SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.8 cm. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Kanara (often on laterite). HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Country and Gujarat. Sk. See—Timbers. Charmakusha. acrid. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence).-July. M. LOC. linear-oblong. L.—pod. along the coasts of Konkan and N. Pegu. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. . branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Khair. mouth troubles.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ).-6-10 . (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. COM. Khadira. Himalayas up to 1700 m. DISTR. cooling. Khandesh Akrani S. Shige. Lalkhair. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. erysipelas. Kochi. Soap-pod tree.—in fascicled globose heads.5-12. :—Rajastan. leprosy. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Dipta. Chikakai. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). :—Common throughout the Stale . antidysenteric.-Mar. leucorrhoea. sore-throat and tooth-ache.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Shikekai. Malay Islands. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. anthelmintic. yellow. throat diseases. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. psoriasis. K. Sd. :—Throughout India.. fleshy when green. anti-pyretic. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Dantadhavan. Fr. piles. Kushthari. Deccan. wrinkled when dry . In ulceration of the gums. urinary and vaginal discharges. ulcers. gums. Sige-balli or kai. LOC. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. overlapping. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Yajnika. Ritha. aphrodisiac. Manda-otte. CHAR. " Kapha ". M. M. :—An extensive woody climber. G. :—Common in the Konkan and N. 7. Saradruma. long. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. strengthens teeth. bronchitis. relaxation of the uvula.5X2-2. 5-10 cm. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). NS. Kath-bole. given in elephantiasis. Saptata. prurigo. Bhuriphena. Dyes. DISTR. Burma. heaviness. " Vata ". cures itching. Tans.. Fl. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. indigestion. astringent to bowels. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda).-t. Sikkim.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. LOC. tonic. Kanara forests. Phena. Western Peninsula. boils. Fl. hypertrophy of tonsils. Vidula. Sk.—bipinnate. :—E. measles and other skindiseases. China. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. It is given in diarrhœa. inflammations. FAM. H.

Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. ulcers. Arimeda. cooling. blood-diseases. often cultivated. prurigo. cardio-tonic. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. . K. purgative. LOC.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Sauna jali.. Gandhelo khair . detergent. Sk. anthelmintic. See—Timbers. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. M. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. improves appetite. Gum—sweetish. Gums and Resins. alexiteric. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. Kankri. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. anti-dysenteric. bronchitis. Marudruma. Gandhbabul. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). inflammations. burning sensation. caries of teeth. Girimeda. expectorant and good emetic. COM. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . eczema.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). stomatitis. tonic. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. digestible. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. anti-diarrhoeal. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. Jali. Jheri baval. NS. erysipelas. Sponge tree. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. causes " Vata". DISTR. Kari jali. common in eastern parts of the Deccan.pungent. :—E. not indigenous but naturalised. HABITAT :—Moist situations. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. leucoderma. anthelmintic. cures stomatitis. Sind. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. G. Pissibabul. Stinking acacia. erysipelas. leucoderma. Internally they are aperient. biliousness. buboes. externally they are applied to leprous patches. H. LOC. leaves and gum. ascites. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. deobstruent. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Devababhul. piles. often planted . FAM. In Philippines decoction. Vilavati kikar. blood diseases. itching. cures " Kapha. Cassia flower.

L. crenate-serrate. one-seeded. :—Throughout India. females. 2. Philippines. high. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. branches long. erect. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. in lax.3 X 2. Kuppi. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. :—An erect herb 0.5 cm. Utranigida. Kharamanjiri. high.—monœcious. branches terete or quadrangular striate.57. M.—capsule. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps.9 m.5x2-4. G. Fl. softly hairy. Ksharamadhya. :—E. L.—Amarantaceæ. Kantarika. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. rounded at base. Arittamanjaria. CHAR. LOC. Sk. few. NS.. . :—G. oblong-cylindric. perianth 4-5 segments. Khokla. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation.3-0.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.5 cm. K. Khajoti. Vanchhikanto. The plant contains acalyphin.—utricle. :—Common in the Deccan and S. Sd. Var. tropical Africa. Fl. K.5-4. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stem stiff. :—Annual. Apang. Prickly chaff-flower. pale-brown.. FAM. FAM. Merkati. NS. long in fruit. DISTR. scattered. small. smooth.8-6. COM. Vasira. H. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.-Jany. axillary spikes . ovate or rhomboid-ovate.—Nov. Sk. angular. CHAR. Chalmari.—opposite. males. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. brown. t. Country. Ceylon. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. erect herb. elliptic obovate. enclosed in perianth smooth. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. Fl. Kuppi-gida. somewhat 3-nerved. about 50 cm. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Chirchira. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. hispid. t. Fl.—greenish white.—truncate at apex. many. Khokali. It is used in congestive headache. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Fr. Fr. Apamarga. and shining sepals with narrow white margins.—June-Sept. M. Latjira . H. Uttrane . Sd. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. 3. elongate.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. 30-75 cm. asthma. M. pneumonia and rheumatism. COM. minute. LOC. Aghada .— ovoid. ascending. in elongate terminal spikes. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain.—Euphorbiaceæ. brown. Chichra. clustered near the summit of spike. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Agheda-di.

8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. abdominal pains. boils. 0. alexiterie. laxative. Bhutnashini. Vacha. useful in vomiting. toothache. NS. Sweet flag . carminative. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). itching. throat. Gandhilovaj. improves appetite. carminative. HABITAT :—Marshy places. spathe 15-75 cm. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. laxative. heating. creeping and branching. Ceylon. heating.. :—An aromatic herb . useful in general weakness. Bach. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. America. long. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. prismatic. Australia. kidney troubles. Gorbach . piles..—turbinate. Bitter. L. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. Vekhand . :—Throughout India. delirium. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. CHAR.9-1. Ugragandha. G. fevers. LOC. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. flatulence. and is considered useful in dropsy. slightly curved. Vekhand. LOC. leucoderma (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. M. bitter. heart diseases. liver and chest pains. loss of memory. dysentery. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. Baluchistan. bronchitis. hysteria. epilepsy. Europe and N. useful in dyspepsia. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. H. good for mouth diseases. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. emetic.—Araceæ. obtuse. dysentery.8 X 1. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. useful in abdominal pains. Baja . America. diuretic. laxative. stomachic. ascites. :—E. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. carminative. LOC. Throughout Asia. tumours. inflammations. stomatitis. Sikkim.8 cm. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. anthelmintic. anthers yellow. spadix. green . top pyramidal. pungent. voice. blood diseases (Ayurveda). margins wavy. K. 5-10 cm. brain-tonic. COM. expectorant. improves appetite. Godavaj. etc. Tropical Asia. See—Sacred Plants. FAM. Fr. bronchitis. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. piles. acute. sepals scarious. Africa. long. inflammations. rat-bite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. PARTS USED : —Root. emmenagogue . . Sk. flowers and seeds. dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. "Vata". Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. DISTR. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. thickened in the middle.7-3. leaves. thirst. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. skin eruption etc. Jatila. bright-green.

leaf and fruit. :—Western Peninsula. NS. H. Rukhdo . FAM.. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Panch-parnika. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and .—Bombacaceæ. Pichli. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. COM. :—K. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. N. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. LOC. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. Bukha. colic. See—Timbers. African calabash. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Deccan. COM. vomiting.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. Goremlichora . DISTR. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Gorakhchinch. anti-pyretic. Brahmamlika. Powder is very effective insecticide.:—Konkan. G.—Lauraceæ. LOC. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. PARTS USED : —Root. Sk. Gopali. in children. fevers and other maladies. useful in biliousness. :—E.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Kanara evergreen forests. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. M. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. It is a good remedy in asthma. Gorakamali. :—Grown in many places in India . M. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Haggodgimara. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. dysentery. Gorakhaamli. FAM. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Gujarat. DISTR. fever. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. HABITAT':—Cultivated. Pisa. K. Monkey-bread tree. Tudgensu . USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Baobab. indigenous in tropical Africa. bark. etc. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. LOC. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. Gorakshi. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. NS.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

:—Throughout India. and fruit. Sirsul. Kathora. cures erysipelas. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. stem. blood diseases. Ankola. Kullumavu.—Alangiaceæ. Ankora. diarrhœa. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Chinchola. Juice—emetic. Kalshish. commonly planted along roadsides. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Root-bark poisonous. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. G. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . acute fever. Gudhapatra. Ankotha. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. See—Timbers. NS. spermatorrhoea. Garso. useful in inflammations. Fruit—laxative. Sirai. pungent. inflammations. (Mimosaceæ). M. H. aphrodisiac. aromatics or honey. colic. carminative. Kalosadasado. Shirish. Tamraphala. FAM. Ankoli. anthelmintic. expectorant. Shyamala. lumbago. China. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. G. inflammations. Ankola. NS. Asroli. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Vamaka. Tantia. Ceylon. cures " Kapha". cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda).Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Root-bark— used in piles. alexiteric.) FAM. Shankiniphala. " Vata "-pain. lumbago (Yunani). S. . See—Timbers. Piloshirish. heating. Uddanaka. indigestible. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Ankol. fish-poison. K. Anedhera. DISTR. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. COM. Kalashirish. Malaya. Kanara. :—E. Seeds—cooling. wasting diseases. Sage-leaved alangium. it is said to stop after-pains. Dridhakantaka. M. Onkla. LOC. Karnapura. Philippines. useful in worms. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. H. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. K. COM. LOC. biliousness. Ankoli. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. often along banks of nalas in N. gleet. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Ankota. leaves (rarely). Krishnashirisha. Sirisa. Shirisha. rat-bite. blood diseases. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Kaloshirish. anthelmintic. :—E. tonic. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). burning of body. Dodda-Hombage. Ankola. Sk. poisonous bites. Akoly. alexipharmic . dysentery. alterative. :—Throughout the State. Shirish. LOO. Sk.—Leguminosæ. hydrophobia.

COM. appetiser. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). Flowers—aphrodisiac. FAM. emollient. stimulant and expectorant. and also in skin diseases . weakness. Root—astringent. inflammations. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). etc. stomachic. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. LOC. ear-ache. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. deafness. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. alexiteric. Dungari. ophthalmia. useful in vomiting. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. DISTR. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). occasionally used in fever. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. Burma. scabies. useful in malaria. Onion. cooling. Ceylon. See—Timbers. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. and chronic bronchitis .: —Throughout India. H. Palandu. bronchitis. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. tumours. prescribed in ophthalmia. volatile oil. Bark— anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. Bulb—tonic. vomiting. asthma. seeds. their smell useful in hemicrania. biliousness. excessive perspiration. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Seeds—tonic to brain. skin-diseases. itching. .—Liliaceæ. bleeding piles. enriches blood. Ulageddi. LOC. LOC. M. strengthens gums and teeth. Rajapriya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent.. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. G. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). The plant contains vitamins A. Rochaka.:—E. Bark and seeds are astringent. improves taste. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers. Kanda. Bark-bitter. used in leprosy. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. See—Vegetables.. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. blood diseases. relieves tooth-ache. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. body pains. Seeds—fattening. B & C. NS. Bengal. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. leucoderma. epistaxis. good in rat-bite. scabies. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. syphilis. maturant. Leaves—good in night blindness. leaves. given in piles. catarrh. cultivated everywhere. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. piles. usually planted. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. Sk.K. eruptions and swellings. cures "Vata". seeds. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. dropsy. spleen diseases. paralysis. It is an important garden crop. piles. which acts as a diuretic. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. bark. Piyaz. boils. diarrhœa. :—Native country probably Persia. erysipelas. Oil is used in leprosy. tonic.

It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. COM. LOC. :—E. leucoderma. improves appetite. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. tonic. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Ikshurmallika. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. G. troubles of spleen. In Cambodia. H. clears voice. Korkand. good for lumbago. complexion. epileptic fits. inflammation. Rasonaka. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. " Vata ". hemiplegia. Kumari. Garlic. Kanya.—Liliaceæ. Lashuna. heating. coughs and other debilitating conditions. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. :—E. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Lasan. ALŒ VERA Linn. See—Vegetables. voice. FAM. oleaginous . USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. In pulmonary phthisis. Diuretic. NS. Indian aloe. thins the blood (Yunani). The plant contains vitamin C. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Bellulli. low fevers. fattening. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. bronchitis. tumours. Korphad. Lasan. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. K. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. Kuvarpatha. sciatica. Kapila. aphrodisiac. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. liver and lungs . useful in diseases of eye and heart. H. paralysis. anthelmintic. M. digestive. caries of teeth. Kattali. Lasun. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. body and joint pains. It is an important garden crop. Kumari. useful in inflammations. K. aphrodisiac. FAM. M. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia.—Liliaceæ. alexipharmic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. asthma. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. In cases of diphtheria. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. M. Sk. piles. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. NS.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. carminative. Sk. leucoderma. Ugragandha. . Ghi-kumari. thirst. Country. Lolisara. COM. lumbago. G. chronic fevers. thirst. LOC. Lahsan. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma.

scape longer than the leaves. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. M. :—Wild along the coast in S. Satwin. fattening. methritis. The plant contains aloin. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. Saptaparna. West Indian Islands. inflammations. ulcers (Ayurveda). H. cooling. liver complaints. LOC. tropical Africa. FAM. also cultivated. Br. somewhat divided. biliousness. stem short thick. COM. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. anthelmintic. Satwin. PARTS USED :— . biliousness (Yunani). ophthalmia. vomiting. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Fl. pain in muscles. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. LOC. :—E. NS. :—A perennial herb . used in form of paste in pleurisy. K. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. perianth cylindric . Chatian. isobarbaloin and emodin. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. skin diseases. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. asthma. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. tonic. yellow.—Apocynaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Mediterranean. digestive. Ceylon. India. L. used in fevers. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. bronchitis. margins spiny. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. milky juice. DISTR. piles. Australia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Bitter . C. carminative. Kaduhale. Native of S.—in dense racemes . HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. spleen enlargement. Dita bark tree. alterative. :—Throughout India. pendulous. aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. Saptachhada. Hale. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Kanara. purgative. LOC. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. E. lanceolate. Sk. strangury. useful in eye-diseases. Africa. emollient and demulcent. liver troubles. common in the rain-forests of N. simple or branched. scaly. jaundice. leaves. alexiteric. crowded. tumours. purgative. gonorrhœa. wild along the coast. useful in splean inflammation. bark. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. planted in Indian gardens . Satian. fleshy. DISTR. Kadusale. Java. pale-green. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. Jamaica. It also acts as a mild purgative. Root. lumbago. and it is largely imported into India. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Barbados. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. tonic.—sessile.

good in diseases of the heart. rat-bite. COM. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). biliousness. Kantanatia. also useful in catarrhal fever.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. burning sensation. hallucination. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. " tridosha " pain. H. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Tandulaja. numerous. Fr. NS. thickened at the top.. Prickly amaranth. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. DISTR. apiculate. piles.5 X 1. G. sudorific and febrifuge. female calyx oblong.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. improves appetite. rubbish heaps and fields. antiperiodic and febrifuge. laxative. ovate.—Amarantaceæ. bronchitis. Kante math. Bark—acrid. Ceylon. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. Tandulja. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. ovoid. ulcers. obtuse. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. 30-60 cm. lanceolate. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. leprosy. L.). Mulladantu. diuretic. :—E. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). tumours. LOC.3—3. boils and burns. LOC. oleaginous. FAM. tropical countries. Root—heating expectorant. stomachic. heating. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. appetiser. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. See—Timbers.— capsule. :—Throughout India. obtuse. often reddish. diseases of the blood. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. Apamarisha. digestible. Kantanu-dant. asthma. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. Kantalo dambho. rugose. galactogogue. HABITAT :—In waste places. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. Mullarave-soppu. Cholai. leucoderma. anthelmintic. useful in " Kapha ". also in fields. entire. high. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. bristles pointed. blood diseases. Drug Com. bitter. :—An erect glabrous herb. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. Fl. See—Vegetables. rubbish heaps . Pathyashaka. M. leucorrhoea.2—7. CHAR. long. male calyx acute. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana.8 cm.— 3. Tandulibija. antipyretic. K. LOC. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. laxative. . Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . unisexual. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. alexiteric.

—Araceæ. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. Tropical Africa. enlargement of the spleen. useful in piles. FAM. In the Konkan. t. Sukaranda. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Suran. stomachic. laxative. much narrowed at the base. Sk. bronchitis. LOC. :—An annual. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. :—E. NS. vomiting. Afghanistan. Jangli mehandi. H. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). abdominal pains. erect or subscandent herb.:— Konkan." blood troubles. corm.—capsule. M. G. Kandala. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Fl. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. fevers etc. LOC. strangury .MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. Kandavardhan.—Lythraceæ. fresh or dried. China. appetiser. Kuranti. tumours. red. sessile. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. depressed. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. elephantiasis . linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . CHAR. COM. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Kurendika. Bharajambhul. M. Gujarat and Kanara. Blistering ammania. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. Ceylon. Bitter and acrid . Sk. Deccan.—Nov. globose. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Vikata. Vatari. H. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. blood diseases. Kanthalla. causes itching sensation. :—Cultivated widely in the State. Grows wild on the banks of S. FAM. " Vata. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common).—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Jalavgiyo. Kuranda.—opposite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Sd. G. Suran. stomachic. increases appetite and taste. pungent. L. :—Throughout India in moist places. harmful in "Kapha". constipating. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Suran. asthma. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. DISTR. NS. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Fr. 8-65 cm. high. acrid. . LOC. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. removes " Kapha ". COM. Elephant's foot. DISTR. Fl. LOC. Suran . K. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. Malaya. Arshaghna. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. branches usually opposite. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. aphrodisiac. Konkan rivers. the plant. Dadmari. Australia.

—in panicles 25-35 cm. :—A native of tropical America. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakamari. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Cashew apple-nut. cordate or truncate. aphrodisiac. ascites. G. L. Kakanashika. Fl. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid.5-12. M. H. sweet. :—E. 10-12 X 7. Gova. Garalaphala. skin diseases. Agni-krita. H. Jermic. Kakaphal. Fish-Louse Berry. Kempu— Turkaka geru . which is nutritious and emollient. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. & A. Govamba. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kakamari. The seed contains vitamin A. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. flowers. LOC. M. DISTR. leucoderma. and trace of C. piles. Kakkisoppugida . USES :—Bark is alterative. :—E. hot. corns and obstinate ulcers. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Kakamari. 5-nerved. Oils. Sk..20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. It is supposed to have restorative power. The plant contains Vitamins A. Kaju. Kaju. B. G.— subcoriaceous. See—Vegetables. Kakamari. . many flowered. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. ringworm. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. long. ulcers. COM. swollen peduncle of fruit. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. COM. Sk. Crow-Fish Killer. Prithagbija. digestible. PARTS USED :—Bark. Upapushpika. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. FAM. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. tumours. also cultivated. equal to almond oil. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. dysentery. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. . cures "Vata" and " Kapha". bark vertically furrowed . Kajutaka. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. CHAR. Kaju . leaves. Kakamari. fever. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). broadly ovate.—Menispermaceæ. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. K. Sophara. K. NS. Kanara. Gerubi. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. See—Timbers. Corm is poisonous. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N.5 cm. LOC. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones .

ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. COM. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. causes cough and biliousness. G. Ananas . Kiriyata. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. :—E. a poison to fish (Yunani). :—Khasia Hills. removes gases from the intestines . Kiryat. cultivated. Sk. FAM. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. diaphoretic and refrigerant. :—Konkan. native of Brazil (tropical America). given with sugar it relieves hiccup. K. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. it is useful in jaundice. good expectorant.-Oct. Ananas . PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). DISTR. black . DISTR. Parvati. COM. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Pine-apple . USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. It acts also as diuretic. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. Kirata. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. K. to a certain extent in Gujarat. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Assam. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Fl. Mahatit. M. LOC. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). fruits. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic .—Acanthaceæ. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Bhuinimba. Ananas hannu. M. Mahateet. Olikiriyat. G. petals absent. See—Fruit Trees. smooth. Ananasa. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. Creat. E.—Sept. Ananas. Bengal. from Orissa to Ceylon. . PARTS USED :—Roots.—Bromeliaceæ. Sk. N. also acts as a purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Kanara. leaves and fruits. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. Olen kirayat.) LOC. Ananas. FAM. NS. Nelabevu gida. dioecious. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. H. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. Ama. t. Kantak sanjika. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . :—E. H. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests.

-Oct. Oshthaphala. crenate-serrate. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. dyspepsia and fever from teething. yellowish brown. high. FAM. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. Fl. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Ceylon. C—2-lipped. lower lip very large and broad . Sd. high.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.— capsule. Fr. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. approximate above. :—E. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. distant. upper lip 2-toothed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. white below. ellipsoid.—small.-Nov. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. Br.—Dec. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . G.5 cm. :—Konkan and Kanara. Fl. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. 6. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. t. polished brown. L. clothed with woolly hairs . :—Deccan. pale above. Sundara. and N. alterative. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. smooth. Plant is useful in general debility.. distant. tonic. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. purple. and anthelmintic.2-1. bracts lanceolate. Sk. stomachic. stem quadrangular.—very thick. 1.—in dense whorls . with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. solitary.—many. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. extensively used in Bengal. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. made into an electuary. :—Throughout India. dysentery. rose coloured.8 m. Kanara. Malabar Catmint. t. Fl. oblong-lanceolate. Malay Peninsula. Karitumbe.3-10 X 2-4. and certain forms of dyspepsia.—Ghats. sometimes cultivated.—lanceolate.3-0. pale beneath. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. thickly woolly. Fl. HABITAT. M. rugosely pitted. undulate. :—An erect branched annual 0. Fr. lower 3lobed. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. Sundraphul. DISTR. lateral lobes small. acute at both ends . Chodhara. very small. :—S.—nutlets. Green leaves. K. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. DISTR. Karnatak. linear-oblong. COM. acute. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. LOC. forming a spicate inflorescence.—Labiatæ. :—An erect shrub. CHAR. Vaikunth. LOC. Alamoda. . NS. Gojivana.9 m. C—2-lipped. L.

removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". LOC. Shushkanga. Sweet-sop. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Sk. H. now cultivated throughout India. NS. :—A native of West Indies . Root—cathartic. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). applied to skin-diseases. Custard apple. useful in liver complaints. Fruit—sweet.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. stimulant. G. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. (Yunani). good tonic. Dhavada. and eyesores. Sitaphala. Bakla. increases biliousness . :—E. Ceylon. abortifacient. sedative to heart. Dhava. astringent to the bowels. LOC. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. bark. H. enriches blood . Sk. Button Tree. Sitaphala. M. COM. Bahubijika. K. Bark is bitter. Seeds—difficult to digest. Ata. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. :—E. cooling. enriches blood. FAM. Sitaphala. COM. K. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . chronic diarrhœa. flavoury. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Bark is a powerful astringent. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Dhavala. Anan. See—Timbers. Sitaphal. bark. M. Durangi. leaves. LOC. leaves and fruits. :—Throughout the greater part of India. improves taste and appetite . Sharipha.—Combretaceæ. Kanara border. fruit and seeds. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. useful in anaemia. expectorant. G. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Amritphala. Krishnabija. increases muscular strength. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Pitaphala.—Anonaceæ. Dindiga. tasty. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Dhamora. Bejjalu. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. cooling . Sitaphala. produce ulcers in the eye. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. FAM. Dyes. Dindala. erysipelas. Dhava. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). DISTR. DISTR. Sugar apple. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Dohu. Dhavada. PARTS USED :—Root. discharges. NS. Dabria. Damora. Anuram. causes fever and furunculosis . the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens .

causes biliousness when ripe. strangury. Malay Islands. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. LOC. Surabhi. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Kadam. common near Yellapur. DISTR. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED:—Bark. Sprouts—acrid. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva.—Rubiaceæ. Kadamb. Nadija. Ceylon. M. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Pegu. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kaduve. FAM. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Kadamb . H. They are detergent and their powder. LOC. Sk. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. blood diseases. wild or cultivated. M. LOC. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). " Vata". In eye inflammations. K. vulnerary. :—W. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Bairi. Chandala. Kadamb . galactagogue. Peninsula. bitter. sweet. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. cooling. See—Fruit Trees. biliousness. acrid. Chandkuda. Kadamba. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. DISTR. stomachic. Jajpugri. Ajjanpatte. mixed with gram-flour. Karnapuraka. . Sk. aphrodisiac. :—E.—Moraceæ. good in uterine complaints. K. sap of the tree. Fruit—heating. Malayan Peninsula. Tennaserim. Nipa. Kadamb. Upas Tree. Sacred Plants. indigestible. Ashokari. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. " Kapha". Burma. burning sensation. COM. Fodder Plants. USES:—In the Konkan. COM NS. It is generally considered tonic. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. :—G. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. is a good hairwash. H. Valkala. Kanara . :—Throughout India. saline. aphrodisiac. Kadubale. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Seeds yield an oil and resin. often cultivated. See—Timbers. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Chandkuda. astringent to bowels. FAM. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. sprouts and fruits. Niv. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages .

Celery. Sk. :—E. used in anasarca and colic. apex toothed . fever with cough. The plant contains vitamins A.:—Foot of the N. G. Fr. Bhuchanak. Europe. Bhuimug-chana. heart and spleen diseases. Nelkadle. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Markati. Monkey-nut. W. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. astringent to bowels . LOC. Fibres. hiccup. bronchitis. good for heart. laxative.3-2. M. nasal catarrh (Yunani). M. . Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial.— radial. aphrodisiac. L. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Abyssinia. cure " Kapha ". and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. urinary discharges. pedicels 6-16 . high. segments once or twice trifid. FAM. scorpion and other stings. Ajmud. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. Bori ajmud. cauline 3-partite. ridges narrow. branching. appetiser. Ground-Pea-nut. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. Shimbika. :—A biennial plant. COM NS. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous.—Umbelliferæ. rheumatism. vomiting. Chinimung. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. H. β-antiarin. Seeds—carminative. Asia. See—Vegetables. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. CHAR.—1. DISTR. Wild celery. " Vata " . Ajmoda . Africa. Bhuimug. H. scabies. N. 0. amenorrhœa. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Java and Malaya. inflammations. :—E. Ajamoda. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. chest-pains. See—Timbers. Fl. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Mungphali. abortifacient. tooth-ache. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. NS. Ugragandha..4 m. improve appetite . Glucoside apiin is present. Bodi ajomoda. erect. and γ-antiarin. cure asthma. K. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. rays 5-10. tonic. useful in ophthalmia. Brahmakoshi.5-2 mm. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Bhuimug. ascites. rectal troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. traces of B and C.— in umbels. G. anthelmintic. Mandapi. abdominal pain. COM. vittae broad. Afghanistan. W. Karafs. LOC. good in ophthalmia. Snehabijaka. specially near large cities. Moda.

USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. ARECA CATECHU Linn. laxative. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. DISTR. removes pus (Yunani). :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Betel-nut palm. fairly largely in the Konkan. Nut astringent. indigestible. improves appetite and taste. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Sopari. Pophal. :—E. USES.:—Extensively grown in N. DISTR. M. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. aphrodisiac. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Pugiphal. Chikka. Kaungu. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Indo-Malaya. Gujarat and S. cardiotonic. Kanara. bleeding gums. Chhataphala. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Areca palm. Assam. Malabar. LOC. Bengal. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts.—Palmæ. Hopari. Burma. Akota. Country. Mysore. FAM. Oils. Seed cooling. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. PARTS USED :—Root. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Gum pungent. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Suppiyari. removes foul breath. Siam. gum. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. seeds. H. leaves (rarely). In French Guinea. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Deccan. used for eye-inflammations. emmenagogue. Chikkan. Adki. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. Betta. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. COM.. K. :—Madras. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. Supari. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Poga. gleet. LOC. . G. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Supari. diuretic. Areca-nut palm. M. Sk. digestive. See—Food Plants. LOC. giddiness. LOC. cooling. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. NS.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tantusara. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. useful in urinary disorders.

when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. branching. DISTR. Pita-pushpa. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. various skin-diseases.—Papaveraceæ. LOC. Pirangi datturi.5-5 cm. Fl. Ind. G. Shialkanta.3-0. COM. It is also diuretic. netted. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Daruri. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. t. Juice—used as a collyrium. relieves blisters. L. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. nauseant. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Fr.5-3.—thistlelike. Bharbhand. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic.—all the year. stem 0. spinous. arecaidine. oblong. sedative. brownish black. antidote to various poisons. glaucous herb .—numerous. CHAR. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. and guvacine. USES :—Root is an alterative. prickly. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap.5-18 cm. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. LOC. K. oblong-ovoid 2.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Datturi. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. Indigenous in tropical America. 7. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. :—A glabrous. yellow. juice yellow. Darudi.— terminal. prickly. :—E.—capsule. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. globose. Sd. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Root anthelmintic. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy.). destroys worms . high. Balurakkisa. India. Fruit Trees.12 m. seeds and yellow juice. FAM. inflammations and bilious fevers. Fl. stem clasping. Brahma dandi. emetic. veins white. 2. Sk. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. . useful is strangury. Seeds—purgative. Plant enriches blood. Seeds are laxative. cures leprosy. purgative. expectorant and demulcent. Bila dhatura. Svarnakshiri. sinuately pinnatifid. This is said to bring the worm out at once. and in pertussis and asthma. arecoline. See—Timbers. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. NS. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. H. opening by 4-6 valves. Mexican prickly poppy . M. diam.8 cm. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. Srigalkanta.

HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. cultivated. :—A very large climber. white-tomentose L. perhaps a native of Bengal. prostrate.:—Konkan. the bands silky pubescent outside. M. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. LOC. ovate glabrous above. Sk. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. :—E. Soge. DISTR. Samardar sokh. absorptive. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. stems. reniform or broadly ovate. Ganda.5 cm. aphrodisiac. infundibuliform. Kidamari. Gujarat and S. long.5-4. long. long.3 cm. t. See—Ornamental Plants. long and as broad as long. G. 12-ribbed . bracts large . Gandali. base cordate. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. base cordate with wide sinus . base subglobose. painful joints. :—Throughout India.8-7. white-tomentose. glabrous inside. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). tropical Africa. :—Bengal. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. L. HABITAT. Bracteated Birth-wort. weak. " Kapha" fevers.—Aug. Fl. Java.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. striate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. Dridhadaru. Leaves are maturative. Ceylon.5-30 x 6. tip linear dark purple.-Nov.— globose apiculate.—Aristolochiaceæ. FAM. COM. used in gleet. Adumuttadagida.— 3. Kitakaba. NS. Sk. useful in " Vata". COM. gonorrhœa. G. Sd. pubescent outside. H. Hastivalli. Samandarka phal. perianth 2. anthelmintic. 1. rose purple. NS. CHAR. Ajantri. Vridhadaraka.—deltoid with cordate base . M. Krimighni. white-tomentose beneath. K. (sometimes even larger). strangury.3-25 cm. Elephant Creeper. stems stout.— Aug.. Kitamari. Fr. Dhuma-patra. Kidamar. C—5-6. tube inflated. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. Varghoro. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. LOC. K. powdered root is given with milk. Konkan. . tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth.—Convolvulaceæ. Samudraballi. Kiramar. Samudrashosh.—solitary. H. Samudrapatrashoh. with revolute margins. pedicel with a large bract at the base.-Sept. Peninsula. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl.—capsule. Fl. peduncles stout. W. FAM. oblongellipsoid. CHAR. :—E. In synovitis.— 7. Fl. :—A slender perennial. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter .5 cm. t. Country. DISTR. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Shyambhuna. M.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Fr. Country.3-2 cm. Samudrashok. diuretic . Arabia. tubular. LOC.—in sub-capitate cymes. Deccan and S.

K. Ceylon. Flea-bane. globose-oblong. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Arkamula. reaching 4. — capsule. :—A twining shrub. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. M. Plant is used as an abortifacient. :—Western Peninsula. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). also useful in dropsy. Fl. Fr. perianth greenishwhite. leaves and seeds.. LOC. Nagduna.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Sk. Bengal. DISTR. Sugandha.—flat. long with globose inflated base. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. NS.5x7. K. Sapsan. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. emmenagogue. bract opposite the pedicel. Stem long. biliousness.—Nov.—Compositæ. obovate oblong 10-12. purgative (Yunani). Nagdamani. Fl. base vaiable. Dhor-davana. NS. G. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. tonic.—variable linear oblong.8-10 X 1.3-2. dry cough. dyspnoea of children. Saraparni. M. CHAR. Nakuli. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Isharmula. joint-pains.5 cm. slender. 6-valved. entire with undulate margins. Indian wormwood. winged. Manjipatri. .. useful in " Tridosha. FAM. Majtari. Ishvari. Mother or Mugwort. H.—in few flowered axillary racemes. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp.) FAM. Dovana. Dona. Sk. Sd. LOC. Nilpushpa. t. M. The plant contains an alkaloid. bitter. Ruhimula." pains in the joints. Arkamula. Gathona. L.—Aristolochiaceæ. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Seeds useful in inflammation. The plant contains an alkaloid. COM. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. grooved. Isvara balli beru . PARTS USED :—Roots. Mastaru. H.5 cm. :—E. :—E. Country. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels.:—Konkan and S. alexiteric. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Indian Birth-wort. woody at the base. COM. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Nepal. 3. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic.

high. M. " Vata". Panas. Panesa.— achene. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility.5-5 em. asthma and brain diseases. cures "Kapha". Fl. aphrodisiac. 0. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. LOC. Chakki. fertile. inner hermaphrodite. ulcers. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. tonic. aromatic. Thailand (Siam). itching (Ayurveda). Skandaphala. Externally it is used in fomentations. FAM. white tomentose beneath.—heads ovoid or subglobose. Halasina. An infusion is given as a tonic. useful in biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. :—Widely cultivated. :—E.4 m. upper leaves smaller. appetiser. base lobed. solitary or 2. temperate Asia. The unripe fruit is astringent. Kujja. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT.6-2. Fl. aphrodisiac. COM. leprosy. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Seeds sweet. oleaginous. NS. Tage. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Kantakaphala. often planted along roadsides in N. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles.:—A perennial shrub. See—Timbers. ovate. constipating (Ayurveda). Java. Phanas. K. Kanthal.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. oblong ellipsoid. petioled. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. although very nutritious. Jack-Orange wood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. deeply pinnatisect. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. DISTR. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. G. aphrodisiac. The plant contains an essential oil. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. asthma. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. Fr.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. minute. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. pubescent above. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. Ghats. toothed or again pinnatisect. stems leafy. grown in gardens also. Panos. involucral bracts villous. Sk. fruit and seeds. L— lower leaves 5. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). t. cooling. alexiteric. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. outer flowers female. deobstruent and antispasmodic. :—Konkan.—Urticaceæ. Fruit Trees and Dyes. DISTR. Vanas. LOC. enriches blood.—Jany. H. diuretic. Kanara. 3-fid or entire. LOC.10x2. lanceolate. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. . Phanasa. Jack-fruit tree. Ceylon.-Hilly districts. but rather difficult to digest. " Kapha". fattening. lobes entire. tonic. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. LOC. "Vata". ripe fruit laxative. hairy.

cooling. linear. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. Tropical Africa. H. PARTS USED:—Root. valvate in bud. root-stock tuberous. globose. Satavari. tonic. S. fragrant. PARTS USED:—Root. aphrodisiac. narrowed at both ends. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous.5-5 cm.—June-Sept. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. lanceolate. 7. LOC. Country. cladodes in tufts. stomachic.3-2. Indies. t.—lobes reflexed in flower. up to 1. A fibre is extracted from the plants. oleaginous.—opposite 7. segments. C. curved. tapering at both ends. biliousness. Sd. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. Fl. high. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. thin. Kaktundi. blood and eye diseases. See—Ornamental Plants.-Dec.—orange in axillary umbels.-Feb. white. :—Introduced from the W. :—Deccan. M. undershrub. Fl. cultivated as ornamental plant. L. astringent to bowels.—in simple raceme. Fr. naturalised in many parts of India.9-1. spinous. solitary. erect. appetiser. :—G.ovoid. L. CHAR.—Asclepiadaceæ. spines recurved. :—An erect undershrub. Flower is a good styptic. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha.000 m. COM. t.—berry. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Fl.—Liliaceæ. LOC. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. COM. in the Himalayas. red when ripe.2 m. 0. thorn. long. from Kashmir eastwards. NS. JAVANICA Baker. DISTR.5-10 X 1. :—E. Var. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tumours. Sk. oblong.5 cm. with coma. leaves and flowers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. FAM. Siprimuli. 2. inflammation. FAM. Svadurasa.— follicles. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. alterative. abundant round about Poona. M. Satamulika. K. CHAR. :—Extremely scandent. Asual Shatavari. NS. Fl. common in the Deccan. Satavari. useful in dysentery. dark brown.5 cm. Java and Australia. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. straight. throat complaints. Svetmuli. Kuraki. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. and moist monsoon forests. Satavari.—linear with a stout spinous spur. galactogogue. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. indigestible. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet.. Shatavari. DISTR. .

C. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. gleet. Narayana Taila. H. and dysentery. lower deeply 3-lobed. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. scalding of urine. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. useful in diarrhœa. Gokhran. 4-8 seeded. tube. bracts. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic.) FAM. tonic. leprosy. 18 X 3-3. laxative. HABITAT:—Swampy places.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. Talamkhana. tonic. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda)..—June-Jany. inflammations. 0. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. anuria. tropical and S. Kolavalike. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. Fl. stems fasciculate. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser.—sessile. . eyediseases. DISTR. demulcent. upper 2-fid. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. abdominal troubles. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. biliousness. 4 inner small. anæmia. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. urinary calculi and discharges. tonic. Ceylon. hypnotic. linear oblong. :—G. subquadrangular. thickened at the nodes. COM. M. Vishnu Taila. gonorrhoea. useful in jaundice and anasarca. NS. Fr. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac . night-blindness (Ayurveda). lips sub-equal. CHAR. LOC. :—A stout herb. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Used in diarrhœa. USES :—The root is refrigerant.8 cm. abruptly swollen at the top. ascites. Seeds cooling.— purple blue. Africa. widely 2-lipped. expectorant. galactogogue. Kalavankabija. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. USES. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. Fl. Seeds fattening. The root is sweet. thirst. constipation. hairy. Ekharo.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node .) LOC. colic. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. aphrodisiac. long. Talamkhan.5 cm. t. 3. Kak-Kokilaksha. pointed. Ikshura. Sk. like leaves. aphrodisiac. Gokshura. Talim-khana. Leaves good for cough. Gokhalkanta. Konkan and Deccan. ciliate . (Yunani. K.— Acanthaceæ. LOC. Vajrakantaka. And.6-1.:—Common throughout the State. high. antispasmodic. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. Shrigalghant. diuretic. hispid with long hairs. sedative to gravid uterus . erect. lanceolate. Phalaghrita. improve blood (Yunani). Vikhara.2 cm. L.—capsule. and alterative tonic. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. dysentery. leaves and seeds. aphrodisiac . 2 outer large.

Tamarak. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. solitary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Mudgara. anæmia. See—Fruit Trees. also used in diarrhœa. M. Fl. Fruit sour. pale. indigestion. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. decussate. succulent. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. causes biliousness. heating. Jalneam. Kamrang. Sk. L. Karuka. Kirihuli. H.5-10 mm. Kanara villages. Fruits are used in pickles. Sd. Safed-Kammi. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. useful in bad ulcers. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. capsule. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . G. . Fr. lobes equal spangled. Bama. Sk. Soumyalata. digestible. ascites. Brahmi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. Shiral. Jany-May. black dotted : entire.—Scrophulariaceæ. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. causes biliousness (Yunani). Nirbrahmi. C. dried fruit is given in fevers. DISTR. FAM. with shining dots. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. ovoid. DISTR. K. COM. COM. Coromandel gooseberry. t. "Vata". found wild near N. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). striate. Kamarakh. branches many ascending. enlargement of spleen. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). CHAR. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. pungent. fleshy. HABITAT :—Damp places. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . leprosy. Ceylon and all warm countries. Fl.. axillary. inflammations. creeping herb. fruits. heats the body (Ayurveda). Karmar. astringent to bowels. LOC. Barambhi. NS. Carambola apple. pale blue or white. Root is given in cases of poisoning. allays thirst.—Oxalidaceæ. 6-25 X 2. perhaps a native of Malaya. NS. acute. Thyme-leaved graticula .:—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated. obovate-oblong or spatulate. Darehuli. tonic. 2-lipped. oblong. tumours.:—Throughout India in wet places. sessile. rarely wild. Karmare . Kamaranga. :—A glabrous. Manduki. laxative. K.) FAM. Karmal. Brahmi. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. :—E.:—Konkan and Deccan. when fresh. emetic. Kamarakha. H. LOC. stems rooting at the nodes. sour. Brahmi. M. LOC.

Hakum.. Burma. Bengal. toothed. LOC. K. Assam. Danti. Seeds are poisonous. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. is used as a local application in rheumatism. itching. conjoined with petroleum. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. FAM. H. yellowish. It is a direct cardiac tonic. FAM. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Root and leaves are cathartic. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Sd. Uddipta. obovoid. Vishodhini. Gum gugul.—Burseraceæ. :—Bihar. :—E. DISTR. mottled. Devdhup. high. LOC. Peninsula. Jamalgota. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Fl. good in scabies. Danti. anasarca and jaundice. Jatala. Rechani. Sk. branching from the roots. M. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Fl. of three 2-valved cocci. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. leucoderma. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Kanara. aphrodisiac . Danti. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). M. ellipsoid. diuretic. COM. the upper small. capsule. epilepsy and hoarseness. L. Sk. anaemia. :—A stout undershrub. or in monsoon forests.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. smooth. NS. diseases of skin and abdomen. N. alexiteric. useful in pains. 0. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves and seeds. Malaya. t. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. enlarged spleen. all male or with a few females below. piles. 2-glandular. CHAR. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Dec. K. purifies blood. leucoderma. Chota Nagpur. .9-1.—Euphorbiaceæ. Guggula. jaundice (Ayurveda). Danti. W. Dantimul. Guggul. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. Leaf-juice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. They are used in dropsy. in monsoon forests of N. syphilis . H. Guggula. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Dantika. COM. often palmately 3-5 lobed. Guggula. sinuate. Kaduharalu. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. inflammations. LOC. NS. wounds. Fr. purgative. Gugul. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Mukul. anthelmintic. G. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. useful in insanity.8 m. epilepsy and hoarseness. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Dry open Deccan plains. the lower large. hairy. :—G.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

LOC. M. H. Karkutika. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. COM. :—E. Dorokaru. tuberculous glands. "Kapha". NS. leprosy. it is also anti-fat remedy. biliousness. wounds and ulcers. Koholu. used in dry cough. ulcers. See—Ornamental Plants. cures biliousness. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. dehiscent. Kondha. heart tonic (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Fruit. dysmenorrhoea.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fr. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Bhuru-koholu. thirst. 15-20 X 1. leprosy. Kudimah. Fruit—antiperiodic. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. urethral discharges. cures biliousness. G. blood diseases . Bark—astringent to bowels. Burma. Shikhivardhaka. cures strangury. red and white. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tuberculous glands. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. given' to corpulent persons.8-2. eye diseases. cough. urinary discharges and calculi. Fl. aphrodisiac. cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. Root. tonic. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative.10-15. Kumaon. Golkaddu. Ash pumpkin. thirst. not indigenous. LOC. Buds—indigestible. " Tridosha". Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. in dyspepsia and flatulence. flat. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. :—Cultivated throughout the State. diuretic.—pod. fever. USES :—Root-decoction is given. Kushmanda. Kohala. used as gargle in stomatitis. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. enriches blood. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). tonic to liver. anthelmintic. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. used in strangury. blood diseases. There are two varieties. cardiac and general tonic. blood impurities. oil from the seeds. seeds. Budekumbalkai. leucoderma. t. China. Seeds— cooling. bark and flowers. astringent. Tallow-White gourd. aphrodisiac. vaginal discharges. Timisha. Sikkim. K. DISTR.5 cm.-Apl.-Feb. . menorrhagia. FAM. appetising. asthma. anal troubles. LOC. biliousness. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. asthma. removes foul taste from mouth. used in piles. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker.

3—0. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. Fl. CHAR. catarrh. often incised or lyrate. astringent. stem erect. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. 0. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. L. Fruit is made into confections. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. Bhamurdi. etc. Country. FAM. Kakaronda. Kukurbanda. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. Fl. Mriduchhada. sharply serrate-dentate. China. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda).:—In plains south of Bombay. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. pungent. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. H. Kanara. LOC. and diuretic. Pilokapurio. LOC. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. base tapered. Fr. mixed with black pepper.9 m. COM. pappus white. Ceylon. Kakarunda. finely silky pubescent on both sides. cures bronchitis. Oil—is soporific.—Jany. heart diseases. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Jangali-muli.—heads many. pubescent. with a strong odour of turpentine. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. febrifuge. Malaya. anti-pyretic. Kukkurdru. upper subsessile. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. good for the brain and liver. Australia. bitter. Konkan. fevers. :—Throughout plains of India. . thirst.—the lower ones petioled. oblong. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative.—Compositæ. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. LOC. M. Kalhar. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.-achene. and nutritious tonic. elliptic-oblong. :—Annual herb. it is given in bleeding piles. Tamrachuda. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. :—G. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. high. ash colored. haemoptysis. good in syphilis (Yunani). Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. not ribbed. BLUMEA LACERA DC. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. t. Sk. sweetish. NS. burning sensation.-Apl. phthisis. asthma. it is also useful in insanity. DISTR. inner bracts with green midrib. S. laxative. See—Vegetables. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. cooling. M. Tropical Africa. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. densely glandular.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Deccan. blood diseases. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet.

asthma. Kommegida. DISTR. Palmyra Palm. Ceylon. G. Lekhyapatra. H. anæmia. Baluchistan. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. carminative. FAM. generally found in poorer soils. India. Bitter. :—E. :—E. G. FAM. Africa and America. tumours.—in unequal pairs at each node. Celyon. :—A diffuse herb. DISTR. Fr. root large. Moto-satodo. M. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Tala. Kolaba and Thana districts. Talimara. native of tropical Africa. t. sub-orbicular. Hogweed. Fl. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. alexiteric. :—Tropical India. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Plant contains large quantities of pot. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. astringent to bowels . INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. useful in ophthalmia. expectorant. LOC. COM.. L. COM. Shothaghni. Raktakanda. K. CHAR. Leaves— appetiser. LOC. NS. It produces a very marked and persistent. Burma. Tad. Tad. K. M. in pain of joints.—Palmæ. Ghetuli. blood impurities. Punarnava. and dropsy. inflammations. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Vasu. margins undulate. cultivated. H. "Kapha" heating. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Sk. Dholia-saturdo. P. "Vata". cooling . PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). common in S. spleen enlargement. very glandular . Seeds—tonic. Tad. leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—A weed. Dhvajadruma. whitish beneath. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. stem prostrate or ascending. very small. fusiform.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. It is used in jaundice.— Nov. Brab tree. Varshabhu. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. Persian Gulf. 1. (Ayurveda). purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn.—in corymbose umbels. gonorrhœa.3—2 cm. scabies. leaves and seeds. cultivated and self-sown. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. NS. Madhurasa. Uttar Pradesh. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. LOC. bluntly 5-ribbed. Fan Palm. Indian Archipelago. Asavardu. pinkish. Desert Palm. alterative. green above. . Santhikari. heart diseases. useful in lumbago. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. useful in biliousness. Fl. HABITAT :—Coastal districts .—clavate. —Nyctaginaceæ. abdominal pains.

42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. tonic. invigorating. expectorant. Moddi. aphrodisiac. laxative. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . allays. antidysenteric. convulsions. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. diuretic . intoxicating. mouth-sores. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . allays asthma. NS. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. causes " Kapha ". may cause vomiting. bad throat. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Indian olibanum tree. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. Mukulsalai. astringent to bowels. LOC. Salgond. cooling. with a good flavour. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Sk. Bark-decoction. expectorant. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. LOC. heals wounds . G. juice. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. fatigue. PARTS USED :—Bark. purifies blood (Yunani). asthma. vaginal discharges. fattening. if taken regularly acts as laxative. biliousness. burning sensation. allays thirst. Fruit—aphrodisiac. COM. fevers.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. Sambrani. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Salashi. aphrodisiac. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). diaphoresis. blood complaints . thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. useful in biliousness. cough. binding. Fermented juice—tonic. Fruit—cooling. antibilious . Loban. thirst and scalding of urine. alexiteric. antipyretic. Salpe. Sugars. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Vishesha-dhupa. hot. fruit and gum. antiglycosuretic. improves taste. FAM..—Burseraceæ. DISTR. flowers. cures dysentery. fattening. Dup. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Guggali. Gum is of five kinds . strengthens teeth. Dhupam. flowers. helps delivery. ulcers . Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. dry. removes "Kapha". See—Timbers. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Liquors. tonic. K. also found in Belgaum District. fruits. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. Guggula. Gums and Resins. Kundur. useful in intestinal troubles. causes headache. skin diseases. H. "Vata". scabies. Luban. Salai. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. . Dhup. purifies blood. with a little salt added. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. " Vata". :—E. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. leaves. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. useful in skin and blood diseases. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. M. also used as antiperiodic. Salphali. intoxicating. bitter. Gum—hot. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. used for boils.

if swallowed whole they are laxative. Asuri. Seeds-laxative. spasmodic. Rai. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. cause burning . G. increase bile. M. and toothache. :—E. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Mohori. Jwalanti. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases.—Cruciferae. Sarshapa. LOC. India. stomachic. Rajika. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. cure skin-dissases. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Kaira. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. used with butter in syphilis . (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). eye-troubles. Taramira . anthelmintic . USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). vermicide. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Surat. :—Cultivated in India. appetiser. kill external parasites. ear. COM. bechic. K. lessen oedema of body. dispel fever . The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Broach. Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. cure enlargement of spleen. Kari Sasive . Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. Seeds act as digestive condiment . Gums and Resins. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. See—Timbers. " Vata". Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. good in cough and for inflammations. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Sk. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. good for throat complaints. biles. FAM. . :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. increase appetite . chiefly in Nasik. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. internal congestions. spleen. cure nose. See—Condiments and Spices. H. rheumatism. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Kali-rai. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Black-True mustard. Khandesh. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. NS. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons.

H. See—Timbers. Shivavalli. Garige. Mahavira. useful in "Vata". S. Australia. Mullu-siru Honne. hot. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Kaj. lumbago. tendrils 2-fid : L. Ekalkanto. NS. lobes oblong lanceolate. Lingini. M. Kavodi. PARTS USED :—Root. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. Shivlingi. :—An annual scandent herb. Gauli. 10-15 cm. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. COM. bluish green. bark. DISTR. :—G. globose. paler and smooth beneath.—baccate. 1 . Fl. Suviraka.—yellowish brown. Tans. Asana. alterative. Asana. bitter. streaked with broad vertical lines . Mauritius. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. . FAM. Asana. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. M. Fr. Shivalingi.— membranous. stem grooved. Sd. Ishawara-Shivalingi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. Ekadivi. tropical Africa. glabrous . deeply cordate base. Lingaja. and in fevers with flatulence. subsessile. Philippines. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. corolla companulate. corolla as in the male . HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.—Euphorbiaceæ. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. ovate-oblong. Fl. Patharphoda. diam. smooth. southward to Ceylon. M.. Sk. :—G. Sk. hemiplegia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). NS.. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. Malaya. Apastambhini. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. or few or many. LOC. CHAR.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. 5 cm. K. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. of Shivaling shape . LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. long. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. Country. margins sinuate denticulate.— Aug-Sept. 5-lobed. Asana. Chandra. :—Deccan. t. It is used in bilious attacks. pungent. FAM. Goge. female flowers solitary. Manj. Kassi.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. H. Khaja. Gunjan. LOC. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda).. 3—2 . LOC. green and scabrid above. DISTR.:—Throughout India. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Gargumaru. heating. 5-partite.

crenate or serrate. FAM.2 m. speckled with white. cooling. Leaf-juice digestive. thirst. leaves. bruises. in large panicles. :—Konkan. Char. DISTR. NS. L. aphrodisiac. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. fevers. Lalana. Parnabija.—variable. M. fattening. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. expectorant. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha".3-1.—Jany. Piyal.—small. gum (rarely). M. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. decussate. COM. useful in diarrhœa. occasionally compound. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. fruit. HABITAT :—Dry. The bark is bitter and poisonous. lobes triangular. Lonnahadakana gida. Thailand (Siam). Rajadana. t. C. with opposite branches . tonic. H.) FAM. Deccan. K. Sk. Char. Panphui. purgative. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. laxative. constricted in the middle. upper 3-5-7 foliate. when punctured. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . boils and bites of venomous insects. K. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). reddish purple. Tapaspriya. "Vata" and biliousness. Pyalchar. Fr. ulcers.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Charoli. NS. COM. It is a disinfectant. purifies blood. allays . :—Hot and drier parts of India. aphrodisiac. Country. LOC. Fl. carminative. Gujarat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. buds with root. Country. Cochin-China. elliptic. Charpoppu. Cambodia. burning sensation on body. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. See—Ornamental Plants. Murukali.—Crassulaceæ. vomiting. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. Kolegeru. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—Konkan. S. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). inflammations. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Sd. Dhanu. CHAR. analgesic. the Dangs. :—Native of tropical Africa. LOC. deciduous open forests.—swollen and octagonal at the base.—Anacardiaceæ. Paira. Zakhi-haiyat. M. Snehabija. DISTR. cardio-tonic. M. binding. Char. Panphuti. Charoli. cures blooddiseases. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. alexipharmic. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. :—H. LOC. Stems obtusely 4-angled. Priyal. Asthibhakshya. leaflets ovate.—pendant. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. high. smooth. S. the older light-coloured. also wild. younger reddish.. astringent to bowels. seeds. Deccan. Fl. lower usually simple. :—G.

Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Dyes. stomatitis. Kuntz. dysentery. cure tumours. worms and piles. lessens biliousness. gum. aphrodisiac. biliousness. Oils. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Gums and Resins. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. aperient used in urinary discharges. gonorrhœa. cold and cough. eye diseases. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. G. Palas. inflammations. used in diseases of chest and lungs. LOC. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). cures excessive perspiration. Kinshuk. Bastard teak. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. useful in elephantiasis. COM. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . colic. Fruit and seeds—oily. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Flower—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. used in liver disorders. hydrocele. Gum—astringent to bowels. tumours. good in fevers. prickly heat and itch. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Palash. diseases of anus. relieves abnormal thirst. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Gum—acrid. topically in piles and hydrocele. K. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. leaves. Muttuga. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. ascends to 1200 m. expectorant. Chichra. astringent.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. See—Timbers. dysmenorrhoea. Sk. Kshatadru. cough. dry. bark. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. fractures. LOC. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. good in biliousness. seeds. strangury. stomachic. Flowers—cure " Kapha". diuretic . In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. anthelmintic. gonorrhoea. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. tonic. digestible. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. purifies blood. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). tonic to liver. piles. pimples. buboes. piles. Kakria. PARTS USED :—Root.) FAM. Seeds tonic to body and brain. cures ulcers and tumours. Leaf—very astringent.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in bone fractures. Khakhrao. in the Khandesh Akrani. Khakda. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. anthelmintic. M. burning urine. anthelmintic. Bark—appetiser. :—E. lessens lumbago. laxative. Yajnika. skindiseases. carminative. Fruit and seed—hot. cause headache (Yunani). useful in syphilis. LOC. leprosy. good in dysentery. remove bad humours. India. NS. gout. if chewed. flowers. Ceylon. lessens inflammations. thirst. Bark—appetiser. Khakera. emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. H. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. Muttala. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. aphrodisiac. pterygium. useful in piles. DISTR. corneal opacities. Palas. tonic. Tripatrak. Dhak.

aphrodisiac.3 cm. See—Timbers. the tropics generally. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. G. Fl. 30-60 cm. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . shortly stalked. They are applied to orchitis. t. Leaves contain a glucoside. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Katkaranj. elliptic-oblong. petioles prickly. 5-7. Fl.—1-2 oblong. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Flowers are astringent. L. Gums and Resins. Sagargota. Sd.—abruptly pinnate. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. flowers and fruit. Gum solution is applied to bruises. very common near the sea-coast.—yellow. M. fevers. . malaria. Kakechika.5 X 4. :—E. cures urinary discharges. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.5 cm. prevents contagious diseases . Physic nut. ringworm. Gajjige. antiperiodic. CHAR. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. strongly mucronate. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. aphrodisiac and diuretic. cures inflammation . skin-diseases. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. long. etc. DISTR. Deccan hills. heating. leprosy (Yunani). Kuberakshi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. hydrocele. oblong 5-7. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . FAM. Seed—styptic.—pod. PARTS USED :—Root-bark.—JulySept. act as rubefacient. leaves. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. asthma and colic. H. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Katkaleja. leucorrhcea. Fever nut.5 cm. LOC. K. Fruit—acrid. piles. Karanja. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Sind. Fr. useful in colic. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. pinnae 6-8 pairs. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. LOC. leaflets 6-9 pairs. lead-colored 1. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. anthelmintic. anthelmintic . Sk. sprouts useful in tumours. astringent to bowels. Tapasi. :—An extensive climber. Gajaga.) COM. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. Dyes. long . They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. Gajga. :—Throughout India. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". wounds. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry.

branches stout. :—A large shrub. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. often gregarious. Br. DISTR. Polynesia.. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Kshiranga. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout.. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. 2.4-3 m. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. elliptic or ovate oblong.H. sometimes amplexicaul. Mandara. :—E. Punnag. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Australia. covered with cottony pubescence. Surpan. Tungakeshera.—Asclepiadaceæ. COM. Malaya. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Vuma. Surhonne. :—E. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. and for its oil. Arka. CHAR. Punnaga. G. K. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. L. Oils. mixed with bark strips and leaves. base cordate. lessens appetite. . both surfaces tomentose.. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Kshirparni. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. COM. Akand. H. Madar. Ak. Surangi. Alexandrian laurel. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Akdo. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. used in chronic fevers. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. NS. Madar. Sk. Mandara. PARTS USED :—Bark. much branched. astringent. FAM. very common in N. Kanara associated with littoral species. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. K. and oil. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. M. Undi.. Rui. Ark. Gigantic swallow-wort.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic.8-10 cm. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede).—Guttiferæ. FAM. Sk. Purasakeshera. :—Cultivated throughout India. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. LOC. high. Ekke. Arka. NS. sessile. Ponne. Shuka-phala.— opposite. Undi. The gum from wounded branches. 10-20 X3. thick. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. LOC. Dholaakdo. improves complexion (Ayurveda). M. gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. See—Timbers. Ceylon. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Sultanchampa.. East African Islands.

CHAR. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . Fl. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles .—follicles. tonic and stomachic in action. 9-10 cm. Madar.-July. young parts white.— Feb. Sd. eruption on body. cures leprosy. bark. ulcers. Flower—analgesic.— purplish in umbellate cymes. coughs. Mandara. spongy.8-2. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. LOC. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. rat-bite. painful joints . Flowers—stomachic. very common is S.7—15 X 4. diaphoretic. usually 5. Br.. Ak. ellipsoid or ovoid. acrid .2 cm. corona shorter than the column.4 m. cottony. Milk— heating. Sk. cures inflammations. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda).—Asclepiadaceæ. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms.5-10 X 5-7. Juice—anthelmintic.5 cm.—about 2.—lobes deltoid-ovate. buds ovoid. ovate oblong. leaves applied to paralysed parts. long. also useful in intestinal worms. :—An erect shrub usually 1. asthma. lobes usually erect. laxative. Fr. astringent. high. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. China. comose. tumours. apex with two auricles. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic.. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. M. broad. purplish or white. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. Flowers—digestive. spleen and liver diseases. catarrh and loss of appetite. liver and spleen enlargement. C. Mandara.—in umbellate cymes. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Sd:—many. Ark. heal wounds. NS. cures leucoderma. across. Fr. Safedak. cures piles and "Kapha". root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. Milk— caustic. t. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. bark corky. C. ringworm of scalp.—7. subglobose. elephantiasis.5-8. used in cough. ascites.:—H. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.. scabies. expectorant and anthelmintic. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. Ceylon. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. India. useful in leprosy. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. L. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. ascites and anasarca. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge.—subsessile. buds globose. tumours. very common. swellings.5 cm. flattened tomentose.—broadly ovate. green. . Fl. dropsy. asthma. COM. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. comose . Root-bark is diaphoretic. Malay Islands and S. elliptic or obovate. Rajarka. piles. LOC. leaves and flowers. back much curved. good for liver (Yunani). cures asthma and syphilis. alterative and purgative properties. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. oleaginous. See—Fibres. depilatory. purgative.

G. COM. Gigantea. veins arching. biliousness. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. Shitarambha. on trees and hedges . Shimbi. ulcers (Ayurveda). cooling. K. Arabia. greenish or colored. Kadavare. Akalabera. Sarvajaya. useful in burning sensations. LOC. P. abundant in Sind.2 m. Sarvajaya. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. Flowers used as detergent. Gavria. 3 sub-erect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. green. flowers and milky juice. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. FAM. CHAR.. Waziristan. Kalehu. Fl.. K. they are given in cholera. COM. spatulate. DISTR. Khadsambal. L. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. oval or orbicular. Sema. G. CANNA INDICA Linn. LOC. :—E. Sambe. The pods contain vitamin A.:—Perennial herb . Tarvardi. Egypt. H. tonic. Paraholiya. high . DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves.9-1. Kardali. :—E.5 cm. membranous. hernia and colic. Kamakshi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. LOC. root-stock tuberous.—segments 2. stem 0. erect. H. lanceolate to ovate.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. NS. FAM. Broad—Sword bean. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. 1 linear . Afghanistan. but doubtfully wild. Sk. Devakeli. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Asishimbi. (Chopra). M.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Sabbajaya. Gavara. Warm leaves used as poultice. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Indian shot. See—Vegetables. Abai.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. M. PARTS USED :—Pods. staminodial segments.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Nilashimbika. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. narrow. Kadsambu. See—Fibres.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. appetiser.—Scitaminaceae. NS. Sk. Hudingana. Koshaphala. bracts oblong. acrid. long. Tamateballi.3 cm. Iran. tropical Africa. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. indigestible.

high in its feral state. LOC. female crowded under convolute bracts. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. :—Throughout India. male flowers. oil-good for earache. dropsy.—small axillary.—Urticaceæ. lower 3-8 foliate. aphrodisiac. leprosy. Seeds—carminative. NS. Bhangi. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. causes thirst and biliousness. black. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. intoxication. PARTS USED :—Roots. echinulate . aphrodisiac. piles. antidiarrhoeic. They are broken in small pieces. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . stomachic. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. usually 0. alterative . Unmattini. causes biliousness. K. CHAR. soporific. leaves.—alternate or the lower opposite. COM. female perianth hyaline. good for hydrocele. Female inflorescence is stomachic. Central Asia. impotence. also wild. male fascicled. Bhang. :—E. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. seeds and resin.5 m. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . dioecious. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. Fr. check vomiting. astringent. leaves. astringent to bowels. Ganja. PARTS USED :—Bark. water extract anthelmintic. FAM. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. LOC.—achene. G. Ganja.—sub-globose or oblong . excessive use causes indigestion. flowers and seeds. Fl. Mohini. DISTR. Harshini. imbricate. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in convulsions. Fl.9-1. soporific. serrate. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. heating. H. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. Shivapriya. L. intoxicating. upper 1-3. Sd. tonic. Not indigenous. intoxication (Ayurveda). restlessness. hot. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Ganja. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. shining. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. cause headache.—many. Hemp. Bark—tonic. (3) Charas. sepals 5. :—Widely cultivated in India. M. globose. Sk. Fr. insanity. (2) Bhang. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. Siddhapatri. Vijaya. inflammations.—more or less throughout the year. hallucinations. useful in " Kapha". melancholia. Wild in the Himalayas. tonic. abortifacient. causes thirst. Leaves—bitter.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. Bhang. 3-lobed. cough. lessen inflammation. flowers.

dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. useful in brain complaints. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Country in Deccan.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. delirium (Ayurveda). Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). loss of consciousness. PARTS USED :—Fruit. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. LOC. often found as an escape. The plant contains cannabinin. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). chronic bowel complaints and impotence. dysuria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Fibres. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. and is employed by Indian physicians. See—Condiments and Spices.—Solanaceæ. Lalmirchi. . :—E. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Tivrashakti. Marichiphala. FAM. :—Extensively cultivated in S. The fruit contains Capsisin. also in gout. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. in the form of electuary. Tikshna. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. useful in indigestion. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. erysipelas. See—Gums and Resins. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. chronic ulcers. and dropsy. and flatulence. Mirchi. whooping cough. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Raktamaricha. It is stomachic. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. muscular pains. K. DISTR. Madana modak used in cough. Chillies. Fruit—pungent. M. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. H. spermatorrhoea. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). expectorant. increases appetite. HABITAT :—Cultivated. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Mirchi. NS. COM. Lanka mirchi. Vegetables. LOC. Capsaicin and Solanin. asthma. G. Cayenne-pepper. dyspepsia. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. weakness of body. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. diarrhœa. cholera. Sk. Narcotics. increases biliousness. M. Ujjvala. :—Cultivated all over India. Menshinkai. Marchu . acute mania.

Root. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. Karolio. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. Kalindi. C. Blister creeper. COM. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. K. it is mucilaginous. leucoderma.—Sapindaceæ. Vakambi. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). colic. Sakralata. bronchitis. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Kumbha. Fl. Thailand (Siam). Girikarnika. leaves and seeds. Kumbhi. NS. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . G. Shaundi. Hennumatti. bladdery . K. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. epileptic fits. HABITAT :—In hedges . diuretic and aperient. hot. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in tumours. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Kumbi. DISTR. Kangu. Jyotish-mati. COM. when moistened. Fibres. Wild guava . subglobose. very acute apex. trigonous. Root is considered diaphoretic. Fr. Fruit—acrid.—capsule.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. :—E. " Vata ". DISTR. L.—globose. aphrodisiac. piles. alexiteric. Ceylon.—Myrtaceæ. :—Most warm countries. FAM. G. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas.:—Common in hedges throughout the State.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. The plant contains saponin. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. LOC. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . . Karnasphota. petals 4. Kanphuti. rounded at the apex. LOC. and is administered in fevers. Ghats. stem wiry. bark. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. LOC. Sind. abscesses and ulcers. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. Konkan and W. Malay Peninsula. common in S. FAM. Kapalphodi. :—Throughout India. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. inciso-serrate. Maniju balli. smooth. Agni-erum. ultimate segments lanceolate. Gavvahannu. NS. black. flowers and fruits. Kumbhi. bark. See—Timbers. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus.—white. Daddala. deltoid. Sk. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. :—E. H. anthelmintic. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Sd. dyspepsia. dry. M. Sk. leaves. skin-diseases. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. winged at the angles. Balloon vine. 2-ternate.— alternate. introduced.

Papaya. diuretic. COM. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. in haemoptysis. G. cures inflammations. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. diuretic. seeds and oil. leprosy. Barre. appetiser. Pangi. Agnishikha. cures insanity (Ayurveda). digestive. K. COM. NS. good for eyes. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. DISTR. Nalikadala. Guppe. ringworm. M. Kusumbo. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. depilatory. DISTR. Dyer's saffron. Papaya. . Kusumba. astringent to bowels. cooling. cures inflammation. H. Popayi. "Kapha". Mexico and Brazil. LOC. G. bleeding piles. appetiser . M. cure urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Safflower. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. flowers. expectorant. Indies. Papaw. Chibda. aphrodisiac. Chirbhita. See—Fruit Trees. Pappayi. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. removes urinary concretions . laxative. enlargement of spleen. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :— E. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Seeds—oleaginous. LOC. carminative. aphrodisiac. K. wounds of urinary track. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . of W. bile. :—E. scabies. piles. diuretic. unripe fruit.—Caricaceæ.—Compositæ. :—Grown extensively in Poona. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. :—Native throughout India. bronchitis. used. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. HABITAT :—Cultivated.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Karada. Kusumbha. causes burning sensation . USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. heating. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. FAM. strangury. Sk. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). removes biliousness . Sk. leucoderma. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. made into curries. Flower—tonic to liver. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. NS. relieves obesity. Kamalottama. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. Oil—indigestible. FAM. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. Kusumba. "Tridosh". fruit and seeds. Kardai. LOC. Fruit—stomachic. it is used to procure abortion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cure "Vata". Papaya. cause biliousness. White thin latex contains Papain. Papita. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. Leaves—hot. Karrak. H. Papayi. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Kusumba. hypnotic. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine.

K. CASSIA ALATA Linn. stomachic. long. See—Vegetables. aphrodisiac . Ajowan. COM. LOC. Dodda sagate. vomiting. kidney troubles. aphrodisiac. Oils. liver. Ajamoda. carminative. stimulate intestines. Ajwain. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Datka pat. H. spleen. tonic and carminative properties. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. Bishops' weed . cure ascites. Oil—good in all diseases. USES :—Flowers are stimulant.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Afghanistan. chest and throat pains. diuretic. Dwipagasti. M. Sk. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Iran. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. good in weakness of limbs. G. Owa. CHAR. chest pains. FAM. rachis . Baluchistan. appetiser. enrich blood. inflammation (Yunani). and even in cholera. good for heart and tooth-ache. and diarrhœa. piles. M. dyspepsia. give lustre to eyes. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. Simyatase. :—Cultivated extensively in India. oblong-obtuse. hiccup. leaflets 10-12 pairs. Dadamardana. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. DISTR. pinnate. H. Ringworm shrub. K. cure catarrh. See—Condiments and Spices. downy beneath. good for ear boils. strengthening. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. tonic. vomiting. Dadrughna. mucronate. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. pungent. Dipyaka. Egypt. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). Omu . enlargement of spleen. Ajamo . emmenagogue and sedative. bechic. myrabolans and rock salt. Oma. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). NS. Winged senna.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . paralysis. Tivragandha. Sk. abdominal pain. carminative. Dadmardan. laxative. Leaves contain vitamin A. Seeds—purgative. :—E. improve speech and eyesight. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. subsessile. The seeds bitter and hot. COM. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. abdominal tumours. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. LOC. stimulant. NS :— E. oblique at the base. bitter. good for old people. atonic dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. they are used in jaundice . Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. 30-60 cm. Elgra. purgative. L. FAM. carminative. Dyes. They are administered in flatulence. anthelmintic. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. Europe.—Umbelliferæ.

G. nocturnal emissions. Fr. thirst. The whole plant. leaflets 8-12 pairs. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. skin-diseases. Fr. cures tumours. stipules very large. causes flatulence . DISTR. 28-4-88).—30-35. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. M. 20-25. Ahmed. Indies.—pod long. DISTR.. LOC. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda).:—Dry regions of Rajputana. fruits and seeds.-50 or more. Tanner's cassia.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. skin diseases. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Peninsula. long. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . very likely a native of the W. along the sea coast in laterite region.. useful in thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour.—bright yellow with darker veins. t.-July. M. Tangadi.) COM. Awal. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. FAM. LOC. LOC. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. reniform. Sd.—large. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). diabetes. membranous.3-1. Sd. Fl. across. Sakusina. Fl. slightly overlapping. t. asthma. itching. " In eczema. vermicide (Ayurveda). 5 cm. Tarwad. leprosy. K. straight. flowers. L. rhombohedral. HABITAT :—Planted. 10-20 X 1. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). reddish brown.—in spiciform. PARTS USED :—Root. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. Country. urinary discharges . ringworm. and throat troubles.-Oct. Mukerji). rotundate. Charmaranga. :—E. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. Avartki. cure " Vata ". :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. Mayahari. buds in yellow bracts. anthelmintic. Taroda. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. leaves. alexipharmic . Ceylon. cough. :—Introduced into India. mucronate. Madhya Pradesh and W. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. yellow with orange veins. asthma . oblong-obovate. Fl. pedunculate racemes . CHAR. Avarike. N. cm. useful in vomiting. Pitakilaka. H. Ph.—7. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. LOC.—pod. good for ulcers.—Jany. Fl. NS. bark smooth. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day.. dull green above. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. Burma. Gujarat and S. obliquely septate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Sk. Bark has the same properties. pale beneath.6 cm. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. J. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. Tarwad. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. C. rachis densely pubescent.5 X 10 cm.

cure " Kapha ". Hema-puspha. Rechana. cause flatulence. Sk. yellow. safe for children and pregnant women. H. used in rheumatism. . Aragina. long. Bandartauri.) COM. Kasundari. Ceylon. tuberculous glands. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Burma. Seeds— oily. DISTR. Kasoda. Chimkani. shining dark olive-green. Stinking weed. leprosy. See—Dyes. rheumatism. NS. transversely septate. Kasonda. long. Pudding-pipe or stick. carminative. Fr. M. branches furrowed. Arimarda. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis.—20-30. and Famine Plants. LOC. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. K. flowers. leaflets 3-5 pairs. distinctly torulose. apex acute. Kasmarda. laxative. Rajataru. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. antipyretic. heal ulcers .—in few flowered racemes. G. H. C. Arogyashimbi. PARTS USED :—Root.5 cm. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. In Konkan. Flowers—purgative. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. 10—12. Fl. L. K. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. lessens inflammation and body-heat.— Jany-March. FAM. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. Ornamental Plants. Dodda-tagase. syphilis. faintly veined with orange . purgative. NS. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. Sk. recurved. griping. biliousness . Rankasvinda.) COM.—petals 5. G.. t. leaves. Kasari. Negro coffee. Leaves lessen inflammation. improve appetite.—pods. smooth. Amaltas. useful in chest and liver complaints. Tans. Garmala. Kacodari. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Fruit—digestible.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. demulcent. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Ane sogate. purgative. Kasondi. base somewhat oblique. also planted. astringent. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. abortifacient.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Golden shower. throat-troubles. FAM. fruit and seeds. Vyadivata. Fl. eye-diseases. cooling. cures burning sensation. often purplish. Kakka. Indian laburnum. :—E. Chakinda. cooling. Konde. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. ovate-lanceolate. Suvarnaka. hard. :—Throughout India. Fruit—antipyretic. :—E. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Leaves—anti-periodic . juice given in erysipelas. M. corymbose. 15-20 cm. Flowers—improve taste. Sd. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Bahava. Balla. (Ayurveda). See—Timbers.—very foetid when bruised. It is a mild laxative.

LOC. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. Fl. long . 7. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. Kasamarda. FAM. leaflets 6-10 pairs.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). asthma. turgid. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. " tridosha " ... heals wounds. t. DISTR. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. slightly recurved. leaves. base rounded. NS. Fr. obtuse. Kasundari. high. leaves and seeds. Sd. dark brown . At Kotra. M. few flowered corymbose racemes. PARTS USED :—Bark. tonic and febrifuge. fevers.—pod. H. Banar. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. leaves and seeds. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. opposite. Baskikasondi. LOC.—18-23 cm. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. LOC. are given in diabetes. alexiteric. with a solitary conical gland near the base .—in axillary. See—Famine Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. COM. in Kutch. See—Famine Plants. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. cures ascites. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. hiccup. petals 5. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. LOC. :—G.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. lanceolate. mixed with honey.—30-40 broadly ovoid.Jany. " Vata ". Seeds used in heat of the blood. stomachic. ovate. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. C. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. L. Ran tankala. Leaves—aphrodisiac. Sk.510 cm. :—A shrub 2. The bark.— Nov. PARTS USED :—Root. Kasondi. The plant contains glucoside emodin. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. In many countries root is considered diuretic. cough. elephantiasis. cure " Kapha". Kasamarda. yellow. Fl. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). Talapota. and seeds are cathartic. annual or perennial. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. DISTR. .4-3 m. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. rachis grooved . CHAR. septate between the seeds . K.

opposite (lowest smaller). H. Kangli. Black-oil tree. Taga. globose. in drooping panicles. Kanguni. usually unisexual. covered with lenticels. bitter. :—E. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. small yellowish-green. Dadrughna. much curved when young. LOC. L.—after the rains. 12. Seeds—bitter. Takala. :—E. shining above. unarmed.. :—Large deciduous climber. hot.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. Fr. Pamad. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. K. capsule. Fr. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". CHAR. CHAR. expectorant. cause burning sensation. Tarota. Climbing-staff plant. Sd. appetiser. Sk. Seeds— acrid. powerful brain tonic. COM. fleshy arillus. reddish brown. branches rough. Malhangana. M. 30-90 cm. bright yellow. FAM.—pod. X 4. Jyotishmati. upper petal 2-lobed . Malkamni. oblong. K. Madras State. Chagoche. t. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Kangodi. cure joint-pains. Taragosi. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. in diam. Velo .5-20 cm. Panevar. pale yellow.8-7. The plant contains glucoside emodin.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. DISTR. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. brain and liver tonic. Chakramarda.5 mm. stem upto 23 cm.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. FAM.—Celastraceæ. . leaves and seeds. G. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks.5-10 cm. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sphutabandhani. ovate or obovate. Intellect tree.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.3-10 X 3. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. emetic. NS. high. Dadamari. :—An annual foetid herb. 7. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. aphrodisiac.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . LOC. Foetid cassia. 6. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally.. Burma. alternate. PARTS USED :— Root. laxative. M. Fl. 18 m. :—A very common weed all over the State. Chakunda. Malkakni. rachis grooved. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. NS. C. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.—pinnate. DISTR. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Sk. crenate. 1-6 completely covered with red.— petals 5. long. obliquely septate. Svarnalata. Kangani. leaflets 3 pairs. Tagache. Fl. L.) COM. high.. base oblique. obovate. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd.5 cm. Malkangoni. H.

:—G. LOC. M. Barmi. obovate or oblong. they are also sudorific. Lahanchirayat. stem creeping with long internodes. COM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. COM. L. used in leprosy. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). Fr. especially in Bengal.—capsule. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields.—Umbelliferæ. radical leaves revolute. orbicular.).60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani).—opposite. base deeply cordate stipulate. Oil stomachic. Ekpani. gout. Fr. Brahmi.—Feb.). It is used as a substitute for chiretta. LOC. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. Mandukparni. Deccan and S. Fl. ovoid. persistent. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. G. Brahmamanduki. FAM. Vondelaga. linear-oblong. M. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Jhinkun-kariatum. DISTR. . bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers.—tubular lobes 5. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. C. pink. tonic. long.-Apl. CHAR. good for cough and asthma. Mahaushadhi. :— E. reniform.—Gentianaceæ. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. aphrodisiac and stimulant. paralysis and leprosy. minute. cauline smaller. t. Seeds are hot. pink. :—A slender herbaceous plant. FAM. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. t. H. L. hard-rugose. cloves. Vallari . elliptic. spreading star-like . Country. narrowly oblong . high. Jangli-karayatu. CHAR. Fl.—May-Nov. Don. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. K. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri.—4 mm.—in fascicled umbels. rooting at the nodes. :—Konkan. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm.—3 from each node. :—Throughout India. NS. H. Fl. and is employed for external application. NS. Fl. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Sk. M. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. Brahmamanduki.

cures leucoderma. tonic. diuretic. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. For external use powder. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bechic. :—K. FAM. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. nallas. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. ointment. antipyretic. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Chanda. and a bitter substance odollin. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". stomachic. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. sedative to nerves. fruit.) DISTR. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. PARTS USED :—Bark. M. Leaf-powder. cooling. water courses throughout the State. memory. urinary discharges. voice. :—Throughout India near the coast. bronchitis. headache . milky juice. abundant on the Malabar Coast. soporific. Honde. carminative. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Plant—bitter. improves appetite. cardio-tonic. plaster or bath are used. DISTR. fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. :—In moist situations (streams. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. . cures hiccup. scalding of urine. laxative. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. LOC. leaves and seeds). Tande. COM. asthma. NS. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. LOC. Kanara. Sukanu. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. tonic. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. bitter. Australia Pacific Islands. biliousness. " Kapha ". alterative. improves appetite (Yunani). Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Leaves are also diuretic. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. spleen enlargement. nut is narcotic and poisonous . asthma. small-pox. blood diseases.—Apocynaceæ. inflammations. alexiteric. digestible. thirst. clears voice and brain. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. USES :—Bark is purgative. Malay Archipelago. See—Timbers. :—South Konkan and N. LOC. China. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. twigs. bronchitis.

sour . acrid. fragrant. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Deccan and S. LOC. "Kapha". Kanchuki. fruit and seeds. Chanaka. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Agralohita. spleen (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vajibhakshya. M. NS. But. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. Chana. Skandhaphala. USES :— Root is purgative. diseases of blood. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. Fruit is very sour . G. Country. :—E.) FAM. NS. COM. :—Very common in the Deccan. Harparrevdi. H. anthelmintic. M. Sk. G. M. Laveni. Chandanbedu. K. Chick pea. constipation. :— E. diuretic. Country gooseberry. Kadale. Lavali. Chillika. K. LOC. LOC. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter.—Chenopodiaceæ. also cultivated as a pot herb. Tanko. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Chunna. M. piles . infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Chania. LOC. See—Fruit Trees. piles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Cheel. :—E. H. heart. improves appetite. :—Widely distributed. FAM. "Vata". useful in bronchitis. urinary concretions. Rai-avala. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Chakwat. . DISTR. Wild-spinach. biliousness. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. NS. Kari-Kempukadale. root and the seed are cathartic. The plant yields an essential oil. eye-diseases. Harbara. Chakravati. Bengal—Common-gram. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. Pandu.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ).. useful in thirst. Ksharadala. The fruit is acrid and astringent. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Rayara nelli. Bathusag. Chalmeri. tonic. CICCA ACIDA Merr. COM. Chakravarti. useful in biliousness. vomiting. LOC. COM. Harparauri K. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. FAM . laxative. Balabhojya. Sk. Goose-foot.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. abdominal pains. :—Cultivated in India. tonic to liver. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. H. oleaginous.—Euphorbiaceæ. Chana. throattroubles. aphrodisiac.

bronchitis (Yunani). :— Bark and oil. useful in " Vata ". Valkala. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. leprosy. useful in hydrocele. . Burma. aphrodisiac. abortifacient. flatulence. FAM. toothache (Ayurveda). :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. emmenagogue. :—W. pains . Malay Peninsula. seed and acid exudation. foul mouth and fever. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. pungent. improve taste and appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. Ceylon. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. Seed—stimulant. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. toothache. K. throat troubles. useful in bronchitis. cures thirst and burning. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. Leaves contain vitamin A. strengthens liver. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. H. tonic. throat troubles. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. carminative. causes salivation. flatulence. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. See—Food Plants. Gudatwaka. tonic . indigenous and cultivated. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. biliousness. etc. causes flatulence. carminative. causes flatulence. thirst. parched mouth. Kanara district. Kash. very common in the N. enriches blood. astringent to bowels . Sk. rectum and urinary diseases. It checks nausea and vomiting. Bark—tonic. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Seed—indigestible. :—G. appetiser.—Lauraceæ. anthelmintic. piles. See—Condiments and Spices. diarrhœa and dysentery. anthelmintic . LOC. Dalchini. abdominal pains. heart. Oils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. cold in head. aphrodisiac. headache. Nisane. biliousness. Dalchini. blood troubles. refrigerant. chest complaints. Darchini. alexiteric. Duk. DISTR. useful in inflammations. indigestion. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. useful in cold. COM. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. Leaves—purgative. headache. It possesses carminative. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. PARTS USED. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. useful in loss of appetite. tonic to hair. LOC. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. expectorant. diarrhœa. heated brain. M. Dalchini. aphrodisiac. Oil—carminative. cure bronchitis. good for diseases of liver and spleen. liver-tonic . Lavange-hakke. tonic. Peninsula. vomiting. NS. Dalchini. vomiting. hiccup. aphrodisiac. cures skin diseases. Oil—styptic. bronchitis. itching.

removes pain. K. Fl. margins ciliate. i. which possibly has a cholinergic action. monœcious.—Nov. uterine complaints. M. Venivalli. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. Trapusi.5-20 cm. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. Katurasa. . t.—A climbing shrub. red or yellowish white. H. sub-globose. solitary. 7. COM. piles. removes intestinal worms. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. Tumtikayi. G. FAM. fever. long. an alkaloid. HABITAT.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. The active constituent of the drug.—large. useful in hemicrania. helps parturition. or twin. flesh juicy. warm parts of Asia. Fr. Fr. Pahadvel. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. NS. Ghorumba. itching . Sk. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. L. orbicular or reniform. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl.—Menispermaceæ. yellow within. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. M. hairy. Fl. tendrils bifid. dropsy and cough. diam. Patha. 5-nerved. young shoots woolly. Mahendravaruni. 3. FAM. has been isolated. L. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. :—An extensively climbing annual. lobes obovateoblong. Indrayan.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. Kaduvrindavan. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. asthma . cordate at the base.—July-Sept. Indrayan. H. leaves. heart troubles. CHAR. NS. FL t. upto 25 cm. Sk.8-10 cm. C. dysentery. Pavamekke Kayi. Nirbisi. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". greenish. DISTR. peltate. subglobose. mucronate. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Indrayana. Indruk. F. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . also for prolapsus uteri. CHAR. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses.. red. skin eruptions. Africa and America. LOC. (Ind. :—Deccan. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. subcampanulate. in conjunction with aromatics. somewhat hairy. E. solitary. R. burning. female flowers in elongate. Sd. Uthika. diam. 1949). waxy coated. compressed. Paharmul.-Jany. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. axillary racemes . 5-partite. male flowers in axillary cymes. drupe. yellowish. angular .— usually margined. smooth. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages.e. alleviates vomiting. Velvet-leaf. COM. :— E. Chitraphala. Bitter apple. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. Annual Report. branches more or less pubescent. Colocynth. Venivel. :—E. diarrhœa.. Kanara. minute. stem thick. :—In hills. Asso. G. greenish outside. Makal. Indraphal.

Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. NS. epilepsy. :—Konkan. tuberculous glands of neck. dyspepsia. Sukkare-kanji. Narange. DISTR. Gujarat. Fruit—sour. FAM. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). astringent. leuco-derma. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Sunthura. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. diuretic. removes " Vata ". N. purgative. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Narenj. Sk. aphrodisiac . useful in biliousness. carminative. aphrodisiac. In the Konkan fruit and root. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. cooling. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. and lumbago. cures tumours. fever and worms. Santra. LOC. pain in joints. chest troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. tonic. Doddile. anthelmintic. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). Ceylon. Asia. COM. removes biliousness. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. Also indigenous in Arabia. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Naringa. Naringi. removes fatigue . enlargement of spleen. G. fortifies chest. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. LOC. Flower— stimulant. relieves colds. Kittale. Narangi. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. :— E. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. good in vomiting and skin diseases. jaundice. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. LOC. anthelmintic . is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. Tvakasugandha. sweet and has agreeable flavour. useful in piles. urinary discharges. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Kirmirtvaka. " Kapha". antipyretic. sea-shores. (Poona. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. with or without nux-vomica. relieves vomiting and retching. Rind— anthelmintic. bowel complaints.—Rutaceæ. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). enlargement of spleen. elephantiasis . USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. laxative. LOC. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). bronchitis. good in fevers. anæmia. M. Cardiotonic. K. :—Widely cultivated in India. Root and fruit cooling. H. tonic. ulcers. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. W. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . throat diseases. Nagaranga. constipation. asthma. Deccan. ascites. constipation. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children.

flatulence. Paharinimbu . Bijoru. thirst. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. USES. COM. :—Roots. its preserve is used for dysentery. G. Balank. aphrodisiac. bark and fruit. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. hiccup. anthelmintic.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. seeds. The fruits contain vitamins A. According to Theophrastus. COM. Ruchaka. DoddaGaja-nimba. Mahalunga. Jambira. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. H. the pulp cold and dry. G. astringent to bowels . used in constipation and tumours. M. LOC. PARTS USED. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). K. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. dry and tonic . NS. Sk. Idalimbu. Mahanimbu. Limonum. juice refrigerant and astringent.:—Grown in gardens in the State. sharp. Adam's apple. gastric irritability in general and general debility. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in vomiting. useful in abdominal complaints. intoxication. Lemon . See—Fruit Trees. heating. leaves and flowers hot and dry. relieve vomiting. Matulunga. Flowers—stimulant. cough. H. NS. asthma. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. also corrects foetid breath. K. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. asthma. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms.—Rutaceæ. said to be wild in W. Motalimbu . Madala. cough. Ghats. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. tonic. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Turanj. Sk. Harale. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Bijaura. increase appetite. Matunga. the juice allays ear-ache. jaundice. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Mavalunga. Seeds—indigestible. oily. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mahaphala. digestible. :—E. Devamadala. FAM. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. LOC. flowers. cures leprosy. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Bera nimbu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Amlakeshara. Turanj. Fruit—sweet and sour. Mahaphala. B and C. HABITAT :—Cultivated. VAR. with a sharp taste. Matalunga. :—Citron rind is hot. anasarca and chronic fever. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. . removes colic. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. :— E. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Rusaki. M. Thora-limbu. stimulant. Kutla. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". rind of the fruit is bitter. tonic and astringent properties. LOC. anæmia. Citron . though there are no regular plantations. fruits and seeds. Bijapurna. relieves sore-throat.

with long feathery tails . cures abodominal complaints. Ranjai. appetiser. fatigue . stomachic. sepals 4-6. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . sharp taste. CHAR. Fl. petioles twinning. lobes mucronate. K. The fruits contain vitamins A and C.—Sept. not good in old age. brain disorders. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Lebu.—Ranunculaceæ. LOC. Nimbuka. COM. Madhulika. Rochana. relieves vomiting . Devashreni. throat trouble. Moravel. C. also useful in rheumatism. Morvel.—achenes. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. but often found trailing amongst grass. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. See—Fruit Trees. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Nebu. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour.—simple or once ternate. Sk. hairy outside. plethora. :—E. Nimbu. Limpaka. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections .5 cm. NS. K. :—An extensive climber. Kagadi limbu. silky villous. ovoid. whole plant tomentose.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. measles. blades 2-2. Sk.—in axillary corymbose panicles. burning in the chest. M. L. Snuva. heart. G. Oil from rind. Amlasara. FAM. M.Nov. COM.—petals O. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. stimulant . It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. :—G. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Limbe. Fl. t. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. loss of appetite. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. constipation. Nimbe. Morata. Morhari. it cures and prevents scurvy. NS. Murva. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. PARTS USED :—Fruit. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Nimbu. long ovate or orbicular. Lebu. Fruit—sour. white. improves liver. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. bronchitis . from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. where there is dry skin and much thirst. anthelmintic. Acid-Sour lime . Shodhana. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Fr. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. vomiting. it helps digestion. Limbu. Acida. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. hemicrania. scarletina. VAR. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Khatalimbu. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. with flavour. eyes . relieves biliousness. leaves (rarely).. Murhari. Dhantiate. Churhar. .

—axillary. stomachic. C. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. erect. L. Kasaghni. used internally in thirst. tapering towards both ends . bitter. Hulhul. subglobose. stimulant. Gantubarangi. Tinmani.—Capparidaceæ. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). Leaves—favour digestion. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. 30-90 cm. hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. Kanphutia. Harhuria. LOC. dryness and urethral discharges. H. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Bharangi. COM. Tilwan. DISTR. Talvari. CHAR. bitter taste and a strong odour. Sd. :—G. Barbara. in lax racemes. FAM. t.—Sept-June. LOC.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. very common in the Deccan. Juice— cures ear-ache. blood diseases. hot. cooling.—Verbenaceæ. laxative. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. NS. :—W. Kiritekki. good in malaria. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. Jangali-harhar. removes " Kapha". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Brahmani. yellow. K. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Adityabhakta. and dispel intestinal fermentation. hairy. causes excessive biliousness. and fevers. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. NS. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. laxative. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. Bharangi. transversely striate. leaflets elliptic-oblong.—capsule. oblong-obovate. DISTR. obliquely striate. terminal the largest. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. . stimulates secretion of bile. Nayibela.—petals 4. veined. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Fl. useful in leprosy. anthelmintic. petioles of lower leaves longer. Fl. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. high. Phanjika. M. FAM. mixed with oil. Sk. Sauri. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Fr. Bharangi. LOC. :—Annual erect herb. diuretic. :—Common in grass lands. :—G. stems grooved and glandular. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. M. Sk. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Vatari. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. Karnasphota. K. astringent.—brownish black. HABIT :—A common weed. Tilparni.—3-5 foliate. Bharang. COM. Konkan. Ghats. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. reduces tumours and inflammations . PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. H. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Kanphodi. externally applied to boils.

COM. obovoid. Fl. LOC. spreading. useful in ascites (Yunani). anthelmintic. :—G.—ternately whorled. Aparajita. NS. sometimes opposite. also found throughout the State. leucoderma. Malay Peninsula. flat. :—A perennial twining herb. C. Sk. Ceylon. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. useful in bronchitis. LOC. ulcers of the cornea.— Aug..—pale blue.8-5 cm. diuretic. cures "Tridosha". tube hairy within. leaflets 5-7. HABITAT :—In hedges. leaves and seeds.—many. elephantiasis. lessens expectoration. Garani. good for eye-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry.—6-10 yellowish brown. acrid. blood diseases. standard bright blue or white. 3.2 m. M. FAM. Koyala. Gokarni. tonic to the brain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in inflammation.-Oct. Kajli. Fl. pains. fevers (Yunani). Kowa. biliousness. lower one deflexed. K. Aparajita.—axillary. tubercular glands. stems bluntly quadrangular. sharply serrate.:—More or less throughout India.. solitary. The plant contains an alkaloid. Vishnukranta. asthma. bronchitis. burning sensation. Sd.5-15 X 5. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. fleshy. anthelmintic. high.2 cm. laxative. Gokarnika. and blue flowered. Fl. burning sensation. L..—Shrub. wounds (Ayurveda). :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . tuberculous glands.— drupe. showy.—imparipinnate. CHAR. ozœna. stomachic. stems terete. Girikarniballi.3 cm. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. with an orange centre. heating.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fl. collectively forming a terminal panicle. Fr. DISTR. Root is purgative and diuretic. ulcers (Ayurveda). elliptic oblong. Fr. black. consumption. inflammations. Root increases appetite. smooth. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root. "Vata". hairy. 12. C. L. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections.5 X 2-3. Girikarnika. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. Wowatheti.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. t.7-6. inflammations. There are two varieties :—white flowered. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork.9-2. alexiteric. the larger lower lobe dark purple. hiccup. long . LOC. nearly straight..MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. pubescent. 0. oblong or elliptic. epilepsy. in lax dichotomous cymes. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. tumours. H. asthma.—much exerted. headache. beaked. Kalina. DISTR. t— June-Jany. . 4 lobes flat. fevers. 2-2. leaves and seeds.

galactagogue. Vasantitikta. COM. M. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Sk. burning of hands and feet. aphrodisiac. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). S. Konkan. allays thirst. Tana. Bimb. Jamtikibel. cause flatulence. NS. asthma. M. Kambhoja. Parvel. Glum. and jaundice. Tondali. stops vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. COM. flowers. K. Ghobe. Malaya. Vasanvel. wild in hedges. USES:—In the Konkan. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Bimbi. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. LOC. urinary losses. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Tondeballi. Deccan.:—Root cooling. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). " Vata". Broom-creeper. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. consumption. Seeds are purgative and aperient. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Bimbika. a hormone and an alkaloid. . cures leprosy. See—Vegetables. H. Tundika. M. antipyretic . Dirghvalli. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Bimba. diseases of blood. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. K. useful in ascites and fevers.—Cucurbitaceæ. H. Galedu. Country. NS. & A. tropical Africa. Oshthi. dried and powdered. Tundi. astringent to bowels. biliousness. The plant contains an enzyme. FAM. fruit. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Fruit is aphrodisiac. :—G. HABITAT. Chireta. Flowers cure itching. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.) FAM. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Kanduri. Sk. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Vevdi. Fruit— indigestible. Vasandi. Root bark. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Vevati. leaves. DISTR :—Throughout India. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. COCCINIA INDICA W. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Ink-berry. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).—E. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Leaves—acrid. given for uterine discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Garudi. Ceylon. G.:—Cultivated in gardens. Gujarat. Faridburti. Hunder.—Menispermaceæ.

dysentery. tropical Africa. COM. mixed with water. keeled. It is also used as a refrigerant. useful in biliousness. . 3-5 nerved. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. Narial. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. "Kapha" and "Vata". Konkan. oleaginous.3 X 1. urinary discharges. L. biliousness. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). smells sweetish and pungent. S.8 cm. fattening. Fl. bronchitis. Fr. burning sensation. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). laxative. DISTR.8-6.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Seed-cooling. Fl. M. Tenginmara.:— A straggling scandent shrub. tuberculosis. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. Antipyretic. 2-8 together. tonic. appetiser. blood diseases. S. cardiotonic. LOC. lessens thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. laxative. Leaf-juice. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. alexipharmic . Nariyal. HABITAT :—In hedges. Deccan. male in small axillary cymose panicles. t. H. Milk—cooling. enriches blood. it is used for coughs. Flower-cooling . villous . also in many places in the interior. In the Konkan. India and Ceylon. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . which is taken internally with sugar. Tengu. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". and put on to sore-eyelids. Nalivar. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. oil. useful in diabetes.—dioecious. :—E. aphrodisiac. rugose . it is heating. Jataphala. Cocoanut palm. lessens bile and burning sensation. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. good in fractures. female in axillary clusters. useful in leprosy. K. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. young parts densely Villous. subdeltoid or subhastate. G. Toyagarbha. constipation. Gujarat. fermented juice. India. bark. Pegu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. Arabia. Mangalya.3-3. as a cure for gonorrhœa. laxative and sudorific. DISTR. seed.—drupe. Sk. Naral. aphrodisiac. Common in Konkan and N. Kanara. thirst. tonic. NS.—Dec. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.—3.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. aphrodisiac. LOC. tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. ovate. causes "Kapha".. size of a small pea. ovate-oblong. China. LOC. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Mahaphala. Mad. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic.—Palmæ. fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. indigestible. with a few heads of pepper. flowers. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. FAM. Narikel.

Oil—indigestible. useful in fever. smooth. useful in lumbar-pain. enriches blood. Fl. consumption. fattening. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). lessens inflammations . it promotes growth of hair. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases.3 cm. smooth. midrib stout. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. useful in urinary complaints. Ran-jondhala. incipient phthisis and cachexia.—Gramineæ COM. diuretic . ulcers (Ayurveda).5-6. America. Sk.—Oct. promotes hairgrowth. Gavedhu. :—E. Jargadi. paralysis. bronchitis. fermented juice is intoxicating. asthma.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. S. Bengal. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian .72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. abundant in standing water. See—Fruit Trees. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. DISTR. Dabha. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Kasai. Madhya Bharat. liver complaints. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. above the bract stout. India. China. spinously serrate margins. NS. Japan.—broadly ovoid to globose. :—A tall leafy grass. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. It is also used for burns. LOC. bluish grey. Fl. base cordate. Fibres. Fr. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. CHAR. Polynesia. L.. notched at the nodes . rachis within the bract slender. diuretic. B and C. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic.—monœcious racemes 2. Rajputana. sheaths long. HABITAT :—Gregarious. internodes smooth. M. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). stem 90-150 cm. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. long. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. long. FAM. tonic. G. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. t. tropical Asia-Africa. It is refreshing and laxative. LOC. Madhya Pradesh. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. Oils. high or more. increases body weight. it also purifies blood.6-10 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. polished. piles and scabies (Yunani. stout.—10-15 x 2. Gurlu . strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Gojivha. H. :—Himalayas. Oil—sweet. Job's tears. 6. rooting at the lower nodes. piles . Assam. Malaya.5-5 cm. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. LOC. polished. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy.

when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. FAM. Fr. anthelmintic. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. NS. astringent. Pistan. wedgeshaped. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. The plant contains leucin. Kalasaka. Gujarat. tyrosin. Sd. G. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn.—in short cymes. Bhuselu. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. DISTR. :—An annual herb. Hadige. ridged and muricated. See—Fibres. stomachic. arginine and coicin. Chaunchan . Patta. histidin. yellow. :—E. Lassora. fever. Fl. H. 5-valved.:—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. NS. smooth. Bargund. carminative. brown. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. .— capsule. cultivated in most tropical countries. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. Sk.—few in each cell. Sk. In jutegrowing districts. not beaked. PARTS USED :—Root.—petals 4-5. Sebesten plum. acute or acuminate. leaves and fruit. t. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. :—Konkan. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . serrate. lysin. G. Jute . Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China.5-10 X 2-3. lanceolate.2 cm. Col. COM.—7. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. K. buds obovoid. CHAR. COM. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . laxative. and intestinal antiseptic.—Tiliaceæ. growing very tall under cultivation. FAM. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. LOC. L. Gondan. Bhukerbudara. Bhokar. also efficacious in skin-diseases.— Sept. Challa. See—Fodder Plants. diam. It is also used as a bitter tonic. 12 mm. Fl. and dyspepsia. Chhunchh . M. also as antiperiodic. Rayagundo. Bhokar. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. subglobose.—Boraginaceæ. Mannadike. Resalla. C.

Kothimbir. Kustumburi. Allaka. Sk. expectorant. Seeds—aphrodisiac. wild and cultivated. jaundice. causes suppuration. used in syphilis. chronic fevers. maturant. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Fibres. NS. DISTR. stimulant. pains in joints. :—Throughout India. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. thirst. biliousness. biliousness. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. LOC. Mesapotamia and Greece. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. COM. Kanara. Fruit—diuretic. Bark is used as a mild tonic. indigestion.:—E. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. LOC. Fruit is aromatic. inflammations. bechic. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. removes bad humours. See—Timbers. tuberculous glands. diseases of chest and urethra.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Syria. M. Kothamir. Dharika. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. burning of throat. bronchitis. K. The plant and fruit— acrid. H. gives appetite. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. DISTR. uterus and urethra. good in spleen diseases (Yunani).:—Throughout the State in W. Kothambri. widely known from Palestine. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Coriander. stomachic. aphrodisiac. diseases of chest. often planted. Dhania. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Ghats. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. anthelmintic. used in dry cough. leaves (rarely) and fruit. gleet. Fruits are used as spice. LOC. antipyretic. anthelmintic. bleeding gums. cooling. analgesic. anthelmintic. LOC. stimulant. Vitunnaka.—Umbelliferæ. highly esteemed in coughs. vulnerary. tropical Australia. Egypt. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). scabies. Satpudas. piles. Cochin-China. dyspepsia. headache. stomatitis. G. eye-pains. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. used as an expectorant and astringent. biliousness. tooth-ache. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. . PARTS USED :—Bark. Konphir. laxative. Hivija. cures thirst. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Cultivated. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). diuretic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. also cultivated. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. FAM. heart and liver. Leaves—hypnotic. tonic to brain. purgative. vomiting. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). carminative and antispasmodic. prevents coryza and bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. :—Cultivated throughout India. useful in hiccup.

also planted near Muslim tombs. Barna. concave. bracts ovate. S. Ajapa. fever. Vayavarno.2-2. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Castle Rock. rheumatism. H. NS.—15-30 X 5. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. root-stock tuberous. China.— black with white aril. Biliana. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. globosely 3-gonous. anæmia. :—An erect plant 1.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Varno. mucronate. Sk.7-7. inflammations. LOC. Varvunna. L. FAM. coughs and skin diseases. nalas. NS. M. :—More or less throughout India. . Fl. PARTS USED:—Root. DISTR. USES:—Root is anthelmintic.—capsule.—Capparidaceæ. lobes ovate-oblong. Kemuka. Fl. Kushtha. useful in catarrhal fevers.— tube short. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. spirally arranged. LOC. C.—Scitamineæ. Bilpatri. It is also astringent and digestive. Penva.—Aug. and " Vata". Bitusi. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Karikuttu. Vayavarna.:—Konkan ghats. Keu. t. Nervele. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). :—G. depurative. DISTR.5 cm. M. crisped. Varuna. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Kashmira. a tonic is prepared from it. S. Sd. Sk. " Kapha". The plant yields an essential oil. See—Condiments and Spices. lip white with yellow centre. and aphrodisiac. Khandala. sheaths coriaceous .— in very dense spikes.7 m. subsessile. Shura. silky-pubescent beneath. oblong. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. hiccup (Ayurveda). K. India. CHAR. Fr. Var. Kust. Changalkashta. By the earliest writers. stem sub-woody at the base . Pakarmula. Pushkarmula. COM.-Oct. bright red. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Ceylon. red. Chikke. lumbago. many. FAM. H. Pinga. dyspepsia. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. Mahakapittha. M. Hadawarna. Madhya Bharat. :—Almost all over India (Assam. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Malay Islands. :—G. subequal. Country. Var. Varuna. COM. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. K. useful in bronchitis. Pushkarmula. Kumaraka. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . in moist and shady places. LOC.

bracts 7. CHAR. "Pitta" and "Kapha". Seeds—purgative. antilithic. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. diseases of vagina. Vishamungalli. lung and spleen diseases.—subglobose. Patra-pushpi. LOC. found wild in North and South Konkan.5-10 cm. flat. night-blindness. leaves. expectorant. Sd. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. bright green. carminative. FAM. white. antipyretic. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. thin. vesicant. diam. The plant contains saponin. USES:—Root is alterative. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. L. COM. anthelmintic. beaked. LOC. Nag-damani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.:—G. laxative. linear lanceolate. Visha-Mandalamardini. also wild. heating. chest.9-1. removes "Vata". K. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. See—Timbers. lobes 6. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. bark. Sk. useful in bronchitis. fragrant at night.—Amaryllidaceæ. X 12. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. stomachic. tuberculous glands. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. urinary discharges.. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. and seeds. Ceylon. urinary concretions. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. Nagadown. long. M. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. defective vision. increases secretion of bile. :—Throughout tropical India. chest and blood diseases. flowers and fruits. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin.5-18 cm. strangury. bechic. as long as the tube. Nagdavana. NS. aphrodisiac. Chindar. cylindric. Tonic. Pindar. Kanwal. perianth tube greenish-white. Bark promotes appetite. . In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. laxative. detergent. anuria. Fl. vulnerary.—1 (rarely 2). act as rubefacient and vesicant. 0. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. laxative.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. vomiting. digestive. scape 45-90 cm.—20-30. expectorant. H. it promotes appetite. good in strangury. Nag-damani. useful in biliousness. Kanmu. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. anthelmintic.—15-50 in an umbel. then sweet. bitter. linear. emmenagogue. leaves. Kanda-shalini. toothache.5 cm.. bulb 5-10 cm. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). lumbago. tumours. diuretic. Wild or cultivated. gonorrhœa. with a sheathing base. Fr. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani).

near Junnar (Poona Dist). DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). G. Seeds contain an alkaloid.—Euphorbiaceæ. Chucka . carminative. Ganasur. Western Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in mental troubles. :—Sylhet. cathartic. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Oil cathartic. COM. Ceylon . HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. FAM. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. abdominal diseases. NS. See—Timbers. LOC. Nepala . Assam to Malacca. M. fever. Sk.. excessive phlegm. etc. Danti. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. tonic. Chota-Natpur. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. FAM. LOC. COM. :—Naturalised in S. expectorant. :—Rare in the State.—Euphorbiaceæ. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Jamalgota. naturalised or cultivated. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. good in sore eyes. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. leaves and seeds. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Malay Islands. Madhya Pradesh. Japala. it is in great request. insanity. Jamalgota . USES:—Root and seeds are purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Bengal. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. bark. :—E. emetic. Jepal. Burma. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Sk. Nepal. nauseant and diaphoretic. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. DISTR. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. convulsions. . NS. Konkan. As an application to sprains. Nepala. Oil from the seed is purgative. Seeds cause burning sensation. Danti. Ceylon. bruises and rheumatic swellings. China. H. Jayapala. Ieucoderma. K. :—H. Kanara. M. Purging croton . Burma. in small doses. The plant contains lycorin. Bhutankusam. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. :—Bengal. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds.

brain and body. :—G. It is given internally with great caution. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. ascites. NS. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Melon. Valaka. Mutrala. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Shadrekha. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. cooling. Kakadi. urinary discharges. They are edible. LOC. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. diaphoretic. K. insanity. Sweet melon . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. G. Kachra. colic. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. synovitis. Karkati. laxative. Fruit—tonic. Seeds—lachrymatory. dropsy.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. allays fatigue. galactagogue. Shantanu. Ripe fruit—sweet. Kharbuja. M. Said to be truly wild in India. oily. aphrodisiac. NS. FAM. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. LOC. thirst (Yunani). Karkali. DISTR. strengthens heart. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. obstinate constipation. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Kalangida.:—E. Vrittervaru. biliousness. Sk. M. Mahanaracha Rasa. Lomashi. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. cures " Vata ". Chibuda. convulsions. COM. H. :—In Deccan. H. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. DISTR. It is useful in apoplexy. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Kharbuja. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Kakni. fattening. LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. fruit and seeds. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. ascites. Kakri. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. MELO Var. wholesome. Chibdu Shakarteti. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). diuretic. laxative. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. C. . Tarkakadi. COM. tonic. diuretic. &c. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. insanity. Sk. gives headache. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. cures ophthalmia. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. may cause indigestion. and lock-jaw.—Cucurbitaceæ. in ascites and anasarca. Kankadi. See—Timbers. Pathira . Rind—vulnerary. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Valungi. Kharbuja. nutritive and diuretic. chronic fever. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. used in liver and kidney troubles. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis.

Seed oil used in fever. Kumbhakshi. strangury. pale yellow when ripe. L. used in thirst. M. FAM. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. tendrils simple. biliousness. They are nutritive. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. LOC. improve complexion.:—E. female peduncle longer than male.:—N. India is considered to be the original home. hairy. Ripe one tonic.—yellow segments elliptic. angled. Mrigadani. causes "Vata". Sushitala. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. LOC. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. Chitravalli. Kankdi. Sk. Sk. t. Takamaki. Kakari. B. Vishala.—white. astringent.— suborbicular. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. H. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). fever. Santekayi. they are also used as diuretic. allay thirst. Sudhavsa. Fl.—monœcious . NS. Fruit—fattening . Karit. fruits. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda).—Cucurbitaceæ. antipyretic. See—Vegetables. Khira. enrich blood. diuretic. . Sd. Khira. and C. lobes obovate. melo var. Fl. Hislambhi. Cultivated in all parts of India. Trapusha. COM. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. dry. cordate at the base.—Cucurbitaceæ. Yunani).—June-Sept. margined . are administered in throat affections. FAM. :—A perennial climber. Fr. Kakdi. NS. Cucumber. "Kapha" and flatulence. M. seeds. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. H. lobulate or dentate . CHAR. Kothiban. male in clusters. stomachic. indigestible. Seeds—diuretic. stem slender. good for brain and body. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. Seeds possess cooling properties. Tansali. COM. DISTR. :—G. utilissimus (Ayurveda. PARTS USED :—Leaves. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. cures thirst. K. fatigue. Tavasa. purgative. roasted and powdered. rigid.—subglobose or ellipsoid. G. pulp bitter. cures biliousness. See-Fruit Trees. C. cooling.

LOC. Malaya. etc. Afghanistan. on hedges. The plant contains glucoside saponin.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. HABITAT.—Cucurbitaceæ. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. COM. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root.:—Considered to be a native of America. LOC. In Malabar. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. Pitakushmand. Koron. Kumra. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. H. DISTR. Kumbala.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . tonic. N. NS. stomachic. increases " Vata ". Seeds are used as taeniacide. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. M. LOC. Tambda bhopala. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Pumpkin. : — E. FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. allays thirst. . B and C. G. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Mithakaddu. M. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. H. See—Vegetables. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). USES. FAM . indigestible. Kushmand. K. improves taste (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels . Dudia. fruit is used to prevent insanity. unhealthy ulcers. Bhopala. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. carbuncles. K. Karkarn. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. Kadimah. Dried fruit indigestible . Kaddu. Ceylon. :—Cultivated. Sk. Melon pumpkin. Punyalata. G. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. Red squash gourd. cures cough. Fruit contains vitamins A. Kushmand. Australia. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kumbala. Kashiphala. LOC. cultivated in many parts of India. increases " Vata" . Iran. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Safedkaddu . COM. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Vegetable marrow. :—E. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. NS. DISTR. Dangari.

LOC. throat and eyes. leucoderma. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. Talamulika. tonic. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. bronchitis. purifies blood (Ayurveda). astringent. See—Condiments and Spices. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. Seeds—diuretic. allays thirst. astringent to bowels. Zira. antidysenteric. Jirige. Mushalikand . G. ulcers. Dipaka. carminative. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Kalimusali. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. Kapha " and " Vata ". LOC. FAM. :—G. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. and the root for making these more potent. carminative. fattening. leprosy. Leaves—digestible. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. antipyretic. stops epistaxis . applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Cures " Vata " tumours. eye-diseases. Cumin. anthelmintic. Fruit astringent. Musali. fatigue. fever. laxative. cures leprosy. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. M. relieves hiccup. Jira. Fruit—very cooling. carminative. Ajjika. ft contains vitamins A and C. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. Kalimusali. Neladati. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. increases appetite . tonic to intestine. fruit and seeds. PARTS USED :—Fruit. fever. :—E. gonorrhœa. uterine stimulant. thirst. scabies. cooling. emmenagogue. Jire. Neltati gadde.—Amaryllidaceæ. abortifacient. inflammations. haematinic. remove biliousness. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. cure haemoptysis. Sk. Sk. Girautmi. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. also a lactagogue. Gaurajerka. diuretic and demulcent. NS. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. H. Seeds anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. heals corneal opacities. analgesic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Jiru. sweet. alexipharmic. cures haemoptysis. Kalimusali. belching . Fruit yields an essential oil. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. K. H. vulnerary. asthma. COM. enlargment of the spleen. good for teeth. K. biliousness.—Umbelliferæ. COM. See—Vegetables. beneficial in consumption. stomachic. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. LOC. tonic. appetiser. . Dirghaka. M. Seeds are taeniacide.

Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES. shining . colic. :—A small herb. common at the beginning of rains. very short.:—Sweet. diuretic. jaundice. ophthalmia.8-5 cm.—sessile or petiolate.:—W.—long petioled in tufts. sessile. H. diarrhœa. G. LOC.. lumbago. rhizome. lumbago. M. :—Bengal. CHAR. Karpuraharidra. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . PARTS USED :—Root. tubers thick. Fl. Assam. alterative and tonic. useful in inflammations. oblong lanceolate. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. bronchitis. bitter. Sk. gonorrhœa. antipyretic. Amragandha. :—Konkan and N.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. LOC. Malay Archipelago. " Vata". inflammations (Ayurveda). Bitter.—capsule. appetiser.3-2. cylindric or ellipsoid. stomatitis (Yunani). The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. Kanara. Kapurahaldi. pains in joints (Yunani). clavate . expectorant. gonorrhœa. scape.5-12.—Scitamineæ. antipyretic. COM. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. Amhaladi. L. LOC. Mango-ginger. L. fatigue. DISTR. K. Sd. 1545 X 1. hairy on the back. oblong. Ambahaladara.5-15 X 3. tonic. black. pale yellow inside . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . gleet. useful in bronchitis.—grooved.5 cm. yellow. :—Stemless herb. vomiting. asthma. tips sometimes rooting. W. Root—carminative.— in autumnal spikes 7. piles. with a beak . t. Java. C—white or very pale-yellow. Ambahaldi. useful in piles. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. Peninsula. hydrophobia. maturant. NS. emollient. useful in biliousness. diarrhœa. Fl.— May-June. cooling. during convalescence after acute illness.— in racemes. aphrodisiac. 30-45x7. aphrodisiac. linear or linear-lanceolate . t. troubles in the mouth and ear. debility and impotence. oblong. alterative. Ambehalad. root stock large. . PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. aphrodisiac. Fl. alexiteric. FAM. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. hiccup. fattening. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual.-Sept.5 cm. DISTR. appetising. antipyretic. biliousness. Bengal. scabies. laxative. :—Konkan and Gujarat. indigestion. all skin-diseases. Peninsula. :—E. flowering bract greenish-white. ulcers on penis. Fl. appetiser. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. distichous. perianth segments elliptic. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). causes "Vata". often cultivated. gleet.

long.-May. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. Varnadatri. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . FAM. Yellow Zedoary. :—E. it is seldom used alone . The plant tubers yield an essential oil. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. lateral lobes oblong. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. K. Bengal. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. M. 3lobed. NS.5 cm. rounded at the tips. appetiser . LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. NS. palmately branched. Banharidra. LOC. Vanhaldara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. lobes pale-rose. Ran-halad. Sholi. Halad. Harita. CHAR. Banhaladi. COM. green. Sk. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Cochin-Wild turmeric. forming pouches for the flowers. DISTR. used as an application for skin-diseases. also stomachic. Vanarishta. M. Fl. COM. L. Haridra. Sholika. Sk. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests.—Scitamineæ. G. LOC. Jayanti. FAM. flowers fragrant. Halada. G. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. biennial. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. root-stock large. :—E. Aranyaharidra. :—Stemless herb. H. sometimes cultivated.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. pale green. Mangalya.. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Indian saffron. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. variegated above. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Also cultivated in Konkan. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. Arishina. Sometimes cultivated. :—Western Peninsula. Turmeric. annulate.—tube 2. t. sessile. long. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. in spikes 15-30 cm. appearing before leafing stem. C.—Scitamineæ. base deltoid.— flowering stem sheathed. H. DISTR. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. It is considered tonic and carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. flowering bracts cymbiform. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Fl. upper half funnel-shaped. lip yellow. Halad. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. the dorsal longer. Kapur-kachali.

See—Condiments and Spices.—funnel shaped. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. bruises (Yunani). NS. scabies.— flowering stem 20-25cm. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. Tuber is used as a stimulant. Kachari. oblong. C. tonic. M. coma-bract crimson or purple . inflammations. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. used in prurigo. asthma. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . G. boils and urticaria. maturant. alexiteric. Himalayas and Chittagong. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. leucoderma. anthelmintic. annulate tubers. deepyellow. and yields an essential oil. H. pale-yellow inside. bitter.—Scitamineæ. Gandhamulaka sara. useful in " Kapha". Kachuri. It contains vitamin A. FAM . bruises. LOC. "Vata ".:—E. DISTR. fragrant. bruises. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. an alkaloid. fumes are used during hysteric fits . heating. root-stock of palmately branched. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. useful in leucoderma. Karechura. appetiser. 3-gonous.—capsule. COM. improves complexion. Fl. destroys foulness of breath. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. piles.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Hakhir. Zedoary. :—Stemless herb. long. jaundice. emollient. bitter. Jatala. urinary discharges. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. 30-60 cm. scabies. clothed with sheaths. Kachora. Kachora. vulnerary. laxative. Shathi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. anthelmintic. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. diuretic. LOC. CHAR. long. blood diseases. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. . :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. Narakachora. cylindric. alexiteric. antipyretic. itches etc. L. The plant contains curcumin. odour like camphor. Bitter. bronchitis. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. boils. flowers yellow in spikes. lobed . Fr. sprains (Ayurveda).—4-6 with long petioles. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. Sk. swellings. externally applied to leech-bites. heating. flowering bract green tinged with red . urinary discharges. In coryza. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. said to be Wild in E. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. internally administered in blood disorders. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. In small-pox and chicken-pox. :—Cultivated in the State. appearing before the leaves. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. small-pox. K. good for liver affections. taste bitterish spicy. oblong-lanceolate. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. carminative. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. clouded with purple down the middle. HABITAT :—Cultivated. lip 3-lobed. vulnerary.

epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). LOC. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. emetic. sheaths terete . and other painful affections. Externally it is rubefacient. K. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. G.—Gramineæ. up to over 1. applied to bruises and sprains. Lemon grass. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. CHAR. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. emmenagogue. Bhustrina. NS. tonic to brain and heart. nodding. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. sharp hot taste. laxative. alexipharmic. Tubers yield an essential oil. epileptic fits. enlargement of spleen. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. DISTR. it is stimulant. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. tuberculous glands of neck. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. Purhati hullu. glaucous green. erect. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. Lilicha. Takratrina. Gavati-chaha. PARTS USED :—Leaves. expectorant. . good odour.—linear tapering upwards to a point. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. long. COM. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. It is an excellent stomachic to children. Bitter. others narrow and separating. LOC. upto over 90 cm.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. Majjige hullu. useful in griping of children. useful in bronchitis. anthelmintic. laxative. alexipharmic. Putigandha. also used as a tonic and depurative. gastric irritability. culm stout. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. long. :—A tall perennial. midrib whitish on the upper side. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic.8 m. high. bitter. carminative. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. carminative. chronic rheumatism. it is also a good application for ringworm. and is of great value in cholera. appetiser. sharp. L. hot. M.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. pains. of much use in typhoid fevers. sprains. aphrodisiac. H.:—E. neuralgia. inflammations. probably of Indian origin. Gandhatrina. sheaths of the culm tight. It is also aromatic. leprosy. velvety at the nodes. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. Ligule very short. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. furunculosis.. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Sk. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. toothache (Yunani). stimulant and carminative.

—Gramineæ. narrowly linear. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. soft. Shatamula. Fl. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. NS. Rohisha. Durva. Saugandhika. Durba. useful in fevers. Shatagranthi. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. Fl. bad taste in the mouth. Sk. slender. :—Cosmopolitan .4 m. sheaths tight. FAM. 1. G. sweet. with erect flowering branches 7. epileptic fits. glaucous beneath. Mirchiagand. in the Himalayas. DISTR. Fr. Gharo. skin . Garikehallu. LOC. Harali. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). Burma. Afghanistan. margins scabrid. K. long. Country.—Gramineæ. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. high. H. K.-Nov.:—Grows all over the State. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Roshdo.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. Fl. finely acute. fatigue. long. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. :—Sourashtra. 12-18 mm. Africa to Morocco. M. widely creeping. Fl. hallucinations. throat troubles. L.—Oct. Mangala. Sk. NS. LOC.—throughout the year. 1 mm. CHAR. Dhro.5-2. leprosy.—2-10 cm. wide below. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. oblique or divaricate. through N. pungent. Sind. t. Dhoboghas. :—E. FAM. useful in biliousness. DISTR. most warm countries. Vasanchullu. COM. COM. L. heart diseases.000 m. straw coloured. Kobbar.—grain.—spikes 2-nate. green or purplish. bronchitis. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant.3 cm. and Ceylon ascending to 3. G. subcordate or rounded at the base. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. forming matted tufts. prostrate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.t. long. smooth. Roshagavat.5-30 cm. Shyamaka. Ghats. long. CHAR. bitter. M. :—E. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Rohisha. Deccan. cooling.—flat. :—Punjab. burning sensation. throughout India. upto 2. H. stem. pains. Gujarat.. leafy. W. leprosy. Bujina. Rhusghas. Baluchistan. high. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. usually broad.5-5 cm. particularly the Deccan trap areas. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. LOC. vomiting. carminative. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. thirst. stem. Konkan. :—A perennial grass . Bhutika. Geramium grass. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. S. M. See-Oils. Durva. X 1 cm. scabies.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Bahuvirya.

— in simple or compound umbel. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles.. fever. useful in leprosy. vulnerary. Granthi. emmenagogue. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. Kachhola. fevers. thirst. DISTR. greyish black. bruises. erysipelas (Ayurveda). useful in vomiting. narrowly linear. COM. t. very troublesome weed. erysipelas. Sugandhi-granthila. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. diarrhœa. blood diseases. stomachic. most hot countries. blood diseases. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. useful for ulcers and sores. ophthalmia. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. Mutha. :—Glabrous herb. Motha. Root— diuretic. stolons elongate. CHAR. See—Fodder Plants. :—Throughout India. LOC. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. dysentery. cooling. appetiser. Mustaka. Bitterish. L. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. Tungegaddo. vomiting. pain. spikelets 10-50 flowered. dyspepsia. M. 0. diarrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. it is diuretic. dysentery. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. epilepsy and insanity. fever. Bimbal. Fl. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. hiccup (Yunani). . :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. LOC. USES :—Roots are commonly. LOC. Motha.—Sept-Nov. diaphoretic.—Cyperaceæ. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. epistaxis. epilepsy. burning sensation. Motha. epistaxis (Ayurveda). vulnerary. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets .82. K. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. :—G. Nagarmotha. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Koranarigadde. Sk Bhadramusta. PARTS USED :—Tubers. In Ceylon. Tubers yield an essential oil. Ceylon. trigonous.5 cm. They are also diuretic and stimulant. Fl. astringent. NS. stomatitis. pruritis. biliousness.—shorter or longer than the stem. anthelmintic. difficult to eradicate. juice is used in hysteria. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. FAM. anthelmintic.. biliousness. acrid. H. Nut—broadly ovoid. expectorant. urinary concretions (Yunani). They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels.

Gujarat. across.5 cm. Kala-dhotara. COM. packed.5-15 X 3. stem hairy. Rajdhattura. Kanaka. diam. :—Deccan. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. DISTR. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. covered with straight sharp prickles. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. COM.—Sept-Dec. velvety pubescent beneath. L. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Fl. Utran. Phalakantak. ovate. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued.g.—follicle. Utarni.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. white inside. . and sub-involution of the uterus. subglobose. :—H. M.—7. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. Sd. Fr. G. Fl. Kariyu-Um-Matta. high. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. lobes spreading. divaricately branched.— tubular. S.—purple outside. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . :—A perennial twining herb.:—E. Sd. solitary.2-7.2 cm.. C. tubular. PROPERTIES AND LOC. e. entire or with large teeth or lobes. usually pubescent. CHAR. Ns. long.—Solanaceæ.—thin. greenish-yellow or dull-white. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. reflexed. Sk.—Asclepiadaceæ. Kaladhatura. beak long.—many. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. t.-Jany.5 cm. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. Fr. afterwards racemose. Sk. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". ciliate.—capsule. soft spiny. somewhat zigzag. Unmatta. Country. Fl. H. Bhranta. M. LOC. Kanaka.—Aug. on curved stalk 3. FAM. Administered after the third stage of labour. L. acute. green. corona outer and inner. 18 cm. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. K: Dhattura. outer truncate. Fl. nodding. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). double. NS. a glucoside. inner curved high over the staminal column. M. yellowish brown. very unequal at the base. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. CHAR. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. spur acute. paralytic ileus. HABIT :—A common weed. long 10-20. LOC. Black-Purple datura. :—Annual shrub. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. glabrous above. broadly ovate or suborbicular. FAM. Ceylon. Kaladhatura. 30-60 cm. t. funnel-shapped.

Gajra. cause headache (Yunani). relieves pain. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Cultivated in many parts of India. biliousness. mumps etc. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Carrot. anthelmintic. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. NS. alexiteric. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. leaves and seeds. with curdled milk. The plant as a whole has narcotic. anodyne. to increase their stupefying effect. ulcers. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. emetic. Leaf poultice. :—E. jaundice. Europe. USES :—Out of the two varieties. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. and antispasmodic properties. LOC. useful in leucoderma. febrifuge. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. tonic. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. headache. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. M. Shikkikanda.. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. Gajar. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. enlargement of testicles and boils. bitter. ganja. Garjara. nodes. skin-diseases. Gajar. majum. Seeds—narcotic. emetic. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Leaf-juice is given internally. digestive and heating. H. in gonorrhœa. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. in combination with subja. febrifuge. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. toddy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. (Ayurveda). Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. chronic coughs. :—Throughout the tropics. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. PARTS USED :—Roots. bronchitis. GranthiPinda-Mula. FAM. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. black variety is considered to be more powerful. Gajjari. toxic. nosetrouble. aphrodisiac. G. piles. painful tumours. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. black (Kala) and white (Safed). Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. . equal in effect to atropine. K. anthelminitic . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. heating. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians.—Umbelliferæ COM. The whole plant is narcotic. Gajar. Sk. leaves and seeds.

H. membranous.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). paler and hairy beneath. tumours. " Vata". Ceylon. LOC. joints 6-8. removes " Kapha". cardiotonic. Salwan. carminative. thirst. stems and branches angled. 0. aphrodisiac. Salparni.—onefoliate.6-1. inflammations. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. L. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. pains. Darh. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. Murele-honne. :— G. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . biliousness. hairy.2 m. piles. boiled with honey and fermented. cures biliousness. biliousness. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). hooked hairy. vomiting. tropical Africa. Burma. Ranbhal. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. . China. FAM. t. astringent to bowels. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). ovate-oblong. high. prevents death of fœtus in womb . Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. asthma.—May-July. fattening.—in terminal or axillary racemes. See—Vegetables. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. :—A woody undershrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Salwan. LOC. alterative. NS. indigestible. M. Shaliparni. COM. K. Fl. piles. Vidarigandha. throughout India. aphrodisiac. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. Kanara . antidysenteric. Salpani. good for liver. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Country. good for inflammation. cures typhoid. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Malay Peninsula and Islands . anthelmintic. Salpan. Root marmalade is refrigerant. M. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. stomachic. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. expectorant. Deccan and S. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. green and glabrous above. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. burning sensation.. asthma. standard cuneate at the base . Fl. other fevers. alexipharmic. margins wavy. Roots contain vitamins A. urinary discharges. dysentery .90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. thirst. vomiting. cures leprosy. chronic affections of chest and lungs. sub-falcate. C—violet or white. tonic. Sk. astringent to bowels. urinary complaints. Kitavinashini. LOC. Tonic. nausea (Yunani). Dirghamula. upper edge straight. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. DISTR. hiccup. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. Philippines. used in bronchitis. they are also diuretic. :—Konkan and N. chest troubles. " Tridosha ". useful in chronic fevers.—pod. diuretic. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. It is used in fevers. they produce a spirituous liquor. USES :—Externally. cough. Fr. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. Salwan. vomiting and asthma. B and C.

DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. jaundice. Thailand (Siam). FAM. asthma. Egypt. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). sheaths glabrous.. DISTR. clothed with sessile spikelets. K. covered with shining sheaths. used in biliousness and blood diseases. M. high. bark. erect pyramidal or columnar. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Timbwini. heating. Pavitra. flowers. diuretic. Gale. Sphurjaka. interrupted. Konkan. LOC.8 cm. Durva. astringent to bowels. branched from the base.3-3. PARTS USED :—Wood. COM. Temburni. :—Along the coasts of N. Dabha. H. diseases of bladder. long. Tumaki Mara.—Gramineæ. reaching 50 cm. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Malay Archipelago. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). cures ulcers and " Vata". vaginal discharges. rootstock stout. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Ceylon. stout. CHAR. Nubia. tufted. COM. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats.—G. DISTR. oleaginous. LOC. Dab. L. Darbha. M. Fruit—oleaginous. . cooling. biliousness. Sacred Plants. Kalatendu.—Ebenaceæ. -panicle 15-45 X 1. See—Fodder Plants. Tumari. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Zeeberwo. creeping. Davoli. fruit and seeds. Fl. t. Flowers—aphrodisiac.—many. branches short crowded. skin eruptions. the basal fascicled. Tendu.—Dec. vomiting. sedative to pregnant uterus. strangury.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. smooth. :—E. Tinduka. Banda. Kalaskandh. G.:—Saurashtra. useful in blood diseases. LOC. ligule a hairy line . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Makurkendi. stems 30-90 cm. Sk. Kanara and the Konkan. :—Throughout India. stolon very stout. margins hispid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Gavandu. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. vesical calculi. good for lumbago. diseases of blood. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. Kusha. H. NS. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Wild mangosteen. rigid. Darbha. Riber ebony. Fl. aphrodisiac. thirst. in the beds of rivers and streams. :—Perennial tall grass. Gujarat. NS. Syria. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Anilsara. Wood cures biliousness. erect. Sk.) FAM.

Kulthi. stout. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. ovate. abdominal complaints. :—Tropics of the old world. FAM. NS. variously lobed. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. pain in liver. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. M. Country—Belgaum. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. short. Wandar bashing. hiccup. Konkan— Ratnagiri. Kulthi. appetiser. heart-troubles. acrid. DISTR. See—Timbers. Bijapur and Dharwar. cures hiccup. diseases of the brain and eyes. Ashvakatri. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). enlargement of spleen. astringent to bowels. Kalvrinta. ozoena. Jurali. grown to a certain extent in S. Sk. antipyretic. Kulithaka. H. :—E. cordate. urinary discharges. emmenagogue. NS. See-Food Plants. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. G. Texture membranaceous to leathery. PARTS USED :—Seeds.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). piles. It is demulcent in calculus affection. Grains contain vitamin A. Kulitha. fattening. COM. LOC. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. "Vata". midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Nasik. asthma. leucoderma. :—Rhizome creeping. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. improves complexion. strangury. generally on trees and rocks. inflammation. liver troubles. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. dry. Tans.Gahat. Kulathi. cures " Kapha". base decurrent on the stipe. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. . coughs etc. hot. CHAR. fertile ones long stalked. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Sori two in each primary areole. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. K. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. FAM. Hurali. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. intestinal colic. Sk. Diuretic. densely clothed with red-brown scales. COM. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments.—Polypodiaceæ. causes biliousness (Yunani). bronchitis. Horse-Gram. Sitetara. removes stone from kidney. Kulith. Basingh. tumours. anthelmintic. Surfaces naked. Kulit. :—M. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. eye troubles. M.

intermediate produced in sharp spine. oblong. improves taste. Garagadasoppu. bitter. Sunilaka. bracts 3seriate. Dadhal. Sk. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. the lobes triangular and oblong. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). NS. tonic. wooly beneath. M. NS. FAM. branches widely spreading from the base. DISTR. 0. hysteria. DISTR. FAM. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. Kantalu. Utkanta. Fl. cottony. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. :—Kanara.5 cm. high. Seeds—wholesome. hectic fever. useful in brain-diseases. densely villous. It is used in hoarse cough. COM. usually oblong-lanceolate. Kadechubak. t. thirst. Sk. Plant stomachic. :—G. :—G. stems and branches strigose and hairy. L. subentire.:—Throughout India. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Utkanto. Pitripriya. stimulates liver. biliousness. Keshrangana. Bhangra. sessile. LOC.—limb linear. Root— abortifacient. H. causes " Kapha". increases appetite. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. M. used in strangury. C. :—A much branched rigid annual. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. cooling. Country. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils.—Compositæ. Bhringraj. pappus short. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. S. involucre. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. surrounded by strong white bristles. Bhangro. :—More or less throughout India.—Compositæ. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). analgesic. often rooting at the nodes. Shulio. gleet. spines 2. . :—Konkan. " Vata". spiny. Bhangra. pain in joints. globose. diseases of heart.—heads white. astringent to bowels . H. dyspepsia. used in ophthalmia.9 m. Ajagara. chronic fever. Mochand.-Jany.— Nov. Utkatara. CHAR. Konkan.—achene obconic. cottony pubescent. Utanti. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. Markara.—sessile. glabrous above. Utkantaka. also cultivated to a certain extent. CHAR. long. Maka. Fr. K. Kantaphala. dyspepsia and cough. COM. LOC. Balari. deeply pinnatifid. Kalobhangro . antipyretic. M. Afghanistan.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Fl. Utakatara. hot. Kadigga-garaga. urinary discharges. Deccan.3—0.— opposite. strigose and hairy. yellowish. sinuate and spinescent.

lustre of eyes. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. Madhya Bharat. fattening. Kanara (Siddapur. toothache. cures vertigo (Yunani). Gourangi. hot. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . Ilaji. Veldoda.—Scitaminaceæ. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. Ela. Choti-Elachi. It is given internally in scalding of urine.:—India (Bengal. Fl. FAM. improves colour of hair. "Kapha". M. Gandhkuti. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman).-Dec. Sk. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. hernia. Bahula. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). H. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. syphilis. stomatitis. asthma. and for strengthening gums. COM. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. fevers. C—often 4-toothed . The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Karangi. bronchitis. Malaya. a reputed and popular liver tonic. expectorant. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. prevents abortion and miscarriage. alexipharmic. Elachi. Chandrabala.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. W. NS. stomachic. cures inflammations. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—achene. Triputa. disk ones tubular . Ceylon. Panjab. pappus 0. G.—in heads.. DISTR. solitary or 2 together. tonic. axillary. LOC. eyes. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. There are two forms erect and prostrate. alterative. K. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. :—E. eye diseases. Velchi. heart and skin diseases. Yalakki.— Oct. it is powdered and applied externally. hemi-crania. Sind. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. liver pain. leucoderma. Fr. antipyretic. Burma. It relieves headache when applied with oil. night blindness. :—Western valleys of N. teeth. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. good for complexion. involucral bracts about 8 . "Vata". and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Bitter . ray flowers ligulate. good for spleen diseases. cuneate with a narrow wing. anthelmintic. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. anæmia. LOC. hair. . t. Peninsula). cultivated. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. internal diseases. See—Sacred Plants.

stomachic. alexiteric . fragrant. K. LOC. useful in head.:—Western and S. LOC. clear head. bad humours of liver. diuretic. cause biliousness . EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. tonic. Boberang. DISTR. India. piles. brain and mouth. root is laxative and tonic. Sk. Makra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. Ragi. NS. Navalo-nagali. Rajika. Vayuvitang. ear and tooth ache. Marua. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. stimulant and emmenagogue. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Rotka. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. See—Condiments and Spices. K. cultivated. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). Vidariga. PARTS USED :—Grain. chest and throat (Yunani). . cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. carminative. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. pruritus. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. useful in biliousness. cooling. It is said to be astringent. Pavaka. rich or poor. Vavading.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. useful in asthma. abortifacient. Bavato. most suitable to hard-working classes. pungent. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery.. M. See-Food Plants. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. bronchitis. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. H. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. It is stomachic. H. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. FAM. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. M. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. Bhasmaka. causes thirst. scabies. tonic to heart. CUM. laxative. Grains contain vitamin B. strangury. Kanisha. diuretic. NS.—Myrsinaceæ. Seed—fragrant. Bidanga. :— G. fruit is tonic. Varding. Wavrung. Vavoding. Nachani.—Gramineæ. fruit and seeds. Sk. LOC. Nagali. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). consumption. kidney. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. diseases of bladder. FAM. COM. Jantughna. In S. Narttaka. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. stomachic. lessens inflammation.:—G.

mental diseases. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Amlika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. useful in burning sensation. carminative. Triphala. anthelminitic. :—Throughout India. Kanara. leaves. useful in asthma. Western Ghats. Bhoza . bark. LOC. alterative. S. Deccan. Dhatri. Adiphala. biliousness. urinary discharges. ascites. jaundice.—in lax panicles. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. racemes minute. :—Hilly parts of the State. antipyretic. Ther. NS. good for plethoric constitution. good appetiser. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. Bitter. erysipelas. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. Fr. laxative. DISTR. hemicrania. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. like a pepper corn when dried. Ambala. succulent. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. branches long. elliptic-lanceolate. t.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. reddens urine. China. alexiteric. smooth. Sk. shining above. Anward. PARTS USED :—Root. L. Nellika . :—A large scandent shrub. Amalaka. thirst. H. coriaceous. dry. carminative. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). LOC. leprosy. cures bronchitis . worms in wounds (Ayurveda). Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. urinary discharges. laxative.) FAM. Amla. vomiting. constipation. Ceylon. " Kapha'. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . dyspnoea. Fl. DISTR. Fl. Int. anæmia. . Dadi. Amlika.—alternate. alexiteric. strangury. inflammations. poisoning. China.—Euphorbiaceæ. cures tumours. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. Daula . HABITAT :—Rain forests. internodes long. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. alterative. Ceylon. flexible. " Tridosha ". Dhatriphala. Anola. paler and silvery beneath. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). bronchitis. wild or planted. et. K. bark studded with lenticels . S. (Dymock). purgative. Malaya. Paranjpe and G. bronchitis.—Feb. Gokhale. black when ripe. anuria. many. nearly globose. Embelic myrobalan. vulnerary. M. LOC. Seed— acrid. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. anthelmintic . sour. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. often planted in Konkan.—berry. flowers. piles. analgesic. slender. Konkan and N. 42-II-1932). cooling. sweats. dries wound discharges . Avala. Malay Islands. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. K. Pharm. Arch. COM. PARTS USED :—Fruit. diseases of heart. with a sharp bitter taste. :— E. G. greenish yellow. tonic.

Garbe. improves appetite. LOC. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). bark and fruit are astringent. cold in the nose. Kadvinayi. . Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. sub-quadrangular or terete. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Tiktapatra. diuretic and laxative. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter).—sessile. M. cooling. Dried fruits. high. Lady nut. LOC. eye troubles. Garambi.—Aug. tropical Africa.— capsule. expectorant. Mackary bean. Mabhipaka. CHAR. Hallekayiballi.—Gentianaceæ. liver complaints. useful in heart-diseases. COM. :—E. Mamejavo . Madvinashi. M. S. West Indies. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". stems erect or procumbent. sour. ellipsoid. narrowed at the base. Sk. C—infundibuliform. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. anthelmintic. branched from the base. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. :—Konkan. used as laxative and astringent. DISTR. Fr. mid-nerve strong. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. M. :—A perennial glabrous herb. R. NS. in axillary clusters all along the stem.). Fl. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. white. Ind. Fruit—acrid. USES :—Root. purifies body humours (Yunani). Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter.) FAM. Unripe fruit is cooling. Sind. Fl. Country. Doddakampi. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. 3-nerved. Tans. tonic. COM. Giant's rattle. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. H. t. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. K. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. NS. piles. Gujarat. Nagajivha. variable. aperient. Tanavadi. vulnerary. biliousness. Grey). :—Throughout the greater part of India. stops nasal hæmorrhage. 10—50 cm.—sessile.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. opposite. astringent. Dyes. Fruit Trees. See—Timbers. Malaya. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. FAM. thirst. Nahu. LOC.-Nov. Celyon. :—G.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Flowers refrigerant and aperient. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. L. rounded apex. Saurashtra. Chhotakirayat. lobes 5.

pinnae 2—3 pairs. Mullumurige. shining and brown. Planted as ornament. stalked. Leaves—bitter. branches terete. :—E. cure urinary discharges. dark green. anthelmintic. Pangara. Panjira. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. Ceylon. Mochi-wood. 30-90 cm. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. improve appetite. ORIENTALIS Merr. :—Konkan and N.. Andamans and Nicobar.—yellow. Sk. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.—2pinnate. glabrous. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk.-May. Arakan. Panderavo. Salaki. M. t. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. C. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. flowers. the tropics generally. Tennaserim. inflammations. W. woody. Mandara. Raktapushpa. K. hot. bark used in dysentery. :—Coast forests of Malabar. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. often along river banks. Fr. Pegu. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. G. N. mixed with spices. Sundribans. orbicular.. DISTR. H. Peninsula. Panarvo. Sd. Mandara.—6-15. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . for grapevines in Nasik district. slightly curved.— Mar. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge.. Bangaro. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). 4. Paribhadra. Hongara. LOC. compressed. 3. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. leaflets 7-5 x 2. diam. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Fl. Nepal. Halivan. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.) FAM. LOC. wide and 3-8 cm. Phandra .—pod. Dadap. indented between the seeds. oblong or obovate. long. leaves. L. bark. Planted as support for pepper vines.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Pangara. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. . PARTS USED :—Seeds. Var.S. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. they are given internally as an emetic. thick. COM.7-5x7. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. Indian coral-tree. Fl. smooth. stomachic. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. USES :—Powdered kernel.5-10 cm. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. Kantakinshuka.3-2 cm. rigidly coriaceous. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". in debility and glandular swellings .5-5-7 cm. long. along sea-coast above high-water.

H. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Cong. Sk. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. dark green above. branches often 4-angled.—ovoid-trigonous.—opposite. COM. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. Paradeshi thora . K. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Mondukalli. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Bottugalli. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. M.—Euphorbiaceæ. t. it is anthelmintic. and to relieve pain of the joints. —throughout the year. Achchegida. globose. Pill-bearing spurge. Duddi. FAM. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. FL. H. Dudhi. :— E. reddish brown. M. Sd. :—Annual herb.—Euphorbiaceæ. Shirthahar. rugose. Sher. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Australian asthma herb. CHAR. erect or ascending. pale beneath. Govardhan. L. Milk hedge. :—E. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Milk bush. See—Timbers. 18th Ind.—involucres numerous. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Dandasruha. G. Sc. Fl. NS. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Sendh. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. . Kodukalli. Dandalio thora. Indian tree spurge. Dudanali. K. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes.) FAM. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Plant is chiefly used for worms. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. G. The plant contains an alkaloid. 15-50 cm. serrulate or dentate. COM. gland minute. Fr. NS. appressedly hairy. Dudhi. Nevli. Bahukshira. with or without a limb. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). high. Dudhi.—capsule. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. Nagpur 1931). PROPERTIES AND LOC. Vajradruma. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Ceylon. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. LOC. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. base unequal-sided. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. bowel complaints and cough in children. Pusitoa. Sahud.

USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . thin. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. Ceylon. biliousness. Konkan and Gujarat.—ovoid. terete. Jhinkiphudardi. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. campanulate. employed to raise blisters. pungent. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. Nilpushpi. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.-Aug. K. Fl. . LOC. branches erect. H. DISTR. smooth. useful in bronchitis. Sd— glabrous. solitary or sometimes 2. linear. Juice is purgative. LOC. base acute. COM. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. FAM. tonic. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. L. leprosy and leucorrhoea. carminative. :—A perennial herb. alterative. cocci velvety. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. useful in gonorrhœa. Sd. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. M. Vishnukranti. silky hairy. thick like quill. leucoderma. The plant contains an alkaloid. anthelmintic. and with oil to promote growth of hair. dropsy. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. t. :—A small tree. milk is alexiteric. long (appearing in rainy season) . rootstock woody . usually clothed with long hairs . epilepsy. about 6 m. peduncles very long. brightens intellect. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. teething of infants . :—Sind. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Fr. Vishnukranta. polished. :—G. useful in biliousness. wiry. axillary. Fr. Fl. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—capsule. high. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. :—Native of East Africa. branchlets whorled. Fl. almost leafless. long.-light blue.-Sep. 4valved. colic. tropical and sub-tropical countries. globose. tumours. stone in bladder (Yunani). more than 5 cm.— capsule. :—Throughout the State. Sk. enlargement of spleen. t. CHAR. whooping cough. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. prostrate.—small. elliptic-oblong. leprosy. smooth. Vishnugandhi. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). mostly female. dyspepsia. NS. LOC. useful in abdominal troubles. jaundice. naturalised in India. also as an alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Kalisankhavali.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. asthma. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. stems many. Vishnukranta.—many. LOC. spreading. carminative.-July-Nov. L. DISTR. Shyamakranta . 6-13 mm.—Convolvulaceæ.

W. shining. :—Konkan. reaching 60 cm. NS. stomatitis. westwards to Afghanistan. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. DISTR. more or less glandular. cures dysentery. Circars. Maval. :—Madras State. Rajasthan. C—lobes 4-5. LOC. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. Fr. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. ellipsoid. 5-nerved. asthma. FAM. sessile. Atmamuli. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns.-Oct. Dusparsha. the middle the largest. root fibrous. smooth.—very variable in size and form sessile. spitting of blood. L. about 1. removes "Vata. Sk. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). t. FL. :—G. CHAR. M. Dhamaso . USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . Arabia. Baluchistan. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). emmenagogue. Fl. COM.-Nov.— showy. alexipharmic.2 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. 1-seeded cocci. erysipelas. typhoid. Dhanavi. of 5. Cooling. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. pyramidal to the apex. Coimbatore.-Dec. Mysore. Prabhodhini.—solitary. the upper blue. removes "Vata". smooth. Mediterranean. acute.—Gentianaceæ. reduces tumours.—Zygophyllaceæ. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. urinary discharges.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. deeply 5-partite. Upper Gangetic plains. glandular hairy." asthma. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Country.). cooling. :— Sind. Gujarat. leaflets linear. scarcely branched. Ghats. long. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Deccan hills and S. Udichirayat. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. fever. thirst. stem. yellowish brown. quadrangular. t. Hinguna. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Fr. small. Kashaya. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. lower half white. NS. flattened. obliquely obovate. Sd. in copious terminal cymes . LOC. pale rose-coloured.— ovoid. Fl. M. toothache. it has got cooling properties. . in chronic bronchitis.—capsule. high.—opposite. Ind. Iran. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. vomiting. purifies blood (Ayurveda). :— H. N. M. Ustarkhar. 1-3 foliate. petioles deeply striate. Punjab. also used in chronic fevers. CHAR. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. good for liver troubles. LOC.-Aug. Barachirayat. elliptic or lanceolate. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. :—An erect annual. Fl. COM. DISTR. arising from between the stipules . ophthalmia. Bark is used in scabies. H. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. ovate. Dhamasa. Waziristan.

:—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves. female. Bargad. Jatala. often cultivated. high. Bargat. blood impurities. Ghats. India.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Manmadha. hiccup. Self-sown. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. DISTR.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Ala. FAM. Kotha. Kavit. S. LOC. Vat. Banian tree. COM. Vadlo . fatigue. Dadhiphala. Sk. often planted. Kapitha. Alada. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. :—Indigenous in S. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Sk. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. about 2 cm. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat.—Moraceæ. thirst. Fr. Ceylon.—coriaceous. with male. Kathel. :—Cultivated all over the State. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . L. heart diseases. Belada. useful in biliousness. good for throat. Vad. with spreading branches. removes biliousness.— globose. G. Seeds—antidote to poison. asthma. common in the Tapi Valley. tumours. country and N. NS. H. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Avaroha. tonic to heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. :— E. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . K. leucorrhoea. strengthening to gums . M. Bahupada. astringent. Kait. Balin. alexipharmic. difficult to digest. Bhringi. Java. consumption. Goli.5 cm. Kothun. " Tridosha". dysentery. Bar. ovate to elliptic. NS. Kapipriya.—Rutaceæ. . and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. LOC. K. CHAR. Kavitha. Kanara. shining above. refrigerant. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. vomiting . Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. 10-20 X 5-12. Byala. Fruit Trees. LOC. aphrodisiac. H. M. diam. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. Vata. Fruit—sour . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. cures cough. ophthalmia. Vad. cordate or rounded base. Elephant or wood apple. acrid.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Kathinyaphala. Nyagrodha. G.. Leaves—very astringent. M. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. COM. Grahiphala. " Vata ". relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). binding diuretic. liver and lungs . fruit and seeds. Malura. See—Timbers. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Kavath. Monkey fruit. refrigerant .

paralysis. W. Grown scattered elsewhere. useful in inflammation . See—Famine Plants. DISTR. alexiteric. FICUS CARICA Linn. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. vaginal complaints. Fibres. leprosy. Simeyatu . useful in piles. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. useful in "Kapha". It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. aphrodisiac. Anjir. bruises. seeds and milky juice. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. inflammations. useful in "Vata". K. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Anjura. Anjir. LOC.—Moraceæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. nutritive. Bijapur. Anjir. in rheumatism and lumbago. nose-diseases. lessens inflammations. :—Baluchistan. :— E. laxative. maturant. thirst. useful in syphilis. liver and spleen diseases. useful in leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Bark. FAM. tonic. leaves. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. vomiting. hill ranges of S. India. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Seeds are cooling and tonic. ringworm. . Sk. vulnerary. inflammation of liver (Yunani). root-fibres. lithotriptic. diuretic. leprosy (Ayurveda). weakness. fever. Fig. LOC. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Anjir. G. M. biliousness. biliousness. Aerial root is styptic. diseases of head and blood. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Kakodumbar. H. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. W. NS. LOC. Cultivated in N. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. dysentery. stimulates hair-growth. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). gonorrhœa. Dharwar. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Afghanistan. demulcent. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. Root—tonic. boils and carbuncles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. COM. Milky Juice—expectorant. ulcers. Sacred Plants. pain in chest cures piles. Asia and Mediterranean. erysipelas. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation.

The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. fatigue.—Moraceæ. COM. vagina. Rumadi. G. COM. Pipal. FAM. good for gravid uterus. Bark is cooling. good for bronchitis. useful. HABITAT :—Planted. LOC. :—E. :—E. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. leaves. Leaves—astringent to bowels . leaves and fruits. leprosy. good for foul taste. styptic. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. uterus . planted all over. See—Timbers. biliousness. loss of voice. DISTR. Pippala. M. Umbro. latex. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. given in leucorrhoea. Udumbara. burning sensation. (Yunani). allays thirst. diseases of kidney and spleen. K. Ashwatha mara. Bark. menorrhagia. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). H. vulnerary. Ragi. Pipers. blood diseases. Peepal tree . Fruit—astringent to bowels. Shuchidruma. in diseases of blood. galactagogue. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout India. . leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Gular-Country fig. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Lalka.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Atti. ground with onions. Sk.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. Yajnika. useful in "Kapha". Arani. K. Demera. Umar. Sacred Plants. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. PARTS USED :—Root. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. DISTR. Pippala. LOC. fruit. Bodhidruma. Pipli. PARTS USED :—Root.—Moraceæ. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. bark. Pipal. H. Ashvatha. Umbar. NS. Milk—aphrodisiac. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. NS. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. ulcers. tonic. M. :—Throughout the State near villages. bark. cummin. biliousness. Hemadugdha. Pavitraka. Gular. Umar. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. G. burning sensation. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Pimpal. nose bleedings. acrid. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Sk. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Vriksharaj. urinary discharges. FAM. Jari.

Finkel. promotes granulations. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Country and N. Shateya. LOC. common in the Peninsula. good for lumbago. W. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Mullutari. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Handi Kandai. Bhanber. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Circars. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Akrani. Sk. FAM. Bilangra . Shalina. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Khandesh. astringent in leucorrhoea. K. COM NS. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. K. aphrodisiac. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Hettarimullu. SAPIDA Roxb. Kanara Jungles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums.—Flacourtiaceæ. Fruits are sweet. See—Timbers. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. H. Sacred Plants. heart diseases. upper Gangetic plain. See—Timber. COM. HABITAT :—Hills. Sk. gum. S. Fruit—purgative. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. bark. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Katar. M. Kankod . :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Paker. Gajale. N. H. LOC. Bhakal. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. NS. appetising and digestive. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Potika. Swadukantaka. Tapaspriya. Bhuripushpa. Fennel.—Umbelliferæ. cleans ulcers. M. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Ghats. Tambat. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Badishep. Root good for gout. fruit. DISTR. Young bark useful in bone fractures. checks vomiting (Yunani). Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). FAM. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Burma. M. Hunmunki. . Satpura. The juice is employed in hiccup. Badisoppu. G. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. and produces sterility in women. Variari. Variali. :— G. Soupa. seeds. Fodder Plants.

amenorrhœa. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. stomachic. dark green. leaves (rarely). GARCINIA INDICA Chois. burning sensation. laxative. lessen inflammations. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. M. furrows vittate. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children.—Guttiferæ. H. biliousness. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. LOC. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. carpophore 2-partite. often cultivated. cardiotonic. Ratambi. wounds etc. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. PARTS USED :—Roots. Amlabija. high. FAM. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. diuretic. Tittidika . :—A tall glabrous. Wynaad. FL. dysentery. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. DISTR. See—Condiments and Spices. leaves and seeds.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Konkan and N. (Mhaskar and Caius). fissures of lips. :—Apparently a native of S. ridges prominent. aphrodisiac. wounds. Leaves—improve eyesight. thirst. LOC. galactagogue. strengthen eyes (Yunani). :—Endemic in W.6-0. USES :—used as stimulant. Kokam . LOC.9 m. L. LOC. anthelmintic. Oils. fruit and seeds. fever. Tintidika. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. spleen. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. Murjinhalli. improves appetite and allays thirst. bracts and bracteoles absent. cures "Tridosh". ultimate segments linear. " Vata ". Ghats. seeds-carminative. useful in bleeding piles. Mulgala. Atyamla. HABITAT :—Cultivated. demulcent and emollient. :—W. COM. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests.—ellipsoid. See—Timbers. difficult to digest. alexiteric. dysentery.—in large umbels . G. Kanara. appetiser. Sk. stimulant. annual. . NS. eye-diseases. aromatic and carminative. PARTS USED :—Bark. useful in diseases of chest. yellow. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. in headache. Kokam . anthelmintic.— decompound. USES :—Bark is astringent. 0. K. Ghats south of Bombay. causing constipation . :—E. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. DISTR. Coorg. Kokam. kidney. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. It is much used as a nutritive. Fr. common in S. cough and asthma. Wild mangosteen. leprosy (Ayurveda).

As sold in the bazar it is hard. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. DISTR. high. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. :—Common from Konkan southwards. Fl. Hingu. Sk. Dakamali. COM. Kanara. Dikemali. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. Peninsula).—Rubiaceæ. Dikamali. :—A deciduous shrub. lucida (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. shining.5x22. CHAR. Suvirya. Jantuka. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. LOC. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. L. :—E. Dekamari. Fl. Gums and Resins. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. elliptic-obovate. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. :—India. oblong or ellipsoid. PARTS USED :—Gum. Dikamari. FAM. Northern ghats of Madras State. lucida. Western Peninsula. M. relieves pain of bronchitis.5-3. not fragrant. See—Timbers. long. unarmed. -June. C. DISTR. FAM. K.—Feb. Fr. NS. oblong.—2. Pinda.-subsessile. 1-3 together. astringent to bowels. all dry districts of Madras State. Burma.—Rubiaceæ. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). See—Gums and Resins. LOC. :—India (W. buds resinous.8 m. G. PARTS USED:-Gum. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. COM. Bikke. Cambi resin tree. LOC.8 cm.-sessile. common on laterite in southern parts of N. same as for G.5 cm.-tubular. about 1. 4. first white then changing to yellow. opaque. LOC. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. H. Dikkamalli. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . NS. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . .. HABITAT :—Open situations. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G.

used to remove placenta from uterus. Kulhari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. Malay Peninsula. Agnimukhi. :—G. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. Cochin-China. CHAR. Tuber— astringent. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. changing colours from greenish yellow. In case of retained placenta. ovate lanceolate. branching climber . alexiteric. Languli. useful in chronic ulcers. thirst. PARTS USED :—Tuber. solitary. FL. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. NS. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. perianth segments reaching 6. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. COM.—Liliaceæ. filaments long spreading. linear-lanceolate.. Sk. LOC. leprosy. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. expectorant. 7. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. stems annual.—sessile. piles. :—Throughout tropical India. FAM. :—Herbaceous. Kathari. scattered or opposite. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). The former is supposed to be male.-July-Oct. linear oblong. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Kalihari. Karianag. H. itching. LOC.—large. Nangulika. Linn. sometimes whorled. L. margins wavy. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. solid. abortifacient. bitter. Sivasaktibalb . orange. K.5 cm. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa.—capsule. Akkitang hall.3 cm. root-stock of arched. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all.2 cm. tall. scarlet. Tropical Africa. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). There are two varieties of the plant. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. Fr. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins.5-3. Dudhio vachhonag. Huliyuguru. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. Indai. and crimson from blooming to fading... anthelmintic. t. In Guinea. M. Khadyanag. DISTR. Ceylon. heating. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. Kalikari. Garbhapatani. leaves and flowers. laxative. inflammations. given off from young tubers . abdominal pains. .5 X 15 X 2-4. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. axillary . acrid. Fl.

useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Shiwan. M. useful in fevers . Ceylon. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Shivani. M. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. alterative. Mahabhadra. Bachanige. chronic cystitis. Sk. common on Satpuda. Shivan . GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. Deokapas. LOC. White teak. tonic. anæmia. abdominal pains. NS. Gandhari. Kumbudi. Devakapus. promotes hair-growth. Hanji. K. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Flowers—astringent. In the Konkan. :—Throughout India. :— E. scattered in monsoon forests. Devkapas. catarrh of the bladder etc. Philippines. Oils. Karpasam. H.:—E. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. leprosy. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. root is also stomachic and laxative. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. useful in indigestion. PROPERTIES AND LOC. consumption. DISTR. " Tridosha ". burning sensation.—Malvaceæ. scalds etc. ulcers. Gambari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. urinary discharges. flowers and fruit. LOC. FAM. fevers. Cashmere tree. made into paste. piles. :—Throughout the State. improves appetite . NS. LOC. Rajasthan and N. COM. Sk. Coomb teak. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). thirst. useful in "Vata". :— Bengal. . Gumbhar. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. leaves. W. Gupsi. DISTR. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Shiwan. See—Timbers. Gambhari. Var. Provinces. Sind. indigestible. H. Nurma . thirst. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. leaves. Karibatti. Tree cotton. See—Fibres. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians.—Verbenaceæ. Root taken with liquorice. flowers and seeds. Shripani. consumption and some catarrhal affections . G. anthelmintic . Khandesh. Madhya Bharat. Savan. strangury. the root. useful in hallucinations. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. laxative. FAM. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. gleet. :—Throughout the State and about temples. COM. Fruit— diuretic. Malaya. Kashmari. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. G. anasarca. stomachic.

used in orchitis. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn.—Malvaceæ. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. Seeds are laxative. demulcent. FAM. Roshana. laxative . good for throat . All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. acrid. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. sour. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Seeds— ' galactagogue. tonic. Rui. poultice applied to burns' scalds. :—Cultivated in the State. DISTR.. PARTS USED :—Root. in hypochondria. LOC. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). DISTR. See—Fibres. fruit. H. PARTS USED :—Root. cure all ear-troubles. Cotton . M. enrich blood. fomentation for burning eyes . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. wild in Deccan. Mesapotamia. Afghanistan. Phalsi. Jana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. W. H. A. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. fevers and consumption. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. S.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. cures inflammations. FAM. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Leaves remove " Vata " . removes " Vata ". COM. Dhamin. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Pharuah.. Badari. in hills near Poona. Kapas . Anagnika. K. (Yunani). leaves. U. Egypt. Sutrapuspha. heart and blood disorders. Phalsa. Arabia and Asia Minor. LOC. Ripe fruit—sweet. aphrodisiac. extensively cultivated. Seeds—aphrodisiac. :—E. analgesic. restore consciousness. extensively in Gujarat. digestible. K. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. good for all kinds of inflammations. Tula. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. cooling. expectorant and aphrodisiac. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. probably in N. Gujarat and S. Country. Parapera. Kapus. Karpas. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. COM. tonic. M. LOC. removes " Vata" and biliousness. Mediterranean. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints.Phalse. :—Sind. Oils. F. Syria. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . M.—Tiliaceæ. Hatti. NS. Arali. East Tropical Africa. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. bark. expectorant. Sk. G. Baluchistan. preventing their access to wounds etc. Kupas. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. Province (Pakistan). NS. Parusha. increase flow of urine. Rui. Tadasala. Karihariyale. leaf-juice good in dysentery. In India they are used to procure abortion. fruits and seeds. Buttiyu-dippa. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Sk. scabies . Iran. allay thirst. :— Cultivated in N.

See—Fruit Trees. Bastagandha. Tilparni. :— E. COM. G. H. Karnasphota. ovate. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. sweet. Caravella. Sk. Churota. Mabli. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. SK. FL. vitreous body) burning sensation. CHAR. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. strengthens chest and heart. usually single. . ulcers. M. piles. Kabari. corona of 5 processes . removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Pandhari tilwan. asthma. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Small Indian ipecacuanha. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. young stems densely pubescent. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. :—A large woody climber. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Karalia . India. H. good in heart-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Mahabaleshwar and N. cornea. Ugragandha. G. alterative. Fruit—sour. Hulhul.— companulate . USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. Gurmar. inflammations. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. FAM. Fr. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. :—Throughout the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Sati talvani. Sd. The ease of administration. Merasingi. Meshavalli.—Capparidaceæ. NS. stomachic.—in cymes . Hulhul. Vishani. DISTR. Fl. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell).-May. Mardashingi. Br. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. alexiteric. Vakundi. Sannagerse.— with thin marginal wing. :E. leucoderma. LOC. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). NS. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia.— opposite. C. the stomachic stimulant. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Tropical Africa. cooling. t. LOC. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. should not be eaten raw. COM. common in hedges in Dharwar district. lanceolate. — Asclepiadaceæ. S. base rounded or cordate . Shrikala. elliptic. Kanara coast. Root and bark used in strangury. bronchitis. tonic. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Kanphodi. M. Arkapuspika. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. biliousness. Sanngera.— Apl. Meshashingi. Adiyakharan. K. :—Western Peninsula. K. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". yellow . L. Periploca of the woods. Tanmani. Bedki. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. anthelmintic. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Kavali. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). much branched. relieves thirst and hiccup. FAM. acrid.—follicle. helps removal of dead fetus.

Fr.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas.—rather rigid. margins crenate-dentate. Fl.12. leaflets subsessile. FAM. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. DISTR. FAM.—many. white or blue. Fl. Fr. pubescent. pain. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root. Edamuri.5-20 X 3. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Sd. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. removes "Vata". DISTR. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. hairy on the nerves beneath. opposite. sessile. producing copious exudation.8-9 cm. Gujarat.—in dense bracteate racemes. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. stem and branches hairy. (Kirtikar and Basu). acute. earache.—Oct. HABITAT:—Hills.—Sterculiaceæ. H. C. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. long . HELICTERES ISORA Linn. leaves and seeds. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. :—M. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. PARTS USED :—Root. :—An annual erect herb 0. stomachic . t. 5-9 cm. pink . COM.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. Jonkaphal Maraphali. LOC.—3-5 foliate. China. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation.—capsule. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). viscid. M. ulcers. hairy. elliptic-obovate. elliptic-lanceolate. hills near Nagothana. hills in Supa Taluka.2 m. COM. gynophore 2-2. t.5 cm. Avartant. :—A small deciduous shrub. NS. Sd. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. Sinhgad hills. S.—Rubiaceæ. stipules triangular. CHAR. Mrigashringa. LOC. Gidesa Jitasai. K. pedicels viscid hairy. Murudi.—petals 4 with long slender claws. tapering at both ends. NS.—capsule. high. hairy. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Fl. Sk.-Feb.6—1. LOC. :—Deccan. ellipsoid .—June. Murudseng. tumours. Fl. Marosi. Kewan. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. with divaricate herbaceous branches . M. L. Country. dark-brown . :—G..—muricate. L. Murdasing. Kavargi. Katraj Ghat. . long. good in ascites. vesicant. glabrous or pubescent above.

Sd. NS. tapering . Anantmula. uterine complaints. leucorrhoea. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). scabrous above.—throughout the greater part of the year. Country. good for brain. Root and stem—laxative. M.—Asclepiadaceæ.— in cymes in opposite axils. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in piles. astringent to bowels . HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. Fl. purplish inside. M. PARTS USED :—Root. . DISTR. useful in gleet. liver and kidney diseases . cough. bark and fruit. India.Sd. syphilis. :— E. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Br. Konkan. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. LOC. long. "Kapha". :—Throughout the State. Australia and West Indies. blood diseases. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. joint-pains. Dhaval kashtha. eye troubles. Upalsari.—follicle of 5-6. “tridosh". mildly astringent. fevers. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. obliquely cordate. Malaya. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). rat-bites.—tubular.. Sk. ovate orbicular. alexiteric. antidiarrhœal. Magrabu.3 cm. burning sensation. stems thickened at the nodes . Stem lessens inflammation. thirst. Anantmula. K. greenish outside. FL. demulcent. Root useful in hemicrania. astringent to bowels. red at first fading to lead colour. beaked. Hamadaberu . Indian sarsaparilla . foul body odour. Ceylon.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. irregularly crowded. :—Upper Gangetie plain. dark-green. Deccan and S. "Vata' dysentery. Durivel.-Dec. epileptic fits. C. :—Large shrub or small tree. Sugandhi-balli. Kanara ghat forests. spirally coiled. common in hedges. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. diarrhœa. Hindisalse. Burma.5 X 5-10 cm. diuretic. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. root-Stock woody . Fr. anti-galactagogue. LOC. L. low appetite. asthma. Kapurimathuri. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). DISTR. t. bilabiate. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. paralysis. Utpalashariva. poisoning. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. cures all skin-diseases. COM. Fr. urinary discharges. 5-6. t — Aug.— very variable. Fl. FAM. Fl. 7. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children.—follicle cylindric. angular . See—Fibres. and leaves. H. often variegated with white above. lessens griping. stem.-biferous. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. HABITAT :—In hedges. diaphoretic.—numerous.— with silvery white coma . G. They are demulcent. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.512. Upalsali. LOC.

DISTR. It is said to purify blood. Dasavala. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Root roasted in plantain leaves. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. LOC. glabrous. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. yellow. Rudrapushpa. solitary. irregularly serrate towards the top. Fr. Jasum. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. In the Konkan. remove burning of body. red. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. diam. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. flowers. uterine and vaginal discharges. bark and petals are demulcent. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. Sk. Aruna. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. cooling. magenta. seminal weakness. petals thrice as long as the calyx. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. tonic. urinary discharges. Raktapushpi. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . fevers. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Jasavand.—during most of the year. Native country probably China. crimson. Japapushpa. PARTS USED :—Root. K. demulcent. L. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Root is valuable in coughs.—short petioled.. leaves. Fl. Jasut. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda).—axillary. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. :—A perennial shrub.—no fruits produced in India. cm. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. useful in loss of appetite. and mixed with ghee. G. Dasanihu.5. M. pedicel jointed above the middle. etc. Jasuva. astringent. FAM. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). entire near the base. involucral bracts 5-7.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Harivallaba.—Malvaceæ. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. :— E. H. Shoe flower. t. bright red. NS. tubular below. LOC. ovate or ovate lanceolate. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. . skindiseases.—7. COM. and as early as 1864. Kempupundrika. See—Ornamental Plants. C. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Fl. piles. syphilis and leucorrhoea. It is also diuretic. CHAR.

base cuneate. Deccan. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. C. Rozelle. purple. CHAR. Fr. Vasanti. acuminate.—large. fruits and seeds. uppermost petal broader. :—Throughout the State. calyx fleshy. hairy. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. pepper. Vasantduti. Lal ambadi. :—E. NS. stem and branches purple. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places.—capsule. Kanara. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Konkan. Fr. L. 1. Atimukta.—purple with darker centres. PARTS USED :—Leaves. sedative and refrigerant. elliptic-oblong. Ragotpiti. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Patwa. CHAR. fringed.-Dec. long.—axillary. :—G. purple. often blotched with purple with darker centre. Ghats. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Madhavi. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Fibres. Madhavi. young parts silky.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. glabrous. Vasantduti. K. t. NS. K. . tropics of the old world. Sd. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind.— Jany. L. (lower leaves sometimes entire). LOC.—Malpighiaceæ. much used in curries. Madmalati. 10-18 X 4. :—Cultivated. LOC. H. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. involucral bracts 10. asafoetida and molasses. petioles silky. on the margins. HABITAT. Fl. black-brown. Malati. white. Madhavi.3-7. and adding a little salt. ovoid. Madhalata. Lal ambari. Atimukta.—Oct. FAM. clawed. Pundi-bija or soppu.—petals 5. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.. 3-winged. See—Vegetables. Fl.5 cm. Adimurtte Adirganti. beaked. :—An annual. Kampti. globose. entire glabrous. Red sorrel. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility.lobes oblong. M. Fl. Sk. t. mid-lobe the longest. fragrant.—coriaceous. Ceylon. Lal ambadi. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. flowers.-Mar. Kamuka. G. 3-5 lobed.) FAM. Madhavi. Kempupundrike. long.—5-7. Haladvel. COM.—1-3. across. erect. 5th petal yellow at the base. serrate. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. covered with minute hairs .5 cm.2-2 cm. Chandravalli. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Madhumalati. C.—Malvaceæ. H. COM. Grows abundantly on the W.— solitary.—in erect racemes. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. orbicular. M. DISTR. Sd. Fl.

remove "Tridosh".-June. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. branchlets drooping. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. cylindric. cool the brain.—Feb. Seeds—carminative. Seeds—appetiser. FL. Indrayana. Kura. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Kumaon. FAM. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. tonic. wounds. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. piles. Nepal. Siwalik. styptic. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. Malay Peninsula. hallucinations (Ayurveda). fatigue. Pandhara Kuda. leprosy. burning sensation. diuresis (Yunani).5 cm. Fr. See—Ornamental Plants. Flowers— acrid. flowers and seeds.. colic. CHAR. cures dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. tonic. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Kaduoindrajav. China. Leavesastringent. white. lumbago. C—tubular. skin and spleen diseases. DISTR. PROPERTIES. smoke good for piles. inodorous. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. good in erysipelas. lessens inflammations. Karohi. bitter. biliousness. thirst and inflammation. throat hairy inside. K. acrid. Abu.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). Veppale. :—Throughout the State. aphrodisiac. cooling. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Bark—bitter. biliousness. remove muscular pains . leucoderma . if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. boils. heating. t. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. cough. COM. LOC. good in chronic bronchitis. Conessi bark tree. Sd.—Apocynaceæ. asthma. cause "Vata". bleeding piles. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. Kaling. Madras State. vulnerary. Hath. Burma. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Hale. urinary discharges. leaves. thirst. Sk. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. astringent to bowels cure pains. Kutaja.. N.— in terminal corymbose cymes . :—E. skin diseases. M. LOC. Kudsalu. appetiser cure blood diseases. anthelmintic. Assam.—follicles 20-48 cm. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Kuda. Kodasige. Mt. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Karuindrayan. often dotted with white spots. Dudhi. strengthens gums. burning sensation. diarrhœa. excessive menstrual flow. main nerves conspicuous . Fl. " Kapha". LOC. ulcers. broadly ovate or elliptic. Karnatak. leprosy. acrid. Thailand (Siam). vulnerary. Circars. PARTS USED :—Bark. long. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. good in headache. galactagogue. Ceylon. Kuda.—10-20 X 5-11. NS. H. given in chest affections. L. G. fevers. insecticidal. Kurchi tree. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. Andamans. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.

is used in China and Malaya as peptic. nor styptic. Satu. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. useful in fevers. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. with radicle attached to it. Divya. good for ulcers. acrid. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. sweetish. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. India. nor astringent. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. appetiser. useful in biliousness. Javegodhi. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. The grains contain vitamin B. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. diarrhœa. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. K. Jawa. kurchine. . allays thirst. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. fevers (Yunani). malt sugar and diastase. :—E. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Jav. stomachic. (R. Hayapriya. Jav. pains in chest. See—Food Plants. inflamed gums. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. 1928). and kurchicine. DISTR. —Cultivated chiefly in N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. fattening. biliousness. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. Barley. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. FAM. febrifuge. NS. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. improves voice. headache. Ind. G. Germinated barley. dysentery and intestinal worms. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Suj.—Gramineæ. Aug. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. causes constipation. especially cod-liver oil. H. LOC. lowers the pulse. M. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). They are also used after delivery. Ymvah. aphrodisiac. anæmia. They are astringent. Gaz. widely cultivated in temperate regions. Knowles. Yava. asthma. COM. Java. Tasteless. Sk. Med. bronchitis. demulcent and expectorant. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. useful in bronchitis. burns. Shaktu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. LOC. urinary discharges (Ayurveda).

5-23 X 3.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. NS. Garudphala. :—K. dioecious . M.8-7. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. acuminate. size of small apple. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . increases taste and appetite. Fl. broadly ovate. t. Kadukavata. more or less coriaceous. Doti. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . C. M. Kshiradru. LOC. 12. Kowti. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Bhringamallika. Common in N. Bhoswar.5 cm. See—Oils. Niradivittulu. common in Travancore. good for the throat. FL. Kastel. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Panch Mahals in Gujarat. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil.—solitary or in racemes. Garudphala. white. camphor and lime-juice. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. H. S. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M.. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases.) FAM. Phaldu. For scald-head. sulphur. DISTR. DISTR. CHAR. Malabar. sometimes along river banks. LOC.—Bixaceæ. Southern and Western India. Betaga. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Bandaru. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. Bhorsal. Bharnarasalya. globose or ovoid.—numerous. pungent. . L. COM.—Rubiaceæ. Peninsula. COM. Madhya Pradesh. Amarachala. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers.—Apl. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m.—berry. K. NS. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. young parts brown pubescent. Dondra.—Jany. high. tomentose. Bhrijatuaka. bitter. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. Dondru. Kanara evergreen forests. Bihar. Fr. :—G. Country and Kanara. Sd. Bhutabi. :—W. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Ugragandha. flat. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Sk. Bhanina. Ghats. Gandele. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM.

trailing on mud or floating. cordate or hastate.5 cm. Country. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. :—A large twining shrub . L. NS. :—G. LOC. FAM. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. 10-15 cm. t. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. aphrodisiac. upper constricted.8 cm. DISTR.—4-5-7 X 2-3. Ceylon. Kalaka. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Kanara. Gorwiballi. Fl. trichotomous cymes.—linear. cures " Kapha ". base rounded. glabrous above.—tube with narrow portion below.—1-5 flowered peduncles . H. . X 4 cm.—Apocynaceæ. Fr. COM. thick. numerous . Shradhashaka. rooting at the nodes . C. Kalaghantika. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Kalmisag.—capsule. Karihambu. Sd. Siamalata. Nalanibhaji. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. LOC. throat and tube dull purple . Java. " Vata ". thirst. Krishnasariva. prostrate. COM. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. Kantebhovari. Australia.—4 or 2.—Nov. acute. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda).—Convolvulaceæ. Kanara. LOC. :—Konkan.5x 3. In Indo-China. M. fever.2 -7. cooling. Kalidudhi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. stems long. FAM. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Karmi. :—Annual or biennial herb. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Fl. greenish white. Pechuli. See—Timbers. Sariva. black with white scanty coma. Bhadra. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. hollow. S. middle portion much inflated. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.—in axillary and terminal. Fr. M. Fodder Plants. :—H. C. Sk. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. M. Sd. stalks and leaves.-Dec. Chandangopa.-Apl. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . very slender. Sk. :—More or less throughout India. elliptic oblong. Fl. Kalambika. L. Gopini. vomiting. lobes obscure . Common in the evergreen forests of N. straight or slightly curved.— Nov. rusty pubescent. FL. NS. Potuasaga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish.. The outer layer is tasteless. biliousness. Br. the powdered wood is used for herpes.—5-12. very common in Gujarat. Nadika. cylindric . pubescent. blood diseases. ovoid .—follicle. Nalichibhaji. :—Throughout the State. CHAR. CHAR. t.

increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). burning sensation. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. (Yunani). useful in leucoderma. stimulant. ovate-lanceolate. aphrodisiac. stem long. LOC. America. Bhumikushmanda. biliousness and fevers. carminative. Bilaikand . glabrous. aphrodisiac. (Yunani). :—Throughout the Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.8—6. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. purple. M. bronchitis.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. indigestible. t. Fl. LOC. NS. LOC. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. stomachic.3 cm. Bhunichahragadde. also useful in liver complaints. flowers (rarely). pale. liver complaints. tropical Asia. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. galactagogue. ovoid. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. near sea coast. Africa. In Burma. leaves. Sk. Root—heating. Fr. biliousness. Kanara sea coast. demulcent and lactagogue. useful in syphilis. leprosy. jaundice. Fl. H. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. COM. cures biliousness. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. 4-celled. Australia in moist climate. 3. :—Throughout India. tonic. Nila-kumbala. :— E. often broader than long. PARTS USED :—Root. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. tropical Asia. expectorant. useful in leprosy. K. useful in fever. twining. enclosed in fleshy sepals. entire. long. anthelmintic. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . FAM. (Ayurveda). appetiser. anthelmintic . PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. Carminative. lessens inflammation. dry. See—Gums and Resins.—capsule. . Bhuikohala. CHAR. long. deeply palmately divided. " Kapha " . peduncle solitary axillary. Leaves enrich blood.—10-15 cm. Africa and Australia. improves voice and complexion. vomiting. L. Ceylon. Giant potato . being regarded as tonic. Swadu Vidarikand. galactagogue. diuretic. blood diseases. lobes 5-7. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. alterative.—in. debility and want of digestive power. DISTR. 4-valved. root large. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. Flower causes " Vata ". thick. gonorrhœa and inflammation. alterative.—Convolvulaceæ. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. to children in case of emaciation. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. :—Perennial.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.-July-Sept. Sd.

) FAM. CHAR.—capsule. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. clothed with long hairs. broad. glabrous . Fl. FAM. DISTR.-Oct. Shyamala-bijak. C. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. sparsely hairy. filiform. :—Western Peninsula. ovate-cordate. Africa. Fl. stems twining. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Ganribij.—Convolvulaceæ. L. bracts linear. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. long tubular funnel-shaped. Deccan.—1. deeply three-Iobed. :—A herb . E. axillary. cures inflammations. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. G. stems many. pains in joints. Morning glory. scabies and biliousness. NS.5 cm. crenate. headache. subglobose or ovoid. dries the phlegm. believed to be of American origin. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Kaladana. Kaladanah. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . :—G. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). Nilpushpa. anthelmintic. DISTR. K. Country. useful in liver and spleen diseases. H. surrounded by ciliate sepals. K. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. Sk. CHAR. Kalokumpo. diam. :—Konkan. subglobose. removes bad humours from body (Yunani).5 cm. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. abdominal diseases. bronchitis (Ayurveda). in the Himalayas. The plant contains a glucoside. bechic. diseases of head. fevers. Undirkani. .:—Throughout India. Indian jalap. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. M. Nilvel. L. Mirchai. petioles hairy. Undirkani. H. M.—capsule. Fr.—Convolvulaceæ.-5-12. :—An annual herb. Fr. Musekani. M. LOC.3-2. NS. carminative. Fl. 3-celled. S. Sk.— yellow. Sd. reniform or ovate-cordate. t. blue tinged with pink.8-5 cm. S. leucoderma. Ceylon. lobes ovate. COM.—Sept. COM.. Sd. tropical Africa.— 4-6. creeping and rooting at the nodes. See—Ornamental Plants. :—E. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). Purgative.—3. Krishna—Shyama-bija.—dark chestnut coloured . PARTS USED :—Seeds. Vrishchikparni. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth.

also in the Konkan and N. inflammations and abdominal diseases . cooling. FAM. lungs. 3. Fl. Common in southern Gujarat. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. anthelmintic. long.—Oct. PARTS USED :—Root. ovate or oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. base cordate or truncate . The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. paralysis. Kalaparni. Fl. K. Root with bark should be used. globose. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). bracts large.—in few flowered cymes. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. good in pain. stems very long. pungent. Nishottara. wounds. . Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. Rechani. LOC. expectorant. Turbith root. M. much branched. useful in bilious tremors of body. NS. useful in bilious fevers. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. Philippines. useful in loss of consciousness. when used alone . Nashotar. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). like others of the genus . Nishoth. white variety is a mild cathartic. twining and twisted together.8-5 cm. False-Indian jalap. LOC. uterus. root long.3-7 cm. purgative. inflammations. antipyretic. C. burning sensation and intoxication. fleshy. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. rarely slightly lobed. mucronate. :—Throughout India. CHAR. It is also alterative. useful in diseases of kidney. strangury. t. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. bronchitis. useful in spleen enlargement. Nandi. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. bechic. Nahatara. muscular pains. acrid.—white. Triputi. Mauritius. heart and abdomen. Fr. tropical Africa and America. Indian rhubarb. anæmia. fevers. fistula. Kanaka. laxative.-Jany. pains of chest and joints. often pinkish.—5-10 X 1. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. HABITAT :—Wild . removes bad humours.—Convolvulaceæ. Br. good for weakness.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. urethral discharges. bladder. Ceylon. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). applied in diseases of eye and gums. Sk. LOC. :— E. COM. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). leucoderma. Malay Islands. L. paralysis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. sometimes cultivated. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ.. Trivrit.—capsule. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. laxative. enclosed in enlarged sepals . brain diseases. carminative. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). H. Root— bitter. angled and winged. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. DISTR. pedicels thickened upwards. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. G. Pithori.

2-6. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. stipules with a long rigid point. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Flame of the woods . Jati. HABITAT :—Cultivated . obtuse . Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery.—globose. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Bandhuka.— Rubiaceæ. very slender . :—A large subscandent shrub. pale when dry.5 cm. t. wild. . :—E. Pendgul. leaflets 7-11.2-6.—3. Anemallige. LOC. fleshy. lobes 4 (rarely). NS. Sk. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. Chambali. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. very common in Konkan and N. proximal petiolulate. oblong.—opposite.—July-Sept. tube long.8 cm. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Priyanvada. 3. 5-12.3 cm. purple when ripe. Raktaka.. G. Bakali. coriaceous. M. Surabhigandha. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub.. imparipinnate. sessile. Fr. DISTR. oblong. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Fl. L. obtuse.—Oleaceæ. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. Pankul. COM NS. across.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. Chambeli. often tinged with pink outside. 5-10 X 3. size of a pea. white.—throughout the year. Ceylon. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. of stems and roots. DISTR. pale when dry. FAM. high. H. :—Cultivated throughout India. K. FL—numerous. sessile. Fr. Guddedasal. M. petiole and rachis margined. Chambeli. COM. smooth. intermediate sessile . Ajjige. CHAR. :—Bombay southwards . also along river banks.9 m. CHAR. :—Western Peninsula. Kepala. Kisukare. Fl. t. Jajimalle. terminal rather larger. Sk. C. Fl.—tubular. :—E. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. stipules . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Jai. The plant contains glucoside turpethin.—opposite.—ripe carpels 2. L.3 coriaceous. Parali. FAM. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. K.

in the tropics of both the hemispheres. mouth and skin. H. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. membranous. K. headache and weak eyes. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. CHAR. G. LOC. subglobose. Sambac. diseases of mouth. caries of teeth. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). Banmallika. otorrhoea. cures headache. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. stomatitis. Mogro.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. vulnerary. very fragrant. See—Ornamental Plants. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . L. :—A sub-erect shrub. variable in shape. Root—purgative. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). usually broadly ovate or elliptic. Chamba. good for pains in joints and ear. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. emmenagogue. good in asthma. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. Arabian Lily. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Mogra. expectorant. Fl. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. t. it is used in cases of insanity. alexiteric. leprosy. See—Ornamental Plants. Plant—deobstruent. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. base rounded or subcordate. brain tonic . Sk. anthelmintic. LOC. In Goa. given in blood diseases.—Oleaceæ. allays fevers . heating. Mallige. M. Iravantige. Vanchandrika. ear. biliousness (Ayurveda). fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. DISTR. suppurative. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Navamallika. soporific. tonic to brain. Leaves are also used in toothache. aphthae. Fr. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. Fl. Oil—lessens inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Tuscan jasmine. rheumatism. Motia. entire. diuretic.—ripe-carpels 1-2. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . emetic. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—E.—more or less throughout the year . softens skin. Flowers—tonic. head. teeth. eyes and ear. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. black. ulcers. COM NS. intoxicating. FAM. abundant in April-May. :—Cultivated throughout India. surrounded by calyx-teeth.—white. Pramodini. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. Mogara. biliousness. Ananga-mallika. LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. flowers and oil. alexiteric. paralysis. useful in stomatitis. alexiteric. scarcely climbing. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait.—opposite. and for scabies (Yunani). Flower has bitter taste . useful in diseases of eye.

multifid. K. 3-lobed. long. large. villous within. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. FAM. Fl. Jyotishka. . FAM. Simeavadala. LOC. stipules capillary. herpes. Ratanjot. L. broadly ovate.5 cm. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. French or Small physic nut. urinary discharges. male flowers. Dundigu. Sd. black. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. 7. 10-15 X 7.8 cm.. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. coral-red.—Euphorbiaceæ. longer than calyx. Fr. " Tridosha". anaemia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. long-petioled. and also promotes healing. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. cordate. PARTS USED :—Wood. Sutashreni. COM. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. fistula. Sk. diam. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. Akhuparnika.—monœcious. juice sticky opalescent. have suppurative effect. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. NS. Virechani. Seeds contain active principle curcin. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums .—orbicular. dull brownish black. K. 7. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. corolla lobes 5. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). disk of female flower urceolate.—E. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments.— alternate. abdominal complaints. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves.—Euphorbiaceæ. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. H. 1. :—E. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil.5 cm. DISTR. L. when applied to boils.—ovoid oblong. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. Kananerand. The acrid. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. Fr. yellow. COM. subfleshy. The seeds act as drastic purgative. CHAR. M.—capsule. Fl. Bhadradanti. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. Coral plant. Jangali erandi. Jangali—Pahari erand. across.5-12. Mogali—Ran-erand. useful in chronic dysentery.5 mm. biliousness. CHAR:—A handsome. G. Sk.— ovoid. LOC. fruits and seeds. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk.5-12. thirst. Vilayati haralu. garden shrub .—in flat-topped cymes. NS. Barbados Physic nut. :—Native of tropical America.

all over the State. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Shindhuka. eye diseases (Ayurveda). long. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. CHAR. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. Fr. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. pains.—Acanthaceæ. FAM.—Ghati pitpapda. in interrupted spikes. heating. 7.2 m. Karinchki.5 cm. purgative. skin-diseases.5-12. FAM. rheumatism and dysentery. NS. native of N. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). useful in bronchitis. dry .5 cm. clavate glabrous. Nachukaddi. wild in Tenasserim. fevers. 5-12. COM. purple within. :—A native of China. often met with in Bengal. " Vata ' and "Pitta". M. LOC. branches subterete with raised lines. :—Bomb. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. wounds. Krishna-nirgundi. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). In Cambodia. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . DISTR. L. Bakas. dyspepsia.—white spotted. useful in piles. America. NS. Sk. COM. Nilinirgandi. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. LOC. causes " Kapha ".—Acanthaceæ. Bhutakeshi. HABITAT :—Shady positions. Kalmashi. Seed— oleaginous. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. . oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent.6-1. K. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. tympanitis. M. vaginal discharges. Karambal. LOC. high .126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nilmanjari. inflammations. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. fattening tonic .—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. LOC. enlarged spleen. bitter. Kala adulsa. Leaves are used in scabies. hot. aphrodisiac. :—H. Fl.—capsule.

—finely tuberculate.. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie).—variable. Chandramala. deep green. intoxication. fever. DISTR.5-9 cm. Kapurkachri. Madras State. t. COM. oval. Australia.—2. Fl. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. thirst. Panchgani. Maval in the Deccan. Deccan.—Oct. Fl. Sugandhavachai. constipating .—lobes lanceolate. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . expectorant. CHAR. pure-white. thin. L. LOC. round. :—Western Peninsula. FAM.—capsule. spreading horizontally. :—N. strengthens lungs. increases " Vata ". t.-Mar. Kachri.. South Konkan. NS. Fr. constricted between the seeds . biliousness. Malay Islands. good in spleen diseases. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. elliptic. Sd. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. LOC. wandering of mind. fugacious. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. Ceylon. removes indigestion. pale violet pink. . stops vomiting. Travancore. teeth. Malaya. Tubers yield an essential oil. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Plant diuretic. purifies blood in skin diseases.5 X 4. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. Fl. fragrant.—612 from the centre of the plant. diaphoretic. aromatic. ovate or lanceolate. Kachchura . :— H. gives lustre to eyes. Konkan. Western Ghats . oblong shortly pointed. HABITAT :—Cultivated. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. burning of body. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tired feeling. C. root-stock tuberous. M. L. DISTR. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. urinary discharges. obtuse at both ends. upper lip notched. diuretic. Cultivated in gardens.:—Stemless herb.— June-July. PARTS USED :—Tubers. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. :—More or less throughout India. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. stomachic. Chandramulika. vomiting.—Scitaminaceæ. P. petioles channelled. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). lying flat on the ground.3-12.—in cylindric terminal spikes. LOC. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base.—2-lipped. :—Konkan. Sk. (Yunani). aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. enriches blood. lower 3-lobed . softly pubescent. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). tube funnel-shaped . 6.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR.

creeping. Danta-bija. Bottle-gourd. rootstock reaching 5 cm.—15-37. :—M. Cochin.— sweetly fragrant. COM. entire. oblong. Coorg. Dudio Tumbada. K. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. H. only 1 or 2 opening at a time .. Fl. Nelasampige .. FAM. Travancore. L. Kadu bhopala. :—An aquatic herb. furrowed.—Aroideæ. Halagumbala. Kanara. FAM.. semicylindric. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Bhuichampo . yellow. Bhuchampaka. Ceylon. :—E. COM.5 cm. M. :—Stemless plant.5 X 5-12. LOC.—globose 3. diam.8-5 cm. LOC. Vatsanabhi. remedy for itch. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. G. Country. Tumbaka. inflorescence of many ovaries. very poisonous . CHAR. S.. anthers crowded. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. N. margins undulate. Fr. Fl. FAM. Dudhya bhopala. Tubers yield an essential oil. Fl. tubular below. K. of various shades of purple and white. :— G.—30X7. midrib very stout. Calabash. —Feb. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . Kadu—Mithi tumbi. :—Mysore. elliptic-oblong. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Konkan. Malay Islands. NS. Fl. Bhuichampa . annulate . used in the form of poultice. CHAR. L. promotes suppuration.—narrowly oblong. thick. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz.5-23 cm.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn.-Apl.-Mar. in many cycles. HABITAT :—Marshy places. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. crowded in a globose bead .— inflorescence. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. NS. M. female cylindric. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Dudhi. Kaddu. The whole plant. t. Alkaddu. spathe 7.. t. Labuka. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous.5-10 cm. petiole as long as blade. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhuichapha. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. simple. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. COM. coriaceous. M. long. DISTR. Sk. H. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Scitaminaceæ. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Lauka. . In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. Katutumbi.

Flesh of fruit is diuretic. fever. Bark and leaves are purgative. piles. leaves. alexiteric. Ceylon. diuretic. Seeds emetic (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. muscular pains. inflammations. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. fruits and seeds. earache. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. leaves. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. In the Andamans. anti-periodic. Arjuna. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Challa. cooling. Bandhara. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. See—Vegetables. bitter. COM. sweet. wild (rarely). LOC:—North Kanara and S. in many cases only cultivated. :—H. refrigerant and anti-bilious. Flowers cooling. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . cardiac and general tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. wholesome to fœtus.—Lythraceæ. laxative. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. K. Sk. fattening. oleaginous. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. LOC. NS. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. :—Western Peninsula. fruits and seeds. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. bronchitis. Malaya. See—Timbers. Taman. Tarul. Fruit good in bronchitis. cures leucorrhoea. DISTR. Assam. bark.) FAM. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. earache. Holematti. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. anti-bilious. flowers. lessens inflammations. emetic. Arjuna. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. . bitter variety is diuretic. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. DISTR. styptic. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. "Vata". flatulence. dry cough. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. vulnerary. Nirbendeka: M. increases "Vata". The fruit has trace of vitamin A. cures asthma. pains (Ayurveda). China. causes bronchitis. aphrodisiac. LOC. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. Seeds—good for hot constitution. scalding of urine. Ornamental Plants. improves taste. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. cures blood diseases. brain-tonic. ulcers. seeds are narcotic. PARTS-USED :—Root. USES :— Leaves are purgative. There are two varieties. antipyretic. Konkan Ghats. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. cause haemoptysis.

:—E. silky beneath. Mukute. Fl. :—E. NS. bark mottled. oblong flat. Madaranga. Mendi. DISTR. NS. Nakharanjaka. Sandika. Mehndi. FAM. LOC.. Kukurgal. Lakh. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. pointed. heart-troubles. Khesari. G. M.8 cm. piles and wandering of the mind.—Dec-May. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. CHAR.5 cm. :—W. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. Tree mignonette.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. M. LOC. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. DISTR. NS. Deccan hills. COM. oblong lanceolate. G. t. M. Henna plant. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Latri. (Ayurveda). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. common on the Supa Ghats. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. pain.—in erect. but dangerous cathartic.—ellipsoid-oblong. enclosed in the perianth . Gorantha. COM.—Thymelaeaceæ. Yavaneshta. lameness. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts .. glabrous above. M. :—Konkan southwards. Chickling—White vetch. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark.5 X 2-2. The bark is used to poison fish. Lang. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Belgaum hills . COM. 5-7. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. FAM. Fr. yellow. N. perianth-tube densely silky villous . Country. burning.—Lythraceæ. :—E. dense terminal heads 2. D. Sk. common at Mahabaleshwar. Basu). causes much flatulence. subsessile. Ragangi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Rametha. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Peninsula—Ceylon. Medika. S. tonic.—opposite or scattered. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division.5-3. Medi. L. H. inflammation. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. (B. swellings etc. . See—Food Plants. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Kassar. improves taste. K. Triputi. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). diam. Grains contain vitamin A. Fl. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. :—A much branched large shrub. Kanara. Wooly-headed gnidia. lobes 4. Rami. cooling.

Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. FAM. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. cure strangury tumours. wild in Arabia. seeds. globose. The plant contains a glucoside.—capsule.—Apl-July. scabies. elliptic or broadly lanceolate.—opposite. LOC. G. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. M. DISTR. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. pyramidal and panicled cymes. planted as hedge.—in terminal. favours hair-growth. Iran and Baluchistan. in diseases of heart and of . Lentil. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. Fr. :—E. E. syphilitic sores. Leaves—bitter.). expectorant. truncate.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Ragadali. amenorrhœa. improve appetite. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. H. lateral branches 4-gonous. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. Sd. Massur. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. Ceylon. stomatitis. ophthalmia. many. t. diuretic. boils. mucronate. ulcers. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. HABITAT:—Cultivated. cure leucoderma. Sura. Chanangi. vulnerary. LOC. Sk. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. K. supported by persistent calyx. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . Gabholika. & Gib. Europe and in temperate W. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. flowers. indigenous in S. enriches blood. Gurubija. Masuridal. white or rose coloured . Asia. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". The oil and essence keep the body cool. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. Fl. PROPERTIES. Flowers are refrigerant.—angular. See—Dyes. diuretic. fragrant. useful in headache. Masur. useful. bronchitis. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. allay burning sensation. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. cure insanity (Ayurveda). Belgaum and Poona districts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. finger nails and hair. Masur. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. L. Masura. DISTR. diseases of spleen. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. NS. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. :—Grown in Nasik. dysentery. veined outside. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. COM. lumbago. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). often ending in spinous point. Fl. skin diseases .

G. eye diseases (Ayurveda).—small. bronchitis. COM. Ahaliva. aperient. They are mucilaginous and laxative. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. aphrodisiac . serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). useful in diseases of chest. H. Asahio. galactagogue. K. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. LOC. FAM. See-Food Plants. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). good for pain in abdomen. The covering is styptic and astringent. tumours and injuries. diuretic. often with linear segments . Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers.—Cruciferæ. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. laxative.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Fr. Raktabija. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. cures dysentery . Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). white. . :—An erect glabrous annual. enrich blood. Garden cress . Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Chavnsar. Chandrashura. C—petals 2-4 or 0. L.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). leaves and seeds. CHAR. bechic. tonic. Hot and dry. chest complaints. tonic. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Fl. Sk. DISTR. upper sessile. :—Cultivated throughout India. LOC. :—E. bitter. stomatitis . Leaves are used as pot-herb. NS. Halim. Chandrika. Seeds—indigestible. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Seeds contain fatty oil. bronchitis. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Ashalika. Kurutige. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. Halim . destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . affections of spleen. the lower petiolate. LOC. Grains contain vitamins A and B. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. very likely indigenous in W. blood and skin diseases. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. PARTS USED :—Root.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. and muscular pains. aphrodisiac. Hurfi. See—Vegetables. Asia. M. Allibija. rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. They contain vitamin B. constipating. good in inflammations. Suvasura.

bad for eyesight. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Tisi. usually alternate. Javas . hard to digest. Alasi. Tailottama. PARTS USED :—Bark. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. L. Seeds—mucilaginous. aphrodisiac. Kanara. heal ulcers. Alashi. lenticellate. black. back-ache. Sk. Maidalakadi. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Fibres. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Common flax. causes loss of appetite. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. gouty and rheumatic swellings. bronchitis. :—E. diam. Alshi. LOC. NS. flowers.—Lauraceæ. Alsi. Fl. tonic.—May-July. LOC. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. perianth lobes wanting. Garbijaur. Alsi. Medini.. Seeds contain vitamin A. dysentery. H. "Pitta". leaves. emmenagogue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. yellowish. CHAR. pale beneath. FAM. M. Sedhavi. aphrodisiac . inflammations.5 mm. branchlets densely tomentose. diuretic. hot. G.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. good for cough and kidney troubles. 8-12 together in heads. HABITAT :—In rain-forests.. remove "Vata". Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs.— globose. urinary discharges . cure leprosy. Malina. Roasted seeds are astringent. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. Sk. COM. Madagandha. DISTR. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. remove biliousness. seeds and oil. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). . colds and throat complaints. Fr.—crowded at the ends of branches.:—A small evergreen tree. Linseed. t. Maidelakri. Haimwati. 7. boils. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. Country. NS. H. FAM. M. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. See—Oils. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Jivanika. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). K. native country probably Egypt. Alashi. galactagogue. used in consumption.—Linaceæ. Common tallow laurel. burnt bark styptic and healing. COM. lead to impotency. urinary complaints. LOC. Fl. "Kapha". Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. :—Cultivated throughout India. bark somewhat corky.:—E. base narrowed. glossy dark-green above. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. supported by the thickened pedicel. M.

Kalahogesoppu. . the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. midrib white. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. K. long. LOC. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. FAM. long.—numerous. Divali. G. Nali. bark. Ridge gourd. nearly sessile. lanceolate. Narttaka. Katukoshataki.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. yellowish brown . aphrodisiac. M. light green. SK. cure cough. Karvituri. LOC. It acts as anodyne. heating.—Nov. Ceylon. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. expectorant. :—E. Narsala. Ghontali. AMARA Clarke. bronchitis. uterus. Kadudodka. very small. FAM. heart. H. Sk. aphrodisiac.100 m.—. 3 usually connate throughout . DISTR. tonic. fever. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Deccan and S. 1. NS. burning sensation. G. COM. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Country. diseases of blood. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. CHAR. H.—Cucurbitaceæ. Devnal. stomachic. Kandele. Malay Islands. Bibhishana.-Mar.—Lobeliaceæ. leprosy (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Dhamana. paralysis. biliousness. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. white. subglobose. Kahire. many. 2. much curved. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. Devanala. COM. Mrityupushpa. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. M. fruits and seeds. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. K. diuretic. Fr. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. hollow. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Fl. t. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. leaves. Dhaval. Jalini. pains in joints. finely serrulate. spleen diseases. Fl. branched upwards. stem stout. useful in biliousness. opening by 2 valves. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. vagina. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . strangury. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Root—astringent. Ranturai. Sthulanala. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons.—capsule. galactagogue. :—Konkan. overheated brains.9 cm. Nal. thirst. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". Leaves are mucilaginous. burning sensation. lower much longer. erysipelas (Ayurveda). LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne.2-3 m. acrid. LOC. lobes linear. M. throat troubles. C—2-lipped. Jhinga. all oblong. Australia.—alternate. "vata". Sd. useful in inflammations.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. consumption. Wild tobacco. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.5-3. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. high.

Mahua. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. bitter.—obovoid. Kanara (rare) . used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). digestible. tonic and diuretic. liver complaints. bitter. females. cough. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. haemorrhoids and leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. 5-10 cm. cures urinary discharges. tendrils usually 3-fid. at length scabrid. "Kapha". Burma. Fl.) FAM. G. Hunage. stems 5-angled. COM.—Sept. Doddippa. piles. useful in rat-bite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. Mahuda. acrid. Bengal to the W. thick. DISTR. fruit and seeds. piles. Gudapushpa. leucoderma. long and about 2. Moha. carminative. tonic to intestines. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). H. Butter tree. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. uterine and vaginal tumours . t. Madhya Pradesh. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. :—Throughout India. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. LOC. ascites. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. Madhusrava. tuberculous glands. asthma. asthma. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—Sapotaceæ. C. 10-ribbed. recommended in splenic enlargement. Madhuka. biliousness. LOC.—monœcious. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. obtusely conical at both ends. pale green.—petals yellow with green veins .:—A large climber. cathartic. M. diuretic. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). base cordate. hydrogogue. thrives in Deccan trap. USES. :—Plant is bitter. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Mahura.. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. palmate. bronchitis. K. Root-bark is abortifacient. leaves. Mahua tree. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages.8 cm. Fl. also in Konkan and N. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). L. Pokka. PARTS USED :—Bark. especially in western Peninsula. :—E. Sk. Fr. laxative. cures "Vata".53.—small. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). DISTR. 5-7 lobed. Mhowra. Mahula. Mowa. Ceylon.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. solitary in the same axil as males. jaundice. flowers and fruits. alexiteric. W. Fruit cures fever. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. LOC. Mowda. tumours. inflammations. NS. anæmia. at first whitish and softly villous. . The leaves are applied locally in splenitis.

expectorant. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. COM. India . H. USES :—Astringent and emollient. DISTR. FAM. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. Sk. Ceylon. Karnatic. Kamala. :—-E. and Kanara. fixed oil and a spirit. Kapila. flowers act as a mild purgative. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. cures blood diseases. Huli. Madhuka. There is a trace of alkaloid. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. H. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. K. Movanuhjad. Movaro. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Flowers—oleaginous. carminative. G. galactagogue. cooling. LOC. yields two important products. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. flowers and oil. good in heart diseases. NS. and Upper Burma. Mohache jhad. Oils. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Oil—emollient (Yunani). Famine Plants. See—Timbers. Monkey-face tree. Oil is good for skin-diseases. consumption. Honey tree. Kambhal Raini. Mysore. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. astringent. See—Timbers. leprosy. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. ulcers. :—Western peninsula. aphrodisiac. and also a remedy for itch. Ippe. often planted. fatigue . anthelmintic. burning sensation. LOC. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. . Kampillaka. Kapila. G. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. M. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Shendri. Sk. used in fractures.—Sapotaceæ. COM. Mahuva of S. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. causes "Kapha". Fruit-tonic . Flower—sweet. Kesarimavu. fattening. K.. Mohwa.—Euphorbiaceæ. tonic. Hullichillu. NS. Moha. heals wounds . M. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Kapilo. Mahuda. cures biliousness. :—E. and appetiser (Sushruta).) FAM. tonic and nutritive. Liquors.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Mehua. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. thirst. Oils. :—Konkan.

removes bad smell from mouth. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Mavin-mara. COM. Malay Islands. laxative. appetiser. Chuta. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. :—-Throughout the State. Kamarasa. fruits and seeds. throat troubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Ceylon.—Anacardiaceæ. stomachic. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). anthelmintic. good in cough. wounds. detergent. vaginal troubles. Amri. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). purgative. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. FAM. Kanara. Amra. sour. diuretic. a good collyrium (Yunani). carminative. Ghats and the Satpudas. improves cough. Amba. useful in skin-diseases. biliousness. China. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. aphrodisiac. DISTR. wild and cultivated. purgative. cure "Vata". Am. M. good in heart trouble. leaves. Dyes. aphrodisiac. Astringent. diseases of abdomen. Introduced. urinary discharges. improves complexion. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. thirst. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. tonic. Cuckoo's Joy. cause flatulence and constipation. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. LOC. Bihar. Gum . :—Tropical Himalayas. hiccup. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. dispels langour and burning of body. Mango tree. K. vulnerary. Sikkim. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. H. heals ulcers. used in chronic diarrhœa. anthelmintic. maturant. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. Australia. G. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. tonic to body. Fruit—heating. ulcers. sweet. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. Mavu. :—Throughout tropical India. tumours. Bhutan. in "Tridosh". styptic. Ambo. beautifies complexion. "Kapha". See—Timbers. improve taste and appetite. liver pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Seeds-astringent to bowels. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). LOC. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. alexiteric. :—E. "Pitta". Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. lessen intestinal pains. enriches blood. flowers. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). liver. Rasala. vomiting. it exudes a pink coloured gum. Sahakara. styptic. vermifuge and. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. cultivated throughout the State. stone in bladder. dysentery. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. fruits and seeds. cure leucorrhoea. cooling. Burma. bad blood. good in dysentery. spleen. piles. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. clears brain. chronic dysentery and gleet. NS. Sk. Khasia Hills. LOC. Sind. bronchitis. cooling.

Harandori. overlapping to the right. stops nasal bleeding. . cooling. alexiteric. Madhumalati. Nimbaka. COM. cures "Vata".—Apl. Limbra. H. Ambri. Suparnika. Fruit Trees. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Fr. :—-E. coma copious . NS. Nakchhikni. Assam. Bevu. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. LOC.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Country. asthma.—Asclepiadaceæ. corona lobes large. Limbada.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet.—rotate with broad lobes. Hari. broadly ovate or suborbicular. long. few glands above the petiole cordate . Ceylon. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. L. Hemajyoti-valli. Nimla. Nim. See—Timbers. tumours. C. rat-bite (Ayurveda).3-15 X 4. all plains districts of Madras State. Kharkhodi. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. biliousness. It is also anthelmintic. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. M. K. with lenticels and black dots. aphrodisiac. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Sd. NS. Fl. fleshy. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses.—many. Kadulimb. Nimba. antipyretic.) FAM. useful in diseases of eye. K. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Khandodi. USES. good for dyspepsia. pale yellowish brown. :—Deccan and S. if snuffed. :—G. Dodi.—broadly ovate.5-11. burning sensation. H.—Meliaceæ. Fl. M. t.—6. margined.. Balant nimba. Ripe fruit is laxative. CHAR. rugosely striate. older branches ash coloured. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. 7. Paribhadraka.—follicles. Sk. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. :—Bengal. Juss. useful in bleeding piles. Nimba. inflammations. Nim or Margosa tree. leucoderma. COM. astringent to bowels. Sk. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. green or yellowish green. LOC. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. M.) FAM. Java. flattened. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. DISTR. :—A large twining shrub.5-10 cm. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. piles. Dugdhike .5 cm. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Juice of kernel. urinary discharges.

and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. piles. DISTR. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. tonic. skin diseases. thirst. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. fever. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. bark. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. See—Timbers.. cures ulcers and inflammations . tumours. sprains. resolvant. general debility. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. "pittadosh. leaves. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. maturant. antiperiodic. earache. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). M. Small melilot. lumbago. asthma. bad taste in the mouth. Tonic. astringent. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. Ranmethi. fruits and seeds. stomachic. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. biliousness. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. NS. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . toothache. :—E. alexiteric. chronic leprosy. valuable in consumption. piles. maturant. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . blood complaints. burning sensation near heart. bruises. cough. refrigerant. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. and loss of appetite. pectoral. insecticidal. relieves "Kapha". anthelmintic. Sk. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). lessens inflammation. Banmethi. . COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. for unhealthy ulcers. good in ophthalmia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India." vomiting. expectorant. H. swollen glands. Burma. fatigue. good for leprosy. stimulant and stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. The flowers are stimulant. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. LOC. boils. tonic and antiperiodic. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges. convalescence. rheumatism . leucoderma. LOC. carminative. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. flowers. it is a general vermifuge. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. leprosy. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. useful in syphilitic sores. PARTS USED :—Root. Vanmethika. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. anthelmintic. FAM. Oils. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases .

truncate at the apex. slightly echinulate. Afghanistan. base cordate. Corn-March mint. stem angular. M. Pudina. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). H. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. DISTR. CHAR. Khasia. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. M. Iran. L. leaves and seeds. :—Western Peninsula. S. :—Common in Deccan. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. Pudina. FAM. tapering at both ends. LOC.—monœcious . PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds.—Labiatæ. Externally used as a fomentation. very hispid . standard exceeding the wings and keel. NS. DISTR. Ceylon.—one. Fl. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. Malaya and Africa. tendrils simple. glabrous. LOC. :—India (tropical zone). oblong-ellipsoid.—size of a pea.—pale yellow. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . given as a gruel (Murray). Fl. high. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. finally red. PROPERTIES AND LOC. oblanceolate. Chatinmaragu. Europe. Agamaki. Pudinah. leaflets toothed. young parts white-hairy. scabrid. M. It has expectorant properties to some extent. north Bengal. deltoid-ovate entire. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Sd. at first green and variegated with yellow. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Fr. poultice or plaster for swellings. "Sikkim. L. especially in strained back. Country and Gujarat. K. :—An erect annual herb. Fr. Assam. male fascicled on short peduncles. rounded. Fl. in spicate close racemes. FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. glabrous or slightly hairy. also in S.—variable in size. Bilari. COM. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb.—small. HABITAT :—In hedges. t. :—H. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. :—E. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Ghugri. lobes dentate or serrate . G. ellipsoid.—3-foliate. . petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. brown. females sessile. NS. 30-45 cm. COM.— Jany. C.. introduced into many other regions.—pod. of terminal rather long.

Travancore. LOC. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. MESUA FERREA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. biliousness. :—A perennial erect herb . S. Carminative. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. diuretic. foul breath. dry. small tumours. K. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. Fl. LOC. North and West Asia. stalked. LOC. headache. good in asthma and sweats.—Guttiferæ. stem short. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. expectorant. NS. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. tonic to kidneys .—in axillary distant whorls. China. C. Suvarna. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. lilac. Europe. H. cardiotonic. skin diseases. Ceylon Iron-wood. vomiting. Kashmir. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. M. DISTR. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. and stimulant. Nagkinjalka. Nagakeshara. the upper similar and large. Oils. Country. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. pains in joints (Ayurveda). binding. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Andamans. Fr. hiccup. alexipharmic. Nagkesara. smooth. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). Kanara. See—Timbers. :—Western Himalayas. Ceylon. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties.-narrowed below. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Bengal. COM. useful in liver and spleen diseases. In N. Himalayas. used for cough. DISTR. emmenagogue. FAM. leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated. digestive. Assam. Assam Iron-wood. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. PARTS USED :—Bark. none at the top. E. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). oblong. The plant is used in chutneys. USES :—Root. :—E. L. toothed. Sk. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. Naghas. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Gums and Resins. indigestion and cephalagia.—nutlets dry. blood and heart troubles. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. . Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. infusion is given in fevers. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. good for fevers. lanceolate. cough. ovate.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Nagsampige. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. sorethroat. thirst. lined with hairs and hairy outside. Burma Tenasserim. Nagkesara. Konkan and N. hairy. :—E. sweats. flowers and fruits. Nagchapha.

skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Pivala chapha. :—E. M. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. remove biliousness. diuretic. Sankochini. See—Timbers. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . "Vata". Sone-chapha. CHAR. flowers and fruits. Humble plant.. gout. slightly recurved. long. H. Sampige. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . leaves. in vertigo. rheumatism. Lajalu.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. nausea and fevers . IndoChina.. Lajalu. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. diaphoretic. 57. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. Champo. Lajalu. G. diuretic. "Kapha". :—Cultivated all over the State. blood affections. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Burma. Fl. Vanamallika. :—A diffuse under-shrub. Ghats. Sonchampo. rheumatism. it is given with honey to relieve colic. S. DISTR. India. 45-90 cm.-Oct. M. glabrous above. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. FAM. Fruit. Risemani. W. hairy beneath. stems and branches sparingly prickly. Surabhi. COM. Sk. stimulant. destroys poisons. Sk. Golden champa. also used as purgative.—4-merous. Pilochampo. FAM. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. bile. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Lajjavati. bark. evergreen rain-forest of N. Champa. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Dyes. acrid. in globose heads. rachis bristly. NS. Flowers-stomachic. digitate. H. :—E. cultivated. Nachike-gidda. useful in cough. Lajari. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . NS. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. high.5 cm. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. near temples and in gardens. Hem-pushpa. . Kanara. Lajjika. Yunnan. Yellow champa . L.-pod flat. Suvarna champaka. clothed with glandular hairs . aphrodisiac. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Champaka. Assam.—Sept. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. petioles hairy. Sparshalajja. leaflets 15-20 pairs.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). ophthalmia. K. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Muthmurika.—bipin-nate. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Flowers— expectorant. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. LOC. COM. LOC. Champaka. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Fr. t. Sensitive plant. Fl. K. Raktamula. Champaka. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. pink. facilitates micturition. pinnae 1-2 pairs. G. good in leprosy. Lajja. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. sensative. removes worms.—Magnoliaceæ.

good for gonorrhœa. acrid. In Brazil root is used as emetic. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. sweet. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. flowers. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. biliousness. jaundice. astringent to bowels. nose diseases. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. alterative. Fruit causes flatulence. leprosy. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. Bakul. cultivated in gardens in pots. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Mulsari. LOC. Bakul. Baphuli. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Kalhala. :—G. It is also resolvent and alterative. cure biliousness. blood diseases (Ayurveda). in piles and fistula. LOC. Juice is applied externally. alexipharmic. :—Naturalised throughout India. probably a native of tropical America. K. stomachic. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. cure blood diseases. often planted in gardens. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Root is resolvent. Anangaka. Ceylon. cultivated in the tropics. FAM. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Bakul. See—Ornamental Plants. Mugule. Mukul. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Flowers—expectorant. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. fatigue. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. bilious fevers. Bolsari. Root. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. useful in blood and bile diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. smallpox (Yunani). dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. teeth and gum diseases. M. Sk. flowers and fruits acrid. Malaya. alexipharmic.:—Western Peninsula. cooling. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Vovali. cures "Kapha". also used in discharges from mucous membranes . smoke good in asthma (Yunani). liver complaints. DISTR. inflammations. ulcers. vaginal and uterine complaints. burning sensation. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Bark cardiotonic. Ranjal. leucoderma. vulnerary. piles. Sharadika. Kanara. LOC.—Sapotaceæ. Kanara and Konkan. Flowers give taste. asthma. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Bakula. anthelmintic. Seeds fix loose teeth. DISTR. leprosy. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. cures biliousness. oleaginous. Borsalli. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Varsuli. bark. headache. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. fruits and seeds. H. COM.

brightly coloured (dark crimson. native of tropical America. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Gulbasa . L. COM. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Carella fruit. cordate. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds.—Cucurbitaceæ. blackish. :—Grown throughout India. Karelo. Fr. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions.—membranous. yellow. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. FAM. lessen inflammations (Yunani). Fl. often ribbed or rugose. Sandhya-kali or Raga.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery.—continually in bloom. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Chandra—Sanjimallige. K. :—E. Leaves are maturant. Hagalkai. high with large perennial tuberous roots. each one surrounded by an involucre. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. K. Sk.—E. Four o'clock plant. NS. Hagala. . Karala. and rather fleshy stems . H. Marvel of Peru. :—A herbaceous plant. See—Timbers. Karli. good for syphilitic sores. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. Karela.—large. CHAR. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . COM. Sk. Fl. Oils. M. NS. Kareli. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Krishnakali. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. 30-75 cm. Karavalli. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. H. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. Guleaabbas . M. LOC. FAM. DISTR. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. t. it is applied to relieve headache. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn.—Nyctaginaceæ. HABITAT -Cultivated. Karela. Kandura. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. G. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. It is also tonic and febrifuge.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Fruit Trees.

anthelmintic. appetiser. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. urinary discharges. piles. DISTR. See—Vegetables. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. cure "Tridosh". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. carminative. and externally in ague as an absorbent. all kinds of poisoning. stomachic. LOC. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. ulcers. Golkandra.'. Kantoli. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. Karehiballi. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). M. rheumatism. laxative and authelmintic. :—Throughout India. burns. LOC. tropical Africa. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. jaundice etc. FAM. Fruit— bitter. stomachic. antibilious. PARTS USED :—Root. diseases of spleen and liver. Fruit—bitter. Fruit is tonic. excessive salivation. M. erysipelas (Ayurveda). eye and heart. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. aphrodisiac. Vishakankini. piles. longpepper. leprosy. Leaves act as galactagogue. fever consumption. Nagarali. asthma. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. used in syphilis. Leaves—aphrodisiac. Sk. tumours. urinary calculi. It is useful in gout. sparingly in Konkan. Fruit—very bitter. Plant cures diseases of blood. :—Cultivated throughout India. Kanta. Kantolan. bronchitis. bronchitis. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. NS. Fruits contain vitamins A. antipyretic. cure "Vata". astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. laxative. tonic. urinary discharges. anthelmintic. digestible. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. B and C. cures biliousness. Malaya. stomachic. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. Kartoli. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. H. hearttroubles. hiccup. also in Malaya. Ceylon. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). Country and Gujarat. .—Cucurbitaceæ. Karkotaki. "Kapha". and America. hot alexiteric. lessens expectoration . leaves and fruit. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . laxative. China. boils. LOC. rheumatism. asthma. Beksa. etc. S. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. leaves and fruit. Vandhya. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. COM. K. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. :—G. blood diseases. Gid-hagalu.

See—Dyes. PARTS USED :—Root. K. COM. Sk. Ab. ulcers. H. Tagase . Drum-stick Tree. NS. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. analgesic. Ashyuka. fattening. Segua.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. cultivated throughout India and Burma. Munigha. Ak. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Saraoji. improves appetite. H. aphrodisiac. stuttering. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Indian mulberry. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Bartondi. :—E. Achchuka. . tumours. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. makes blood impure .—Moringaceæ. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. LOC. Ainshi. G. DISTR. biliousness . Achi.—Rubiaceæ. Mochaka. Sajina. Burma. Murangi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. LOC. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. FAM. leaves. earache. HABITAT :—Cultivated . :—E. Shevaga. emmenagogue. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. also wild. Tikshnamula. Haladipavate. anthelmintic. dyspepsia. causes burning sensation. Sargavo. inflammations. flowers. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. PARTS USED :—Root. Mochaka. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. tuberculous glands in neck. Guggala. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Aal. COM. Sk. removes all kinds of pains. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. leaves and fruits. Nuggi. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. "Kapha". In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Famine Plants. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. alexiteric. spleen enlargement. K. Root-tonic to body and lungs. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. all "tridosha" fevers. eye diseases. Formosa. M. Introduced var. useful in heart-complaints. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). also in the Oudh forests. G. NS. digestible. fruits and seeds. M. China. Mulgule. "Vata". introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Al. Ugra. Rochana. FAM. Indian horse radish . bark. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. DISTR. Seglo. astringent to bowels. See—Vegetables.

expectorant. diuretic. appetiser. K. enriches blood. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. diarrhœa. turmeric. Tuta. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Ambat. COM. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Kambali. PARTS USED :—Root. good for inflammations of throat and chest. carminative. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. diuretic. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. See—Vegetables. Fruit—tonic. Tut. urinary discharges. G. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. salt and pepper. fattening. stomatitis. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. enlarged spleen or liver. cures gleet. Peninsula. loss of appetite. useful in small-pox. bronchitis. Tut. obstinate asthma. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. M. NS. internal inflammations and calculous affections. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Sk. Tuda. burning sensation (Ayurveda). it is cooling laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. . Madhu pippali. enriches blood. gout. anthelmintic. Fibres. :—E. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. B and C. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. aphrodisiac. Leaf paste. White mulberry. bark. aromatic and acid flavour. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W.—Moraceæ. Shetur. rheumatism. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. epilepsy and hysteria. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. heart. H. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Oils. sour. lumbago. increases biliousness. Kanara. Root is purgative. ulcerated intestines. MORUS INDICA Linn. biliousness. LOC. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. sweetish. laxative. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. Seeds yield a fixed oil. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. expectorant. Fruits contain vitamins A. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. Gums and Resins. with garlic. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. Siahtut. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. FAM. piles. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. wounds. cooling. Tutri. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. common about villages in N. good for brain. LOC. DISTR. leaves and fruit. lumbago. Karihannu. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Fruit Trees. spleen.

juice given for headache. Kuhili. Kadvare.. cures blood diseases. HABITAT :—In hedges. Sd. NS. Kavatch. Rambha. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. DISTR. grey-silky beneath. Strong root infusion. They are used as anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. H. G. Kadali. LOC. HABITAT :—Humid areas . Adam's Fig. Plantain. silky. Sk.5x1. petioles 6. MUSA PARADISIACA L. long. Kela. Nayi songuballi. sometimes cultivated. :—An annual twiner.—3-foliate. laxative. M. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. terminal smaller. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. " Vata ". Kunth. with honey is given in cholera. Banana. NS. Maoz kela. pods and seeds. H. Sk. t.) FAM. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Atmagupta. :—E.—5-6 small. L. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. DISTR. Fr. 5-7. Havanch. turgid-shaped. G. Goncha. Tikshna. Kapikachu. Hasaguni. Fl. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma .—Scitaminaceæ. COM.—pod. spermatorrhoea etc. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . LOC. lateral very unequal sided. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. CHAR. Var. tonic. Urustambha. Himalaya up to 1200 m. dark-purple. improves blood. Kavach. Kela. Root useful for delirium in fevers. leaves. consumption. Seeds— alexipharmic. flowers and fruit. 6-30 flowered. SAPIENTUM O. leaflets membranous. Turashi. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. LOC. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. common in hedges.3 cm. Cowhage. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Kela. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Kivanch. Ceylon. M. which produce intensa irritation of skin. :—Punjab plains.—in drooping racemes. K. Vanari. :—E. FAM. Fl. Dirghapatra. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. COM. stem.. PARTS USED :—Root. Root—emmenagogue. biliousness . Kivanchha. Fruit— aphrodisiac. covered with tawny stinging hairs. tonic. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Bale. . :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State.3-11.2 cm.—Oct-Nov. K. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. cultivated. Pods are covered with stiff hairs.

HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. deep golden yellow. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. DISTR. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. :—S. in thirst. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Sk. linear.— berry. Shrivalli. thickens blood. very hairy outside. kidney troubles (Yunani). climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Bedina. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. PROPERTIES AND LOC. B and C. causes bronchitis . strangury. antidysenteric. Fibres. See—Fruit Trees. urinary discharges. flowers and fruit. Root-juice. Assam. in " Vata". Burnt stem is vulnerary. Hastygida. hairy. broadly elliptic. Root-juice is anthelmintic. good for dry bronchitis. leprosy. CHAR. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. lobes broadly ovate. Serwadh. Kanara. Bellotti. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. sore-throat. Lawsat. LOC. Fr.—Rubiaceæ. blood diseases. dyspepsia. Bhutakes. tonic. pubescent. heart-burn and colic. ear-pain. improves complexion (Ayurveda).--in terminal cymes. broad at base.—tubular.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Tropical Himalayas. astringent to bowels. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. K. LOC. :—A rambling shrub. astringent to bowels. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. biliousness. consumption and bronchitis. Nagavalli. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. PARTS USES :—Root. buds densely hairy.. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. tube slender. stipules twin. FAM. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. C. L. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. increases appetite. COM. :—Konkan and N. useful in "Kapha".— July-Oct. anthelmintic. Fl. indigestible . diseases of uterus and vagina. Fruit—sweet. NS. and are used in acidity. . appetiser. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. leaves. subglobose. Ipparati. tonic. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. diabetes. :—H.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. menstrual disorders. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. Andamans. aphrodisiac. t. M. Fl.

Vilayantimendhi. A decoction is employed. They are given in asthma. ellipsoid. M. FAM. Habules. black when ripe. white. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. small.— Myristicaceæ. common in the Kumta taluka.—Myrtaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. Murad.—small. See—Timbers. Himalayas. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. LOC. NS. :—Konkan and N. intermittent fevers and dropsy. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. FAM.— solitary. Condiments and Spices. It is credited with opposite qualities. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Malabar. Pliny. Myrtle. used in stopping vomiting. diuretic. axillary on slender peduncles. False nutmeg. LOC. is regarded as. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. :—Grown in ornamental gardens.—berry. DISTR. Ram-patri. K. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. :—Western Peninsula. :—A shrub. Kaiphal. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. L. :— E. LOC. Sk. Kamuka. ovate to lanceolate. H. Malati. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . PARTS USED:—Seeds. emmenagogue. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. Dioscorides. fruits and oil. :—E. Fl. especially epilepsy.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. as . Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. enriches blood. allaying pain. all over the State. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. very sweet smelling. DISTR. smoke beneficial to piles. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kanara Ghats . NS. promotes growth of hair. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. Kanage. Malati. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). COM. cures headache. W. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. PARTS USED :—Leaves. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. M. Fr. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. COM. CHAR. It is used as a substitute for true mace. Galen and the Arabian writers. applied locally to relieve pain.

Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. elongate. Goanese ipecacuanha. LOC. spongy. :—E. C. internal ulcerations and rheumatism.—solitary. Kamal.—membranous. Kandalu. Pundarika. radiately nerved. FAM. high.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. orbicular. Kanara. from Iran eastwards to Australia. M. petals 5. K. Tavari-bija or gadde. solitary or 2 together. disk annular. H. L. M. G. ulcers (Ayurveda). NS. Ripe carpels. ovoidglobose. 3-foliate. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. diam. Fr. COM. . glabrous.—petals many 5-12. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. anthers with clavate appendages. in diam. Fl. top flat.. 10-25 cm. DISTR. K. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant.—pendulous.. CHAR.—Meliaceæ. cells 2-seeded.-Dec. Belakanji. free. Kamala. DISTR. t. Timpani.—Nymphæaceæ. Sk. ovoid. Sk. hæmorrhage. LOC. with slender. Pitmari. fleshy. Ambuja. Kamal. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. axillary. Fl. Pankaja. Indian sacred lotus. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. biliousness. petiole winged. Suriyakamal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. Papra-vel. alexiteric. leaves.—white. L. 3-valved. Fl. Kandabahula. Ambuj. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. Chinese water-lily. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. muricate. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. petioles very long. Sarasija. long. dysentery. Kamal. :—Konkan. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora.—alternate. Nelanaringa . :—A small branching undershrub. cures asthma. entire. & A.3-0.—July. See—Ornamental Plants. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. 0.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State.-Nov. curved. Padma. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue.6 m. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. elliptic. concave or cupped. t. :—W.—capsule. CHAR. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. LOC. Fl. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. torus 18 mm. linear spathulate. Aravinda. vulnerary. stem. rough with distant prickles . :—E. erect. Kapurbhendi. NS. peltate. white or rosy. Amlavalli. :—A large aquatic herb. Sd. COM. Padam. bronchitis.) FAM.

flowers. at length separating. linear-lanceolate. useful in burning sensation of the body. In China and Malaya dried red petals. CHAR. Pratihasa. good in throat-troubles. inflammations and poisoning. honey.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. M. removes worms. :—Madhya Bharat. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. Kaner. cures cough. Karvira. Cool. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. Filaments are astringent and cooling. allays thirst.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. small-pox. coriaceous. aphrodisiac. lobes rounded. . Kanagile. Sind. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. also recommended as cardiac tonic. leaves. astringent to taste . slightly bitter. G. Fl. rigid. useful in piles. dark green and shining above. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . Kanher. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers .—red. LOC. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . long. Baluchistan.—Apocynaceæ. useful in fevers .—flowers more or less throughout the year. allays thirst. Paddali. diuretic. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". chest-pains. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. Waziristan. good in blood-complaints. t. long. DISTR. India. H. Kanel. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. vomiting. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. planted in gardens throughout the State. Ashwa-marak. throat scaly. Vishavrikshanka. LOC. in fever and liverdiseases. Cool. 15-23 cm. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . K. NS. Sk. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. 10-15 cm. COM. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Sd. diseases of skin and eye .—in threes. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. gives tone to breast. also cholera. improves watery eyes (Yunani). S. See—Ornamental Plants. menorrhagia. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . fever. seeds. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Karber. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. stem. rose or white. spermatorrhoea. Karvira. also as a hedge plant. Fl. Sweet scented oleander. Upper Gangetic Plains. biliousness. fragrant. fruit. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant.—funnel-shaped. ulcers and sores of mouth. tapering into short petiole.—follicles. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. L. PARTS USED :—Root. Kaner. strangury. leaves. heart and brain tonic . FAM. Salt Range. C. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. leucoderma. flowers. Fr.

disinfectant. wounds. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. anthelmintic. also applied in leprosy. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. LOC. tonic. COM. Flowers— aphrodisiac. Krimighni. especially root. cultivated in all tropical countries. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. sedative and emetic. useful in caries of teeth. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). scabies (Yunani). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. water from hookha is diuretic. tonic. M.—Solanaceæ. K. inflammations. scabies. NS. The plant contains a glucoside. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). FAM. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. Fl.8 cm. about 1. useful in bronchitis. L. headache. Tamaku. LOC. tubercular glands of neck. caries of teeth.—alternate.—capsule. :—Native of America. good for lumbago. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. the surface is plain or bullate. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. sores. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Tobacco. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Tabak. oblong or elliptic. Bujjarbhang. Tamarakuthika.—in open corymbose panicles . very poisonous. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. Kalanja. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. base wedgeshaped . smoke constipating. Tambak. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. conical. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Sk. H. dimness of sight. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. asthma. lobes spreading. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. M. C. Poisonous to fish. LOC. funnel-shaped. G.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. USES :—All parts of plant. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. See—Ornamental Plants. foul nose.—pink or white. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. :—E. Root—aphrodisiac. DISTR. a mental stimulant. Dhumrapatrika. Fr. large (especially lower ones). are poisonous and are used externally. emetic. Tamakhu. bronchitis. carminative. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). CHAR. across. skin diseases. laxative. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. HABITAT :—Cultivated. nervous depression and sleeplessness. Tambakhu. Hoge soppu. inflammations. An ointment made .

—Nymphæaceæ. axillary. H. M. astringent-to bowels. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Kanwal. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Sephalika. young branches quadrangular. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Prajakta. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Bengal. tonic to hair. Kanval. Shonapadma. . C. peduncles 4angled. DISTR. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Harsing. Bilitavarai. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. compressed. Lalkamal. Assam. NS. LOC. L. scalp affections etc. Cultivated in many parts of India. bark. a decoction of root. Parijata .— more or less throughout the year. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. ovate acute. solitary. (Ayurveda). Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. stomachic. tube orange-coloured. :—E. Har-singhar. 2-celled. Nilophhal. t. Kharapatraka. It is used with honey in chronic fever. Sk. Aravind. M. Chotakanwal. NS. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . useful in bilious fevers. FAM.— fragrant. See—Ornamental Plants. obcordate or merely orbicular.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours.) FAM. rough above with bulbous hairs. Fr. Alipriya. leaves. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). lessen inflammation. Indian Mourner : G. hairy. Parijata. K. CHAR. Madhya Bharat. K. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Fl. :—E. G.—opposite 5-10x2. flowers and seeds. Prajakta. COM.3 cm. bark. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. COM. Parijataka.5-6. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Nalkumkuma. Jayaparvati. Buds are tonic. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Kumuda.. Sephali. Lotus. LOC. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Har. Sk. Bark cures bronchitis.—capsule. Nyadale huvu . In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. cures fevers. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. carminative.—lobes white. Fl. abundant July-Sept. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd.—Oleaceæ. in terminal trichotomous cymes. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. :—A large shrub or a small tree. HABITAT :-Cultivated. densely pubescent beneath. Burma. southwards to the Godavari.

thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. Sd. C.— in whorled racemes . acute. C. Sabja. cylindric.5-20 cm. leaves and flower. oblong. See—Ornamental Plants. Ceylon. across. purple stem. glabrous or pubescent. stems and branches green or purplish.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. hot taste. Manjarki. submerged . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. leaves. Var.—nutlets about 2 mm. allays thirst. Africa. Common sweet basil. red.. long. pink or purplish. root stock tuberous. useful in diseases of heart and brain. improves taste . Sabja. Surabhi. Damaro. diarrhœa and piles . Java. LOC. :—Large aquatic herb . pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. COM. Fr. Fl. NS. 15-25 cm. LOC. Ajagandhika. G.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. inflammations.—all the year.—ovate. Barbar.—petals about 12. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. juice gives lustre to . pubescent and prominently veined beneath . glabrous. anthelmintic. diameter. febrifuge. removes impurities from blood .6-0. black and pitted. bracts stalked. diuretic. filaments dilated at the base . LOC. Fl. rough. PARTS USED :—Roots. K.—3 cm. cooling . Plant has a sharp.— ovoid. DISTR. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). ripening beneath the water. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. bitter taste. diam. stomachic. Rihan. irregularly sinuate-dentate. Bahari. high. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Sajjebija. leucoderma. DISTR. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. M. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. L. toothed or lobed.—peltate. emmenagogue. and nigropunctate above. Ramkasturi. lessens bile. stamens about 40. Fr. erect. green. Sabzah. bitter.—solitary. "Vata". terminal raceme longer than the lateral. CHAR. peduncles very long . deeply cordate at the base. long. roundish. chronic pain in joints. Tukhamariya .—2-lipped. " Kapha".—Labiatæ. :—E.9 m. Burma. Hungary. open in the morning only. causes burning sensation. useful in diseases of heart and blood. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. antipyretic . aphrodisiac . :—Var. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. :—An erect herb 0. "Kapha". globose. white. Surasa. 7. alexipharmic. fleshy. Tungi. petioles very long. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). thyrsiflora. pale rose or white. Nasabo. H. t. Fl. flowers and seeds. enlarged spleen. biliousness. ellipsoid. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. short. asthma. "Vata". Barbar. itch. obtuse. FAM. 8-13 mm. Philippines. L. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). entire.

2—1. M. high. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Lemon—shrubby basil. CHAR. S. pubescent. Large basil.—6. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. Ajaka. stems and branches subquadrangular . OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. Fl. young ones pubescent. Sk. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. COM. H. heart. " Kapha". G. During fever when the extremities are cold. Gujarat. useful in diseases of brain. LOC. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. brown. gland-dotted. FAM. strangury . Plant has bitter. removes foul breath. LOC. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties.8 m. skin diseases. Avachi-bavachi. " Vata". Ram Tulasi.—Labiatæ. stimulant. elliptic-lanceolate. in close whorls . Country. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children.— in simple or branched racemes. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. fits. The flowers possess. L. woody below .156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. sharp taste . strengthens gums. t. branched. BanMal tulasi. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. headache. Fr. diuretic and stimulant. . liver and spleen.-July-Oct. coarsely crenate-serrate. 1. :—Konkan. M. aphrodisiac . LOC. C. good for griping and piles (Yunani). alexiteric. lower lip longer. heating. pale greenish yellow. carminative. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. Java. Fl. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. Rama-Ran tulasi. :—E. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). rachis quadrangular . Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. inflammations. Deccan. they are also aphrodisiac. rugose. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis.5 X 3. :—A perennial shrub. Rantulasi. often cultivated : Ceylon. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. good for toothache. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa.. earache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. diuretic and demulcent properties.—2-lipped. :—Throughout India. It is also styptic.7 cm.—nutlets subglobose. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition.3—12.8—5. useful in vomiting. NS. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. DISTR. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Sumukha.

causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). clothed with soft hairs . Tropical E. and are given with honey. " Vata". Sk. FAM. LOC. yellow with black marking. Suravallari. L. Asia to Java and the Philippines. Papli. asthma. Country. elliptic-oblong. painful eye. M. CHAR.5—38 cm. PARTS USED :—Root. Australia. Kala tulasi. Ceylon. leucoderma. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. leaves and seeds.—pale brown. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. :—An annual herb. :—Konkan. Fr. Tulasi. purplish.—subsessile.— in racemes 15-20 cm. smooth. Fl.6— 3. long. DISTR. foul smells. cholagogue. lumbago pains. Tulasa. NS. Pavitra. H.—on filiform pedicels. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State.—2-lipped. high.2 cm. M. high. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . vomiting. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. usually 2-3 cm. Damanpaper. Parapate. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5-5 X 1. linear or linear-lanceolate. :—Throughout India. bitter. obtuse or acute.—Sept-Nov. Vrinda. COM.—2. Manjari. L.:—E. bronchitis. " Kapha". H. Fl. useful in heart and blood diseases. COM. globose or pyriform . HABIT :—A common weed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Fl. LOC. varying from 7. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. lobes acute.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. used in catarrh and bronchitis . stems numerous. stomachic. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Phapti. entire or serrate. C. long in close whorls . minutely gland-dotted. Parpat. 30-60 cm. pubescent. NS.—Rubiaceæ. stipules with bristles .— nutlets. Sd. Deccan and S. antipyretic. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. Tulasi. FAM. anthelmintic. G. Fr. upper lip pubescent on the back. angular. Vranda. purplish. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. strangury. Malay Archipelago.—Labiatæ. heating. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. West Asia. of children and in hepatic affections . Vishnuvallabha. margins recurved and scabrous. CHAR. especially in children. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. stems and branches subquadrangular. t. Sk. See—Sacred Plants. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. DISTR. Tulasi. M. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts).— capsule. purulent discharge of ear. alexiteric. :—An annual plant. Krishna tulasi. Arabia. :—G. K. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. . hiccup..

Plant bitter. alexiteric. yellow at the edges.— berry. Phadyanivdung. L. Nagaphana. Nagaphana. urinary complaints. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. anæmia. Zhoratheylo. LOC. introduced into India. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. inner spathulate. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. :—E. perianth rotate. long. spleen enlargement. ascites. FAM. Nagaphani. reddish purple when ripe. K. vesicular calculi. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. flowers and fruits. Plant juice—heating.—5 cm. inflammations. stomachic. G. Sk. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. cures inflammations. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. antipyretic. cures biliousness. " Vata". Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. carminative. Fr. outer segments ovate red in the centre. rather thin. Mullugalli. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). cures syphilis (Ayurveda). purgative. tumours. diuretic. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. cures bronchitis in children. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. NS. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. Hathathoria.5 mm.—Cactaceæ. carminative. DISTR. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. rusty brown. reddish at the tips. M.—7. 3 m. Snuka. Fl. loss of consciousness. Nagadru. H. used in ophthalmia. xerophyte. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. . spleen enlargement. LOC. liver complaints. leucoderma. burning. pyriform. dull bluish-green. largest 3. Sher. ulcers. Slipper thorn. Prickly pear. yellow or orange. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. Grown as hedge. piles. laxative. Joints variable in size. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. CHAR. COM. long. across. subulate. obovate or elliptic. digestive. recurved. or more high. juice cures earache (Yunani). Chorhothalo. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. it is also used in liver complaints. lumbago. Vajrakantaka. angular or warty.5 cm. Nagdali. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. good for leucoderma.

:—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. FAM. Rice. LOC. LOC. intestinal worms. oleaginous. Mokka. Tetu. Mayarjangha. Sk. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Tetu. asthma. Ullu. M. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Ghats. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). astringent to bowels . Kanara ghats . Tans. Fruit—acrid. Seeds are purgative. M. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. useful in " Vata". K. Shali. HABITAT :—Aquatic. :—E. cooling. Arlu. tonic. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). H. NS. DISTR. Tuntaka. Araluka. DISTR. :—E. fattening. improves taste. :—Widely cultivated. vomiting. Fruit—expectorant. biliousness. stomachic. useful in biliousness . Ceylon. piles. NS. Akki. COM. sweet. HABITAT :—In moist-forests.—Bignoniaceæ. COM. Dyes. Podval. bronchitis (Ayurveda). good in heart and throat diseases. Bhat. Tetu.). Pharri.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. leucoderma. aphrodisiac. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. See—Timbers. Ava. G. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. R. M.S. anthelmintic. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Tandula. Chokha. :—The Konkan and the N. fevers. G. Cochin-China. Dirghavrinta. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. Bagi. Chaval. Shyonaka. Indian trumpet flower.—Gramineæ. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. It is astringent and tonic. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Alangi. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. LOC. aphrodisiac. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. anal troubles. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. tonic. Nivara. PARTS USED :—Grain. appetiser. Tandula. Rice . LOC. Vrihi. inflammations. Malaya.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. improves appetite. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. K. bronchitis. H. dysentery. Sk.

In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman).—Oxalidaceæ. It is a pleasant.— many. :—E. The grains contain vitamin C. 5-angled. obcordate. COM. pubescent. dysentery and scurvy. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. bowels or kidneys. Shuklika. Indian Sorrel. rounded at the apex. Marudbhava. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Dudhani. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. FAM. Fl. :—Throughout the State. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R.—petals 5. C. buboes. transversely striate. CHAR. Sd. Dudhari. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . Amlalonika. M. Br. Kshiravi. Ceylon. Sk. L. cures dysentery. linear-oblong. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. if applied to chest.2—2. gives great relief.— capsule. Fr. Amrul. H. sub-umbellate . In dysentery.—Asclepiadaceæ. diarrhœa. beaked.— Oct-May. Dudhatani. brown. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). Changeri. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. NS. t. Dugdhika. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . :—G. margins ciliate. M. bruised. Dudhialata. K. LOC. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . H. inflamed piles. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Ambastha. scarlet fever. measles. astringent.—axillary. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. stems rooting. good appetiser . Dugdhike. PARTS USED :—Leaves. ovoid. boils. In chronic bronchitis and coughs.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good.5 cm. oblong. long. Jaladudhi. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India.—palmately 3-foliate. removes " Kapha ". Kyirin . to which a little lemon juice is added. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. LOC. " Vata " and piles. petioles very slender. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. ulcers. base cuneate subsessile. Ambuti. . yellow. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. Rice water. Chukrita. small-pox. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . Dudhialata. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. FAM. easy to digest. Sk. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. NS. Fl. used externally. also in burns and scalds. DISTR. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. leaflets 1. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. Dugdhica. K. See—Food Plants. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea.

t. Fl. Country— Belgaum. Fr. H. HABITAT :—Usually near water.— large. L. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). rarely erect. juice is used in gleet. Ketaki. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. alexiteric. Sd. long. DISTR. useful in strangury and tumours. stems many. with flavour. bitter. diseases of heart and brain. stem supported by aerial roots . corona staminal. Kanara. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . scabies. linear or linear-lanceolate. Sk. black.5-9 cm.—follicles.. causes flatulence. fruit and oil from bracts. CHAR. pain. Ketaka. heat of body. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". female flower spadix solitary. long. Fr.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. thin. M. yellow or red. LOC. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent.—Dec. root. Leaves are useful in leprosy. purple veined. leaves.—deciduous. Sundarbans. mouth with pubescent ring. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. strikingly handsome. coma present. often planted. C. . PARTS USED :—Plant. small-pox. syphilis. aphrodisiac. pain in the muscles. Chama-pushpa. gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. margins and midrib spiny. Kevada. Ceylon. Kanara.—dioecious. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. lobes ciliate. LOC. Kewoda. Gogandhul. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. somniferous.—glaucous green. Mundige. 3. M. Andamans. Ketgi. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. pale rose or white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. Umbrella Tree. diuretic. Poona Sangam. Java. tonic. palegreen. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). high. :—Konkan. Burma. :—A shrub up to 6 m. G. Keora. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. cough. PARTS USED :-Root. Fl. S. Flowers improve complexion. Kedige. COM.—oblong or globose. NS. milky juice. Anthers useful in pruritus. anthers. " Kapha ".8 mm. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. Deccan.—very numerous.9—1. Dhulipushpika. X 3. dry. DISTR. Screw pine. coriaceous ensiform. Gandha-pushpa. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. much branched. indigestible. 4. expectorant. :—Konkan and N.3 cm.—Pandanaceæ. aphrodisiac. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. 0. Fruit—tonic.8-6. K. L. anthelmintic. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. LOC. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. fruit. :—E.5 m. Giripriya. FAM. Fl. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. leucoderma.

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

dry. Sd. Kherk. mugawana. yellow. M. glabrous or hairy. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. LOC. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. laxative. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Shimbiparni. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. cough. :—E. anthelmintic. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. :—G. Seeds— tonic. Vanmudga. as a kharif crop. Malay Islands. long. bronchitis. DISTR. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). FAM. :—Largely grown in. Khaji. Siyindu.—in sub-capitate. Konkan. LOC. headache. Ahmedabad. NS. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. good for eyes. Koshila. Kapila. t. antipyretic.—3-foliate. H. Dharwar. prostrate. Kolaba and Kanara. Kurangika. Burma. Khajuri.— pod. eye troubles.—Oct. G. bitter. Sind. 2.—Palmæ. peduncles 10-23 cm. light and astringent. Magavala. Kajuri. FAM. PARTS USED :—Seeds. burning sensation. Kohesaru. Adabanmagi. " Kapha". straight subcylindric. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. good for the eyes . they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Khandesh.5 cm. enrich blood. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Kashayi. Trianguli. LOC. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. Fl. Belgaum. LOC. digestible. throat inflammations. cures consumption. astringent to bowels. Mugani. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Date sugar palm. Ahmednagar. . blood diseases.:—Very common throughout the State. nose complaints. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. L. membranous. biliousness. Boichand. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Fl. long. See—Food Plants. Ranmug. Kallu. wild date palm. long.5—5 cm. and southwards to Ceylon. slightly recurved. astringent. The grains contain vitamins A and B. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Satara. Adavada. cure biliousness. aphrodisiac. Ichela-mara. M. Tadi. " Tridosh". piles. NS. H. leaflets 1. Indian wine palm. CHAR. :—Annual or perennial. Kharjurika. dysentery.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. wiry. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. Swadi.—6-12. COM. Fr. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. good in fevers. Sk. Shindi. Kharjuri. broadly spathulate. Sendhi. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). layer. Abyssinia. Afghanistan. gout. styptic. Kidney diseases. inflammations. Sk. petioles grooved. Kalli-chalu. few flowered racemes.3—2. K. DISTR. thirst. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Deccan and Gujarat. Ranmath. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder.

LOC. Mysore. Jalapipali. usually along banks. Sharadi. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. stems rooting at the nodes. Jalapimpli. and in beds of streams and water courses.—globose. 9-15 m.5—3. NS.—Jan-Feb. blood and eye. C. L. spadix 60-90 cm. Baluchistan. long. flowers very many. sharply serrate in upper part. Agnijwala. subsessile. clothed with appressed white hairs . cardiotonic. anthelmintic. fevers. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. :—Throughout India. pinnules many. Fl. CHAR. roundish. aphrodisiac. :—A tall graceful palm. male white. oleaginous. Ratuliyo. vomiting. 3-4. flowers distant. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. much branched. t. greyish-green. M.5 m. constipating. :—Found fairly in Surat. :—G. long. t. :—Tolerably common throughout India. wandering of mind. Sholapur. Ceylon. high. Sd.—opposite. Bhuiokra. long. Fl.—sessile. oblong-ellipsoid. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda).—pinnate. Fr. Ratoliya. See. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads .5 m. L. rigid.—rounded at the ends. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. angular. triangular. Ratoliya. Fr. Fl. outer Himalayas. ensiform. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. Famine Plants. Africa. Siwalik. fruit and juice of the tree. Jalpippali. female spadix and spathe as in the male. Vashira. DISTR. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. large and thick. Fl. COM. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. upper 2-lobed. spiny at the base.—more or less all the year. oblique. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika.—white or pale-pink.2 cm. 2-lipped. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. Toyavallari.. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. petioles compressed towards the apex. spatulate. Bengal. Sk. Coromandel Coast. erect. LOC.—2. wild or more often cultivated. cooling. H.—Fibres. Rohilkhand. Langali. scented. oblong. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. deeply grooved on one side. lower 3-lobed. fattening. LOC. Okra. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. densely fascicled. Bihar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. :—A creeping perennial herb. Poona and Belgaum districts.— dioecious. orange-yellow. . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. rounded at the apex. spinous.—Verbenaceæ. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. useful in diseases of heart.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. good in heart and abdominal complaints. 15-45x2-2. This is called neera. crown hemispherical. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). pointed. cooling.

PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. cooling. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). very numerous. M. 30-60 cm. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. biliousness. dry. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. Ceylon. and without salt may be applied to bruises. smooth. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. very small. LOC. distichous. :—Throughout India.—3-gonous. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). K. males 1-3. of female. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. useful in thirst. females solitary. Amala. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. L. NS. high . CHAR :—An annual herb. Bhuianvalah.. Ajata. Kiranelligida. angular. annular. hiccup. asthma. H. Fl. Bhumyamali. PARTS USED :—Root.—capsule. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia.—Euphorbiaceæ. The whole plant. DISTR. Leaves are stomachic. ringworm (Yunani). USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Vituntika. Fl. bronchitis.—yellowish. Bhumyamalaki.— July-Aug.useful in fevers. anæmia. Sukshmadala. except Australia. Sk. good for ulcers. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. disk of the male of minute glands. fruit. maturant. Sd. wounds. lobed. urinary discharges.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. Sadahazurmani. burning sensation. thirst. Bhumyamali. sores. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. FAM. Plant—hot. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. leaves. globose. It is valuable in scurvy. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. scarcely lobed. Jaramla. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). t. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. wounds. milky-juice. longitudinally ribbed on the back. bronchitis. monœcious. axillary. :—G. COM. diuretic. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. elliptic-oblong. Fr. . Tropics generally. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). scabies. Bhuiavli. anuria.— numerous. LOC. :—Konkan and Deccan. stem branched at the base. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. alexipharmic . Infusion is a good tonic. LOC. leprosy. Stomachic.

Vileyad-ele. Kalamirich. K. heating. Kalimiri. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. useful in "Vata". clears throat. night blindness. improves appetite (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. tonic. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. purgative. :—E. given with milk in hysteria. FAM. Tambola. vulnerary. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. asthma. laxative. G. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. ozœna. carminative. Kalaka. Saptashira. NS. stomachic. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. and fruits (rarely). LOC. throat diseases. Tambulavalli. Kaphavirodhi. heart and liver. It increases saliva. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. carminative and astringent. Menasu. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. ozoena. Poona. Vidyache-pan. improves voice. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. Golmirch . It contains an aromatic essential oil. Pan. strengthens teeth . tonic and digestive. useful in toothache. anthelmintic. Betel pepper. bechic. Satara. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. . Menasin-kallu . LOC. COM. PARTS USED :—Fruits. cultivated in Konkan and N. " Kapha ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. Kanara forests. piles. Nagavalli. Fresh leaves. G. alterative. NS. Malimirich . It sweetens breath. Vata". COM. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. LOC. Sk. Kalamiri. Marich. Pan. liver and muscular pains. Mensinballi. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. aphrodisiac. M. removes all foulness from mouth.—Piperaceæ. Warm leaves. See—Condiments and Spices. DISTR. Betelleaf. urinary discharges. increases biliousness.—Piperaceæ. FAM. Sholapur. M. foul smell in the mouth. tonic to brain. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. H. :—E. Black-pepper. Kanara. Eleballi. smeared with oil. Tikshna. elephantiasis . :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Bhakshyapatra. K. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. satyriasis and to allay thirst. Sk. styptic (Yunani). Thana and Kanara districts of the State. hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. leavs. pains. inflammations. Panu. spleen diseases. generally in Konkan. bronchitis. carminative. Betel leaf vine. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. acrid. useful in "Kapha". Linn. :—Wild in the N. H. Pan.

LOC. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. used in chronic bronchitis. tonic and a local stimulant. Khandala (pretty common). used as febrifuge. C. It yields an essential oil. COM. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. long. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera.—capsule. chest affections. LOC. lanceolate or greenish . weakness following fevers. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. lumbago. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. ophthalmia and phthisis.— alternate. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. piperidine and an essential oil.5 cm. :—K. sprains. DISTR. Externally it is rubefacient. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. hills of S. dries body humours (Yunani). INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Timbers. FAM. CHAR. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. ovate or oblong. Vehkali. Kanara in ghat forests. Bartang. W. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Khasia Hills. entire or toothed. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. Burma. See—Condiments and Spices. Fl. H. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. M. coma. Bark contains a glucoside. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers .—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . & A.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. FAM.—Pittosporaceæ. ovoid. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. NS. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. Vikhari. It is a good expectorant. Arcot and Salem. sciatica. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. Greater plantain . various forms of cutaneous diseases. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil.—lobes 4. Tammata. facilitates menstruation. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . paralysis . the oil is alterative. petiole longer than leaf-blade. Lahuriya. . It has specific effect on skin-diseases. Konkan. bruises. NS. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. COM. base tapering into petiole. leprosy. Deccan. N.—Plantaginaceæ. variable in width. Fr. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock.5-12. vertigo. and possesses narcotic properties . :—E. In physiological action. piles and some skin-diseases . radial 2. chronic fevers.

attenuate. Baluchistan. afford relief. rosy scarlet. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Mahang. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). erect. zeylanica. angled. HABITAT :—Along river banks. lax spikes.—throughout the year. :—Konkan : Deccan. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. top coming off as a conical lid. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections.-4-8.Kempuchitramula. Agnishikha. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Lalchitrak. Sd.. Burma. Chitra. M. H. oblong. DISTR. leaves. LOC. LOC. FAM. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. G. stems herbaceous. Raktachitraka. Lalachitraka. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. exauriculate petiole. Lead-wort. PARTS USED :—Roots. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. LOC.-Feb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. PARTS USED :—Roots. Nilgiris. C.—large. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Fl. and seeds. Malaya. Ghats. K.Sept.—tube slender. Palni hills. limb wide. Rosy-coloured leadwort. :—Cultivated throughout India. t. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. high. dull-black. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). long in long terminal axillary. base passing into amplexicaul. :— E. Ratochatro.—3-5 cm. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Fl.. NS. obtuse. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. alterative and diuretic. CHAR. striate . Assam. t.—Plumbaginaceæ. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Fire plant. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Fattening. Ceylon. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. L. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. W. Chitraka. :—Temperate Himalayas. Lalchita. Lalchitrak. alterative. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. LOC. COM. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Sk. The plant contains glucoside aucubin.

Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin.—white. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. striate. long. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Chitramula. Vallari. attenuated into a short petiole. Sk. Res. Vahni. astringent to bowels. Chitaro Chitrak. Malay Peninsula. leprosy. ovate. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy.6-1. Root—bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. diarrhœa. root-bark. COM. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. Journ. pointed. woody. Ind. Bile-Chitra-mula. LOC. alexipharmic. L. See—Ornamental Plants. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). useful in laryngitis. inflammations. leaves. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. Medi. skin disease. NS. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. K. expectorant. hot. Chitranga. " Vata" and " Kapha". Jyotishka. January 1933). C. anthelmintic. juice. ascites. Fl. Chitra.—capsule. and in leucoderma. it is useful in dyspepsia. spreading. alterative . petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . piles. consumption. Agnishikha. lobes 5. stomachic. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. piles. Chitraka. Fl. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics.—thin. oblong. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. bronchitis. t. PARTS USED :—Root. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. M. LOC. Chitra . HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. :—E. It is used in procuring abortion. anasarca. DISTR. laxative. FAM. leucoderma. aborti-facient. bechic.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. scabies. diseases of liver. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. See—Ornamental Plants. rachis glandular .—Plumbaginaceæ. Tropics of the old world. terete. Bengal. leucoderma. G. " Tridosha" . The use of Pl. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. cultivated . leaves are caustic. stems 0. In S.—in elongate spikes. Chitrak. rheumatism. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. itching. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases.-Sept. . entire. dysentery. appetiser. H. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). Ceylon. ring-worm. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fr. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. a paste is made with milk. Chitra . a favourite medicine for flatulence. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. stomachic. diseases of spleen. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga.5 m. cure intestinal troubles. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. :—Throughout India. wild in Western Peninsula. carminative. vesicant. tonic.—Aug.

15-30 cm. M. FAM. purple. white with a pale yellow centre. laxative . itching. Mahabaleshwar. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. Kadu-sampige. Champakam. CHAR. Radha-champo. divaricate. shining black. common. :—All throughout the State. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. useful in leprosy. Fl. broadly ovate. heating. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. t. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. 4-lobed. CHAR. irregularly doubly toothed. carminative. lower lip white.—Labiatæ.— large. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. ascites (Ayurveda). See—Ornamental Plants. Fr. L. many flowered. leaves and milky juice. M. whorls close. Pagoda tree. Kanara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. shining. high.—2-lipped.—Dec. cylindrical. Fl. :—Native of tropical America. Goleurchampa. oblong-lanceolate. DISTR. spirally arranged.8-9 cm.—Apocynaceæ.-nutlets ellipsoid. long. long. C. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.. NS. abundant. useful in gleet. Golainchi. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Khairchapha. venereal sores. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. with an intra-marginal vein. :—M. L. bark. stems and branches quadrangular. 3-lobed. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. Deccan. :—E.—follicles. Country. urinary discharges. Frangipani.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. acrid. acute at both ends. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. DISTR. LOC.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. 12 cm. H. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). :—A small shrub 1. very fragrant.:—More or less throughout India. Rhuruchapha. Fl. rounded. FAM. Root-bark is purgative. LOC. NS.8 m. cultivated. G.—practically throughout the year. K. upper lip white shot with purple.—salver-shaped. Devagangile. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. Phangla. pains. . COM. 7. LOC. rarely maturing.-May. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India.2—1. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. :—Konkan. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. Fr. ulcers.-Feb. Sk. smooth. t. pungent. C.5-18x3. S. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. Fl. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. abundant from Mar. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. inner face angular. entire. Pangli. Belchampaka.

LOC. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. bruised. leucoderma. Gaura.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). purify and enrich blood. Arand. carminative. juice is given in colic and fever. Arni. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Karanjmara. :—E. Sk. fruits and seeds. also planted. good for tumour. anthelmintic. head and brain diseases. piles. Honge. Ustabunda . DISTR. Indian beech. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Pavaka. skin diseases. lumbago. useful in diseases of eye. Kirmal. K. Agnibijaka. Karanj. . H. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Oil—anthelmintic. M. LOC. Sk. leprosy. rheumatic pains. itching.) FAM. Agnimandha. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). along Deccan rivers . Oil—styptic. urinary discharges . FAM. chest complaints. Karanja. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. wounds. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. chronic fever. Agetha.—Verbenaceæ. NS. leaves. See—Timbers. liver pain.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. good in scabies. NS. wounds (Ayurveda). vagina. Karanj. ascites. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. " Vata ". :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Kanja. G. Huligili. flowers. COM. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Kanaji. alexipharmic . cures eye diseases. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. lumbago. J. skin and in keratitis . piles. USES :—The fresh leaves. Karanja. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. Seeds—acrid . (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. M. ulcers. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. cure earache. bark. cures biliousness. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. In Satara. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Kanika. Jayanti. Chamari. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Gracie). Naktamala. F. Oils. Aran. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. PARTS USED :—Root. " Kapha ". K. H. COM. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. relieves inflammation. :—G. Ichu. chronic fever and hydrocele. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Arni. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn.

trunk and branches sometimes thorny. flowers.3 cm. diabetes. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. chyluria. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. LOC.2-6. cooling. smooth. piles. Amrut. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—5-9 X 3. cool heated brain. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda)."Vata". USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Jamud-rukh.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). :—E. common about Karwar. good in colic and for bleeding gums. as an astringent to bowels. See—Famine Plants. NS. heating. constipation. greenish yellow. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. useful in anaemia. laxative. pungent. Dridhabija. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Nicobars and Malaya. DISTR. Sk. M. Gova. Fl. blue-black. Peruka. dyspepsia. DISTR. Jamphal. L. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. :—A small tree reaching 9 m.—tubular. lobes 4. for unhealthy ulcers. bronchitis. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Perala. Andamans. . as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. rough-tubercled .—Myrtaceæ. H. Peru .— June-July. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. K. LOC. broadly elliptic. It is given in the form of decoction. It is also employed in scurvy. C. Jamb. cooling. small. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. Fl. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. Kanara.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Root is laxative. aphrodisiac . fever.—hard. Guava tree. inflammations. hairy in the throat. applied to sore eyes. Safedsafari. high. Ceylon. Peru. Young leaves are tonic in the . Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. causes "Kapha". seated on the calyx . Sd. Piyara. fruits and gum. sour. LOC. Perala. Fr. :—Cultivated all over the State. stomachic. LOC. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. FAM. cylindric. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Flowers cool body. Vastula.. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Fruit—tonic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. bark yellowish. t. Anthers—dry wound. Gum is tonic. entire or upper part dentate. COM. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). used in bronchitis. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. G.— globose. laxative after food.

Ripe fruit is a good aperient. See—Fruit Trees. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". Bavachi. laxative. FAM. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. DISTR. :—Throughout India and Ceylon.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. improves appetite. leprosy. G. Fr. cures "Vata". Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. aphrodisiac. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. M. t. cures blood diseases . raw one is used in diarrhœa. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). stomachic. Seeds— refrigerant. HABITAT :—Waste places. Country. Seed—purgative. Bowach-chi. vomiting. vulnerary. diaphoretic in febrile conditions.2 m. Fl. bitter taste. diuretic. anthelmintic. good for leucoderma. bronchitis. closely-pitted. high. M. LOC.—pod. smooth. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Babachi. Fruit—diuretic. nephrites and cachexia. Bavachi.—Aug-Dec. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). black.—in dense axillary. LOC. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. H.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Kalameshi. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. anæmia. Konkan and S. Sk. K. Chandralekha.—one. alexiteric. Vanguji. Fl. Sd. Babachi. . Bukchi. Kushtaghni. clawed.—bluish purple . nigro-punctate. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. piles. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. Bakuchi. COM. difficulty in micturition. :—E. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. C. inflammation. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. alterative. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. anthelmintic. improves hair and complexion. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. 0. biliousness. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. :—An erect annual. skin diseases. 3. mucronate. heals ulcers. urinary dis charges. studded with glands and white hairs. " Rakta-pitta". solitary. white hairy. L. causes biliousness. 10-30 flowered racemes . Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time.8 X 2.—simple.5—5 cm. standard orbicular. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. scabies. ovoidoblong. Bhavanj. stem and branches grooved. antipyretic. CHAR.6-1. good for heart troubles. stimulant. fruit and seeds. NS.

Flowers—check vomiting. used in sore throat. ulcers. Pitasar. bark. earache. Anar. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Hulidalimb . diuretic. K. in Akrani. Gum—bitter. enriches blood. called kino. scabies. Indian kino-tree. PARTS USED.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. prolapsus ani. ophthalmia. sore eyes brain diseases. LOC. biliousness. :—Leaves. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. NS. PARTS USED:—Root. chest troubles. tonic. sore-throat. strengthens gums. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. liver tonic.—Punicaceæ. Sk. Raktabija-pushpa. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. useful in eye troubles. Hirdokhi. Honi. applied to hydrocele. " Tridosh". PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. LOC. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. styptic. Bark—astringent. griping. H. FAM. erysipelas. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. :—E. Gum. tonic. Kanara. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. anthelmintic. Bija. used in piles. " Kapha ". useful in vomiting. useful in biliousness. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Dadima. Khandesh and Dangs. leprosy. Dadam. laxative. G. blood diseases.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). body eruptions. Malabar kino-tree. Bibla. :—Western Peninsula and S. allays thirst. NS. boils. fattening. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). Bibla. Common in N. ascends to 1100 m. COM. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. M. laxative. anal troubles. G. Dadima. anthelmintic. Flowers— improve appetite. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). :—Wild in Iran. COM. cultivated in many parts of India. flowers and fruits. leucoderma. Dalimb . Kabul and Baluchistan. gleet. K. Bigsah. Valka-phala. FAM. Bijak. H. Sk. See—Timbers. cures " Vata ". LOC. colic. Dhalim. Bio. urinary discharges. vulnerary. M. somewhat milder in action than catechu. India. useful in all body diseases. Bia. good for biliousness. antipyretic. Pomegranate tree. flowers and gum. Honne. Dalimba. scattered but not gregarious . :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. heart-disease. elephantiasis. alterative . . burning sensation. DISTR. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. Bibla. thirst. Sunila. Fruit-appetiser. fever. :—E. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. spleen complaints. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. stomatitis. Ceylon. Dadimba. urinary discharges (Yunani). Benga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. also in Konkan. Mahakutaj. Gums and Resins. Dharimb .

QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. NS. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. LOC. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Emetic nut. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. NS. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. nearly 6 cm. Rangoonchavel. widely cultivated all over India. M. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Malaya. :—A strong climber. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. hairy beneath. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. H. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Lalchameli. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Fl. lanceolate . the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. L. Pinditak. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. CHAR.—in axillary and terminal spikes. It is given in the form of decoction. Gelphal. Mangari-kai. COM. Karigidda. Madana. M. G. 7.—Mar. :—E. long. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. C—petals 5. Country and Kanara. DISTR. Annam. HABITAT :—Cultivated. elliptic. LOC. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking.—Combretaceæ. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . USES :—In Amboyana. calyx tube long. Gela. glabrous above. Konkan. jasmine . H. G. The rind of the fruit. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. K.—Rubiaceæ. acutely 5-angled. acuminate. :—E. In China. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Fruit contains vitamin C.— ellipsoid. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Midhola. dark green. t. Chinese honeysuckle. Barmasinivel. .5 cm.-Aug. Rangoonkibel. FAM. Rangoon creeper. base rounded. M. COM. pendant. numerous. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Minkare. Fr. Karhar Mainphal.—opposite.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Fl. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Dharaphal. Mindhola. FAM. S. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. at first white then deep red . RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. Sk.

Sumatra. S. Java. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. tumours. Seeds-sharp. China. its action is very safe. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . tonic. LOC. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. Sk. carminative. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. laxative. Bili Mulangi. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). amenorrhœa. carminative. purgative. Bitter. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Ksharmula. Mali. emetic. Tropical Africa. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. M. heating. Mula. :—E. " Vata" and " Kapha". leucoderma (Yunani). Muro. E. produce alopecia (Yunani). COM.—Cruciferæ. leprosy. It is also used to poison fish. inflammations. cures abscesses. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. Mura. bad taste. it is equal to it in every respect. juice relieves earache. used in diseases of the brain.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. cholera. certain and regular. emmenagogue. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Mulak. Radish. It also contains an essential oil. leaves. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . binding. DISTR. Ceylon. NS. Mula. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. stomachic. emetic. :—Throughout India. Juice of . aphrodisiac. DISTR. paralysis. H. K. sweet. flowers. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. skin-diseases. good for spleen and in paralysis. bitter. carminative. Hastidanta. The plant contains glucoside saponin. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. See—Timber. hiccup. piles. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. asthma. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. destroys "Vata". ulcers. good in tumours. useful in chronic bronchitis. muscular pains. Ruchira. and all inflammations . Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. fruit and seeds.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. boils. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. eruptions. inflammations. anthelmintic. useful in diseases of heart. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. G. piles (Ayurveda). LOC. Muri. antipyretic.

carminative. See—Vegetables. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. ginger. black shining. bright red . Palakjuhi. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. Western Peninsula. Fl. thin. cures " Tridosha ". Sarpakshi. M.5-6.3 cm. with a long. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. FAM.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. :—An erect perennial shrub. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. acrid. swollen a little above the middle. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Doddapatike. diuretic.—Acanthaceæ. Sk. acute. In the Konkan. K. 7. used in hyperpiesis .5-18 X 2. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. Sarpagandha. laxative. ajamalinine. single or didymous. serpentinine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. t. leaves (rarely). and black salt. Nai. sedative. Fl. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Mungusavel.—drupe. Gaja-karni. Juipani. shady open places near rain-forests. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. expectorant. Root contains vitamins A. Sivanabhi.9 m.—in irregular corymbose cymes. Java..—Apocynaceæ.. Ceylon. Garudpatala.—tubular. pungent. pale beneath. seeds are considered peptic. Kanara. Harki. :—H. C. . the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. specific for insanity. yellowish root stock. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. It is hypnotic. Nakulikand.) FAM. white. LOC.. Chhotachand.— Mar. bright green above. :—H. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Chandrika. M. ajmalicine. B and C. NS. CHAR. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. K. heating. often tinged with violet. NS. Yuthikaparni. L. Andamans. nodular. Harkaichand. Chandrika. ulcers (Ayurveda). COM. COM. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. anthelminitic . LOC. DISTR.-in whorls of 3. irregularly. corrective and emmenagogue. sharp.-May. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. Sk. lanceolate. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Group B — Serpentine.

L. Straits-Settlements. leaves. night-blindness. tumours. Eranda. asthma. eructations. Tirki.9—1. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. vaginal pains. good for burns. alterative. piles. leprosy. useful in heart diseases. intestinal worms. pubescent: C.5 m. Fl. purgative. :—Probably of African origin. M.—nearly sessile. elephantiasis. M.—capsule. K. Java. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. :—Deccan.—5-10 X2-5 cm. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). :—Throughout India. Country (Dharwar. entire. Belgaum. velvety hairy Sd. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. hairy outside . Sk. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. HABITAT :—Hills. leprosy. t. hills near Belgaum. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). pains. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. Erand. PARTS USED :—Root. carminative . Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative.—Oct. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". convulsions. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. narrow. S. fevers. Arand. Fruit— appetiser. useful in liver troubles. Cattle are fed with leaves for . generally cultivated. widely cultivated in tropical countries. Sholapur). perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. amenorrhœa (Yunani). increase biliousness. DISTR.— tuberculate. liver and spleen diseases. Country. LOC. oil—anthelmintic. Erand. bronchitis. anal troubles. :—E. FAM. pain in back. Divald. H. DISTR. useful in inflammations. Erand. alterative. strangury. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. pointed. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. increases "Kapha". LOC. some fevers. Chitrabija. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Leaves—galactagogue. black. ascites. high.-Jany.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. diseases of rectum and head. 0. inflammations. Very little in other districts of the State. paralysis. body pains. Vardhamana. Haralu. bracts ovate lanceolate. inflammations. Divaligo. glandular. white. lumbago. Triputiphala.—lipped. ascites. upper lip bifid . tropical Africa. elliptic lanceolate. useful in skin-disease. dropsy. Palma christi. asthma. :—Undershrub. ring-worm.. Mahabaleshwar. Khandala. useful in pains. stems obscurely angled. LOC. lumbago.—Euphorbiaceæ. G. Fr. glands. NS. flowers and seeds. LOC. Root-bark—purgative. leaves and seeds. ascites. Ceylon (wild) . Madagascar (cultivated). Castor oil plant. solitary. Fl. COM. M. Seed and oil—cathartic. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Vardhaman. piles. boils. earache. aphrodisiac. rheumatism. typhoid.

COM. much used in lotions and collyria . Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. cephalic. tonic.5 m. " Vata". petioles prickly. Flower—bitter.. Soumyagandha. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). liver. stomatitis. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. inflammations.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. Fl. Sk. long. laxative. M. good for eyes. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. P.— usually corymbose. Shatadala. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. Gulab. etc. Pannira. Ati-manjula. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. cures leprosy. biliousness. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. acrid. In constipation it is used as an enema. Fr. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. ovate oblong. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . PARTS USED :—Flowers. H. :—Origin unknown. excessive perspiration. NS. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. mild and safe purgative. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. :—A perennial shrub. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. France. :—E. adults. stems with stout and hooked prickles. Gulab. Lakshmipushpa.—obovate . Oil from seed is a non-irritant. they are cold. Punjab and U. 2. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . chronic fevers. astringent when dry (Yunani). FAM. burning sensation. pink or white. Gulab . antipyretic.—pinnate.—Rosaceæ. CHAR. . Ghazipur is a chief centre. cooling. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. improves appetite (Ayurveda). which is a powerful poison. LOC. hairy. Sudburj. head-ache. sometimes glandular. stipules scarcely dilated. used in heat of body. K. cultivated all over India. intestinal affections. laxative. See—Ornamental Plants. They are also applied to painful joints. expectorant. cardiotonic. serrate. with a good odour. aperient removing bile and cold humours. attaining 1. sweetish. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. sometimes striped . from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. dry. kidneys. removes bad odour from mouth. red.— all the year. Tarana. DISTR. Greece and Germany. G. See—Oils. aphrodisiac. Italy. benefits lungs. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. seldom griping or causing flatulency.5-6. double. L.3 cm. cardiotonic. Fl. tooth-ache. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. LOC.

Majit. LOC. leucoderma. high. analgestic. alexiteric. Ambat Chuka. Chukra. Amlavetasa. Leaves-sweet. shining. paralysis. jaundice.—2. petioles triangular. cordate or hastate. FAM. bitter. :—Annual. diseases of uterus. greenish. Raktasara. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. valves hyaline. antipyretic. lethargy. Sorrel. Aruna.5—7. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. M. :—Perennial climbing herb. with a thin red bark. Fl. five-nerved. COM. ulcers. Sk. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn.-Jany. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. Indian Madder. improves voice and complexion . blood.—didymous or globose. lower leaves larger. heating. used in eye-sores. Country. ulcers and skin-diseases. roots very long. H. urinary discharges. Fl. urine and even bones red. orbicular . smooth. COM. dysentery. FAM. inflammations. Manjishha. purplish black when ripe. DISTR. Manjit. acrid. M. CHAR. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. inner perianth-segments membranous. Manjishtha. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. L. Tamravalli. tropical Africa. Fl. t-Oct.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes .5 cm. vagina. paralysis. uterine pains (Yunani). LOC.—Polygonaceæ. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. cures " Kapha ". K. Fr. leucorrhoea. leucoderma. Malay Peninsula. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. spleen-enlargement.—Rubiaceæ. Dock. eye. diuretic. laxative. increase appetite. ovate. Decoction tinges blood. stems very long. all scabrous with white prickles. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. antidysenteric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. . elliptic. piles.—white or pink. ear. branched from the root. and was much used in dropsy. Gulmketu. liver complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. 15-30 cm. The plant contains glucoside manjistin.—in whorls of 4. Root—bitter. NS. :—E. Java. M. Japan. Rohini. Fr. grooved. analgesic. cylindric. Sk. Chuka. Manjishtha.. pains in joints. H. branches quadrangular . erect glabrous herb. :—Root. jaundice. emmenagogue. lactagogue. the Konkan and S. :—E. NS. rheumatism. one pair with longer petioles ovate. erysipelas. Chitralata. leaves and fruit. Bladder. it powerfully affects the nervous system. obtuse. oleaginous . Ceylon. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. CHAR.—in terminal panicled cymes. prickly. PARTS USED. base cuneate. L. anthelmintic. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin.

pains. FAM. LOC. :—E. oblong lanceolate. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. DISTR. Africa. useful in scabies. alcoholism. diseases of the spleen. bronchitis.-Jany. Satap. USES :—Leaves are cooling. Nagadali. :—G. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Common throughout the State. then erect. H. Deccan. Konkan. stomachic.—suborbicular. vomiting.—Rutaceæ. Sadapaha. LOC. with scarious faces and hard ridges. H. flatulence. :—Western Punjab. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. NS. Country. bites and stings of poisonous animals. Fr. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. Common—Garden-rue . The seeds have the same properties . G. t. checks nausea and promotes appetite. COM. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Sk. Fl. N. FAM. ciliate. S. Ceylon. tumours. Trans-Indus Hills. Khatselio . piles.—white. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—A herb . also considered as a vermifuge.— subsessile.—Acanthaceæ. 2-lipped. stems usually decumbent. Cooling. M. Sk. Satri. constipation. roasted. The juice allays tooth-pain. Havananju. M. Fl. in dysentery. Ghati pittapapada . Kharmor. acute. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. leucoderma. with darker spots. often rooting near the base. acute . COM. laxative. while fresh they are bruised. C. Kanara. LOC.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. See—Vegetables. rugose with furrow. analgesic. pale brown. generally in the Deccan. Parpatha. Vishapaha. Afghanistan.—Nov. ovoid oblong. Pismarum Sadab.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. . they are prescribed. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). K. bracts elliptic. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. lower shortly 3-lobed. Sadabu. upper emarginate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. Satapa . Sd. DISTR. aperient and diuretic. blue or pink. tonic. toothache. NS. useful in heart troubles. dyspepsia. CHAR.—capsule. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. hiccup. L. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. Persia. asthma.

Ingotu. glandulose punctate. amenorrhœa. spathulate or linear-oblong . Rikhu. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Ganna. LOC. oleaginous. :—Egypt and Algeria. H. Sugarcane. FAM. digestive. particularly Deccan. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. LOC. flatulence. diuretic.—Gramineæ. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . all over the State. :—Grown everywhere in India. DISTR. COM. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. LOC. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). :—A strong smelling herb . G. Gudakastha. Satara. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. Us . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. epilepsy. HABIT :—Cultivated. Fl.—capsule. K. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Powdered and combined with aromatics. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Madhuyashti. oblong-obovate. yellowish. There are three varieties . See—Ornamental Plants.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. it may be given internally in hysteria.. and externally used as a rubefacient. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. M. . abortifacient. in pots. Tanigarbu . Fr. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. M. tonic. indigestible. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. flawed. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Rasala.—angled. The plant contains glucoside glutin. NS :—E. emmenagogue. The oil is the best form for administration. C. cultivated throughout India. decompound. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). increases mental activity. garden. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. cooling. laxative. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Poona. anti-aphrodisiac . The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Sd. Naisakar. etc. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. grown in gardens.-alternate. Kabbu. useful in fatigue. forest and mountain. Sk. thirst.—petals 4. heating to body . aphrodisiac. Sherdi. Ukh . diuretic. petioled. S. S. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. DISTR. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. obtuse . colic. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. segments cuneate. Ikshu. The plant is tonic. Gudatrina. Kumad. heats body.

See—Food Plants. Sk. improves appetite. Fr. diam. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. disorders and wind. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. sugar is considered heavy. Fruit—aphrodisiac. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). FAM. ulcers. Fl. Jal. sometimes it raises blisters. causes " Kapha. LOC. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. G. improve diuresis (Yunani). Tooth-brush tree. Abyssinia. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Pilu. piles. anæmia. inflammations. red when ripe. useful in biliousness. K. diuretic. :—Dry districts of the State. tonic and aperient.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. laxative. . alexiteric. fattening. In cases of poisoning by copper. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. Egypt. In the Punjab. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. deobstruent. branches numerous. Fruits are deobstruent. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kharijal. :—E. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. diuretic. globose. the Konkan and N. useful in biliousness. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . Ceylon. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. often planted near Muslim tombs. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. deeply cleft.. Kanara in littoral forests.—Salvadoraceæ. Khakan Mirjoli. strengthen teeth. H. Fl. Sind. It is good in calculous complaints. Asia. corrective. bad for liver (Yunani). Leaves—bitter. oil is digestible. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic.—drupe. bile. finely striate. dry regions of W. lessen inflammation . good for lungs . Pilu. carminative and diuretic. LOC. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. C. LOC. anthelmintic. Mahaphala. purifies blood . fleshy. leucoderma. smooth. useful in heat. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Cane—sweet. opposite. leaves. Seeds—purgative. 3 mm. carminative. Piludi. DISTR.—Nov. COM. stomachic .". Pilu. useful in nosetroubles. greenish-yellow. M. shining. pectoral and aphrodisiac. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. delirium. often mucronate at the apex. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. NS. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. :—Drier parts of India. near the coasts of Gujarat . t. lobes much reflexed. analgesic. scabies. Pilu. Brihat madhu pilu. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. aphrodisiac . fruits seeds and oil. numerous.-Feb. tonic to liver. Sugar causes " Kapha". Goni.—very thin. white. drooping. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. erysipelas.

cures "Tridosha". antipyretic. is applied to local inflammations. Kanara. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. M. burning sensation. Chandal. Sk. strangury. India. Phenilu. biliousness.—Santalaceæ. ground. vaginal discharges. head-ache (Yunani). DISTR. LOC. cholera. cold in head. Oils. LOC. aphrodisiac. Phenila. Ritha. Ringni. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. Sk. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. Chandan. Chandan. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. Antharalo. Malayaja. Mangalya. Aritha. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. FAM. Sandal. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. Soap-Nut tree. alexiteric. :—E. Suket. Country and N. Cultivated elsewhere. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. Sukhad . SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Chandan. :—Indian Peninsula. DISTR. bronchitis. fruit and seed. " Kapha ". diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis.—Sapindaceæ. alexiteric. hemicrania. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Arishtaka. in skin-diseases. Oil. Bhadrasri. small-pox (Ayurveda). G. :—Western Peninsula. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Kumblabijaka. . Anthuvala. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Ceylon. COM. Kugale. abortifacient. NS. alexipharmic. gonorrhœa. H. PARTS USED:—Wood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. tubercular glands. allays uterine pains. gleet. useful in diseases of heart. to allay heat and pruritus. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Shrigandhalmara. aphrodisiac. thirst. lumbago. emetic. K. :—E. USES :—Wood. LOC. Bhadrasara. epileptic fits of children.. useful in chronic dysentery. Agarugandha. much cultivated. diarrhœa. chiefly in S. stomachic. astringent to bowels . :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. often planted. COM. up with water into a paste. See—Timbers. to temples in fever. Arithan . Burugukayi. paralysis. acts as diaphoretic. M. Mysore and parts of Madras State. M. NS. useful in inflammations. Root—expectorant. tonic. FAM. Rishta. H. G. exhilarating. Ritha . Bhogivallabha. Fruit—bitter. S. K. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Sandal-wood Tree.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

urinary concretions. COM. inflammations (Yunani). cure menorrhagia. cures . leaflets 914 pairs. galactagogue.—20-30. linear-oblong.5-15 cm. 7. Nadeyi. anthelmintic. obscurely angled . LOC. Black variety is common. inflammations. burning sensation. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. Waziristan. M. They are also emmenagogue. diuretic and lactagogue. FAM. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir.. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. strangury. leaves. carminative. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. white and red. removes "Kapha". Fl. Sd. gouty joints. oil. scabies.—standard as broad as long. small-pox. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. syphilitic ulcers. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. LOC. diseases. Baluchistan. :—A soft-wooded shrub. spleen troubles. Fr. an emollient poultice is also made from them. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. :—Cultivated all over India. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). eye diseases . seeds. alterative. See—Oils. Jaya. useful in dry cough. L. mottled with purple on the outside. Jayat. asthma. long. opposite. leaves. Jayanti. beaked. tonic. Sk. septate between the seeds. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. hair-tonic. in height. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in sorethroat. seeds. into claw. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation.— abruptly pinnate. Rasin. yellow. Seed-oil—fattening. They are nourishing. such as dysentery etc. applied to ulcers and piles. 15-23 cm.—pod. and as an oildressing for ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. astringent to bowels. indigestible . oleaginous. bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. aphrodisiac. promote hair growth. few flowered axillary racemes. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. enrich blood. Shewari.—in lax. probably a native of tropical Africa. :—G. Jayanti. biliousness. tonic. branches striate. long. Raysingani. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. CHAR. etc. bark. There are three varieties of seeds : black.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in diarrhœa. Jayanti. lung diseases. applied to gouty joints. K. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. pendulous. C. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. DISTR. suppurating wounds. NS. cooling.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. 4-5 m. Janjhan. Jinangi. Seeds contain vitamin A. diuretic. slightly torulose. strengthening. of eye and ear. H. Jayantika. They have been used to procure abortion.

cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). gout . Leaves—indigestible. "Kapha" and inflammation. Agati. K. leaflets 16-30 pairs. alexiteric. allays thirst. :—G. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. Ornamental Plants.—in racemes . epilepsy. Fl. Bark—astringent. relieves throat-troubles. long. Agasti. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . flowers. fevers. Agasta. Agathio. t. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. Sk.— pod. Leaves—purgative. useful in ozœna. The plant contains vitamin A. leprosy. dysentery and paludism. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings.8 cm. useful In diseases of spleen. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Munidruma. improves taste. anthelmintic. Flowers—cooling.5-8. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. 50 cm. See—Fodder Plants. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. astringent. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Indigenous from Malaya to N. Agase. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. cure itching. M. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. very showy.— flowers at various times. anthelmintic. high. FAM. night-blindness. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. long. long. rubbed into a paste with water. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. Seeds—emmenagogue. NS. is applied in painful swellings. maturant. LOC. stimulant. An infusion is given in small-pox. Vranari. Fruit—laxative . and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). tumours . USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. C. fruits. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. anaemia. cure quartan fever. Fr. H. linear oblong. improve appetite . COM. ulcers. is applied in rheumatism. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Fl. Dirghashimbi. diabetes. 15-30-cm. :—A soft wooded tree . LOC. demulcent. . biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in ophthalmia. See—Vegetables. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Bark— astringent. :—Cultivated in many parts of India.— pinnate. Kempagase. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. 2-4 white or red. CHAR. leucoderma. Hatiya . HABITAT :—Cultivated. gout. cures " Tridosh " pains. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Kanali. bronchitis. diarrhœa. L. LOC. 6-9 m. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray).—7. Agusta. Basna. Bak. Australia. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache.

black. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic.—2. diam. lanceolate. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Bala. Kisangi. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. FAM. pedicel jointed much above the middle. Barial.-Oct. Country. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges.—smooth.-Nov. H. K. LOC. Fr. is given . Country Mallow. digestive. softly hairy all over. Pata. FAM. cooling. Bala. obtuse. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. Samanga. strongly reticulated . Fl. Fl. with ginger.— yellow. pedicel jointed about the middle. Kareta. stomachic and tonic. bark.—solitary or few together. linear. sharply serrate. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Hotter parts of India. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Batyalaka. Fl. linear . diuretic. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). K. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. Pata. NS. LOC. CHAR. carpels 7-10. L. strongly reticulated. L. " Pitta ". decoction. Sk. cordate. Root—cooling.5-5 cm. COM. removes " Vata ".194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. glabrous. Gujarat and S. long. M.—Nov. base rounded. scabrid-hairy. Kumghi. Kharanti. a weed. HABITAT :—Moist places .. :—A shrub.. Bariara. diam. Chittuharatu. Jayanti. Sk.—5-6 mm. t. Fl. Chikna. C. Deccan and S. yellow. :—Konkan (common). in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Khareti. dorsal margins toothed. LOC. Prahasa. long.Dec. " Kapha " . USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. :—E. COM. astringent. Country. crenate.. dorsal scabrid. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi.3 cm.—2. aphrodisiac . Rajbala.—6-8 mm. M. Baladana. H. carpels 5-9. bleeding piles. G. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fr. Kherati.5-6. Hettutti-gida. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. upper margins ciliate. puberulous. :—Konkan. M. leaves and seeds. awns 2. Bala.—Malvaceæ. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . ovate-oblong. Tukti. awns 2. DISTR. :—G. emollient. t. useful in fever. Chikna. CHAR. DISTR. M.—1-2 in each axil. useful in blood and throat diseases. Sd. NS.—Malvaceæ. astringent. Vatyapushpi. minutely hairy. branches slender. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. PARTS USED :—Root. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. LOC.

L.—opposite. tinged with purple. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. rhomboides Roxb. :—A large annual herb.—Compositæ. COM. those of the ray red beneath. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. diaphoretic. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. It is also used to favour menstruation.-Dec. all running down wing-like into petiole. Externally. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stiff-neck.—heads small in leafy panicles . NS.—Nov. Country.—yellow. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. 5 inner boat-shaped. black. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. LOC. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. cystitis. :—Throughout India. Fl. 5 outer clavate. noise in ears. also in colic and tenesmus. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". juice is used for healing wounds. :—G. and head-ache. triangular-ovate. common. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic.—achene. erect. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. involucral bracts 2 rows. Bala—Sida cordifolia. CHAR. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. deeply and irregularly toothed. administered in hemiplegia. DISTR. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. 0. Pilibadkadi. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". t. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. slightly rough. pappus 0.6—1. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Katampu. S. Fr. . Linn. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. Fl. :—Deccan. high. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa.2 m. stem stiff. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. M. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. FAM. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. facial paralysis. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. Fl.

COM. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Barhanta. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. C.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. subentire. lessens inflammations. FAM.—5—15 X 2. G. stem stout. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). Kadusonde. bronchitis. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting.. sharp. or triangular-ovate. " Kapha". Philippines. cardiotonic. leaves. Hinguli. COM. fruit and seeds. Vange. recurved. China. Vartaki. Habba-Kirigulla. very. Bhantaki. removes foulness of the mouth. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine.5 cm. K.—Solanaceæ. analgesic. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. L. Malpya. LOC. Vengni. Ranringni. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. base unequal-sided. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Egg Plant.5 m. LOC. M. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. Brihati.-Oct. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. enriches blood. pain. laxative. H. It is seldom used alone.. DISTR. prickles large. Brinjal.3—1. ovate. Fr. " Vata". Fruit—cardiotonic. M. useful in leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Root.—minutely pitted: Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves (rarely) and fruits. G.. diam. Vadikadheri. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. globose.-Aug. vomiting. Bhanta. DISTR.—pale-purple. NS. LOC. Sk. Mhotiringni. anthelmintic. FAM. :—Widely cultivated in India. Baingan. pruritus ani. Bhantaki. petiole prickly. lobed. K. Vayase. astringent to bowels. Root is applied to lessen pain. Ubhi-bhuringni.—Solanaceæ. Indian Nightshade. Mahotika. Fl. 8 mm. Hinguli. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. Badanikai. Vrittaphala. rarely wild. 0. dark-yellow when ripe. H. aphrodisiac. :—E. Rigana. maturant. :—E. high. causes biliousness. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). NS. improves appetite. bad for piles if taken internally. loss of appetite. Nilaphala. covered with stellate hairs. :—Throughout tropical India.5—7. Vantak. Ceylon. Sd. t. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. digestive. fever. clothed outside with purple hairs . prickly. beneficial in cardiac troubles . . beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". asthma. Kattarta.— berry. Sk. Dorli.

diuretic. :—A variable annual herb .-Jany. Fr. The seeds are used as a stimulant. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . subumbellate.— berry. eye-diseases hydrophobia. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). NS. alterative. CHAR.. Piludi. inflammation. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Vayasi. Makoi. itch. fever. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. dysentery. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. Hound's Berry. cathartic and diuretic. aphrodisiac. ear and nose . taste.—discoid. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. LOC. diam. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. bronchitis. smooth. L. in extra-axillary. good for neck ulcers. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. It acts as a hydrogogue. Gurkamai. stem erect. In S.—Solanaceæ. and used with success in psoriasis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. DISTR.—small. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. ovatelanceolate. Seeds—laxative. useful in heart and eye-diseases. Tiktika. Morellel. B and C. griping. bark. useful in diseases of eye. much divaricately-branched . K. H. 3-8 flowered cymes . See—Vegetables. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. vomiting. LOC. throat burning. Sd. hiccup. liver inflammation. inflammation. :—E. chronic fever. " Tridosha". diarrhœa. COM. . leucoderma. :—Throughout India. FAM. dysuria and asthma. minutely pitted . Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. tapering into petioles. Kakamachi.—Sept. etc. Kabaiya. piles. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. Fl. Black Night-shade. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. M. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. Kamoni. PARTS USED :—Root. improves voice . gonorrhœa (Yunani). Ceylon. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. not to be given to pregnant women. G. entire or sinuate toothed. Katuphala. yellow. useful in giddiness. in pains. Kakamachi. fever.—many. bitter. t. Kakamunchi. asthma. laxative. Fruit contains vitamins A. shining. bronchitis. 6 mm. worms in ear. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. Root-bark—laxative . leaves and fruit. heating. Sk. C. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). tonic. Fl. urinary discharges. improves appetite.

Sholapur. Great Indian millet. H. K. NS.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . "Vata" and " Kapha". petiole prickly. LOC. useful in bronchitis. often exceeding 1. Vrittatandula. stone in bladder. Jowari. NS. Sundia . DISTR. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. C. Basu). Ringni. :—E. good in inflammation. Kantakini. Jonera. dysuria. FAM. yellow and shining. lobes deltoid. Fruit—laxative. pains. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. Leaves—good application for piles. Durrah. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. COM. tropical Australia. & Wendl. heating. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). surrounded by enlarged calyx . HABITAT :—Cultivated. strangury.—purple. anthelmintic . Ikshupatraka. stems. fever. Dirghashara. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. t. stem zig-zag. yellow or white with green veins. muscular pains. LOC.—berry. Bhui-Kate-ringni.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Kateli. asthma. sinuate or subpinnatifid. Nidigdhika. Nele-Rama-gulla . Kantakari. appetiser. Yengara . Chikka-sonde. laxative. G. :—A very prickly diffuse. ovate or elliptic. CHAR. :—Common in the Deccan . Bijapur and E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. bright green perennial herb . Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . thirst.— June. aphrodisiac. :—G. sterility in women. :—Throughout India. Nirgol. hairy outside. pruritus . chronic bronchitis. urinary concretions. straight. M. Sind. S. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. catarrhal fever and chest pain. H. Jondhala. Sk.—Solanaceæ. ozoena. D. leaves. expectorant and febrifuge. K. Ceylon. Malaya. lumbago.—Gramineæ.. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Jolah. fruits and seeds. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fr. Konkan. diam. Fl. Sorgho. M. Seeds—anthelmintic. flowers. 3-2 cm. Jundri. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. It is used in asthma. LOC. COM. Africa. piles. they are used in the burning of feet. prickles compressed. Fl. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Root—aphrodisiac. base unequal-sided. Sk. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Katai. hairy on both sides. L. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Yuvanala. stomachic. heart disease. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. E. long. Brihati. Bhoyaringni.. Dhavani. Jowar. asthma. fevers.3 cm. biliousness.5-5. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Kenjal. Shalu.7 cm.-5-10 X 2.

:—The grain is cooling. G. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Gums and Resins. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Gorakhamundi. general debility. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Indian Red-Wood. FAM. useful in " Kapha". :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. ulcers. on dry stony hills. laxative. Swami-mara. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Poona. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Munditika. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Country. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. indigestible. Gorakmundi. biliousness. diseases of blood. H. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . leprosy and dysentery . Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Khandesh and S. piles. COM. tumours (Ayurveda). glandular. ulcers. PARTS USED. COM. Ruhin. Karanda-gida. :—Bark-acrid. DISTR. Sumbi. introduced into America and Australia. M. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. tonic and antiperiodic . cough and asthma (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. hence used in intermittent fevers. fevers. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. hairy. :—G. cures " Tridosha ". :—Bark. Some. NS. See—Food Plants. CHAR. improves appetite and taste. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. NS. high. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. aphrodisiac. Dharwar. aphrodisiac. LOC. Grains contain vitamin B. with toothed wings. . Rohina. M. HABITAT :—Open situations. :— E. :—Widely cultivated in India. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. L. Ahmedabad. Sk. Pravrajita. good for sore-throat. Rohani. Bodiakalara. Mahamundi.—sessile. M. Gorakhmundi. anthelmintic. :—Seeds. Rawtarohan. Fibres. LOC. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. K. Asia and Africa. K. :—Dry forests of W. PROPERTIES AND USES. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. FAM: —Compositæ. Rohini.—Meliaceæ. PARTS USED. Bijapur and E. common in Gujarat. while Belgaum. Sk. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Juss. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Vritta. Rohun. refrigerant. stem and branches cylindric. constipating. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Ceylon. Kumbhala. Agniruha. Tans. bladder and kidney complaints. vaginal injections and enemas. Aruna. See—Timbers. H. Bastard Cedar.

serrate or dentate. laxative. L. Akkalkara . They are given in powder form. ciliate near the ends . PARTS USED. Africa. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). glaborous. long. ovate-oblong. increases appetite. Pappuso. good for eyesore. biliousness. truncate. piles. sometimes grown in gardens. USES. CHAR. irregularly crenateserrate.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. :—E. globose ovoid. scabies. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. involucre bracts linear. :—Throughout India. asthma. Fl. tuberculous glands. base usually acute. H. Malay Islands. Akara-karava. PROPERTIES AND USES. compressed . ray flowers and ligules very often absent. ovate. PARTS USED. lessens inflammations . :—Hot. Tonic. gives lustre to eyes . leucoderma. bark. hemicrania (Ayurveda). M. DISTR. useful in skin diseases. enriches blood . :—Throughout India. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. LOC. Fl. Fl. with honey they are given in cough. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. glandular hairy. stalked. leaves. jaundice. M. the latter when present minute. chest diseases.— achene. bronchitis. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. NS. ring-worm of waist. urethral discharges and jaundice. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. used in insanity. :—Annual herb. indigestion. and tonic (Stewart) . cooling. LOC.. Fr. cools brain.. alterative.—compound heads. Sk.—purple. leaves and flower-heads. Pellitary . Country and Kanara. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. :—Deccan. anthelmintic. fattening. tonic. HABITAT. boils. Celyon. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic.—Nov. biliousness. looseness of breasts. PROPERTIES AND LOC. alexipharmic. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . . all warm countries. dysentery. stem and branches hairy. FAM.—Compositæ. pain in uterus and vagina. peduncles with toothed wings. peduncles reaching 10 cm. :—Wild and cultivated. Akarakara . Fl. C. used also for local application. laxative. Ceylon. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. LOC. depurative.—Nov-Jany. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. t. S. urinary discharges. in cases of worms and indigestion.—in heads ovoid. vomiting. DISTR. :—Root. HABITAT. epileptic convulsions. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. They are chewed to relieve toothache. solitary or subpanicled. t.—Achene. :—Root. anæmia. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. elephantiasis.—opposite. oblong. Fr. strangury. gleet. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. digestible. spleen diseases. :—Common in the Konkan. scalding of urine. Powdered root is given as tonic. COM. flowers and seeds. emmenagogue. :—Common in rice-fields. Australia. rectal pain.

leaves and fruit. round with furrows and cavities. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. trunk straight. Amate. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. M. Hongkong. oblique.—drupe. Amra. Bile Tree. Ali-vallabha. hard. Pitana. :—Bark. Gum is demulcent. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. CHAR. cures rheumatism.5 m. H. NS. See—Gums and Resins. Fl. Marahunise. Indian Hog-Plum. aphrodisiac. Gujarat. NS. stone woody. :—Cultivated. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. bark smooth.. Fr. Parur.—Bignoniaceæ. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. DISTR.—Anacardiaceæ. Padiala. widely planted. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. K. Ran-amba . :—H. Indian Archipelago. phthisis.-usually 1. Western Peninsula. L. Avatekayi. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards.5 cm. Hude. :—Leaves-tasty. Kariguddada. Ceylon. HABITAT. refrigerant. LOC. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative.8 cm. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. 3. M. Padal. Fl. C. Sk. ulcers. Toyadhivasini. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. branches nearly horizontal. ash-coloured . Tungi. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia.-Apl. Pahad. Giri Hadari. enriches blood . Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Kalavrinta. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. biliousness. astringent. M. Pandri. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). entire. Andamans. ovoid. Ambada. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. blood complaints . USES :—Bark is refrigerant. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. :—Often planted throughout the State. pinkish green. Padal. Salt Range.8-7. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ambodha.— petals 4-5. Patala. destroys " Vata ". tonic. good for sore-throat. long. LOC. FAM. K. COM. Fruit—indigestible.Feb. Kumbhi. oblong. Sd. Wild Mango. Sk. COM.5-18 x 3. Kamduti.. appetising. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. Amrataka. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Kanara. Kapichuta. Hulave. yellow. burning sensation. ovate oblong. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching.. W. It has been found useful in dysentery. long. PARTS USED. . Patala. :—E. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. :—A tree 9-10. high. S. Konkan. Dr. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Burma.

tonic. COM. bitter. LOC. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. cures leucoderma. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. asthma. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". cures pains in joints. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. ring-worm. Kajavara. blood diseases. Fruit—useful in hiccup. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). Visha-druma. DISTR. Kajra. antipyretic. useful in bilious diarrhœa. seeds. :—Very common in Konkan and N. eructations. from Kashmir to Sikkim . seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. aphrodisiac. LOC. Kajra. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). M. Burma. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . urinary discharges (Ayurveda). It is regarded as cooling. flowers. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. tonic. :—Root. Poison Nut. PROPERTIES AND USES. Travancore . itching. appetiser. blood diseases. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. anæmia. lumbago. NS. sub-Himalaya. G. Fruit—bitter. "Vata". heating. poisonous. ulcers. Kuchala. Kupaka. :—Root-bitter. thirst. LOC. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Karaskara. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. vomiting. Circars. FAM. west coast of Madras State. Ceylon. See—Timbers. Travancore. burning sensation.—Loganiaceæ. Kanara. Ittangi. DISTR. diuretic. PARTS USED. Kanara. Planted in Ceylon. PARTS USED. piles . Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Fruit-acrid. :—Monsoon-forests. loss of taste. Indo-China. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. Kachita. LOC. H. inflammation. fruit. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . fevers. Kelakutaka. jaundice.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Nirmal. tonic. :—E. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. piles. leaves. Sk. Kuchla. emmenagogue . astringent to bowels. Laos. Kuchla. pungent. diuretic. N. "Kapha". K. heating. Crow Fig. fruit. :—More or less throughout tropical India.. :—Wood (rarely). :—In forests south of Bombay. Kakatinduka. Flowers— acrid . Karnatak. Vishamushti. Hemushti. heating. Kangira.

tonic. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. FAM. PARTS USED. Fruit useful in eye diseases. head-diseases (Ayurveda). STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. Kataka. Aduguchali-bija. See—Timbers. Nirmali. hallucinations. NS. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. K. cures inflammations. lithotriptic. LOC. DISTR.—Loganiaceæ. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. thirst. :—E. Nivali. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. astringent to bowels. Seeds—acrid. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. poisoning. alexipharmic. . Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. See—Timbers. Sk. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. increases "Vata".. :—Root (rarely). Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. relieve colic (Yunani). Seeds—bitter. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Chittu bija. emetic. :—Root cures leucoderma. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. gonorrhœa. urinary discharges. Madhya Bharat. Country. Burma. :—Western Peninsula. Clearing Nut Tree. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. diaphoretic. jaundice. alexiteric. COM. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Ambuprasadini. kidney complaints. :—Deciduous dry forests. Shodhanatmaka. Kanara and Khandesh. good for liver. M. The demand for strychnine is increasing. HABITAT. Nelmal. also in Konkan. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Ceylon. causes biliousness. aphrodisiac. cure strangury. LOC. diuretic. improve eye-sight. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. fruit and seeds. anæmia. (Rasendrasarasangraha). :—Sand-stone hills of S.

USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. M. throughout N. Deccan.— lobes 4-5. C. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. etc. dysentery. emmenagogue. Chota Nagpur. H. Dyes. cures cough. Bose). winged .-Jany. Sk. Fl.3-0. useful in eye-diseases.9 m. PROPERTIES AND USES. Lodh . PARTS USED. vaginal discharges. astringent to bowels. Torna fort. S. . a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. colloturine and loturiaine. 4-winged. LOC. Deccan . Bark—bitter. decussate. inflammations. NS.—Gentianaceæ. Mahabaleshwar. high. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES. CHAR. in powder or in fresh decoction. Fl. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . :—Konkan and N. LOC. Lodhra. PARTS USED. Lodhra . aphrodisiac. :—Bark-acrid.. Tiritaka. eye-diseases and ulcers . HABITAT. alexiteric.— sessile. Burma. See—Timbers. :—Root. Californian Cinchona. leprosy. bleeding gums . Peninsula).—very many in dense corymbose cymes .—Symplocaceæ. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. :—W. stem densely leafy. COM. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. :—India (W. DISTR. :—The whole plant is bitter. quadrangular. K. broadly ovate. :—Hilly parts. flowers (rarely). FAM.—many. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. 0. COM. Lodh. Bhilli. digestible. Peninsula. FAM. :—Western Ghats . Lodh is used in raw condition. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. acrid. ovoid or oblong. Kadu. 2-valved. Balaloddujinamara. LOC. C. :—An erect herb. cooling. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). biliousness. C. :— E. NS. :—Bark. white with blue veins. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. useful in abortions . Country. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Lodhraka. diseases of blood.. Loder. t.—capsule. DISTR. M. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. Sd. :—M. China Nora. E. Shavaraka. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. L.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. Tillaka. Broughton).— Oct. 5-nerved . Lodh Tree.

See—Timbers.) FAM. :—Throughout the State. dry. Fruit Trees. Jambula. Surabhipriya. M. gargles and washes . HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. strengthens gums and teeth. NS. :—E. digestive. NS. Jambu. dysentery. ulcers. sweet. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Nenda. astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Jambura. bronchitis. carminative . Nerate. Pharenda. carminative and diuretic. Shukapriya. :—Bark-acrid. common at Mahabaleshwar. increases "Vata". LOC. good gargle for sore-throat. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. Seeds—diuretic. G. common along river banks. Jambu. Sk. :-Black-Java Plum. Jambudi. LOC. Jambu-Nayinerale. Malay—Rose apple. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Jambu. biliousness. :—Throughout India. useful in spleen diseases. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Jamburaj. LOC. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. good lotion for ring-worm in head. H. Jambul. very often planted. astringent to bowels. H. sprouts. Jambu. Jam. Sk. Pannerali. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Neralu. fruits and seeds. etc. both wild and cultivated.) FAM. Kokileshta. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). Gulabjaman. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. K. PARTS USED. DISTR. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. removes bad smell from mouth. . Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. also wild. asthma. Australia. K. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. fruit vinegar is tonic. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. COM. Jambul. :—Bark. Shukapriya. COM. Gulab-Jamb. PROPERTIES AND USES. M.—Myrtaceæ. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Jamen. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Malaya. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. also used in spongy and painful gums. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. anthelmintic. thirst. astringent. blood impurities.—Myrtaceæ. Ceylon. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Nilphala. Fruit—acrid. enriches blood. good for sore-throat.

. Root—bitter . LOC. Tagara." biliousness. Chandani. :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES. 1-3 ribbed.—rainy season. Burma. useful in "Kapha. Ananta. :—Sikkim Terai. emmenagogue. indigestible. salver-shaped. orange within. Cultivated in many places. lessens pains in limbs and joints . blood-diseases (Ayurveda). COM. Garhwal. fatigue. HABITAT. PARTS USED. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). tonic to brain. K. . :—Cultivated in gardens. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. cultivated in many parts. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. PARTS USED. Tagar . strangury. The plant contains an alkaloid. astringent to bowels. Hills of Visakhapatanam. hot. Sk. DISTR. astringent to bowels.5-5 cm. double.—snow-white. Nandi. with milky juice .—Apocynaceæ. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. Khasia Hills. pale beneath. Bengal. Wax flower. lobes 5 in single. heavy speech. dysentery. liver and spleen . :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. Taggar. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. acrid. across. Trinidad . fragrant at night. Fr. removes bad humours. :—Bark. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. E. Assam. Tagar. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. heating. weakness of limbs. See—Timbers. :—Root is acrid. used in liver complaints. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. tonic. divaricate. digestible. used in syphilis (Yunani). The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. 7. Maddarasa gida . glossy green above. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. and an essential oil. L. tonic to brain. CHAR. margins wavy. Root chewed relieves toothache . aphrodisiac.— opposite. bitter. :—Bark is sweet. Fruit—sweet and tasty.5-15 X 2. Fl. LOC. Seeds are astringent to bowels. LOC. Fl. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. bronchitis. G. thirst. Yunnan to Australia. . indigestible. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ashvathabheda. Br. astringent to bowels. improves voice. t.5-5 cm. M. purgative. inodorous during the day. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. useful in paralysis. cures epilepsy. See—Ornamental Plants. It is very cooling in ophthalmia.—follicles. C—lobes overlapping to the left. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. used in asthma. wood and oil.) FAM. fruit and seeds. H.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—E. NS. Kottuhale.

COM. :—E. NS. common in rain-forests.. FAM.—Apocynaceæ. Sandu. stomachic. Tamarind. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . somewhat boat-shaped.—opposite. across in pedunculate cymes . :—Malabar. PARTS USED. Nagaskuda. Zanduga. . French Marigold. Teter. DISTR. internally they are said to purify blood. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nagakuda. DISTR. :—Leaves and flowers. Guljharo. Makhamali. wood. Halmeti. L. belching.000 m. Fl. :—Native of Mexico. :—Rain-forests. C. Imli. acrid. Amla. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). G. Genda. Maddarssa. Makhamala. Tintrani. good for teeth . t. :—Cultivated. CHAR. useful in scabies. Sthulapushpa. divaricata.4-4. G. kidney troubles. Amala. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Sk. Tintidika. Travancore up to 7. Sd.5 cm. Sk. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. : K.5 cm. M. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. grown in gardens all over India. H. yellow when ripe. :—Root.— tube inflated near the top. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. M. LOC. Chinchika.2-7.—follicle. Amli. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. 2. FAM. Fr. muscular pains. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. Chinch. HABITAT. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. HABITAT. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—Compositæ. coriaceous. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Flower-pungent. K. PARTS USED.— Mar-Apl. LOC. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. bark grey. Nuli. lessens inflammation . FAM. M. carminative. Flower—bitter. Fl.5 m. rough. H..—white. Makhamal. Amlika. Gultora. Amlike. NS. astringent. :—Same as T. their juice is given in ear-ache. Pandarakuda. Zendu. throughout the Konkan and N. bitter. :—E. COM. Amli. HABITAT. LOC.5-20 X 3. Leaves—good for piles. 7. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. oblong lanceolate . TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. oil. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). Kanara.. high.. Kalaga.—surrounded by red pulp. NS. Chinch.

ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. aphrodisiac. Circars. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. flowers. Flowers— appetising . cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Madhya Bharat. :—Throughout India. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. heating.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. COM. urinary discharges. fruit and seeds. biliousness. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. G. Anil. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. PROPERTIES AND USES. earache. laxative. carminative. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Sk. heals wounds and fractures. and for sizing materials. Sumatra and Java. Mahapatra. and laxative. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. flowers and seeds. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Malay Peninsula. Sagach. Sagwan. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. M. indigestible. Bark—astringent. . Fruit-sour. DISTR. vomiting. heals ulcers. abundant all along the slopes of W. See—Timbers. :—Bark. tumours. Sag. causes cough. digestive. stomatitis. LOC. K. Sag. FAM. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Arna. Kanara. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. bark.. anthelmintic. Sagun. H. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. sweetish. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Fruit—sour. scabies. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". useful in giddiness and vertigo. boiled they are used as a poultice.—Verbenaceæ. Condiments and Spices. Tegu. LOC. thirst. PARTS USED. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Burma. small-pox. DISTR. Kanara. Seeds are good astringent. Teak. Tropics generally. laxative. eye-diseases. NS. sore-throat. Tega.. tasty. PARTS USED :—Root. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. tonic to heart. leaves. :—E. intoxication &c. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. wood. useful in liver-complaints. Cultivated also. such as body-burning. costiveness. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Teka. Sagwan. Seeds astringent. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. astringent to bowels. tonic.

biliousness. Fl. leaflets 11—21. K. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. along forest borders. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT:—Open situations. Phanike. increase "Vata". silkyhairy beneath. Fl. Wood good for head ache.. asthma.—5-6 . bitter. inflammations. :-G.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes.—petals clawed. Kalika. Leaves—tonic to intestines . cultivated lands and roadsides. Unhali. useful in bronchitis. :—Plant-digestible.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. Flowers—acrid. pubescent on the back. Sharapunkha. ground and made into a pill.—Oct. Kogge. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . LOC. spleen diseases. glabrous above. long. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. LOC. See—Timbers. dry. LOC. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. cures diseases of liver. laxative. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . ulcers. Wood—acrid. branches spreading. linear. good in piles.8 X 0. CHAR. Sarpankho. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). antipyretic. urinary discharges. "Root—diuretic. blood. COM. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. DISTR. H. Plihari. mucronate. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). Sd.. 2—2. alterative. red. Bark is an astringent.5 cm. syphilis. Malay Peninsula. Sharapunkha.2 cm. M. burning pain over the region of liver. Fr. heart. M. long. gonorrhœa (Yunani).:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. expectorant. suborbicular. enriches Blood .8—1. Deccan. NS. alexiteric. sedative to gravid uterus. Sarphonka. useful in bronchitis. leaves and seeds. Ghodakan. FAM. cures diarrhœa . slightly curved. fresh root-bark. oblanceolate. 30—60 cm. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. high.-June. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. allays thirst. Konkan. anthelmintic. root. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. liver. it acts also as a vermifuge. tumours. Gujarat. mucronate. biliousness. Udhadi. asthma. anthelmintic. leprosy. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. . improve appetite. useful in scabies. Jhila. Country. useful in lung and chest diseases. :—The whole plant. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. allays thirst. S. C. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. boils and pimples. spleen. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). PARTS USED. Sarphoka. :—A perennial herb. useful in piles. :—All over India. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. cooling. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. t. poisoning. Empali. It appears to act as tonic and laxative.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). standard.—pod 3—4. Sk.

biliousness. PARTS USED. diuretic. K. with milk. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Belleric Myrobalan. White Marudah. Vibhata. Bahara. COM. fruit (rarely). TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. K. Kushika. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Vibhitika. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Madhya-Pradesh. anæmia. tonic. Ceylon. urinary discharges. asthma. except in dry arid regions. NS. ulcers.—Combretaceæ. Arjuna. Baire. Burma. acrid. Tari. Arjun Sadada. M. heart disease. :—Throughout the forests of India. Sagona. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Behada. :—E. . See—Timbers. Koha. Sadado. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. strangury. Fruit-pungent. useful in biliousness. :—Konkan and Deccan. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. styptic. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Shantimara. Dhanvi. :—Bark. Kahu.. useful in fractures. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Bahaza. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. strangury.. Sadura. biliousness. in the sub-Himalayan tract. M. Kalidrum. Arjuna. LOC. H. " Kapha". G. digestible. useful in bronchitis. Behedo. anthelmintic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. Aksha. Arjun-Sadada. Bibhitiki. Madhya-Bharat. laxative. Hela. Rajastan and Sind. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Buhura. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Bedda Nut. Karshaphala. Bastard Myrobalan. Sk. Kakubha. NS. inflammation. Tara. false presentation of fœtus. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Voting. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Sk. Expectorant. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Karvirak.. Madras State. G. tonic. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. externally in wounds and fractures. Indradruma. H. & A. :—Alexiteric. very common in South Konkan. Bera. leaves. tumours. Arjuna. anthelmintic . FAM. DISTR. Beheduk. :—E. in Khandesh Akrani. excessive perspiration. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. fruit and seed. LOC. Arjan. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). sore-throat. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. Chota-Nagpur. :—Bark. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. intoxication. FAM.—Combretaceæ. blood-diseases. leucoderma.

PARTS USED. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. biliousness. COM. Kanara. Jivanti. vomiting. M. tonic. LOC. Gums and Resins. aperient. Haritaki. applied to eyes. vesicular calculi. antipyretic. anthelmintic. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. Ceylon. the fully ripe or dried fruit. gums. corneal ulcers. Jivantika. useful in thirst. stomachic. Harara. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. LOC. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. Har. carminative. cold in head. Chebulic myrobalan. K. hoarseness. useful in asthma. used in paralysis (Yunani). USES. piles. typhoid fever. diseases of eye. Dyes. —E. tonic. sore-throat. tonic. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. Black myrobalan. Hirda. G. elephantiasis. in Travancore. Haria.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. diseases of spleen. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. carminative. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. strangury. heart and bladder. useful in caries of teeth. dyspepsia. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. alterative . It is a constituent of " Triphala ". tumours. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. strengthens brain. vomiting. :—Fruit-dry. diseases of eye. piles. bleeding and ulceration of gums. H. diarrhœa. anaemia. NS. itching pain. gout. Hirdo . USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. :—Bark and fruit. common in Khandesh Akrani. Abhaya. intoxicating. Seed—acrid. constipation. Ripe fruit—purgative. heart and bladder. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). useful in dyspepsia. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. thirst. LOC. bilious headache. is used as an application in ophthalmia. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. heating. See—Timbers. delirium (Ayurveda). Harade. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. eyes. urinary discharges. mixed with honey.—Combretaceæ. ascites. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. expectorant. brain tonic (Yunani). piles and diarrhœa. Haritaki. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. Sk. inflammations. attenuant. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. eye diseases etc. Burma. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. Fruit-astringent. good in ophthalmia. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. hiccup. nose. antidysenteric. which is considered a good digestive. Kernel has narcotic properties. enriches blood. Alate. bleeding piles. leucoderma. FAM.

Dyes. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. also planted as roadside tree. Jogiyarale. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Paras-piper. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Gajadanta. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Fruit-sour. especially centipedes.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Fibres. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Mhaskar and Issac). USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Bhend. K. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Gandarati. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Bhandi. leaves. Kanara.—Malvaceæ. See—Timbers. Suparshuakan. Bhindi. Sacred Plants. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). aphrodisiac . Paraspiplo. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Tulip Tree. DISTR. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Hucerasi. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES. Parasipu. Ranbhendi. G. Kuberaksha. Burma. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Arasi. See—Timbers. :—Coast forests of India. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. burning of body . Phalisha. Portia Tree. produces worms in intestines . Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. profuse discharge. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Paraspipal. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. .. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. increases " Kapha " . PARTS USED. Eastern and Western Peninsula. LOC. Parisha. Sk. Kandarala. LOC. Tans. :—Districts of Konkan and N. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. acrid . THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Bengal. Bugari. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. COM. flowers and fruit. NS. :—Bark. M. H. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). difficult to digest. FAM.

G. Gulvel.—membranous. frequently planted. HABITAT.—Apocynaceæ. Gado. HABIT :—In thickets.—Apl. :—E. Uganiballi. LOC. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. PARTS USED. NS. Gulvel. :—Bark. leucoderma. DISTR. useful in urethral discharges. size of a pea . NS. Shatakumbha. long. Amarvel. grooved . 7—9 nerved. with milky juice. across. C. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. COM. CHAR. root. Pila kanir. G. Andamans and Ceylon. bright green and shining above. Jwaranashini. Ashvaghna. very poisonous (Ayurveda). Amritvalli. and blood vessels .. females solitary. Amrita-Valli. :—Native of S. :—Stem. Exile or yellow Oleander. throat campanulate. 7. ventrally flat. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. :—An extensive climber. PARTS USED. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. fevers. FAM. hot. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.—generally 4. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). Gurch. male fascicled. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. virgin uterus. growing on mango and other trees. Gulancha. :—Throughout tropical India. tubular. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants.5—12. it has no action on digestive enzymes . Karvira. dorsally convex. wounds. eye-troubles. :—Often planted.—broadly obovate.-spirally arranged. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. acrid. .—in axillary and terminal racemes. Gulhel. M. H.—Menispermaceæ. H.. bark corky. linear. elliptic. Vatsadani. skin diseases. pungent. piles. lobes 5.. M.—drupes. yellow. Heart-leaved moonseed. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. cures " Vata " . TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. Burma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. COM. Sk. Sd. but its use is attended with considerable danger. crowded . L. Pila kaner. Pivali kanher. bladder. seeds and milky juice. 5 cm. Pittaghni. corona in the throat. yellow. Fr. FAM. America and W. DISTR. bronchitis . LOC. endocarp corky. Haripriya. Fl. exocarp fleshy. worms. mesocarp bony. Indies . L. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . roundish cordate with a broad sinus. K. 5—10 cm. astringent to bowels. often planted in India. Zard kunel. Fr. :—E. Fl. CHAR. Fl.—in terminal cymes. red.5 cm. t. 1—3. Gulo.

Root-bark is aromatic. LOC. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. burning sensation. good in cough. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. Kaduhakukare.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. oblong. :—Rain-forests. Sumatra. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Jangali-Mirchi. (Kirtikar). Java. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. vomiting. vomiting. tropical Africa. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. CHAR. 3-5 grooved. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. HABITAT. size of a large pea. vaginal and urethral discharges. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. allays thirst. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani).—in axillary cymes. Gangalaki. expectorant. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. female flower buds oblong. Fl. dark shining green above. fever. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. anæmia. stomachic. Fl.— alternate. Mirchi. male flower bud globose. :—Root. t. Kumaon to Bhutan. white. L.—Rutaceæ. M. stigma sessile. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND LOC. jaundice. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). 5-7 lobed. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. causes constipation. DISTR. Sk. enriches blood. orange coloured.—Aug. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. tonic appetiser. chronic fever. Dahan. Manger. :—All over the Madras State . Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. digitately trifoliate. diarrhœa. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. NS. especially acid. juice useful in diabetes. high. USES. bark. Philippines. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. stimulates bile secretion. leaves. renews blood. crenulate. Stem-bitter. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. FAM. H. Forest Pepper.—Dehan. pitted on the rind. tonic. LOC. common in S. useful in skin diseases.-Jany. giddiness. K. Root and stem are bitter. ovary rudimentary. stomachic . Ceylon. 5-10 X 1.. antipyretic. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases.8. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever.8-3. also in the Deccan hills. . coriaceous. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. COM. stimulant and anti-periodic. Lopezroot Tree. diuretic. leaflets sessile. armed with small hooked prickles . :—Stem-bitter.—globose. Konkan and Kanara. China. piles. FT. Kadu-menasu. fruits. :—E. 15 m. cures jaundice. Limri. Macimullu. unisexual. Khasia Hills.

Tundu. cures fevers. Burma. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic.—Meliaceæ. :—Aquatic (in tanks). K. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. burning sensation. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. H. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Tunika. Chota-Nagpur. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm..) FAM. removes " Kapha ". G. Kanara. PARTS USED. of India). useful in . Mahalimbu. Assam. Indian Mahogany. Ceylon. Sk. NS. Bark—bitter. strangury. Trikota. :—E. M. cardio-tonic. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Dyes. DISTR. astringent to bowels. biliousness. Lim. :—E. :—Bark and flowers. :—Fruit. indigestible. HABIT. Toon. aphrodisiac. LOC. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. fattening. often cultivated. COM. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Shingoda. Water-chestnut. cures leprosy. Trikone-phala. antipyretic . Shringa-kanda-taka. Singhara. Mandurike. anthelmintic. COM. :—Cooling . cooling. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in ulcers. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. blood diseases. Jalakantaka-valli. Lud. astringent to bowels. itching. :—Bark-acrid. burning sensation. Gums and Resins. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. astringent to bowels. Kalingi. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). PARTS USED. Kuruk. Chittagong. M. :—Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. NS. Shingada. Deodari. good for scabies and gleet. inflammation. urinary discharges. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Waitz). removes " Tridosha". fatigue. Sandal Neem. Kaechaka. biliousness. Malaya. H. causes " Vata " . aphrodisiac. expectorant. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. Tun. LOC. DISTR. leprosy. Garige. headache. Tuni. Gandhagarige. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. FAM. Nand-vriksha.—Onagraceæ. LOC. "Tridosha". very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. tonic. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Apina. Singodi. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. Sk. tropical Africa. digestible. Kuberaka.

PARTS USED. Kurangaha. M. Gokharu. :—Plant is cooling tonic. young parts silky. t. Assam. thirst. H. FAM. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). K. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. one of each pair smaller than the other. Hussuk. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence.—opposite. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. Kantaphala. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. one pair longer than the other . See—Timbers. Gujarat. NS. :—H. L. Kanara. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. bad-teeth (Yunani). lumbago. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Gokhura.. Sk. Kere Padye. along nalas and in swampy localities. Shadanga. :—A procumbent herb. in Kashmir. Negalu . Sk. Sarata. They are also used in the form of poultice. Fl. improves taste . Gokshri. bronchitis. upto 3300 m.—several in each coccus . Fibres. Deccan and S. oblong. COM. Gokshura. FAM. Gokhru. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. stems and branches pilose. antipyretic.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). considered cool and sweet. Pindara. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. . pain. LOC. Pindara. of 5 woody cocci. Java. mucronate. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. See—Food Plants. LOC. M. hairy. each with 2 pairs of hard. K. CHAR. Calthrope. Sumatra. bile and phlegm. leaflets 3—6 pairs . TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Tumri. Petari . appetiser. NS.—globose.—Zygophyllaceæ. sharp spines. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . M. Ceylon. Fr. :—Throughout India. a common weed of the drier parts. Malay Peninsula. alexiteric. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. Chhota gokhru. Sd.. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. Ceylon. abruptly pinnate.—throughout the year. G. The plant contains an alkaloid. Gokhru. DISTR. yellow. biliousness. Aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. sore-throat. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—The whole plant. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. COM. used as food. LOC. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Country. Trikantaka. Seeds abound in starch. Karahate. LOC.. :—E. base oblique. solitary. Gamhar.:—Saurashtra. DISTR. useful in chronic fevers.—Euphorbiaceæ.

piles. vesicular calculi. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). yellowish brown. Mota-Motachor. FAM. Diuretic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. spinous toothed or serrate. K. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). the Deccan. increases menstrual flow. Fr. slender. enriches blood . fattening. pappus shorter than the achenes. cures skin and heart diseases. ciliate. cures "Kapha". branches angled and ribbed. L. urinary disorders and impotence.— purple. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Central India. tonic . gonorrhœa. Kanara. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. Kantapatraphala. emmenagogue (Yunani). inflammations. PARTS USED. tonic. NS. reduces inflammation . :—Western Peninsula. faintly ribbed. USES :—Fruits are cooling. "Vata". Konkan. urinary discharges.—Compositæ. C. S. M. Aja-dandi. Country. alterative . :—The whole plant. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Sk. LOC. oblong. linear-oblong or lanceolate. long. alleviating burning sensation. Brahmadandi. lumbago . Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. cough. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). ovoid. HABITAT. Brahmadandi. pruritus ani. improves appetite . Physiaran. :—Root. t. diuretic. DISTR. S. :—A glabrous herb. PROPERTIES AND USES. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. aphrodisiac. : — G. leaves. appetiser. removes " Tridosha ". West Rajastan. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. stem erect.—sessile. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. M. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). seeds. COM. fruits. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. LOC. Brahmadandi. bloody urine. Abu. Fl. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. asthma. gleet. suppression of urine. which is taken in large quantities. purifies blood . aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. —achene. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. . leprosy . Kanara. cures strangury. copious.— Dec. Fl. useful in strangury. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. reduces inflammation.—heads 6—8 mm. bitter. H. :—Wild in places. stomachic. pain . Brahma-dandi. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). Mt. :—Hot. Brahmadandi. S. Talakanto. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. CHAR. :—Cooling . diuretic.

the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. bitter. K. PARTS USED. :—Root-cathartic . Fl. FAM . N. Kaundal. Jyotsna. oil. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. :—Root.5 cm. stomachic. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex.. useful for boils and intestinal worms. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Wild Snake-gourd. Lal-indrayan. G. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. NS. antipyretic. CHAR. tendrils 3 cleft.. anasarca and ascites.5 cm. burning sensation. distantly denticulate. erysipelas.5 m. lobes ovate-oblong. COM. orbicular. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. deeply 5-lobed. slender. chireta and honey.6—4. Mukal. white. pungent. alterative. HABITAT:-In hedges. L. ovoid-fusiform. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.—Cucurbitaceæ. Betlada padaval. t. furrowed. variable. — surrounded with red-pulp . long as well as broad. Kadvi-padyal or patola . fruit. Mahakala. Ratan-indrayan. laxative. —G. leprosy. scarlet when ripe. Fl. stem robust. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Root-juice is very purgative. H.3-12. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. eye diseases. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). long. cures bronchitis.. woody below.-male in axillary . PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. reniform or broadly ovate. Australia. :—E. Ceylon. tendrils 3-fid. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. Katuka. dentate or serrate. Jangali chichonda. allays thirst. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. cures itching. Malay Peninsula.—July-Oct. headache and boils.—2. slightly hairy. axillary. Fr. blood diseases. COM. paler beneath.—monœcious. stems 3. asthma. Malaya. Sk. :—Throughout India. palmately 3-5 lobed. Patola.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. DISTR. LOC. Avagude-hannu. Fruit—hot. the Deccan. male in axillary racemes. Makal. it is given in decoction with ginger. M. Kiripodla. In Bombay. NS. H. Perula.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. base cordate . Sk. leaf-juice is emetic. leaves. K. females solitary.-6. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. alexiteric. Panduka. Leaves—good for biliousness. long. Indrayan.3 cm. :—A scandent annual. ulcers. antipyretic. leucoderma. L. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. with a long sharp beak. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. FAM. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . Jangli— Kadu padval. dark-green above. M. Sd.5—7.-5-12. long. green with white stripes when raw. base deeply cordate. CHAR.

3-partite.—Compositæ. NS.—throughout the year.. FAM. lessens inflammations . C. acute.—1.. Juice of fruit or root-bark. 30-60 cm. :—Throughout India. CHAR.— achene. purgative. peduncles very long. PARTS USED. rheumatism. stem and branches hairy. glandular. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. Fr.75-1 in. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm.-July. many years ago. :—Wild in hilly parts. :— Wild in Konkan. heat of brain. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. . limbweakness. M. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. Country. densely silky hairy. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). COM. N.5 cm. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. PARTS USED. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. diam. petioles densely hairy. L. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. Australia. slender. Fl. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. Fl. :—Abundant in the Deccan. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. high.— Apl. LOC. HABITAT.—many . Fl. gargle good for toothache. bracts large. bruises and wounds. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. female solitary. abortifacient. axillary. ligules yellow. hairy.—petals wedge-shaped. :—Root and fruit. ophthalmia. Ceylon. black. Kirkee. Sd. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. leprosy. DISTR. sparsely white hairy. white. :—M. Ray flowers ligulate. outer involucral bracts ovate. cures hemicrania.. LOC. inner slightly longer than outer. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. Deccan and S. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. fringed. t. DISTR. Malaya. Fr. Japan. China. middle lobe smallest. boiled with gingelly oil. which is found abundantly all over the country.—globose 3-8. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. Fruit—carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Leaves. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . used in epilepsy. Ekdandi. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. all over the State. ovate-elliptic. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. PROPERTIES AND USES. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils.. very hairy. t. :—A perennial straggling herb. on the Himalayas.75 X .—head solitary.

Fl. Konkan. appetiser. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. :—A twining perennial. H. :—Hot. M. LOC. Methi . Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. flatulence. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. long. enlargement of spleen and liver. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns.7 cm. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. Methi. Kanara. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. FAM. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. CHAR. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. diarrhœa.. LOC. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. aperient. Methi. roots many. anthelmintic. Jyoti. L. Pitakari (Pitamari). prevent hair falling off (Yunani). tonic. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda).5-5. COM. greenish-yellow outside. long. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Janglipikvan. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. 5-10 x 2. chronic cough. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. tapering to a fine point at the apex. :—E. fleshy. Fl. Kashmir. useful in dropsy. astringent to bowels. HABITAT..—Asclepiadaceæ. bronchitis. removes bad taste from mouth. purplish within. with coma . DISTR. dysentery. The leaves contain vitamins A and B.-Nov. cures leprosy. M. G. Hot and dry.—follicles. enlargement of spleen and liver. 7. Fenugreek . NS. :—Punjab. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. . dyspepsia with loss of appetite. Menthe—palle.5—10 cm.—Aug. large for the genus.— broadly ovate.—opposite. COM. NS. cultivated in many parts of India. emmenagogue. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. Sd. :—H. piles. Country. "Vata". PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nepala . See—Vegetables. they are also aphrodisiac. C. FAM.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. vomiting.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). S.—deeply lobed. :—Leaves and seeds. dropsy. Pitabija Vedhini. corona gibbous below. Muthi. M. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. t.—in umbellate cymes . K. :—Cultivated. Chandrika. K. antipyretic. narrowed at the apex to a free point. ovate or elliptic oblong. base cordate. much used in colic. tonic and carminative. LOC. Methi. and the seeds contain vitamin A. diuretic. Antamul. Methini. Sk. suppurative. :—South of Bombay. FN. also in low and sandy localities.

C. Bihar. white. L. DISTR. Vanapalandu. Fr. M. LOC. Peninsula. blotched with white above. found useful in dysentery.. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. :—Throughout India. :—Western Himalayas. Pitvan. 20-30 cm. KolaPutakand. Ceylon.. Borneo. ellipsoid. CHAR. . PARTS USED.— petals lanceolate. Ranganja . :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. linear. high.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. COM. Chota-Nagpur. t. Dabra. COM. Jaglipiaz.. HABITAT. diaphoretic and expectorant. tropical Africa. URARIA PICTA Desv. Fr. :—Common on sandy shores. Sk. W. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. tapering to both ends . bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). pale lead-colored. USES. Rankanda. :—Bulb. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. stems downy with hooked hairs.—purple. G. :—Sandy places. H. Fl.—Aug. drooping. Burma. light-brown .—capsule. Prishna-parni. NS. C. :—Konkan.— imparipinnate. Philippines.— Liliaceæ. 10-20 cm. folded on one another. Fl. LOC.8 m.5 cm. NS. Pithavan. Indian Squill. Dried leaves are emetic. stalks long. Malay Islands.9-1.. CHAR.— pod. perianth campanulate. black. :—G. long. :—Throughout the plains of India.—in racemes 15-30 cm. :—E. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. HABITAT. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tropical Africa. M. Pitavan . DISTR.. Thailand (Siam). Sk. linear-oblong. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. FAM. 5-7 (rarely 9).— flattened. scape erect 30-45 cm.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. :—Roots and leaves. hairy beneath. Ceylon. L. Malay Islands. H. FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). long. 15-45 x 1. Panjala. :—Wild.3-2. Shankaraja . 0. Fl. flat. long. polished. USES. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha.-Sept. Sd. :—A perennial shrub.—appearing after the flowers. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. Jangli-Ran-khanda. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—A herb. joints 3-6.. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). glabrous. PARTS USED. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine.

Sk. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. Peninsula. Ceylon. bronchitis. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. FAM. Fl.. LOC. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. The bulb is stomachic. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. laxative. 2-lobed. anthelmintic. skin diseases. good for piles. bronchitis. maritima of U. diseases of nose. alexiteric. tonic to brain and liver. L. Sarpagandha. alexiteric. Br. renal calculi. toothache. 15-20 X 1. :—Root and leaves. praemorse. Fl. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. COM. diuretic. obtusely keeled. Nakula. scilla of Great Britain. lumbago. H.— July. heating.—capsule. Vanda. Rasna. A. DISTR. scandent by simple or branching roots . stimulant and diuretic. Travancore. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). K. lessens inflammations .) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. Persara. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. Banda. and U. Fr. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. alexiteric. :—Bengal. bronchitis. Vriksharuha. Gujarat and Kanara. and an acute interposed one. useful in paralysis. acute. lip bluish dotted with purple. rheumatic pains. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. Rasna.5—9 cm. boils in the scalp. internal pains (Yunani). The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. tremors (Ayurveda). asthma. inflammations. useful in dyspepsia. The plant contains an alkaloid. W. Gaz.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. (In Med. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. HABIT. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES. . complicate. stout. :—G. antipyretic.—Orchidaceæ. heating. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. stem 30-60 cm. tip. long. :—Epiphyte. :—An epiphyte. PARTS USED. Rasno. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . column very short. emmenagogue. diseases of the abdomen. recurved. LOC. rheumatism. S. hiccup. NS. :—The bulb is pungent. t. USES :—Expectorant. long. heals fractures (Yunani). anthelmintic. Root is bitter. Rasna.—thickly coriaceous. pollinia ellipsoid. :—Konkan. LOC. and was found useful (Koman). Madhya-Pradesh.. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes.. Bihar. long. Atiras.3-2 cm. Chota-Nagpur. 1931. cardiac. purgative. :—Root is bitter. erect. Bandanike. M. dropsy.

eardiseases. abundant in S.—Rhamnaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. yellowish. boils and ringworm. bechic. dysentery. detergent. DISTR. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. See—Timbers. G. tuberculous glands. cures cough. fruit. (T. debility and slight cases of fever. Shala. globular. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Sk. itch (Ayurveda).. useful in leprosy. also in N. urinary discharges. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Coorg in Ghats. prolonged into a linear-oblong. FAM. NS.—Dec. :—E. also planted. Poppli. H. Shandike. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. 1-nerved wing. PARTS USED. Oils. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). piles. M. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. whitish). Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Lokhandi. Raktavalli. K. Sarjaka. Gums and Resins. buds 5-angled. Haruge. acrid. :—Bark-hot. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. in chronic bronchitis. Kaharub. expectorant.-nut about 5 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark. anæmia. Kundura. skin eruptions. Ceylon. Malamaitra.. Red Creeper. tonic. tonic and stimulant. alexipharmic. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. Pitti. Country. USES. PARTS USED. ulcers and wounds. amenorrhœa. FAM. Ragatarshado. carminative. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. :—Madras State. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Kanara and S.8 cm. LOC. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. DISTR. Madidhupa. NS. entire or crenate. M.-Jany. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Sandras. Safed-damar. C. diarrhœa. Sekalyel. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Dhupa. Bilidhupa. K. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. resin. useful in atonic dyspepsia. dark. hemicrania. greenish. with an offensive odour. Dhupa. Sk. Travancore. t. young branches and panicles pubescent. diam. Kubbila.5-3. :—Bark.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Khandvel. L. . Mysore.. LOC. LOC. CHAR. :—Western India. rheumatism.—in large drooping terminal panicles. M.—5-10 X 2. Kanara. Fl.—petals 5. Fl. stomachic. Tenasserim. COM. good for sore-throat. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). H. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. alexipharmic. :—North Kanara. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. :—E. :—A large much branched woody climber.

DISTR.—capsule. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. hairy.. Deccan . Fl. Kulhala. Agnibija. hairy on both sides. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall.8 cm. lanceolate. L. The juice mixed with mustard oil. with purple tips .. Seeds— anthelmintic. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. 10-ribbed. Sd. C. robust.. Kalejire. ofter cultivated. CHAR.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. Somaraj. anthelmintic. used in skin-diseases. :—E.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. COM. Ceylon. LOC. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. Kadvojiri. Bhutakeshi. erect. FAM. innermost the longest. K. K. :—G. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. :—Konkan . G. Kalhara. compound or pinnatisect. Vanajiraka. M. lobes 5. :—An annual herb. :—Seeds-acrid. yellow. Gadar-tambaku.—alternate.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. NS.-May. cure ulcers. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. hairy. truncate. China. Purple Fleabane. pappus reddish. involucre bracts linear. leafy herb . high . stems 60—90 cm. Ceylon . :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. branched near the top.—Dec. Gujarat. M. Fl. squeezed out by pounding. Sundika. Bakchi. LOC. rounded. H. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. L. Fr. Fr. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Afghanistan. rachis glandular pubescent. warted. sub-globose.-achene oblong cylindric. Vapehi. Java .—oblong. Kulara. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. "Vata" and "Kapha".) FAM. NS. DISTR. about 40-flowered. :—Plant. often cultivated.—Compositæ. t. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. PARTS USED. 5—9 x 2. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.—heads subcorymbose. CHAR. on long petioles. :—Throughout India . in equal proportions. Sk. Vishamushti.6-0. all coarsely dentate. The juice of the whole plant. HABITAT:-Waste places. Sk. lyrate. LOC.9 m. Kalijiri. high. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Somaraj. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). :—Annual. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kalizhiri.2 cm. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. COM. stem 0.Feb. . M. Fl. hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES. t— Jany. :—Throughout India. Fl. coarsely serrate. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. and leaves. Country.5—3.—Scrophulariaceæ. PARTS USED. H. astringent to bowels. Kutki.-rotate..

L. Vecrnam. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Sahadevi. 15—75 cm. Sahadevi. high. Panni. DISTR. . seeds. Fl. LOC. Sk. good for sores and itching of eyes. PARTS USED.-Feb. Sadori. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. used for asthma. clothed with white hairs . NS. flowers. erect herb. FAM. Bena. K. Kuruvelu. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. pubescent. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. :—A common weed throughout the State. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. cold. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. stomachic. are used in destroying pediculi. consumption. Vala. applied in inflammatory swellings . Australia. K. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. Bala. In Ceylon. Sind. COM. astringent. Ardhaprasadana. tropical Asia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Sahadevi. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. COM. Fl. striate. Devika. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Mudivala.—achene. H. with lime-juice. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. Khas. Valo . The expressed juice is given in piles. remove blood from liver. cures "Tridosha". The plant with quinine. :—E. G. stem stiff. NS. Osari. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. heads small. a depilatory (Yunani). Dandotpala. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). :—Annual. t. bronchitis . asthma. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Ash-coloured Fleabane . They are also used as tonic. awned. silky on the back. made into a bolus with lime-juice. LOC. stomachic and diuretic. Fr. Africa .—Compositæ. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. G. hiccup . oblong. kidney troubles. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. plant is used in fever convulsions.—simple. M. :—E.. pappus white. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. alternate. M. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). CHAR.— pinkish violet. Cuscus grass.—Gramineæ. Lavancha. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Ushira. Sk. FAM. LOC. tonic. H. Koosa. :—Plant.—Jan. :—Throughout India. Sedardi. Sadodi. Powdered seeds mixed with salt.

racemes up to 5 cm. consumption. :—Cooling. expectorant and diuretic. PARTS USED. lower ones keeled and fan-like. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. Nirgud.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Ceylon. sweats. Nilpushpi. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. astringent. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. :—G. :—Throughout the State. rachis stout. M. leaves. stomachic. COM. pale green. :—Roots. West-Indies and Brazil. Nirgundi. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. foul breath. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. anthelmintic.. Indrani. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. inflammations. erect. Sind. Culms stout.-leaf sheaths compressed. Sinduvara. soporific. :—Root. biliousness. useful in eye diseases. DISTR. Lakki. tonic and vermifuge. Sambhalu. alexiteric. bitter. Nirgundi. Nirgundi. FAM. K. LOC. Nirgari. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. long. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. heating. throughout the Malayan regions. stomachic.8 m. colour varying from yellowish to black. Bilenekki. useful in spermatorrhoea. blood diseases (Yunani). LOC. bilious fevers. promotes hair-growth. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. margin spinously rough. Kanara in damp places. PROPERTIES AND USES. up to over 1. slender. The roots contain an essential oil. febrifuge. :—Common in Gujarat and N. useful in burning sensation. Sk.. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. cephalic. head-ache. stimulant and tonic. Philippine Islands. Afghanistan. bitter. refrigerant. Fl. Nukki. high. H. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). DISTR. bitter. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. astringent. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . PARTS USED. usually sheathed all along. bronchitis. L. Leaves are aromatic. LOC. Sessile spikelets. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. USES :—Root is tonic. Cooling to brain. inflammations and irritability of stomach. NS. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . strangury. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. :—Throughout India. Konkan and Deccan. asthma. diuretic.—Verbenaceæ. The otto is used as a tonic. long. leucoderma. thirst. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Nigod. spleen enlargement.—panicle up to 30 cm. also cultivated.

G. PARTS USED :—Stem. Khandesh. The plant contains an alkaloid. Angur. H. Fruit— digestive. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. cures thirst. :—Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ahmednagar. stomachic. jaundice. good in chronic bronchitis . burning. . Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. good for eyes and throat. testicle swellings and piles. asthma. and traces of vitamins B and C. stones in bladder. fruits. skin should not be eaten. COM. M. astringent to bowels. :—Cultivated. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. seeds. Yakshmaghni. cough. Darakh. purifies and enriches blood . Draksha. Sk. :—Fruit-acrid. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Angura. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. FAM-—Vitaceæ. K. LOC. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. good for lungs. Madhurasa. cooling useful in thirst. Seeds—aphrodisiac. allays vomiting. bad effects of drinking. a remedy for skin diseases. catarrh and jaundice. flowers. fattening . blood diseases.. applied in scabies. :—A native of western Asia. hoarseness and consumption. strangury. produces constipation. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. produces alopecia. See—Timbers. Draksha. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. allays vomiting. spleen inflammation. :—E. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. diarrhœa. Draksha. tonic to liver. laxative. causes gases in the stomach. cooling . fattening. NS. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. Fruit is nervine. M. Grape-vine. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Gujarat and S. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. heat of body. DISTR. cooling. aperient. India. LOC. liver and kidney. useful in old fevers. emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. The fruits contain vitamin A. W. Guchaphala. appetiser. HABITAT. stops bleeding from mouth. Draksha. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. sparingly in Poona. fever. sweet. laxative. emmenagogue. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. difficult to digest. and given in coughs. piles. diuretic . leaves. expectorant. Drakh . diuretic. Country. Flowers—expectorant. Sap of young branches. syphilis.

Amangura. oblong. consumption. Gandhpatri. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . USES. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Fl. anthelmintic.. 0. :—Tubers-bitter. Sd. favours constipation (Yunani). HABITAT. aphrosidiac. :—Deccan. :—Root and bark. Balada. inserted on the top of.—petals 5. COM. chest troubles etc.-Feb. hard. Asoda. Kamrupini. swollen above the seeds. t. diam. CHAR. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . PROPERTIES AND LOC. pretty common in the ghats. Fl. LOC. long.-Jany. long. heating. Ceylon. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. oblong. good in asthma. bronchitis. acrid. rachis grooved with soft hairs. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). FAM. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Sk. Canaries. Kanchuki.—berry. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. lumbago. L. constricted between them. 23-30 cm. spathulate. K. Kanara. ovate. leucoderma. abundant in Sind . emmenagogue . minutely hairy. alexipharmic. green berries. Sogada-beru.—pod. DISTR. :—A branched erect undershrub. bony Fl. alterative.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. t. enclosed in inflated calyx. tonic. Wagati. PARTS USED :—Root. entire. psoriasis. CHAR. dark-green. smooth. NS.) DISTR. :—A robust woody climber. Tuber—bitter. leaflets 5-7 pairs. NS. Wakeri.5-12. branches armed with recurved prickles . :—Drier regions.3-1. Hirimaddina-gadde. G. somewhat scurfy. branches terete. Fl. . 6 mm. :—In the drier regions of India . insomnia. Fr.—2-pinnate. 7..—3-4. dark-orange. PARTS USED. inflammations. ulcers. :—K. obovate. inflammations. Winter-cherry.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). base dentate. hoary tomentose . M. long. Asan. tonic. Drakshasava—used as tonic. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. high. Fr.—yellow. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. Mediterranean regions. Ashvagandha.—greenish or lurid yellow. Hooliganji. :—Konkan jungles. bronchitis. LOC. Asgund. leaves. linear oblong. useful in "Vata". (not common. marasmus of children. Deccan.5 m.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. aphrodisiac. See—Fruit Trees. Cape of Good Hope.5-5 cm. Asgundh. slightly 5-angled.—5-10 X 2. pinnae 4-6 pairs. anthritis. COM. Vajini.. Ghodasoda. L. :—E.5 cm. calyx-tube. main rachis armed with prickles. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. asthma.—Solanaceæ. FAM. senile debility. "Kapha". Punir. Sd. Wagati. armed with prickles .— Sept. C. scabies. coriaceous. red. seeds. H. Gujarat.

H.) FAM. diuretic and deobstruent. Br. debility from old age.—Lythraceæ. COM. Japan. Kuda. cooling. NS. HABITAT. L. M. 5-9X 1.— numerous. erysipelas. :—Root is regarded as tonic. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. Baluchistan.—Apocynaceæ. . See—Tans. t. Bark-infusion is used for asthma.5 cm. Fr. Phulsatti. blood diseases. Vanhishikha. Ornamental Plants.. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Hale. uterine sedative. Sd. Kalakuda. USES. leprosy. Kanara near the sea-coast. Are. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. useful in leucorrhoea. tropical Africa. Hallunova. Dyes. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. FAM. Khirni. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. emaciation of children. Hayamaraka. Bela. leaf-infusion is given in fever. alexiteric. common in the Konkan and N. The plant contains an alkaloid. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. It is narcotic. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent.-May.3-2. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). alterative. LOC. Fl. COM. :—Bark and flowers. Madagascar. irregularly dehiscent. H. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. wedge-shaped. anthelmintic . Madhavasini. Kalikari. Sumatra. smooth. Dhawai. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . China. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . and in derangement of liver . :—Monsoon-forests. nigro-punctate beneath. branches long. Dhavani. scarlet. DISTR. Indrajav. dysentery. Fl. 1 cm. :—Pungent. NS. Java. velvety above. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. PARTS USED. rheumatism. Dhaw. Sk. Kodamurki. K. simple. ovate-lanceolate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Dudhi. long. LOC. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Santha. toxic. on trap in the Akrani. Sk. Swetakutaj. Madhuindrayava. :—G. used in thirst. Dhaiti. lumbar pains. ulcers and painful swellings . Indrajav. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying.—capsule. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). in 2-15 flowered cymes. :—G. Dhavani. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES. haemorrhoids.—numerous. :—Throughout India. Tamrapushpi. Dhawadina. acrid. Ceylon.—mostly opposite. brown. Dec. M. K. Indrajav. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Dhateki.

—Compositæ.—Jany. PROPERTIES AND USES. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes.. See—Timbers.5 cm. Bur-Weed. Madhya Pradesh.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. compressed . thickly clothed with hooked prickles. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Banokra. fever. Itara. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. oblong ovoid. involucre of fertile head.-E. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. USES :—Root is bitter. Timor. cures leucoderma.Feb. Sk. long.. poisonous bites of insects. digestive. especially root and fruit. antidysenterica (Yunani). Sarpakshi. LOC. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests .—many. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. PARTS USED.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. DISTR. Gadrian. salivation. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. COM. hard and tough. :—The whole plant. in W. with 2 erect beaks. barren heads many. complexion. DISTR. Dutundi. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. fattening. t. improves appetite. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). NS. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. at the top. epilepsy. :—Annual herb . India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. West-Peninsula. L. biliousness. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. Kambu-Vanamalini. LOC. H. hairy on both sides. 1-3 cm. Ceylon. FAM. In S. voice. Fl. Fr. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. memory. stout. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Fl. laxative. Shankhahuli.1-6. Sankeshwar. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. CHAR. all over the State. Clot-Cockle-bur. ovoid in fruit. G. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular .achene. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. stem short. fertile heads few. axillary. :—Bark and seeds. Aristha. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. :— Throughout India. tonic. :—Cooling. Dumundi. long and broad. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. the bark is specially useful in piles. 5-7. PARTS USED. Khandesh at 1050 m. alexiteric. rough with short hairs . irregularly incisoserrate . good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). antipyretic. anthelmintic. . tonic. M. LOC. 3-lobed. :—Rajastan. LOC.

M. Sk. :—Cultivated. carminative. Hasisunthi. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. head-ache. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. anthelmintic. It is stimulant. HABITAT. and dry situations. COM. Bordi. it is also given in the form of infusion. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . H. vomiting. PARTS USED. Kandara. Bor. Sk. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. useful in elephantiasis. M. stomachic. See—Condiments and Spices. Badari. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. K. . laxative. Plum.. Dridhabija. LOC. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. bronchitis. it cleans throat. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Alen. Koli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. NS. Indian Cherry. :—Rhizome-pungent. Ber. "Vata". Alen. FAM. gives lustre to eye. Ber. dyspepsia. Ipanji. expectorant. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Rhizome—pungent. Beri. lumbago. colic. Bogari. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. alexiteric. on poor soil and in rocky places. Gulmmula. Shringavera. Ada. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. to prevent nausea and griping. COM. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. aphrodisiac. piles. good in piles. Bor. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. NS. Kuvali. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. tongue and increases appetite. loss of appetite and piles. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). Ajapriya. Egasi. G. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. G. :—E. :—Rhizome. inflammations. vomiting. heating. Adrate. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. aphrodisiac. asthma. tonic. Bore. Boyedi. DISTR. removes pain due to cold. "Kapha". HABITAT :—Open dry forests.—Scitaminaceæ. LOC. pains. carminative. flatulence.—Rhamnaceæ. Ginger. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). rheumatism. Alla Adrak. Chinese Date. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. K. FAM. Anupama. appetiser. Ardraka. useful in heart and throat diseases. H. stomachic. pains (Yunani). :—E. eructations.

:—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. burning sensation. Leaves form a plaster to boils. good in liver complaints. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. on the laterite near the coast in N. abundant in the Deccan. seeds. Fruits contains vitamin A. Fruit— cooling. cure asthma. DISTR. frequently planted as a fruit tree. leaves. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit Trees. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles.. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. Root and Bark tonic. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . removes biliousness. Leaves antipyretic. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. useful in fevers. See—Timbers. bark. aphrodisiac. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. reduce obesity. Kanara. allays thirst (Yunani). Fruit—sweet and sour. fruit. Afghanistan. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. :—Root. tonic to heart and brain . Bark—causes boils . PARTS USED. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. Ceylon. thirst. laxative. Burma. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. :—Root-bitter. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. good in consumption and blood-diseases. causes cough. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Africa. wounds and ulcers. Leaves—anthelmintic. head-ache. cooling. causes diarrhœa in large doses .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Seed—astringent. China. LOC. biliousness. . indigestible. Australia. tonic.

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