SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. :—Common in the Konkan and N. aphrodisiac. tonic. Sk. cooling. Manda-otte. Sd.5-12. Lalkhair. Fr.—bipinnate. Khandesh Akrani S. M. . Sige-balli or kai. gums.—pod. LOC. Kanara forests. Pegu. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands.5X2-2.. given in elephantiasis. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. See—Timbers. M. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Kushthari. anthelmintic. indigestion. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Kath-bole. Sikkim. :—Throughout India. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. fleshy when green. Soap-pod tree. Khair. Deccan.-6-10 . " Vata ". along the coasts of Konkan and N. G. Fl. cures itching. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. relaxation of the uvula. K. DISTR.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis.-t. prurigo. LOC. :—An extensive woody climber. Kochi. Shige. Kanara (often on laterite). (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Tans. anti-pyretic. L. 7. acrid. psoriasis. :—Rajastan. Saradruma. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. piles.—in fascicled globose heads. It is given in diarrhœa. heaviness. Fl. overlapping. :—E.8 cm. FAM. Shikekai. " Kapha ". long. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . China. NS. DISTR. hypertrophy of tonsils. astringent to bowels. Sk. Himalayas up to 1700 m. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). erysipelas. In ulceration of the gums. Dantadhavan. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Bhuriphena. linear-oblong. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Vidula. 5-10 cm. inflammations. ulcers. Burma. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). Country and Gujarat. sore-throat and tooth-ache. M. Yajnika. Charmakusha. wrinkled when dry . leprosy. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). boils.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Malay Islands. Saptata. throat diseases. leucorrhoea. Ritha. mouth troubles. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. :—Common throughout the Stale . antidysenteric. Dyes. Dipta. Chikakai. CHAR. yellow. bronchitis. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). strengthens teeth.-Mar. Western Peninsula. LOC. Khadira. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence).. measles and other skindiseases. COM. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. urinary and vaginal discharges. H.-July. Phena.

cooling. Devababhul. DISTR. anthelmintic. Sk. itching.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Sauna jali. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. piles. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda).. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair.pungent. Sponge tree. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). inflammations. often cultivated. deobstruent. H. cures stomatitis. caries of teeth. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . burning sensation. alexiteric. Stinking acacia. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Gandhbabul. biliousness. blood-diseases. erysipelas. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. LOC. stomatitis. Kari jali. See—Timbers. Internally they are aperient. causes " Vata". Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. detergent. expectorant and good emetic. Marudruma. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—E. Gandhelo khair . In Philippines decoction. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Sind. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Gum—sweetish. purgative. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. cures " Kapha. not indigenous but naturalised. anthelmintic. Cassia flower. Vilavati kikar. Arimeda. Pissibabul. NS. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. prurigo. FAM. Girimeda. . blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. erysipelas. M. LOC. cardio-tonic. Gums and Resins. eczema. anti-diarrhoeal. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. buboes. COM. often planted . improves appetite. HABITAT :—Moist situations. anti-dysenteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. digestible.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. bronchitis. Jali. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. tonic. leucoderma. ulcers. LOC. ascites. Jheri baval. Kankri. leaves and gum. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. G. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . leucoderma. K.

NS. few. Merkati. one-seeded. stem stiff. pale-brown. softly hairy. The plant contains acalyphin.-Jany. about 50 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. LOC. :—E.5 cm. K. brown. 3. rounded at base. . Kantarika. FAM.3-0. high. elliptic obovate. Country. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.8-6.5-4.9 m. H. minute. Latjira .MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Fl. enclosed in perianth smooth. Var. pneumonia and rheumatism. erect herb.— ovoid. Sk. M. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. ascending. females. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. FAM. :—Common in the Deccan and S. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis.5x2-4. Vasira. LOC. L. many. Kharamanjiri. Khokali.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places.—Nov.5 cm. :—An erect herb 0. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. males. CHAR. Chichra. Sd.—truncate at apex. NS. in lax. Prickly chaff-flower. Fl. Vanchhikanto. oblong-cylindric.—capsule. Aghada . K.—opposite. Uttrane .—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Throughout India. CHAR. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. Chalmari. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Apamarga. somewhat 3-nerved. long in fruit. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. high. smooth.—Amarantaceæ. Ksharamadhya. small. asthma. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. hispid.—greenish white. branches terete or quadrangular striate. branches long. G. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. COM. crenate-serrate. Ceylon. Khokla. perianth 4-5 segments. elongate. M. t. tropical Africa. Chirchira. Apang. Fl. Utranigida.3 X 2. Sk. 30-75 cm. Arittamanjaria. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. M. DISTR. Agheda-di. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. H. :—G. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. 2. scattered. :—Annual. Fr. erect. angular. brown. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms.. Khajoti.. Kuppi-gida. Philippines.—utricle. Fr. in elongate terminal spikes. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. L. t. Kuppi. Sd. axillary spikes . clustered near the summit of spike. COM.—June-Sept.—monœcious.57. It is used in congestive headache. Fl.

H. etc. Jatila. "Vata". USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. useful in abdominal pains. liver and chest pains. improves appetite. carminative. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. Vekhand . Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. PARTS USED : —Root. spadix. creeping and branching. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. good for mouth diseases. FAM. margins wavy. long. carminative. anthers yellow. flowers and seeds. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery.—Araceæ. emetic. laxative. spathe 15-75 cm. L. 0. PARTS USED :—Root. diuretic. green . useful in vomiting. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). leucoderma (Yunani). long. top pyramidal. fevers. expectorant.. Baja . Ceylon. laxative.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. acute. LOC. useful in dyspepsia. DISTR. ascites. Ugragandha. throat. Bach. abdominal pains. 5-10 cm. Sikkim. America. stomachic. Europe and N. blood diseases (Ayurveda). pungent.8 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Gorbach . Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. dysentery. M. prismatic. kidney troubles. inflammations. itching. toothache. LOC. useful in general weakness. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. Vacha. alexiterie. slightly curved. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. Tropical Asia. heating. NS. Bhutnashini. Bitter. bronchitis. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. dyspepsia. See—Sacred Plants. heating. laxative. Throughout Asia.. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. piles. improves appetite. Sk. delirium. leaves. flatulence. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. Vekhand. K. dysentery. :—An aromatic herb . brain-tonic. Fr. skin eruption etc. voice. sepals scarious. piles. Baluchistan. heart diseases. LOC. . and is considered useful in dropsy. thickened in the middle. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. Gandhilovaj. emmenagogue . bright-green. tumours.7-3. bitter. stomatitis. HABITAT :—Marshy places. bronchitis. CHAR. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. Africa. Godavaj. epilepsy. inflammations. obtuse. :—E.8 X 1.—turbinate. COM. America. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints.9-1. rat-bite. Australia. Sweet flag . loss of memory. carminative. boils. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. thirst. hysteria. G.

N. Sk. dysentery. :—Western Peninsula.—Bombacaceæ. indigenous in tropical Africa. Gorakhchinch. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. NS. See—Timbers. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. Rukhdo . M. FAM. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Tudgensu . K. :—E. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. African calabash. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. H. Haggodgimara. colic.. HABITAT':—Cultivated. vomiting. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. LOC.—Lauraceæ. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. :—K. leaf and fruit. Panch-parnika. FAM. NS. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . Monkey-bread tree. M. Gorakshi. G. Kanara evergreen forests. anti-pyretic. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. Bukha. etc. useful in biliousness. COM. Brahmamlika. LOC. Deccan.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Powder is very effective insecticide. Gopali. Baobab. COM. Gorakamali. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . Pichli. fever. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. DISTR. DISTR. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. fevers and other maladies. Pisa. Goremlichora . Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. It is a good remedy in asthma. PARTS USED : —Root. Gujarat.:—Konkan. in children. Gorakhaamli. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bark. :—Grown in many places in India . excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). LOC.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

Anedhera. K. Sage-leaved alangium. :—Throughout the State. Juice—emetic.—Alangiaceæ. Philippines. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Shirish. Dodda-Hombage. Uddanaka. S. Akoly. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. expectorant. See—Timbers. M. Ankola. " Vata "-pain. Vamaka. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. Ankoli. NS. Piloshirish. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. burning of body. Karnapura. blood diseases. Sirisa. heating. Tamraphala. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Kathora. aromatics or honey. Ankol. Shirish. Ankotha. :—E. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Ankola. Ankora. tonic. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Onkla. wasting diseases. anthelmintic. hydrophobia. blood diseases. Ankola. Kalosadasado. Shyamala. acute fever. poisonous bites. dysentery. Ceylon. gleet. Tantia. FAM. Ankoli. colic.) FAM. aphrodisiac. alexiteric. Malaya. Sk. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. lumbago (Yunani). lumbago. LOC. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. H. H. fish-poison. Kullumavu. Kaloshirish. . Garso. inflammations. G. Dridhakantaka. alexipharmic . Kalashirish. Asroli. alterative. See—Timbers. rat-bite. Chinchola. indigestible. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Kanara. often along banks of nalas in N. LOO. diarrhœa. stem. Sirai. Gudhapatra. DISTR. cures " Kapha". China. COM. LOC. (Mimosaceæ). Root-bark poisonous. Krishnashirisha. COM. K. :—Common throughout the State in dry places .14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. :—Throughout India. commonly planted along roadsides. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. it is said to stop after-pains. Root-bark— used in piles. Kalshish. cures erysipelas. Seeds—cooling. spermatorrhoea. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. leaves (rarely). Fruit—laxative. biliousness. :—E. Ankota. and fruit. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. NS.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree.—Leguminosæ. anthelmintic. pungent. Shankiniphala. Sk. Shirisha. Sirsul. G. useful in worms. M. useful in inflammations.

Bulb—tonic. H. used in leprosy. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. catarrh. COM. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda).: —Throughout India. Palandu. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. which acts as a diuretic. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. inflammations. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. Root—astringent. deafness. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). alexiteric. Onion. DISTR. dropsy. flowers. Ulageddi. enriches blood. ear-ache. LOC. Oil is used in leprosy. itching. G. diarrhœa. Seeds—tonic to brain. LOC. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. given in piles..K. bark. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. stimulant and expectorant. biliousness. etc. Burma. Rajapriya. FAM. Leaves—good in night blindness. See—Vegetables. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. and chronic bronchitis . seeds. good in rat-bite. Bark and seeds are astringent. erysipelas. weakness.:—E. usually planted. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). cures "Vata". appetiser. stomachic. scabies. prescribed in ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. boils. Ceylon. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands.. PARTS USED :—Root. asthma. cultivated everywhere. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. LOC. maturant. piles. spleen diseases. piles. epistaxis. Dungari. Flowers—aphrodisiac. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. The plant contains vitamins A. Bengal. It is an important garden crop. bronchitis. excessive perspiration. bleeding piles. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. scabies. aphrodisiac. eruptions and swellings. useful in vomiting. emollient. cooling. :—Native country probably Persia. syphilis. B & C. Rochaka. volatile oil. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. tumours. leaves. body pains. Bark-bitter. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. blood diseases. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). tonic. Sk. paralysis. See—Timbers.—Liliaceæ. improves taste. vomiting. relieves tooth-ache. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. Piyaz. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. and also in skin diseases . Bark— anthelmintic. seeds. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. skin-diseases. useful in malaria. strengthens gums and teeth. Seeds—fattening. . it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. occasionally used in fever. Kanda. ophthalmia. leucoderma. NS. their smell useful in hemicrania. anthelmintic. etc. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils.

piles. thins the blood (Yunani). DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Ikshurmallika. Lasun. epileptic fits. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. K. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. In Cambodia. See—Vegetables. Diuretic. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Country. thirst. Sk. Indian aloe. Kattali. Kanya. :—E. NS. LOC. Bellulli. chronic fevers. Lasan. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. useful in inflammations. troubles of spleen. ALŒ VERA Linn. LOC. liver and lungs . It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. oleaginous . low fevers. anthelmintic. FAM. Kapila. NS. Lolisara. heating. complexion. G. ear-ache (Ayurveda). It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. thirst. H. coughs and other debilitating conditions. clears voice. Lashuna. . M. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. fattening. Rasonaka. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. Ghi-kumari. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. Lahsan. PARTS USED :—Bulb. useful in diseases of eye and heart. G. hemiplegia.—Liliaceæ. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. H. Lasan. Korphad. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. carminative. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. M. Ugragandha. improves appetite. The plant contains vitamin C. tonic. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Kumari. K. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. alexipharmic. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. " Vata ". Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. COM. paralysis. It is an important garden crop. FAM.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. aphrodisiac. good for lumbago. In cases of diphtheria. leucoderma. M. :—E. asthma. caries of teeth. tumours. Kuvarpatha. aphrodisiac. body and joint pains. bronchitis. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. Sk. COM. Korkand. digestive. voice. In pulmonary phthisis. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. lumbago. leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kumari. Garlic. sciatica. inflammation.—Liliaceæ. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma.

HABITAT :—Moist forests. skin diseases. inflammations. tonic. leaves. digestive. C. aphrodisiac. tumours. fattening. M.—in dense racemes . Ceylon. yellow. carminative. DISTR. COM. Kadusale. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. :—A perennial herb . Satian. Africa. wild along the coast. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache.—Apocynaceæ. :—Wild along the coast in S. perianth cylindric . USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. Kanara. liver troubles. jaundice. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. tonic. LOC. India. bronchitis. scape longer than the leaves. FAM. K. Jamaica. alexiteric. scaly. fleshy. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. purgative. Hale. Bitter . PARTS USED :—Leaves. Java. and it is largely imported into India. biliousness. simple or branched. used in fevers. Satwin. anthelmintic. H. E. Chatian. Br. Satwin. gonorrhœa. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. purgative. bark. piles. Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. spleen enlargement. :—Throughout India. ophthalmia. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. biliousness (Yunani). It also acts as a mild purgative. useful in splean inflammation. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Dita bark tree.—sessile. also cultivated. pain in muscles. Kaduhale. DISTR. useful in eye-diseases. isobarbaloin and emodin. cooling. pale-green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. NS. The plant contains aloin. :—E. ulcers (Ayurveda). Australia. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. Native of S. Fl. lanceolate. Mediterranean. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. liver complaints. common in the rain-forests of N. LOC. somewhat divided. Saptachhada. crowded. Barbados. planted in Indian gardens . asthma. lumbago. alterative. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. methritis. vomiting. milky juice. West Indian Islands. LOC. used in form of paste in pleurisy. strangury. Saptaparna. margins spiny. L. tropical Africa. pendulous. Sk. emollient and demulcent. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. PARTS USED :— . stem short thick. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis.

tropical countries. lanceolate. See—Vegetables. bitter. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. also in fields. Mulladantu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. " tridosha " pain. Tandulja. digestible. entire. Sk. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. Mullarave-soppu. leucorrhoea. Kantalo dambho. Drug Com. asthma.3—3.8 cm.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. also useful in catarrhal fever. LOC. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. G. heating. FAM. improves appetite. Cholai. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). Fr. hallucination. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. Pathyashaka. alexiteric. boils and burns.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. laxative. high. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. L. unisexual. See—Timbers. 30-60 cm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. biliousness. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. Ceylon. appetiser. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. useful in " Kapha ". piles. leucoderma. CHAR. diuretic. ovate. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. M. oleaginous. galactogogue.5 X 1. laxative. antipyretic. Tandulibija. stomachic. Kantanatia. apiculate. ulcers. obtuse.. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. rat-bite. LOC. DISTR.). anthelmintic. Apamarisha. K. Kantanu-dant. obtuse. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. . female calyx oblong. diseases of the blood. numerous. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. rugose. NS. good in diseases of the heart. ovoid. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. HABITAT :—In waste places. sudorific and febrifuge. COM. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. H. Tandulaja. long. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. Prickly amaranth. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. bronchitis. male calyx acute. blood diseases. :—An erect glabrous herb. leprosy. Kante math. :—Throughout India. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. tumours. burning sensation. rubbish heaps and fields. antiperiodic and febrifuge. rubbish heaps . The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind.—Amarantaceæ. Bark—acrid. often reddish. thickened at the top. bristles pointed. Fl.— 3.— capsule.2—7. :—E. Root—heating expectorant. LOC.

causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Tropical Africa. M.—Lythraceæ. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. LOC. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. Fr. Dadmari. aphrodisiac. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—An annual. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Suran . Konkan rivers. G. depressed. high. laxative. Deccan. enlargement of the spleen. Vatari. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. fevers etc. Kandala. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Sd. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. 8-65 cm. fresh or dried. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. L. Kanthalla.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Malaya. Bitter and acrid . branches usually opposite. " Vata. removes " Kapha ". HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). . FAM. Sukaranda. Arshaghna. vomiting. causes itching sensation. constipating. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). Sk. sessile. COM.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. much narrowed at the base. :—E. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. red.—opposite. Fl. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Kandavardhan. In the Konkan. the plant. Afghanistan. useful in piles. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Australia. Fl. :—Cultivated widely in the State. Grows wild on the banks of S. FAM. pungent. Blistering ammania. stomachic. Kurendika.—Araceæ. Jalavgiyo. Gujarat and Kanara. :—Throughout India in moist places. strangury . M. Jangli mehandi. DISTR. Bharajambhul. DISTR. increases appetite and taste.—capsule. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. NS. Suran. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. acrid. tumours. LOC. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. H. Vikata. LOC." blood troubles. Suran. Suran. H.—Nov. appetiser. NS. globose. elephantiasis .:— Konkan. COM. Elephant's foot. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Sk. stomachic. abdominal pains. harmful in "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root. erect or subscandent herb. Ceylon. CHAR. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. blood diseases. corm. G. Kuranda. :—E. t. asthma. bronchitis. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Kuranti.

Kanara. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. 5-nerved. Prithagbija. :—E. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). ringworm. long. Kakamari. Sk. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. & A. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M.—Menispermaceæ. Kaju. which is nutritious and emollient. Kakamari. NS. M. Kakamari. sweet. Garalaphala. leaves. skin diseases. fever. Sk. Kakanashika. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. corns and obstinate ulcers. Gerubi. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. dysentery. .5-12. G. H. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. swollen peduncle of fruit. CHAR. Cashew apple-nut. See—Timbers. broadly ovate. :—E. PARTS USED :—Bark. NS. K. LOC. digestible.. Kakamari. Kajutaka. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. flowers. It is supposed to have restorative power. The plant contains Vitamins A. anthelmintic. Crow-Fish Killer. USES :—Bark is alterative. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. piles. Kempu— Turkaka geru . cures "Vata" and " Kapha". FAM. also cultivated. hot. COM. :—A native of tropical America. Upapushpika. Sophara. 10-12 X 7. Fl. Kaju . :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. L. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. leucoderma. equal to almond oil.—in panicles 25-35 cm. COM. Fish-Louse Berry. Kaju. Jermic. cordate or truncate. K.5 cm. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Oils. tumours. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. LOC. G. ascites. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. and trace of C. The seed contains vitamin A. Kakaphal. . H. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Corm is poisonous. B. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. See—Vegetables. bark vertically furrowed . Kakkisoppugida .—Anacardiaceæ. ulcers. Kakamari. Govamba. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. many flowered. FAM. aphrodisiac. Agni-krita. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant.— subcoriaceous. Gova.

PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). also acts as a purgative. from Orissa to Ceylon. Sk. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. fruits. H. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. M. Assam. Ananas . Olen kirayat. Olikiriyat. smooth. COM. Bengal.-Oct. FAM. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Pine-apple .MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Bhuinimba. PARTS USED :—Roots. It acts also as diuretic. Mahateet. Kiryat. leaves and fruits. Nelabevu gida. Mahatit. also allays gastric irritability in fevers.) LOC. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . K. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. dioecious. Kantak sanjika. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. G. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. t. Ananasa. cultivated. FAM. petals absent. Ananas hannu. Creat. Kirata. Sk. native of Brazil (tropical America).—Acanthaceæ. Ananas . :—Khasia Hills. :—E. COM. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. Ama. removes gases from the intestines . PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. diaphoretic and refrigerant.—Sept. causes cough and biliousness. Ananas. :—Konkan. M. DISTR. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. Fl. G. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries.—Bromeliaceæ. a poison to fish (Yunani). ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Parvati. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Kiriyata. E. black . K. NS. LOC. NS. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. LOC. See—Fruit Trees. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. good expectorant. Ananas. DISTR. N. to a certain extent in Gujarat. Kanara. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). :—E. . H. it is useful in jaundice. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue.

PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. purple. smooth.—Ghats. Ceylon. distant. COM. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. undulate. made into an electuary. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. Karitumbe. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R.-Oct. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Sd. Malabar Catmint. Kanara. crenate-serrate.-Nov. LOC.3-10 X 2-4. pale beneath. L. Sk. Sundraphul. Chodhara.—many. white below. K.—Dec. dysentery. :—Deccan. thickly woolly. dyspepsia and fever from teething. Fr. high. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels.—small. :—An erect shrub. Br.2-1. extensively used in Bengal. distant. LOC. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. :—Konkan and Kanara. Karnatak. alterative. :—S. tonic. clothed with woolly hairs . stem quadrangular. Fl. C—2-lipped. stomachic.—very thick. bracts lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—lanceolate. :—E. high. and certain forms of dyspepsia. Sundara. oblong-lanceolate. Oshthaphala. CHAR. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Fl. acute.8 m. pale above.—in dense whorls . Alamoda. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. . very small.— capsule. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. DISTR. ellipsoid. linear-oblong. Fl. approximate above. sometimes cultivated. Plant is useful in general debility. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin.5 cm. 6. forming a spicate inflorescence. FAM. Fl. C—2-lipped. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. lower 3lobed. 1. Malay Peninsula. yellowish brown. and N. upper lip 2-toothed.. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. DISTR.—Labiatæ. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. lateral lobes small.9 m. t. rugosely pitted. t. polished brown. lower lip very large and broad . HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. :—Throughout India. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. and anthelmintic.3-0. rose coloured. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. Gojivana. M. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. acute at both ends . Green leaves. :—An erect branched annual 0. solitary. Vaikunth. G. NS. HABITAT. L. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves.—nutlets.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.

H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. abortifacient. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. flavoury. Pitaphala. applied to skin-diseases. chronic diarrhœa. increases biliousness . K. erysipelas. Bark is a powerful astringent. Sitaphala. stimulant. Dabria. LOC. Bahubijika. Amritphala. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. :—A native of West Indies . astringent to the bowels. Bakla. Sweet-sop. Durangi. tasty.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Sitaphala. Dhavada. :—E. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. produce ulcers in the eye. NS. fruit and seeds. bark. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. DISTR. NS.—Combretaceæ. LOC. cooling . Fruit—sweet. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. and eyesores. Sitaphala. bark.—Anonaceæ. COM. FAM. See—Timbers. Shushkanga. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. G. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. Bejjalu. leaves. Bark is bitter. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . useful in liver complaints. LOC. Sugar apple. Krishnabija. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. sedative to heart. (Yunani). Dhamora. Dhavada. Anan. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. FAM. COM. Sitaphal. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. enriches blood . Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. increases muscular strength. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Anuram. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Sk. Root—cathartic. now cultivated throughout India. LOC. Dohu. Dhavala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Sharipha. leaves and fruits. Dindiga. Dhava. K. Button Tree. Custard apple. Dindala. Sk. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". useful in anaemia. Seeds—difficult to digest. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. M. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . enriches blood. Dhava. Damora. expectorant. Dyes. Kanara border. :—Throughout the greater part of India. cooling. discharges. Sitaphala. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). good tonic. G. improves taste and appetite . M. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Ata. causes fever and furunculosis .

strangury. indigestible. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. It is generally considered tonic. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. stomachic. They are detergent and their powder. Malayan Peninsula. " Kapha". In eye inflammations. Bairi. " Vata". alexiteric. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Kadubale.—Moraceæ. See—Timbers. mixed with gram-flour. aphrodisiac. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Kadamba. Chandkuda. Valkala. Ceylon. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Tennaserim. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Seeds. :—Throughout India. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. . USES:—In the Konkan. galactagogue. PARTS USED:—Bark. :—W. sweet. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Sprouts—acrid. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Sacred Plants. Kanara . Peninsula. H. common near Yellapur. causes biliousness when ripe. Upas Tree. acrid. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Jajpugri. Burma.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Nadija. Kadamb. Pegu. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. M. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malay Islands. Niv. Chandkuda. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. M. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. :—E. Surabhi. burning sensation. Kaduve. COM. saline. Fruit—heating. DISTR. See—Fruit Trees. blood diseases. Fodder Plants. sap of the tree. LOC. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Chandala. Ajjanpatte. Kadamb. sprouts and fruits. biliousness. bitter. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Kadam. FAM. is a good hairwash. FAM. NS.—Rubiaceæ. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Kadamb . H. LOC. Nipa. often cultivated. K. LOC. Sk. COM NS. good in uterine complaints. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. wild or cultivated. Sk. Ashokari. DISTR. astringent to bowels. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Kadamb . Karnapuraka. :—G. K.

vomiting. Bhuimug. abdominal pain. heart and spleen diseases. Shimbika. high. useful in ophthalmia. laxative. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Ajamoda. Wild celery. Bhuimug. Africa. erect. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. ridges narrow. Europe. L.— radial. traces of B and C. rheumatism. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). COM. astringent to bowels . ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. Fl. Ajmud. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. aphrodisiac.:—Foot of the N. See—Timbers. 0. pedicels 6-16 . PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds.—Umbelliferæ. Bhuimug-chana. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Bhuchanak. good in ophthalmia. Ugragandha. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). cauline 3-partite. Karafs. CHAR. appetiser. Monkey-nut.— in umbels. good for heart. K.5-2 mm. Glucoside apiin is present. :—E. Brahmakoshi. tonic. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. rays 5-10.. H. LOC. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Mandapi. Sk. :—E. apex toothed . In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism.—1. Mungphali. tooth-ache. β-antiarin.4 m. amenorrhœa. COM NS. Afghanistan. bronchitis. Abyssinia. Ajmoda . chest-pains. inflammations. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. abortifacient. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Sk. segments once or twice trifid. Seeds—carminative. G. urinary discharges. N. LOC. Java and Malaya. Ground-Pea-nut. " Vata " .3-2. Fibres. scorpion and other stings. ascites. W. H. FAM. cure asthma. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Nelkadle. hiccup. Fr. used in anasarca and colic. and γ-antiarin. Markati. Bodi ajomoda. :—A biennial plant. Celery. Snehabijaka. G. branching. . specially near large cities. The plant contains vitamins A. nasal catarrh (Yunani). NS. Bori ajmud. anthelmintic. Chinimung. W. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. cure " Kapha ". Asia. vomiting. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. fever with cough. scabies. improve appetite . Moda. See—Vegetables. DISTR. M. rectal troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. vittae broad.

LOC. Hopari. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. diuretic. G. Chhataphala. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. PARTS USED :—Root. Gujarat and S. bleeding gums.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Kaungu. Poga. Supari. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. giddiness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. In French Guinea. Akota. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Sk. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Adki. Country. Chikkan. Burma. Sopari. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—E. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. cooling. gleet. COM. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. :—Madras. Areca-nut palm. useful in urinary disorders. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. H. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. See—Food Plants. Mysore. LOC. Nut astringent. Assam. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. gum. laxative. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. Kanara. Pugiphal. K. fairly largely in the Konkan. Deccan. Chikka. aphrodisiac. removes pus (Yunani). LOC.. Areca palm.:—Extensively grown in N. indigestible. Malabar. Seed cooling. LOC. NS. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Tantusara. USES. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. M.—Palmæ. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Gum pungent. Bengal. removes foul breath. FAM. DISTR. Supari. seeds. Siam. Betel-nut palm. DISTR. . Suppiyari. digestive. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. used for eye-inflammations. emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Oils. Indo-Malaya. leaves (rarely). It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Betta. Pophal. cardiotonic. improves appetite and taste. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. ARECA CATECHU Linn.

3-0. CHAR. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. India. branching. cures leprosy. Seeds are laxative. Bila dhatura. arecoline.8 cm. various skin-diseases. LOC. destroys worms . spinous. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. globose. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. brownish black. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. diam. stem clasping. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. . Mexican prickly poppy . seeds and yellow juice. Seeds—purgative. NS. See—Timbers. 7. USES :—Root is an alterative. H. :—E. Bharbhand. Fr.—capsule. LOC. relieves blisters. Daruri. This is said to bring the worm out at once. juice yellow. and in pertussis and asthma. opening by 4-6 valves. Svarnakshiri. M. Sk.5-3. antidote to various poisons.12 m. prickly. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap.—all the year.— terminal. K. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.). L. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. 2. Srigalkanta. veins white. and guvacine. t. oblong-ovoid 2. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. COM. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. nauseant. Pirangi datturi. :—A glabrous. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. Indigenous in tropical America. PARTS USED :—Root. Balurakkisa. DISTR. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). netted. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . arecaidine. inflammations and bilious fevers. It is also diuretic. good expectorant and aphrodisiac.—numerous. yellow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. G.5-5 cm.5-18 cm. Shialkanta. Fl. Fruit Trees. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. prickly. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. Pita-pushpa. useful is strangury. Plant enriches blood. sinuately pinnatifid. expectorant and demulcent. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. emetic. high. glaucous herb . jaundice and cutaneous affections. Sd.—thistlelike. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Ind. purgative. sedative. Fl. Juice—used as a collyrium. stem 0. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). Datturi. Brahma dandi. Darudi. oblong. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. Root anthelmintic. FAM.—Papaveraceæ.

applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). stems stout. FAM. DISTR. M. :—Bengal. HABITAT. W.5 cm. Arabia. COM. CHAR. . LOC. pedicel with a large bract at the base. 12-ribbed . Fr. white-tomentose..3-25 cm. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. Krimighni. Ajantri. :—A slender perennial. :—E. COM.—capsule. tropical Africa. painful joints. Gujarat and S. G. :—E. Adumuttadagida. prostrate. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. oblongellipsoid.5-4. Country. long. long and as broad as long. peduncles stout. Hastivalli. H.— Aug. Sk. long. base subglobose. Sd. Samudrapatrashoh. Fl. G. Deccan and S.—deltoid with cordate base . useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. bracts large . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . absorptive.—solitary. Kidamar. rose purple. Soge. Kitamari. L. Country. reniform or broadly ovate. Kitakaba. anthelmintic. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. stems.—Convolvulaceæ.5-30 x 6. LOC. Elephant Creeper. Samudrashok. strangury. Leaves are maturative. Ceylon. DISTR. perianth 2. Dridhadaru. with revolute margins. Dhuma-patra. Samardar sokh. M. C—5-6. Bracteated Birth-wort. CHAR. base cordate.-Sept. Vridhadaraka. Ganda.:—Konkan. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. the bands silky pubescent outside. t. Fr. base cordate with wide sinus . See—Ornamental Plants. Kidamari. weak. Sk. cultivated. tube inflated. M.—Aristolochiaceæ. (sometimes even larger). 1. striate. Gandali.-Nov. tubular. NS. Samandarka phal.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. ovate glabrous above. Java. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. Samudraballi. Varghoro. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. Fl.3-2 cm. chronic ulcers (Yunani).—Aug. FAM. " Kapha" fevers. In synovitis. white-tomentose beneath. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. Shyambhuna. white-tomentose L. :—A very large climber.8-7. Kiramar.— 7. glabrous inside. Fl. aphrodisiac.— 3. t.3 cm. Konkan. gonorrhœa.— globose apiculate. used in gleet. H. diuretic . Samudrashosh. useful in " Vata". K. K. Peninsula. Fl. long.5 cm. pubescent outside. perhaps a native of Bengal. NS.—in sub-capitate cymes. powdered root is given with milk. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. tip linear dark purple. infundibuliform.

Ishvari. Nilpushpa. . 6-valved. long with globose inflated base.5 cm. Isharmula. Gathona. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Mother or Mugwort. globose-oblong. Fr.8-10 X 1. K. dyspnoea of children. purgative (Yunani). :—E. Nagdamani. Flea-bane. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. Arkamula.5 cm. useful in " Tridosha. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. NS.—Compositæ. grooved. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children.—in few flowered axillary racemes. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Country. Fl." pains in the joints. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. bract opposite the pedicel. H. H. Ruhimula. Sapsan. Dovana. Stem long. winged. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections.3-2. joint-pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.5 cm. :—Western Peninsula. LOC. NS. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Mastaru. — capsule. L. Fl. Isvara balli beru . Dona. Dhor-davana. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Hilly parts.—Nov. G. biliousness.) FAM.:—Konkan and S. 3. :—E. slender. M. PARTS USED :—Roots. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children.—Aristolochiaceæ. The plant contains an alkaloid. FAM.—flat. Seeds useful in inflammation. Indian wormwood. t.. Sd. Sk. Nagduna. M. M. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. alexiteric. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. obovate oblong 10-12.. Plant is used as an abortifacient. leaves and seeds. :—A twining shrub. also useful in dropsy. LOC. base vaiable. COM. emmenagogue. Bengal. reaching 4. woody at the base. COM. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Sugandha. bitter. Indian Birth-wort. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. dry cough. perianth greenishwhite. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. entire with undulate margins. Nepal. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn.—variable linear oblong. Arkamula. K. DISTR. Majtari. Nakuli. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. Manjipatri. tonic. Saraparni.5x7.

high.-Hilly districts. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—heads ovoid or subglobose. G. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility.:—A perennial shrub. . petioled. Kantakaphala. toothed or again pinnatisect. Thailand (Siam).—Urticaceæ. :—E. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. LOC. but rather difficult to digest. upper leaves smaller. inner hermaphrodite. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. Panesa. H. Phanasa. " Kapha". ovate. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. aphrodisiac. deobstruent and antispasmodic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Fruit Trees and Dyes. Kanthal. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. tonic. The plant contains an essential oil. NS. Sk. " Vata".6-2. fattening. Seeds sweet. tonic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. FAM. DISTR. An infusion is given as a tonic. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. deeply pinnatisect. "Vata". LOC. asthma and brain diseases. Ghats. appetiser. :—Konkan. Fl. grown in gardens also.4 m. ulcers. 0. temperate Asia. involucral bracts villous. solitary or 2. Chakki.—Jany. fertile. outer flowers female. Externally it is used in fomentations. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. t. L— lower leaves 5. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. lobes entire. stems leafy. COM. cooling. :—Widely cultivated. minute. enriches blood. HABITAT. DISTR. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. fruit and seeds. hairy. constipating (Ayurveda).30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. LOC. Jack-Orange wood. diuretic. base lobed.— achene. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Phanas.10x2. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. often planted along roadsides in N. Panas. Vanas. asthma. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Fl. Kujja. Kanara.5-5 em. Halasina. ripe fruit laxative. Skandaphala. 3-fid or entire. The unripe fruit is astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Java. M. Fr. aphrodisiac. useful in biliousness. pubescent above. Tage. white tomentose beneath. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). K. cures "Kapha". See—Timbers. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. itching (Ayurveda). The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. Panos. LOC.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. Ceylon. aromatic. oleaginous. although very nutritious. leprosy. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. oblong ellipsoid. lanceolate. Jack-fruit tree.

COM. Tropical Africa.—Asclepiadaceæ. tapering at both ends. :—Deccan. Svadurasa. Sk. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. inflammation. Fl. H. FAM. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . with coma. white.000 m. Java and Australia. 2. See—Ornamental Plants. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. S. oleaginous. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. naturalised in many parts of India. indigestible.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn.2 m. fragrant. PARTS USED:—Root.— follicles. Satavari.5-10 X 1.—linear with a stout spinous spur.—Liliaceæ. and moist monsoon forests. K. LOC.—June-Sept.—in simple raceme. leaves and flowers.—lobes reflexed in flower. abundant round about Poona. tumours. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. erect. Siprimuli. L. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Fl. M. segments. narrowed at both ends. useful in dysentery. :—Extremely scandent.3-2. high. Fr.5 cm. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. A fibre is extracted from the plants. solitary.—opposite 7. in the Himalayas. root-stock tuberous. Shatavari. Asual Shatavari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet.-Dec. appetiser. Satavari. aphrodisiac. common in the Deccan. dark brown. cooling. 7. Fl. Kaktundi. Satavari. FAM. galactogogue. Fr. CHAR. tonic. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. curved. NS. thorn. thin. spines recurved. :—Introduced from the W. JAVANICA Baker. from Kashmir eastwards. Svetmuli. blood and eye diseases. LOC. Satamulika.5 cm. stomachic. lanceolate. DISTR. spinous. up to 1. C. CHAR. Fl. t. alterative. :—An erect undershrub. Flower is a good styptic. COM. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. cultivated as ornamental plant. NS. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. throat complaints.. :—E. Country. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. biliousness. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. globose.-Feb. t. PARTS USED:—Root. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.ovoid. valvate in bud. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. Kuraki. linear. straight.9-1. red when ripe. oblong. Sd.5-5 cm. M. L. . 0. DISTR. :—G. Indies.—berry.—orange in axillary umbels. cladodes in tufts. Var. long. undershrub.

.5 cm. leaves and seeds. 4-8 seeded.) FAM. Phalaghrita. 0. Kolavalike. subquadrangular. demulcent.—sessile. long. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Gokhalkanta.8 cm. Fr. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Shrigalghant. Narayana Taila. Africa. biliousness. tonic. Talamkhana. COM. Ekharo. (Yunani. urinary calculi and discharges.— Acanthaceæ. pointed. linear oblong. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. K. lower deeply 3-lobed. Seeds fattening. Vajrakantaka. Leaves good for cough. stems fasciculate. upper 2-fid. and dysentery. constipation.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. 3. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. CHAR. bracts. useful in jaundice and anasarca. USES :—The root is refrigerant. dysentery. H. aphrodisiac.— purple blue. night-blindness (Ayurveda). C.6-1. LOC. high. sedative to gravid uterus . hairy. gonorrhoea. tonic. widely 2-lipped. :—A stout herb. eyediseases. anæmia. 4 inner small. ciliate . ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. antispasmodic. ascites. Konkan and Deccan. tonic. thickened at the nodes. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Gokhran.. gleet. colic. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. thirst. Kalavankabija. aphrodisiac. NS. leprosy. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Talim-khana. Sk. 2 outer large. hispid with long hairs. aphrodisiac . USES. scalding of urine. inflammations. Kak-Kokilaksha. t. laxative. HABITAT:—Swampy places. Ikshura. erect. L.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. Vikhara. galactogogue. Seeds cooling.2 cm. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. anuria. tonic. lanceolate.—June-Jany. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). tube. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. expectorant. Gokshura. Used in diarrhœa. tropical and S. abdominal troubles. :—G. :—Throughout India.) LOC.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. Fl. and alterative tonic. DISTR. like leaves. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Vishnu Taila. improve blood (Yunani). And. Fl. The root is sweet. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. diuretic.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . Talamkhan.:—Common throughout the State. aphrodisiac. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. abruptly swollen at the top. 18 X 3-3. useful in diarrhœa. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. lips sub-equal. M. aphrodisiac . hypnotic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. Ceylon.

Barambhi. :—E. Darehuli. pale. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. astringent to bowels. emetic. M. obovate-oblong or spatulate. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). laxative. axillary. capsule. Fruit sour. oblong. Jany-May. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. creeping herb. Thyme-leaved graticula . sessile. rarely wild. NS. See—Fruit Trees. H. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. dried fruit is given in fevers. heats the body (Ayurveda). Karuka. t. when fresh. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. tumours. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Brahmi. Shiral. digestible. tonic. G. . "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). M. inflammations. causes biliousness. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. ovoid. Kamrang. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . heating. astringent to bowels . also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Karmare . LOC. Fl. found wild near N. allays thirst. L. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. indigestion. also used in diarrhœa. Kanara villages.:—E. stems rooting at the nodes. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Carambola apple. Karmal. Jalneam. Kamarakh. succulent. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. branches many ascending. pungent. Soumyalata. FAM. Mudgara. Safed-Kammi. Sk.:—Throughout India in wet places. Kamaranga. K.. Manduki. "Vata". useful in bad ulcers. H. Bama. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Brahmi. anæmia. enlargement of spleen. COM. Kamarakha.—Scrophulariaceæ. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . with shining dots. leprosy. solitary. 6-25 X 2. Coromandel gooseberry. 2-lipped. COM. black dotted : entire. fruits. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. striate.) FAM. decussate. DISTR. lobes equal spangled. LOC. Ceylon and all warm countries. HABITAT :—Damp places. C. ascites. LOC. DISTR. Fruits are used in pickles. Nirbrahmi.:—Konkan and Deccan. Kirihuli.5-10 mm. Sk. CHAR. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. Sd. Tamarak. causes biliousness (Yunani). NS. fleshy.—Oxalidaceæ. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. sour. K. Fr. acute. Karmar. Brahmi. :—A glabrous. perhaps a native of Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. pale blue or white.

useful in insanity. obovoid. Guggula.9-1. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. capsule. CHAR. Seeds are poisonous. H. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. Assam. Sk. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). H. itching. branching from the roots. LOC. leucoderma. Uddipta. W. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Fr. diuretic. abundant on the hills of Karanja. often palmately 3-5 lobed. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Dantimul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Gum gugul. K. syphilis . inflammations. Fl. :—G. leucoderma. :—E. K. Danti. Burma. yellowish. diseases of skin and abdomen. L. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Bengal. Root and leaves are cathartic. good in scabies. Danti. PARTS USED :—Root. ellipsoid. Fl. Rechani. Vishodhini. Jatala. NS. alexiteric. is used as a local application in rheumatism. epilepsy and hoarseness. jaundice (Ayurveda). COM. high. Danti.8 m. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis.. Peninsula. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. FAM. Dantika. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. smooth.—Burseraceæ. anaemia. :—Dry open Deccan plains. :—A stout undershrub. Mukul. Jamalgota. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. the upper small. M. Kanara. purifies blood. Guggula. mottled. G. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. purgative. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. in monsoon forests of N. N. Hakum. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Sd. anthelmintic. or in monsoon forests. Leaf-juice. useful in pains. 0. toothed. . 2-glandular. Guggula. Malaya. DISTR. Sk. FAM. LOC. M. Dec. anasarca and jaundice. epilepsy and hoarseness. enlarged spleen. They are used in dropsy. t. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. hairy. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Euphorbiaceæ. leaves and seeds. Gugul. NS. :—Bihar. LOC. Danti. conjoined with petroleum. aphrodisiac . piles. wounds. Kaduharalu. the lower large. Guggul. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. COM. of three 2-valved cocci. Chota Nagpur. all male or with a few females below. sinuate. Devdhup.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

5 cm. FAM. Kushmanda. oil from the seeds. :—E. flat. China. H. " Tridosha". Fruit—antiperiodic. cures biliousness. fever. seeds. tonic to liver. Seeds— cooling. vaginal discharges. asthma. blood diseases.-Feb. Dorokaru. See—Ornamental Plants. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Root. Karkutika. USES :—Root-decoction is given. removes foul taste from mouth. aphrodisiac. LOC. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. menorrhagia. bark and flowers. K. There are two varieties. enriches blood. wounds and ulcers. Sk. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. Kudimah. Kohala. dysmenorrhoea.8-2.—pod. diuretic. used as gargle in stomatitis.10-15. Koholu. tuberculous glands. tuberculous glands. urinary discharges and calculi. biliousness. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Budekumbalkai. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Golkaddu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. leprosy. :—Cultivated throughout the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated.-Apl. Sd. not indigenous. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. "Kapha". Sikkim.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. M. COM. DISTR. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). thirst. cures strangury. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). asthma. leucoderma. appetising. LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruit. used in strangury. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. anthelmintic. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. blood impurities. urethral discharges. heart tonic (Ayurveda). biliousness. . red and white. Kondha. cures biliousness. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. LOC. Buds—indigestible. 15-20 X 1. used in dry cough. DISTR. it is also anti-fat remedy. leprosy. anal troubles. NS. Bhuru-koholu. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. Burma. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. cardiac and general tonic. cough. burning sensation. Timisha. given' to corpulent persons. tonic. Bark—astringent to bowels. Kumaon. used in piles. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. Fr. dehiscent.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. Ash pumpkin. tonic. thirst. eye diseases. cough. G. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. Tallow-White gourd. astringent. in dyspepsia and flatulence. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. ulcers. blood diseases . Shikhivardhaka. t.

L. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. anti-pyretic. thirst. Country. Kakaronda. astringent. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. . 0. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. with a strong odour of turpentine. it is given in bleeding piles. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Kakarunda. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity.—the lower ones petioled. LOC. Kukurbanda. Tropical Africa. M. M. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons.—Compositæ. stem erect. Malaya. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury.-Apl. Oil—is soporific. Ceylon. good for the brain and liver. phthisis. asthma. Tamrachuda. mixed with black pepper. fevers. Bhamurdi. Fruit is made into confections. BLUMEA LACERA DC.—heads many. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. haemoptysis. sweetish. laxative. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. burning sensation. often incised or lyrate.—Jany. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. NS. CHAR. Jangali-muli. :—Throughout plains of India. oblong. Kalhar. pungent. :—Annual herb. LOC.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. pappus white. and diuretic. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). good in syphilis (Yunani). blood diseases. H. finely silky pubescent on both sides. pubescent. catarrh. COM. Kukkurdru. upper subsessile. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Fl. heart diseases. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Australia. :—G. t. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Sk. not ribbed.3—0. densely glandular. ash colored. Pilokapurio.-achene. high.:—In plains south of Bombay. Deccan. Fr. DISTR.9 m. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. Konkan. Kanara. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. cures bronchitis. Mriduchhada. it is also useful in insanity. base tapered. elliptic-oblong. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. febrifuge. and nutritious tonic. Fl. S. China. inner bracts with green midrib. sharply serrate-dentate. bitter. cooling. FAM. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). See—Vegetables. LOC.

Kommegida. HABITAT :—A weed. K. spleen enlargement.. Ceylon. and dropsy. Burma. root large. —Nyctaginaceæ. Sk. Desert Palm. M. 1. NS. Fl. expectorant. Indian Archipelago. M. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. Fr. Tad. Shothaghni. :—E. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. NS. Kolaba and Thana districts. Hogweed. alexiteric. Dhvajadruma. Lekhyapatra. L. sub-orbicular. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Brab tree. astringent to bowels . Asavardu. :—A diffuse herb. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). native of tropical Africa. very small. Fan Palm.3—2 cm. India. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Tala. Tad. cooling . fusiform. anæmia.— Nov. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Moto-satodo. LOC. heart diseases. stem prostrate or ascending. generally found in poorer soils. blood impurities. margins undulate.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. Palmyra Palm. Fl. leucorrhoea. tumours. K. :—Tropical India.—Palmæ. useful in ophthalmia. LOC. COM. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. P. FAM. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Dholia-saturdo. Seeds—tonic. very glandular . It is used in jaundice. PARTS USED :—Root.—in corymbose umbels. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. H. inflammations. common in S. Santhikari. in pain of joints. Leaves— appetiser. Talimara. Persian Gulf. LOC. Tad. . Varshabhu. Madhurasa. DISTR. useful in biliousness. Ghetuli. "Vata". abdominal pains. Bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). It produces a very marked and persistent. Africa and America. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. CHAR. pinkish. G. bluntly 5-ribbed. Baluchistan. cultivated. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial.—in unequal pairs at each node. DISTR. cultivated and self-sown. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Sk. "Kapha" heating.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Raktakanda. gonorrhœa. Vasu.—clavate. H. FAM. Celyon. t. (Ayurveda). carminative. alterative. asthma. green above. G. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. useful in lumbago. Punarnava. scabies. Plant contains large quantities of pot. whitish beneath. :—E. leaves and seeds. Uttar Pradesh.

burning sensation. fattening. Salai. causes " Kapha ". fruits. flowers. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. removes "Kapha". Gums and Resins. Mukulsalai. also found in Belgaum District. Luban. COM. used for boils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. hot. with a little salt added. useful in skin and blood diseases. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. biliousness. FAM. :—E. aphrodisiac. strengthens teeth. Bark-decoction. "Vata". Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis.—Burseraceæ. with a good flavour. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Gum is of five kinds . See—Timbers. mouth-sores. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. asthma. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. cough. bronchitis. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. NS. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . fruit and gum.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Fermented juice—tonic. bitter. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. skin diseases. Guggula. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. Salpe. Salashi. Gum—hot. " Vata". LOC. Loban. M. DISTR. laxative. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Sugars. fattening. vaginal discharges. helps delivery. H. Sambrani. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). bad throat. allays asthma. allays thirst. thirst. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. LOC. intoxicating. purifies blood. tonic. Vishesha-dhupa. G. may cause vomiting. expectorant. binding. Liquors. blood complaints . Indian olibanum tree. purifies blood (Yunani). allays. thirst and scalding of urine. causes headache. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. antipyretic. ulcers . It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Sk. dry. also used as antiperiodic. juice. convulsions. flowers. fatigue. intoxicating. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. antibilious . Fruit—cooling. tonic. alexiteric. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. expectorant. useful in intestinal troubles. Salgond. Dhup.. diuretic . antidysenteric. leaves. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. K. . useful in biliousness. Dhupam. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . aphrodisiac. fevers. heals wounds . causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Fruit—aphrodisiac. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. diaphoresis. invigorating. scabies. Salphali. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). antiglycosuretic. Kundur.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. improves taste. cures dysentery. Guggali. Dup. Moddi. astringent to bowels. cooling.

Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Taramira . HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. kill external parasites. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. Broach. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Rajika. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. bechic. and toothache. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. K. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. cure nose. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. if swallowed whole they are laxative. rheumatism. H. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. chiefly in Nasik. LOC. COM. ear. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases.—Cruciferae. good for throat complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Jwalanti. Sk. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . :—Cultivated in India. Sarshapa. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. internal congestions. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Gums and Resins. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Rai. Asuri. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. dispel fever . Surat. used with butter in syphilis . See—Condiments and Spices. FAM. spasmodic. good in cough and for inflammations. India. DISTR. Seeds— remove cough tumours. anthelmintic . eye-troubles. increase bile. G. Kaira. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. stomachic. Khandesh. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. increase appetite . Mohori. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. appetiser. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. . NS. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. lessen oedema of body. cure skin-dissases. :—E. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. vermicide. Seeds-laxative. spleen. Black-True mustard. M. biles. LOC. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). Kali-rai. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. See—Timbers. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). " Vata". Kari Sasive . Seeds act as digestive condiment . cause burning . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. cure enlargement of spleen. Dharwar and Belgaum.

NS. Asana. DISTR. NS. Gauli.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. Manj. lobes oblong lanceolate. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). 1 . glabrous . lumbago.. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. 5-partite. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ekalkanto. See—Timbers. Asana. Mahavira. Kassi. pungent.:—Throughout India. Gargumaru. subsessile. Shivlingi. Mauritius. M. Goge. 3—2 . tropical Africa. paler and smooth beneath.—baccate. corolla companulate.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Malaya. Lingini. margins sinuate denticulate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. S. Sk. or few or many. hemiplegia. . COM. Apastambhini. 10-15 cm. DISTR. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. LOC. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Asana. hot. H. smooth. Sd. and in fevers with flatulence. Shivavalli. LOC. t. Kavodi. 5 cm. tendrils 2-fid : L. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. M. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Ekadivi. Patharphoda. :—Deccan. Sk. globose. heating.—yellowish brown. Tans.— membranous. COM. FAM. Chandra. :—G. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. diam. of Shivaling shape . bark. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. CHAR.. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism.— Aug-Sept. FAM. green and scabrid above. alterative. bitter. southward to Ceylon. useful in "Vata". It is used in bilious attacks. Country. Khaja. H. 5-lobed. ovate-oblong. Mullu-siru Honne. Suviraka. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Philippines. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Gunjan.. stem grooved. Fl. Shivalingi. streaked with broad vertical lines . Ishawara-Shivalingi. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. LOC. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. deeply cordate base. Kaj. Lingaja. M. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. Garige. female flowers solitary. :—An annual scandent herb. Australia. Asana. corolla as in the male . long. bluish green. Fr. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit.

in large panicles. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. Country. Cochin-China. COM. Gujarat. :—Konkan.—Crassulaceæ. Thailand (Siam). carminative. constricted in the middle. Charoli. with opposite branches . Paira. Stems obtusely 4-angled. K. lobes triangular. Murukali. inflammations. elliptic. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. fruit. K. useful in diarrhœa.2 m. S. also wild. tonic. analgesic. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . leaflets ovate. Burma. smooth. alexipharmic. FAM. expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. Charpoppu. PARTS USED :—Roots. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. :—H. cures blooddiseases. reddish purple. HABITAT :—Dry. M. Parnabija. purgative. the older light-coloured. lower usually simple.) FAM. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. Char. Priyal. gum (rarely). LOC. boils and bites of venomous insects. NS. aphrodisiac. NS. Panphuti. Snehabija. Fr. burning sensation on body.—small. L. Cambodia.. Country. Sk.3-1. :—Konkan. younger reddish. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. cooling. The bark is bitter and poisonous. :—Native of tropical Africa. occasionally compound. "Vata" and biliousness.—pendant. :—G. Char. M. Fl. ulcers.—variable. bruises. Deccan. :—Hot and drier parts of India. C. Panphui. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". DISTR. Rajadana. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Deccan. Tapaspriya. astringent to bowels. Leaf-juice digestive. t. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. the Dangs. thirst. LOC. COM. leaves. cardio-tonic. deciduous open forests. Dhanu. binding. laxative. high. Pyalchar. It is a disinfectant.—Anacardiaceæ. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. vomiting. Asthibhakshya.—swollen and octagonal at the base. Sk. H. aphrodisiac. Piyal.—Jany. LOC. seeds. Char. Lonnahadakana gida. Fl. speckled with white. decussate. M. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. upper 3-5-7 foliate. Lalana. S. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). allays . purifies blood. Kolegeru. crenate or serrate. CHAR. DISTR. Charoli. Sd. fattening. when punctured.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. fevers. buds with root. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). See—Ornamental Plants. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Zakhi-haiyat. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world.

aphrodisiac. Kinshuk. PARTS USED :—Root. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. tumours. anthelmintic. tonic. gonorrhoea. Oils. astringent. seeds. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. lessens biliousness. Kshatadru. Flowers—cure " Kapha". LOC. hydrocele. gout. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. Bastard teak. Gums and Resins. stomachic. gonorrhœa. dysentery. dry. colic. used in liver disorders. Gum—astringent to bowels. Kakria. dysmenorrhoea. Palas. lessens inflammations. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. worms and piles. gum. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. in the Khandesh Akrani. anthelmintic. good in fevers. anthelmintic. Sk. aphrodisiac. lessens lumbago. Yajnika. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Palas. See—Timbers. DISTR. corneal opacities. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. Bark—appetiser. anthelmintic. strangury. buboes. Leaves—good for eye diseases.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Dyes. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. piles. K. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). diuretic . remove bad humours. Gum—acrid. useful in elephantiasis. burning urine. burning sensation. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. fractures. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . leprosy. diseases of anus. India. cures excessive perspiration. laxative. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. pterygium. aperient used in urinary discharges. Ceylon. Muttala. G. Kuntz. skindiseases. M.) FAM. purifies blood. cold and cough. relieves abnormal thirst. COM. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. thirst. ascends to 1200 m. useful in syphilis. :—E. Tripatrak. Khakhrao. tonic to liver. bark. digestible. LOC. cures ulcers and tumours. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. NS. Khakera. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. Flower—aphrodisiac. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. LOC. flowers. Muttuga. good in biliousness. cure tumours. Bark—appetiser. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. Khakda. good in dysentery. stomatitis. Seeds tonic to body and brain. topically in piles and hydrocele. tonic. Dhak. useful in piles. cough. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. inflammations. eye diseases. H. emmenagogue. Leaf—very astringent. prickly heat and itch. pimples. aphrodisiac.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. piles. Chichra. Palash. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). biliousness. if chewed. Fruit and seed—hot. expectorant. leaves. cause headache (Yunani). useful in bone fractures. Fruit and seeds—oily.

Flowers are astringent. K. t. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. They are applied to orchitis. aphrodisiac. act as rubefacient. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. Fever nut. long. ringworm. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent.) COM. Deccan hills. . DISTR. Kakechika. oblong 5-7. Seed—styptic. aphrodisiac and diuretic. asthma and colic. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). 5-7. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Tapasi. Fruit—acrid. etc. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ".—yellow. piles. flowers and fruit. densely armed on the faces with prickles. skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . cures inflammation . leprosy (Yunani). sprouts useful in tumours. the tropics generally. Gajjige. NS.—1-2 oblong. 30-60 cm.—abruptly pinnate. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. elliptic-oblong. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. malaria. G. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. astringent to bowels. Katkaleja. wounds. Fl. strongly mucronate. LOC. useful in colic. very common near the sea-coast. FAM.3 cm. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. M.—pod. :—Throughout India. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Fl. petioles prickly. fevers. Gajaga. Dyes. Kuberakshi. LOC. Gums and Resins.5 cm. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. anthelmintic. leaflets 6-9 pairs.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. antiperiodic. leucorrhcea. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Karanja.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Gajga. :—An extensive climber.5 cm. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. pinnae 6-8 pairs. L. CHAR. See—Timbers. H. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. prevents contagious diseases . hydrocele. Gum solution is applied to bruises.5 X 4. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. leaves. long . Fr. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. lead-colored 1. shortly stalked. Katkaranj. Sk. Leaves contain a glucoside. destroys bad odour due to perspiration.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. :—E. Sd. Sagargota. Physic nut. Sind. heating. anthelmintic . cures urinary discharges.—JulySept.

mixed with bark strips and leaves. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Sk. Arka. . Akdo. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Punnag. Surhonne. Ceylon. Akand. Sultanchampa. Arka. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Polynesia. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Ak.. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Vuma. 2. Madar. Oils.. COM. Ekke. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. used in chronic fevers. sometimes amplexicaul. PARTS USED :—Bark. sessile. high.— opposite. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". FAM. Kshiranga. Alexandrian laurel. See—Timbers. K. Ark. Surpan. Mandara. and oil. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Dholaakdo. Tungakeshera. elliptic or ovate oblong. FAM. branches stout.4-3 m. K. LOC. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. much branched. :—E.8-10 cm. 10-20 X3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. COM. LOC. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. G. Mandara. Rui. Br. :—Cultivated throughout India. covered with cottony pubescence.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. Gigantic swallow-wort. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye.—Guttiferæ. Undi. both surfaces tomentose. NS. Undi. L. Kanara associated with littoral species. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. M. Shuka-phala. gum. Australia. The gum from wounded branches. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. East African Islands. lessens appetite. thick. :—E. and for its oil. Ponne. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. often gregarious. Kshirparni. astringent. Purasakeshera.—Asclepiadaceæ. NS. very common in N. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Surangi.. base cordate... M. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers.H. :—A large shrub. Sk. H. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. DISTR. CHAR. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Malaya. Madar. Punnaga.

8-2. oleaginous. Flower—analgesic.—subsessile. bark. rat-bite. Mandara. bark corky. painful joints . expectorant and anthelmintic. China. long. cures leucoderma. very common. Root-bark is diaphoretic.5 cm. cures asthma and syphilis. Safedak. CHAR.—broadly ovate. liver and spleen enlargement. Ak.:—H. swellings. ulcers. . Flowers—digestive. catarrh and loss of appetite. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m.7—15 X 4. leaves and flowers. used in cough. elliptic or obovate. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). t. buds globose. Fr.— purplish in umbellate cymes. Flowers—stomachic. asthma. dropsy. Ark.-July. high.—follicles. useful in leprosy. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. Sd:—many. lobes usually erect. Fl. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. 9-10 cm. C. cottony. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . Mandara. ascites.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. coughs. Fr. purgative. ringworm of scalp. ovate oblong. Fl. LOC. purplish or white. scabies. elephantiasis.—Asclepiadaceæ.2 cm. Rajarka. Milk— caustic. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. astringent. :—An erect shrub usually 1. Ceylon. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera.— Feb. very common is S. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. FAM. DISTR. spleen and liver diseases.5-10 X 5-7.. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. apex with two auricles. LOC. C. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. across. subglobose.5 cm.—in umbellate cymes. tumours. cures leprosy. cures piles and "Kapha". :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . ascites and anasarca. L. usually 5. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. acrid . tonic and stomachic in action.4 m. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. asthma.—lobes deltoid-ovate. good for liver (Yunani). Juice—anthelmintic. tumours. PARTS USED :—Root.—about 2. Madar. corona shorter than the column. diaphoretic.5-8. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. also useful in intestinal worms. broad. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. Milk— heating.. green. young parts white. comose . ellipsoid or ovoid.. See—Fibres. Malay Islands and S.—7. comose. M. laxative. depilatory. India. heal wounds. eruption on body. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. piles. leaves applied to paralysed parts. Sd. back much curved. spongy. buds ovoid. NS. Sk. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. COM. cures inflammations. alterative and purgative properties. flattened tomentose. Br.

cooling. Gigantea. LOC. Khadsambal. CANNA INDICA Linn. Hudingana. Koshaphala.. high .. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. but doubtfully wild. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. FAM. tropical Africa.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. P.3 cm.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Akalabera. Paraholiya. LOC.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Iran. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. Broad—Sword bean. K. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. 1 linear . Sk. COM. LOC. COM. Kardali. Egypt. NS. Abai.5 cm. Flowers used as detergent. Sarvajaya. Kadavare. Sambe. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Kadsambu. abundant in Sind. biliousness. DISTR. veins arching. CHAR. :—E. Tamateballi. erect. M. The pods contain vitamin A. bracts oblong. green. Tarvardi. flowers and milky juice. useful in burning sensations. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. hernia and colic. indigestible. long. Sabbajaya. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. Nilashimbika.9-1. on trees and hedges . H. :—E.—segments 2. PARTS USED :—Pods. M. staminodial segments. Shitarambha. See—Fibres. Indian shot. See—Vegetables. Sarvajaya. they are given in cholera. Asishimbi. spatulate. Devakeli. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). membranous. stem 0. Fl.2 m. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. G. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints.—Scitaminaceae. G. Sk. 3 sub-erect.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. H. Warm leaves used as poultice. Sema. Waziristan. L. Arabia. (Chopra). appetiser. narrow. Gavria.:—Perennial herb . NS. tonic. Gavara. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. acrid. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. ulcers (Ayurveda). oval or orbicular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. lanceolate to ovate. FAM. Shimbi. greenish or colored. Afghanistan. Kalehu. root-stock tuberous. Kamakshi.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. DISTR. LOC. Central Asia. usually 0. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). Fl. intoxication (Ayurveda). abortifacient. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. alterative . Fr. leprosy.—small axillary. Mohini. Hemp. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. piles. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). useful in convulsions. hot. Sd. :—Widely cultivated in India. Vijaya. Siddhapatri. impotence. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). H. Wild in the Himalayas. female crowded under convolute bracts.—sub-globose or oblong . t. LOC. Ganja. See—Ornamental Plants. Not indigenous.5 m. oil-good for earache. serrate. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. NS. L. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. CHAR. good for hydrocele. aphrodisiac. soporific. flowers and seeds.—achene. Sk. causes thirst and biliousness. Fl. antidiarrhoeic. DISTR. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. also wild. Bark—tonic. (3) Charas. flowers. upper 1-3. hallucinations. PARTS USED :—Bark.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. check vomiting. (2) Bhang. They are broken in small pieces. stomachic. cough. :—E. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. imbricate. echinulate . excessive use causes indigestion. aphrodisiac. Female inflorescence is stomachic. soporific. heating. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. useful in " Kapha".9-1. lessen inflammation. intoxicating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . tonic. shining. male flowers. causes thirst. Leaves—bitter. Bhangi. Bhang. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. 3-lobed. Unmattini. K. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. Bhang. cause headache. water extract anthelmintic. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja.—alternate or the lower opposite. Shivapriya. :—Throughout India. dioecious. Harshini. sepals 5. tonic. Ganja. M. PARTS USED :—Roots.—Urticaceæ. lower 3-8 foliate. G. inflammations. male fascicled. seeds and resin.—many. restlessness. FAM. melancholia. dropsy. leaves. globose. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . intoxication. astringent to bowels. causes biliousness. high in its feral state. female perianth hyaline.—more or less throughout the year. astringent. leaves. Fr. black. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. LOC. insanity. Seeds—carminative. Ganja.

increases appetite. Raktamaricha. useful in brain complaints. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. HABITAT :—Cultivated. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Capsaicin and Solanin. chronic ulcers. Chillies. useful in indigestion. Menshinkai. M. Mirchi. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. and flatulence. asthma. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. diarrhœa. Lanka mirchi. :—Cultivated all over India. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. cholera. acute mania. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. G. delirium (Ayurveda). It is stomachic. weakness of body. H. K. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. erysipelas. Madana modak used in cough. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Ujjvala. Fruit—pungent. Tivrashakti. PARTS USED :—Fruit. and dropsy. in the form of electuary. loss of consciousness. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. expectorant. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Mirchi. Sk. Vegetables. FAM. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. M. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. The fruit contains Capsisin. :—E. Marichiphala. whooping cough. Country in Deccan. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. Cayenne-pepper. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). dyspepsia. Narcotics.—Solanaceæ. LOC. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Marchu . often found as an escape. :—Extensively cultivated in S.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. spermatorrhoea. See—Condiments and Spices. Lalmirchi. increases biliousness. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. NS. also in gout. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. COM. muscular pains. The plant contains cannabinin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. . and is employed by Indian physicians. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). dysuria. DISTR. Tikshna. Fibres. See—Gums and Resins. LOC. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. Kumbi. Konkan and W. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. leaves. Fruit—acrid. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations.—Myrtaceæ. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Root. Sakralata. Fl. Kumbhi. Sind. Kangu. Gavvahannu.—white. PARTS USED :—Root. Jyotish-mati. Girikarnika. 2-ternate. Malay Peninsula. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. G. NS. bark. stem wiry. C. FAM.—globose. " Vata ". winged at the angles. Blister creeper. The plant contains saponin. hot.—capsule. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Root is considered diaphoretic. Thailand (Siam). anthelmintic.—Sapindaceæ. M. colic. Balloon vine. skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. LOC. Karnasphota. very acute apex. M. dry. Daddala. leaves and seeds. G. introduced. deltoid. it is mucilaginous. Kapalphodi. Ceylon. Wild guava . inciso-serrate. Sd. Maniju balli. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. LOC. Ghats. urinary discharges. black. Kumbha. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. Vakambi. common in S. piles. bronchitis. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . DISTR. Sk. Fibres. NS. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. HABITAT :—In hedges . Shaundi. H. diuretic and aperient. COM. Hennumatti. subglobose. Deccan. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. :—E. Fr.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. epileptic fits. bladdery . abscesses and ulcers. See—Timbers. L. aphrodisiac. useful in tumours. CHAR. DISTR. bark. flowers and fruits. trigonous. and is administered in fevers. Agni-erum. . Kanphuti. :—Throughout India. alexiteric. rounded at the apex. LOC. K. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—Most warm countries.— alternate. :—E. when moistened. dyspepsia. Kalindi. Kumbhi. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. smooth. leucoderma. petals 4. ultimate segments lanceolate. Karolio. COM. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. K. Sk.

bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. used. Kusumba. it is used to procure abortion. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). strangury. "Tridosh". made into curries. FAM. Kusumbo. wounds of urinary track. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). DISTR. causes burning sensation . Papaya. relieves obesity. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. scabies. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. ringworm. removes biliousness . Papaya. Kusumba. cooling. "Kapha". K. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. K. carminative. heating. LOC. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . appetiser. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. G. NS. :—Native throughout India. :—E. COM. Nalikadala. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Pappayi. Karada. Mexico and Brazil. Dyer's saffron. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. fruit and seeds. bleeding piles. Guppe. hypnotic. Sk. Kusumbha. Agnishikha. Popayi. M. Papita. leucoderma. LOC. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. astringent to bowels. Chibda. seeds and oil. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. White thin latex contains Papain. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. COM. M. Kamalottama. leprosy. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. . expectorant. cure urinary discharges. good for eyes. LOC. removes urinary concretions . aphrodisiac. Sk. Seeds—oleaginous. Leaves—hot. Fruit—stomachic. Kusumba. Indies. Papayi. cures inflammation. Ahmednagar and Nasik. of W.—Compositæ. Safflower. Karrak. laxative. G. DISTR. Papaw. enlargement of spleen.—Caricaceæ. H. flowers. digestive. PARTS USED :—Leaves. appetiser . :— E. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chirbhita. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. cause biliousness. H. Kardai. in haemoptysis. cures inflammations. :—Grown extensively in Poona. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. depilatory. unripe fruit. aphrodisiac. cure "Vata". bronchitis. Oil—indigestible. bile. cures insanity (Ayurveda). See—Fruit Trees. diuretic. Barre. diuretic. NS. diuretic. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. piles. Pangi. Flower—tonic to liver. Papaya.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn.

diuretic. enrich blood. good in weakness of limbs. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. give lustre to eyes. cure ascites. spleen. Bishops' weed .—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). abdominal tumours. 30-60 cm. Sk. Egypt. stimulant. emmenagogue and sedative. anthelmintic. mucronate. Afghanistan. vomiting. Seeds—purgative. tonic. Dwipagasti. atonic dyspepsia. K. Dadrughna. :—E. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. chest pains. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. carminative. good for heart and tooth-ache. tonic and carminative properties. leaflets 10-12 pairs. L. downy beneath. purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. improve speech and eyesight. FAM. NS. Sk. K. pinnate. kidney troubles. Ajamo . it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. and diarrhœa. Elgra. liver. Oil—good in all diseases. Oma. Dadamardana. dyspepsia. Leaves contain vitamin A. chest and throat pains. subsessile. Ajowan. inflammation (Yunani). cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani).—Umbelliferæ. M. Baluchistan. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. myrabolans and rock salt. See—Vegetables. cure catarrh. laxative. carminative. Simyatase. Ajamoda. H. CASSIA ALATA Linn. strengthening. See—Condiments and Spices. oblong-obtuse. and even in cholera. stimulate intestines. They are administered in flatulence. LOC. COM. Winged senna. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. DISTR. Ajwain. CHAR. pungent. piles. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. aphrodisiac. G. Dyes. M. good for ear boils. LOC. Ringworm shrub. long. Datka pat. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. FAM. Iran. Omu . Europe. COM. paralysis. stomachic. bitter. bechic. NS :— E. The seeds bitter and hot. aphrodisiac . Tivragandha. oblique at the base. carminative. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. good for old people. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Dodda sagate. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. Dadmardan. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. hiccup. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. Owa. appetiser. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. enlargement of spleen. vomiting. rachis . H. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. Dipyaka. abdominal pain. Oils. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. they are used in jaundice .

leaves. mucronate.—30-35. pale beneath. t. leprosy. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. Country. Tanner's cassia.—bright yellow with darker veins. Sakusina. PARTS USED :—Root.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. t. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda).—pod long. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn.—7. M. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Fl. rotundate. Avarike. Bark has the same properties. obliquely septate. leaflets 8-12 pairs. Sd. Fr. causes flatulence . fruits and seeds. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. asthma . thirst..-50 or more. K. Avartki. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. Fl. 10-20 X 1. The whole plant. Sk.—Jany. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. straight. oblong-obovate. Charmaranga.3-1. Tarwad. Gujarat and S. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely).6 cm. Fl. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. nocturnal emissions. cures tumours. pedunculate racemes . Fr. useful in vomiting. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. 28-4-88). Burma. Mukerji). urinary discharges . cough.-July. and throat troubles. .-Oct. M. C. asthma. good for ulcers. along the sea coast in laterite region. CHAR. J. Tarwad. FAM. NS. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. LOC. N. flowers. buds in yellow bracts. Pitakilaka. USES:—Bark is considered astringent.—in spiciform. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). diabetes. skin-diseases. 5 cm.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Peninsula. DISTR. HABITAT :—Planted. skin diseases. LOC. cm. very likely a native of the W. 20-25. reniform. :—Introduced into India. Indies. useful in thirst. DISTR. Taroda. yellow with orange veins. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . Fl. Madhya Pradesh and W.—pod. anthelmintic. dull green above. bark smooth. alexipharmic . itching. Mayahari. rachis densely pubescent. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. Awal. LOC. slightly overlapping. G. Sd. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. :—E. Tangadi. H.. LOC. " In eczema. Ph..) COM. reddish brown. L. across. membranous. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). long. cure " Vata ". ringworm.—large. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. Ahmed. stipules very large.5 X 10 cm. vermicide (Ayurveda). rhombohedral. Ceylon.

Amaltas. leaflets 3-5 pairs.—petals 5. Rankasvinda. abortifacient. cure " Kapha ". and Famine Plants. H. Stinking weed. Kasundari. smooth. Konde. Leaves lessen inflammation. useful in chest and liver complaints. Sk. 15-20 cm. :—E. long. Rajataru. Leaves—anti-periodic . NS. C. Dodda-tagase. leaves. Indian laburnum. juice given in erysipelas. :—E. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Kasonda. cooling.—pods. tuberculous glands. safe for children and pregnant women.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis.. Kasoda. Aragina. long. recurved. t. Tans.—20-30. improve appetite. Fruit—digestible. Kasari. G. shining dark olive-green. CHAR. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. (Ayurveda). Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Fl. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. corymbose. . DISTR. Arogyashimbi. yellow. Kakka. PARTS USED :—Root. K. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. rheumatism. Kasondi. eye-diseases. K. antipyretic. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Bahava. Fr. H. cures burning sensation. Balla. Golden shower.—in few flowered racemes. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. griping. G. heal ulcers . leprosy. 10—12. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. base somewhat oblique. hard. used in rheumatism. Hema-puspha. Suvarnaka. In Konkan. Seeds— oily. cooling.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Ornamental Plants. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. distinctly torulose. carminative. Vyadivata. LOC.— Jany-March. apex acute. cause flatulence.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. It is a mild laxative. often purplish. demulcent. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. laxative. FAM. biliousness . Burma. purgative. Kacodari. Kasmarda.—very foetid when bruised. fruit and seeds.) COM. also planted. LOC. purgative. Ceylon. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Flowers—purgative. FAM. faintly veined with orange . Sd. astringent. Rechana. Pudding-pipe or stick. Fl. branches furrowed. Negro coffee. :—Throughout India. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Seeds—emetic (Yunani).5 cm. throat-troubles. ovate-lanceolate. Bandartauri. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Fruit—antipyretic. NS. Arimarda. Chakinda. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. flowers. M. Chimkani. lessens inflammation and body-heat. See—Dyes. M. transversely septate. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. syphilis. L. See—Timbers. Garmala.) COM. Sk. Flowers—improve taste. Ane sogate.

—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). septate between the seeds . 7. Leaves—aphrodisiac. Fl. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. LOC. lanceolate. alexiteric. Fl. asthma. dark brown . cures ascites. few flowered corymbose racemes.Jany. rachis grooved . Seeds used in heat of the blood. tonic and febrifuge. See—Famine Plants. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. cough. fevers. C. opposite. yellow. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm.—18-23 cm. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. Baskikasondi. obtuse.—in axillary. and seeds are cathartic. DISTR.4-3 m. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. Talapota.—30-40 broadly ovoid. Sk. Sd. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis.. At Kotra. M. The bark. long . elephantiasis.— Nov.510 cm. Fr. :—G. turgid. Kasamarda. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. " tridosha " . Kasamarda. ovate. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. COM. LOC. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). leaves. with a solitary conical gland near the base . stomachic. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves and seeds. L. LOC. mixed with honey. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . cure " Kapha". K. t. H. Ran tankala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. PARTS USED :—Bark. petals 5. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. NS. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). In many countries root is considered diuretic. base rounded.—pod.. hiccup. . plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). leaves and seeds. heals wounds. :—A shrub 2. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. are given in diabetes.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. slightly recurved. Kasondi. CHAR. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. in Kutch. " Vata ". Banar. FAM. high. The plant contains glucoside emodin. annual or perennial. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. leaflets 6-10 pairs. DISTR. Kasundari. See—Famine Plants.

7. long. H. Sd.3-10 X 3. in diam. aphrodisiac. Kangli. M. Taga. appetiser. obliquely septate. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". NS..5 mm.—pod. emetic. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. X 4. capsule. globose. shining above. Climbing-staff plant.— petals 5. Madras State. Fl.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Chakramarda.—pinnate. DISTR. Fr. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. Kanguni. :—E. :—Large deciduous climber. 18 m. Intellect tree. hot. Pamad. Chagoche. bitter. Sd. leaflets 3 pairs. obovate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 1-6 completely covered with red. Kangani. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). crenate. base oblique. Dadrughna. small yellowish-green. covered with lenticels. NS. high. branches rough. powerful brain tonic. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. brain and liver tonic. Tarota. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Tagache. usually unisexual. Taragosi.5 cm. Seeds—bitter. alternate. C. Dadamari. fleshy arillus. Kangodi. DISTR. CHAR. Malkangoni. FAM. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. K.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. K. Black-oil tree. PARTS USED :— Root.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . Panevar. G. in drooping panicles. leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. Malhangana.—Celastraceæ. Fl. Jyotishmati. Fr. high.. M. upper petal 2-lobed . Takala. unarmed. Burma. :—A very common weed all over the State. stem upto 23 cm.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Malkamni. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. reddish brown. Foetid cassia. Ceylon. Seeds— acrid. laxative. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. cause burning sensation. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. cure joint-pains. Svarnalata.) COM. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. t. oblong. COM. pale yellow. H. much curved when young. :—E. LOC.—after the rains. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. L. ovate or obovate. :—An annual foetid herb. L. Sk. Sphutabandhani. Malkakni. opposite (lowest smaller). CHAR. 6. LOC. .5-10 cm. rachis grooved. The plant contains glucoside emodin. 12. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago..MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. Chakunda. 30-90 cm.8-7. bright yellow. FAM. expectorant.5-20 cm. Sk. Velo .

—tubular lobes 5. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Fl.—Gentianaceæ.). especially in Bengal. good for cough and asthma. Sk. rooting at the nodes.—in fascicled umbels. L. elliptic. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. aphrodisiac and stimulant. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. LOC. Brahmamanduki. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. COM. minute. ovoid. M.—Umbelliferæ. Mandukparni. obovate or oblong. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort.—Feb. Fl.—3 from each node. Mahaushadhi. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Fl. pink. cloves. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. Don. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. M. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. CHAR. t. NS. H. :—Throughout India. Fl.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. hard-rugose. Brahmi. Vallari . narrowly oblong .—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. high. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. radical leaves revolute. :—Konkan. tonic. orbicular. M. cauline smaller. long. Jhinkun-kariatum. Country. FAM. Vondelaga. Barmi.—opposite. reniform. used in leprosy. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Brahmamanduki. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). persistent. Ekpani. LOC. . NS. DISTR. H. :— E. :—A slender herbaceous plant.-Apl. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). It is used as a substitute for chiretta. t. Oil stomachic. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. spreading star-like . COM. G.—4 mm. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn.—capsule. FAM. Jangli-karayatu. pink. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. Lahanchirayat. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. base deeply cordate stipulate. Fr. linear-oblong. paralysis and leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. and is employed for external application. K. Fr. they are also sudorific. Seeds are hot. Deccan and S. stem creeping with long internodes. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.). :—G. gout.—May-Nov. CHAR. C. L.

inflammations. leaves and seeds). Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. " Kapha ". LOC. bronchitis. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. anæmia. DISTR. stomachic. :—South Konkan and N. milky juice. fruit. urinary discharges. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. cooling. COM. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". tonic. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. soporific. :—K. used in insanity (Ayurveda). twigs. asthma. Malay Archipelago. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. For external use powder. See—Timbers. plaster or bath are used. cures hiccup. clears voice and brain. water courses throughout the State. voice. NS. laxative. ointment. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. memory. nallas. bechic. fevers. :—In moist situations (streams. Tande. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. Leaves are also diuretic. USES :—Bark is purgative. antipyretic. Sukanu. Leaf-powder. alterative. diuretic. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. :—Throughout India near the coast.) DISTR. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. LOC. scalding of urine. Kanara. abundant on the Malabar Coast. China. and a bitter substance odollin. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . cardio-tonic. Chanda. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. M. tonic. LOC. improves appetite (Yunani). spleen enlargement. bronchitis. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. Honde. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. nut is narcotic and poisonous . digestible. small-pox. Australia Pacific Islands. bitter. improves appetite. carminative. FAM. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Plant—bitter.—Apocynaceæ. cures leucoderma. . biliousness. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. sedative to nerves. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. asthma. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. PARTS USED :—Bark. headache . thirst.

Chick pea. Balabhojya. Harparrevdi. G. acrid. The fruit is acrid and astringent. eye-diseases. LOC. Ksharadala. Chakravati. Chania. Chakwat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. COM. USES :— Root is purgative. useful in biliousness. :—E. Country. Chunna. PARTS USED :—Root. Chakravarti. Sk. sour . abdominal pains. Wild-spinach. :—Cultivated in India.) FAM. root and the seed are cathartic. :— E. Chandanbedu. Bathusag. Harbara. Agralohita. Lavali. LOC. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). NS. Kari-Kempukadale.. constipation. Pandu. Chanaka. M. useful in bronchitis. Deccan and S. DISTR. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. fruit and seeds. See—Fruit Trees. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tanko. H. H. :—Very common in the Deccan. But. Country gooseberry. aphrodisiac. Skandhaphala. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Widely distributed. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Sk. H. laxative. improves appetite. LOC. diuretic.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). FAM. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. fragrant. K. spleen (Ayurveda). Chillika. K. COM. G. Cheel. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Sk. Laveni. Fruit is very sour . LOC. . biliousness. Vajibhakshya. tonic to liver. Chana. useful in thirst. Rai-avala. NS. Kadale. also cultivated as a pot herb. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Chalmeri.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. oleaginous. M. FAM . Rayara nelli. :—E. piles. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. tonic. "Vata". DISTR. urinary concretions. Bengal—Common-gram. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. LOC. COM. diseases of blood. anthelmintic. piles . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CICCA ACIDA Merr. "Kapha". Kanchuki.—Chenopodiaceæ. The plant yields an essential oil. throattroubles. Harparauri K. biliousness. Chana. Goose-foot. NS. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. heart. vomiting. M. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation.

LOC. chest complaints. K. Malay Peninsula. thirst. useful in loss of appetite. Oil—styptic. astringent to bowels . pungent. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. alexiteric. bronchitis (Yunani). COM. throat troubles. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. heated brain. hiccup. cold in head. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. parched mouth. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Oils. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. strengthens liver. Dalchini. Darchini. very common in the N. aphrodisiac. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. anthelmintic . acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. carminative. cure bronchitis. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. headache. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. indigenous and cultivated. tonic . :—G. bronchitis. tonic. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. useful in " Vata ". Bark—tonic. throat troubles. useful in bronchitis. M. Nisane. Oil—carminative. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. Duk. toothache. indigestion. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. causes flatulence. blood troubles. flatulence. Kanara district. aphrodisiac. Gudatwaka. Lavange-hakke. biliousness. Sk. FAM. causes salivation. Ceylon. Leaves—purgative. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). tonic to hair. Kash. liver-tonic . headache. It possesses carminative. . piles.—Lauraceæ. rectum and urinary diseases. diarrhœa and dysentery. carminative. foul mouth and fever. useful in inflammations. good for diseases of liver and spleen. :—W. abortifacient. refrigerant. flatulence. toothache (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. useful in hydrocele. Dalchini. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. causes flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. pains . etc. Dalchini. diarrhœa. anthelmintic. Dalchini. expectorant. Seed—indigestible. DISTR. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). heart. vomiting. emmenagogue. PARTS USED. abdominal pains. :— Bark and oil. Burma. Peninsula. aphrodisiac. It checks nausea and vomiting. See—Food Plants. anthelmintic. enriches blood. Leaves contain vitamin A. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. improve taste and appetite. Seed—stimulant. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. appetiser. H. cures skin diseases. LOC. leprosy. LOC. vomiting. itching. seed and acid exudation. useful in cold. Valkala. cures thirst and burning. biliousness. See—Condiments and Spices. NS.

— usually margined. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic.—large. Kanara. branches more or less pubescent. F. Mahendravaruni.—Nov.8-10 cm. R. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . alleviates vomiting. axillary racemes . which possibly has a cholinergic action. red or yellowish white. Pahadvel. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. :—E. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). waxy coated. diam. (Ind. warm parts of Asia. yellow within. somewhat hairy. Venivalli. uterine complaints. minute. upto 25 cm. Patha. Nirbisi. Indrayan. sub-globose. . Indrayana. PARTS USED :—Root. greenish. Colocynth.—Menispermaceæ. NS. drupe. COM. FAM. DISTR. subcampanulate. piles. diam. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Makal. or twin. angular . long. dysentery.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. Indruk. also for prolapsus uteri. COM. Paharmul. Africa and America. subglobose. H. 7. M. Sd. male flowers in axillary cymes. stem thick. 1949). Sk. 5-nerved. L. Katurasa. t. NS. diarrhœa. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". FAM. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. greenish outside. compressed. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation.e. an alkaloid. red. lobes obovateoblong. helps parturition. leaves. Chitraphala. 5-partite. LOC. monœcious. Fl. Trapusi. Asso.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fr. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. K. The active constituent of the drug. Sk.5-20 cm. C. skin eruptions. Fl. Indrayan. in conjunction with aromatics. H. tendrils bifid. young shoots woolly.-Jany. smooth. useful in hemicrania.—A climbing shrub. Annual Report. L.. removes pain. solitary. Velvet-leaf. Kaduvrindavan. removes intestinal worms. CHAR. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. burning. asthma . orbicular or reniform. margins ciliate. itching . cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. mucronate..—July-Sept. Ghorumba. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. CHAR. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. has been isolated. dropsy and cough. Uthika. hairy. yellowish. FL t. Bitter apple. Pavamekke Kayi. heart troubles. E. female flowers in elongate. peltate. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. :—Deccan. LOC. flesh juicy. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. 3. fever. solitary. G. G. Tumtikayi. M. :— E. Indraphal. cordate at the base. :—An extensively climbing annual. Fl. HABITAT. i. Venivel. Fr. :—In hills.

PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Doddile. Naringi. ascites. (Poona. DISTR. LOC. Kittale. good in vomiting and skin diseases. constipation. chest troubles. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Gujarat. tonic. Santra. urinary discharges. Deccan. laxative. Asia. Flower— stimulant. Rind— anthelmintic. dyspepsia. LOC. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . with or without nux-vomica. epilepsy. sea-shores. good in fevers. " Kapha". USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. anthelmintic. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. M. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . LOC. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. COM. Narangi. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Sukkare-kanji. Root and fruit cooling. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Sunthura. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. fortifies chest. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Also indigenous in Arabia. constipation. astringent. asthma. pain in joints. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. Ceylon. Nagaranga. carminative. anthelmintic . Cardiotonic. enlargement of spleen. Kirmirtvaka. leuco-derma. removes fatigue . diuretic. fever and worms. Narenj. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). throat diseases. DISTR. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. Narange. :— E. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. NS. FAM. relieves colds. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. ulcers. and lumbago. :—Widely cultivated in India. sweet and has agreeable flavour. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. In the Konkan fruit and root. useful in piles. Naringa. useful in biliousness. cures tumours. tonic. bronchitis. antipyretic. :—Konkan. purgative. enlargement of spleen. removes biliousness. N. K. Fruit—sour. H. elephantiasis . W. tuberculous glands of neck. relieves vomiting and retching. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. removes " Vata ". The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. aphrodisiac . G. Tvakasugandha. Sk. bowel complaints.—Rutaceæ. jaundice. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser.

Mahaphala. cough. cough. :—Citron rind is hot. M. hiccup. Bijoru. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Turanj.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Ruchaka. NS. VAR. anthelmintic. Devamadala. Harale. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. asthma. Mavalunga. cures leprosy. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Paharinimbu . CITRUS MEDICA Linn. Ghats. the juice allays ear-ache. though there are no regular plantations. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. used in constipation and tumours. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. . Matulunga. Bera nimbu. M. its preserve is used for dysentery. PARTS USED :—Root. fruits and seeds. anasarca and chronic fever. :— E. B and C. Balank. Matalunga. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. dry and tonic . Bijaura. Seeds—indigestible. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Limonum. useful in vomiting. bark and fruit. H. removes colic. Madala. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. leaves and flowers hot and dry. intoxication. See—Fruit Trees. digestible. FAM. jaundice. Motalimbu . COM. LOC. Lemon . tonic and astringent properties. the pulp cold and dry. flatulence. Bijapurna. Mahanimbu. G. Idalimbu. juice refrigerant and astringent. H. relieve vomiting. Fruit—sweet and sour.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Turanj. relieves sore-throat. rind of the fruit is bitter. also corrects foetid breath. thirst.—Rutaceæ. Mahalunga. Adam's apple. Rusaki. asthma. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Kutla. Thora-limbu. anæmia. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. K. Jambira. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. Amlakeshara. aphrodisiac. Flowers—stimulant. gastric irritability in general and general debility. USES. Matunga. K. DoddaGaja-nimba. The fruits contain vitamins A. sharp. HABITAT :—Cultivated. said to be wild in W. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. stimulant. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. tonic. PARTS USED. Citron . removes " Vata" and " Kapha". G. with a sharp taste. LOC. NS. Sk. Mahaphala. seeds. flowers. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. useful in abdominal complaints. astringent to bowels . increase appetite. heating. :—Roots. Sk. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. According to Theophrastus. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. COM. :—E. oily.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. LOC. relieves biliousness. relieves vomiting . but often found trailing amongst grass. Khatalimbu. not good in old age. M. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. Ranjai. K. COM. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). blades 2-2.—Ranunculaceæ. where there is dry skin and much thirst. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases.—achenes. heart. VAR. Murhari. Churhar.5 cm. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. K. appetiser. bronchitis .—simple or once ternate. whole plant tomentose. M. Shodhana. Snuva. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Moravel. NS. Nebu. L.Nov. . improves liver. hemicrania. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. it cures and prevents scurvy. Nimbuka. also useful in rheumatism. Limbe. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". plethora. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. NS. throat trouble. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. H. t. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Lebu. :—E. Nimbe. Morvel. white. CHAR. ovoid. Oil from rind. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Dhantiate. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Madhulika. with flavour. burning in the chest. Devashreni. with long feathery tails . stimulant . G. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. lobes mucronate. Morata. Acid-Sour lime . weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes.—petals O. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Amlasara. silky villous. FAM. Fruit—sour. Acida. Nimbu. eyes . stomachic. See—Fruit Trees. measles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. brain disorders. long ovate or orbicular. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. H. constipation. Lebu. Sk. Limpaka. fatigue . sharp taste. :—G. Fl. PARTS USED :—Fruit.—Sept. COM.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Murva. it helps digestion. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. leaves (rarely). USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Rochana. Sk. Limbu. loss of appetite. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). :—An extensive climber. sepals 4-6. C. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. hairy outside. Nimbu. petioles twinning. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. scarletina. Fl. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. anthelmintic. Kagadi limbu.. Morhari. cures abodominal complaints. vomiting.

Plant has penetrating bad smell. K.—Sept-June. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. :—Common in grass lands. Tinmani.—capsule. stems grooved and glandular. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Gantubarangi. Fl. Fr. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. CHAR. useful in leprosy.—brownish black. COM. :—Annual erect herb. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Tilwan. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. M. bitter. Tilparni. very common in the Deccan. Sk. L. COM. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. 30-90 cm. Sk. Kasaghni. Sauri. C. obliquely striate. FAM. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). dryness and urethral discharges. transversely striate. Jangali-harhar. Vatari. anthelmintic. gradually becoming shorter upwards. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. Bharangi. Phanjika. hairy. Hulhul. Kanphodi. Sd. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). :—G. Leaves—favour digestion. FAM. Harhuria. causes excessive biliousness. leaflets elliptic-oblong. used internally in thirst. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. veined. tapering towards both ends . removes " Kapha". K. bitter taste and a strong odour. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. reduces tumours and inflammations . externally applied to boils. oblong-obovate. high. Brahmani. t. and fevers. HABIT :—A common weed. blood diseases. yellow. Nayibela. terminal the largest. NS. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. stimulates secretion of bile. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. Karnasphota. H. :—W. Barbara. good in malaria. Fl. H.—axillary. M. Kiritekki. Kanphutia. stimulant.—petals 4. cooling.—3-5 foliate. and dispel intestinal fermentation. DISTR. in lax racemes.—Capparidaceæ.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Ghats. Adityabhakta. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. NS. DISTR.—Verbenaceæ. laxative. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Talvari. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). stomachic. LOC. Bharang. laxative. . Bharangi. LOC. diuretic. astringent. hairy. petioles of lower leaves longer. LOC. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. hot. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. Juice— cures ear-ache. Bharangi. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. subglobose. :—G. Konkan. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. erect. mixed with oil.

cures "Tridosha". NS. asthma. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. Aparajita. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. The plant contains an alkaloid.9-2.—Shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. ulcers (Ayurveda). smooth. obovoid. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. tuberculous glands. FAM. nearly straight. C. Ceylon. long . :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . Kajli. good for eye-diseases. inflammations.-Oct. stomachic. "Vata". Wowatheti. with an orange centre.2 cm. stems bluntly quadrangular.—imparipinnate.—many.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. bronchitis. headache. and blue flowered... beaked.:—More or less throughout India. biliousness. lower one deflexed. LOC. hairy. C. PARTS USED :—Root. Garani. flat.8-5 cm. Koyala. fevers. tumours. collectively forming a terminal panicle. fevers (Yunani). L. Sk. There are two varieties :—white flowered. laxative. Sd. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. COM. leaves and seeds. burning sensation. high.3 cm.— Aug. HABITAT :—In hedges. Girikarniballi. Gokarnika. hiccup. lessens expectoration. consumption.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. asthma. L. pains. tonic to the brain. Vishnukranta. . HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. 2-2. LOC. DISTR.. Fl. Fr. also found throughout the State. leucoderma.—pale blue. elliptic oblong.7-6. 4 lobes flat. leaflets 5-7. CHAR. sometimes opposite. anthelmintic. t. LOC. leaves and seeds.— drupe.—much exerted. Gokarni. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling.—axillary.—ternately whorled.—6-10 yellowish brown. heating. 3. spreading. sharply serrate. anthelmintic. Malay Peninsula. t— June-Jany. showy.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). inflammations. Aparajita. Kalina. burning sensation. diuretic. Root increases appetite. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. elephantiasis. tube hairy within. H. acrid. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. oblong or elliptic. epilepsy. tubercular glands. the larger lower lobe dark purple. stems terete. ozœna.5-15 X 5. :—A perennial twining herb. Root is purgative and diuretic. pubescent.5 X 2-3. 0. solitary. alexiteric. useful in ascites (Yunani). ulcers of the cornea. Girikarnika. wounds (Ayurveda). black. in lax dichotomous cymes. 12. Fl. K. M. useful in inflammation.. Kowa. :—G. fleshy. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn.2 m. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. standard bright blue or white. Fl.

Chireta. Vasantitikta. galactagogue. Galedu.) FAM. consumption. Oshthi. Malaya. COCCINIA INDICA W. Seeds are purgative and aperient. and jaundice. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). Bimbika. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. :—G. aphrodisiac. Vevati. allays thirst. Country. K. Vasanvel.—Menispermaceæ. Dirghvalli. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. Flowers cure itching. cures leprosy. The plant contains an enzyme. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Bimbi. & A. M. burning of hands and feet. H. Garudi. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. flowers. urinary losses. " Vata". PARTS USED :—Root. . K. COM. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. diseases of blood. Tondeballi. NS. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Gujarat. leaves. M. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. cause flatulence. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. a hormone and an alkaloid. Tundi. Konkan. Tana. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Parvel. Ghobe. See—Vegetables. Vevdi. stops vomiting.:—Cultivated in gardens. Root bark. Ink-berry. Ceylon. S. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Bimba. Glum. Broom-creeper. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Hunder. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Jamtikibel. asthma.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. LOC. Vasandi. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. astringent to bowels. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously.—E. Leaves—acrid. NS. G. given for uterine discharges. Fruit is aphrodisiac. FAM. H. Bimb. Tundika. Kambhoja. tropical Africa. fruit. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. HABITAT. USES:—In the Konkan. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Kanduri. DISTR :—Throughout India. LOC.:—Root cooling. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). antipyretic . wild in hedges. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. dried and powdered. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Faridburti. M. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. useful in ascites and fevers. Deccan. COM. Tondali. Sk. biliousness. Fruit— indigestible.

Naral. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. lessens thirst. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—Palmæ. S. FAM. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. mixed with water. Antipyretic. :—E. female in axillary clusters.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. DISTR. tonic. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. villous . laxative. constipation. NS. Cocoanut palm. Leaf-juice. China. Mahaphala. . keeled. Flower-cooling . H. good in fractures. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. LOC. Tengu.8 cm. G. 2-8 together. In the Konkan. Tenginmara. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). L. tumours. and put on to sore-eyelids. seed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. India. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani).:— A straggling scandent shrub. It is also used as a refrigerant. Pegu. subdeltoid or subhastate. M. t. aphrodisiac. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". Mad. blood diseases. Narial. thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. fermented juice.—Dec. Jataphala. bark.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. oleaginous.. Deccan. also in many places in the interior. Toyagarbha. Sk. cardiotonic. Common in Konkan and N. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. tonic. smells sweetish and pungent. Nariyal. Seed-cooling. 3-5 nerved. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. ovate-oblong. Milk—cooling. Konkan. Narikel. laxative. useful in biliousness. India and Ceylon. alexipharmic . Fr. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Nalivar. it is heating. K.—drupe. causes "Kapha". aphrodisiac. "Kapha" and "Vata". Fl. Gujarat. Kanara. aphrodisiac. it is used for coughs. oil. PARTS USED :—Root. dysentery. lessens bile and burning sensation. useful in diabetes. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. tropical Africa. enriches blood. Fl. flowers. S. Mangalya. which is taken internally with sugar. useful in leprosy. as a cure for gonorrhœa. ovate. HABITAT :—In hedges. DISTR.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda).—3. urinary discharges. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . indigestible. fattening.8-6. appetiser. biliousness. young parts densely Villous. tuberculosis. burning sensation. size of a small pea. laxative and sudorific. rugose . bronchitis. with a few heads of pepper.3-3. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn.3 X 1. LOC.—dioecious. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. COM. fattening. Arabia. LOC.

Kasai. See—Fruit Trees.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Fl. polished. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Oils. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. India. It is also used for burns. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. asthma.—10-15 x 2. Sk. NS.—broadly ovoid to globose. long. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. paralysis. increases body weight. bronchitis. stout. :—E. smooth. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). piles . smooth.5-5 cm. It is refreshing and laxative. LOC. tropical Asia-Africa. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. rachis within the bract slender. America. LOC. Fibres. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. diuretic . 6. fattening. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . piles and scabies (Yunani. polished. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. useful in lumbar-pain. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. high or more. L. liver complaints. spinously serrate margins. t. Bengal.. base cordate. M.6-10 mm. useful in fever. FAM. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. Rajputana. DISTR. Gurlu . Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. H. long. LOC. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. ulcers (Ayurveda). above the bract stout. Fr. :—Himalayas. China. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. Oil—sweet. B and C. Madhya Bharat. diuretic. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani).5-6. Ran-jondhala. consumption. internodes smooth. rooting at the lower nodes. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. Dabha. HABITAT :—Gregarious. Japan. Job's tears. sheaths long. Madhya Pradesh.3 cm. midrib stout. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Gojivha. S. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. fermented juice is intoxicating. useful in urinary complaints. incipient phthisis and cachexia. promotes hairgrowth.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. notched at the nodes . Oil—indigestible. Malaya. bluish grey. :—A tall leafy grass.—monœcious racemes 2. CHAR. stem 90-150 cm. Polynesia.—Oct. abundant in standing water. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. it also purifies blood. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. G. Jargadi. it promotes growth of hair. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. Gavedhu. Fl. enriches blood.—Gramineæ COM. lessens inflammations . tonic. Assam.

FAM. Rayagundo. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. It is also used as a bitter tonic.—Tiliaceæ. diam. Jute .:—E. Fl. lanceolate. The plant contains leucin. and intestinal antiseptic. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . L. brown. 5-valved. carminative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . They are also used in lung and chest complaints. leaves and fruit. subglobose. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. yellow. fever. C. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value.— capsule. Sd. M. H. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. Sebesten plum. See—Fodder Plants. G. Bhukerbudara. Bhuselu. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice.5-10 X 2-3. astringent. Challa. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. COM. Patta. Mannadike. Bhokar. Fr. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts.—petals 4-5. arginine and coicin. 12 mm.2 cm. Kalasaka. also as antiperiodic. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. also efficacious in skin-diseases.—Boraginaceæ. :—E. tyrosin. DISTR. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. and dyspepsia. anthelmintic. lysin. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. :—Konkan. M. stomachic. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. not beaked. Chhunchh . Gondan. Fl. t. Chaunchan . cultivated in most tropical countries. In jutegrowing districts. histidin.—few in each cell. wedgeshaped. CHAR. Lassora. acute or acuminate. Hadige. FAM. :—An annual herb.— Sept. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa.—in short cymes. growing very tall under cultivation. smooth. serrate. laxative. See—Fibres. Bhokar. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. LOC. Resalla. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. Pistan.—7. ridged and muricated. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Bargund. Sk. buds obovoid. Gujarat. K. NS. Col. . G. Sk. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver.

cures thirst. Dhania. tonic to brain. inflammations. aphrodisiac. used in syphilis. highly esteemed in coughs. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. tooth-ache. Coriander. scabies. uterus and urethra. chronic fevers. COM. stimulant. cooling. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. Kothambri. anthelmintic. thirst. prevents coryza and bronchitis. NS. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery.:—E. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). DISTR. antipyretic. Kothamir. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Ceylon. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence.—Umbelliferæ. Fibres. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. carminative and antispasmodic. pains in joints. Ghats. Allaka. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Leaves—hypnotic. G. leaves (rarely) and fruit. LOC. Fruits are used as spice. biliousness. bechic. Dharika. purgative. Satpudas. Kothimbir. vomiting. :—Cultivated throughout India. :—Throughout India. wild and cultivated. Egypt. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). expectorant. used as an expectorant and astringent. biliousness. dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. piles. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. bleeding gums. gives appetite. used in dry cough. causes suppuration. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. The plant and fruit— acrid. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). LOC. heart and liver. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Fruit—diuretic. K. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Hivija. gleet. biliousness. eye-pains. anthelmintic. Konphir. laxative. burning of throat. diseases of chest. PARTS USED :—Bark. Cochin-China. tuberculous glands. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. H. M.:—Throughout the State in W. headache. indigestion. Fruit is aromatic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. analgesic. Kustumburi. Kanara. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. diuretic. stomachic. Mesapotamia and Greece. Vitunnaka. removes bad humours. Bark is used as a mild tonic. LOC. DISTR. also cultivated. vulnerary. Sk. useful in hiccup. Syria. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. stimulant. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). widely known from Palestine. See—Timbers. often planted. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. LOC. stomatitis.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. jaundice. Seeds—aphrodisiac. tropical Australia. maturant. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. diseases of chest and urethra.

S. Bilpatri. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm.—Capparidaceæ. Sk.2-2. Pushkarmula. COM. M.— tube short. lumbago. Penva. Ceylon. Chikke. Kushtha. sheaths coriaceous .7 m. hiccup (Ayurveda). Var. See—Condiments and Spices. FAM. M. fever.— black with white aril. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Sd. many. K. Ajapa. Nervele. India. and aphrodisiac. useful in bronchitis. LOC. :—G. Hadawarna. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome.7-7. Castle Rock. :—Almost all over India (Assam. CHAR. useful in catarrhal fevers. Pakarmula. H. also in Sub-Himalayan tract).—Scitamineæ.—capsule. depurative. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. COM. The plant yields an essential oil.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children.-Oct.—15-30 X 5. Fl. crisped. coughs and skin diseases. Pinga. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. and " Vata". HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. Vayavarna. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. oblong. in moist and shady places. LOC. Fr. Varuna. Kust. Varvunna. Malay Islands. Pushkarmula. DISTR. . PARTS USED:—Root. a tonic is prepared from it. Shura. Country. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. L. " Kapha". seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. t. Leaves contain vitamins A and C .— in very dense spikes. Vayavarno. K. Var. Khandala. lip white with yellow centre. H. Bitusi. globosely 3-gonous. Varno.:—Konkan ghats. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Sk. :—An erect plant 1. :—More or less throughout India. LOC. NS. Fl. Changalkashta. subsessile. Barna. inflammations. Biliana. anæmia. dyspepsia. bracts ovate. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. By the earliest writers. bright red. M. Kashmira. high. FAM. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. C.—Aug. Keu. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. spirally arranged. Kumaraka. China.5 cm. nalas. It is also astringent and digestive. subequal. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. rheumatism. lobes ovate-oblong. NS. silky-pubescent beneath. stem sub-woody at the base . root-stock tuberous. mucronate. Madhya Bharat. also planted near Muslim tombs. red. DISTR. Kemuka. S. Mahakapittha. Varuna. Karikuttu. concave.

5-10 cm. carminative. flat. Kanda-shalini. as long as the tube. K. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. bechic. diseases of vagina. and seeds. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). :—Throughout tropical India. antipyretic. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. bright green. bracts 7. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . X 12. vomiting.—1 (rarely 2). stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. Visha-Mandalamardini. fragrant at night. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. heating. useful in bronchitis. then sweet. removes "Vata". expectorant. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. COM. toothache. it promotes appetite. tumours. urinary concretions. Kanmu. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). anthelmintic. defective vision. linear lanceolate. vesicant. chest and blood diseases.5-18 cm.—Amaryllidaceæ. linear.:—G.—15-50 in an umbel. lung and spleen diseases. flowers and fruits. laxative.. emmenagogue. bulb 5-10 cm. Vishamungalli. strangury. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. long. also wild. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. Sd. Nagadown. Nag-damani. FAM. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. lumbago. Nagdavana. urinary discharges. 0. with a sheathing base. CHAR. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. found wild in North and South Konkan. antilithic. anthelmintic. Chindar. Wild or cultivated. laxative. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. See—Timbers. expectorant. digestive. H. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. . useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root. "Pitta" and "Kapha". LOC. lobes 6. act as rubefacient and vesicant. Sk. thin. M.—subglobose. diuretic. scape 45-90 cm.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. beaked. white. useful in biliousness. Tonic. USES:—Root is alterative. leaves. Pindar. vulnerary. L.9-1.5 cm. increases secretion of bile.—20-30.. night-blindness. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. leaves. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. Bark promotes appetite. LOC. Fl. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. diam. chest. bark. laxative. Patra-pushpi. bitter. The plant contains saponin. detergent. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Nag-damani. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. good in strangury. aphrodisiac. perianth tube greenish-white. Kanwal. anuria. NS. tuberculous glands. gonorrhœa. cylindric. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Seeds—purgative. Ceylon.

—Euphorbiaceæ. Bengal. :—Bengal. Madhya Pradesh.. expectorant. Nepala. FAM. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. Japala. Oil cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Nepal. :—E. Oil from the seed is purgative. See—Timbers. carminative. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. See—Ornamental Plants. cathartic. :—Naturalised in S. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Purging croton . emetic. Ceylon. good in sore eyes. COM. NS. :—H. Jepal. As an application to sprains. Chucka . Bhutankusam. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Sk. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. abdominal diseases. Nepala . fever. LOC. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Konkan. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. COM. DISTR. leaves and seeds. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. LOC. insanity. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Assam to Malacca. Ieucoderma. M. it is in great request. . Kanara. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. M. The plant contains lycorin. bronchitis (Ayurveda). excessive phlegm. bark. Danti. Burma. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). near Junnar (Poona Dist). Jamalgota . Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. G. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. :—Rare in the State. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. FAM. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Seeds cause burning sensation. etc. in small doses. inflammations. Jayapala. Ganasur. NS. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. K. Chota-Natpur.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Sk. China. useful in mental troubles. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Ceylon . :—Sylhet. H. Burma. PARTS USED :—Root. Jamalgota. convulsions. tonic. DISTR. nauseant and diaphoretic. Malay Islands. naturalised or cultivated. Western Peninsula. Danti.—Euphorbiaceæ.

LOC. colic. strengthens heart. They are edible. allays fatigue. H. LOC. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Seeds—lachrymatory. . :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Chibuda. Mahanaracha Rasa. Rind—vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Root. M. brain and body. cures " Vata ". causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Shadrekha. used in liver and kidney troubles. DISTR. Kakni. COM. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Valungi. Kharbuja. fruit and seeds. Kalangida. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. Sk. obstinate constipation. galactagogue. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. gives headache. fattening. Karkali. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. bronchitis. may cause indigestion. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. Chibdu Shakarteti. It is useful in apoplexy. NS. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cures ophthalmia. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. :—G. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. MELO Var. Kankadi. Valaka. Kharbuja. COM. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Kharbuja. Vrittervaru. diaphoretic.:—E. Pathira . insanity. C. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. Ripe fruit—sweet. nutritive and diuretic. Kakri. chronic fever. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. It is given internally with great caution. K. Karkati. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. &c. DISTR. FAM.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. wholesome. in ascites and anasarca. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. M. H. LOC. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Kachra. Fruit—tonic. Sweet melon . Melon. Shantanu. diuretic. convulsions. Kakadi. Tarkakadi. See—Timbers. G. ascites. Mutrala. ascites. urinary discharges. cooling. synovitis. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. dropsy. laxative. oily. and lock-jaw. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. diuretic. laxative. aphrodisiac. :—In Deccan. biliousness. insanity. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. tonic. Said to be truly wild in India. NS. thirst (Yunani). Lomashi.

Seed oil used in fever. diuretic. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. Kankdi. Mrigadani. cooling. tendrils simple. Sushitala. COM. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—yellow segments elliptic. H. Sk. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. Tavasa. H. Santekayi. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Sk. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. COM. Fruit—fattening . Cultivated in all parts of India. . Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Tansali. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. Vishala. male in clusters. They are nutritive. Karit. fruits. Chitravalli. Kakdi. stem slender. See—Vegetables. :—A perennial climber. rigid. See-Fruit Trees. Khira. used in thirst. hairy. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. allay thirst. Kumbhakshi. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh).—monœcious . DISTR. and C. Kothiban. CHAR. Trapusha.—June-Sept.—white. M. NS. pale yellow when ripe. Fl. antipyretic. K. LOC. lobes obovate. lobulate or dentate . astringent. t. cordate at the base. G. LOC. L. cures thirst. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). Fl. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. indigestible. FAM. India is considered to be the original home. fever. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. C.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fr. margined . Sd. NS. are administered in throat affections. fatigue. female peduncle longer than male. Sudhavsa. Takamaki. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. pulp bitter. Yunani). melo var.— suborbicular. angled. Seeds—diuretic. Khira. cures biliousness. they are also used as diuretic.:—N. improve complexion. utilissimus (Ayurveda. M. Seeds possess cooling properties. B. strangury.—Cucurbitaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. causes "Vata". enrich blood. FAM.—subglobose or ellipsoid. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. Hislambhi.:—E. purgative. Ripe one tonic. good for brain and body. "Kapha" and flatulence. dry. biliousness. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. :—G. stomachic. seeds. roasted and powdered. Kakari. Cucumber.

allays thirst. etc. K. Kadimah. . Kumbala. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cultivated in many parts of India. unhealthy ulcers. Afghanistan. :—E. fruits and seeds.:—Considered to be a native of America. improves taste (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. G. cures cough. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. FAM. DISTR. Dried fruit indigestible . Tambda bhopala. Melon pumpkin. Bhopala. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. COM. Dudia. Safedkaddu . :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Sk. Kashiphala. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Mithakaddu. Dangari. increases " Vata" . stomachic. LOC. Kushmand. Malaya. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Vegetable marrow. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. HABITAT. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. fruit is used to prevent insanity. carbuncles. Iran. M. Fruit contains vitamins A. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Australia.—Cucurbitaceæ. Pumpkin. The plant contains glucoside saponin. :—Cultivated. NS. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. H. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. LOC. N. COM. Sk. Koron. In Malabar. H. Kushmand. LOC. B and C. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Red squash gourd. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). tonic. FAM . G. Punyalata. Kaddu. See—Vegetables. astringent to bowels . increases " Vata ".:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. USES. K. Kumbala. on hedges. indigestible. Kumra. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Karkarn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. NS. DISTR. LOC. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Seeds are used as taeniacide. : — E.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Pitakushmand. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. M.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. LOC. DISTR.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative.

heals corneal opacities. throat and eyes. Fruit—very cooling. enlargment of the spleen. COM. carminative. uterine stimulant. FAM. aphrodisiac. Sk. Talamulika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. leprosy. Kalimusali. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. also a lactagogue. thirst. bronchitis. Fruit yields an essential oil. Mushalikand . useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Seeds are taeniacide. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Girautmi. purifies blood (Ayurveda). ft contains vitamins A and C. FAM. Dipaka. emmenagogue.—Amaryllidaceæ. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. belching . M. H. fattening. good for teeth. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Seeds anthelmintic. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. cures leprosy. vulnerary. appetiser. DISTR. G. increases appetite . :—E. cures haemoptysis. cure haemoptysis. Dirghaka. Cumin. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. abortifacient. analgesic. beneficial in consumption. asthma. and the root for making these more potent. PARTS USED :—Fruit.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—G. Kalimusali. sweet. fever. Leaves—digestible. K. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. scabies. NS. NS. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. haematinic. Kalimusali. laxative. Zira. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Cures " Vata " tumours. relieves hiccup. Ajjika. Jiru. antidysenteric. Sk. Neltati gadde. Neladati. Jira. stops epistaxis . astringent to bowels. remove biliousness. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. diuretic and demulcent. See—Condiments and Spices. COM. M. biliousness. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). allays thirst. H. tonic. anthelmintic. alexipharmic. Jirige. See—Vegetables.—Umbelliferæ. astringent. astringent to bowels. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. fever. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. inflammations. stomachic. gonorrhœa. cooling. LOC. antipyretic. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. leucoderma. tonic to intestine. Kapha " and " Vata ". Seeds—diuretic. Musali. ulcers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. . CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. fatigue. fruit and seeds. LOC. eye-diseases. LOC. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). tonic. Fruit astringent. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. Gaurajerka. K. carminative. carminative. Jire.

Fr. asthma. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . root stock large. with a beak . " Vata". bitter. Peninsula. scape. maturant. L. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.— in autumnal spikes 7.5 cm. Root—carminative. cylindric or ellipsoid. black. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds.— in racemes. :—Konkan and Gujarat. 1545 X 1. L. Kanara. common at the beginning of rains. fatigue. ulcers on penis. H. jaundice. gleet. appetiser. NS. distichous. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. FAM. Amhaladi. oblong lanceolate. tonic. Assam. Bitter.—Scitamineæ. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. K. LOC. COM. DISTR. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Mango-ginger. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. rhizome. diarrhœa. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac.— May-June. Sk. :—Konkan and N. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. tubers thick. piles. fattening. ophthalmia. appetiser.5-15 X 3. gonorrhœa. Fl. antipyretic. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. useful in inflammations.5-12. appetising. . 30-45x7. aphrodisiac.:—Sweet. emollient. useful in piles. Fl. perianth segments elliptic. during convalescence after acute illness. shining . hiccup. LOC. t.:—W. antipyretic. oblong. lumbago. gleet. Amragandha. PROPERTIES AND USES. diuretic. biliousness. inflammations (Ayurveda). clavate . cooling. all skin-diseases. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. often cultivated. diarrhœa. Java. CHAR.8-5 cm. debility and impotence. scabies.3-2.—grooved. yellow. tips sometimes rooting. Ambahaladara. aphrodisiac..—long petioled in tufts. colic. Peninsula. Sd. alexiteric. Ambehalad. alterative. linear or linear-lanceolate . t. lumbago. antipyretic. Malay Archipelago. indigestion. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. vomiting. pains in joints (Yunani). hairy on the back.—sessile or petiolate. C—white or very pale-yellow. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . W. LOC.-Sept. sessile. :—A small herb.—capsule. G. Ambahaldi. :—Bengal. Bengal. Fl. useful in biliousness. alterative and tonic. useful in bronchitis. stomatitis (Yunani). M. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). hydrophobia. oblong. expectorant. :—Stemless herb. laxative. troubles in the mouth and ear. flowering bract greenish-white. Karpuraharidra. Fl. very short. Kapurahaldi. pale yellow inside . causes "Vata".5 cm. gonorrhœa. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent.

See—Condiments and Spices. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers .—Scitamineæ. M. Sk. Vanarishta. Sometimes cultivated. COM. in spikes 15-30 cm. Sholi. Banhaladi. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda).—Scitamineæ.-May. used as an application for skin-diseases. DISTR. rounded at the tips. Harita. Varnadatri. Halad. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. M. Halada. appetiser . It is considered tonic and carminative. base deltoid. flowering bracts cymbiform. Turmeric. G. upper half funnel-shaped. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Jayanti.—tube 2. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. Sk. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. LOC. Also cultivated in Konkan.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. Vanhaldara. FAM. DISTR. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Halad. Kapur-kachali. LOC. :—E. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. FAM. H. palmately branched. long. Banharidra. NS. Ran-halad. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. green. Aranyaharidra. annulate.— flowering stem sheathed. :—E. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Cochin-Wild turmeric. the dorsal longer. LOC. variegated above. Bengal. biennial. sometimes cultivated. 3lobed. t. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. it is seldom used alone . also stomachic. Arishina. Fl. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. PARTS USED :—Tubers. flowers fragrant.5 cm. Yellow Zedoary. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil.. Indian saffron. L. lip yellow. C. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. :—Stemless herb. Mangalya.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. pale green. lobes pale-rose. sessile. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Fl. . K. CHAR. H. COM. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. root-stock large. forming pouches for the flowers. G. Haridra. :—Western Peninsula. NS. lateral lobes oblong. appearing before leafing stem. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. long. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Sholika.

M. taste bitterish spicy. LOC. alexiteric. G. 30-60 cm. It contains vitamin A. coma-bract crimson or purple . .— flowering stem 20-25cm. Jatala. fumes are used during hysteric fits . Kachari. Bitter. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. and yields an essential oil. Tuber is used as a stimulant. boils and urticaria. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. "Vata ". boils. See—Condiments and Spices. scabies. bronchitis. bitter. oblong-lanceolate. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. Fr. Himalayas and Chittagong. CHAR. long. improves complexion. appetiser. odour like camphor. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. leucoderma. piles. fragrant. anthelmintic. heating. sprains (Ayurveda). diuretic. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. carminative. 3-gonous. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. deepyellow. destroys foulness of breath.—Scitamineæ. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bruises (Yunani). paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. heating. :—Cultivated in the State. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. Shathi.:—E. Kachora. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. NS. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. appearing before the leaves. cylindric. lip 3-lobed. LOC. Kachora. alexiteric. blood diseases. vulnerary. Kachuri. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . Narakachora. bruises. emollient. pale-yellow inside. COM. DISTR. used in prurigo. inflammations. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. Sk. lobed .—funnel shaped. urinary discharges. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. In coryza. scabies. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. C. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. oblong. bruises. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. jaundice. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. vulnerary. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. flowering bract green tinged with red .—4-6 with long petioles. urinary discharges. bitter. Hakhir. tonic. said to be Wild in E. swellings. root-stock of palmately branched. laxative. small-pox. annulate tubers. :—Stemless herb.—capsule. itches etc. In small-pox and chicken-pox. useful in " Kapha". good for liver affections. flowers yellow in spikes. clouded with purple down the middle. clothed with sheaths. asthma. an alkaloid. L. Karechura. Fl. antipyretic. internally administered in blood disorders. anthelmintic. FAM .84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. useful in leucoderma. H. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . Gandhamulaka sara. maturant. The plant contains curcumin. Zedoary. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. externally applied to leech-bites.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. it is also a good application for ringworm. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. Gandhatrina. Majjige hullu. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. sharp. erect. carminative. tuberculous glands of neck. and is of great value in cholera. G. LOC. pains. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. LOC. M. long.. toothache (Yunani). given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea.—Gramineæ. also used as a tonic and depurative. Gavati-chaha. others narrow and separating. up to over 1. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. anthelmintic. sharp hot taste. useful in bronchitis. high. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. neuralgia. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. epileptic fits. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). sheaths of the culm tight. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. midrib whitish on the upper side.:—E. it is stimulant. CHAR. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. carminative. and other painful affections. laxative. leprosy. alexipharmic. velvety at the nodes. FAM. good odour. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. DISTR. Lilicha. alexipharmic. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. sprains. sheaths terete . .—linear tapering upwards to a point.8 m. emetic. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. COM. upto over 90 cm. hot. It is also aromatic. of much use in typhoid fevers. H. Bitter. culm stout. gastric irritability. It is an excellent stomachic to children. expectorant. L. Ligule very short. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. useful in griping of children. applied to bruises and sprains. nodding. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. emmenagogue. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). chronic rheumatism. long. Purhati hullu. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Lemon grass. Sk. NS. Tubers yield an essential oil. appetiser. tonic to brain and heart. laxative. furunculosis. bitter.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Externally it is rubefacient. glaucous green. Bhustrina. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. Takratrina. enlargement of spleen. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. K. :—A tall perennial. stimulant and carminative. aphrodisiac.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. LOC. Putigandha. probably of Indian origin. inflammations.

under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. burning sensation. Deccan. CHAR. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. sweet. NS. scabies. thirst.—2-10 cm.000 m. H.—throughout the year. G. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. stem.—Gramineæ. sheaths tight. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. leprosy. :—E. bitter. useful in fevers. LOC. NS. FAM.3 cm.—spikes 2-nate. Dhro. S. long. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. stem. subcordate or rounded at the base.:—Grows all over the State. Durva. margins scabrid. Durba. Baluchistan. Sind. :—Punjab. Mangala. smooth. Harali. oblique or divaricate. leafy. LOC.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf.5-5 cm. X 1 cm. throughout India. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. LOC. narrowly linear. Roshdo. Bhutika. high. slender. L. Mirchiagand. Fl. Burma. pains. Bujina. soft. H. bad taste in the mouth.. Shatamula. long. Vasanchullu. widely creeping. Rohisha. straw coloured. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Africa to Morocco.—Oct. skin . DISTR. Sk. prostrate . Rhusghas. COM. Afghanistan. Konkan. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia.5-30 cm. forming matted tufts. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). DISTR. bronchitis. carminative. particularly the Deccan trap areas. in the Himalayas. Gharo. Shatagranthi. upto 2. Ghats. and Ceylon ascending to 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. COM. Rohisha. Country. :—Sourashtra. long. epileptic fits. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. with erect flowering branches 7. Kobbar. leprosy.-Nov. K. green or purplish.4 m. Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. long. Saugandhika.—grain. Roshagavat. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. hallucinations. 1. Geramium grass. pungent.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. M. :—Cosmopolitan . W. finely acute. t. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. useful in biliousness. 12-18 mm. Fl. high. CHAR. 1 mm. through N. :—E. most warm countries. Sk.—flat. heart diseases. G.—Gramineæ. FAM. fatigue. M. Garikehallu. K. Bahuvirya.5-2. Shyamaka. throat troubles. :—A perennial grass . Durva. usually broad.t. Fr. cooling. Fl. See-Oils. vomiting. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. Dhoboghas. L. glaucous beneath. M. wide below.

Fl. narrowly linear. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. LOC. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. diarrhœa. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. bruises.—Cyperaceæ. diarrhœa. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. Nut—broadly ovoid. COM. 0. epilepsy and insanity. See—Fodder Plants. :—G. useful in vomiting.. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. fever. epilepsy. Sk Bhadramusta. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. LOC. acrid. it is diuretic. They are also diuretic and stimulant. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. dysentery. biliousness. astringent. burning sensation. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. emmenagogue. vomiting. fever. Motha. Bitterish. Fl. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Motha. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. In Ceylon.—Sept-Nov. FAM. USES :—Roots are commonly. . trigonous. Tungegaddo. fevers. NS. useful in leprosy. cooling. Motha. Mutha. stomatitis. epistaxis (Ayurveda). rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . urinary concretions (Yunani). LOC. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. epistaxis. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. M. Tubers yield an essential oil. spikelets 10-50 flowered. greyish black. Ceylon. dysentery. hiccup (Yunani). L. Granthi. blood diseases. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. vulnerary. very troublesome weed. diaphoretic. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. pain. juice is used in hysteria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. useful for ulcers and sores. erysipelas (Ayurveda). USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. Koranarigadde. most hot countries.82. Nagarmotha. Bimbal.—shorter or longer than the stem.5 cm. thirst. erysipelas. difficult to eradicate. t. Sugandhi-granthila. DISTR. vulnerary. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. appetiser. biliousness. Mustaka. H. Kachhola.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. stomachic. pruritis. blood diseases. :—Glabrous herb. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Tubers. K. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. CHAR. ophthalmia.. dyspepsia. stolons elongate.— in simple or compound umbel. anthelmintic. Root— diuretic.

t. high.—capsule. nodding. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. long. Fl. yellowish brown. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. on curved stalk 3. funnel-shapped. Kariyu-Um-Matta. beak long. soft spiny. acute.:—E. Ceylon.. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. diam. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. across. C. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . S.—Solanaceæ.5 cm. :—A perennial twining herb. velvety pubescent beneath. K: Dhattura.2-7. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 18 cm. M. Fl. Sk. NS. FAM. Fr. LOC. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. Country. stem hairy. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. e. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. corona outer and inner. Fr. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Sd. Ns. L.—many.-Jany. :—Annual shrub. Phalakantak. Utarni. :—H. COM. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. 30-60 cm. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. DISTR. ciliate.5-15 X 3.g. Fl. inner curved high over the staminal column. white inside. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. Kanaka.—thin. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. reflexed. Kanaka. :—Deccan. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). tubular. Bhranta. and sub-involution of the uterus. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. glabrous above. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. Fl. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. green. entire or with large teeth or lobes. spur acute. long 10-20. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also.—purple outside. M.— tubular. broadly ovate or suborbicular. COM. ovate. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". lobes spreading. HABIT :—A common weed.5 cm. subglobose. covered with straight sharp prickles. Unmatta. Kala-dhotara. afterwards racemose. Kaladhatura. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution.—7. CHAR. L. divaricately branched. Utran. LOC. Administered after the third stage of labour.2 cm. M. paralytic ileus. . t. Rajdhattura. somewhat zigzag. G. CHAR. Black-Purple datura.—Asclepiadaceæ.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. a glucoside.—Sept-Dec.—follicle. Sk. usually pubescent. Sd. solitary. Kaladhatura. FAM. Gujarat. outer truncate. greenish-yellow or dull-white. double.—Aug. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. packed. very unequal at the base.

anodyne. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. anthelmintic. GranthiPinda-Mula. Seeds—narcotic. PARTS USED :—Roots. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. black (Kala) and white (Safed). H. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. digestive and heating. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. enlargement of testicles and boils. majum. LOC. to increase their stupefying effect. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. black variety is considered to be more powerful. cause headache (Yunani).. toxic. heating. febrifuge. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. emetic. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. piles. useful in leucoderma. in gonorrhœa. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Garjara. relieves pain. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. PARTS USED :—Root. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. tonic. The whole plant is narcotic. alexiteric. USES :—Out of the two varieties. :—Throughout the tropics. with curdled milk. toddy. febrifuge. headache. nodes. DISTR. chronic coughs. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. Europe. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. NS. anthelminitic . The plant as a whole has narcotic. Gajar. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. Leaf-juice is given internally. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Gajjari. in combination with subja. FAM. (Ayurveda). equal in effect to atropine. aphrodisiac. Gajar. Gajra. ganja. bronchitis. mumps etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Gajar. :—E. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. Shikkikanda. painful tumours. nosetrouble. Cultivated in many parts of India. jaundice. M. LOC.—Umbelliferæ COM. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. bitter. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. emetic. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. leaves and seeds. leaves and seeds. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. . Carrot. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. and antispasmodic properties. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. Sk. Leaf poultice. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. skin-diseases. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. ulcers.

astringent to bowels. M.2 m. biliousness. Salwan.. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. Root marmalade is refrigerant. :— G. stems and branches angled. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. M.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. alexipharmic. chest troubles. nausea (Yunani). joints 6-8. Murele-honne. prevents death of fœtus in womb . :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. Salpani. Country. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. " Tridosha ". C—violet or white. green and glabrous above. COM. vomiting. anthelmintic. pains. upper edge straight. astringent to bowels. antidysenteric. NS. L. Philippines. t. " Vata". H. good for liver. FAM. Burma. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. biliousness. K. cures biliousness. piles. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. hooked hairy. DISTR. fattening. B and C. Malay Peninsula and Islands . :—Konkan and N.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cardiotonic. CHAR. bronchitis. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. vomiting and asthma. asthma. hiccup. Darh. they are also diuretic. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). membranous. aphrodisiac. It is used in fevers. Salwan. asthma. ovate-oblong. urinary discharges. 0. tumours. they produce a spirituous liquor. thirst. See—Vegetables. chronic affections of chest and lungs. dysentery . inflammations. Roots contain vitamins A. stomachic. burning sensation. Kitavinashini. margins wavy. high. Fl. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Shaliparni. other fevers. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Fl. paler and hairy beneath. tonic. used in bronchitis. thirst. vomiting. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. LOC. LOC. Vidarigandha. Fr.—pod. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. PARTS USED :—Root. piles. urinary complaints. cures leprosy. boiled with honey and fermented. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). sub-falcate. removes " Kapha". cough. :—A woody undershrub. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). Salpan. Deccan and S. carminative. diuretic. Dirghamula. tropical Africa. indigestible. USES :—Externally. Kanara . useful in chronic fevers. Tonic. standard cuneate at the base . hairy. expectorant. alterative. Ceylon.—onefoliate. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. throughout India. Ranbhal.—May-July. Sk.6-1. . Salwan. China. cures typhoid. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . aphrodisiac. LOC. Salparni.—in terminal or axillary racemes. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. good for inflammation. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic.

Riber ebony. vomiting. strangury. vaginal discharges. Dab.—Dec.8 cm. cures ulcers and " Vata". branches short crowded.3-3. Nubia. sedative to pregnant uterus. biliousness. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. COM. used in biliousness and blood diseases. LOC. diseases of bladder. Darbha. K. Tendu. vesical calculi. the basal fascicled. NS. Timbwini.—Gramineæ. tufted. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. diseases of blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. asthma. Sacred Plants. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Anilsara. Gavandu. Fl. in the beds of rivers and streams. :—E. Ceylon. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. M. Tumari.—many. flowers.) FAM. G. Thailand (Siam). Sphurjaka. erect pyramidal or columnar. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. sheaths glabrous. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. astringent to bowels. Syria. Gujarat. Pavitra. Fl. Tinduka. diuretic. Sk.. stolon very stout. LOC. stout. DISTR. :—Perennial tall grass. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. covered with shining sheaths. -panicle 15-45 X 1. jaundice. bark. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land.:—Saurashtra. clothed with sessile spikelets. margins hispid. Kalaskandh. erect. :—Along the coasts of N. Tumaki Mara. L. Egypt. Darbha. heating. See—Fodder Plants. long. Kalatendu. Kusha. FAM. cooling. :—Throughout India. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Gale. ligule a hairy line . Banda. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. reaching 50 cm. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). LOC. high. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. Temburni. t.—Ebenaceæ. H. aphrodisiac. oleaginous. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. stems 30-90 cm. creeping. rigid. Fruit—oleaginous. H. skin eruptions. rootstock stout. Zeeberwo. . Wild mangosteen. Durva. interrupted. Wood cures biliousness.—G. Konkan. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. NS. useful in blood diseases. M. thirst. Malay Archipelago. CHAR. Davoli. Makurkendi. PARTS USED :—Wood. Dabha. Kanara and the Konkan. fruit and seeds. good for lumbago. Sk. Flowers—aphrodisiac. smooth. branched from the base.

ozoena. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Sk. Texture membranaceous to leathery. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). Sitetara. enlargement of spleen. LOC. inflammation. :—M. Surfaces naked. COM. Kulithaka. pain in liver. intestinal colic. liver troubles. Kulitha. Ashvakatri. tumours. piles. abdominal complaints. generally on trees and rocks. See-Food Plants. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. improves complexion. asthma. strangury. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. hot. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. appetiser. FAM. NS. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. base decurrent on the stipe.—Polypodiaceæ. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Tropics of the old world. stout. ovate. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Kulit. Diuretic. Grains contain vitamin A. cures hiccup. H. short. fertile ones long stalked. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. Sori two in each primary areole. grown to a certain extent in S. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. COM. Jurali. urinary discharges. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles.Gahat. dry. Horse-Gram. astringent to bowels. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. Hurali. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. cordate. CHAR. bronchitis. G. See—Timbers. fattening. piles. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. LOC. M. hiccup. M. Kalvrinta. Tans. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. leucoderma. Kulthi. FAM. Sk. antipyretic. heart-troubles. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. :—E. Wandar bashing. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. cures " Kapha". diseases of the brain and eyes. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Basingh. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. Kulthi. Nasik. DISTR. Kulith. eye troubles. anthelmintic. Konkan— Ratnagiri. "Vata". acrid. removes stone from kidney. causes biliousness (Yunani). variously lobed. emmenagogue. Country—Belgaum. coughs etc. :—Rhizome creeping. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Kulathi. . Bijapur and Dharwar. It is demulcent in calculus affection.

:—Kanara.—Compositæ. Utkatara. Utakatara.—heads white. thirst. Pitripriya. Plant stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. Deccan. :—A much branched rigid annual. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. hot. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Kantalu. Keshrangana. FAM. H. Maka. analgesic. COM. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani).5 cm. hysteria. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. Konkan. oblong. cottony. Bhangra. sinuate and spinescent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC.—Compositæ. Ajagara. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots.— opposite. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. LOC. LOC. COM. CHAR. dyspepsia. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Sunilaka. FAM. densely villous. :—G. " Vata". astringent to bowels . Country. tonic.—achene obconic. Seeds—wholesome. Garagadasoppu. usually oblong-lanceolate. used in ophthalmia. Bhangra. chronic fever. Utkanto. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn.:—Throughout India. urinary discharges. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). glabrous above. DISTR. Dadhal. DISTR. Shulio. gleet. globose. Utkanta.3—0. Fl. involucre. . Sk. K. Mochand. useful in brain-diseases. Kalobhangro . cooling. S. causes " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. wooly beneath. Kantaphala. deeply pinnatifid. intermediate produced in sharp spine. the lobes triangular and oblong. dyspepsia and cough. Bhringraj. C. biliousness. cottony pubescent. hectic fever. LOC. M. inflammations. NS. Kadigga-garaga.—sessile. It is used in hoarse cough. Utanti. bracts 3seriate. spiny. NS. spines 2. 0. Root— abortifacient. stems and branches strigose and hairy. branches widely spreading from the base. CHAR. M. Balari. subentire.— Nov.-Jany. often rooting at the nodes. Bhangro. long. H. Fl. antipyretic. sessile. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. increases appetite. Kadechubak. L. high. pappus short.9 m. improves taste.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Sk. :—Konkan. surrounded by strong white bristles. Markara. L. :—G. pain in joints. t. Fr. diseases of heart. used in strangury. also cultivated to a certain extent. Afghanistan. stimulates liver. bitter. :—More or less throughout India.—limb linear. strigose and hairy. M. yellowish. Utkantaka. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic.

ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. M. Veldoda. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. hot. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. good for spleen diseases. It is given internally in scalding of urine. cures inflammations. solitary or 2 together. involucral bracts about 8 . It relieves headache when applied with oil. Gourangi. Burma. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. syphilis. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Triputa. anæmia. Velchi. Choti-Elachi. improves colour of hair. LOC. Elachi. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Madhya Bharat. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. teeth. Bahula. pappus 0. cures vertigo (Yunani). In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage.—achene. t. alterative. :—Western valleys of N. anthelmintic. Ela. LOC. "Vata". Ilaji. and for strengthening gums. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . Yalakki. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. internal diseases. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. Fl. lustre of eyes. eyes. hernia. Karangi. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. cuneate with a narrow wing. disk ones tubular . Gandhkuti. See—Sacred Plants. "Kapha". Malaya. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . alexipharmic. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). C—often 4-toothed . hemi-crania. fattening. Kanara (Siddapur. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). cultivated.-Dec. G. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. eye diseases. Peninsula). antipyretic. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Fr. There are two forms erect and prostrate. a reputed and popular liver tonic. W. bronchitis.:—India (Bengal. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. COM. stomachic. stomatitis. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. Bitter . K. H. NS. asthma. Panjab. toothache. heart and skin diseases. leucoderma. night blindness. . it is powdered and applied externally. hair. tonic. Ceylon. :—E.—Scitaminaceæ. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. Sk.—in heads.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl.. Sind.— Oct. fevers. expectorant. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. ray flowers ligulate. good for complexion. axillary. Chandrabala. prevents abortion and miscarriage. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. liver pain.

cooling. Wavrung. cooling. laxative. Vayuvitang. cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. cause biliousness . :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. It is stomachic. LOC. Vidariga. diuretic. LOC. bad humours of liver. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. chest and throat (Yunani). FAM. root is laxative and tonic. See-Food Plants. scabies. useful in head. Grains contain vitamin B.—Gramineæ. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Nagali. Makra. NS. alexiteric . clear head. CUM. H. In S. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. It is said to be astringent. useful in biliousness. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. LOC. tonic. stomachic. Varding. abortifacient. H. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. stomachic. M. COM. rich or poor. lessens inflammation. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. Bavato. consumption. Boberang. pungent. fruit is tonic. NS. piles. :— G. stimulant and emmenagogue. kidney. Pavaka. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Rajika. Narttaka. fragrant. India. most suitable to hard-working classes. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. diseases of bladder. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. pruritus. Sk. Navalo-nagali. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate.:—G. See—Condiments and Spices. . Bidanga. Sk. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Rotka. Bhasmaka. Vavoding. causes thirst. Vavading. bronchitis. Seed—fragrant. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. carminative. DISTR. bitter. diuretic. Marua. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. useful in asthma. fruit and seeds. Nachani. K. Kanisha. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. Ragi. K. Jantughna.:—Western and S. M.. ear and tooth ache. tonic to heart. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Grain. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats).MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR.—Myrsinaceæ. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. brain and mouth. FAM.

purgative. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Dhatri. M. leprosy. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. Triphala. LOC. Ther.—Euphorbiaceæ. smooth. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. . (Dymock). alterative. coriaceous. K. LOC. HABITAT :—Rain forests. reddens urine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Kanara. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. paler and silvery beneath. Amlika. Embelic myrobalan. Anward. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. Western Ghats. flexible. Malay Islands. bark. many.—alternate. urinary discharges. slender. bronchitis. tonic. :—A large scandent shrub. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. vomiting. constipation. laxative. Anola. dyspnoea. useful in burning sensation. urinary discharges. flowers. ascites. Amlika. black when ripe.—berry. Ceylon. China. carminative. Fl. often planted in Konkan. Nellika . elliptic-lanceolate. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. dry. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. China. thirst. G. Dadi. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). useful in asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Seed— acrid. alexiteric. " Tridosha ". shining above. K. Adiphala. strangury.) FAM. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . S. laxative. dries wound discharges . Bitter. Deccan. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. Sk. Daula . good for plethoric constitution. Malaya. :— E. Pharm. et. DISTR.—Feb. 42-II-1932). good appetiser. vulnerary. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Arch. Konkan and N. sour. LOC. erysipelas. Int. Dhatriphala. anæmia. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. Fl. Bhoza . analgesic. inflammations. Ambala. poisoning. " Kapha'. t. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. S. cures bronchitis . Fr. succulent. mental diseases. bronchitis.—in lax panicles. wild or planted. COM. fruit and seeds. piles. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). cures tumours. Gokhale. anuria. anthelminitic. Ceylon. DISTR. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). :—Throughout India. carminative. nearly globose. PARTS USED :—Fruit.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. with a sharp bitter taste. biliousness. bark studded with lenticels . branches long. NS. like a pepper corn when dried. internodes long. Paranjpe and G. antipyretic. diseases of heart. anthelmintic . Avala. hemicrania. sweats. Amalaka. Amla. jaundice. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. greenish yellow. alterative. L. racemes minute. alexiteric. H. :—Hilly parts of the State. leaves.

Celyon. branched from the base. :—A perennial glabrous herb. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. narrowed at the base. biliousness. liver complaints. Mackary bean. R. sour. Saurashtra. NS. Garbe. vulnerary. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fruit—acrid. C—infundibuliform.—sessile. NS. anthelmintic. stops nasal hæmorrhage. diuretic and laxative. :—G. Tiktapatra. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. high. COM. 3-nerved. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. white. ellipsoid. Nahu. expectorant. Nagajivha. Tanavadi. Garambi. :—Konkan. tropical Africa. t. cold in the nose. S. Chhotakirayat. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. Sind. Kadvinayi. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. piles. Malaya. Dyes.—Aug.-Nov. L. Ind. opposite. M. LOC. Country. DISTR. variable. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ".—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). purifies body humours (Yunani). See—Timbers. useful in heart-diseases. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. FAM.—Gentianaceæ. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. H. thirst. used as laxative and astringent. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. LOC. tonic. in axillary clusters all along the stem. 10—50 cm. Tans.) FAM. Mamejavo . Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Unripe fruit is cooling. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. LOC. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Doddakampi. Madvinashi. lobes 5. mid-nerve strong. Fruit Trees. sub-quadrangular or terete. Fr. Giant's rattle. CHAR. Lady nut. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa.—sessile. COM. Gujarat.). cooling. Grey). improves appetite. aperient. stems erect or procumbent. M. K. West Indies. :—E. Fl. . USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Mabhipaka. M. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Fl. astringent. rounded apex. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic.— capsule. USES :—Root. bark and fruit are astringent. Hallekayiballi. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Dried fruits. eye troubles.

PARTS USED :—Seeds. dark green. wide and 3-8 cm. indented between the seeds. Fl. Indian coral-tree. H. DISTR.—2pinnate.. Sd. inflammations. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk.-May. Panderavo. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. Peninsula. Nepal. K. C.. bark. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". they are given internally as an emetic. shining and brown. Fr. smooth. W. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Andamans and Nicobar. oblong or obovate. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. 4. The plant is used as a fish-poison. :—Konkan and N. thick. long. Kantakinshuka. LOC. branches terete. Pangara.. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. long. Tennaserim. M. Mandara. :—E. N. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. COM. along sea-coast above high-water. improve appetite.5-10 cm. stalked. Mandara. Panjira. Raktapushpa. . woody.5-5-7 cm. :—Coast forests of Malabar. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Fl. cure urinary discharges. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. bark used in dysentery. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L.7-5x7. 3. Hongara. Sk. Var. t. Bangaro. for grapevines in Nasik district.—yellow. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery.) FAM. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Mullumurige. slightly curved. Ceylon. Mochi-wood. Dadap. pinnae 2—3 pairs. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Pegu. DISTR. Paribhadra. mixed with spices. anthelmintic.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. G. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.S. leaflets 7-5 x 2. leaves. Halivan. often along river banks.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leaves—bitter. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . ORIENTALIS Merr. orbicular. rigidly coriaceous. Panarvo. Sundribans. diam. Pangara. the tropics generally. Arakan. 30-90 cm. flowers. Phandra . glabrous. compressed. Planted as support for pepper vines. Kanara.— Mar. Planted as ornament. USES :—Powdered kernel. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. stomachic. L.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. in debility and glandular swellings . Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. hot.3-2 cm. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats.—pod.—6-15. Salaki.

Dudhi. Sk. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Sd. COM. Fr. Dudhi. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Shirthahar. L. Achchegida. H. high. Kodukalli. FL. M. K. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). hispid with long often yellowish hairs . crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Euphorbiaceæ. branches often 4-angled. Bahukshira. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. globose.—Euphorbiaceæ. Mondukalli. G. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Sendh. Bottugalli. . :—Annual herb. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Pill-bearing spurge. rugose. See—Timbers.—ovoid-trigonous. Dudanali. bowel complaints and cough in children. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Cong. 15-50 cm. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Milk bush. Nagpur 1931). In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Fl. NS. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Dandalio thora. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. erect or ascending. t. M. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. :—E. 18th Ind. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. COM. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. CHAR. LOC. :— E. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Indian tree spurge. Nevli. dark green above. H. Sahud. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. serrulate or dentate. Duddi. —throughout the year. Australian asthma herb. base unequal-sided. Sher. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. appressedly hairy. Govardhan. Ceylon. Pusitoa. FAM. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Sk. Dudhi. Milk hedge. reddish brown. Sc.—capsule. and to relieve pain of the joints.—opposite. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Dandasruha.—involucres numerous. Paradeshi thora . NS. Vajradruma. it is anthelmintic. The plant contains an alkaloid. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. with or without a limb. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. gland minute. pale beneath.) FAM.

dyspepsia. naturalised in India. also as an alterative. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. epilepsy. leprosy and leucorrhoea. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. axillary.-Aug.-light blue. Shyamakranta . DISTR. useful in gonorrhœa. Sd. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—G. useful in bronchitis. :—Sind. solitary or sometimes 2. spreading. cocci velvety. stone in bladder (Yunani). :—Native of East Africa. almost leafless. Nilpushpi. NS. H. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. The plant contains an alkaloid. more than 5 cm. prostrate. asthma. t. M.—Convolvulaceæ. Ceylon. Kalisankhavali. long. teething of infants . The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Vishnugandhi. carminative. tumours. thin. jaundice. L.-July-Nov. pungent. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. K.—capsule. Vishnukranta. Jhinkiphudardi. smooth. peduncles very long. Fl. polished. silky hairy. :—A perennial herb. :—Throughout the State. 6-13 mm.—small. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. Fr. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . thick like quill. usually clothed with long hairs . leprosy. carminative. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. useful in biliousness. Juice is purgative. brightens intellect. LOC. Vishnukranta.-Sep. LOC. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. t. biliousness.—ovoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. leucoderma.— capsule. COM. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. and with oil to promote growth of hair.—many. long (appearing in rainy season) . whooping cough. mostly female. base acute. Fr. terete. CHAR. about 6 m. anthelmintic. :—A small tree. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. enlargement of spleen. L. smooth. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). elliptic-oblong. LOC. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Konkan and Gujarat. high. Sk. employed to raise blisters. Vishnukranti. campanulate. tropical and sub-tropical countries. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. stems many. branches erect. Sd— glabrous. 4valved. dropsy. useful in abdominal troubles. . DISTR. wiry. Fl. rootstock woody . Fl. colic. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. LOC. branchlets whorled. globose. alterative. linear. milk is alexiteric. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. alexiteric. FAM.

—very variable in size and form sessile. NS. good for liver troubles. sessile. in copious terminal cymes . N. also used in chronic fevers. Sd. flattened. t.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks.2 cm. :— H.— showy. COM. ophthalmia. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Mysore. NS. Kashaya. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. thirst. it has got cooling properties. toothache. :—Konkan. cooling. more or less glandular. 1-3 foliate. LOC. Deccan hills and S. DISTR. Cooling. Coimbatore. lower half white. arising from between the stipules . cures dysentery.). L. :—Madras State. :—G. Sk. stem. reaching 60 cm. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. FAM. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. leaflets linear. alexipharmic. Fl. 5-nerved. FL. Circars. about 1. glandular hairy. Barachirayat. small. petioles deeply striate. fever. Rajasthan. Punjab. smooth. Fl. erysipelas. M. Ghats. Upper Gangetic plains. urinary discharges. removes "Vata". used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. LOC. pyramidal to the apex.-Nov. in chronic bronchitis. typhoid. smooth. ellipsoid. yellowish brown. pale rose-coloured. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. stomatitis. Dusparsha.— ovoid. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. quadrangular. W. . :— Sind. acute. vomiting. Hinguna. t. L. M. M." asthma. Mediterranean.-Aug. spitting of blood. root fibrous. Ind. ovate. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields.—solitary. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Prabhodhini. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. Fl.-Dec. Maval. Atmamuli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. obliquely obovate. CHAR. Dhamasa. FAM. Ustarkhar. the upper blue. :—An erect annual. Dhanavi. shining. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. Dhamaso . Iran. purifies blood (Ayurveda). Fr. reduces tumours. scarcely branched. asthma. Bark is used in scabies. DISTR. LOC. deeply 5-partite. emmenagogue. Waziristan. removes "Vata. long. COM. of 5.—Zygophyllaceæ.—opposite. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. westwards to Afghanistan. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). Gujarat. 1-seeded cocci. Country. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). CHAR. high.—Gentianaceæ. Arabia. Udichirayat. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . C—lobes 4-5. the middle the largest. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat.-Oct. elliptic or lanceolate. Baluchistan. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning.

Monkey fruit. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Manmadha. removes biliousness.. NS. Banian tree. shining above. tumours. Java. Malura. blood impurities. heart diseases. refrigerant. Ceylon. dysentery. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. DISTR. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kapipriya. H. M. consumption. Kait. with spreading branches. G. M. Fruit—sour . cordate or rounded base.—Rutaceæ. Bhringi. Bar. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. fruit and seeds. Ala. useful in biliousness. Vad. Fruit Trees. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). cures cough. Kathinyaphala. Kotha. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. LOC. India. hiccup.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. M. Self-sown. LOC. Kothun.—coriaceous. Sk. Kavit. :—E. difficult to digest. good for throat.— globose. liver and lungs . Bargad. Kanara. See—Timbers. tonic to heart. diam. Elephant or wood apple. fatigue. Nyagrodha. :—Cultivated all over the State. . FAM. common in the Tapi Valley. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Kapitha. alexipharmic. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Jatala. refrigerant . ovate to elliptic. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Vad. Fr. S. with male. Bargat. high. leucorrhoea. Kavath. thirst. Ghats. aphrodisiac. binding diuretic. Vat. strengthening to gums . Balin. Kathel. Grahiphala. Belada. CHAR. :—Indigenous in S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Seeds—antidote to poison. Avaroha. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . 10-20 X 5-12. LOC. about 2 cm. H. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. acrid. L. vomiting . sending down to the ground many aerial roots. K. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. ophthalmia. :— E. Dadhiphala. " Tridosha". " Vata ". Vata. Goli. often planted. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. G. asthma. Leaves—very astringent.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. COM. Bahupada. female. Sk. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Alada.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. often cultivated. Vadlo . Kavitha. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat.—Moraceæ. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . COM. Byala.5 cm. astringent. K. country and N. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa.

Fibres. stimulates hair-growth. demulcent. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. useful in "Vata". Asia and Mediterranean. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. leprosy. Root—tonic. See—Famine Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. diseases of head and blood. biliousness. :— E. FICUS CARICA Linn. in rheumatism and lumbago. NS. Anjir. Simeyatu . nose-diseases. liver and spleen diseases. USES :—Fruit is emollient. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). biliousness. DISTR. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. H. LOC. lessens inflammations. boils and carbuncles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. Bijapur. vaginal complaints. pain in chest cures piles. Grown scattered elsewhere. root-fibres. useful in piles. Sacred Plants. seeds and milky juice. dysentery. erysipelas. LOC. bruises. paralysis. K. Aerial root is styptic. laxative. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Dharwar. useful in inflammation . diuretic. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). Cultivated in N. Sk. PARTS USED :—Bark. ulcers. India. leaves. Anjir. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. FAM.—Moraceæ. vomiting. Anjura. W. Seeds are cooling and tonic. inflammation of liver (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. Milky Juice—expectorant. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. COM. gonorrhœa. LOC. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. hill ranges of S. . alexiteric. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. maturant. M. G. lithotriptic. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. useful in syphilis. Fig. fever. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. weakness. nutritive. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Anjir. inflammations. India. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. W. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. :—Baluchistan. Afghanistan. Kakodumbar. leprosy (Ayurveda). tonic. Anjir. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. useful in leucoderma. aphrodisiac. ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. thirst. useful in "Kapha". vulnerary.

Sk. DISTR. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. See—Timbers. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. leucorrhoea. Pipli. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Pippala. Jari. H. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. FAM. Pipers. diseases of kidney and spleen. blood diseases. biliousness. Ragi. Gular-Country fig. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Vriksharaj. galactagogue. leaves. Lalka. useful in "Kapha". :—E. Bark is cooling. allays thirst. Pimpal. Leaves—astringent to bowels . PARTS USED :—Root. menorrhagia.—Moraceæ. Fruit— useful in dry cough. useful. planted all over. acrid. Hemadugdha. in diseases of blood. leprosy. . Udumbara. Bark useful in asthma and piles. FAM. K. good for foul taste. G. loss of voice. Atti. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. Peepal tree . Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Shuchidruma. good for bronchitis. Umbar. uterus . G. burning sensation. COM. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Gular. NS.—Moraceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Pavitraka. Sk. Sacred Plants. Ashvatha. burning sensation. Pipal. COM. Ashwatha mara. urinary discharges. Umar. PARTS USED :—Root. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Bodhidruma.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. ground with onions. is given to cattle in rinderpest. (Yunani). LOC. :—E. M. K. given in leucorrhoea. vagina. Arani. M. fruit. DISTR. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. biliousness. cummin. tonic. good for gravid uterus. Yajnika. H. leaves and fruits. Rumadi. ulcers. Milk—aphrodisiac. bark. LOC. fatigue. Pippala. HABITAT :—Planted. Umar.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. latex. Umbro. Demera. nose bleedings. Pipal. bark. :—Throughout the State near villages. NS. :—Widely spread throughout India. Bark. vulnerary. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. styptic. LOC. Fruit—astringent to bowels.

M. The juice is employed in hiccup. N. FAM. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. good for lumbago. upper Gangetic plain. heart diseases. Sk.—Flacourtiaceæ. :— G. cleans ulcers. Fruit—purgative. K. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Satpura. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Sacred Plants. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Katar. Swadukantaka. K. PARTS USED :—Root. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. COM NS. Khandesh. Sk. Fennel. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. :—E. Finkel. S. checks vomiting (Yunani). HABITAT :—Hills. M. H. DISTR. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). M. Badishep. Variali. FAM. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Hunmunki.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Root good for gout. LOC. See—Timber. and produces sterility in women. Young bark useful in bone fractures. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Variari. Fodder Plants. Paker. fruit. Soupa. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. NS. Circars. W. seeds. Fruits are sweet.—Umbelliferæ. common in the Peninsula. Bhuripushpa. appetising and digestive. G. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. H. SAPIDA Roxb. Bilangra . Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. astringent in leucorrhoea. Ghats. Mullutari. gum. Shateya. Hettarimullu. Bhanber. Shalina. Badisoppu. Handi Kandai. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. COM. Kankod . . Tambat. Akrani. LOC. See—Timbers. Country and N. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Kanara Jungles. Tapaspriya. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Bhakal. bark. Potika. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Burma. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. promotes granulations. Gajale.

leaves and seeds. Fr.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Ghats south of Bombay. ridges prominent. DISTR. strengthen eyes (Yunani). fruit and seeds. dysentery. high. often cultivated. useful in bleeding piles. LOC.—ellipsoid. G. lessen inflammations. aphrodisiac. leaves (rarely). causing constipation . stomachic. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. cures "Tridosh". cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. FAM. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. appetiser. :—W. spleen. PARTS USED :—Bark. Tittidika . eye-diseases. ultimate segments linear. LOC. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. diuretic.— decompound. See—Condiments and Spices. USES :—Bark is astringent.—in large umbels . :—Endemic in W. Ratambi. (Mhaskar and Caius). common in S. in headache. 0.6-0. Konkan and N. DISTR. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. wounds. improves appetite and allays thirst. dark green. cardiotonic. yellow. It is much used as a nutritive. K. LOC. Oils. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. Leaves—improve eyesight. Kokam . Murjinhalli. aromatic and carminative. laxative. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. anthelmintic. USES :—used as stimulant. furrows vittate. stimulant. " Vata ". .—Guttiferæ. fever. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". See—Timbers. Coorg. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. cough and asthma. annual.9 m. HABITAT :—Cultivated. wounds etc. Wild mangosteen. Tintidika. galactagogue. NS. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. :—A tall glabrous. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). tumours. leprosy (Ayurveda). In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. M. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. :—E. Wynaad. dysentery. amenorrhœa. bracts and bracteoles absent. LOC. kidney. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". Atyamla. useful in diseases of chest. anthelmintic. Kokam. thirst. Mulgala. Ghats. Amlabija. Kanara. COM. carpophore 2-partite. L. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. H. seeds-carminative. difficult to digest. biliousness. FL. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Roots. Kokam . alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. Sk. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. :—Apparently a native of S. fissures of lips. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. demulcent and emollient. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence.

unarmed. Pinda. :—India (W. PARTS USED:-Gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. HABITAT :—Open situations. Jantuka.5-3. Cambi resin tree. Dikemali. Kanara. -June. first white then changing to yellow.—2. :—A deciduous shrub. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. DISTR.5 cm. See—Timbers. Fl.-sessile.—Rubiaceæ. Fl. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. :—Common from Konkan southwards. astringent to bowels. . NS. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition.8 m. shining. :—E. same as for G. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. Suvirya. Northern ghats of Madras State. FAM. M. buds resinous. elliptic-obovate. long. Bikke. CHAR. Dekamari. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . Dakamali. LOC. oblong or ellipsoid. Dikamali. Gums and Resins. Dikamari. lucida. NS. COM. :—India. Hingu. COM.5x22. oblong. L. Burma. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. Sk. FAM. relieves pain of bronchitis. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests.-tubular. K. LOC. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. See—Gums and Resins. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. 4. Peninsula).. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda).—Feb. Western Peninsula. high. opaque. not fragrant. common on laterite in southern parts of N. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. G.—Rubiaceæ.-subsessile. DISTR. all dry districts of Madras State. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. C. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak .8 cm. about 1. Dikkamalli. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. LOC. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. 1-3 together. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. LOC. lucida (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Gum. Fr. t. As sold in the bazar it is hard.

Karianag. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. thirst. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. changing colours from greenish yellow. itching. used to remove placenta from uterus.—capsule. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. Kalikari. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. bitter. acrid.5 X 15 X 2-4. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side.—large. FL. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. t. stems annual. inflammations. margins wavy. Kathari. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant.. root-stock of arched. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. piles. anthelmintic. Cochin-China. given off from young tubers . Tropical Africa. Khadyanag. Fr. solid. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins..3 cm.—Liliaceæ. branching climber . :—Herbaceous. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. scattered or opposite. linear-lanceolate. LOC. abortifacient. Sivasaktibalb . Sk. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Dudhio vachhonag. tall. expectorant. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. Nangulika.—sessile. L. Fl. linear oblong. Malay Peninsula. leaves and flowers. Tuber— astringent. There are two varieties of the plant. The former is supposed to be male. NS. Garbhapatani. CHAR. filaments long spreading. abdominal pains. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. H. In Guinea. LOC. orange. Huliyuguru. sometimes whorled. scarlet. heating.. axillary . leprosy. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. ovate lanceolate. Languli. and crimson from blooming to fading. Agnimukhi. Ceylon. Indai. useful in chronic ulcers.2 cm. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kulhari.5-3. K. COM. Akkitang hall. PARTS USED :—Tuber.-July-Oct. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. :—Throughout tropical India. perianth segments reaching 6. . DISTR. FAM. :—G. solitary. 7. laxative. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. Linn. alexiteric. Kalihari.5 cm. In case of retained placenta.

useful in "Vata". :—Throughout India. M. Shiwan. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. piles. Devakapus. Coomb teak. K. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Nurma . Devkapas. Ceylon. M. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Shivani. Provinces. White teak. :—Throughout the State and about temples. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Oils. Mahabhadra. improves appetite . LOC. See—Fibres. burning sensation.:—E. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. PARTS USED :—Root. Karibatti. common on Satpuda. leprosy. Root taken with liquorice. root is also stomachic and laxative. FAM. FAM. urinary discharges. tonic. strangury. indigestible. flowers and seeds. useful in hallucinations. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. flowers and fruit. Kashmari. thirst. Tree cotton. thirst. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. scalds etc. Shivan . Sind. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. gleet. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. In the Konkan. consumption and some catarrhal affections . DISTR. Karpasam. Fruit— diuretic. Gupsi. Kumbudi.—Malvaceæ. Khandesh. G. catarrh of the bladder etc. Malaya. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Madhya Bharat. the root. NS. ulcers. :— Bengal. useful in indigestion. leaves. abdominal pains. G. COM. Deokapas. Flowers—astringent. Cashmere tree. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds.—Verbenaceæ. Shripani. Hanji. " Tridosha ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Gandhari. :— E. . Rajasthan and N. Gambhari. W. Philippines. DISTR. :—Throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Sk. aphrodisiac. leaves. anæmia. LOC. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. fevers. COM. Gumbhar. made into paste. useful in fevers . LOC. anthelmintic . Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Var. alterative. H. H. See—Timbers. anasarca. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. laxative. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. NS. consumption. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. K. Gambari. Bachanige. Savan. chronic cystitis. Shiwan. promotes hair-growth. scattered in monsoon forests.

probably in N. Cotton . Roshana. NS. demulcent. good for all kinds of inflammations. Sk. In India they are used to procure abortion. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Afghanistan. H. U. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. M. K. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. Phalsi. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Leaves remove " Vata " . Pharuah. Anagnika.—Malvaceæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tula. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). tonic. M. Sk. sour. Parusha. bark. cure all ear-troubles. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Karihariyale. Tadasala. NS. enrich blood. good for throat . digestible. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. LOC. acrid. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. :—G. wild in Deccan. expectorant. G. K. Sutrapuspha. Buttiyu-dippa. S.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. DISTR. Karpas. Mediterranean. allay thirst. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. preventing their access to wounds etc. Kapas . Jana. in hypochondria. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. increase flow of urine. laxative . (Yunani). Egypt. aphrodisiac. Arali. fomentation for burning eyes . Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. H. poultice applied to burns' scalds. W. A. Badari. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Seeds—aphrodisiac. Kapus.Phalse. Seeds are laxative. Rui. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . expectorant and aphrodisiac. East Tropical Africa. scabies . HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. extensively cultivated. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. COM. Kupas. See—Fibres. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Phalsa.. LOC. analgesic. Country. cures inflammations. :—Sind. Ripe fruit—sweet. :— Cultivated in N. Hatti. Syria. :—Cultivated in the State. :—E. DISTR. Mesapotamia. leaf-juice good in dysentery. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Arabia and Asia Minor. in hills near Poona. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. FAM. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Gujarat and S. restore consciousness. removes " Vata" and biliousness. heart and blood disorders. Rui. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. F. fevers and consumption. Province (Pakistan). extensively in Gujarat. used in orchitis. M. Dhamin. Baluchistan. removes " Vata ". Oils.—Tiliaceæ.. FAM. cooling. Seeds— ' galactagogue. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Iran. fruits and seeds. Parapera. LOC. fruit.

K. Kanphodi. H. elliptic. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). SK. India. Adiyakharan. alterative. inflammations. . CHAR. base rounded or cordate . — Asclepiadaceæ. usually single. Mabli. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. :—Throughout the State. Fr. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Fruit—sour. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. G. LOC. tonic. NS. Meshashingi. Ceylon. biliousness. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. The ease of administration. Gurmar. L. Sk. Vakundi. corona of 5 processes . Vishani. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. common in hedges in Dharwar district. vitreous body) burning sensation. Ugragandha. bronchitis. ovate. Mardashingi. helps removal of dead fetus.-May. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Tanmani. leucoderma. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. COM.— companulate . NS. M. t. Sd. Hulhul. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. See—Fruit Trees. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria.—Capparidaceæ. yellow . lanceolate. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. :—A large woody climber. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kanara coast. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Pandhari tilwan. much branched. H. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). acrid. Kavali. alexiteric. M. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Sanngera. Br. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens.— opposite. Sannagerse. Sati talvani. Root and bark used in strangury. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). Bastagandha.—in cymes . Kabari. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. G. cooling. :— E. Tropical Africa. asthma. sweet. Small Indian ipecacuanha. :E. Tilparni. Caravella. cornea. DISTR. Karnasphota. relieves thirst and hiccup. young stems densely pubescent. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Arkapuspika.— Apl. Churota. S.— with thin marginal wing. piles. strengthens chest and heart. good in heart-diseases. Bedki. FL.—follicle. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Mahabaleshwar and N. Shrikala. Karalia . Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". FAM. Hulhul. LOC. FAM. stomachic. Meshavalli. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell).MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. COM. C. :—Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. the stomachic stimulant. ulcers. K. Fl. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. should not be eaten raw. LOC. Periploca of the woods. Merasingi. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.

elliptic-obovate. long. Fl.—capsule. Country. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. LOC. DISTR. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers .112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. K. PARTS USED :—Root. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. Fl. Fl. LOC. hills in Supa Taluka. FAM. COM. removes "Vata". this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Sk. Murudseng.8-9 cm.—Sterculiaceæ. producing copious exudation. Gidesa Jitasai. Kavargi. vesicant. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. M. tapering at both ends. long .5 cm. hairy. Jonkaphal Maraphali. sessile. Fl. tumours. leaves and seeds. Fr. Murdasing. leaflets subsessile. with divaricate herbaceous branches . stipules triangular. t. China.—muricate. L. stem and branches hairy. hills near Nagothana. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda).—capsule. (Kirtikar and Basu). dark-brown . CHAR.12.—Oct. gynophore 2-2. Sd. . pubescent. stomachic .—Rubiaceæ. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. Marosi. NS.—in dense bracteate racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. glabrous or pubescent above. :—Deccan. ellipsoid .6—1. NS.2 m. acute. C. FAM.—rather rigid. Kewan. :—M. :—A small deciduous shrub. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. white or blue. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. pink . pedicels viscid hairy. L. hairy.—many. t. Sinhgad hills. pain. viscid. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. Kanara. Katraj Ghat. Sd.—June. Murudi.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. Gujarat. :—G. Avartant. LOC. good in ascites. COM. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. :—An annual erect herb 0. high. S.5-20 X 3. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . Mrigashringa. ulcers. . HABITAT:—Hills. elliptic-lanceolate. 5-9 cm.. Fr. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. PARTS USED :—Root. H. M. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. earache. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Edamuri. hairy on the nerves beneath. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. opposite..—petals 4 with long slender claws. margins crenate-dentate. DISTR.-Feb.—3-5 foliate.

HABITAT :—In hedges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant.—follicle of 5-6. Upalsali. Utpalashariva. Root useful in hemicrania. Magrabu. Burma. DISTR.. Upalsari. "Kapha". useful in syphilis and leucoderma. astringent to bowels . 7. astringent to bowels. red at first fading to lead colour.— very variable. anti-galactagogue. paralysis. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Malaya. "Vata' dysentery. Fl. diarrhœa. long. They are demulcent. eye troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. low appetite. and leaves.—tubular. Sd. “tridosh". LOC. useful in gleet. stems thickened at the nodes . and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). lessens griping. urinary discharges.Sd. bark and fruit. LOC. demulcent. Fr. Ceylon. Fl. stem. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections.—follicle cylindric. bilabiate. :—Large shrub or small tree. See—Fibres. joint-pains. FAM. DISTR. gargle good for toothache (Yunani).-Dec. Sugandhi-balli. scabrous above. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. t — Aug. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. K. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic.-biferous. irregularly crowded. fevers. common in hedges. Kapurimathuri. LOC. Dhaval kashtha. NS. Anantmula. spirally coiled. rat-bites. Br. :—Upper Gangetie plain. :—Throughout the State. L. Country. foul body odour. M. burning sensation. blood diseases. Stem lessens inflammation.—Asclepiadaceæ. purplish inside. diuretic. Hamadaberu . often variegated with white above. Deccan and S. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. 5-6. tapering . Konkan. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. CHAR. antidiarrhœal. COM. Root and stem—laxative. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. Sk. leucorrhoea. Fr. obliquely cordate. useful in piles. epileptic fits. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. alexiteric. cough.— with silvery white coma . Hindisalse. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). L. poisoning. root-Stock woody . bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. H.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S.—numerous. :— E.— in cymes in opposite axils. India.3 cm. diaphoretic. ovate orbicular. G. liver and kidney diseases . beaked. Fl. Australia and West Indies. t. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. C. good for brain. FL. greenish outside. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.512. syphilis. asthma. . dark-green. Anantmula. Durivel.5 X 5-10 cm. Kanara ghat forests. thirst. asthma. angular .—throughout the greater part of the year. mildly astringent. Indian sarsaparilla . :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. uterine complaints. cures all skin-diseases.

—during most of the year. Harivallaba. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. etc. Jasuva. cooling. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. leaves.—Malvaceæ. LOC. ovate or ovate lanceolate. NS. piles.—no fruits produced in India.—7. Kempupundrika. pedicel jointed above the middle. It is said to purify blood. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. Root roasted in plantain leaves. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. skindiseases. tonic. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. and mixed with ghee. See—Ornamental Plants. urinary discharges. In the Konkan. entire near the base. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). syphilis and leucorrhoea. G. cm. yellow. Raktapushpi. seminal weakness. Japapushpa. remove burning of body. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. solitary. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury.—axillary. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). It is also diuretic. fevers. bright red. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. K. and as early as 1864. Dasanihu. flowers. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. Root is valuable in coughs. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. L. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Jasum. red. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. demulcent. petals thrice as long as the calyx. DISTR. Sk. Aruna. bark and petals are demulcent. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. t. PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. glabrous.5.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). . diam. H. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. CHAR. Shoe flower.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Fl. crimson. astringent. Dasavala. Fr. involucral bracts 5-7. Jasut. irregularly serrate towards the top. COM. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Fl. FAM. Rudrapushpa. uterine and vaginal discharges. :— E. Native country probably China. Jasavand. tubular below. C. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms.—short petioled. LOC. magenta. useful in loss of appetite. :—A perennial shrub. M.

:—Throughout the State. See—Vegetables. 5th petal yellow at the base. CHAR.—axillary.—1-3. M. Red sorrel. Sd. K. on the margins. C.) FAM. Lal ambari. clawed. mid-lobe the longest. long. long. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. G. calyx fleshy. Ragotpiti. Patwa.. H.—petals 5. Madmalati. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Fl. sedative and refrigerant. glabrous. M. Grows abundantly on the W.—5-7. involucral bracts 10. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places.—Oct. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. Atimukta. 3-winged. Konkan. Ceylon. elliptic-oblong.5 cm. tropics of the old world.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. H. petioles silky. purple. :—An annual. white. NS. beaked. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. L. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Madhavi. acuminate. flowers. Fibres. Fr.-Mar.— solitary. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. t. stem and branches purple. Fl. 10-18 X 4.—Malvaceæ. DISTR. pepper. orbicular. hairy. 3-5 lobed. (lower leaves sometimes entire). covered with minute hairs . Madhavi.—coriaceous. serrate. Lal ambadi. Haladvel. Deccan. :—E.5 cm. . ovoid. black-brown.-Dec. Madhavi. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Kampti. C. Lal ambadi. fragrant. COM. Vasanti. HABITAT. entire glabrous. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Sd. Madhumalati. erect.2-2 cm.—large. COM.— Jany. base cuneate. Fl. LOC. across. Kempupundrike. Sk. :—G. Ghats. Atimukta.—in erect racemes. Vasantduti. fruits and seeds.—purple with darker centres. asafoetida and molasses. uppermost petal broader. Rozelle. Pundi-bija or soppu. 1. Kanara.—Malpighiaceæ. L. Madhalata. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. and adding a little salt. NS. LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. much used in curries. globose. Adimurtte Adirganti. :—Cultivated. t. Kamuka.—capsule. Fl. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. Vasantduti. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Chandravalli. fringed.3-7. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. young parts silky. purple. FAM. Fr. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient.lobes oblong. Madhavi. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Malati.

wounds. fatigue. :—Throughout hotter parts of India.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Fl. FL. Sk. Karuindrayan. Andamans. biliousness. Indrayana. excessive menstrual flow. Seeds—carminative.—Feb. acrid. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. ulcers. galactagogue. Bark—bitter. COM. remove muscular pains . useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Kodasige. cures dysentery. Kuda. vulnerary. biliousness. bitter. C—tubular. leaves. diuresis (Yunani). DISTR.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. LOC. cylindric. Leavesastringent. NS. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. cause "Vata".. cough. smoke good for piles. N. cool the brain. tonic. Kutaja. Sd. hallucinations (Ayurveda). :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. good in headache. Kaduoindrajav. LOC. boils. Conessi bark tree. Madras State. Seeds—appetiser. Karohi. leprosy. lumbago. cooling. urinary discharges.. :—Throughout the State. Kurchi tree. asthma. long. Abu. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. Veppale. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. aphrodisiac. Kuda. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . thirst and inflammation. Hath. Kura. Burma. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. L. insecticidal. Kudsalu. astringent to bowels cure pains. LOC. skin diseases. Hale. styptic.—follicles 20-48 cm. burning sensation. main nerves conspicuous . strengthens gums. Flowers— acrid. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). M. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. bleeding piles. Mt. Kaling. throat hairy inside. leprosy. Dudhi. Fr. good in chronic bronchitis. tonic. thirst. piles. See—Ornamental Plants. branchlets drooping. good in erysipelas. Thailand (Siam). acrid. anthelmintic. flowers and seeds. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. colic. often dotted with white spots. Malay Peninsula. t. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. leucoderma . remove "Tridosh". inodorous. given in chest affections. vulnerary. Pandhara Kuda. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. :—E. CHAR. Siwalik. Karnatak. skin and spleen diseases. H. K. PARTS USED :—Bark. broadly ovate or elliptic. Assam. Circars. lessens inflammations. China. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. " Kapha". FAM.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. white. burning sensation.5 cm. Nepal. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. diarrhœa. Ceylon.—Apocynaceæ. heating.—10-20 X 5-11. appetiser cure blood diseases.-June. Kumaon. fevers. PROPERTIES.

Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. with radicle attached to it. (R. Knowles. causes constipation.—Gramineæ. Ymvah. Javegodhi. Satu. nor styptic. LOC. FAM. demulcent and expectorant. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. nor astringent. Germinated barley. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. H. dysentery and intestinal worms. Gaz. useful in biliousness. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. improves voice. . Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. Suj. allays thirst. kurchine. They are also used after delivery. Sk. Ind. malt sugar and diastase. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. M. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. and kurchicine. LOC. fattening. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. Aug. Jav. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. headache. Jawa. Jav. especially cod-liver oil. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. febrifuge. diarrhœa. K. useful in fevers. appetiser. DISTR. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). pains in chest. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. India. Shaktu. Tasteless. NS. Divya. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. COM. anæmia. They are astringent. The grains contain vitamin B. Med. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. good for ulcers. inflamed gums. widely cultivated in temperate regions. PARTS USED :—Seeds. biliousness. :—E. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Hayapriya. acrid. G. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. See—Food Plants. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. sweetish. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. useful in bronchitis. 1928). —Cultivated chiefly in N. Barley. Java. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Yava. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. burns. fevers (Yunani). lowers the pulse. stomachic. asthma. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy.

—Bixaceæ. Peninsula. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. young parts brown pubescent. Common in N. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards.) FAM. Fl. For scald-head. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Southern and Western India. pungent. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Niradivittulu. dioecious . Dondru. FL. Malabar.—petals fringed with soft white hairs .—Apl. Garudphala. :—K. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition.—solitary or in racemes. Bhutabi. Bandaru. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Bhorsal. Ghats. C. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. good for the throat. Gandele. COM. Kanara evergreen forests. 12.—Rubiaceæ. flat. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats.. DISTR. increases taste and appetite. Sd. Betaga. Phaldu.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. common in Travancore. acuminate. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. M. Doti. Kadukavata. Bhanina. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. L. Kshiradru. :—W. Bharnarasalya. M. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. NS. broadly ovate. Sk. more or less coriaceous. K. Fr. Garudphala.5 cm. size of small apple. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bhoswar. :—G. Ugragandha. Country and Kanara. Bhrijatuaka.—berry. FAM. Amarachala. high. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Madhya Pradesh.5-23 X 3. t. sulphur. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. DISTR. NS. LOC. white. CHAR. sometimes along river banks. See—Oils. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases.—numerous. Kastel. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. Bihar. camphor and lime-juice. Kowti.—Jany. Bhringamallika. S. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Sk. tomentose. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . COM. bitter. Dondra. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. LOC.8-7. M. . globose or ovoid.

5 cm. Fl. :—Annual or biennial herb. middle portion much inflated. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. numerous . K.—Convolvulaceæ. Kanara. lobes obscure . elliptic oblong. :—H. Gorwiballi. Kalaghantika.—1-5 flowered peduncles . FL. Fr. rusty pubescent. M. NS. Pechuli. Nalichibhaji.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. black with white scanty coma. Gopini. cordate or hastate.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). t. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Krishnasariva. Kalambika.-Dec. :—Throughout the State. glabrous above. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. :—Konkan. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R.8 cm. Java. FAM. In Indo-China. CHAR. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. H. COM. Ceylon. very common in Gujarat.—4-5-7 X 2-3.. Sd. FAM. base rounded. C. trailing on mud or floating.—capsule. NS.2 -7. straight or slightly curved. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. ovoid .5x 3. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). Sk. X 4 cm. slightly pubescent and pale beneath.— Nov. LOC. vomiting. throat and tube dull purple . CHAR. prostrate. thick. Nalanibhaji. Fl.-Apl. C.—linear. Chandangopa. . Nadika. Karihambu. Sk. upper constricted. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. stalks and leaves. blood diseases. stems long. M. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. LOC. :—G. LOC. Country. L. Shradhashaka.—Apocynaceæ. Karmi. hollow. COM. biliousness. t. M. pubescent. Sd. Br. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Root.—4 or 2. :—A large twining shrub . See—Timbers. Sariva. " Vata ". lobes with white hairs on the upper side. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. thirst. Kalidudhi. Fr. cooling. aphrodisiac. greenish white. very slender. :—More or less throughout India.—in axillary and terminal. Siamalata. trichotomous cymes. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. The outer layer is tasteless. Bhadra. the powdered wood is used for herpes. 10-15 cm. Kantebhovari. acute. Fl. DISTR.—tube with narrow portion below. S.—5-12.—Nov. cylindric . cures " Kapha ". Potuasaga. Fodder Plants. Common in the evergreen forests of N.—follicle. Australia. Kalmisag. Kanara. rooting at the nodes . Kalaka. fever.

LOC. Kanara sea coast. Ceylon. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. Root—heating. being regarded as tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. biliousness and fevers. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. ovoid. . twining.—in. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. vomiting. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . L. FAM. blood diseases. stimulant. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. root large. America. Carminative. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. Africa and Australia. Australia in moist climate. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). 3. H. improves voice and complexion. ovate-lanceolate. lobes 5-7. entire. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. tropical Asia. Swadu Vidarikand. gonorrhœa and inflammation. galactagogue. Bhuikohala. See—Gums and Resins. glabrous. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. leprosy. to children in case of emaciation.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. near sea coast. biliousness. Nila-kumbala. useful in leprosy. useful in syphilis. also useful in liver complaints. pale. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. jaundice. tropical Asia. Fr. alterative. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. galactagogue. t. tonic. bronchitis. liver complaints. Giant potato .8—6. thick.—Convolvulaceæ. 4-valved. useful in fever. long. anthelmintic. appetiser. purple. stem long. leaves. debility and want of digestive power.—10-15 cm. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. aphrodisiac. Fl. stomachic. expectorant. LOC. indigestible. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. Bhunichahragadde. enclosed in fleshy sepals.3 cm. Bhumikushmanda. dry. LOC. (Ayurveda). alterative. often broader than long. M. anthelmintic . Flower causes " Vata ". flowers (rarely). aphrodisiac. Bilaikand . In Burma. (Yunani). diuretic. lessens inflammation. COM. cures biliousness. (Yunani). K. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. burning sensation. long. demulcent and lactagogue. :— E. carminative. Fl. deeply palmately divided. DISTR. 4-celled. " Kapha " . Leaves enrich blood. :—Perennial. peduncle solitary axillary. Sk. useful in leucoderma.—capsule. Sd. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.-July-Sept. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root. Africa. CHAR.

glabrous . leucoderma. S. :—An annual herb. stems twining. :—Western Peninsula. surrounded by ciliate sepals.) FAM. Nilvel. sparsely hairy. pains in joints. Kaladana. creeping and rooting at the nodes. tropical Africa. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. diam.— 4-6. G. Africa. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. headache. abdominal diseases. petioles hairy. Fl. lobes ovate. :—E. Ceylon.5 cm. Nilpushpa. . HABITAT :—Water-logged places. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle.-5-12. Kalokumpo. Shyamala-bijak. subglobose. Sk.-Oct. Krishna—Shyama-bija. dries the phlegm. C. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). bracts linear. COM. L. carminative.—Convolvulaceæ. M. LOC. t. :—G. stems many. L. blue tinged with pink.3-2. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Fl. anthelmintic.—capsule. fevers. reniform or ovate-cordate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. believed to be of American origin. Sd.—1. long tubular funnel-shaped. K. LOC. Undirkani.8-5 cm. Deccan.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . COM. subglobose or ovoid. Musekani. Mirchai. Morning glory. :—A herb . Kaladanah. CHAR. crenate. NS.. in the Himalayas. Fr. NS. broad. Indian jalap. E. K. filiform. bechic. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. M. Sd.—capsule. Purgative. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). The plant contains a glucoside. PARTS USED :—Seeds. clothed with long hairs. DISTR. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq.—dark chestnut coloured .—3. Ganribij. Country. Sk. cures inflammations. See—Ornamental Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. Fr. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians.—Convolvulaceæ.:—Throughout India. scabies and biliousness. diseases of head.— yellow.—Sept. CHAR. M. bronchitis (Ayurveda). DISTR. Vrishchikparni. deeply three-Iobed. Fl. axillary. FAM. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). S. 3-celled. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. :—Konkan. H.5 cm. LOC. ovate-cordate. H. Undirkani.

Pithori. Kanaka. inflammations and abdominal diseases . Nashotar. COM. False-Indian jalap. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). sometimes cultivated. ovate or oblong. Kalaparni. tropical Africa and America. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. twining and twisted together. paralysis. Nishoth. wounds. K.—Oct. cooling. Triputi. useful in spleen enlargement. also in the Konkan and N. NS. useful in bilious tremors of body. :— E. root long. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. laxative. Fr. LOC. H. Indian rhubarb. LOC. LOC. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. Root— bitter. Mauritius. bronchitis. useful in bilious fevers. brain diseases. much branched. good in pain. Malay Islands.—white. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. heart and abdomen. often pinkish. anæmia. Trivrit. . bracts large.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABITAT :—Wild . lungs. carminative. pungent. rarely slightly lobed. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. acrid. Ceylon. pains of chest and joints. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). mucronate. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani).-Jany.—in few flowered cymes. applied in diseases of eye and gums. angled and winged. :—Throughout India. good for weakness. G.—capsule. Turbith root. Nishottara. C. urethral discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. leucoderma. Common in southern Gujarat. bechic. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). fistula. useful in diseases of kidney. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. fevers. Nahatara. enclosed in enlarged sepals . USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Philippines.. pedicels thickened upwards. long. It is also alterative. Rechani. when used alone . stems very long. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. base cordate or truncate . uterus. FAM. Sk. white variety is a mild cathartic.8-5 cm. inflammations. Fl. antipyretic. muscular pains. globose. bladder. 3. Br. L. CHAR. M. Nandi. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative.3-7 cm. burning sensation and intoxication. useful in loss of consciousness. laxative. Root with bark should be used. paralysis. purgative. like others of the genus . removes bad humours.—Convolvulaceæ. fleshy. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Fl. anthelmintic. expectorant. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided.—5-10 X 1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. strangury. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic.

Chambali. Fr. 5-10 X 3. imparipinnate. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. Fr. coriaceous. Pankul. Priyanvada. L. Parali. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated . M. :—Bombay southwards . DISTR. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. Chambeli. CHAR. 5-12. See—Ornamental Plants. also along river banks. sessile. proximal petiolulate. Sk. Bakali. .—opposite. oblong. Anemallige. stipules with a long rigid point.—Oleaceæ. Kisukare. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. wild.5 cm. K. oblong. COM NS. stipules . in lax axillary and terminal cymes. tube long. size of a pea. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. Jai. FAM. Surabhigandha. across. DISTR.—July-Sept.2-6. H. FL—numerous. pale when dry. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. G. intermediate sessile .—3.8 cm. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. NS. COM. Chambeli. lobes 4 (rarely). leaflets 7-11.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. :—E. Fl. Kepala. often tinged with pink outside. 3. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Ceylon. :—Western Peninsula. of stems and roots. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast.—globose. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. Fl. Sk.—throughout the year. Jajimalle. obtuse. Fl. white.. Flame of the woods . M.— Rubiaceæ. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. pale when dry. LOC. very common in Konkan and N. FAM. sessile. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Raktaka. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. smooth. terminal rather larger.—ripe carpels 2. high. :—E. distal pair confluent with the terminal. purple when ripe. t. t. :—Cultivated throughout India. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. Bandhuka. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. very slender . Guddedasal.2-6. Pendgul.—opposite. LOC.3 coriaceous. petiole and rachis margined. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. obtuse . :—A large subscandent shrub.3 cm. fleshy. CHAR. K.9 m. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Ajjige. Jati. C.—tubular..

the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue.—white. flowers and oil. . USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Flower has bitter taste . solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . :—Cultivated throughout India. Fl. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. The plant contains an alkaloid. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. brain tonic . Arabian Lily. abundant in April-May. entire. G. Pramodini.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. soporific. L. LOC. aphrodisiac. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. t. alexiteric. suppurative. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. emmenagogue. black. Flowers—tonic. M. vulnerary. Sambac. Fr. allays fevers .—opposite. leprosy.—ripe-carpels 1-2. Iravantige. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Leaves are also used in toothache. base rounded or subcordate. HABITAT :—Cultivated. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. paralysis. surrounded by calyx-teeth. K. intoxicating. Tuscan jasmine. useful in diseases of eye. cures headache. Mogra. good in asthma. H. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. COM NS. Navamallika. head. teeth. Fl. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). ulcers. aphthae. biliousness (Ayurveda). and for scabies (Yunani). Chamba. useful in stomatitis.—Oleaceæ. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. very fragrant. biliousness. Mogara. expectorant. emetic. stomatitis. softens skin. heating. LOC. diuretic. headache and weak eyes. alexiteric. DISTR. Mallige. alexiteric. Ananga-mallika. FAM. CHAR. diseases of mouth. subglobose. tonic to brain. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. scarcely climbing. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Vanchandrika. otorrhoea. See—Ornamental Plants. :—E. mouth and skin. Plant—deobstruent. :—A sub-erect shrub. Banmallika. See—Ornamental Plants. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. it is used in cases of insanity. membranous. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). caries of teeth. good for pains in joints and ear. rheumatism. variable in shape. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. In Goa. Sk. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. given in blood diseases. Oil—lessens inflammations. Root—purgative. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. ear. Mogro. anthelmintic. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. Motia. LOC.—more or less throughout the year . eyes and ear.

diam. Sd. broadly ovate. L. Virechani. Vilayati haralu. urinary discharges. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Sk.5-12. Seeds contain active principle curcin. leaves. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. yellow. stipules capillary.— ovoid. COM. 7. Jangali—Pahari erand. 1.5-12. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. villous within. CHAR:—A handsome. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn.. garden shrub .—capsule. The seeds act as drastic purgative. when applied to boils.— alternate. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. corolla lobes 5. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. long-petioled. juice sticky opalescent. FAM. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . .—Euphorbiaceæ. French or Small physic nut. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. subfleshy. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. 7. Sutashreni. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. Fr. male flowers. thirst. black. G. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. K. large. dull brownish black. 10-15 X 7. Jangali erandi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. L. M. biliousness. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Fl. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. DISTR. K. fruits and seeds. Coral plant. anaemia. useful in chronic dysentery. " Tridosha". Fl. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. FAM. Mogali—Ran-erand. abdominal complaints. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. :—E. COM. 3-lobed. fistula. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. long. herpes. H. The acrid. CHAR. disk of female flower urceolate. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. coral-red.—E. PARTS USED :—Wood. and also promotes healing. cordate.—in flat-topped cymes. have suppurative effect. Ratanjot. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Barbados Physic nut. Jyotishka. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.8 cm. Sk. Simeavadala. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). Akhuparnika. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores.—monœcious.5 mm. NS. multifid. Fr. :—Native of tropical America. NS.—Euphorbiaceæ. across.—orbicular. LOC. Kananerand. Dundigu. Bhadradanti.—ovoid oblong.5 cm.5 cm. LOC. longer than calyx.

pains. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. branches subterete with raised lines. Bakas. Shindhuka. often met with in Bengal. vaginal discharges. In Cambodia. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). :—Bomb. LOC. FAM. L. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. skin-diseases. COM. aphrodisiac. leaves. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. wild in Tenasserim.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—H. K.5-12. M. fevers.—Acanthaceæ.5 cm. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. Nilinirgandi. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. FAM.2 m.—Ghati pitpapda. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. heating. DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. COM. Kala adulsa. LOC. CHAR. 7. DISTR. hot. tympanitis.5 cm. Leaves are used in scabies. purgative. useful in bronchitis. dyspepsia. NS. HABITAT :—Shady positions. bitter. in interrupted spikes. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. rheumatism and dysentery. useful in piles. wounds.—white spotted. NS. Nilmanjari. high . inflammations. Kalmashi. Fr. America.—Acanthaceæ. 5-12. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. dry .—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. all over the State. native of N. Seed— oleaginous. Bhutakeshi. M. eye diseases (Ayurveda). fattening tonic . Sk. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . Karinchki. causes " Kapha ". purple within. . long. " Vata ' and "Pitta". Krishna-nirgundi. Karambal. Nachukaddi. :—A native of China. clavate glabrous. Fl.—capsule. enlarged spleen.6-1.

Kachchura . bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . diuretic.—2-lipped. L. softly pubescent. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). petioles channelled. Fr. thin.—2. K. LOC. P. removes indigestion. Maval in the Deccan.—612 from the centre of the plant. PARTS USED :—Tubers.—Scitaminaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. fugacious. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. strengthens lungs. CHAR. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. COM. spreading horizontally.—Oct. root-stock tuberous. Tubers yield an essential oil. increases " Vata ".-Mar. HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Sk. Kachri. 6.—finely tuberculate.:—Stemless herb. Fl. Cultivated in gardens. Plant diuretic. gives lustre to eyes. Deccan. oblong shortly pointed. Madras State. M. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). LOC. DISTR.—variable. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage.3-12. burning of body. intoxication. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. aromatic. good in spleen diseases. :—Konkan. oval.—in cylindric terminal spikes. urinary discharges. vomiting. NS. lower 3-lobed . ovate or lanceolate. South Konkan. lying flat on the ground. Malay Islands. Fl. L. wandering of mind. constricted between the seeds . pure-white. LOC.—lobes lanceolate. t. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. biliousness. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. Ceylon. round. fever. pale violet pink. :—N. C. Konkan. Chandramulika. FAM.. Fl.. :—More or less throughout India. Western Ghats . Kapurkachri. :— H. Sugandhavachai. thirst. tube funnel-shaped . purifies blood in skin diseases. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. deep green. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. upper lip notched.—capsule. tired feeling. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. Australia. Malaya. fragrant. enriches blood. stops vomiting. (Yunani). Travancore. :—Western Peninsula. Sd. .— June-July. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Panchgani. DISTR. diaphoretic. stomachic. teeth. constipating .5-9 cm.5 X 4. Fl. obtuse at both ends. Chandramala. elliptic. expectorant.

rootstock reaching 5 cm. HABITAT :—Marshy places. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. :— G. NS. Sk. in many cycles.— sweetly fragrant. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Mysore. Kaddu. very poisonous .5-10 cm. K. Kadu bhopala. NS. entire. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. :—Stemless plant. thick. M. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. :—Konkan...—globose 3.—narrowly oblong. Tubers yield an essential oil. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. oblong. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. S. Halagumbala. inflorescence of many ovaries. M. Bottle-gourd. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . anthers crowded. Country.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn.—Scitaminaceæ. COM. Dudhya bhopala. furrowed. promotes suppuration. CHAR. Labuka. L. N. COM. K. LOC. . USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Danta-bija.—Cucurbitaceæ. female cylindric.—30X7. coriaceous. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. midrib very stout.— inflorescence. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Sk. petiole as long as blade. Coorg. Katutumbi. remedy for itch. diam. FAM. Cochin. G. DISTR.8-5 cm. t. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. FAM. Kanara.-Apl. creeping. Alkaddu. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Calabash. CHAR. Nelasampige . Bhuichampo . Lauka.—15-37. Fl. The whole plant. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. COM.5 cm. FAM. H. annulate .. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. LOC. long.5 X 5-12. yellow. simple. Fl. :—E. H. NS. tubular below. Fr. spathe 7.-Mar.5-23 cm. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. semicylindric. elliptic-oblong. Dudio Tumbada. margins undulate. :—M. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. L.. Tumbaka. Dudhi. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant.. Fl. used in the form of poultice. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. —Feb. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . :—An aquatic herb. Vatsanabhi. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Travancore. t. crowded in a globose bead . Ceylon.—Aroideæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bhuichapha. DISTR. Bhuchampaka. of various shades of purple and white. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Malay Islands. Bhuichampa .

leaves. PARTS-USED :—Root. Assam. seeds are narcotic. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. Tarul. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. Seeds emetic (Yunani). wild (rarely). "Vata". Fruit good in bronchitis. USES :— Leaves are purgative. fruits and seeds. Bandhara. Bark and leaves are purgative. cooling. bark. muscular pains. Seeds—good for hot constitution. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. causes bronchitis. LOC:—North Kanara and S. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. . :—H. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. leaves. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. earache. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. increases "Vata". the Moluccas and Abyssinia . pains (Ayurveda). LOC. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. wholesome to fœtus. aphrodisiac. inflammations. fattening. Holematti. Arjuna. DISTR. DISTR. in many cases only cultivated. Taman. cardiac and general tonic.—Lythraceæ. Challa. Ceylon. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. laxative. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. bitter. cures blood diseases. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. earache. LOC. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. COM. antipyretic. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. Konkan Ghats. oleaginous.) FAM. styptic. Nirbendeka: M. Flowers cooling. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. LOC. cures asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. anti-bilious. brain-tonic. bitter variety is diuretic. refrigerant and anti-bilious. fruits and seeds. improves taste. Malaya. fever. Sk. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. China. flowers. lessens inflammations. sweet. NS. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. alexiteric. See—Vegetables. piles. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. dry cough. cause haemoptysis. K. There are two varieties. bronchitis. :—Western Peninsula. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. cures leucorrhoea. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. anti-periodic. ulcers. diuretic. In the Andamans. scalding of urine. See—Timbers. Ornamental Plants. flatulence. Arjuna. vulnerary. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. emetic.

:—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. S. Basu).—in erect.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). D. common at Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT :—Cultivated.. The bark is used to poison fish. common on the Supa Ghats. bark mottled. DISTR. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. See—Food Plants. NS. Wooly-headed gnidia. burning. causes much flatulence. Gorantha. :—E. t. :—W. subsessile.8 cm. :—E. yellow. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. Peninsula—Ceylon. Madaranga. NS. inflammation. lameness. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. G. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts.5 X 2-2. Deccan hills. but dangerous cathartic. Sandika. Sk. COM. Lang. Tree mignonette. enclosed in the perianth .5 cm. silky beneath. piles and wandering of the mind. Lakh. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. swellings etc. Nakharanjaka. Kanara. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Kassar. Latri. oblong lanceolate. heart-troubles. :—E. tonic. G. :—A much branched large shrub. FAM. Chickling—White vetch.. M. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. FAM. Sk. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Mendi. K. (B. CHAR.—Thymelaeaceæ. Fl. Medi.5-3. Ragangi. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. (Ayurveda). 5-7. improves taste. Mukute.—Lythraceæ. Grains contain vitamin A. Henna plant.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—opposite or scattered. M. Mehndi. perianth-tube densely silky villous . USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Kukurgal. dense terminal heads 2. oblong flat.—Dec-May. K. L. LOC. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. . LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. N. H. pointed. Khesari. Triputi. pain. cooling. M. Fr. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . :—Konkan southwards. DISTR. COM. COM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS.—ellipsoid-oblong. diam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. lobes 4. Rami. Country. LOC. Belgaum hills . PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Medika. Yavaneshta. Rametha. FAM. glabrous above.

Flowers are refrigerant. Leaves—bitter. Masur. pyramidal and panicled cymes. in diseases of heart and of . remove " Kapha" and biliousness. vulnerary. syphilitic sores. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. flowers. Belgaum and Poona districts. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz.—Apl-July. Masur. Sura. :—E. enriches blood. bronchitis. many. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. useful in headache. LOC. skin diseases . lumbago. finger nails and hair. ulcers. Sk. NS. The oil and essence keep the body cool. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. expectorant. LOC.—in terminal. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves. lateral branches 4-gonous. indigenous in S. Fr. improve appetite. white or rose coloured . scabies. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cure strangury tumours. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". Sd. Ragadali. diuretic. DISTR. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. Massur. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. G. COM. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. K. :—Grown in Nasik. cure leucoderma. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. fragrant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . :—A cold weather crop throughout India. E. Fl. M. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). diuretic. useful. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. supported by persistent calyx. H. Europe and in temperate W. Masura. Gurubija. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. amenorrhœa.—opposite. DISTR. HABITAT:—Cultivated. FAM. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. t. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. boils. The plant contains a glucoside.—angular. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Gabholika. ophthalmia. dysentery. See—Dyes. seeds. globose. mucronate. diseases of spleen. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. cure insanity (Ayurveda). LOC. Asia. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. allay burning sensation. Ceylon. wild in Arabia.). Masuridal. PROPERTIES. Iran and Baluchistan. planted as hedge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. truncate. & Gib. Lentil. often ending in spinous point. L. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. veined outside. favours hair-growth.—capsule. stomatitis. Chanangi. LENS ESCULENTA Moen.

See-Food Plants. FAM.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. NS. M. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). stomatitis . Seeds—indigestible. aphrodisiac. The covering is styptic and astringent. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. diuretic. Fl. Allibija. :—Cultivated throughout India. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Hot and dry. blood and skin diseases. Halim . Chavnsar. often with linear segments . In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . COM. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger).—small. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. DISTR. and muscular pains. LOC. LOC. tonic. Asahio. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. aphrodisiac . Raktabija. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. white. very likely indigenous in W. Grains contain vitamins A and B. :—E. good in inflammations. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. cures dysentery .—Cruciferæ. affections of spleen. K. Leaves are used as pot-herb. tumours and injuries. They contain vitamin B. Ashalika. galactagogue.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). Suvasura. Halim. bronchitis. Kurutige. G. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Chandrika. upper sessile. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Asia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. leaves and seeds. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. bechic. CHAR. Hurfi. bronchitis. Seeds contain fatty oil. Sk. the lower petiolate. Chandrashura. Ahaliva. tonic. constipating. bitter. enrich blood. useful in diseases of chest. chest complaints. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. aperient. Garden cress . pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. See—Vegetables. :—An erect glabrous annual. good for pain in abdomen. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. rheumatism.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. Fr. eye diseases (Ayurveda). laxative. H. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. C—petals 2-4 or 0. PARTS USED :—Root. L.

Sedhavi. lenticellate. good for cough and kidney troubles. cure leprosy. Jivanika. bronchitis. Common flax. LOC. "Kapha". pale beneath. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. galactagogue. See—Oils. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. heal ulcers. bad for eyesight. Garbijaur. back-ache. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. dysentery.. Linseed. Tailottama.:—E. supported by the thickened pedicel. Common tallow laurel. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). leaves. Tisi. FAM. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Maidalakadi. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Seeds contain vitamin A. LOC.— globose. PARTS USED :—Bark.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. burnt bark styptic and healing. COM. :—Cultivated throughout India. hard to digest. native country probably Egypt. emmenagogue. Madagandha. boils.:—A small evergreen tree. branchlets densely tomentose. yellowish. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. inflammations. Country. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. M.. Alasi. CHAR. 7. seeds and oil. Alsi. colds and throat complaints. Alashi. urinary complaints. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. NS. LOC. diuretic.5 mm. Alashi. perianth lobes wanting. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. remove "Vata". elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. usually alternate. . Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). gouty and rheumatic swellings. M.—Linaceæ. aphrodisiac. Sk. Fl. Fr. bark somewhat corky. Kanara. L. Maidelakri. Haimwati. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. remove biliousness. urinary discharges . In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. K. NS. 8-12 together in heads. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. base narrowed. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Roasted seeds are astringent. M.—crowded at the ends of branches. causes loss of appetite. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. hot. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. FAM. "Pitta".:—Throughout the Konkan and N. t. lead to impotency. used in consumption. H.—May-July. Javas . tonic. Malina. H. flowers. Alshi. aphrodisiac . Fibres. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. Medini. :—E.—Lauraceæ. Seeds—mucilaginous. glossy dark-green above. Sk. diam. DISTR. Alsi. COM. black. Fl.

t. throat troubles. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. light green. Leaves are mucilaginous. Australia.—alternate. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. K. H. lanceolate. Dhaval. uterus. Fl. Katukoshataki. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . HABITAT :—Western Ghats. SK. Sthulanala. G. 2. hollow. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.2-3 m. Mrityupushpa. opening by 2 valves. long. Karvituri. Nal. Deccan and S. consumption.100 m. Narttaka. bronchitis. Nali. midrib white. spleen diseases. :—E. Jalini. heart. C—2-lipped. Country. nearly sessile. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Root—astringent. Malay Islands. Devnal. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. fever. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. bark. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. useful in biliousness. finely serrulate. fruits and seeds.—Cucurbitaceæ. heating. G. Bibhishana. Fl. tonic. CHAR. 3 usually connate throughout . biliousness. diseases of blood. burning sensation. diuretic.9 cm. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. overheated brains. Devanala. LOC. Ridge gourd. LOC. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. white. bitter. LOC. long. NS. expectorant. :—Konkan. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. lobes linear. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. "vata".—Lobeliaceæ. . much curved. :—E. H. Kahire.5-3. cure cough. M.—numerous. Ghontali.—. 1.—capsule. many. paralysis. pains in joints. Kalahogesoppu. leprosy (Ayurveda). M.—Nov. Ceylon. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. K. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. very small. aphrodisiac. AMARA Clarke. Fr.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. L. DISTR. thirst. Sd. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. erysipelas (Ayurveda). FAM. leaves. Kadudodka. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. lower much longer. strangury. stomachic. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. COM. Divali. aphrodisiac. Dhamana. COM. vagina. yellowish brown . subglobose. Narsala. branched upwards. all oblong. high. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts .-Mar. Kandele. Jhinga. Ranturai. galactagogue. Sk.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. stem stout. It acts as anodyne. useful in inflammations. aphrodisiac. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Wild tobacco. NS. FAM. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". acrid.

MADHUKA INDICA Gmel.) FAM. Root-bark is abortifacient. asthma. Hunage. LOC. Bengal to the W. useful in rat-bite. leucoderma. Sk. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). cough. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. hydrogogue. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Butter tree. leaves. tonic to intestines. piles. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. females. at length scabrid. base cordate. cathartic. W. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat).—petals yellow with green veins . Burma. M. piles. H. fruit and seeds. Moha.—Sept. Kanara (rare) . used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). cures "Vata". Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Bark. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. NS. Mhowra. C. Madhuka. Gudapushpa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Ceylon. acrid.—Sapotaceæ. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). inflammations.—monœcious. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. uterine and vaginal tumours . 10-ribbed. :—E. Madhusrava. USES. liver complaints. thrives in Deccan trap.—small. K. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. Mahuda. Madhya Pradesh. Mowa. . Fr. biliousness. LOC. cures urinary discharges. asthma. digestible. "Kapha". L. Fl. Doddippa. 5-7 lobed. diuretic. obtusely conical at both ends. bitter.53. LOC. recommended in splenic enlargement. jaundice.—obovoid. :—Plant is bitter. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. ascites. palmate. Mahula. tuberculous glands. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. 5-10 cm. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff).:—A large climber. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. tonic and diuretic. carminative. long and about 2. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. tumours. bronchitis. especially in western Peninsula. Fl.8 cm. Pokka. flowers and fruits. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. Mahura. at first whitish and softly villous. pale green. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages.. laxative. solitary in the same axil as males. Fruit cures fever. thick. COM. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. :—Throughout India. G. Mowda. bitter. alexiteric. anæmia.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. Mahua tree. stems 5-angled. also in Konkan and N. tendrils usually 3-fid. DISTR. Mahua. t. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery.

M. LOC. astringent. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. burning sensation. Kampillaka. carminative. See—Timbers. fixed oil and a spirit. and Upper Burma. Flowers—oleaginous. India . :—Konkan. Kamala. :—E. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. COM. fattening. Mahuva of S. cures biliousness. G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. aphrodisiac. Fruit-tonic . :—Western peninsula. M. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. DISTR. COM. Famine Plants. Oil—emollient (Yunani). cures blood diseases. used in fractures. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. Shendri. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. heals wounds . anthelmintic. Ippe. Sk. Kapila. Sk. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). and appetiser (Sushruta). HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests.—Sapotaceæ. flowers and oil. Movanuhjad. :—-E. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. and also a remedy for itch.) FAM. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. K. consumption. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Flowers are regarded as cooling.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. cooling. Oils. thirst. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. bronchitis. Huli. LOC. often planted. Mohache jhad.. Mysore. Ceylon. Liquors. causes "Kapha". rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Mohwa. There is a trace of alkaloid. leprosy. . and Kanara. galactagogue. Madhuka. G. yields two important products. Honey tree. tonic and nutritive. ulcers.—Euphorbiaceæ. Moha. See—Timbers. Kesarimavu. Flower—sweet. aphrodisiac. Monkey-face tree. H. NS. H. tonic. K. Karnatic. Kapila. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Hullichillu. FAM. flowers act as a mild purgative. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Mahuda. USES :—Astringent and emollient. Mehua. expectorant. good in heart diseases. NS. fatigue . Oils. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kambhal Raini. Kapilo. Movaro.

M. good in cough. wild and cultivated. Kanara. vaginal troubles. tonic to body. good in dysentery. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). cause flatulence and constipation. Malay Islands. throat troubles. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. Gum . LOC. Sind. DISTR. Ambo. it exudes a pink coloured gum. detergent. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. Amra. tumours. Amri. aphrodisiac. FAM. Fruit—heating. in "Tridosh". NS. carminative. Introduced. astringent to bowels. piles. fruits and seeds. appetiser. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. bronchitis. stone in bladder. liver pain. cure leucorrhoea. LOC. See—Timbers. Burma. :—Tropical Himalayas. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. cure "Vata". Seeds-astringent to bowels. good in heart trouble. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. stomachic. dysentery. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. China. useful in bronchitis. Am. PARTS USED :—Root. improves cough. Ghats and the Satpudas. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. useful in skin-diseases. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. liver. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). purgative. styptic. vomiting. leaves. hiccup. Ceylon. :—-Throughout the State. "Kapha". improves complexion. Bhutan. :—E. Bihar. Amba. fruits and seeds. Sikkim. vermifuge and. wounds. aphrodisiac. LOC. removes bad smell from mouth. heals ulcers. purgative. alexiteric. H. Dyes. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. sour. Chuta. cultivated throughout the State. improve taste and appetite. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). tonic. diseases of abdomen. anthelmintic. Australia. thirst. flowers. styptic. Mavu. Kamarasa. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. enriches blood. spleen. a good collyrium (Yunani). Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. cooling. used in chronic diarrhœa. K. diuretic. Rasala. Sk. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. DISTR. chronic dysentery and gleet.—Anacardiaceæ. Mango tree. ulcers. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Cuckoo's Joy. maturant. sweet. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. Astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. laxative. Khasia Hills. bad blood. "Pitta". dispels langour and burning of body. vulnerary. :—Throughout tropical India. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). Sahakara. urinary discharges. biliousness. beautifies complexion. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. G. anthelmintic. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. cooling. lessen intestinal pains. Mavin-mara. clears brain.

Dodi. asthma. green or yellowish green. Country. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. LOC. K. coma copious .3-15 X 4. Nimbaka. all plains districts of Madras State. COM. See—Timbers. NS.5 cm. piles. Madhumalati. aphrodisiac. :—Deccan and S. LOC. :—A large twining shrub. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. burning sensation. Limbada. fleshy. cooling. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. H. Nimla. Nim. flattened.—6.—Meliaceæ. . Fr. Kadulimb. :—Bengal. Kharkhodi. Juice of kernel. Java. leucoderma. tumours. Khandodi.—Apl. Hari. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Nakchhikni. K. CHAR. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. urinary discharges. biliousness. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Nimba. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Juss. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. older branches ash coloured. few glands above the petiole cordate . stops nasal bleeding. Nim or Margosa tree. M. useful in diseases of eye. COM. L. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. good for dyspepsia. Fruit Trees. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Dugdhike . Bevu.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. astringent to bowels. Fl. M. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Ripe fruit is laxative. NS. t. G. long.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. M. :—G. DISTR. antipyretic. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Sd. Ambri. margined. Paribhadraka. USES. alexiteric. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Ceylon. 7. corona lobes large. useful in bleeding piles.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant.—many. It is also anthelmintic. Nimba.5-11. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. overlapping to the right. pale yellowish brown.—broadly ovate. :—-E. inflammations. if snuffed. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Limbra. C..—follicles. Assam. H. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Balant nimba. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. with lenticels and black dots.) FAM. Harandori. Sk. cures "Vata".—Asclepiadaceæ. rugosely striate. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. rat-bite (Ayurveda).5-10 cm.—rotate with broad lobes. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Suparnika.) FAM. Fl. Sk. Hemajyoti-valli.

general debility. astringent. relieves "Kapha". FAM. for unhealthy ulcers. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. flowers. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. alexiteric. earache. good for leprosy. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). swollen glands. anthelmintic. Banmethi. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. The flowers are stimulant. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. cures ulcers and inflammations . in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. valuable in consumption. "pittadosh. Tonic. :—E. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. blood complaints. fruits and seeds. chronic leprosy. stomachic. maturant. Burma. fatigue. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . toothache. leucoderma. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). stimulant and stomachic. skin diseases. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. boils. Ranmethi. carminative. sprains. bad taste in the mouth. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. urinary discharges. DISTR. COM. thirst. PARTS USED :—Root. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. burning sensation near heart. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. useful in syphilitic sores. refrigerant. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . biliousness. good in ophthalmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. lessens inflammation. NS. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. maturant. Small melilot. insecticidal. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. tonic. asthma. it is a general vermifuge.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). tonic and antiperiodic. tumours. piles. fever." vomiting. H. bruises. Oils. lumbago. . The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. bark. LOC. expectorant. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. cough. Sk. antiperiodic. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. rheumatism . it is also used internally as anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. convalescence. pectoral. leprosy. leaves. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. LOC.. and loss of appetite. Vanmethika. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. resolvant. See—Timbers. M. piles.

oblong-ellipsoid. Iran. especially in strained back. Seeds in decoction are sudorific.—Cucurbitaceæ.—pod. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. Fl. Sd. Fl.—size of a pea. lobes dentate or serrate . young parts white-hairy. ellipsoid. :—H. Malaya and Africa. :—Western Peninsula. .—Labiatæ. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. introduced into many other regions. :—India (tropical zone). NS. north Bengal. Fr. :—Common in Deccan. S. Pudina. deltoid-ovate entire.—small. Fl.—3-foliate. Ghugri. Bilari. HABITAT :—In hedges. Country and Gujarat. high. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. L. glabrous or slightly hairy. male fascicled on short peduncles. rounded. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. glabrous. 30-45 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn.—variable in size. Europe. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Fr. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. tapering at both ends. "Sikkim. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. M. truncate at the apex. base cordate. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. females sessile. of terminal rather long. Khasia. at first green and variegated with yellow. CHAR. Ceylon.—pale yellow. Agamaki. G. FAM. M. K. DISTR. standard exceeding the wings and keel. t. LOC. slightly echinulate. H. stem angular. brown. LOC. very hispid . leaves and seeds. Afghanistan. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Externally used as a fomentation. Corn-March mint. :—E. scabrid. tendrils simple. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . also in S. FAM. oblanceolate. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—one. leaflets toothed.— Jany.. given as a gruel (Murray). :—An erect annual herb. in spicate close racemes. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Assam. poultice or plaster for swellings. L. finally red. M. COM. DISTR. C. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). COM. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. Chatinmaragu. Pudina.—monœcious . Pudinah.

sweats. Country. China. binding. H. Travancore. indigestion and cephalagia. K. :—Western Himalayas. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. stalked. Assam Iron-wood. Kanara. pains in joints (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. LOC. See—Timbers. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. and stimulant. E. M. infusion is given in fevers. Fr. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. The plant is used in chutneys. Suvarna. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. hiccup. Nagkesara. Naghas. oblong. :—E. Nagchapha. Himalayas. expectorant. :—A perennial erect herb . Nagakeshara. used for cough. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. Gums and Resins. Konkan and N. cardiotonic. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. useful in liver and spleen diseases. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Nagkesara. vomiting. headache. Nagkinjalka. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Assam. Bengal. NS. Nagsampige. :—E. lilac. LOC. S. none at the top. FAM. lined with hairs and hairy outside. cough. Europe. tonic to kidneys . smooth. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. ovate. Ceylon. emmenagogue. Sk. good in asthma and sweats. diuretic. USES :—Root. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). C. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. Carminative. the upper similar and large. .-narrowed below. leaves. biliousness. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Ceylon Iron-wood. stem short. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. M. Andamans. dry. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Burma Tenasserim. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. North and West Asia.—nutlets dry. blood and heart troubles. In N. toothed. PARTS USED :—Bark. hairy.—Guttiferæ. sorethroat. foul breath. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). small tumours. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. L. lanceolate. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests.—in axillary distant whorls. asthma. LOC. thirst. good for fevers. flowers and fruits. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. MESUA FERREA Linn. DISTR. Kashmir. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Fl. Oils. digestive. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. LOC. skin diseases. COM.

See—Timbers. Champaka. good in leprosy.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Fl. digitate. high. remove biliousness. Ghats. Sampige. glabrous above. Sk. evergreen rain-forest of N. DISTR. useful in cough. Champaka. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Bark is aromatic febrifuge. COM. CHAR. S. near temples and in gardens. L. Flowers-stomachic. :—A diffuse under-shrub. Hem-pushpa. COM. stimulant. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. :—Cultivated all over the State. in vertigo. aphrodisiac.5 cm.—bipin-nate. destroys poisons. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. diuretic. cultivated. hairy beneath. H. :—E. Sone-chapha. Humble plant. diuretic.-Oct. M. bile. Champaka. Risemani. leaflets 15-20 pairs. ophthalmia. t. in globose heads. Lajari. PARTS USED :—Root.—4-merous. NS. gout. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. it is given with honey to relieve colic. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). removes worms. Nachike-gidda. Sankochini. rheumatism. Lajalu. Vanamallika. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet.. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Assam. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. also used as purgative. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. :—E. Surabhi. K. rachis bristly. clothed with glandular hairs .—Magnoliaceæ. Burma. IndoChina. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Raktamula. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Fruit. Lajalu. facilitates micturition. Sonchampo. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. leaves. G. rheumatism. sensative. LOC. pink. Suvarna champaka. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Sk. Lajjika. Golden champa. K. "Vata". acrid.-pod flat. Fl. Sensitive plant. Champa. FAM. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Muthmurika. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. pinnae 1-2 pairs. 57. Flowers— expectorant. H. Lajja. . Champo. M. LOC. long. Yellow champa . blood affections. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Sparshalajja. 45-90 cm. India. "Kapha". bark. petioles hairy. slightly recurved. nausea and fevers . diaphoretic. Fr. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Pilochampo. Yunnan. Lajjavati. Dyes.. stems and branches sparingly prickly. W.—Sept. Pivala chapha. Kanara. FAM. NS. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. G. flowers and fruits. Lajalu. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas .

M. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. NS. teeth and gum diseases. Bark cardiotonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. :—G. alterative. Mukul. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. bark. COM. Fruit causes flatulence. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Bakul. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. Kalhala. :—Naturalised throughout India. Ranjal. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. Seeds fix loose teeth. H. vaginal and uterine complaints. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. probably a native of tropical America. flowers and fruits acrid. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. burning sensation.:—Western Peninsula. See—Ornamental Plants. In Brazil root is used as emetic. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Bakul. cures biliousness. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). stomachic. cooling. in piles and fistula. piles. oleaginous. acrid. Vovali. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). fatigue. Anangaka. Juice is applied externally. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. DISTR. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. cures "Kapha". asthma. ulcers. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. headache. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. vulnerary. sweet. DISTR. Kanara. useful in blood and bile diseases. often planted in gardens. good for gonorrhœa. astringent to bowels. jaundice. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Mulsari. leprosy. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Root is resolvent. cooling. cure blood diseases. FAM. bilious fevers. LOC. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Bolsari. Flowers—expectorant. Sk. smallpox (Yunani). cultivated in gardens in pots. flowers. blood diseases (Ayurveda). nose diseases. Ceylon. alexipharmic. Flowers give taste. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Mugule. Root. LOC. Varsuli. Sharadika. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. biliousness. fruits and seeds. liver complaints. Kanara and Konkan. Bakul. anthelmintic. alexipharmic. It is also resolvent and alterative. leprosy. LOC. Baphuli. Bakula. cure biliousness. cultivated in the tropics. K. Borsalli.—Sapotaceæ.

—Cucurbitaceæ. Karavalli. Karala. HABITAT -Cultivated. each one surrounded by an involucre. H. native of tropical America. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation.—membranous.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. FAM. :—Grown throughout India. NS. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Fruit Trees. L. M. 30-75 cm. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Hagala. it is applied to relieve headache. Krishnakali. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Oils. K. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. G. K. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. Karela. LOC.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. Karli. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. brightly coloured (dark crimson. and rather fleshy stems . Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Karela. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. DISTR. Fl. Marvel of Peru. yellow. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. It is also tonic and febrifuge. white or crimson striped with white yellow) .—E. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. cordate. LOC. Fr. COM. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. Kandura. Carella fruit. Hagalkai. FAM. Sandhya-kali or Raga. COM. Karelo. lessen inflammations (Yunani).—Nyctaginaceæ. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium.—large. . Kareli. t. Fl. Guleaabbas . often ribbed or rugose. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Four o'clock plant. H. :—E. Leaves are maturant. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. good for syphilitic sores. Gulbasa . it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. :—A herbaceous plant. M. blackish. Sk. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.—continually in bloom. NS.

—Cucurbitaceæ. H. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. rheumatism. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. LOC. Country and Gujarat. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. laxative and authelmintic. stomachic. ulcers. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. LOC. eye and heart. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanta. Golkandra. etc. boils. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. also in Malaya. antipyretic. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. tonic. Karehiballi. all kinds of poisoning. urinary calculi. used in syphilis. Ceylon. :—G. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. and externally in ague as an absorbent. burns. hiccup. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. . blood diseases. antibilious. stomachic. Nagarali. Fruit—bitter. Kartoli. hot alexiteric. laxative. aphrodisiac. stomachic. and America. Fruit is tonic. Sk. anthelmintic. Gid-hagalu. M. anæmia. COM. Kantoli. Vishakankini. PARTS USED :—Root. tumours. See—Vegetables. sparingly in Konkan. leprosy. :—Throughout India. Plant cures diseases of blood. DISTR. anthelmintic. bronchitis. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. cure "Tridosh". Vandhya. Fruit— bitter. Beksa. NS. excessive salivation. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . It is useful in gout. leaves and fruit. carminative. jaundice etc. digestible. bronchitis. Karkotaki. hearttroubles. urinary discharges. Leaves—aphrodisiac. China. S. Kantolan. Fruit—very bitter. fever consumption. urinary discharges. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). tropical Africa. :—Cultivated throughout India. cooling. LOC. anthelmintic. piles. lessens expectoration . "Kapha". Leaves act as galactagogue. cure "Vata". USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. K. rheumatism. FAM. appetiser. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. longpepper. diseases of spleen and liver. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. erysipelas (Ayurveda). B and C. asthma. asthma. Fruits contain vitamins A.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. M. DISTR. laxative. cures biliousness. leaves and fruit. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard.'.

fruits and seeds. Segua. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). K. Haladipavate. analgesic. aphrodisiac. Aal. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Ak. dyspepsia. eye diseases. Burma. stuttering. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Seglo. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Root. also in the Oudh forests. Sajina. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. DISTR. alexiteric. :—E. Tikshnamula. flowers. COM.—Moringaceæ. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Mochaka. Ashyuka. leaves. anthelmintic. Achi. Guggala. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. causes burning sensation. emmenagogue. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. spleen enlargement. Formosa. H. :—E. LOC. Ab. leaves and fruits. useful in heart-complaints. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Drum-stick Tree. Ainshi. Ugra. all "tridosha" fevers. NS. also wild. Sk. Indian horse radish . fattening. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. NS. tuberculous glands in neck. Tagase . Saraoji. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. DISTR. Root-tonic to body and lungs. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Famine Plants. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. K. digestible. Rochana. improves appetite. Nuggi. LOC. G. tumours. removes all kinds of pains. FAM. Al. H.—Rubiaceæ. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Indian mulberry. Introduced var. "Vata". earache. Mochaka. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. M. Achchuka. Shevaga. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Bartondi. Murangi. M. Mulgule. inflammations. ulcers. biliousness . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Dyes. Munigha. FAM. astringent to bowels. makes blood impure . G. Sargavo. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. Sk. bark. See—Vegetables. cultivated throughout India and Burma. "Kapha". China. PARTS USED :—Root. . quite near the sea and certainly indigenous.

Seeds yield a fixed oil. diuretic. Madhu pippali. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". increases biliousness. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. K. diuretic. urinary discharges. appetiser. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. good for inflammations of throat and chest. White mulberry. Kambali. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Tuda. PARTS USED :—Root. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. expectorant. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. salt and pepper. bark. sour. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. good for brain. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. loss of appetite. cooling. wounds. Fibres. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . :—E. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. Root is purgative. G. with garlic. turmeric. Siahtut. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. lumbago. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. MORUS INDICA Linn. common about villages in N. bronchitis. Leaf paste. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. Peninsula. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. aphrodisiac. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). H. Tuta. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. DISTR. stomatitis. laxative. enriches blood. Shetur. obstinate asthma. LOC. internal inflammations and calculous affections. enriches blood. piles. Tut. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. cures gleet. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid. carminative. anthelmintic. Tutri. M. Fruits contain vitamins A. fattening. See—Vegetables. Tut. Karihannu. heart. diarrhœa. enlarged spleen or liver. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. . Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. Kanara. Ambat. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. sweetish. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. B and C. useful in small-pox. rheumatism. Oils. gout. ulcerated intestines. Sk. Gums and Resins. See—Fruit Trees. biliousness. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. FAM. COM. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. epilepsy and hysteria. Fruit—tonic. aromatic and acid flavour. spleen.—Moraceæ. LOC. expectorant. lumbago. it is cooling laxative. burning sensation (Ayurveda). leaves and fruit. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms.

K. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. FAM. Ceylon. Adam's Fig.—pod. lateral very unequal sided. LOC. H. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. H. Kadvare. Urustambha. Banana. t. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge.—Oct-Nov. Kuhili. Fruit— aphrodisiac. 6-30 flowered. Goncha. sometimes cultivated. LOC. terminal smaller. DISTR.. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. M. tonic. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State.2 cm. :—Punjab plains. pods and seeds. leaves. G. long. Rambha. CHAR. stem.—3-foliate. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Humid areas . Tikshna. . spermatorrhoea etc.—5-6 small. Himalaya up to 1200 m. " Vata ". NS. 5-7. :—E. MUSA PARADISIACA L. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Maoz kela. :—E. Root useful for delirium in fevers. K. Fl. Kavach.—Scitaminaceæ. SAPIENTUM O. Vanari. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. consumption. Kela..3-11. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Seeds— alexipharmic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). turgid-shaped. silky. Plantain. Strong root infusion.) FAM. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. biliousness . Sd. NS. Fr.5x1. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. L.3 cm. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Fl. Dirghapatra. covered with tawny stinging hairs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Kunth. grey-silky beneath. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Turashi. Atmagupta. dark-purple. Root—emmenagogue.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. flowers and fruit. leaflets membranous. Kadali. Var. Kivanchha. cures blood diseases. DISTR. which produce intensa irritation of skin. petioles 6.—in drooping racemes. Sk. juice given for headache. cultivated. Kela. with honey is given in cholera. tonic. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. HABITAT :—In hedges. common in hedges. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . They are used as anthelmintic. improves blood. Cowhage. Kivanch. Sk. COM. Havanch. LOC. Nayi songuballi. Kapikachu. PARTS USED :—Root. M. Kela. Hasaguni. Kavatch. :—An annual twiner. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Bale. G. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. COM. laxative.

very hairy outside. aphrodisiac. Sk. DISTR. Burnt stem is vulnerary. blood diseases. LOC. hairy. PROPERTIES AND LOC. lobes broadly ovate. menstrual disorders. :—S. in " Vata". Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. deep golden yellow. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. anthelmintic. tonic. leprosy. appetiser. FAM. strangury. pubescent. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. CHAR. in thirst. broad at base. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. good for dry bronchitis. Lawsat. tonic. flowers and fruit. leaves. dyspepsia. :—Konkan and N. Fl. Bellotti. B and C. astringent to bowels. Bhutakes. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. buds densely hairy. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. aphrodisiac. PARTS USES :—Root. Assam. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . thickens blood. diabetes. broadly elliptic. NS. Kanara. Fibres. useful in "Kapha". fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. linear. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. diseases of uterus and vagina. kidney troubles (Yunani). Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. sore-throat. Root-juice is anthelmintic. K. stipules twin. LOC. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. Tropical Himalayas. increases appetite. and are used in acidity. biliousness. :—A rambling shrub. COM. causes bronchitis . Nagavalli. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice.—tubular. C. Bedina. :—H. Hastygida. tube slender. L. improves complexion (Ayurveda).— berry. Root-juice. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. consumption and bronchitis. t. heart-burn and colic. Fr. Andamans.. antidysenteric. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. Fruit—sweet. See—Fruit Trees.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Shrivalli.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation.—Rubiaceæ. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. subglobose. Fl. M.— July-Oct. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Serwadh. indigestible .--in terminal cymes. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. urinary discharges. ear-pain. Ipparati. . USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. astringent to bowels.

Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. ovate to lanceolate. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Myrtle.— Myristicaceæ. PARTS USED:—Seeds. allaying pain. Fl. Murad. M. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. It is used as a substitute for true mace. Kamuka.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. intermittent fevers and dropsy. Fr. Malati. emmenagogue. applied locally to relieve pain. It is credited with opposite qualities. FAM. A decoction is employed. Himalayas. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. L. COM. all over the State. especially epilepsy. Dioscorides. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Pliny. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—berry. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Malabar. LOC. M. diuretic. K. NS.—small. PARTS USED :—Leaves. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. CHAR. LOC. Condiments and Spices.— solitary. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). used in stopping vomiting. They are given in asthma. DISTR. fruits and oil. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. is regarded as. enriches blood. H. Sk. :—A shrub. Ram-patri. Galen and the Arabian writers. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which.—Myrtaceæ. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. smoke beneficial to piles. white. COM. Kaiphal. cures headache. LOC. :—E. axillary on slender peduncles. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. as . common in the Kumta taluka. Malati. :— E. W. :—Western Peninsula. False nutmeg. black when ripe. NS. small. Kanara Ghats . very sweet smelling. Kanage. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. ellipsoid. :—Konkan and N. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. promotes growth of hair. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. Vilayantimendhi. FAM. DISTR. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Habules.

Amlavalli. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Kandabahula. ovoidglobose. Papra-vel. 10-25 cm.) FAM. CHAR. H. Chinese water-lily. . hæmorrhage. ovoid. petals 5.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant.6 m. Fl. radiately nerved. C. Ripe carpels. G. with slender. axillary. 3-foliate.—white. NS.3-0. M. FAM. t. Kandalu. top flat. Pundarika. curved. alexiteric. white or rosy. entire. elliptic. stem. leaves. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. 3-valved. :—A small branching undershrub.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. muricate.-Nov. linear spathulate.—membranous. Kamala. rough with distant prickles . Ambuja. See—Ornamental Plants. biliousness. CHAR. Fr. cures asthma. Kapurbhendi.—pendulous. PARTS USED :—Root. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. DISTR. torus 18 mm. t.. L.—solitary. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. :—A large aquatic herb. glabrous. disk annular. Padam. Sd. Timpani.—petals many 5-12. Kanara. M. NS. from Iran eastwards to Australia. high. LOC. :—Konkan. solitary or 2 together. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. Goanese ipecacuanha. COM. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India.—July. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. :—E. Belakanji. :—E. vulnerary. spongy. LOC. K. 0.5 cm. Kamal. petioles very long. Nelanaringa .—Nymphæaceæ. free.—capsule. Pitmari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. Kamal. in diam. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness.—Meliaceæ. & A. concave or cupped. Indian sacred lotus. Padma. Suriyakamal. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Fl. peltate. cells 2-seeded. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. orbicular. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Tavari-bija or gadde. dysentery. Fl. Sk. K. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. fleshy. petiole winged. Aravinda. erect. ulcers (Ayurveda). L. anthers with clavate appendages. Kamal. Sk.—alternate. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. LOC. bronchitis. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Sarasija. elongate. COM. long. DISTR. :—W.. Ambuj. diam. Fl.-Dec. Pankaja. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin.

They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Salt Range. t. rigid. See—Ornamental Plants. Cool. allays thirst. also cholera.—Apocynaceæ. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). heart and brain tonic . HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. fever. Sweet scented oleander. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. flowers. DISTR. also recommended as cardiac tonic. Karvira. linear-lanceolate. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. bleeding piles and menorrhagia.—red. Kaner. fragrant. useful in burning sensation of the body. gives tone to breast. Kanagile. tapering into short petiole. In China and Malaya dried red petals. Upper Gangetic Plains. ulcers and sores of mouth. good in throat-troubles. C.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. improves watery eyes (Yunani). Ashwa-marak. chest-pains. India. LOC. Paddali. Vishavrikshanka. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. useful in fevers . Sind. Cool.—funnel-shaped. allays thirst. coriaceous. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. fruit. at length separating. Fl. NS. Waziristan. 15-23 cm. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . M.—follicles. strangury. flowers. planted in gardens throughout the State. . stem. :—E. Kanher. L. astringent to taste . used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Karber. long. inflammations and poisoning. throat scaly. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. cures cough. Fr. diseases of skin and eye . Filaments are astringent and cooling. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Fl. menorrhagia. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. small-pox. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . long. leaves. rose or white. S. Kaner. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. FAM. Pratihasa. diuretic. CHAR. 10-15 cm. good in blood-complaints. Baluchistan. seeds. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . aphrodisiac.—in threes. PARTS USED :—Root. lobes rounded. Sd. slightly bitter. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". Karvira. useful in piles. leucoderma.—flowers more or less throughout the year. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. LOC. biliousness. K. dark green and shining above. Sk. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. :—Madhya Bharat. removes worms. honey. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. H. spermatorrhoea. in fever and liverdiseases.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Kanel. leaves. also as a hedge plant. G. COM.

Dhumrapatrika. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). LOC. base wedgeshaped . Sk. bronchitis. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. Tabak. funnel-shaped. DISTR. good for lumbago. LOC. the surface is plain or bullate. carminative. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). Fl. C. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts).8 cm. across. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. useful in bronchitis. large (especially lower ones). disinfectant. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). CHAR.—alternate. smoke constipating. Hoge soppu. Kalanja. asthma. FAM. scabies (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Tamakhu. M. Bujjarbhang. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. skin diseases.—in open corymbose panicles . Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. tubercular glands of neck. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). Tamaku.—capsule. Fr. G. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. Root—aphrodisiac. :—E. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. tonic. Krimighni. Poisonous to fish. An ointment made . HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Solanaceæ. H. water from hookha is diuretic. oblong or elliptic. K. inflammations. NS. are poisonous and are used externally. Tobacco. USES :—All parts of plant. LOC. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. See—Ornamental Plants. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. lobes spreading. M. inflammations. anthelmintic. emetic. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. conical. especially root. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. also applied in leprosy. COM.—pink or white. Tambakhu. caries of teeth. useful in caries of teeth. headache. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. tonic. L. sedative and emetic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. about 1. Tamarakuthika. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. Tambak. very poisonous. scabies. foul nose. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. The plant contains a glucoside. :—Native of America. dimness of sight. a mental stimulant. laxative. wounds. cultivated in all tropical countries. Flowers— aphrodisiac. sores. nervous depression and sleeplessness.

rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. K. Kanwal. obcordate or merely orbicular. M. flowers and seeds. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. NS.—Oleaceæ. scalp affections etc. hairy. compressed. southwards to the Godavari. young branches quadrangular. densely pubescent beneath. Sk. . Madhya Bharat. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). peduncles 4angled. Harsing.. a decoction of root. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in bilious fevers. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Prajakta. :—E. See—Ornamental Plants. Har. Alipriya. :—A large shrub or a small tree. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. CHAR. Kumuda. bark. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Parijata . Nilophhal.— more or less throughout the year. L. G. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. It is used with honey in chronic fever.— fragrant. H. Indian Mourner : G. DISTR. C. Lotus. Parijataka. tonic to hair. COM. bark. Lalkamal. Burma. tube orange-coloured. carminative. ovate acute. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels .3 cm. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. rough above with bulbous hairs. Fr. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Buds are tonic. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. Nyadale huvu . Jayaparvati. FAM. t. Kharapatraka. Assam. Har-singhar. Aravind. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. LOC. Shonapadma. stomachic. Cultivated in many parts of India.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. solitary.—opposite 5-10x2.—lobes white. Kanval. Fl. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia.—capsule. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . HABITAT :-Cultivated. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Bengal. axillary. Sephalika. in terminal trichotomous cymes. :—E. Bilitavarai. cures fevers. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Sephali. (Ayurveda).5-6. leaves. LOC. Prajakta. Fl. Sk. COM. K. Nalkumkuma. lessen inflammation. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Bark cures bronchitis. astringent-to bowels. Chotakanwal. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. abundant July-Sept. NS. Parijata. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy.) FAM. 2-celled. H.—Nymphæaceæ. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn.

—solitary.5-20 cm. removes impurities from blood . biliousness. improves taste . causes burning sensation. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. globose. and nigropunctate above. leaves and flower. Fl. Ceylon. M. long. Barbar. hot taste. "Vata". diameter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. Plant has a sharp. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Sajjebija. pink or purplish. L. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. diuretic. L. ripening beneath the water. itch. Sd.—2-lipped. fleshy. asthma. CHAR. "Vata". Barbar. red. diam. bitter. FAM. K. useful in diseases of heart and brain. rough. high. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. 7. leaves. Tukhamariya . Sabzah. G.—ovate. obtuse. bitter taste. Damaro. NS. Var. chronic pain in joints. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). cooling . juice gives lustre to . pale rose or white. antipyretic . :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). deeply cordate at the base. cultivated throughout the greater part of India.—peltate. bracts stalked. Common sweet basil. Surasa. open in the morning only. useful in diseases of heart and blood. Sabja. flowers and seeds. green. Philippines.—petals about 12. Fr. See—Ornamental Plants. across.—all the year. Burma.—3 cm. Surabhi.6-0. C. long. "Kapha".—Labiatæ. PARTS USED :—Roots. diarrhœa and piles . enlarged spleen. roundish. LOC. oblong. erect. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. emmenagogue. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. short. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. Fl. Rihan. Sk. t. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. lessens bile. COM. febrifuge. :—An erect herb 0. stamens about 40. Tungi. Fl. Africa.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. aphrodisiac . Fr. white. Hungary. peduncles very long . thyrsiflora. inflammations. Ajagandhika. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). :—Var. Java. purple stem. stomachic. ellipsoid. C. petioles very long. black and pitted. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. :—Large aquatic herb . acute. alexipharmic. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. stems and branches green or purplish. glabrous. submerged . glabrous or pubescent. 15-25 cm. Manjarki.— ovoid. :—E.— in whorled racemes . Ramkasturi. Nasabo. Bahari. toothed or lobed. Sabja. cylindric.9 m. LOC. DISTR. leucoderma. LOC. 8-13 mm. H. filaments dilated at the base . allays thirst. " Kapha". root stock tuberous.—nutlets about 2 mm. entire. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia.. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. irregularly sinuate-dentate.

Deccan. COM. Lemon—shrubby basil. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. :—E. NS. good for griping and piles (Yunani). . lower lip longer.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye.8—5. they are also aphrodisiac. DISTR. t.-July-Oct. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. 1. Gujarat. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. useful in diseases of brain. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. S. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. Fl. It is also styptic. high. headache. rugose. " Kapha". rachis quadrangular . Country. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. M. Sk. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. LOC. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). H. useful in vomiting. gland-dotted.—Labiatæ. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. FAM. pale greenish yellow. stems and branches subquadrangular . aphrodisiac . young ones pubescent. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. elliptic-lanceolate. removes foul breath. heart.5 X 3. strengthens gums. Fr. G.—2-lipped. CHAR. good for toothache. L. in close whorls .3—12. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. :—A perennial shrub. Rama-Ran tulasi.—nutlets subglobose. Sumukha. Avachi-bavachi. Large basil. LOC. M. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). carminative. diuretic and stimulant. The flowers possess. inflammations. During fever when the extremities are cold. :—Throughout India. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. Fl. stimulant. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. alexiteric. brown. heating. woody below .— in simple or branched racemes. diuretic and demulcent properties. Java.7 cm. C. Ram Tulasi. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. often cultivated : Ceylon. pubescent.8 m. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Rantulasi. :—Konkan. Plant has bitter. fits. coarsely crenate-serrate. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. LOC. BanMal tulasi. sharp taste . Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup.—6. strangury . earache. liver and spleen.2—1. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. skin diseases.. branched. Ajaka. " Vata".

CHAR.—Labiatæ. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. upper lip pubescent on the back. usually 2-3 cm. West Asia. pubescent. and are given with honey. :—An annual plant. varying from 7. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—on filiform pedicels. G. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. hiccup.2 cm. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. COM.—2-lipped. NS. yellow with black marking. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Tropical E.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Sk. high. M. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Pavitra. stomachic. Parpat. bronchitis. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . of children and in hepatic affections . Tulasa.. DISTR. CHAR. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. LOC. t.—Sept-Nov. . smooth. HABIT :—A common weed. globose or pyriform . cholagogue. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. COM. heating. painful eye. anthelmintic. FAM. L. C. Fl. " Kapha". Damanpaper.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn.— capsule. DISTR.— nutlets. LOC. long in close whorls . used in catarrh and bronchitis .—2. margins recurved and scabrous. lobes acute. :—An annual herb.6— 3. Deccan and S. stipules with bristles .5-5 X 1. antipyretic. H. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. asthma. strangury. Papli. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. FAM. Tulasi.:—E. Tulasi. Country. Malay Archipelago. stems numerous. :—Konkan. H. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). K. M. NS. linear or linear-lanceolate. Sd. :—Throughout India. " Vata". USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. Phapti. Vranda. bitter. Tulasi.—Rubiaceæ. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. lumbago pains. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Fl. :—G. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . elliptic-oblong. M. especially in children. purplish. Vrinda. foul smells. Parapate. angular. L. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. stems and branches subquadrangular. Ceylon. long. LOC. Krishna tulasi.5—38 cm. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. leucoderma. Suravallari. leaves and seeds. See—Sacred Plants. clothed with soft hairs . entire or serrate.—pale brown. vomiting. purulent discharge of ear. Asia to Java and the Philippines. obtuse or acute. high. Fr. useful in heart and blood diseases. 30-60 cm. purplish. Fr. Manjari.—subsessile. Australia. Vishnuvallabha. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. Arabia. alexiteric. minutely gland-dotted. Kala tulasi.

leucoderma. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). angular or warty. juice cures earache (Yunani). Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. Chorhothalo. tumours. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. rather thin. anæmia.— berry. Nagaphana. reddish at the tips. recurved. Snuka. Joints variable in size. DISTR. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. purgative. subulate. G. . or more high. spleen enlargement. " Vata".—7. Slipper thorn. carminative. LOC. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Fr. long. liver complaints. digestive. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. xerophyte. Nagadru. stomachic. rusty brown. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. urinary complaints. cures biliousness. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. inner spathulate. :—E. Sk. FAM. LOC. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough.5 mm. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. obovate or elliptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. diuretic. yellow at the edges. used in ophthalmia. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. Zhoratheylo. largest 3. COM. lumbago. long. inflammations. flowers and fruits. Plant bitter. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. K. yellow or orange. loss of consciousness. carminative. ascites. introduced into India. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico.—5 cm. reddish purple when ripe. CHAR. cures inflammations. NS. perianth rotate. Nagdali. Plant juice—heating. L. H. Phadyanivdung. across. pyriform. Hathathoria. M. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . it is also used in liver complaints. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). Nagaphani. 3 m. vesicular calculi. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever.5 cm. Sher. burning. Nagaphana. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. laxative. Prickly pear. Vajrakantaka. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. Grown as hedge. antipyretic.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. piles. good for leucoderma.—Cactaceæ. Mullugalli. alexiteric. spleen enlargement. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. dull bluish-green. ulcers. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. cures bronchitis in children. Fl.

ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Vrihi. bronchitis. cooling. Tuntaka. :—E. good in heart and throat diseases. Mokka. :—The Konkan and the N. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Seeds are purgative. :—Widely cultivated. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Araluka. aphrodisiac. :—E. Mayarjangha. biliousness. G. useful in biliousness . PARTS USED :—Grain. stomachic. Sk. Pharri. Ghats. Fruit—acrid. Arlu. G. LOC. vomiting. DISTR. oleaginous. Shyonaka. inflammations. intestinal worms.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Tetu. fevers. improves appetite. anal troubles. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. H. K. Alangi. Chaval. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. LOC.). Dirghavrinta. sweet. FAM. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Shali. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Rice . Tans. FAM. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Podval. M. Sk. dysentery. Fruit—expectorant. useful in " Vata". USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Cochin-China. Ullu. leucoderma. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. H. DISTR. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). See—Timbers. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. COM. M. It is astringent and tonic. Kanara ghats . OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Ava. Chokha. R. NS. COM. bronchitis (Ayurveda). M. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Nivara. Bhat. diuretic. Bagi. LOC. tonic. improves taste. appetiser. K. Tandula. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. fattening. K. Akki.—Bignoniaceæ. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. Tetu. Dyes. tonic. Malaya. Tetu. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. astringent to bowels . NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K.S. LOC. asthma. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Indian trumpet flower.—Gramineæ. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Tandula. Rice. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area.

5 cm. used externally. Chukrita. easy to digest. inflamed piles. removes " Kapha ". sub-umbellate . Sk. C. stems rooting. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Amrul. CHAR. ovoid. L. good appetiser . In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Ceylon. bowels or kidneys. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. COM. Fl. :—A small procumbent acrid herb .2—2.— capsule. NS. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . gives great relief. Dudhani. Amlalonika. In dysentery.— many. Dudhialata. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . small-pox. Changeri. M. H. Marudbhava. boils. buboes. Ambastha. K. Fl. leaflets 1. :—Throughout the State.—petals 5. cures dysentery. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. brown. FAM.—Oxalidaceæ. Br. :—E. pubescent. base cuneate subsessile. t. :—G. dysentery and scurvy. Kyirin . See—Food Plants.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. scarlet fever. K. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens.—Asclepiadaceæ. oblong. Dugdhica. Dugdhika. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). astringent. Shuklika. Rice water. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. to which a little lemon juice is added. Sd. M. also in burns and scalds. LOC. DISTR. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. margins ciliate. diarrhœa. long. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn.—palmately 3-foliate. Kshiravi. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. " Vata " and piles. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. Dudhialata. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers.—axillary. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. ulcers. bruised. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. transversely striate. Jaladudhi. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. It is a pleasant. FAM. beaked. It is an excellent application to abscesses. H. yellow. petioles very slender. . NS. Fr. PARTS USED :—Leaves. 5-angled. Sk. if applied to chest. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. Indian Sorrel. rounded at the apex. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Ambuti. Dugdhike. obcordate. linear-oblong. Dudhari. The grains contain vitamin C.— Oct-May. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. COM. measles. Dudhatani.

Kanara. pain in the muscles. Kedige. leucoderma. root. 3.—dioecious. milky juice. Country— Belgaum. M. PARTS USED :—Plant. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. diseases of heart and brain.9—1. Ketaka. L. mouth with pubescent ring. Fl. HABITAT :—Usually near water. expectorant. Kewoda. Poona Sangam. 0. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Leaves are useful in leprosy. cough. often planted. thin. Gogandhul. laxative. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). rarely erect. coriaceous ensiform. Dhulipushpika. with flavour. Screw pine.— large. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. DISTR. Fr. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Deccan. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties.—Dec. fruit and oil from bracts.—deciduous. somniferous. stem supported by aerial roots . dry. female flower spadix solitary. leaves. tonic.—Pandanaceæ. Sk. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". LOC. .3 cm. strikingly handsome. Burma. Ketgi. anthers. pain. lobes ciliate. Keora. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda).5 m. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :-Root. Flowers improve complexion. useful in strangury and tumours. syphilis. :—A shrub up to 6 m. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. purple veined. much branched. Fl. high. G. small-pox. anthelmintic. COM. gonorrhœa. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Fruit—tonic. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. fruit. " Kapha ". H. Mundige. anthelmintic.8 mm. bitter. DISTR. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. LOC. M.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. Ceylon.—follicles. Gandha-pushpa. Andamans. black. CHAR. diuretic. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. FAM. Kanara. pale rose or white. Anthers useful in pruritus.—oblong or globose. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch.8-6. indigestible. L. corona staminal. Fr. Sd. C. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. linear or linear-lanceolate. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. long. Giripriya. Chama-pushpa. aphrodisiac. scabies. Fl. coma present. Kevada. long. heat of body. yellow or red. 4. S.5-9 cm. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. X 3. t. :—Konkan. causes flatulence. :—Konkan and N. Ketaki. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Umbrella Tree. palegreen. Sundarbans. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . LOC. juice is used in gleet. Java. stems many.—very numerous. :—E. K.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb.—glaucous green. margins and midrib spiny.

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

dysentery. :—Annual or perennial. NS.—in sub-capitate. Kolaba and Kanara. blood diseases. astringent. headache. Kohesaru. Boichand. Tadi. Seeds— tonic. Kashayi. DISTR. Abyssinia. Indian wine palm. Ahmedabad. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. nose complaints. Shindi. " Kapha". laxative. Kherk. long. long. dry. Kalli-chalu. H.—3-foliate. See—Food Plants. as a kharif crop. LOC. cure biliousness. biliousness. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. FAM. good for the eyes .5 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—Palmæ. Vanmudga. gout. Fl. :—Largely grown in. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder.3—2. petioles grooved. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. bitter. membranous. :—G. Deccan and Gujarat. thirst. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). good for eyes. yellow. styptic. throat inflammations. Afghanistan. LOC. Kharjuri. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Fr. Kallu. eye troubles. cures consumption. Satara. bronchitis. prostrate. K. :—E. Fl. digestible. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Ranmug. wiry. L. Sendhi. Khaji. LOC. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). layer. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. mugawana. good in fevers. Kapila. piles. Adabanmagi. NS. light and astringent.—Oct. Khandesh. Belgaum. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. t. Adavada. Sk. leaflets 1. enrich blood. Sd. Trianguli.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. K.5—5 cm. wild date palm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. long. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. PARTS USED :—Seeds. antipyretic. and southwards to Ceylon. peduncles 10-23 cm. Kurangika. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. aphrodisiac. Siyindu. LOC. Sind. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Ahmednagar. Swadi.:—Very common throughout the State. G.— pod. few flowered racemes. 2. Dharwar. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. anthelmintic. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. astringent to bowels. Kharjurika. Kajuri. cough. Kidney diseases. . The grains contain vitamins A and B. COM. Date sugar palm. CHAR. M. Malay Islands. Khajuri. Sk. broadly spathulate. burning sensation. Ranmath. straight subcylindric. Koshila. Ichela-mara. inflammations. Konkan. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. " Tridosh". Shimbiparni. COM. Burma.—6-12. Magavala. Mugani. H. M. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. slightly recurved. DISTR. glabrous or hairy.

Sd.—2. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. Ceylon. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. long. Fr.—Fibres. . Ratuliyo. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice.2 cm. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). rigid. sharply serrate in upper part. Jalpippali.5 m. Coromandel Coast. Vashira. DISTR. Fl. Siwalik. :—Tolerably common throughout India. much branched. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. rounded at the apex. Agnijwala. cooling. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. outer Himalayas. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. 15-45x2-2. high. H. DISTR. male white. flowers very many. L. aphrodisiac. M. Bhuiokra. Ratoliya. upper 2-lobed. cardiotonic.—more or less all the year. NS. fevers.—white or pale-pink. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. :—Throughout India. :—G. Langali. subsessile. Jalapimpli.—rounded at the ends. erect. 9-15 m. Fl. pointed. spinous. fattening. ensiform. deeply grooved on one side. Toyavallari. See. scented.—opposite. spadix 60-90 cm. large and thick. petioles compressed towards the apex.— dioecious. Bihar. :—A tall graceful palm. orange-yellow.—Jan-Feb. oblong-ellipsoid. lower 3-lobed. :—Found fairly in Surat. Africa. anthelmintic.) FAM. crown hemispherical. Mysore. Fr. L. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. Fl. wandering of mind. constipating. wild or more often cultivated. stems rooting at the nodes. triangular. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. t. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. greyish-green. vomiting. usually along banks. densely fascicled.—pinnate. and in beds of streams and water courses.—globose. Fl. alexiteric. C. COM. oleaginous. 2-lipped. Jalapipali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. Ratoliya. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. flowers distant. Bengal. oblique. spiny at the base. LOC. :—A creeping perennial herb. angular.5—3. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Sharadi. long.—sessile. long. CHAR. clothed with appressed white hairs . Sk. roundish. blood and eye. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Rohilkhand. LOC. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility.5 m. Poona and Belgaum districts. Okra. Famine Plants. fruit and juice of the tree. good in heart and abdominal complaints. female spadix and spathe as in the male. cooling.—Verbenaceæ. 3-4. spatulate. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. pinnules many. Baluchistan. This is called neera. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). oblong. Sholapur.. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. useful in diseases of heart. aphrodisiac. t.

PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. dry. CHAR :—An annual herb. NS. Sukshmadala. Fr.useful in fevers. monœcious. :—Throughout India. Amala. anuria. elliptic-oblong. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. ringworm (Yunani). asthma. diuretic. The whole plant. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). axillary. :—Konkan and Deccan. useful in thirst. . used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda).—3-gonous. DISTR. Jaramla. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. high . FAM. scarcely lobed. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. :—G. smooth. anæmia. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). wounds. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. M. lobed. Vituntika. leaves. hiccup. annular. Sk. wounds. of female. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. globose. 30-60 cm. urinary discharges. stem branched at the base. bronchitis. Bhumyamali. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani).—Euphorbiaceæ. distichous.— numerous. LOC. Ajata. K. Plant—hot. COM. longitudinally ribbed on the back. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia.—capsule.. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. Bhumyamali. Leaves are stomachic. bronchitis. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. Stomachic. Kiranelligida. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Tropics generally. cooling. angular. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. thirst. LOC. Bhuianvalah. 6-13 X 3-6 mm .—yellowish. milky-juice. t.— July-Aug. females solitary. sores. Sd. disk of the male of minute glands. Ceylon. alexipharmic .168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. burning sensation. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. scabies. except Australia. Fl. LOC. Bhuiavli. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. biliousness. It is valuable in scurvy. leprosy. good for ulcers. H. Bhumyamalaki. males 1-3. L. very small. Fl. Infusion is a good tonic. Sadahazurmani. maturant. and without salt may be applied to bruises. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). very numerous. fruit. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root.

Fresh leaves. NS. " Kapha ". bronchitis. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Kalaka. Pan. Betel leaf vine. stomachic. Vidyache-pan. Tambola. elephantiasis . anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. foul smell in the mouth. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. Betelleaf. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Nagavalli. Sk. piles. spleen diseases. Black-pepper. heart and liver. COM. useful in "Vata". improves voice.—Piperaceæ. Mensinballi. aphrodisiac. DISTR. . purgative. leavs. Kanara. Kalimiri. Kalamiri. H. :—E. See—Condiments and Spices. FAM. M. Malimirich . laxative. LOC. Menasu. tonic to brain. ozœna. increases biliousness. Sk. Marich. Saptashira. G. urinary discharges. :—E. styptic (Yunani). Thana and Kanara districts of the State. night blindness. hot. Kanara forests. improves appetite (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. throat diseases. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion.—Piperaceæ. Golmirch . M. ozoena. It increases saliva. LOC. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. carminative. and fruits (rarely). satyriasis and to allay thirst. smeared with oil. heating. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Betel pepper. aphrodisiac. inflammations. Vata". carminative. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Bhakshyapatra. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Vileyad-ele. H. Eleballi. removes all foulness from mouth. liver and muscular pains. Satara. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Tambulavalli. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. alexipharmic. K. useful in toothache. Poona. Panu. acrid. asthma. Pan. bechic. K. LOC. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Sholapur. Pan. G. useful in "Kapha". Kalamirich. carminative and astringent. :—Wild in the N. given with milk in hysteria. clears throat. NS. Tikshna. strengthens teeth . COM. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Kaphavirodhi. Warm leaves. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. FAM. tonic. tonic and digestive. PARTS USED :—Fruits. cultivated in Konkan and N. DISTR. pains. generally in Konkan. Menasin-kallu . vulnerary. It sweetens breath. Linn. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). alterative.

Vikhari.—capsule. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. dries body humours (Yunani). See—Timbers. ovate or oblong. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. Bartang. coma. It is a good expectorant. sciatica. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. weakness following fevers. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. piperidine and an essential oil. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Deccan. leprosy. variable in width. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. the oil is alterative. entire or toothed.5-12. H. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. NS. various forms of cutaneous diseases.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. . Tammata. :—K. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. W. Greater plantain .—lobes 4. COM. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. NS. :—E. Bark contains a glucoside. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Konkan. used in chronic bronchitis. chronic fevers. bruises. COM. and possesses narcotic properties . Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. Fr. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Fl. long. chest affections. L. C. CHAR. Arcot and Salem. DISTR. base tapering into petiole. M. paralysis . & A.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . LOC. sprains. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. Vehkali. Externally it is rubefacient. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Burma. tonic and a local stimulant.5 cm. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries.—Pittosporaceæ. ovoid. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. FAM. piles and some skin-diseases . Khasia Hills. Lahuriya. petiole longer than leaf-blade.— alternate.—Plantaginaceæ. vertigo. See—Condiments and Spices. hills of S. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. facilitates menstruation. Kanara in ghat forests. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. In physiological action. lumbago. used as febrifuge. N. radial 2. LOC. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . It yields an essential oil. Khandala (pretty common). as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. ophthalmia and phthisis. lanceolate or greenish . FAM.

CHAR. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. L. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. attenuate. rosy scarlet. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). W.—tube slender. Raktachitraka. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections.-Feb. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Burma.—throughout the year. lax spikes. K. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. FAM. Fl. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Lead-wort. H. Chitra. :—Temperate Himalayas. Fattening. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Malaya.Sept. leaves. Chitraka. :—Konkan : Deccan. Sk. PARTS USED :—Roots. Assam. base passing into amplexicaul. Mahang. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. :— E.—large. DISTR. t. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Fire plant. C. Lalachitraka. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. t. LOC. Ratochatro.—3-5 cm. M.. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. striate . Agnishikha. Fl. oblong. LOC.-4-8. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Palni hills. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. G. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Nilgiris. alterative and diuretic. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Lalchitrak. angled.. LOC. obtuse. alterative. Lalchitrak.Kempuchitramula. top coming off as a conical lid. afford relief. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. long in long terminal axillary. high. exauriculate petiole. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. HABITAT :—Along river banks. and seeds. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. dull-black. PARTS USED :—Roots.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Rosy-coloured leadwort. limb wide. Lalchita. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery.—Plumbaginaceæ. stems herbaceous. Baluchistan. Ceylon. Fl. erect. NS. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. zeylanica. LOC. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Ghats.

good in anæmia (Ayurveda). alterative . Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). diseases of liver. tonic. C. striate. Agnishikha. Sk. terete. and in leucoderma. leaves are caustic. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . piles. laxative. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. stomachic. M. carminative. :—E. piles. COM. itching. Journ. ring-worm. Res. expectorant. rheumatism. hot. t. It is used in procuring abortion. alexipharmic. . Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. a paste is made with milk. skin disease. aborti-facient. woody. leaves. stems 0. useful in laryngitis. Chitra . anasarca. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. FAM. Root—bitter.6-1. Ind. Chitra . long. astringent to bowels. Malay Peninsula. ascites. lobes 5. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ceylon. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. wild in Western Peninsula. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. leucoderma. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Chitraka. oblong. entire. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. " Tridosha" . LOC.—Aug. K. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. Bengal. Chitaro Chitrak. rachis glandular . In S. inflammations. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. pointed. juice.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. cure intestinal troubles. G. L.—thin. bechic. it is useful in dyspepsia. Chitra. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. vesicant. spreading. See—Ornamental Plants.—capsule. January 1933). attenuated into a short petiole. H. ovate. NS. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. leucoderma.5 m. Chitranga.—in elongate spikes. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. Medi. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Fr.-Sept. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. root-bark. a favourite medicine for flatulence. leprosy. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. diarrhœa. bronchitis. Chitramula. scabies. anthelmintic. cultivated . Tropics of the old world. Jyotishka.—Plumbaginaceæ. " Vata" and " Kapha". Bile-Chitra-mula. Chitrak. diseases of spleen. appetiser. :—Throughout India. Fl. consumption. DISTR. stomachic. Vahni. PARTS USED :—Root. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. dysentery. The use of Pl. LOC.—white. Vallari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter.

.—salver-shaped.—practically throughout the year. G. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. L. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours.8 m. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). high. ascites (Ayurveda). Fr. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. long. :—M. Belchampaka. lower lip white. LOC. 4-lobed. divaricate. heating. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. shining black.5-18x3. See—Ornamental Plants. Kadu-sampige. acrid. long. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. CHAR. C. purple.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. shining. stems and branches quadrangular. rounded. C. oblong-lanceolate. rarely maturing. ulcers. 15-30 cm.— large. t. laxative . :—Native of tropical America. urinary discharges. Root-bark is purgative. venereal sores. Fl. Pagoda tree.8-9 cm. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. itching. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Golainchi.-May.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice.. upper lip white shot with purple. CHAR. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. broadly ovate. COM. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. FAM. carminative. Khairchapha. very fragrant. Fl. abundant from Mar. with an intra-marginal vein. LOC. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. many flowered. H. bark. Deccan. useful in gleet. 7. :—A small shrub 1. spirally arranged. Country. irregularly doubly toothed. Devagangile. Goleurchampa. inner face angular. M. Fr. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. Phangla. K. DISTR.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. M. pungent. Mahabaleshwar. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India.—Apocynaceæ.:—More or less throughout India. Fl.2—1. 3-lobed. Fl.—2-lipped. Sk. L. white with a pale yellow centre. :—All throughout the State. leaves and milky juice.—Dec. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. cultivated.—follicles. 12 cm.-Feb.—Labiatæ. whorls close. useful in leprosy. Rhuruchapha. DISTR. FAM. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root. t. Pangli. smooth. S. Champakam. cylindrical. :—Konkan. :—E. Radha-champo. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. pains. NS.-nutlets ellipsoid. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. entire. NS. abundant. acute at both ends. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. common. Frangipani. LOC. COM.

carminative. Gaura. fruits and seeds. Kanaji. Ustabunda . good for tumour. Naktamala. Kanika. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Kirmal. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Arand. Chamari. Karanja. Honge. Seeds—acrid . DISTR. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. LOC. lumbago. Sk. leaves. Arni. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). piles. relieves inflammation. ulcers. LOC. cures eye diseases. " Vata ". H. chronic fever and hydrocele. M. wounds. leucoderma. ascites. In Satara. cures biliousness. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. also planted. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. skin and in keratitis . bark. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. urinary discharges . Oil—styptic. USES :—The fresh leaves. Ichu. Jayanti. along Deccan rivers . Karanjmara. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. K. Agnibijaka. juice is given in colic and fever. wounds (Ayurveda). PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. G. bruised. itching. J. purify and enrich blood. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. Huligili. skin diseases. NS. vagina.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. " Kapha ". liver pain. See—Timbers. chest complaints. useful in diseases of eye. good in scabies.—Verbenaceæ. anthelmintic. Agetha. COM. FAM. chronic fever. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Sk. Karanj. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. K.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. rheumatic pains. Karanja. :—G. NS. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. leprosy. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. piles. head and brain diseases. Kanja. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. COM. Karanj.) FAM. M. H. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. lumbago. F. alexipharmic . Indian beech. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Oils. . Gracie). Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Pavaka. Arni. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. cure earache. Oil—anthelmintic. flowers. Agnimandha. Aran.

Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. heating. good in colic and for bleeding gums. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. fever. chyluria. NS. rough-tubercled . constipation. small. sour. L.—tubular. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children.. Ceylon. piles. Jamb. LOC. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Dridhabija. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa.—hard. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. causes "Kapha". aphrodisiac . Guava tree. M. LOC. It is also employed in scurvy.—Myrtaceæ. useful in anaemia. stomachic.2-6. Amrut. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). laxative. Jamphal. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. . lobes 4. Young leaves are tonic in the . high. t. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. seated on the calyx . K. Nicobars and Malaya. Anthers—dry wound. blue-black. LOC. Perala. Sk.— June-July. cylindric. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. G."Vata". Perala. greenish yellow.3 cm. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. hairy in the throat. Jamud-rukh. H. Fruit—tonic. Vastula. Root is laxative. DISTR. pungent. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. as an astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Leaves. diabetes. laxative after food. Peru . Fr. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. Gova. inflammations. It is given in the form of decoction. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. Kanara. bronchitis. Piyara.— globose. Andamans. Safedsafari. See—Famine Plants. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. for unhealthy ulcers. smooth. :—E. bark yellowish.—5-9 X 3. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. COM. Peru.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Fl. stomachic. Sd. good for liver complaints (Yunani). chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. cooling. applied to sore eyes. dyspepsia. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. common about Karwar. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. entire or upper part dentate. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. FAM. cool heated brain. C. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. Peruka. LOC. DISTR. Flowers cool body. Fl. Gum is tonic. fruits and gum. :—Cultivated all over the State. cooling. flowers.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. broadly elliptic. used in bronchitis. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic.

leprosy. piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—one. black. laxative. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Fl. HABITAT :—Waste places. anthelmintic. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. See—Fruit Trees. CHAR. LOC. stimulant. anthelmintic. fruit and seeds. stomachic. Kushtaghni. PARTS USED :—Root. nigro-punctate. bitter taste. causes biliousness. urinary dis charges. improves hair and complexion. L. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. diuretic. antipyretic. high. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Bavachi. raw one is used in diarrhœa. Seeds— refrigerant. FAM.—in dense axillary. LOC. 0. DISTR.5—5 cm.8 X 2. :—E. Bukchi. Fr. Bakuchi. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. closely-pitted. cures "Vata". Bowach-chi. inflammation. ovoidoblong. NS. K. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. biliousness. Babachi. clawed. 3. stem and branches grooved. 10-30 flowered racemes . Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Sk. alterative. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Seed—purgative. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. t. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. skin diseases. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Sd.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. Vanguji. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". C. Country. Babachi. Bhavanj. difficulty in micturition. M.6-1. G. good for leucoderma. heals ulcers. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Chandralekha.—bluish purple . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth.2 m. smooth. solitary. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. aphrodisiac. Fruit—diuretic. " Rakta-pitta". cures blood diseases . bronchitis. Fl. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally.—Aug-Dec. nephrites and cachexia. H. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. leaves. vulnerary. good for heart troubles. Kalameshi. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Konkan and S. standard orbicular. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). improves appetite. scabies. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. anæmia. white hairy. Bavachi. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. COM. :—An erect annual. studded with glands and white hairs. mucronate. M. vomiting. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). .—simple.—pod. alexiteric.

Bigsah. Bia. boils. Pomegranate tree. sore eyes brain diseases. also in Konkan. ophthalmia. Malabar kino-tree. allays thirst. ulcers.—Punicaceæ. Sk. liver tonic. alterative . flowers and fruits. fever. " Tridosh". strengthens gums. Hulidalimb . G. Gum—bitter. tonic. laxative. tonic. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. anal troubles. :—Wild in Iran. anthelmintic. India. Kabul and Baluchistan. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. prolapsus ani. PARTS USED. erysipelas. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Dhalim. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. DISTR. gleet. colic. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Sunila. fattening. Common in N. useful in eye troubles. cures " Vata ". sore-throat. spleen complaints. Gums and Resins. See—Timbers. Hirdokhi. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). PARTS USED:—Root. Flowers— improve appetite. stomatitis. Pitasar. Dadimba. Dalimb . LOC. :—Leaves. laxative. leprosy. chest troubles. urinary discharges (Yunani). Dadam. body eruptions.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). earache. heart-disease. bark. COM. Honi. useful in all body diseases. useful in biliousness. Valka-phala. K. urinary discharges. M. :—E. M. Bibla. Raktabija-pushpa. ascends to 1100 m. Dadima. Benga. called kino. blood diseases. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. flowers and gum. styptic. FAM. DISTR. Bibla. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). COM. H. thirst. griping. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. somewhat milder in action than catechu. anthelmintic. elephantiasis. Sk. Bio. Fruit-appetiser. LOC. scabies. NS. antipyretic. Bijak. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. used in piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. diuretic. :—Western Peninsula and S. H. enriches blood. applied to hydrocele. Khandesh and Dangs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. LOC. Flowers—check vomiting. Honne. useful in vomiting. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. . Dalimba. Bark—astringent. vulnerary. Dadima. used in sore throat. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). Dharimb . scattered but not gregarious . PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. good for biliousness. Mahakutaj. biliousness. Indian kino-tree. Bibla. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. cultivated in many parts of India. " Kapha ". :—E. G. Bija. burning sensation. leucoderma. K. FAM. Gum. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. NS. Anar. in Akrani.

jasmine . :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Madana. C—petals 5. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. Gelphal.-Aug. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . t. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. glabrous above. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. :—E. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—In Amboyana.— ellipsoid. Karigidda. L. CHAR. Pinditak. LOC.—Combretaceæ. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. Fruit contains vitamin C. H. . G. Annam. Barmasinivel.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. FAM. LOC. Gela.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Minkare. Rangoonchavel. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. K. numerous. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. FAM. COM. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. M. S. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. elliptic. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. G. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Mangari-kai. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. at first white then deep red . :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Konkan. :—A strong climber. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Fl. H. DISTR. acuminate.—opposite. :—E. Malaya. NS. Dharaphal. M. The rind of the fruit. Emetic nut. widely cultivated all over India. Fr. Sk. acutely 5-angled.—Mar. In China.5 cm. base rounded. Chinese honeysuckle. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. COM. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Karhar Mainphal. lanceolate .—in axillary and terminal spikes.—Rubiaceæ. dark green. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. nearly 6 cm. Mindhola. calyx tube long. Midhola. Rangoon creeper. pendant. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. Lalchameli. Country and Kanara. M. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. 7. Fl. It is given in the form of decoction. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. long. Rangoonkibel. hairy beneath.

Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). Juice of . Tropical Africa. destroys "Vata". FAM. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. useful in chronic bronchitis. useful in diseases of heart. S. good for spleen and in paralysis.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. cholera. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. COM.—Cruciferæ. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. Seeds-sharp. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . Mali. good in tumours. emmenagogue. fruit and seeds. aphrodisiac. cures abscesses. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. purgative. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. It also contains an essential oil. used in diseases of the brain. Sumatra. laxative. tumours. " Vata" and " Kapha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. juice relieves earache. M. Bili Mulangi. Mula. Ruchira. inflammations. asthma. China. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Java. Muro. leaves. ulcers. Ceylon. :—Throughout India. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. Mula. carminative. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. hiccup. anthelmintic. It is also used to poison fish. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. binding. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. certain and regular. Radish. muscular pains. its action is very safe. H. PARTS USED :—Root. it is equal to it in every respect. Muri. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. leucoderma (Yunani). boils. leprosy. Bitter. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. bitter. and all inflammations . leprosy. Mulak. produce alopecia (Yunani). USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. amenorrhœa. antipyretic. emetic. inflammations. eruptions. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . flowers. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. carminative. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. heating. bad taste. See—Timber. piles. Sk. E. LOC. emetic. tonic. alexiteric. stomachic. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. DISTR. NS. sweet. carminative. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. Hastidanta. Mura. Ksharmula. skin-diseases. paralysis. DISTR. :—E. piles (Ayurveda).

:—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. COM. Chhotachand. :—H. single or didymous. Root contains vitamins A. swollen a little above the middle.. Fr. lanceolate. nodular. Mungusavel. Nai. Sivanabhi. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. :—H. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. yellowish root stock. white. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. LOC. K. cures " Tridosha ".—in irregular corymbose cymes.— Mar. Java. LOC.. Western Peninsula.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. Harki. bright green above. sharp. black shining. irregularly. Sarpakshi. leaves (rarely).180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. t. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. Sk. . pungent.—Apocynaceæ. CHAR. Yuthikaparni.3 cm. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. C. expectorant. Juipani. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. NS. :—An erect perennial shrub. ajmalicine. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. heating. Sk.—Acanthaceæ.5-6. and black salt. Harkaichand. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. PARTS USED :—Root. Andamans. bright red . ginger. ulcers (Ayurveda). COM. Palakjuhi. DISTR.) FAM. laxative. Sarpagandha. Garudpatala.-May. L. anthelminitic . HABITAT :—Moist forests.. used in hyperpiesis . Gaja-karni. Fl.-in whorls of 3. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. acrid. Kanara.9 m. shady open places near rain-forests. seeds are considered peptic. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. corrective and emmenagogue. K. Ceylon. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. diuretic.—tubular. pale beneath.5-18 X 2. specific for insanity. serpentinine. M. M. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Group B — Serpentine. B and C. with a long. often tinged with violet. Nakulikand. NS. carminative. FAM. Chandrika. See—Vegetables. Doddapatike.—drupe. In the Konkan. thin. It is hypnotic. Fl. 7. sedative. acute. ajamalinine. Chandrika.

tumours. rheumatism. glands. M. Arand. stems obscurely angled. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. good for burns. LOC. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. piles. Country (Dharwar. elephantiasis. Palma christi. leaves and seeds. Vardhamana. ascites. pointed. purgative. H. fevers. amenorrhœa (Yunani). elliptic lanceolate. Sk. Haralu. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. Very little in other districts of the State. Leaves—galactagogue. LOC.—Oct. pains. Fl. useful in inflammations. body pains. ring-worm.. glandular.—5-10 X2-5 cm. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. black. L. velvety hairy Sd. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Erand. carminative . M.-Jany. earache. useful in liver troubles. M. Mahabaleshwar. increase biliousness. FAM. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. pain in back. useful in heart diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. NS.—lipped. PARTS USED :—Root.— tuberculate. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica.5 m. Eranda. Root-bark—purgative. K. solitary. DISTR. LOC. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. anal troubles. high. Chitrabija. night-blindness. upper lip bifid . paralysis. eructations. liver and spleen diseases. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. Belgaum. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani).—capsule. Fr. :—Probably of African origin. asthma. Java. bronchitis. 0. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. alterative. Erand. Madagascar (cultivated). Fl. pubescent: C. COM.9—1. hairy outside . piles. widely cultivated in tropical countries. inflammations.—nearly sessile. aphrodisiac. alterative. Ceylon (wild) . Sholapur). vaginal pains. useful in pains. :—Deccan. Divald. typhoid. leprosy. increases "Kapha". dropsy. bracts ovate lanceolate. Erand. :—Undershrub. inflammations. intestinal worms. LOC. diseases of rectum and head. Fruit— appetiser. Triputiphala. boils. t. Straits-Settlements. cultivated. lumbago. Vardhaman. HABITAT :—Hills. :—E. leprosy. :—Throughout India. Divaligo. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Country. convulsions. Cattle are fed with leaves for . asthma. oil—anthelmintic. narrow. DISTR. S. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). ascites. Castor oil plant. useful in skin-disease. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. leaves. flowers and seeds. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. white. Tirki.—Euphorbiaceæ. Seed and oil—cathartic. hills near Belgaum. Khandala. generally cultivated. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". entire. ascites. tropical Africa. lumbago. some fevers. strangury.

excessive perspiration. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Sudburj. :—A perennial shrub.— all the year. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. burning sensation. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . which is a powerful poison. France. with a good odour. hairy.—obovate . petioles prickly. sometimes striped . Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. P. See—Oils. sweetish. they are cold. See—Ornamental Plants. attaining 1. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. inflammations.—Rosaceæ. astringent when dry (Yunani). Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor .— usually corymbose. Fl. cures leprosy. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. aphrodisiac. Sk. etc. dry. cephalic. Soumyagandha. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. NS. much used in lotions and collyria . ovate oblong. stems with stout and hooked prickles. L. cultivated all over India. laxative. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. M. PARTS USED :—Flowers. Gulab . LOC. cooling. COM.—pinnate.3 cm. head-ache. laxative. benefits lungs. stomatitis. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. Lakshmipushpa. serrate. Punjab and U. Fr. Pannira. t. . removes bad odour from mouth. cardiotonic. Ati-manjula. tooth-ache. In constipation it is used as an enema. K.5-6. Flower—bitter. chronic fevers. Shatadala. good for eyes.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. biliousness. They are also applied to painful joints. Gulab. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. expectorant. pink or white. FAM. stipules scarcely dilated. seldom griping or causing flatulency. antipyretic. improves appetite (Ayurveda). red. Fl. acrid. tonic. :—Origin unknown. 2. G. used in heat of body. DISTR. Gulab. liver. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). intestinal affections. Ghazipur is a chief centre. Italy. mild and safe purgative. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.5 m. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. double. LOC. Tarana. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . long. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. :—E. CHAR. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. adults. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. kidneys. " Vata". Greece and Germany. cardiotonic.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. sometimes glandular. H.

15-30 cm. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. Aruna. Manjishha. tropical Africa. smooth. improves voice and complexion . cylindric. CHAR. bitter. valves hyaline. paralysis. dysentery. alexiteric. Dock. diuretic. one pair with longer petioles ovate. Chuka. COM. Fl. greenish. LOC. oleaginous . high.—in whorls of 4. M. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. Sk. lethargy. :—E. LOC. with a thin red bark. eye. Fl. Japan. H. obtuse. cures " Kapha ". USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. Malay Peninsula. :—E. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. Gulmketu. branched from the root. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. Fr. blood. anthelmintic. rheumatism. elliptic. lower leaves larger. uterine pains (Yunani).—Rubiaceæ. liver complaints. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. antidysenteric. M. five-nerved. all scabrous with white prickles. Raktasara.—Polygonaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. M. increase appetite. leucorrhoea. Manjishtha. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Rohini. ulcers and skin-diseases. Java. Country. ulcers. Decoction tinges blood. ovate. antipyretic. jaundice. stems very long. erect glabrous herb. Chukra. inflammations. base cuneate. paralysis. grooved. used in eye-sores. CHAR. it powerfully affects the nervous system. leaves and fruit.—in terminal panicled cymes. :—Perennial climbing herb. ear. prickly.—white or pink. Sk. FAM. PARTS USED.5—7. laxative. erysipelas. Majit. diseases of uterus. leucoderma. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . DISTR. orbicular . roots very long.. analgesic. vagina. Chitralata.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. spleen-enlargement.—2. urine and even bones red. Amlavetasa. Fr. petioles triangular. jaundice. t-Oct. Root—bitter. Manjishtha. pains in joints. COM. Tamravalli. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. inner perianth-segments membranous. Manjit. and was much used in dropsy. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. Ceylon. Sorrel. piles. Leaves-sweet. :—Root. K. Fl. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. cordate or hastate. heating. Indian Madder.5 cm. branches quadrangular . analgestic. leucoderma. L. shining. Bladder. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. the Konkan and S. acrid. L. purplish black when ripe. NS. FAM. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. Ambat Chuka. emmenagogue. NS. . lactagogue.—didymous or globose. :—Annual. H.-Jany.

Africa. Kanara.— subsessile. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. t.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Trans-Indus Hills. :—G. M. Ceylon. COM. generally in the Deccan. Fl. Afghanistan.—Nov. FAM. stems usually decumbent. ovoid oblong. hiccup. N. diseases of the spleen. alcoholism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. bracts elliptic. NS. :—Western Punjab. bronchitis.—Rutaceæ. useful in scabies. tumours. lower shortly 3-lobed. Cooling. vomiting. pains.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. Havananju. dyspepsia. Common—Garden-rue . rugose with furrow. FAM. C. stomachic.—capsule. DISTR. S. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Parpatha. blue or pink. useful in heart troubles. Satapa . Sadabu. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. :—A herb . often rooting near the base. LOC. COM. toothache. M. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kharmor. Fl. while fresh they are bruised. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).-Jany. :—E. CHAR. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. G. M. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. asthma. USES :—Leaves are cooling. Sd. then erect. oblong lanceolate. The juice allays tooth-pain. ciliate. Sk. pale brown. NS. laxative. they are prescribed. The seeds have the same properties . Satap. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bites and stings of poisonous animals. checks nausea and promotes appetite. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). Vishapaha. K. piles. :—Common throughout the State. H. acute . H. leucoderma. also considered as a vermifuge. Country. LOC. with darker spots. Ghati pittapapada . tonic.—white. constipation. L. Pismarum Sadab. 2-lipped. Deccan. See—Vegetables.—Acanthaceæ. flatulence. aperient and diuretic. Satri. Sadapaha. acute. LOC. DISTR. roasted. Konkan. Nagadali. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. upper emarginate. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Sk.—suborbicular. . Persia. Khatselio . in dysentery. analgesic. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs.

LOC. heating to body . abortifacient. anti-aphrodisiac . epilepsy. DISTR. Ingotu. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. LOC. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. amenorrhœa. M.. . SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Gudakastha. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Sugarcane. Sherdi. HABIT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. DISTR. and externally used as a rubefacient. S. grown in gardens. Satara.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. LOC. Madhuyashti. all over the State. tonic. The plant is tonic. spathulate or linear-oblong . Ikshu. increases mental activity. Ganna. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. cooling. garden. Sd. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. flatulence. decompound. Fr. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. COM. Kabbu. There are three varieties . Naisakar. forest and mountain. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Kumad. cultivated throughout India. leprosy. useful in fatigue. :—A strong smelling herb . diuretic. oleaginous. Ukh . PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. etc. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis.—Gramineæ. NS :—E. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). in pots. Tanigarbu . Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. digestive. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Gudatrina. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Sk. Rasala. :—Egypt and Algeria.—petals 4. obtuse .—capsule. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). emmenagogue. petioled.—angled. particularly Deccan. flawed. The oil is the best form for administration. indigestible. FAM. Powdered and combined with aromatics. diuretic. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. glandulose punctate. thirst. heats body. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Us . colic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. The plant contains glucoside glutin. yellowish. G. Fl. C. See—Ornamental Plants. oblong-obovate. it may be given internally in hysteria. segments cuneate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. S. L. :—Grown everywhere in India. M. K.-alternate. Rikhu. Poona.

In the Punjab. Fl. fattening. tonic and aperient.—Nov. often mucronate at the apex. stomachic . t. opposite. near the coasts of Gujarat . sugar is considered heavy. pectoral and aphrodisiac. carminative and diuretic. Sugar causes " Kapha".-Feb. H. PARTS USED :—Bark. Pilu. sometimes it raises blisters. lessen inflammation . Abyssinia. bile.—drupe. red when ripe. K. alexiteric. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. :—E. It is good in calculous complaints. LOC. Tooth-brush tree. piles. Mahaphala. M. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Egypt. Piludi. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. disorders and wind. lobes much reflexed. useful in nosetroubles. :—Dry districts of the State. Khakan Mirjoli. causes " Kapha. See—Food Plants. carminative.—very thin. 3 mm.". intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). In cases of poisoning by copper. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. The juice contains vitamins A and B. . Leaves—bitter. Cane—sweet. purifies blood .—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. ulcers. scabies. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. fruits seeds and oil. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Ceylon. globose. Sind. finely striate. diam. shining. often planted near Muslim tombs. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. laxative. LOC. Goni. useful in biliousness. delirium. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . diuretic. astringent to bowels. oil is digestible. tonic to liver. greenish-yellow. leaves. Pilu. aphrodisiac . leucoderma. LOC. FAM. white. deobstruent. Asia. anthelmintic. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. diuretic. improves appetite. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. Pilu. Sk. Jal. inflammations. analgesic. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. erysipelas. Brihat madhu pilu. C. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). fleshy. corrective. Kharijal. Fr. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. smooth. strengthen teeth. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. L.—Salvadoraceæ. useful in heat. improve diuresis (Yunani). Seeds—purgative. useful in biliousness. Kanara in littoral forests. NS. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Pilu.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. branches numerous. deeply cleft.. numerous. COM. dry regions of W. drooping. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. :—Drier parts of India. bad for liver (Yunani). DISTR. Fruits are deobstruent. good for lungs . Fl. anæmia. G. the Konkan and N.

ground.—Sapindaceæ. Phenilu. antipyretic. Ritha. cholera. M. strangury. alexipharmic. emetic. useful in diseases of heart. aphrodisiac. G. Rishta. Chandan. Aritha. diarrhœa. NS. up with water into a paste. hemicrania. Mysore and parts of Madras State. Ritha . Chandal. often planted. Agarugandha. epileptic fits of children. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. vaginal discharges. Arishtaka. to allay heat and pruritus. Sk. useful in inflammations. M. Bhadrasara. in skin-diseases. DISTR. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. LOC. exhilarating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. " Kapha ". Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Bhadrasri. COM. Bhogivallabha. alexiteric. FAM. Ceylon. tubercular glands.—Santalaceæ. laxative. Soap-Nut tree. :—Indian Peninsula. Fruit—bitter. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Shrigandhalmara. tonic. S. Oil. LOC. :—E. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Country and N. is applied to local inflammations. abortifacient. Malayaja. Chandan. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Kugale. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. alexiteric. paralysis. M. K. Chandan. LOC. Mangalya. allays uterine pains. Kumblabijaka. Kanara. cures "Tridosha". G. Antharalo. India. H. Phenila. Anthuvala. Sandal. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Ringni. :—Western Peninsula. cold in head. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. gleet. PARTS USED :—Root. Sukhad . Suket. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). small-pox (Ayurveda). useful in chronic dysentery. Burugukayi. :—E. FAM. stomachic. burning sensation. chiefly in S. head-ache (Yunani). PARTS USED:—Wood. COM. astringent to bowels . USES :—Wood. acts as diaphoretic. Root—expectorant. biliousness. Cultivated elsewhere. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. DISTR. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. NS. See—Timbers. much cultivated. to temples in fever.. fruit and seed. H. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Sandal-wood Tree. Sk. aphrodisiac. gonorrhœa. lumbago. bronchitis. thirst. Arithan . Oils. K.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

seeds. asthma. Jayat. Jayanti. FAM. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. seeds. NS.—in lax. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. oil. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. Black variety is common.5-15 cm. cooling. Rasin. branches striate.. yellow. septate between the seeds. leaves.—standard as broad as long. diuretic and lactagogue.—20-30. probably a native of tropical Africa. useful in diarrhœa. white and red. useful in dry cough. indigestible . bark. Jayanti. Sk. cure menorrhagia. scabies. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. suppurating wounds. Jinangi. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. mottled with purple on the outside. cures . applied to ulcers and piles. an emollient poultice is also made from them.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. lung diseases. strengthening. long. Sd. leaves. Jaya. Fr. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. opposite. Jayanti. 7. applied to gouty joints. such as dysentery etc. and as an oildressing for ulcers. astringent to bowels. linear-oblong. :—G. They are also emmenagogue. See—Oils. alterative. inflammations. L. LOC. urinary concretions. 15-23 cm. Seeds contain vitamin A. Jayantika. oleaginous. tonic. pendulous. gouty joints. Seed-oil—fattening. Baluchistan. slightly torulose. aphrodisiac. beaked. spleen troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. etc. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. obscurely angled . hair-tonic. Waziristan. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. inflammations. Fl. few flowered axillary racemes. :—A soft-wooded shrub. leaflets 914 pairs. H. biliousness. Janjhan. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda).— abruptly pinnate. carminative. K. M. eye diseases . Nadeyi. removes "Kapha". They are nourishing. :—Cultivated all over India. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. anthelmintic. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . There are three varieties of seeds : black. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. into claw. burning sensation. LOC. tonic.—pod. diuretic. DISTR. strangury. 4-5 m. bleeding piles. of eye and ear. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Shewari. useful in sorethroat. diseases. C. PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. small-pox. in height. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. They have been used to procure abortion. promote hair growth. syphilitic ulcers. enrich blood.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). inflammations (Yunani). long. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. Raysingani. galactagogue. COM.

leaves. cures " Tridosh " pains. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. rubbed into a paste with water. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). epilepsy. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. The plant contains vitamin A. astringent. fruits. Kempagase. cure itching. Indigenous from Malaya to N.— pod. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. useful In diseases of spleen. CHAR. stimulant.—7. long. ulcers. Australia. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Fl. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. . FAM. C. K. Leaves—indigestible. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. maturant. long. leaflets 16-30 pairs. leprosy. flowers. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). Bak. diarrhœa. M. alexiteric. H. Bark—astringent. night-blindness. LOC. An infusion is given in small-pox. Seeds—emmenagogue. anthelmintic.5-8. Dirghashimbi. allays thirst. Agathio. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. t. demulcent. linear oblong. See—Vegetables. 50 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". relieves throat-troubles. anaemia. gout. Basna. Fruit—laxative .MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands.— flowers at various times. long. Fr. Agasta. is applied in painful swellings. dysentery and paludism. Sk. improves taste.— pinnate. Munidruma. Kanali. Bark— astringent. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. tumours . USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. LOC. :—G. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. improve appetite . high. Agusta. very showy. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). Hatiya . bronchitis. Agasti. "Kapha" and inflammation. 15-30-cm.8 cm. Vranari. LOC. See—Fodder Plants. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. is applied in rheumatism. Agase. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in ozœna. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. PARTS USED :—Root.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS. biliousness. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . L. COM. Ornamental Plants. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. useful in ophthalmia.—in racemes . fevers. Leaves—purgative. Flowers—cooling. diabetes. Fl. DISTR. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in many parts of India. 6-9 m. leucoderma. anthelmintic. cure quartan fever. gout . :—A soft wooded tree . Agati. 2-4 white or red.

USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. stomachic and tonic. CHAR. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :—G. diam. Gujarat and S.—Malvaceæ. Chikna.5-6. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. dorsal scabrid. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. Tukti. NS. pedicel jointed about the middle. Fr. Kareta. Fl. Country Mallow. :—E. Deccan and S. K. Jayanti. obtuse. LOC. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. softly hairy all over. useful in fever. bleeding piles. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. C. Country. Sd. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . yellow. minutely hairy. M. L. Batyalaka. Sk. astringent. removes " Vata ". awns 2. Rajbala. Fl. :—Konkan. Bala. linear . long. M. Bariara. L. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. strongly reticulated . black. Samanga. Baladana. Pata. Khareti. Sk. Kisangi. Fr. Hettutti-gida. DISTR. diam.—2. Bala. upper margins ciliate. COM. Chittuharatu.—6-8 mm. long.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.5-5 cm..—Nov. H. Prahasa. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. leaves and seeds. HABITAT :—Moist places . LOC. lanceolate. Kherati.. Bala. bark. diuretic. FAM. ovate-oblong. CHAR. carpels 5-9.— yellow. Root—cooling.—smooth. linear. COM. Fl. base rounded. Fl.—1-2 in each axil. dorsal margins toothed. with ginger.Dec. carpels 7-10. cordate. M. " Kapha " . H. :—A shrub. a weed. PARTS USED :—Root. scabrid-hairy. Barial. Kumghi. DISTR. t.-Nov. t. Country. awns 2. G. useful in blood and throat diseases. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. decoction. crenate.—5-6 mm. PARTS USED :—Root.—2. aphrodisiac . Chikna.—Malvaceæ. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. Kharanti. LOC. K. NS.—solitary or few together. " Pitta ". strongly reticulated. astringent. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). branches slender. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn.3 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.-Oct. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Vatyapushpi. LOC. cooling. is given . :—Konkan (common).. emollient. glabrous. puberulous. FAM. digestive. pedicel jointed much above the middle. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Pata. sharply serrate. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). :—Hotter parts of India.

Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". COM. facial paralysis. L. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. all running down wing-like into petiole. and head-ache. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. juice is used for healing wounds. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. stem stiff. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. diaphoretic. high. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. administered in hemiplegia. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. 5 inner boat-shaped.—achene. common. :—Deccan. :—A large annual herb. NS. involucral bracts 2 rows.—heads small in leafy panicles . LOC. also in colic and tenesmus.—opposite. M. Katampu. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine.—yellow. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Ceylon. M. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. rhomboides Roxb. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. Linn. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. erect. CHAR. :—Throughout India. . antiscorbutic and sialogogue.-Dec.—Nov. Leaves are used in ophthalmia.—Compositæ. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. S. 0. black. Externally. Fl. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". triangular-ovate. Fl.6—1. noise in ears. slightly rough. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. t. cystitis. tinged with purple. pappus 0. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. deeply and irregularly toothed. stiff-neck. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. It is also used to favour menstruation. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Pilibadkadi. FAM. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. Bala—Sida cordifolia. 5 outer clavate. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. Fr. Fl.2 m. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. those of the ray red beneath. Country. :—G.

Egg Plant. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating..—5—15 X 2. 8 mm. DISTR. bronchitis.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. very. Fl. " Vata". analgesic. vomiting. Ranringni. sharp. Vengni. Sk. diam. Ubhi-bhuringni. G. pruritus ani. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. maturant. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. Malpya. rarely wild. lobed. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. It is seldom used alone.—Solanaceæ. M. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. leaves. NS. ovate. LOC. Hinguli. K. DISTR. " Kapha"..196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. enriches blood. Vartaki. FAM. :—E. prickly. Indian Nightshade. Root is applied to lessen pain. :—E. Ceylon. Sd. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. base unequal-sided.—minutely pitted: Fl. t. Bhantaki. Vantak. Barhanta. Fruit—cardiotonic. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). cardiotonic. PARTS USED :—Root. 0. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. leaves (rarely) and fruits. Kadusonde.3—1. digestive. loss of appetite. bad for piles if taken internally. Dorli. G. globose. Brinjal.5—7. Baingan. dark-yellow when ripe. asthma. improves appetite. NS. astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Kattarta. Philippines. high. Rigana. Habba-Kirigulla. Hinguli. :—Widely cultivated in India. anthelmintic. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. FAM. K. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. Bhanta. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. LOC.-Aug. L. pain. Vadikadheri. laxative. Vange. PARTS USED :—Root. fever.—Solanaceæ. Bhantaki. clothed outside with purple hairs . H. Brihati. . SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. fruit and seeds. Nilaphala. HABITAT :—Cultivated. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha".-Oct.—pale-purple. LOC. Fr. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Vrittaphala. useful in leucoderma. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. :—Throughout tropical India. removes foulness of the mouth. COM. recurved. lessens inflammations. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. COM. M. H.5 cm. aphrodisiac. or triangular-ovate. causes biliousness. Mahotika. covered with stellate hairs. Badanikai. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. C. Mhotiringni. stem stout. prickles large. beneficial in cardiac troubles .. petiole prickly.— berry. subentire.5 m. Vayase.

In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. dysuria and asthma. Root-bark—laxative . Kakamachi. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. Fruit contains vitamins A. fever. Sd. M. inflammation. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. improves voice . stem erect.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. 6 mm. fever. alterative. eye-diseases hydrophobia. In S. etc. in extra-axillary. G. useful in giddiness. LOC. urinary discharges. diarrhœa. useful in diseases of eye. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. entire or sinuate toothed. yellow.—many. bitter. gonorrhœa (Yunani). FAM. liver inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. Sk. t. heating. Kamoni. See—Vegetables. bark.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . vomiting. C. aphrodisiac. Hound's Berry. Kakamunchi. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever.—small. Morellel. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. leucoderma. inflammation. laxative. :—E. smooth. Fr. Ceylon. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. piles. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. throat burning. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). The seeds are used as a stimulant. subumbellate. worms in ear. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. Vayasi. improves appetite. It acts as a hydrogogue. favours conception and facilitates delivery . The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. B and C.. ear and nose . :—Throughout India. NS. Makoi. taste. " Tridosha". . asthma. DISTR.—discoid.-Jany. not to be given to pregnant women. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). bronchitis.—Solanaceæ. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. leaves and fruit. hiccup. tapering into petioles. Kakamachi. CHAR. Seeds—laxative. Fl. in pains. Fl. useful in heart and eye-diseases. Kabaiya. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. K. Piludi. bronchitis. griping. and used with success in psoriasis. chronic fever. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. much divaricately-branched . LOC. diam. tonic. 3-8 flowered cymes . COM. itch. good for neck ulcers. L. shining. minutely pitted . diuretic.—Sept. Gurkamai. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Katuphala. Tiktika. cathartic and diuretic. :—A variable annual herb . Black Night-shade. ovatelanceolate.— berry. dysentery.

Kenjal. Basu). t. petiole prickly. stone in bladder. G. :—Common in the Deccan . fever. :—A very prickly diffuse. hairy outside. long. CHAR.3 cm. Nele-Rama-gulla . NS. Kateli. Ceylon. Sind. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. Malaya.. prickles compressed. aphrodisiac. Dirghashara.. K. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. L. ovate or elliptic. dysuria. E. asthma. It is used in asthma. Root—aphrodisiac. S. laxative.—purple. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Leaves—good application for piles. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. fruits and seeds. Dhavani. anthelmintic . surrounded by enlarged calyx . COM. yellow or white with green veins. Chikka-sonde. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bijapur and E. COM.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes .198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Seeds—anthelmintic.7 cm.— June. FAM. Sorgho. biliousness. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . D. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Konkan. FAM. M. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Fruit—laxative. urinary concretions. flowers. Ringni. Yengara . lobes deltoid. DISTR. base unequal-sided.—berry. LOC. Jowari. muscular pains. sterility in women. pruritus . Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Jonera. tropical Australia. :—E. Fr. Sk. Jolah. they are used in the burning of feet. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. LOC. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. heart disease. Vrittatandula. often exceeding 1. leaves. bright green perennial herb . Sk. good in inflammation. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. asthma. Bhui-Kate-ringni. 3-2 cm. Brihati. Fl. H. useful in bronchitis. Katai. hairy on both sides.-5-10 X 2. chronic bronchitis. Bhoyaringni. thirst. H. stems. Sholapur. Yuvanala. LOC. piles. ozoena. Nidigdhika.—Gramineæ. Nirgol. Jundri. heating. Jowar. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. M. pains.5-5. Ikshupatraka. "Vata" and " Kapha". Kantakini. Fl. diam. straight. Durrah. NS. yellow and shining. :—G. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Kantakari. Great Indian millet. K. stem zig-zag. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout India. appetiser. fevers. Jondhala. stomachic. C. Shalu. strangury. & Wendl. Sundia . lumbago. expectorant and febrifuge. Africa. sinuate or subpinnatifid.—Solanaceæ.

fevers. general debility. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. :—Bark. Some. anthelmintic. cures " Tridosha ". Asia and Africa. stem and branches cylindric. good for sore-throat. ulcers. bladder and kidney complaints. Munditika. PROPERTIES AND USES. constipating. Dharwar. hence used in intermittent fevers. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. FAM: —Compositæ. See—Food Plants. H. Grains contain vitamin B. :—Dry forests of W. Bijapur and E. while Belgaum. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. PARTS USED. Agniruha. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . COM. M. tumours (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Open situations. high. indigestible. laxative. refrigerant. :—G. M. Bastard Cedar. :— E. hairy. CHAR. Country. biliousness. Bodiakalara. NS. Vritta. G. Sk. M. Ruhin. Pravrajita. :—Seeds. Poona. improves appetite and taste. . Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. common in Gujarat. K. Rohini. COM. See—Timbers. FAM. LOC. Tans. :—Bark-acrid. PARTS USED. Sk. useful in " Kapha". POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Rawtarohan. tonic and antiperiodic . Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Ceylon. DISTR. Kumbhala. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Karanda-gida. ulcers. aphrodisiac. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. with toothed wings. aphrodisiac. NS. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm.—sessile. LOC. Rohun. Juss. Gorakhmundi. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. vaginal injections and enemas. Sumbi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. leprosy and dysentery . H. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. :—Widely cultivated in India. Khandesh and S. Indian Red-Wood. Swami-mara. piles. diseases of blood. Gums and Resins. Rohani. on dry stony hills. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). cough and asthma (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. Gorakhamundi.—Meliaceæ. Mahamundi. Aruna. glandular. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Rohina. introduced into America and Australia. Ahmedabad. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. DISTR. L. Gorakmundi. :—The grain is cooling. Fibres. K. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar.

Africa. LOC.. dysentery. :—E. :—Root. PARTS USED.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. LOC. asthma. truncate. vomiting. :—Root. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. Fr. C. anæmia. and tonic (Stewart) . Ceylon. hemicrania (Ayurveda). spleen diseases. cooling. emmenagogue.—Compositæ. NS. Akkalkara . t. solitary or subpanicled. globose ovoid. bronchitis. biliousness. laxative. glandular hairy. Pappuso. . USES. boils. good for eyesore. stalked. cools brain. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. ovate. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. tuberculous glands. used in insanity. Country and Kanara. :—Deccan. biliousness. Akara-karava. Powdered root is given as tonic.— achene. indigestion.—opposite. bark. laxative. epileptic convulsions. sometimes grown in gardens. Fl. gleet. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. L. urethral discharges and jaundice. in cases of worms and indigestion. PARTS USED. irregularly crenateserrate. flowers and seeds. elephantiasis. long. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. t. glaborous. anthelmintic. base usually acute. They are chewed to relieve toothache. Pellitary . peduncles with toothed wings. :—Throughout India. Malay Islands. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. :—Wild and cultivated. S. depurative. digestible. :—Throughout India. with honey they are given in cough.—compound heads. :—Hot. gives lustre to eyes . the latter when present minute. Fl. involucre bracts linear. ovate-oblong. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. fattening. It is also used as fish and crab poison. leaves and flower-heads. lessens inflammations . piles. looseness of breasts. Akarakara . ray flowers and ligules very often absent. leaves. Fl. jaundice. alexipharmic. peduncles reaching 10 cm. serrate or dentate. FAM. HABITAT. HABITAT.. Oil from the root aphrodisiac.—purple. oblong. pain in uterus and vagina. rectal pain. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. enriches blood .—Nov. scabies. :—Annual herb. all warm countries. urinary discharges. M. scalding of urine. Sk. stem and branches hairy. leucoderma.—Achene. ciliate near the ends . CHAR. DISTR. strangury. ring-worm of waist. DISTR. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. compressed . used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). :—Common in the Konkan. tonic. chest diseases. Australia. COM. Fr. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in heads ovoid. Tonic. Celyon. alterative. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . They are given in powder form. M. H. used also for local application. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. PROPERTIES AND USES. increases appetite. useful in skin diseases. :—Common in rice-fields.—Nov-Jany. LOC.

Indian Archipelago. LOC. oblong. enriches blood . cures rheumatism. hard. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Kalavrinta. NS. Parur. Hulave. Hude. biliousness. Kanara. DISTR.Feb. appetising. . COM. Kamduti.5 m. Gum is demulcent. NS.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Giri Hadari. long. Burma.8 cm. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Kapichuta. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Ceylon. Pahad. Tungi. Western Peninsula. Padal. It has been found useful in dysentery. ulcers. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. destroys " Vata ". Fl. :—E. :—Leaves-tasty. Kumbhi. Hongkong. Fr. ash-coloured . Patala. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves and fruit. Sk. ovoid. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Fl. Fruit—indigestible. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. widely planted. phthisis. astringent. Ran-amba .—Bignoniaceæ.-usually 1. round with furrows and cavities. branches nearly horizontal. :—A tree 9-10.5 cm.8-7. K.-Apl. CHAR. Pandri. Salt Range. Ambodha. Sk. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. W. burning sensation. C. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. M. Gujarat.5-18 x 3. Patala. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. S. long. pinkish green. Marahunise. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. :—Cultivated. Konkan. Padal. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. ovate oblong. t. M. blood complaints . HABITAT. Padiala. Amate. LOC. high.—Anacardiaceæ. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. L. tonic. Dr. Avatekayi. Ali-vallabha. stone woody. aphrodisiac. Amra.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Country. Toyadhivasini.. trunk straight. K. good for sore-throat. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Pitana. Andamans. entire. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. H. yellow. See—Gums and Resins. Amrataka. Kariguddada.—drupe. Bile Tree.. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. FAM. :—Bark. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). COM.. PARTS USED. oblique. Wild Mango. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Ambada. bark smooth. 3. :—H. Indian Hog-Plum. M. refrigerant.— petals 4-5. :—Often planted throughout the State.

In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. appetiser. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . fruit. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . useful in bilious diarrhœa. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. cures leucoderma. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. anæmia. :—More or less throughout tropical India. burning sensation. :—Very common in Konkan and N. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. :—Root-bitter.—Loganiaceæ. Indo-China. Crow Fig. antipyretic. ulcers. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Kanara. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Fruit—bitter. FAM. Travancore. thirst. Nirmal. PROPERTIES AND USES. tonic. :—E. :—In forests south of Bombay. :—Root. Kuchala. DISTR. piles. Kuchla. emmenagogue .202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. lumbago. diuretic. See—Timbers. vomiting. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. N. fruit. DISTR. Kajavara. PROPERTIES AND USES. Travancore . Circars. inflammation. Kelakutaka. heating. Karaskara. heating. tonic. Kanara. H. heating. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. "Vata". ring-worm. Kajra. astringent to bowels. Ittangi. Fruit—useful in hiccup. diuretic. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). seeds. :—Fruit-acrid. pungent. loss of taste. Visha-druma. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. Kachita. PARTS USED. Vishamushti. jaundice. Hemushti. poisonous. Karnatak. :—Monsoon-forests. eructations. COM. flowers. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. leaves. Planted in Ceylon. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Ceylon. blood diseases. Kakatinduka. LOC. Kupaka. sub-Himalaya. PARTS USED. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Sk. west coast of Madras State. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. LOC. Burma. M. LOC. fevers. It is regarded as cooling. asthma. "Kapha". NS. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Kuchla. :—Wood (rarely). Kangira. G. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Flowers— acrid .. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. itching. Poison Nut. K. Laos. Kajra. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. cures pains in joints. piles . LOC. tonic. bitter.

Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. :—E. LOC. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Aduguchali-bija. LOC. Ambuprasadini. PARTS USED. M. anæmia. alexipharmic. increases "Vata". K. relieve colic (Yunani). M. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. DISTR. cures inflammations. Seeds—acrid. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. diaphoretic. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. COM. Seeds—bitter. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. Clearing Nut Tree. lithotriptic. See—Timbers. good for liver. poisoning. Ceylon. Country. H. improve eye-sight.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. tonic. Sk. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. hallucinations. cure strangury. :—Root cures leucoderma. Kataka. NS. Nivali. causes biliousness. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. urinary discharges. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. Chittu bija. :—Sand-stone hills of S. head-diseases (Ayurveda). India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. . INDIAN PREPARATIONS. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. :—Root (rarely). aphrodisiac. alexiteric. Madhya Bharat. Shodhanatmaka. Burma. (Rasendrasarasangraha). emetic. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Nirmali. astringent to bowels. diuretic. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. thirst. :—Western Peninsula. Nelmal. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Deciduous dry forests. jaundice. also in Konkan. Fruit useful in eye diseases. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis..—Loganiaceæ. kidney complaints. gonorrhœa. Kanara and Khandesh. fruit and seeds. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. FAM. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. See—Timbers.

Bhilli. Kadu. Fl. Country. Bose). diseases of blood. flowers (rarely). decussate. M. FAM.—capsule. China Nora. winged . white with blue veins. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . M. Mahabaleshwar. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . t. S. Deccan. throughout N. Lodh Tree. useful in abortions . it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. COM.. K. . Sk. Shavaraka. bleeding gums . The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. Fr. LOC. LOC. Lodhraka. Lodhra. Tiritaka. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . COM. ovoid or oblong. :—Bark-acrid. Torna fort.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo.— sessile. quadrangular.—Gentianaceæ. Lodh. C. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". etc. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. :—M. stem densely leafy. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. in powder or in fresh decoction.-Jany. broadly ovate. E. colloturine and loturiaine. astringent to bowels. :—India (W. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bark—bitter.—Symplocaceæ. DISTR. :—Hilly parts. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. aphrodisiac. NS. DISTR. Broughton). Lodh . LOC. biliousness. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. PARTS USED. Californian Cinchona. L. Fl. cooling. Chota Nagpur. :—Western Ghats . Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. alexiteric. CHAR. Lodh is used in raw condition.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . high. 0. Peninsula.— Oct. :—The whole plant is bitter. vaginal discharges.— lobes 4-5. Lodhra . 2-valved. FAM. digestible. HABITAT. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). PARTS USED. C. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr.—many. Dyes. useful in eye-diseases. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. NS. Loder. Deccan . Balaloddujinamara. :—An erect herb. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. eye-diseases and ulcers .. Sd.9 m. PROPERTIES AND USES. dysentery. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. :—W. :—Konkan and N. Burma.3-0. H. C. acrid. See—Timbers. 5-nerved . inflammations. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. :—Bark. Peninsula). :—Root. leprosy. cures cough. 4-winged. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. emmenagogue. :— E. Tillaka.

sweet. :—Bark-acrid. M. thirst. also wild. M. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. astringent to bowels. H. Sk. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent.) FAM. bronchitis. Pharenda. useful in spleen diseases. anthelmintic. :—E. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). LOC. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Gulab-Jamb.—Myrtaceæ. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. both wild and cultivated.) FAM. also used in spongy and painful gums. K. Jamen. astringent. NS. Seeds—diuretic. LOC. fruits and seeds. asthma. G. good for sore-throat. Shukapriya. PARTS USED.—Myrtaceæ. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. biliousness. H. gargles and washes . :—Bark. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Kokileshta. Nerate. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Ceylon. LOC. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. enriches blood. Jambu. Fruit Trees. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. dry. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. Fruit—acrid. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. very often planted. See—Timbers. . Shukapriya. cooling. Gulabjaman.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Jam. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. carminative . fruit vinegar is tonic. Jamburaj. common along river banks. dysentery. Jambura. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. :—Throughout India. sprouts. Sk. ulcers. :—Throughout the State. blood impurities. digestive. :-Black-Java Plum. Nilphala. Jambul. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. astringent to bowels. Jambula. Jambu-Nayinerale. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. common at Mahabaleshwar. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. strengthens gums and teeth. carminative and diuretic. Jambu. removes bad smell from mouth. Jambudi. Neralu. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jambu. etc. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Jambu. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. Malay—Rose apple. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. NS. K. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Surabhipriya. COM. Malaya. good gargle for sore-throat. Jambul. DISTR. increases "Vata". Pannerali. Australia. Nenda.

:—Sikkim Terai. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. weakness of limbs. Wax flower. Assam. fruit and seeds. glossy green above. used in liver complaints. NS. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Maddarasa gida .—snow-white. Kottuhale. C—lobes overlapping to the left. heating. Root—bitter . Sk. tonic. aphrodisiac. fragrant at night. Chandani. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). . Burma. inodorous during the day. :—Bark is sweet. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. t. Trinidad . astringent to bowels. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. PARTS USED. hot. PROPERTIES AND USES. across. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. :—Root. LOC. Tagara. HABITAT. :—E. Khasia Hills. Fr. . L. :—Bark. bronchitis. 7. astringent to bowels. thirst. COM. tonic to brain. with milky juice . :—Cultivated in gardens. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). lobes 5 in single." biliousness. dysentery. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. used in asthma. bitter. E. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. useful in paralysis.—Apocynaceæ. removes bad humours. CHAR.. LOC. pale beneath. Fl. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED. G. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. Garhwal. divaricate. Ashvathabheda. indigestible. useful in "Kapha. double. lessens pains in limbs and joints . Yunnan to Australia. 1-3 ribbed. See—Timbers. orange within. DISTR. Fruit—sweet and tasty. PROPERTIES AND USES. heavy speech. liver and spleen . used in syphilis (Yunani). tonic to brain. acrid. cures epilepsy. purgative. See—Ornamental Plants. and an essential oil. salver-shaped. :—Root is acrid. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. fatigue. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. emmenagogue. Fl.) FAM. indigestible. digestible.—rainy season. Root chewed relieves toothache .5-5 cm.—follicles. H.5-15 X 2. Ananta. M. improves voice. Br.— opposite. alexipharmic. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. cultivated in many parts. K. margins wavy. Taggar.5-5 cm. Nandi. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. LOC. strangury. Seeds are astringent to bowels. Cultivated in many places. The plant contains an alkaloid. Tagar . Bengal. wood and oil. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Tagar. Hills of Visakhapatanam.

Amli. : K. Sthulapushpa.—Compositæ. Tintidika. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES. . lessens inflammation . :—Root. :—Rain-forests.—follicle. :—Native of Mexico. internally they are said to purify blood. DISTR. Pandarakuda. their juice is given in ear-ache. :—E. :—E. Gultora. astringent. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn.5 m. :—Leaves and flowers. grown in gardens all over India. NS. Chinch. :—Flower-pungent. LOC. yellow when ripe.—opposite. Tintrani. G. Zanduga. divaricata. Imli. Amla. high.000 m. oblong lanceolate . Chinch. FAM.5 cm. Amli. Teter.5-20 X 3. FAM. C. Amlike. Zendu. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right.. Genda. HABITAT. useful in scabies. CHAR. Fl.. G. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. :—Same as T. PROPERTIES AND USES. Leaves—good for piles. Amala. See—Ornamental Plants. muscular pains. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. Nagaskuda.— tube inflated near the top. H. :—Malabar.5 cm. Sk. COM.— Mar-Apl. Kanara. Sk. 7. Nagakuda.—Apocynaceæ. Guljharo. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia.—surrounded by red pulp. oil. Halmeti. FAM. kidney troubles. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. Sd. coriaceous. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Flower—bitter. somewhat boat-shaped. Kalaga. LOC. belching. PARTS USED. 2. bitter. NS. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. Tamarind. good for teeth . COM. M. t. COM.4-4. PARTS USED. DISTR. K.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). :—Cultivated. Fl. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Travancore up to 7. throughout the Konkan and N. Maddarssa. rough. carminative. bark grey. HABITAT. M. L. acrid. Makhamali.. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. Sandu. Amlika. Makhamal. common in rain-forests. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . HABITAT..MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. LOC. Nuli. M. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). across in pedunculate cymes . French Marigold.2-7. Makhamala. NS. Chinchika.—white. stomachic. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . wood. H.

Fruit—sour. sweetish. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Cultivated also. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Seeds are good astringent. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. fruit and seeds. vomiting. Sag. indigestible. Teka. Teak. biliousness. intoxication &c. abundant all along the slopes of W. leaves. Kanara. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. DISTR. Sk. Sag. Malay Peninsula. useful in liver-complaints. :—E. PARTS USED. anthelmintic. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. scabies. Anil. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Tropics generally. Bark—astringent. digestive. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. astringent to bowels. Arna. Burma. :—Throughout India. M. K. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. flowers. such as body-burning. LOC. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Mahapatra. NS. tasty. Madhya Bharat. Fruit-sour. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. tonic. heals ulcers. earache. useful in giddiness and vertigo. sore-throat. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. small-pox. G. flowers and seeds. causes cough. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. aphrodisiac. Kanara. heating. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). boiled they are used as a poultice. urinary discharges. H. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. and laxative. LOC. :—Bark. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Sagun. carminative. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". laxative. laxative.—Verbenaceæ. eye-diseases. FAM. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Tega.. bark. tonic to heart. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. stomatitis. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. and for sizing materials. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Circars. costiveness. PARTS USED :—Root. tumours. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Sumatra and Java. See—Timbers. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. . Sagwan. DISTR. Condiments and Spices. Sagach. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. heals wounds and fractures. wood. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Flowers— appetising . Tegu. Sagwan.. Seeds astringent.

:—All over India. long. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. allays thirst. sedative to gravid uterus. Fl. poisoning. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). NS. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. syphilis. PROPERTIES AND USES. liver. Kogge. leaflets 11—21. Jhila. PARTS USED. Ghodakan. high. cures diarrhœa . Plihari.8—1.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. :—The whole plant. See—Timbers. "Root—diuretic.—Oct. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . linear. 2—2. boils and pimples. useful in bronchitis. ground and made into a pill. Phanike. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. red. improve appetite. ulcers. Sharapunkha. Udhadi.—petals clawed. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. S. oblanceolate. Sarphoka. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. pubescent on the back. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. :—A perennial herb. heart. Flowers—acrid. t. Empali. HABITAT:—Open situations. Fr. .2 cm. LOC. Leaves—tonic to intestines . root. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. bitter. cultivated lands and roadsides. long. Sarpankho. Kalika. biliousness.5 cm. Fl. suborbicular.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. LOC. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . biliousness. C. spleen diseases. inflammations. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Sk. anthelmintic. leaves and seeds. spleen. standard. useful in scabies. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. good in piles. cooling. Country. Sarphonka. branches spreading. antipyretic. H. 30—60 cm. blood. Unhali. slightly curved. L. laxative. Deccan. increase "Vata". silkyhairy beneath.8 X 0.—5-6 .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :-G. LOC. along forest borders. COM. enriches Blood . it acts also as a vermifuge. Wood good for head ache. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). dry. gonorrhœa (Yunani). fresh root-bark. FAM.—pod 3—4.. K. Gujarat. Wood—acrid. burning pain over the region of liver. mucronate. urinary discharges. cures diseases of liver. DISTR. Sharapunkha. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. glabrous above. mucronate.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. CHAR. anthelmintic.. useful in lung and chest diseases. leprosy. alexiteric. asthma.-June. M. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. expectorant. Konkan. :—Plant-digestible. M. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). useful in bronchitis. asthma. Bark is an astringent. useful in piles. Malay Peninsula. alterative. allays thirst. tumours. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers.

M. anæmia. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. NS. with milk. Kalidrum. Sk. Aksha. Fruit-pungent. Shantimara. DISTR. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Tari. G.. Arjan. strangury. :—E. Arjuna. Buhura. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—E. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Beheduk. Bibhitiki. COM. :—Bark. blood-diseases. LOC. Tara. LOC. Koha. sore-throat. :—Konkan and Deccan. asthma. heart disease. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. useful in bronchitis. biliousness.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Madhya-Pradesh. externally in wounds and fractures. Madhya-Bharat. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Bera. Chota-Nagpur. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Arjun Sadada. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. K. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. urinary discharges. :—Alexiteric. useful in fractures. anthelmintic. Behada. Sadado. PARTS USED. COM. G. aphrodisiac. Arjuna. PARTS USED.—Combretaceæ. Hela. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. biliousness. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Arjuna. Burma. styptic. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. White Marudah. Belleric Myrobalan. tonic. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. strangury. in Khandesh Akrani. Kahu. acrid. Madras State. Baire. tumours. digestible. FAM. very common in South Konkan. laxative. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Vibhitika. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Indradruma. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). excessive perspiration. Vibhata. false presentation of fœtus. ulcers. useful in biliousness. " Kapha".. H. Karshaphala. leaves. See—Timbers. in the sub-Himalayan tract. except in dry arid regions. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Kakubha.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Arjun-Sadada. Bahara. Expectorant. Voting. LOC. leucoderma. Sagona. Dhanvi. :—Throughout the forests of India. . Sadura. H. Behedo. FAM. fruit and seed. intoxication. diuretic. M. Bahaza. anthelmintic . fruit (rarely).—Combretaceæ. Bedda Nut. Kushika. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. tonic. inflammation. Karvirak. & A. NS. K. DISTR. Ceylon. Bastard Myrobalan. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. :—Bark. Rajastan and Sind.

piles. tonic. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. eye diseases etc. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. Sk. expectorant. enriches blood. Kernel has narcotic properties. —E. gums. Chebulic myrobalan. cold in head. corneal ulcers. useful in caries of teeth. bilious headache. M. Alate. tumours. Ripe fruit—purgative. Haritaki. the fully ripe or dried fruit. anaemia. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. typhoid fever. Haritaki. diseases of eye. heating. used in paralysis (Yunani). Burma. Gums and Resins. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. :—Fruit-dry. strangury. constipation. Haria. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. tonic. dyspepsia. USES. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. sore-throat. Ceylon. itching pain. Harara. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". attenuant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. Har. piles. antipyretic. Jivantika. Kanara. common in Khandesh Akrani. stomachic. vomiting. vomiting. Abhaya. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). Hirda. inflammations. anthelmintic. mixed with honey. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. K. brain tonic (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. Harade. See—Timbers. COM. biliousness. carminative. tonic. diarrhœa. alterative . LOC. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. good in ophthalmia. hoarseness. ascites. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. Fruit-astringent. FAM. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. strengthens brain. heart and bladder. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. is used as an application in ophthalmia. carminative. H. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. LOC. PARTS USED. heart and bladder. thirst. piles and diarrhœa. diseases of spleen. applied to eyes. useful in thirst. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. bleeding and ulceration of gums. eyes. elephantiasis. hiccup. Black myrobalan. antidysenteric. Jivanti. DISTR. NS. urinary discharges. Dyes. intoxicating. diseases of eye. G. LOC. delirium (Ayurveda). bleeding piles. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. aperient. useful in asthma. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic.—Combretaceæ. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. vesicular calculi. leucoderma. Hirdo . HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. gout. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. useful in dyspepsia. nose. Seed—acrid. in Travancore. :—Bark and fruit. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. which is considered a good digestive.

Sacred Plants. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. LOC. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. DISTR. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Gajadanta. :—Fruit-sour. . Suparshuakan. Sk. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Bhend. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Arasi. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Eastern and Western Peninsula. leaves. Kandarala. Gandarati. also planted as roadside tree. COM. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. NS. Tans. Fibres. Kanara. Bugari. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). profuse discharge. Parisha. acrid .—Malvaceæ. Tulip Tree. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Paraspiplo. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). aphrodisiac . FAM. Jogiyarale. H. Paras-piper. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Parasipu. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Hucerasi. M. Dyes. burning of body . Portia Tree. increases " Kapha " .. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Ranbhendi. Bengal. Bhandi. :—Coast forests of India. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. Phalisha. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . G. Kuberaksha. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Mhaskar and Issac). ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. K. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. :—Bark. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. especially centipedes. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Paraspipal. difficult to digest. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. See—Timbers. :—E. flowers and fruit. :—Districts of Konkan and N.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Bhindi. LOC. Burma. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. See—Timbers. produces worms in intestines .

MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. Sk. elliptic.—drupes. LOC. M. worms. 7. Amritvalli.—Apocynaceæ. across. CHAR. 5 cm. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. lobes 5. and blood vessels . L. bronchitis . Zard kunel. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. H. G. exocarp fleshy. Jwaranashini. cures " Vata " . with milky juice. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. Heart-leaved moonseed. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. PARTS USED. K. ventrally flat. .—generally 4. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . :—Throughout tropical India. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.-spirally arranged. acrid. yellow. size of a pea .5—12. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Haripriya. Gulhel. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. Gulvel. Uganiballi. bark corky. throat campanulate. leucoderma. Gulvel. root. Ashvaghna. Gado. hot. Indies . it has no action on digestive enzymes . H. crowded . Pila kaner. Sk. frequently planted. Pivali kanher. Burma.. Andamans and Ceylon. often planted in India. 7—9 nerved. COM. HABIT :—In thickets. t.—Menispermaceæ. Sd. Amarvel. Vatsadani. M. yellow. NS. seeds and milky juice. Karvira.—broadly obovate. mesocarp bony. Exile or yellow Oleander. PARTS USED.—in terminal cymes. 5—10 cm.—in axillary and terminal racemes. :—E. astringent to bowels. but its use is attended with considerable danger. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. pungent. skin diseases. piles. 1—3.5 cm. HABITAT. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). bladder. male fascicled. :—Native of S. wounds. tubular. FAM. Amrita-Valli. Fl. Fl. dorsally convex. :—E. DISTR. fevers. corona in the throat. bright green and shining above. Gulancha. :—Stem. FAM. eye-troubles. :—An extensive climber. G. useful in urethral discharges.—membranous. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. endocarp corky.. See—Ornamental Plants. C. females solitary. CHAR. Gulo. grooved . LOC. COM. Fl.. long. :—Often planted. red.—Apl. America and W. NS. virgin uterus. LOC. Shatakumbha. L. linear. very poisonous (Ayurveda). Fr. Gurch. Pila kanir. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. growing on mango and other trees. :—Bark. DISTR. Fr. Pittaghni.

renews blood. Macimullu.—Rutaceæ. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Gangalaki. high. piles. armed with small hooked prickles . crenulate. 5-7 lobed. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. stomachic .8-3.—Dehan. juice useful in diabetes.—globose. :—Stem-bitter. bark. enriches blood. Dahan. :—E. Kumaon to Bhutan. M. tropical Africa. Fl. :—Rain-forests. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. fruits. DISTR. . ovary rudimentary.—Aug. female flower buds oblong. Lopezroot Tree. diarrhœa. Sumatra.-Jany. also in the Deccan hills. stomachic. Konkan and Kanara. L. Root and stem are bitter. especially acid. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. causes constipation. COM. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. HABITAT. FT. 15 m. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. anæmia. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. pitted on the rind. cures jaundice. Ceylon. white. LOC. :—All over the Madras State . Mirchi. dark shining green above. useful in skin diseases. common in S. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). FAM. jaundice. Root-bark is aromatic. leaflets sessile. Kaduhakukare. tonic appetiser. China. CHAR.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. Philippines. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine.— alternate. t. digitately trifoliate. orange coloured. allays thirst. size of a large pea. vaginal and urethral discharges. chronic fever. tonic. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. Sk. Limri. unisexual. 3-5 grooved. stimulant and anti-periodic. Khasia Hills. Fl. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. stimulates bile secretion. good in cough.—in axillary cymes. Manger. leaves. H. vomiting. diuretic. :—Root. Java. PROPERTIES AND LOC. burning sensation. Jangali-Mirchi. Stem-bitter. NS. Kadu-menasu. USES. K. expectorant. oblong. PARTS USED. vomiting. (Kirtikar). coriaceous. Forest Pepper.. stigma sessile. giddiness. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases.8. fever. male flower bud globose. 5-10 X 1. LOC. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. antipyretic. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism.

Lud. Nand-vriksha. Kuberaka. :—E. Trikone-phala.—Onagraceæ. fatigue. Tuni. urinary discharges. Bark—bitter. Chittagong. See—Timbers. HABIT. digestible. Kuruk. :—E. Sandal Neem. fattening. Singhara. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. cures fevers. inflammation. Kalingi. :—Throughout India. M.. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. good for scabies and gleet. leprosy. LOC. :—Fruit. Shringa-kanda-taka. expectorant. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. removes " Tridosha". astringent to bowels.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. PROPERTIES AND USES. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. tonic. astringent to bowels. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Tun. Waitz). FAM. burning sensation. Toon. M. Tunika. Lim. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. Trikota. K. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. DISTR. Mahalimbu. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Water-chestnut. Dyes. itching. Gandhagarige. LOC. Jalakantaka-valli. Kaechaka. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. :—Aquatic (in tanks). headache. tropical Africa. Kanara. causes " Vata " . astringent to bowels. LOC. :—Bark and flowers. Indian Mahogany. Singodi. H. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). G. Chota-Nagpur. Garige. Burma. :—Bark-acrid. Ceylon. cures leprosy. burning sensation. Shingada. Sk. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Mandurike. biliousness. Tundu.—Meliaceæ. cardio-tonic. NS. COM. Shingoda. :—Cooling . "Tridosha". PARTS USED. anthelmintic. NS. aphrodisiac. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Sk. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. removes " Kapha ". It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. often cultivated. antipyretic . blood diseases. strangury. biliousness. of India). useful in ulcers. cooling. aphrodisiac. Assam. Deodari.) FAM. useful in . indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Apina. Gums and Resins. H. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. DISTR. COM. Malaya.

one of each pair smaller than the other. PARTS USED. sore-throat. Aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Java. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. bile and phlegm. LOC.. yellow. pain. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). Country. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. See—Timbers. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. CHAR.—Euphorbiaceæ. Sk. along nalas and in swampy localities. Kere Padye. Gokhru. lumbago. Shadanga. Karahate. one pair longer than the other . Gokhru. :—A procumbent herb. :—E. K. Assam. Ceylon. Sumatra. COM. bronchitis. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. solitary. L. M. Fl. Gokhura. Tumri. Kantaphala. :—H. Gokharu. Fr. each with 2 pairs of hard.—Zygophyllaceæ. Malay Peninsula. mucronate. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. Pindara. K. in Kashmir. Kanara. Petari . DISTR. See—Food Plants. Calthrope. oblong. base oblique. leaflets 3—6 pairs . NS. stems and branches pilose.—opposite. H. Gujarat. Fibres. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Seeds abound in starch. Hussuk. used as food. Deccan and S. Pindara. bad-teeth (Yunani).:—Saurashtra. G. hairy. Negalu . NS. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. sharp spines. alexiteric. thirst. upto 3300 m. M.—throughout the year. LOC. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. DISTR. Gokshura. considered cool and sweet. FAM. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections.—several in each coccus . Ceylon. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. The plant contains an alkaloid.. Trikantaka. t. COM. They are also used in the form of poultice. antipyretic. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Gamhar. useful in chronic fevers. :—Throughout India. of 5 woody cocci. biliousness. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. LOC. M. FAM. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. PROPERTIES AND USES. improves taste . . appetiser.. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Gokshri. abruptly pinnate. Sarata.—globose.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Sk. :—The whole plant. Chhota gokhru. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Sd. young parts silky. a common weed of the drier parts. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. LOC. Kurangaha. :—Plant is cooling tonic.

Sk. suppression of urine. . pruritus ani. cures skin and heart diseases. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED.— Dec. Aja-dandi. West Rajastan. purifies blood . :—Cooling . Brahmadandi. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. fruits. lumbago . tonic . Country. urinary disorders and impotence. C. gonorrhœa. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). Konkan. :—The whole plant. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . linear-oblong or lanceolate. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. ovoid. inflammations. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). Abu. yellowish brown. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. Brahma-dandi. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). Brahmadandi. t. H. Diuretic. M. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. diuretic. Kantapatraphala. cures "Kapha". involucral bracts linear-lanceolate.—heads 6—8 mm.—sessile. PARTS USED. S. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. Central India. —achene. USES :—Fruits are cooling. tonic. Brahmadandi. long. pappus shorter than the achenes. pain . "Vata". NS. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. emmenagogue (Yunani). branches angled and ribbed. useful in strangury. appetiser. aphrodisiac. S. :—Hot. vesicular calculi. PROPERTIES AND USES. : — G. gleet. :—Wild in places. reduces inflammation . :—A glabrous herb. Fr. alterative . oblong. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. bitter. which is taken in large quantities. bloody urine. urinary discharges. stem erect. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. L. spinous toothed or serrate. alleviating burning sensation. slender. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. ciliate. Kanara. LOC. faintly ribbed. removes " Tridosha ". improves appetite . FAM.—Compositæ. DISTR. cures strangury. base of the cauline leaves not auricled .— purple. diuretic. leaves. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. stomachic. M. increases menstrual flow. tonic. CHAR. Fl. Fl. LOC. seeds. :—Western Peninsula. enriches blood . cough. the Deccan. copious. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES. Talakanto. Brahmadandi. COM. Mt. Physiaran. piles. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). fattening. S. leprosy . removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). asthma. Mota-Motachor. reduces inflammation. :—Root. HABITAT.

—monœcious. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan.—Cucurbitaceæ. orbicular. Makal. Perula. —G. stomachic. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. green with white stripes when raw.5 m. antipyretic. In Bombay. alterative. white. stem robust. asthma. leaf-juice is emetic. Leaves—good for biliousness. Kiripodla.5 cm. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). Jangli— Kadu padval. Kaundal. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. it is given in decoction with ginger. Patola. Indrayan. t.. COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.-5-12. Panduka. Mahakala.. Wild Snake-gourd. — surrounded with red-pulp .. Lal-indrayan. K. DISTR. erysipelas. laxative. females solitary. leprosy. Fl. allays thirst. Ratan-indrayan. long. stems 3.3-12. pungent. reniform or broadly ovate. COM. useful for boils and intestinal worms. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. K.—July-Oct. burning sensation. CHAR. Jangali chichonda. oil. Betlada padaval. Sd. chireta and honey. NS. paler beneath. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.5 cm. woody below. blood diseases. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic.3 cm. furrowed. :—Root-cathartic .—2. :—E. Sk. Fl. base cordate . slender. palmately 3-5 lobed. :—Throughout India. ulcers. slightly hairy. deeply 5-lobed. axillary. LOC. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. headache and boils. :—A scandent annual. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. H. cures bronchitis. Jyotsna. Avagude-hannu. fruit. male in axillary racemes. base deeply cordate. ovoid-fusiform.5—7. antipyretic.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. dentate or serrate. FAM. H. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. long. Malaya. anasarca and ascites. Ceylon. Sk.-6. HABITAT:-In hedges. Root-juice is very purgative. Kadvi-padyal or patola . scarlet when ripe. Fr. Australia. M. CHAR. FAM . eye diseases.—Cucurbitaceæ. alexiteric. Fl. PARTS USED.-male in axillary . :—Root. tendrils 3 cleft. bitter. Malay Peninsula. G. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. L. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. leaves. N. long. lobes ovate-oblong. distantly denticulate. Mukal. NS. M. leucoderma. the Deccan. with a long sharp beak. LOC. Katuka. L. cures itching. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . Fruit—hot. dark-green above. tendrils 3-fid.6—4. long as well as broad. PROPERTIES AND USES. variable. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge.

Kirkee. DISTR.—head solitary. lessens inflammations .. Malaya. Juice of fruit or root-bark.-July.— Apl. t. gargle good for toothache. :— Wild in Konkan. PARTS USED.. t. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). leprosy. limbweakness.—throughout the year. peduncles very long. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. LOC.— achene. LOC. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . middle lobe smallest. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. female solitary. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. purgative.—Compositæ. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. black. axillary. :—Wild in hilly parts. Australia. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. HABITAT. M. Deccan and S. . ovate-elliptic.75 X . :—Throughout India.. sparsely white hairy. petioles densely hairy. densely silky hairy. bracts large. L. all over the State.5 cm. FAM. heat of brain. :—Leaves. inner slightly longer than outer. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic.75-1 in. cures hemicrania. Fl. :—Abundant in the Deccan. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. COM. outer involucral bracts ovate. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places.—globose 3-8. 30-60 cm. boiled with gingelly oil.—1. Ceylon. Ray flowers ligulate.. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. Fl. many years ago. China. used in epilepsy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. white. slender. LOC. :—A perennial straggling herb. rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. glandular. Japan. N. abortifacient. Fr. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. diam. :—Root and fruit. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Fl. 3-partite. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. on the Himalayas. C. Ekdandi. bruises and wounds. ophthalmia. hairy. CHAR. high. PARTS USED. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. NS. Sd. ligules yellow. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). acute. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. DISTR. which is found abundantly all over the country. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache.—petals wedge-shaped. Fruit—carminative. fringed. :—M.—many . very hairy. Country. stem and branches hairy.

Chandrika. enlargement of spleen and liver. also in low and sandy localities. much used in colic. LOC. with coma . HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests.—follicles. long. diuretic. S. PROPERTIES AND USES. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Methi .. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. Pitakari (Pitamari).. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. and the seeds contain vitamin A. tonic. t. Country. M. narrowed at the apex to a free point. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. astringent to bowels. :—Leaves and seeds. M. LOC. :—Cultivated. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. Kashmir. G.—deeply lobed. Jyoti. H. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. diarrhœa. appetiser. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. removes bad taste from mouth. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. Methini. "Vata". prevent hair falling off (Yunani). dropsy. :—Hot.— broadly ovate. 7. suppurative.5-5.—in umbellate cymes . Fl. Konkan. emmenagogue. dysentery. K. corona gibbous below.—Aug. bronchitis. anthelmintic. K. enlargement of spleen and liver. Sk.7 cm. Kanara. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. :—A twining perennial. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. LOC. Fenugreek . Methi. COM. piles.—opposite.5—10 cm. Nepala . PARTS USED. large for the genus. Pitabija Vedhini. FN. Hot and dry. antipyretic. cultivated in many parts of India.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. 5-10 x 2. :—E. cures leprosy. Janglipikvan. Methi. L. NS. roots many. ovate or elliptic oblong. CHAR. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. useful in dropsy.-Nov. FAM. Menthe—palle. base cordate. :—Punjab. HABITAT. greenish-yellow outside. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. chronic cough.—Asclepiadaceæ. C.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). they are also aphrodisiac. purplish within. Methi. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Fl. vomiting. Sd. NS. :—South of Bombay. long. Muthi. tapering to a fine point at the apex. M. DISTR. COM. :—H. fleshy. . See—Vegetables. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. flatulence. FAM. tonic and carminative. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. aperient. Antamul.

M. Fl. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Malay Islands. :—Sandy places. COM. diaphoretic and expectorant. :—Western Himalayas. linear.—capsule. Pitvan. Jangli-Ran-khanda. Burma. Ceylon. :—Common on sandy shores. Sd. DISTR. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. Dabra. Fl. Fl. URGINEA INDICA Kunth.—in racemes 15-30 cm. white. DISTR. HABITAT.. H. stalks long.5 cm.. long. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Borneo. perianth campanulate.-Sept. :—A perennial shrub. PARTS USED. Malay Islands. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. :—Wild. folded on one another. Peninsula. Ceylon. drooping. C. NS. leaflets on the upper part of the stem.— Liliaceæ. Dried leaves are emetic. L. :—E. polished. Thailand (Siam). CHAR. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Throughout the plains of India. long.— pod. M. NS. linear-oblong. Rankanda.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).— petals lanceolate. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. scape erect 30-45 cm. hairy beneath. Pithavan. blotched with white above. Panjala. URARIA PICTA Desv. pale lead-colored. flat. :—A herb. LOC. tropical Africa. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha.—appearing after the flowers. long. 5-7 (rarely 9). HABITAT. G. Sk. Indian Squill. Vanapalandu. found useful in dysentery. PARTS USED. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. FAM. Fr. Shankaraja . light-brown . Chota-Nagpur. :—G. C. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.3-2. . bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). USES. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. high.—purple. :—Bulb. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. t. Sk. Ranganja . 20-30 cm. W. 0. glabrous. black. Philippines. Bihar. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery.. joints 3-6.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. CHAR. Jaglipiaz. FAM. :—Roots and leaves. Prishna-parni. :—Konkan. L.8 m. 10-20 cm.. USES. H. ellipsoid.. LOC. tapering to both ends .—Aug. KolaPutakand. 15-45 x 1. stems downy with hooked hairs.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes.. Fr.— imparipinnate.— flattened.9-1. Pitavan . tropical Africa.

Ceylon. anthelmintic. pollinia ellipsoid. obtusely keeled. diseases of the abdomen. Br. PARTS USED. FAM. Sk. Peninsula. W. Rasna. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. COM. USES :—Expectorant.3-2 cm. toothache. lumbago. :—Epiphyte. tonic to brain and liver. maritima of U. renal calculi. Bandanike. acute. LOC. asthma. scandent by simple or branching roots . Vriksharuha. Sarpagandha. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. t. laxative. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. and U. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Persara. rheumatic pains. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Konkan. Gujarat and Kanara. Root is bitter. 2-lobed. column very short. alexiteric.—thickly coriaceous.. long. Atiras. antipyretic. 15-20 X 1.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. . The bulb is stomachic. Rasno. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. praemorse. (In Med. dropsy. boils in the scalp. LOC. CHAR. complicate. :—G. diseases of nose. Bihar. purgative. L. Travancore. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. recurved. A. bronchitis. 1931. Rasna. stem 30-60 cm. heals fractures (Yunani). :—An epiphyte. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). :—The bulb is pungent. Fl. :—Bengal. stimulant and diuretic. tremors (Ayurveda). long. good for piles. Fl. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Banda. skin diseases. heating. internal pains (Yunani).5—9 cm.—capsule. erect. Chota-Nagpur. lip bluish dotted with purple. stout. Rasna. anthelmintic. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7.. LOC.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES.. hiccup. H. :—Root and leaves. alexiteric. Madhya-Pradesh. bronchitis. Fr. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. The plant contains an alkaloid. DISTR. tip. inflammations. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. alexiteric. heating. Vanda. cardiac.— July. Nakula. M. and an acute interposed one. scilla of Great Britain. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. NS. diuretic. Gaz. HABIT. rheumatism.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. useful in paralysis. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. emmenagogue. lessens inflammations . useful in dyspepsia. :—Root is bitter.—Orchidaceæ. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. S. K. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. and was found useful (Koman). bronchitis. long.

dark. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. good for sore-throat. Kaharub. Country. :—North Kanara. :—Bark. C. :—E. acrid. Fr. fruit. entire or crenate. (T. useful in atonic dyspepsia.—in large drooping terminal panicles. :—Bark-hot. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. COM. Haruge. also in N. :—E. Raktavalli. Mysore.8 cm. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora).—Dipterocarpaceæ. yellowish.—petals 5. Pitti. :—Madras State. Fl. young branches and panicles pubescent. with an offensive odour. carminative. ulcers and wounds. Khandvel. tuberculous glands. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. globular. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. FAM. LOC. Ceylon. Dhupa. Shandike. abundant in S. Dhupa. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn.. also planted. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. Oils. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Malamaitra. Kanara and S. NS. Lokhandi. piles. t. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. 1-nerved wing.—5-10 X 2. . Sekalyel. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. boils and ringworm. anæmia. :—A large much branched woody climber. detergent. Ragatarshado. resin.—Dec. Gums and Resins. skin eruptions. rheumatism. LOC. Travancore. dysentery. CHAR. :—Bark. :—Western India. stomachic.—Rhamnaceæ. cures cough. useful in leprosy. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat.. PARTS USED. H. alexipharmic. bechic. Poppli.5-3. Kundura. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. tonic. PARTS USED. FAM.-nut about 5 mm. urinary discharges. eardiseases. expectorant.-Jany. NS. Bilidhupa. See—Timbers. Coorg in Ghats. G. Kanara. USES. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Tenasserim. alexipharmic. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. M. tonic and stimulant. prolonged into a linear-oblong. diam. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). greenish. buds 5-angled. Sarjaka. debility and slight cases of fever. Madidhupa. whitish). Fl. DISTR. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. DISTR. Shala. COM. LOC. L. amenorrhœa. Sandras. hemicrania. K. K.. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. in chronic bronchitis. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kubbila. M. Red Creeper. Sk. diarrhœa. itch (Ayurveda). Safed-damar. Sk. HABITAT :—Hotter parts.

Kalejire. :—E. Sk. Somaraj. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. L. erect. cure ulcers. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. PARTS USED. high . hairy. Kalijiri. Kalizhiri. Ceylon . is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. Vishamushti. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. hairy on both sides. Gujarat. LOC.—oblong.2 cm. Afghanistan. M. robust. innermost the longest. rounded. FAM. lanceolate. Bakchi. warted. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Fl. Country. on long petioles. NS. high.5—3. Kalhara. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. Sundika.. Purple Fleabane. LOC.-rotate. :—An annual herb. Vapehi. L. in equal proportions. Sd.8 cm.—Scrophulariaceæ. often cultivated. involucre bracts linear. K. stem 0. NS. t— Jany. truncate. compound or pinnatisect.-achene oblong cylindric. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. stems 60—90 cm. yellow. 10-ribbed. DISTR. COM.Feb. all coarsely dentate. Fr. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India.) FAM. Ceylon. Fl. branched near the top. Deccan .224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. coarsely serrate. Agnibija.-May. hairy. K. HABITAT:-Waste places. Somaraj. :—G. Vanajiraka. :—Seeds-acrid. China. Kulara. sub-globose. :—Konkan .—Dec. hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES. squeezed out by pounding..—capsule. pappus reddish. "Vata" and "Kapha". anthelmintic. M. about 40-flowered. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. :—Throughout India . lobes 5. Kadvojiri.6-0. Bhutakeshi. with purple tips . LOC. rachis glandular pubescent. H. leafy herb . Fr.9 m.—alternate. Sk. Kutki.—Compositæ. H. M. Seeds— anthelmintic. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. lyrate. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. PROPERTIES AND USES. . ofter cultivated.—heads subcorymbose. CHAR. 5—9 x 2. used in skin-diseases. The juice of the whole plant. astringent to bowels. Java . Kulhala.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. DISTR.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. G. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. Gadar-tambaku.. PARTS USED. C.. and leaves. COM. Fl. :—Plant. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Fl. :—Annual. The juice mixed with mustard oil. CHAR. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. t. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage.

Vecrnam. Lavancha. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Panni.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Fl. kidney troubles. used for asthma. Dandotpala. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. seeds. The plant with quinine. flowers. Bena. cures "Tridosha". are used in destroying pediculi. heads small. tropical Asia. made into a bolus with lime-juice. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. plant is used in fever convulsions. Fl. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. silky on the back. K. Sk. :—Throughout India.—Compositæ. cold. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. alternate. They are also used as tonic. LOC.—Jan. Ushira. asthma. NS.—simple. NS. stomachic. M.—achene. Osari.—Gramineæ. Fr. FAM.— pinkish violet. Sadodi. Sahadevi. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf.-Feb. hiccup . with lime-juice. COM. a depilatory (Yunani). Valo . Ardhaprasadana. Sahadevi. :—Plant. bruised seeds ground up in paste. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. oblong. CHAR. Devika. clothed with white hairs . astringent. In Ceylon. Ash-coloured Fleabane . COM. Sind. consumption. Vala. G. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Australia. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury.. 15—75 cm. :—E. tonic. applied in inflammatory swellings . Bala. DISTR. Sahadevi. pubescent. FAM. Koosa. :—A common weed throughout the State. LOC. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). stem stiff. awned. L. :—E. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). Kuruvelu. . about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. Sedardi. high. K. remove blood from liver. LOC. Cuscus grass. t. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Sk. bronchitis . pappus white. H. M. Mudivala. :—Annual. H. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. Africa . they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. The expressed juice is given in piles. good for sores and itching of eyes. G. Sadori. Khas. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. erect herb. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. stomachic and diuretic. striate.

stomachic. expectorant and diuretic. strangury. Nigod. PARTS USED. LOC. The otto is used as a tonic. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. Nirgundi.. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. margin spinously rough. Konkan and Deccan. anthelmintic.8 m. bitter. The roots contain an essential oil. also cultivated. slender. biliousness. usually sheathed all along. alexiteric. rachis stout. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. DISTR. Nirgundi. throughout the Malayan regions. inflammations and irritability of stomach. astringent. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. COM. NS. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. :—Cooling. refrigerant. Sind. asthma. promotes hair-growth. LOC.—Verbenaceæ. bitter. Nukki. K. up to over 1. LOC. :—Throughout India. bitter. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . bilious fevers. leucoderma. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). consumption.. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. M. colour varying from yellowish to black. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. Philippine Islands. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. Nilpushpi. soporific. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. febrifuge. thirst. Nirgari. Leaves are aromatic. useful in burning sensation. useful in eye diseases. Fl. Lakki. Kanara in damp places. cephalic. leaves. inflammations. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache.-leaf sheaths compressed. foul breath. bronchitis. Culms stout. West-Indies and Brazil. lower ones keeled and fan-like. diuretic. H. DISTR. Nirgud. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. Indrani. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. Cooling to brain. heating. blood diseases (Yunani). useful in spermatorrhoea. Sk.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. sweats. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. racemes up to 5 cm. Sessile spikelets. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. FAM. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. pale green. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. long. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). stimulant and tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nirgundi. :—Throughout the State. high. Sinduvara. Bilenekki. stomachic. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . Sambhalu. :—Common in Gujarat and N.—panicle up to 30 cm. L. spleen enlargement. PARTS USED. astringent. erect. :—G. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. Ceylon. Afghanistan. :—Root. tonic and vermifuge. :—Roots. head-ache. USES :—Root is tonic. long.

burning. :—Deccan. See—Timbers. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. stones in bladder. allays vomiting. Angura. emmenagogue. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). The fruits contain vitamin A. heat of body. diarrhœa. Grape-vine. fattening. laxative. applied in scabies. testicle swellings and piles. cooling . syphilis. Gujarat and S. jaundice. Fruit is nervine. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. cures thirst. Angur. LOC. bad effects of drinking. FAM-—Vitaceæ. strangury. purifies and enriches blood . In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. fattening . juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. appetiser. expectorant. sparingly in Poona. Fruit— digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES. and given in coughs. produces constipation. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. diuretic . Draksha. Draksha. fever. diuretic. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy.. Seeds—aphrodisiac. DISTR. tonic to liver. flowers. . difficult to digest. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. W. G. allays vomiting. catarrh and jaundice. emmenagogue. :—E. Draksha. NS. Drakh . asthma. Sk. a remedy for skin diseases. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. blood diseases. K. :—A native of western Asia. Ahmednagar. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Flowers—expectorant. HABITAT. H. cooling. produces alopecia. good in chronic bronchitis . laxative. and traces of vitamins B and C. astringent to bowels. :—Fruit-acrid. cough. Yakshmaghni. aperient. hoarseness and consumption. M. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. fever. COM. fruits. Draksha. skin should not be eaten. spleen inflammation. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). Khandesh. Madhurasa. piles. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. leaves. The plant contains an alkaloid. causes gases in the stomach. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—Stem. sweet. LOC. cooling useful in thirst. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. Country. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. stops bleeding from mouth. Darakh. good for lungs. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". aphrodisiac. Sap of young branches. good for eyes and throat. stomachic. liver and kidney. useful in old fevers. Guchaphala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. M. India. seeds. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. :—Cultivated.

:—Drier regions. hoary tomentose . tonic. Hooliganji. (not common. insomnia. psoriasis. Canaries. constricted between them. :—In the drier regions of India . Winter-cherry. minutely hairy. :—Deccan.—5-10 X 2. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Amangura. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. linear oblong. .. consumption. Sogada-beru.-Feb. pretty common in the ghats. Ceylon. Fr.. alexipharmic. G. COM. CHAR. CHAR.— Sept. leaves. Sk. obovate. branches armed with recurved prickles . dark-orange. Drakshasava—used as tonic.5-12. diam. acrid. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Gandhpatri. Tuber—bitter. red. Asoda. :—K. M. oblong. calyx-tube. aphrosidiac. abundant in Sind .—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). LOC. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . aphrodisiac. Asgund.3-1. alterative. t. chest troubles etc. Ghodasoda. inflammations. :—E. DISTR. oblong. hard. K. H. 23-30 cm. anthelmintic. ovate. HABITAT. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz.5-5 cm. branches terete. spathulate. main rachis armed with prickles. :—Root and bark.—berry. USES. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. armed with prickles . Mediterranean regions. Wagati. green berries.. dark-green. leaflets 5-7 pairs. Gujarat. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Kanchuki. seeds. anthritis. Fl. C. smooth. Fl.—Solanaceæ. lumbago. tonic.—2-pinnate. pinnae 4-6 pairs. See—Fruit Trees. NS. senile debility. good in asthma. 0. L. Kanara. FAM.—greenish or lurid yellow. long.5 m. Deccan. Wakeri. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . Cape of Good Hope. useful in "Vata". LOC.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. Fr. marasmus of children. L. FAM. :—Tubers-bitter.—pod. Wagati. Kamrupini. PARTS USED :—Root. t.—yellow. "Kapha". ulcers. somewhat scurfy. enclosed in inflated calyx.—petals 5. leucoderma. bronchitis. scabies. PARTS USED. :—A branched erect undershrub. long. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). inflammations. rachis grooved with soft hairs. entire. M. Ashvagandha.) DISTR. inserted on the top of. long. asthma. base dentate. :—A robust woody climber. 7. favours constipation (Yunani). Sd. bony Fl.—3-4. heating. swollen above the seeds. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. bronchitis. high. emmenagogue .-Jany. Sd. Asan. slightly 5-angled. Punir. Asgundh. Vajini.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. Fl. Hirimaddina-gadde. :—Konkan jungles. 6 mm. Balada. COM.5 cm. coriaceous.

Bark-infusion is used for asthma. anthelmintic . Tamrapushpi. Hayamaraka. NS. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying.—mostly opposite. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. USES. useful in leucorrhoea. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Br. Phulsatti. lumbar pains. LOC. irregularly dehiscent. blood diseases. branches long. toxic. M. brown. cooling. smooth. :—G. alexiteric. Sumatra. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. See—Tans. Dhaiti. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. Madhuindrayava. Fl. . Kalakuda. rheumatism. dysentery. wedge-shaped. Fr. debility from old age. DISTR. Dhawai. Dhateki.. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Kodamurki. Kalikari. uterine sedative. :—G. erysipelas.—numerous. common in the Konkan and N. simple. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Indrajav. diuretic and deobstruent. Baluchistan. The plant contains an alkaloid.3-2. Kanara near the sea-coast. Dhavani. :—Monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark and flowers. HABITAT.—capsule.) FAM. :—Root is regarded as tonic. K. velvety above. Fl. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. L. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Vanhishikha. COM. Madagascar. Hale. acrid. Indrajav. emaciation of children. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Are. 1 cm. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. leprosy. :—Throughout India. Dhaw. alterative. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. COM. and in derangement of liver . Dudhi. Sd. Kuda. Sk. :—Pungent. used in thirst. NS. LOC. H. China. t. Ornamental Plants. Khirni.—Lythraceæ.—Apocynaceæ. Ceylon. Indrajav. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Java. Japan. Dyes.5 cm. Dhawadina. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . FAM. It is narcotic. M. H. haemorrhoids. Madhavasini. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. in 2-15 flowered cymes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. PARTS USED. 5-9X 1. leaf-infusion is given in fever. nigro-punctate beneath. ulcers and painful swellings . Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. long. Bela. on trap in the Akrani. Swetakutaj. scarlet. Santha. Dhavani. K. Sk. Dec. tropical Africa.— numerous. Hallunova. ovate-lanceolate.-May.

1-6. M. the bark is specially useful in piles. fever. :—Bark and seeds. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES. rough with short hairs . epilepsy. See—Timbers. Fl. :—The whole plant. CHAR.. Clot-Cockle-bur.Feb. long and broad. L. long. hairy on both sides. antipyretic. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Fl. Madhya Pradesh. anthelmintic. Timor. barren heads many. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. . :— Throughout India. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). laxative. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. Khandesh at 1050 m. LOC. all over the State. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. in W. voice. In S. cures leucoderma. Ceylon.. LOC.-E.—many. Dumundi. COM. FAM. PARTS USED. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. stem short. USES :—Root is bitter. salivation. PARTS USED. :—Annual herb . complexion. involucre of fertile head. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. antidysenterica (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES. t. 1-3 cm. G. poisonous bites of insects. fattening. ovoid in fruit. Bur-Weed. Itara. H.—Compositæ. especially root and fruit.5 cm. DISTR. Sarpakshi. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. alexiteric. biliousness. tonic.. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. Sk. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. with 2 erect beaks. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). Aristha. axillary. improves appetite. Dutundi. compressed . 3-lobed. irregularly incisoserrate . stout. Banokra. LOC. :—Cooling. Sankeshwar. West-Peninsula. Shankhahuli. Kambu-Vanamalini. tonic. NS. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. LOC. fertile heads few. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . at the top.achene.—Jany. Gadrian. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. oblong ovoid. hard and tough. DISTR. 5-7. memory.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. Fr. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. :—Rajastan.

Sk. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Koli. DISTR. useful in elephantiasis. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Plum. Alla Adrak. H. aphrodisiac. "Vata". Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). :—E. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. FAM. Boyedi. Bogari. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. vomiting. M. LOC. Ber. inflammations.. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. appetiser.—Scitaminaceæ. pains. and dry situations. carminative. It is stimulant. loss of appetite and piles. :—E. . Alen. it is also given in the form of infusion. Bor. eructations. aphrodisiac. Egasi. Ipanji. FAM. Kandara. Ber. flatulence. COM. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. LOC. NS. alexiteric. anthelmintic. Beri. See—Condiments and Spices. K. G. M. pains (Yunani). :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. on poor soil and in rocky places. H. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. :—Rhizome. heating. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. it cleans throat. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Hasisunthi. rheumatism. colic. dyspepsia. Ardraka. NS. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. removes pain due to cold. expectorant. Chinese Date. Ada. Bore. PARTS USED. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). lumbago. piles. Indian Cherry. good in piles. HABITAT. Ajapriya. tonic. Kuvali. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). tongue and increases appetite. useful in heart and throat diseases. asthma. Bordi. Bor. head-ache. Shringavera. :—Rhizome-pungent. Alen. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. stomachic. Gulmmula. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. "Kapha". Rhizome—pungent. Anupama.—Rhamnaceæ. gives lustre to eye. Sk. carminative. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Adrate. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Dridhabija. bronchitis. laxative. Badari. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. COM. K. to prevent nausea and griping. stomachic. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. :—Cultivated. Ginger. vomiting. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) .

Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Fruit—sweet and sour. Leaves—anthelmintic. thirst. DISTR. Fruit Trees. laxative. on the laterite near the coast in N. biliousness. Africa. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. Bark—causes boils . Afghanistan. Burma. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . China. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). :—Root. allays thirst (Yunani). good in consumption and blood-diseases. wounds and ulcers. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Fruits contains vitamin A. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. :—Root-bitter. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. head-ache. Kanara. tonic. Ceylon. tonic to heart and brain . . :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. removes biliousness. bark. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Australia. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. PARTS USED. vomiting. seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Seed—astringent. causes cough. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. reduce obesity. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding.. indigestible. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. Root and Bark tonic. Leaves form a plaster to boils. aphrodisiac. Fruit— cooling. useful in fevers. good in liver complaints. Leaves antipyretic. causes diarrhœa in large doses .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . abundant in the Deccan. LOC. fruit. cooling. See—Timbers. leaves. burning sensation. cure asthma.