriches blood . Padal. destroys " Vata ". HABITAT. Avatekayi. Kumbhi. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Marahunise. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Wild Mango.. Dr. Toyadhivasini.-usually 1. ash-coloured . long. widely planted. ovoid. K. FAM. Padal. Ambada.Feb. Fruit—indigestible. Gujarat. long. cures rheumatism... Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. :—Leaves-tasty. leaves and fruit.— petals 4-5. pinkish green. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth.5-18 x 3. NS. Andamans. Ambodha. high. Burma. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic.
M. Kajavara. LOC. Kuchla. itching. Planted in Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kuchla. Kajra. ulcers. useful in bilious diarrhœa. K. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). tonic. eructations. tonic. Fruit—useful in hiccup. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. emmenagogue . jaundice. piles. :—In forests south of Bombay. fevers. N. :—Monsoon-forests. leaves. Kuchala. cures pains in joints. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. vomiting. tonic. It is regarded as cooling. :—Root. Kangira. flowers. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. LOC. Burma. G. seeds. LOC. FAM. Visha-druma. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. See—Timbers. cures leucoderma. heating. DISTR. Sk. Hemushti. Poison Nut.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. piles . burning sensation. anæmia. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. Laos. Crow Fig. asthma. fruit. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . sub-Himalaya. :—E. inflammation. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kakatinduka. loss of taste. :—Wood (rarely). In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. Kajra. COM. blood diseases. PARTS USED. Travancore.—Loganiaceæ. Nirmal. LOC. heating. :—Fruit-acrid. poisonous. DISTR. diuretic. antipyretic. pungent. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . :—Root-bitter. Karaskara. heating. H.. Karnatak. "Kapha". ring-worm. Flowers— acrid . lumbago. PARTS USED. Kachita. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. from Kashmir to Sikkim . blood diseases. Kupaka. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . aphrodisiac. Kanara. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). "Vata". :—Very common in Konkan and N. west coast of Madras State. fruit. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Travancore . Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. thirst. diuretic. Vishamushti. Kelakutaka. Ittangi. Circars. Kanara. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". bitter. appetiser. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. NS. :—More or less throughout tropical India. Ceylon. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Indo-China. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed.
In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. alexipharmic. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. cures inflammations. Ceylon. hallucinations. M. head-diseases (Ayurveda). kidney complaints. Ambuprasadini. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. :—Deciduous dry forests. :—E. HABITAT. LOC. good for liver. . diaphoretic. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. increases "Vata". Aduguchali-bija. diuretic. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. poisoning. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. :—Root (rarely). PROPERTIES AND USES. Clearing Nut Tree. jaundice. M. tonic. Burma. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. fruit and seeds. H. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium.—Loganiaceæ. Nirmali. anæmia. :—Western Peninsula. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. Kanara and Khandesh. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Seeds—bitter. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. also in Konkan. lithotriptic. Nelmal. K. Nivali. NS. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. LOC. aphrodisiac. thirst. emetic. Madhya Bharat. alexiteric. See—Timbers. causes biliousness. Kataka. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Country. Seeds—acrid. gonorrhœa. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. improve eye-sight. Sk. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. relieve colic (Yunani). FAM. See—Timbers. The demand for strychnine is increasing. urinary discharges. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. cure strangury. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Shodhanatmaka. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Fruit useful in eye diseases. DISTR. :—Root cures leucoderma. Chittu bija. The plant is the chief source of strychnine.
FAM. throughout N. Peninsula. bleeding gums . HABITAT. :—M. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. L. Lodhra. M. Kadu. cooling. K. in powder or in fresh decoction. biliousness. PARTS USED. decussate. Bose). C. astringent to bowels. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). flowers (rarely). 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . Country. Sd. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. inflammations. Dyes. etc. COM. Lodhra . PARTS USED. C. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani.— Oct. Deccan . Deccan. Lodhraka. emmenagogue. stem densely leafy. Torna fort. NS. Bark—bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES. dysentery. Bhilli. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. FAM. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. CHAR. Balaloddujinamara. acrid. :— E. digestible. :—The whole plant is bitter. E. winged . broadly ovate. ovoid or oblong. Broughton). :—Hilly parts. Tiritaka. . COM. LOC. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. cures cough. Fr.—Symplocaceæ. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Sk. useful in eye-diseases. :—Root. :—Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES. diseases of blood. Lodh is used in raw condition.—many. :—W. aphrodisiac.3-0. leprosy. S. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). 5-nerved . high. See—Timbers.— sessile.—capsule. Chota Nagpur.9 m. Fl. Californian Cinchona. Mahabaleshwar. :—Bark-acrid. 0. DISTR. Fl. :—Bark. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . LOC. Tillaka. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. useful in abortions .204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. Burma.. DISTR. Peninsula). Lodh. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Lodh Tree.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . M. :—India (W. LOC. white with blue veins. 2-valved. eye-diseases and ulcers .-Jany. China Nora. alexiteric.—Gentianaceæ. Lodh .. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. :—Western Ghats . Shavaraka. colloturine and loturiaine. quadrangular. :—An erect herb. 4-winged. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". NS. C. H. Loder. vaginal discharges.— lobes 4-5. t.
Gulabjaman. dry. Jambul. Surabhipriya. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. COM. carminative and diuretic. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. bronchitis. astringent to bowels. good gargle for sore-throat. fruit vinegar is tonic. etc. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. DISTR. Jambura. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Gulab-Jamb. :—E. See—Timbers. Jamen. H. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth.) FAM. . thirst. :—Bark-acrid. M. Fruit—acrid. Jambul. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. also used in spongy and painful gums. astringent to bowels. Jambudi. K. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Ceylon. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Nenda. good for sore-throat. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. M. K. sprouts. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. common at Mahabaleshwar. NS. ulcers. Sk. Malay—Rose apple. increases "Vata". Jambula. digestive. blood impurities. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. common along river banks. PARTS USED. Australia. Jamburaj. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. carminative . H. astringent. Nilphala. LOC. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic.—Myrtaceæ. dysentery. :—Bark. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. G. :-Black-Java Plum. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Pharenda. Shukapriya. Neralu. COM. Jam. Malaya. LOC. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. Pannerali. :—Throughout the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Kokileshta.) FAM. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Jambu. useful in spleen diseases. asthma. Jambu. both wild and cultivated. very often planted. fruits and seeds. Jambu-Nayinerale.—Myrtaceæ. anthelmintic. Shukapriya. sweet. NS. :—Throughout India. gargles and washes . strengthens gums and teeth. biliousness. enriches blood. Nerate. Fruit Trees. Jambu. Jambu. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. also wild. Seeds—diuretic. removes bad smell from mouth. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. cooling. LOC.
removes bad humours.. Tagara. HABITAT. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). purgative. Assam. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. The plant contains an alkaloid. Kottuhale. bitter. alexipharmic. lessens pains in limbs and joints . Tagar. tonic to brain. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. used in liver complaints. dysentery. improves voice. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Cultivated in many places. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. :—Cultivated in gardens. NS. K. Burma. Wax flower. Khasia Hills. LOC. Ashvathabheda. CHAR. inodorous during the day. C—lobes overlapping to the left. Br. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. used in syphilis (Yunani).— opposite. indigestible. astringent to bowels. useful in "Kapha. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. useful in paralysis. See—Ornamental Plants. Fl. . Fr. Maddarasa gida . . cures epilepsy.—snow-white. salver-shaped. Chandani. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. acrid. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). :—Root is acrid.—rainy season. COM. digestible. Taggar. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. double. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. PARTS USED. Nandi. Tagar . strangury. Ananta. 1-3 ribbed. Fruit—sweet and tasty. DISTR.—Apocynaceæ. Garhwal. used in asthma. astringent to bowels. hot. with milky juice . :—Sikkim Terai.) FAM. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. LOC. thirst. heating. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes.5-5 cm. H. wood and oil. Seeds are astringent to bowels." biliousness. indigestible. heavy speech. and an essential oil. pale beneath. Fl. 7. glossy green above. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. orange within. across. :—Bark. Yunnan to Australia. See—Timbers. Trinidad . E. :—Bark is sweet. M. :—E. G. :—Root. LOC. astringent to bowels. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. L. aphrodisiac. Sk. tonic to brain. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. bronchitis. margins wavy. t. tonic. liver and spleen . weakness of limbs. divaricate. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. fragrant at night.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.5-5 cm. lobes 5 in single. fruit and seeds. cultivated in many parts. fatigue. Root chewed relieves toothache . blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Root—bitter .—follicles.5-15 X 2.
:—Rain-forests.—follicle. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Sk. throughout the Konkan and N. Amli. Pandarakuda. Flower—bitter. PARTS USED. See—Ornamental Plants. C. :—Cultivated. Sd. Genda. M. somewhat boat-shaped. 2. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Nagaskuda. :—Malabar. Amli. stomachic. Fr. Amla. Tintrani. NS. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. FAM.2-7. Amala.— Mar-Apl. Makhamala. :—Native of Mexico. LOC. LOC. FAM. muscular pains. FAM. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. G. divaricata. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. Sandu. H. belching. Leaves—good for piles.5 cm. oil. Nuli. :—Flower-pungent.—opposite.5 m. acrid. COM. NS. Guljharo. DISTR. L. Zendu. high. oblong lanceolate . Zanduga. Kanara.5-20 X 3. K. Chinch.5 cm. Nagakuda. lessens inflammation . :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. M.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). : K.000 m. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. G. HABITAT. Chinchika. :—E. DISTR. Sthulapushpa. 7. :—Root. CHAR. yellow when ripe. Maddarssa. Tamarind. Teter.—surrounded by red pulp. Makhamal. Tintidika. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. kidney troubles. astringent. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. their juice is given in ear-ache... good for teeth . H. rough. PARTS USED. :—Leaves and flowers. internally they are said to purify blood. Amlike. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. Fl. Gultora. COM. M. coriaceous. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. NS.—white. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards .. wood. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. across in pedunculate cymes .. Amlika. :—E. carminative. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). LOC. COM. :—Same as T. grown in gardens all over India. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. bark grey. HABITAT. t. useful in scabies. Kalaga. Travancore up to 7. Chinch. Makhamali. Imli. French Marigold.— tube inflated near the top.—Apocynaceæ. Halmeti. bitter. common in rain-forests.4-4.—Compositæ.
Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. sore-throat. and for sizing materials. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. leaves. Sk. . :—Bark. DISTR. NS. costiveness. G. tumours. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Malay Peninsula. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. Condiments and Spices. LOC. boiled they are used as a poultice. heals wounds and fractures. Fruit—sour. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Sagwan. Mahapatra. Sagach. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). laxative. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Sag. vomiting. bark. COM. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. heals ulcers. Seeds astringent. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Madhya Bharat. wood. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. DISTR. tonic to heart. useful in liver-complaints. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. causes cough. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Teka. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. H. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N.. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Sumatra and Java. Sagun. tasty. such as body-burning. :—E. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. useful in giddiness and vertigo. sweetish. anthelmintic. Sag. Cultivated also. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. PARTS USED. laxative. and laxative. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. stomatitis. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. aphrodisiac. scabies.. thirst. PARTS USED :—Root. intoxication &c. :—Throughout India. carminative. small-pox. Burma. heating.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. digestive. Anil. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). earache. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. flowers. See—Timbers. flowers and seeds. Flowers— appetising . Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. M. biliousness. abundant all along the slopes of W. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". K. Sagwan. Circars. indigestible. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Kanara. fruit and seeds. urinary discharges. Fruit-sour. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. LOC. Tega.—Verbenaceæ. Tropics generally. eye-diseases. Tegu. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. FAM. Kanara. Bark—astringent. Teak. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Arna. tonic. Seeds are good astringent.
along forest borders. increase "Vata". K. Bark is an astringent. anthelmintic. Kogge. cooling. suborbicular. asthma. leaves and seeds. useful in piles. good in piles. branches spreading. Kalika. LOC. blood. gonorrhœa (Yunani). mucronate. CHAR.8 X 0.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. PARTS USED. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis.. expectorant. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). enriches Blood . Country. long. useful in bronchitis. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. asthma. leaflets 11—21. COM. Sk.5 cm.—petals clawed.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. :—A perennial herb. liver. :—Plant-digestible. improve appetite. Jhila. C. Sd. spleen. anthelmintic. bitter. leprosy. ulcers. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. Konkan. poisoning. cures diseases of liver. oblanceolate. :—All over India. S. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. high. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). Sharapunkha. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. 2—2. NS. DISTR. Sarpankho.—pod 3—4. Deccan. FAM. dry.—Oct. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . Wood—acrid. laxative. Fl. LOC.-June. M. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES. allays thirst. root.2 cm. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. fresh root-bark. :-G. HABITAT:—Open situations. linear. silkyhairy beneath. pubescent on the back. allays thirst. syphilis. :—The whole plant.—5-6 . Sharapunkha. Fr. H. slightly curved. standard. Empali. useful in scabies. M. inflammations. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. Unhali. glabrous above. Plihari. spleen diseases. Flowers—acrid. tumours. useful in bronchitis. Udhadi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Flowers and seeds are diuretic. alexiteric. urinary discharges. it acts also as a vermifuge. Sarphonka. heart. Ghodakan. ground and made into a pill. Phanike. Malay Peninsula. "Root—diuretic. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. cultivated lands and roadsides. cures diarrhœa . ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). . alterative. Wood good for head ache. sedative to gravid uterus. Sarphoka. t. Gujarat. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. red. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. long. mucronate. 30—60 cm. L. boils and pimples. Leaves—tonic to intestines . burning pain over the region of liver. biliousness.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. LOC. useful in lung and chest diseases.. Fl.8—1. antipyretic. biliousness. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia.
The plant contains the glucoside rutin. acrid. K. LOC. Bibhitiki. PARTS USED.. tonic. strangury. Sagona. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. in Khandesh Akrani. externally in wounds and fractures. Buhura. Burma. Arjuna. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Indradruma. useful in bronchitis. anthelmintic. with milk. Sadado. :—Bark. laxative. Arjun-Sadada. H. Kalidrum. Hela. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Vibhitika. digestible. Bera. COM.—Combretaceæ. Arjuna. :—E. in the sub-Himalayan tract. Aksha. Koha. Madhya-Pradesh.—Combretaceæ. COM. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Bahara. Expectorant. strangury. See—Timbers. :—Konkan and Deccan. biliousness. leucoderma. Karshaphala. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. DISTR. heart disease. biliousness. . LOC. tumours. intoxication. Bastard Myrobalan. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. urinary discharges. G. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Karvirak. Behedo. Bedda Nut. FAM. G. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Ceylon. Kakubha. Beheduk. Arjun Sadada. Behada. sore-throat. Madhya-Bharat. very common in South Konkan. useful in biliousness. Fruit-pungent. asthma. Shantimara. inflammation. styptic. & A. Dhanvi. leaves. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. White Marudah. anæmia. excessive perspiration. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Sadura. ulcers. DISTR. Baire. Voting. anthelmintic . Tari. Chota-Nagpur. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. K. Arjan. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. :—Alexiteric. Belleric Myrobalan. useful in fractures. :—E. Madras State. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). NS. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Tara. tonic. Kushika. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Kahu. FAM. LOC. Bahaza. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. diuretic. Vibhata. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. blood-diseases.. fruit (rarely). PARTS USED. :—Bark. aphrodisiac. Arjuna. false presentation of fœtus.. except in dry arid regions. fruit and seed. :—Throughout the forests of India. M. M. NS. Sk. " Kapha". Rajastan and Sind. :—Throughout the greater parts of India.
gout. piles and diarrhœa. diseases of eye. Dyes. in Travancore. alterative . Haritaki. bilious headache. carminative. corneal ulcers. —E. tonic. useful in thirst. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. itching pain. eye diseases etc. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. which is considered a good digestive. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. Ripe fruit—purgative. FAM. diarrhœa. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. brain tonic (Yunani). good in ophthalmia. heart and bladder. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. Jivantika. tumours. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . intoxicating. leucoderma. cold in head. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. anaemia. nose. piles. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. Jivanti. Gums and Resins. DISTR. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. urinary discharges. K. Haria. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). diseases of eye. dyspepsia. bleeding piles. Haritaki. strangury. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". piles. vesicular calculi. COM. strengthens brain. applied to eyes. Kernel has narcotic properties. Alate. delirium (Ayurveda). used in paralysis (Yunani). hiccup. useful in caries of teeth. attenuant. G. tonic. Hirda. bleeding and ulceration of gums. vomiting. LOC. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. See—Timbers. is used as an application in ophthalmia. hoarseness. aperient. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. M. heart and bladder. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. Harara. :—Bark and fruit. vomiting. Burma. elephantiasis. USES. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Sk. typhoid fever. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. carminative. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. useful in dyspepsia. Hirdo . common in Khandesh Akrani. PARTS USED. biliousness. tonic. the fully ripe or dried fruit. Har. Black myrobalan. useful in asthma. NS. :—Fruit-dry. mixed with honey. Chebulic myrobalan. H. Harade. Seed—acrid. diseases of spleen. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. heating. Kanara. sore-throat. anthelmintic. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. antipyretic. ascites. Fruit-astringent. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. gums. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. enriches blood. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. stomachic.—Combretaceæ. antidysenteric. Abhaya. inflammations. LOC. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES. constipation. eyes. LOC.
The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. produces worms in intestines . M. Paraspipal. :—Bark. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Arasi. Portia Tree. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). aphrodisiac . profuse discharge. Dyes. Sk. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative.—Malvaceæ. flowers and fruit. COM. Kandarala. :—Fruit-sour. :—Districts of Konkan and N. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Bhandi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Mhaskar and Issac).. Fibres. Burma. FAM.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Tulip Tree. increases " Kapha " . DISTR. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. K. especially centipedes. G. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Bhend. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Jogiyarale. Suparshuakan. Bengal. Parasipu. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Ranbhendi. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sacred Plants. . Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). burning of body . Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Bhindi. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). :—Coast forests of India. Paraspiplo. acrid . ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Gandarati. LOC. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Eastern and Western Peninsula. leaves. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Kanara. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. Paras-piper. Hucerasi. Parisha. also planted as roadside tree. See—Timbers. See—Timbers. Phalisha. NS. H. Gajadanta. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Tans. Bugari. :—E. LOC. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. difficult to digest. Kuberaksha. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. PARTS USED.
DISTR. :—An extensive climber. NS. Fl. Pila kaner. LOC. grooved . Sk. Sd. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. See—Ornamental Plants.—Menispermaceæ. endocarp corky. often planted in India. yellow. frequently planted. across. Shatakumbha.. Karvira.5—12. NS. 7. :—Often planted. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. lobes 5. with milky juice. Pivali kanher. HABIT :—In thickets. COM. Fr. 7—9 nerved.—membranous. mesocarp bony. but its use is attended with considerable danger. CHAR.—generally 4. L.—broadly obovate. worms. LOC. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. Gulhel. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. it has no action on digestive enzymes . virgin uterus. male fascicled. tubular. Exile or yellow Oleander. America and W.5 cm.-spirally arranged. red. Uganiballi. :—Bark. size of a pea . :—Stem. seeds and milky juice.—Apl. and blood vessels . useful in urethral discharges. K. dorsally convex. Amrita-Valli. HABITAT. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. FAM.—in axillary and terminal racemes. crowded . 5 cm. yellow. corona in the throat. females solitary. G. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. Fl. acrid. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. hot. Amritvalli. t. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). :—E.—drupes. throat campanulate. wounds. Pila kanir. exocarp fleshy. long. very poisonous (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. CHAR. :—Native of S. Haripriya. COM..—Apocynaceæ. bladder. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk. root. piles. Fr. :—Throughout tropical India. H. Gulancha. Gulvel. LOC. FAM. M. Amarvel. 1—3. Gado. Fl. Heart-leaved moonseed. :—E. Gulo.—in terminal cymes. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. leucoderma. cures " Vata " . L. Jwaranashini. eye-troubles. Zard kunel. ventrally flat. C. bark corky. Vatsadani. Pittaghni. skin diseases. Gurch. linear. Burma. . bright green and shining above. bronchitis . Indies . M. Andamans and Ceylon. fevers. astringent to bowels. G. elliptic. Gulvel. 5—10 cm. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . growing on mango and other trees. PARTS USED. H. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. pungent. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. Ashvaghna..
digitately trifoliate. 5-10 X 1. :—E. vomiting. juice useful in diabetes. also in the Deccan hills. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. Macimullu. female flower buds oblong. expectorant. tropical Africa. giddiness. 5-7 lobed. :—Rain-forests. Dahan. Ceylon. FAM.— alternate. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. H. Root and stem are bitter. Root-bark is aromatic. USES. fever.—in axillary cymes. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. anæmia. vaginal and urethral discharges. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. LOC.8.—Dehan. Kadu-menasu. (Kirtikar). ovary rudimentary. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. Fl. stigma sessile.—Rutaceæ. useful in skin diseases. Java. Lopezroot Tree. common in S. :—Root. fruits. t. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Gangalaki. Philippines. stimulates bile secretion. Konkan and Kanara. Stem-bitter. L. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Jangali-Mirchi. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. 15 m.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. enriches blood. K. Sumatra. Kumaon to Bhutan.—Aug. stomachic . stomachic. antipyretic. M. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha.8-3. oblong. crenulate. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. leaves. bark. Limri. cures jaundice. 3-5 grooved. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). tonic appetiser. NS. DISTR. Fl. CHAR. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. chronic fever. COM. size of a large pea. Kaduhakukare. LOC. :—Stem-bitter. piles. good in cough. white. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. PARTS USED. Forest Pepper. high. HABITAT. allays thirst.—globose. burning sensation. Manger. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. orange coloured. jaundice. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. causes constipation. dark shining green above. FT.-Jany. vomiting. especially acid. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. . Sk. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. pitted on the rind.. Mirchi. male flower bud globose. diarrhœa. stimulant and anti-periodic. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. renews blood. coriaceous. :—All over the Madras State . armed with small hooked prickles . diuretic. Khasia Hills. leaflets sessile. tonic. China. unisexual.
removes " Tridosha". removes " Kapha ". It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Burma. cures leprosy. biliousness. Indian Mahogany. cardio-tonic. Sk. burning sensation. aphrodisiac. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Kuruk. :—Bark and flowers. Garige. Jalakantaka-valli. biliousness. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Gandhagarige. Singhara. Mahalimbu. expectorant. :—E. NS. :—E. COM. DISTR. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Malaya. Tundu. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. FAM. causes " Vata " . See—Timbers. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Waitz).—Onagraceæ. strangury. Trikota. aphrodisiac. good for scabies and gleet.. Chittagong. useful in ulcers. :—Cooling . cooling. Trikone-phala. tropical Africa. anthelmintic. Nand-vriksha. indigestible. DISTR. :—Fruit. Shringa-kanda-taka. digestible. PARTS USED. Sk. "Tridosha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. M. cures fevers. Toon. fattening. M. LOC. Water-chestnut. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Mandurike. Kanara. Chota-Nagpur. astringent to bowels. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. K. Ceylon. urinary discharges. Shingoda.—Meliaceæ. of India). LOC. astringent to bowels. Kaechaka. Lim. antipyretic . astringent to bowels. :—Throughout India. leprosy. blood diseases. LOC. Tuni. Tun. Lud. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. Bark—bitter. Kalingi. Shingada. COM. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. H. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in . It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Gums and Resins. :—Aquatic (in tanks). H. inflammation. NS. fatigue. :—Bark-acrid. Singodi. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. often cultivated.) FAM. Deodari. burning sensation. G. Dyes. Sandal Neem. Kuberaka. Assam. tonic. Apina. itching. HABIT. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. Tunika. headache.
:—Saurashtra.—several in each coccus . Gokshura.—Euphorbiaceæ. FAM. Petari . Tumri. appetiser. useful in chronic fevers.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Sk. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. FAM. LOC. M. Gokhru.. NS. K. Gokshri. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). one of each pair smaller than the other. Gokharu. bronchitis.—throughout the year. Sk. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Gujarat. mucronate. along nalas and in swampy localities. L. Country. sharp spines. Negalu .—globose. Ceylon. used as food. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. Sd. Assam. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Gokhru. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Hussuk. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. Sumatra. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Shadanga. antipyretic. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. lumbago. biliousness. Sarata. PROPERTIES AND USES. one pair longer than the other . hairy. Trikantaka. Calthrope. abruptly pinnate. Seeds abound in starch. Gamhar. CHAR. :—H. sore-throat. base oblique. :—E. COM. Aphrodisiac. considered cool and sweet.—opposite. pain. G. LOC.. stems and branches pilose. PARTS USED. Ceylon. Pindara. alexiteric. :—A procumbent herb. Chhota gokhru. yellow.—Zygophyllaceæ. Kadu Kange Kumbala. bad-teeth (Yunani). young parts silky. See—Timbers. They are also used in the form of poultice. LOC. :—Plant is cooling tonic.. :—The whole plant. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. oblong. Gokhura. of 5 woody cocci. H. Deccan and S. Kanara. Fibres. Pindara. a common weed of the drier parts. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. NS. solitary. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. improves taste . Malay Peninsula. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Java. COM. K. M. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. Fl. LOC. Fr. bile and phlegm. DISTR. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . thirst. Karahate. Kurangaha. M. DISTR. Kere Padye. t. each with 2 pairs of hard. See—Food Plants. :—Throughout India. Kantaphala. upto 3300 m. . The plant contains an alkaloid. in Kashmir.
K. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Kanara. :—Root. S. enriches blood . H. "Vata". removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. reduces inflammation . vesicular calculi. :—Hot. Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES. diuretic. CHAR. ciliate. COM. Brahmadandi. Fr. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. pappus shorter than the achenes.—heads 6—8 mm. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. purifies blood . aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. alleviating burning sensation. seeds. Sk. suppression of urine. bitter. inflammations. stem erect.— Dec. Mota-Motachor. yellowish brown.—sessile. piles. PARTS USED. ovoid. lumbago . Diuretic. tonic. branches angled and ribbed. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. leaves. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . Fl. M. Kanara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. :—Cooling . alterative . :—Wild in places. Abu. emmenagogue (Yunani). :—A glabrous herb. slender. the Deccan. urinary disorders and impotence. L. HABITAT.—Compositæ. cough. Fl. faintly ribbed. M. improves appetite . pain . LOC. tonic. removes " Tridosha ". useful in strangury. Brahmadandi. —achene. fattening. t. DISTR. stomachic. reduces inflammation. LOC. bloody urine. S. leprosy . :—The whole plant. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. copious. : — G. USES :—Fruits are cooling. Talakanto. urinary discharges. Aja-dandi. FAM. Brahma-dandi. linear-oblong or lanceolate. Brahmadandi. long. NS. increases menstrual flow. . tonic . used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. gonorrhœa. diuretic. spinous toothed or serrate. West Rajastan. which is taken in large quantities. gleet. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. appetiser. LOC. Physiaran. cures strangury. aphrodisiac. Mt. :—Western Peninsula. asthma.— purple. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). Kantapatraphala. Country. Central India. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . pruritus ani. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). Brahmadandi. S. oblong. cures skin and heart diseases. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. cures "Kapha". C. fruits.
Kiripodla. PARTS USED.3 cm. antipyretic. t. Kadvi-padyal or patola . Patola. it is given in decoction with ginger. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. L. allays thirst. :—Root. Indrayan. dentate or serrate. alterative. the Deccan. chireta and honey. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.—Cucurbitaceæ.5 cm. Lal-indrayan. white. long as well as broad. M. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. females solitary. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. leucoderma. Jyotsna. Fr. alexiteric. COM. Ratan-indrayan. deeply 5-lobed. lobes ovate-oblong. stem robust. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda).. Avagude-hannu. Mahakala.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. H.—monœcious. In Bombay. Root-juice is very purgative. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever.5—7.-5-12. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge.5 cm. —G. tendrils 3 cleft.—2. slightly hairy. :—Root-cathartic . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Malaya. G. NS. L. base cordate . Sd. Kaundal. fruit. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. dark-green above. Fl. eye diseases. green with white stripes when raw. Wild Snake-gourd. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Fl. Makal. H.—July-Oct. long. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. :—E. with a long sharp beak. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Betlada padaval. anasarca and ascites. Perula. long. variable.6—4. scarlet when ripe. tendrils 3-fid. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. COM. ulcers. leaf-juice is emetic. useful for boils and intestinal worms.-6. DISTR. axillary. Mukal.5 m. woody below. palmately 3-5 lobed. LOC.. NS.. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . slender. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. leaves. cures bronchitis. Sk. CHAR. ovoid-fusiform. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. male in axillary racemes. M. orbicular. Ceylon. laxative. stomachic. reniform or broadly ovate. HABITAT:-In hedges. Australia. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—A scandent annual.-male in axillary . Fl. paler beneath. Jangali chichonda. — surrounded with red-pulp . pungent. stems 3.3-12. asthma. K. furrowed. leprosy. :—Throughout India. blood diseases. FAM . Malay Peninsula. Leaves—good for biliousness. Fruit—hot. long. CHAR.—Cucurbitaceæ. Panduka. distantly denticulate. base deeply cordate. Katuka. N. Jangli— Kadu padval. K. headache and boils. antipyretic. burning sensation. cures itching. bitter. oil. FAM. LOC. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). Sk. erysipelas.
3-partite. DISTR. gargle good for toothache. Japan.. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. ovate-elliptic. :—A perennial straggling herb. Fl. Deccan and S. abortifacient.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. DISTR. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. middle lobe smallest. fringed. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. ligules yellow. Kirkee. Fr. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). outer involucral bracts ovate. slender. inner slightly longer than outer.—many . pappus of numerous feathery bristles. HABITAT. Fl. rheumatism. 30-60 cm. LOC. :—Abundant in the Deccan. Fruit—carminative. :—Throughout India. hairy. petioles densely hairy. L. :—Root and fruit.— achene. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts.—Compositæ. CHAR. lessens inflammations .. t.—globose 3-8. cures hemicrania.—1.—petals wedge-shaped. which is found abundantly all over the country. used in epilepsy.5 cm. densely silky hairy. axillary. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. white. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. diam. FAM. ophthalmia. N. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. purgative. acute. high. Sd. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache.—head solitary. peduncles very long. Fl. :—Wild in hilly parts. bruises and wounds. Australia. Fr. many years ago.-July. M. . Ray flowers ligulate. t. C. :— Wild in Konkan. China. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks .— Apl.75 X . LOC. stem and branches hairy. Malaya. PARTS USED. black. very hairy.. all over the State. Ceylon. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. heat of brain. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect.—throughout the year. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. boiled with gingelly oil. limbweakness. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. leprosy. glandular. Country. Juice of fruit or root-bark.75-1 in. on the Himalayas. :—M. LOC. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). :—Leaves. Ekdandi. sparsely white hairy. bracts large. female solitary. NS..
Jyoti. Muthi. DISTR. Fl. S. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli.7 cm. NS. Pitakari (Pitamari). Kashmir. See—Vegetables. long. and the seeds contain vitamin A. roots many. Methi. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). 7. anthelmintic. COM. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. K.—Aug. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. chronic cough. large for the genus. Methi. FN. LOC. Konkan. FAM. K. also in low and sandy localities. Hot and dry. FAM. :—Leaves and seeds. M. removes bad taste from mouth. tapering to a fine point at the apex. appetiser. Janglipikvan. they are also aphrodisiac. Antamul. Sk. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. emmenagogue.. C. cultivated in many parts of India. vomiting. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. COM. aperient. ovate or elliptic oblong. dyspepsia with loss of appetite.—follicles. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. dropsy. Sd. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. enlargement of spleen and liver. fleshy. L. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES. Pitabija Vedhini. LOC. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. bronchitis. suppurative. :—A twining perennial. Nepala . with coma . Methi. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. Menthe—palle. Fl. "Vata". HABITAT. flatulence. CHAR. antipyretic. . useful in dropsy. Methi . Country. :—E. narrowed at the apex to a free point. H. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). long. Fenugreek . :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism.—deeply lobed. purplish within. :—H. NS. piles. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns.—in umbellate cymes .— broadly ovate.—Asclepiadaceæ. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. PARTS USED. corona gibbous below.5-5. greenish-yellow outside. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. :—Hot. 5-10 x 2. Methini. G. much used in colic. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). M. astringent to bowels. cures leprosy.. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Cultivated. base cordate. dysentery. tonic. M. diuretic. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. :—Punjab.-Nov. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. Chandrika. enlargement of spleen and liver. t. tonic and carminative.5—10 cm.—opposite. :—South of Bombay. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. Kanara.
—Aug. Borneo. flat. Rankanda.— flattened. polished. long. tropical Africa. 20-30 cm. linear-oblong.. :—Sandy places. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Sk. :—E. stems downy with hooked hairs. :—G. NS. COM. tapering to both ends . catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. Pitvan. Philippines. Fr.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). scape erect 30-45 cm. :—A perennial shrub. Indian Squill. FAM. Malay Islands. :—Western Himalayas. 10-20 cm. W. black. :—Roots and leaves. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Fl.—purple. :—Throughout the plains of India. Bihar. :—Bulb. stalks long. H.. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. :—Konkan. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. C. t. Jaglipiaz. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR.5 cm. found useful in dysentery. joints 3-6.. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha.— petals lanceolate. L. 0. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. PARTS USED. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. Vanapalandu. 15-45 x 1. LOC. PARTS USED. NS. glabrous.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). Ranganja . COM. HABITAT. KolaPutakand. tropical Africa.— pod. Sd. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC. light-brown . linear.— Liliaceæ. diaphoretic and expectorant. Malay Islands. C.—appearing after the flowers. white. Dried leaves are emetic.9-1. Jangli-Ran-khanda. L. Sk.-Sept. Dabra. LOC. :—Throughout India. DISTR. :—Wild. long. Ceylon. drooping. Pithavan. Thailand (Siam). Chota-Nagpur. Fl.8 m. CHAR. perianth campanulate. Burma. ellipsoid..3-2. HABITAT. URARIA PICTA Desv. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. blotched with white above. . PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—A herb. :—Common on sandy shores. Peninsula. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate.—capsule. 5-7 (rarely 9). CHAR.— imparipinnate.—in racemes 15-30 cm. high. DISTR. Prishna-parni. Pitavan . H. USES. long. M.. Fr. folded on one another. USES. Fl. pale lead-colored. Shankaraja . asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Panjala.. FAM. hairy beneath. M.
2-lobed. bronchitis. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. lip bluish dotted with purple. Fl. internal pains (Yunani). obtusely keeled.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. stem 30-60 cm. t. laxative. diseases of the abdomen. Rasno. scilla of Great Britain.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914.. toothache. tremors (Ayurveda). tonic to brain and liver. Banda. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. K. Sk. rheumatic pains. CHAR. :—Konkan. The plant contains an alkaloid. skin diseases. and U. Nakula. LOC. H. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. USES :—Expectorant. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. hiccup. column very short. alexiteric. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . DISTR. :—Epiphyte. useful in paralysis. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. LOC. Br. scandent by simple or branching roots .—Orchidaceæ. asthma. Atiras. long. Madhya-Pradesh. rheumatism. Rasna. :—Root is bitter. Vanda. long. :—Bengal. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. bronchitis. maritima of U.— July. A. Rasna. good for piles. Fl. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. HABIT.. stout.—thickly coriaceous.—capsule. boils in the scalp. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. Peninsula. and was found useful (Koman). bronchitis. acute. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. useful in dyspepsia. complicate. lessens inflammations . dropsy. The bulb is stomachic. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. alexiteric. Persara.3-2 cm. :—Root and leaves. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. PROPERTIES AND USES. purgative. 15-20 X 1. W. Travancore. Vriksharuha. erect. recurved. long. :—G. anthelmintic. :—The bulb is pungent. :—An epiphyte. renal calculi. diseases of nose. alexiteric. stimulant and diuretic. LOC. L. NS. S. 1931. Sarpagandha. praemorse. antipyretic. Rasna. PARTS USED. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U.. COM. (In Med. M.5—9 cm. inflammations. Fr. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. emmenagogue. FAM. lumbago. heals fractures (Yunani). heating. Gujarat and Kanara. and an acute interposed one. heating. Gaz. Chota-Nagpur. cardiac. pollinia ellipsoid. Bandanike. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. Bihar. Root is bitter. . Ceylon. tip. diuretic.
Kundura. boils and ringworm. (T. detergent. Khandvel. H. in chronic bronchitis. Shala. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. :—Madras State. tuberculous glands. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. LOC. buds 5-angled..—in large drooping terminal panicles. Gums and Resins. greenish. :—North Kanara. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. resin. fruit. Fr. Dhupa. Oils. Sarjaka. Lokhandi.. COM. Country. Fl. Kanara.-nut about 5 mm. Ragatarshado.-Jany.—5-10 X 2. dark. NS. Fl. M. with an offensive odour. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. LOC. also in N. acrid. yellowish. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. eardiseases. COM. Malamaitra. Haruge.5-3. Ceylon. Coorg in Ghats. :—Bark-hot..—Dec. See—Timbers. expectorant. Pitti. anæmia. K. :—E. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Kubbila. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. Sandras. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul.8 cm. young branches and panicles pubescent. Kaharub.—petals 5. tonic and stimulant. ulcers and wounds. Bilidhupa. Red Creeper. Sk. amenorrhœa. LOC. FAM. abundant in S. skin eruptions. useful in leprosy. FAM. Madidhupa. M. diarrhœa. useful in atonic dyspepsia. H. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . deciduous and monsoon-forests. stomachic. :—Western India. carminative. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. also planted. Mysore. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. rheumatism. dysentery. Raktavalli. USES. . entire or crenate. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. good for sore-throat. Dhupa.—Rhamnaceæ. debility and slight cases of fever. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. K. NS. urinary discharges. PARTS USED. itch (Ayurveda). :—Bark. cures cough. :—E. DISTR. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. alexipharmic. Shandike. globular. whitish). t. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. prolonged into a linear-oblong. CHAR. Travancore. hemicrania. M. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. bechic. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). 1-nerved wing. Kanara and S.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Poppli. Sk. :—Bark. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Safed-damar. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). diam. C. tonic. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Tenasserim. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. PARTS USED. Sekalyel. :—A large much branched woody climber. piles. G.
Somaraj. stem 0. Kadvojiri. Sk. China. filament densely bearded with purple hairs.2 cm. Fl. :—Plant.—Compositæ. Gujarat. The juice of the whole plant.. L. PARTS USED. lyrate. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. lobes 5. sub-globose. Somaraj. :—G. :—Throughout India . L. yellow. Seeds— anthelmintic.8 cm. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Vishamushti. t. Bhutakeshi. stems 60—90 cm. Bakchi. ofter cultivated.. innermost the longest. hairy. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Fl. Sundika. often cultivated. Vanajiraka. Sd. with purple tips . Java . with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. Ceylon . PARTS USED. COM. squeezed out by pounding. used in skin-diseases. LOC. high . Ceylon. leafy herb . C. all coarsely dentate. :—Konkan . hairy. astringent to bowels. 5—9 x 2. cure ulcers. K. Fl. hairy on both sides. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Sk.-rotate. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. CHAR. Country. Fr. :—Throughout India. pappus reddish. NS. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. involucre bracts linear. G.—capsule.—Dec.Feb. warted. Vapehi.) FAM. in equal proportions. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. Purple Fleabane. Agnibija. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. H.-May. rounded. lanceolate. and leaves. Gadar-tambaku. Fr.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. :—An annual herb. The juice mixed with mustard oil. :—E. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. HABITAT:-Waste places. truncate. Deccan . Kalijiri.. :—Annual.5—3.. LOC.9 m.—in simple or branched terminal racemes.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Fl. branched near the top. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kutki. :—Seeds-acrid. high. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. M. 10-ribbed. robust.6-0. M. anthelmintic. COM. coarsely serrate. rachis glandular pubescent. NS. hairy. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages.—heads subcorymbose.—Scrophulariaceæ. Kalizhiri. Kulhala. on long petioles. "Vata" and "Kapha". DISTR. . Kalhara. Kalejire. compound or pinnatisect.-achene oblong cylindric.—oblong. erect. M. K. LOC. FAM.—alternate. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. CHAR. Afghanistan. t— Jany. about 40-flowered. H. Kulara. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.
made into a bolus with lime-juice. :—Plant. bronchitis . Bala. hiccup . irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. t. flowers. K. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. erect herb. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. oblong. The expressed juice is given in piles. Sahadevi. LOC. M. Valo . Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil.-Feb. stomachic. . :—E. astringent. H. consumption. Vala. Sedardi. Africa . Kuruvelu. Fl. H. LOC.—Jan. Lavancha. good for sores and itching of eyes. awned. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). with lime-juice.—simple. tonic. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). Shit-Sugandhi mulak. tropical Asia. :—Throughout India. :—A common weed throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative.— pinkish violet. G. NS. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. heads small. Vecrnam. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. FAM. Mudivala. asthma.—achene. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. pubescent. Australia.—Gramineæ. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. PARTS USED. Fl. Ardhaprasadana. silky on the back. Sadori. COM. Koosa. Sahadevi. used for asthma. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. Cuscus grass. stem stiff. K. striate. alternate. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Khas. :—Annual. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). Powdered seeds mixed with salt. Dandotpala. pappus white. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Devika. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). Sk. 15—75 cm. In Ceylon. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. applied in inflammatory swellings . and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. COM. clothed with white hairs . Sadodi. G.. plant is used in fever convulsions. Sind. LOC. cold. Fr. are used in destroying pediculi. :—E.—Compositæ. Sahadevi. seeds. Ushira. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. FAM. cures "Tridosha". L. kidney troubles. The plant with quinine. Ash-coloured Fleabane . a depilatory (Yunani). NS. Osari. They are also used as tonic. Panni. DISTR. CHAR. Bena. stomachic and diuretic. Sk. remove blood from liver. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. high.
inflammations. promotes hair-growth. Bilenekki. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. anthelmintic. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. consumption. Nirgari. Cooling to brain. Nirgundi. erect. asthma. foul breath. DISTR. :—Throughout the State. Nirgundi.—panicle up to 30 cm. West-Indies and Brazil. Leaves are aromatic. bitter. rachis stout. sweats.-leaf sheaths compressed. Philippine Islands. Nirgundi. Konkan and Deccan. Ceylon. stimulant and tonic. cephalic. refrigerant.8 m. high. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. bitter. Sk. The otto is used as a tonic. NS. :—G. Sessile spikelets. Nirgud. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. colour varying from yellowish to black. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays .. lower ones keeled and fan-like. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. Lakki. bronchitis. H. DISTR. pale green. tonic and vermifuge. The roots contain an essential oil. Afghanistan. usually sheathed all along. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). Indrani. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. :—Cooling. long. inflammations and irritability of stomach. alexiteric.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. stomachic. bitter. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. blood diseases (Yunani). Nukki. expectorant and diuretic. spleen enlargement. USES :—Root is tonic. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. racemes up to 5 cm. :—Root. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). K. biliousness. :—Throughout India. COM. Sinduvara. bilious fevers. LOC. :—Roots. astringent. febrifuge. :—Common in Gujarat and N. M. FAM. leaves. Fl. diuretic. useful in spermatorrhoea. Sind.—Verbenaceæ. LOC. heating. LOC. useful in burning sensation. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. L. PARTS USED. Kanara in damp places. soporific. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. strangury. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. also cultivated.. slender. throughout the Malayan regions. Nilpushpi. Culms stout. up to over 1. head-ache. PARTS USED. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . leucoderma. useful in eye diseases. Nigod. thirst. astringent. Sambhalu. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. long. margin spinously rough. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations.
See—Timbers. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. HABITAT. laxative. :—E. cures thirst. leaves. fattening . G. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). and given in coughs. piles. NS. emmenagogue. LOC. . Fruit— digestive. Madhurasa. DISTR. spleen inflammation. emmenagogue. a remedy for skin diseases. COM. Sap of young branches. allays vomiting. causes gases in the stomach. laxative. K. applied in scabies. good in chronic bronchitis . stops bleeding from mouth. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. Country. :—Cultivated. produces alopecia. catarrh and jaundice. good for eyes and throat. sweet. Guchaphala. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. Angura. expectorant. Fruit is nervine. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. blood diseases. aphrodisiac. cooling . The plant contains an alkaloid. M. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Drakh . burning. stones in bladder. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. difficult to digest. cooling. H. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Draksha. allays vomiting. astringent to bowels. :—Fruit-acrid. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. PARTS USED :—Stem. Ahmednagar. stomachic. appetiser. Khandesh. Draksha. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. There are numerous cultivated varieties. produces constipation. hoarseness and consumption. diuretic. liver and kidney. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Flowers—expectorant. India. testicle swellings and piles. LOC. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. useful in old fevers. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. jaundice. Draksha. :—A native of western Asia. bad effects of drinking. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES. Yakshmaghni. fever. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. fattening. M. fruits. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. asthma. :—Deccan. seeds. purifies and enriches blood . strangury. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. heat of body. good for lungs. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). "Vata" and "Vatarakta".MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. tonic to liver. The fruits contain vitamin A. diarrhœa. W. syphilis. Darakh. sparingly in Poona. and traces of vitamins B and C. cooling useful in thirst. Gujarat and S. cough. Grape-vine. aperient. Angur.. skin should not be eaten. Sk. fever. diuretic . FAM-—Vitaceæ. Draksha.
inflammations. good in asthma. asthma. "Kapha". Tuber—bitter. favours constipation (Yunani). Fl. Fr. 7. Asoda.. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme .. Asgundh. red. . Kanchuki. Wakeri. senile debility. t.5 cm. heating.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. dark-green. Sk. Ghodasoda. tonic.—5-10 X 2.— Sept. high. DISTR. Asgund.5-5 cm. consumption. :—Drier regions. linear oblong. :—Konkan jungles. dark-orange. NS.-Jany. Hirimaddina-gadde. 0. calyx-tube. Gandhpatri. leucoderma. ulcers. bronchitis. Fl. Fr. obovate. LOC. COM. M. smooth. lumbago. C. USES. H. :—A branched erect undershrub. Wagati. Asan. Sogada-beru. ovate. somewhat scurfy.—Solanaceæ. Wagati. Balada. slightly 5-angled. seeds. Sd.5 m. scabies. (not common. :—Deccan. enclosed in inflated calyx. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. alterative. :—E. long. coriaceous. swollen above the seeds.—berry. branches terete. hard.—pod.—yellow. Winter-cherry. oblong. Canaries. Hooliganji.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. 6 mm. Fl. useful in "Vata". :—Root and bark. aphrodisiac. Ashvagandha. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES.—petals 5. :—A robust woody climber. psoriasis. :—K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. constricted between them. anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Kamrupini.3-1. marasmus of children. PARTS USED. FAM. Ceylon. insomnia. FAM. emmenagogue . alexipharmic. G. armed with prickles .5-12. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Amangura.. Gujarat. pretty common in the ghats. CHAR. 23-30 cm. L. acrid. :—In the drier regions of India . WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. Drakshasava—used as tonic. minutely hairy. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). entire. K. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. rachis grooved with soft hairs. :—Tubers-bitter.—greenish or lurid yellow. bronchitis. NS. leaflets 5-7 pairs. leaves. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. Mediterranean regions. chest troubles etc. See—Fruit Trees.—3-4. base dentate. long. oblong. HABITAT. hoary tomentose . aphrosidiac. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. anthritis. Deccan. Vajini.) DISTR. pinnae 4-6 pairs. CHAR. branches armed with recurved prickles . COM. t. Cape of Good Hope. inflammations. green berries. M. bony Fl.-Feb. Sd. main rachis armed with prickles. inserted on the top of. LOC. Punir. diam. spathulate. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root. L. long. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . abundant in Sind .—2-pinnate.
K. branches long. LOC. HABITAT. leprosy. 5-9X 1. Indrajav. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Santha. Madagascar. Kalikari. alexiteric. lumbar pains. DISTR. Sk. Tamrapushpi.. PROPERTIES AND USES. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . cooling. Fl. rheumatism. China. velvety above. It is narcotic. long. Kodamurki. blood diseases. scarlet. Hale. Dyes. Dhavani. Dhawadina. tropical Africa. ulcers and painful swellings . NS. COM. Dudhi. The plant contains an alkaloid. Hallunova. Are. Dec. alterative. irregularly dehiscent. used in thirst. Dhaw. nigro-punctate beneath. :—Pungent. Vanhishikha. Ornamental Plants. leaf-infusion is given in fever. Indrajav. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). common in the Konkan and N. LOC. See—Tans. Ceylon. Japan. simple. acrid. Madhuindrayava. in 2-15 flowered cymes. :—G.—mostly opposite. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. H. on trap in the Akrani. K.—Apocynaceæ. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub.—capsule. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Fl.-May. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Phulsatti. Hayamaraka. and in derangement of liver . Indrajav. L. :—Throughout India. brown. Dhavani. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. ovate-lanceolate. FAM. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Bark-infusion is used for asthma.) FAM. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. Khirni. useful in leucorrhoea. Kuda. debility from old age. uterine sedative. Sk. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane.—Lythraceæ. NS. H.3-2.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. t. Sd. COM. diuretic and deobstruent. M. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. toxic. smooth. Br. Dhateki. :—G. emaciation of children.5 cm. PARTS USED. Baluchistan. erysipelas. Fr. Dhaiti. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. 1 cm. Swetakutaj. Dhawai. Madhavasini. wedge-shaped. M. :—Bark and flowers. Java. Kanara near the sea-coast. . also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. dysentery. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. anthelmintic . aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. :—Monsoon-forests.— numerous. haemorrhoids. USES. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R.—numerous. Kalakuda. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Sumatra. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Bela.
all over the State. stout. fattening. 3-lobed. voice. at the top.—Compositæ. laxative. alexiteric. especially root and fruit. Shankhahuli. PARTS USED.. M. biliousness. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. Fl. Fr. complexion. Sarpakshi. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. anthelmintic. NS. :—Bark and seeds.achene. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda).Feb. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. epilepsy. involucre of fertile head. :—The whole plant. FAM. t.5 cm. axillary. See—Timbers. tonic. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. memory. CHAR.1-6. :— Throughout India. Sk.. PROPERTIES AND USES. 5-7. H. rough with short hairs . India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. barren heads many. long. :—Cooling. antidysenterica (Yunani). :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . L. PROPERTIES AND USES. fever. Dutundi. In S. West-Peninsula. LOC. long and broad. cures leucoderma. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. 1-3 cm. salivation.—Jany. LOC. improves appetite. LOC. Itara. DISTR.—many. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. Bur-Weed. USES :—Root is bitter. Dumundi. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. :—Annual herb . The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. Kambu-Vanamalini. G. :—Rajastan. DISTR. Fl. in W. Ceylon. Aristha. tonic. Timor. irregularly incisoserrate . the bark is specially useful in piles. Banokra. Gadrian. Madhya Pradesh. fertile heads few.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests.-E. antipyretic. with 2 erect beaks. oblong ovoid.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. COM. ovoid in fruit. . Khandesh at 1050 m. poisonous bites of insects. Clot-Cockle-bur. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). digestive. hard and tough. PARTS USED.. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . hairy on both sides. compressed . The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. stem short. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. LOC. Sankeshwar.
FAM. eructations. K. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). NS. G. Boyedi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. H. Koli. Alen. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. . Adrate. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. Dridhabija. :—E. :—Rhizome. flatulence. Bore. stomachic. it cleans throat. vomiting. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Bor. Ginger. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) .. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Gulmmula. LOC.—Scitaminaceæ. Egasi. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. HABITAT. Badari. Sk. Bogari. good in piles. aphrodisiac. FAM. pains (Yunani). carminative. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Ardraka. PROPERTIES AND USES. Alen. Plum. asthma. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Ber. K. Kandara. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. useful in elephantiasis. M. colic. lumbago. loss of appetite and piles. Beri. :—Cultivated. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Bordi. anthelmintic. and dry situations. Kuvali. to prevent nausea and griping. head-ache. It is stimulant. PARTS USED. pains. Ipanji. piles. carminative. Bor. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. M. Chinese Date. rheumatism. :—Rhizome-pungent. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. inflammations. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Ber. bronchitis. :—E. it is also given in the form of infusion. tongue and increases appetite. "Vata". laxative. removes pain due to cold.—Rhamnaceæ. heating. COM. NS. alexiteric. Ada. Anupama. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. aphrodisiac. DISTR. G. vomiting. Sk. tonic. Rhizome—pungent. Alla Adrak. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. on poor soil and in rocky places. appetiser. Ajapriya. COM. LOC. gives lustre to eye. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. expectorant. "Kapha". dyspepsia. Hasisunthi. useful in heart and throat diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. Indian Cherry. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. H. Shringavera. stomachic.
biliousness. tonic. burning sensation. thirst. Leaves—anthelmintic. Bark—causes boils . DISTR. Australia. :—Root-bitter. cure asthma. PARTS USED. :—Root. Africa. cooling. allays thirst (Yunani). Burma. reduce obesity. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. Fruit— cooling. seeds. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . good in liver complaints. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . frequently planted as a fruit tree. Fruits contains vitamin A. useful in fevers. Fruit—sweet and sour. removes biliousness. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. laxative. bark. leaves.. Fruit Trees. PROPERTIES AND USES. causes cough. Kanara. head-ache. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. indigestible. wounds and ulcers. fruit. Seed—astringent. good in consumption and blood-diseases. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. China. LOC. Ceylon. Leaves antipyretic. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Afghanistan. Root and Bark tonic. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. on the laterite near the coast in N. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. vomiting. Leaves form a plaster to boils. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. abundant in the Deccan. tonic to heart and brain . causes diarrhœa in large doses .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. . and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds.
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