SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

,
ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Vidula.-Mar. erysipelas. acrid. hypertrophy of tonsils. :—Throughout India. Kochi. Himalayas up to 1700 m. Country and Gujarat. :—Rajastan. Khair. :—Common throughout the Stale .5-12. strengthens teeth. 7. Saradruma. Kanara forests. Dyes. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. LOC. cures itching. along the coasts of Konkan and N. leucorrhoea. K. Bhuriphena. long. leprosy. Kushthari. cooling. Dipta. Malay Islands. Kath-bole. Khadira. Charmakusha. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Yajnika. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Shige. anti-pyretic. anthelmintic.—bipinnate. DISTR. measles and other skindiseases. M.5X2-2. piles.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). " Kapha ". Sige-balli or kai. antidysenteric. Deccan. prurigo. wrinkled when dry . heaviness. psoriasis. See—Timbers. Fl. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. :—Common in the Konkan and N. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Sikkim. :—An extensive woody climber. gums.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Soap-pod tree. linear-oblong. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. fleshy when green. given in elephantiasis. Chikakai. . mouth troubles. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. overlapping. Kanara (often on laterite).—in fascicled globose heads. " Vata ". G.-July. H. FAM. :—E. Khandesh Akrani S. Saptata. Sd.. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Lalkhair. Fr. Manda-otte. Western Peninsula. boils. Ritha. yellow. M. Sk. Shikekai. Burma. LOC. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Fl. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . ulcers. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels.-6-10 . inflammations. Sk. relaxation of the uvula. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). It is given in diarrhœa.-t. L.8 cm. Pegu. bronchitis. M. Phena. In ulceration of the gums. China. Dantadhavan. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). throat diseases. urinary and vaginal discharges. 5-10 cm. DISTR. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Tans. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. indigestion. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. CHAR. COM. sore-throat and tooth-ache. NS. tonic.—pod. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). LOC.. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers.

Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. ulcers. purgative. PARTS USED :—Bark. M. erysipelas. H. often cultivated. piles. biliousness. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. anthelmintic. leucoderma. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Kari jali. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. causes " Vata". blood diseases. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. prurigo. digestible. cures stomatitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. Kankri. erysipelas. caries of teeth. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. Devababhul. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Stinking acacia. See—Timbers. Vilavati kikar. detergent. LOC. eczema. Jheri baval. Sk. anti-diarrhoeal. inflammations. Jali. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. DISTR. buboes. blood-diseases. anti-dysenteric. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. alexiteric. not indigenous but naturalised. Internally they are aperient. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Arimeda. Sind. expectorant and good emetic. deobstruent. LOC. burning sensation. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. tonic. cooling. bronchitis. COM. stomatitis. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. Cassia flower. itching. often planted . K. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . Gandhelo khair . of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. In Philippines decoction. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. G.pungent. leucoderma.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). anthelmintic. Marudruma. ascites. Sauna jali. Sponge tree. . NS.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Gums and Resins. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). cardio-tonic. HABITAT :—Moist situations. leaves and gum. Gum—sweetish. LOC. Pissibabul. Gandhbabul.. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. :—E. improves appetite. cures " Kapha. Girimeda.

5 cm. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. It is used in congestive headache..8-6. Apamarga. K. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. Khajoti. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.—capsule. clustered near the summit of spike.9 m.5x2-4. erect. about 50 cm. LOC. elongate. Chalmari. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Sk. females. Fl. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. axillary spikes . in lax.—June-Sept. males. high. few. rounded at base. high. Kantarika. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. Kharamanjiri. hispid. M. t. smooth. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. tropical Africa. branches terete or quadrangular striate. pale-brown. somewhat 3-nerved. t. one-seeded. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. Fl. Aghada . 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.—utricle.—truncate at apex. :—Annual. 2. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. NS. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. M. H.3-0. Apang. Fr. Country.. Kuppi. Ksharamadhya. Var. Chichra. K. oblong-cylindric. Khokla. Khokali. enclosed in perianth smooth. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. The plant contains acalyphin. scattered. Chirchira. Merkati. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. Kuppi-gida. L. COM. Agheda-di. Sd. Utranigida. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. :—G. in elongate terminal spikes. Vanchhikanto. Fl.— ovoid. G. asthma.3 X 2. Latjira . branches long. 30-75 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ceylon. Philippines. CHAR. :—Throughout India. . H. NS. pneumonia and rheumatism.5 cm.—Euphorbiaceæ. elliptic obovate. brown. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Vasira. angular.—opposite. erect herb. Fl. minute.5-4. M.—monœcious.—greenish white. Fr. :—An erect herb 0. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. small. stem stiff. long in fruit. Uttrane . FAM. softly hairy. brown. perianth 4-5 segments. Sk. many. L. crenate-serrate.—Amarantaceæ.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. ascending. FAM.—Nov. :—E. Prickly chaff-flower. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn.-Jany. Sd. LOC. Arittamanjaria. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. DISTR.57. 3. COM. CHAR. :—Common in the Deccan and S.

acute. :—E. tumours. PARTS USED : —Root. sepals scarious. creeping and branching. heart diseases. DISTR. liver and chest pains. improves appetite. obtuse. NS. "Vata". :—Throughout India. Tropical Asia. and is considered useful in dropsy. PARTS USED :—Root.—turbinate. useful in abdominal pains. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. Bhutnashini. diuretic. CHAR. delirium. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. carminative. thickened in the middle. leaves. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. inflammations. abdominal pains. H. spadix. piles. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. throat. Gandhilovaj. spathe 15-75 cm. dysentery. 5-10 cm. dyspepsia. flowers and seeds. expectorant. flatulence. toothache. L. bronchitis.. 0.8 cm. COM. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. useful in general weakness. Godavaj. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. piles. rat-bite. itching. Gorbach . etc. bright-green. Australia. leucoderma (Yunani). prismatic. Vacha. . Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. America. Fr. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints.—Araceæ. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. fevers. slightly curved. thirst.8 X 1. margins wavy. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). pungent. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. laxative. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—An aromatic herb . anthelmintic. hysteria. Ugragandha. LOC.9-1. carminative. Sikkim. voice. bitter. Vekhand . laxative. See—Sacred Plants. long. Africa. useful in vomiting. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. laxative. good for mouth diseases. improves appetite. heating. carminative. inflammations. Europe and N. FAM. boils. Throughout Asia. Vekhand. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. epilepsy.. Sk. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Sweet flag . long. skin eruption etc. kidney troubles. Bitter. heating. Baja . Bach. alexiterie. emmenagogue . bronchitis. emetic. M. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. HABITAT :—Marshy places. ascites. loss of memory. stomachic. Ceylon. LOC. top pyramidal. K. Jatila. brain-tonic. dysentery. America. stomatitis. blood diseases (Ayurveda). green . anthers yellow. G. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. Baluchistan.7-3. useful in dyspepsia.

:—E. :—Grown in many places in India . FAM. in children. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.:—Konkan. useful in biliousness. Gorakhchinch. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. Gorakshi. Brahmamlika.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . HABITAT':—Cultivated. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. Gujarat. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Monkey-bread tree. Haggodgimara.. bark. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. fevers and other maladies.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . colic. It is a good remedy in asthma. indigenous in tropical Africa. NS. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. LOC. Sk. Powder is very effective insecticide. Bukha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. Baobab. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. etc. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. African calabash. NS. PARTS USED : —Root. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. FAM. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. vomiting. Goremlichora . COM.—Bombacaceæ. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tudgensu . anti-pyretic. M. Gorakamali. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. See—Timbers. fever. N. Gopali. DISTR. :—K. dysentery. Rukhdo . G. leaf and fruit. Gorakhaamli. LOC. Kanara evergreen forests. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. K. Panch-parnika. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. M. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth.—Lauraceæ. Pisa. H. COM. Deccan. Pichli. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. :—Western Peninsula. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. In small doses it is carminative and nervine.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

biliousness. expectorant. useful in worms. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Ankotha. COM. Dridhakantaka. K. poisonous bites. :—E.—Alangiaceæ. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. wasting diseases. Kalosadasado. gleet. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. LOC. Kalshish. Ankoli. Shyamala. blood diseases. NS. Philippines. Ceylon. Shirish. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. blood diseases. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Asroli. Sirisa. lumbago. Sk. :—E. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Kaloshirish. . Gudhapatra. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. cures erysipelas. alexiteric. Kanara. LOO. fish-poison. lumbago (Yunani). often along banks of nalas in N. :—Throughout India. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. China. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Kathora. Ankota. G. Tamraphala. Vamaka. colic. DISTR. alterative. H. and fruit. Karnapura. aphrodisiac. Sirai. alexipharmic . cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Shirish. S. Chinchola. cures " Kapha". M. " Vata "-pain. Seeds—cooling. anthelmintic. commonly planted along roadsides. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Ankola. Ankoli. Dodda-Hombage. leaves (rarely). pungent. Ankola. burning of body. Malaya. Sage-leaved alangium. inflammations. it is said to stop after-pains. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). hydrophobia. heating.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Krishnashirisha. COM. See—Timbers. Juice—emetic. M. See—Timbers. Onkla. Sk. Shirisha. G. acute fever. Ankola. inflammations. Ankora. Kullumavu. stem. dysentery. tonic. H. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. anthelmintic. Ankol. Sirsul. FAM. LOC. useful in inflammations. Root-bark— used in piles. Fruit—laxative. Akoly. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers.—Leguminosæ. Anedhera. Uddanaka. (Mimosaceæ). diarrhœa. indigestible.) FAM. Shankiniphala. :—Throughout the State. aromatics or honey. Garso. NS. Tantia. rat-bite. Root-bark poisonous. Kalashirish. K. Piloshirish. spermatorrhoea. carminative.

cures "Vata". NS. prescribed in ophthalmia. erysipelas. useful in vomiting. Bark-bitter. maturant. Seeds—fattening. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. itching. usually planted. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. bleeding piles. aphrodisiac. FAM. See—Timbers. The plant contains vitamins A. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. given in piles. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. syphilis. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites.: —Throughout India. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils.K. LOC. vomiting. etc. B & C. tumours. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. Burma. Palandu. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. Oil is used in leprosy. alexiteric. Ulageddi. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. and also in skin diseases . . G. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). seeds. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. M. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. inflammations. LOC. piles. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). bark. relieves tooth-ache. asthma. occasionally used in fever.. flowers. etc. leucoderma. Leaves—good in night blindness. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits.—Liliaceæ. Bark— anthelmintic. cooling. Piyaz. boils. :—Native country probably Persia. Seeds—tonic to brain. Bulb—tonic. epistaxis. blood diseases.. Dungari. diarrhœa. biliousness. used in leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in malaria. H. deafness. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Ceylon. enriches blood. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. catarrh. weakness. volatile oil. and chronic bronchitis . Onion. Kanda. scabies.:—E. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. seeds. improves taste. It is an important garden crop. scabies. paralysis. Sk. tonic. Flowers—aphrodisiac. piles. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. cultivated everywhere.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. ophthalmia. See—Vegetables. spleen diseases. stimulant and expectorant. eruptions and swellings. their smell useful in hemicrania. Root—astringent. Bark and seeds are astringent. good in rat-bite. which acts as a diuretic. ear-ache. body pains. dropsy. stomachic. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). leaves. strengthens gums and teeth. LOC. DISTR. excessive perspiration. emollient. skin-diseases. bronchitis. COM. appetiser. Rochaka. anthelmintic. Bengal. Rajapriya.

—Liliaceæ. troubles of spleen. Kumari. useful in diseases of eye and heart. Sk. ALŒ VERA Linn. Kanya. M. paraplegia and convulsive affections. :—E. K. Ghi-kumari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kapila. G. body and joint pains. M. asthma. tonic. Kattali. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. H. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Korkand. useful in inflammations. See—Vegetables. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. FAM. thirst. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Lasun. K. In pulmonary phthisis. Rasonaka. complexion. :—E. It is an important garden crop. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. COM. leucoderma. tumours. improves appetite. Korphad. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Lasan.—Liliaceæ. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. good for lumbago. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. low fevers. thins the blood (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Lasan. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. lumbago. chronic fevers. heating. LOC. Lashuna. G. H. FAM. alexipharmic. Lahsan. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. ear-ache (Ayurveda). LOC. thirst. The plant contains vitamin C. " Vata ". Country. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. anthelmintic. COM. Sk. Bellulli. bronchitis. Diuretic. leucoderma. Kumari. voice. oleaginous . the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. sciatica. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Indian aloe. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. Ugragandha. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. NS. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. Garlic. fattening. Ikshurmallika. epileptic fits. piles. carminative. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. inflammation. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Lolisara. hemiplegia. aphrodisiac. NS. liver and lungs . paralysis. caries of teeth. aphrodisiac. In Cambodia. . clears voice. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. digestive. coughs and other debilitating conditions. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. M.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. In cases of diphtheria. Kuvarpatha. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma.

—in dense racemes . digestive. K. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. leaves. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. ulcers (Ayurveda). pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. fattening. asthma. Satian. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. purgative. aphrodisiac. bark. Mediterranean. cooling. tonic.—Apocynaceæ. jaundice. Jamaica. NS. C. tropical Africa. gonorrhœa. used in fevers. COM. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. The plant contains aloin. L. West Indian Islands. emollient and demulcent. planted in Indian gardens . strangury. Hale. E. perianth cylindric . Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. crowded. also cultivated. ophthalmia. LOC. FAM. tonic. tumours. Java. inflammations. simple or branched. India. methritis. :—E. wild along the coast. lumbago. somewhat divided. yellow. vomiting. biliousness. M. milky juice. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Root. biliousness (Yunani). piles. lanceolate. It also acts as a mild purgative. common in the rain-forests of N. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. Africa. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Native of S. stem short thick. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. scape longer than the leaves. Satwin. :—Throughout India. :—Wild along the coast in S. liver troubles. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. DISTR. Ceylon. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. DISTR. margins spiny. Chatian. Kanara. anthelmintic. and it is largely imported into India. Saptaparna. skin diseases. Saptachhada. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. pendulous. scaly. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. Dita bark tree. Australia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. PARTS USED :— . pale-green. isobarbaloin and emodin. useful in eye-diseases. H. Fl. LOC. spleen enlargement.—sessile. fleshy. alexiteric. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Kaduhale. Satwin. liver complaints. carminative. Sk. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. :—A perennial herb . pain in muscles. alterative. purgative. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. HABITAT :—Moist forests. useful in splean inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Br. Barbados. Kadusale. Bitter . bronchitis.

INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. antiperiodic and febrifuge. laxative. blood diseases. numerous.5 X 1. oleaginous. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Fl. Mullarave-soppu. improves appetite. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. asthma. Tandulja. stomachic.. Kantanu-dant. H. piles. obtuse. laxative. bristles pointed. Ceylon. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. ovate. rugose. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. Pathyashaka. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. Fr. ovoid. rubbish heaps . also useful in catarrhal fever. obtuse. Mulladantu. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. entire. Root—heating expectorant. thickened at the top. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. biliousness. high. . Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. Kante math. tumours. appetiser. male calyx acute. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. often reddish. Tandulaja. leprosy. " tridosha " pain.— capsule. Prickly amaranth. K. bitter. tropical countries. digestible.). :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). antipyretic. female calyx oblong. anthelmintic. lanceolate. diuretic.3—3. also in fields. heating. rat-bite. boils and burns. :—Throughout India. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. long. :—E. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. Kantalo dambho.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes.— 3. DISTR. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. LOC. ulcers. hallucination.—Amarantaceæ. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bark—acrid. LOC. Apamarisha. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. :—An erect glabrous herb. M. unisexual. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. sudorific and febrifuge. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. 30-60 cm. apiculate. Tandulibija.2—7. Drug Com. HABITAT :—In waste places. Sk. G. Kantanatia.8 cm. burning sensation. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. Cholai. diseases of the blood. alexiteric. CHAR. leucorrhoea. See—Vegetables. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. LOC. good in diseases of the heart. leucoderma. FAM. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . galactogogue. rubbish heaps and fields. COM. NS. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. See—Timbers. useful in " Kapha ".18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain.

Sk. Blistering ammania. enlargement of the spleen. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Jangli mehandi. Sk. appetiser. bronchitis.—capsule. globose. Fr. NS. laxative. Kandavardhan. aphrodisiac. " Vata. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Ceylon. abdominal pains. harmful in "Kapha". See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Deccan. LOC. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Kuranda. removes " Kapha "." blood troubles. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. :—E. pungent. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Dadmari. constipating. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). DISTR. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Australia. erect or subscandent herb. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Kanthalla. NS. Afghanistan. Kuranti. strangury . Sd.—Lythraceæ. LOC. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. elephantiasis . high. Malaya. increases appetite and taste.—Nov. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. . Vikata. CHAR. red. FAM. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). L. Bharajambhul. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. H. 8-65 cm. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. branches usually opposite. Suran. Suran.:— Konkan. PARTS USED :—Root. G. the plant. China. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Suran . Corm is irritant and also the seeds. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. DISTR. :—Cultivated widely in the State. blood diseases. Sukaranda. Vatari.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. Fl. COM. asthma. M. K. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. t. :—Throughout India in moist places. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Fl. stomachic. Konkan rivers. Kandala. :—E. Gujarat and Kanara.—opposite. stomachic.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . LOC. Bitter and acrid . causes itching sensation. COM. fevers etc. Jalavgiyo. Elephant's foot. much narrowed at the base. corm. fresh or dried. sessile. G. Tropical Africa.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils.—Araceæ. tumours. acrid. LOC. Kurendika. In the Konkan. FAM. depressed. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Arshaghna. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. :—An annual. useful in piles. Suran. Grows wild on the banks of S.

broadly ovate. Kaju . Kakamari. Sophara. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. swollen peduncle of fruit. See—Timbers. Kakkisoppugida . equal to almond oil. Kakamari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. cordate or truncate. Fl. FAM. flowers. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Kaju. Prithagbija. leaves. H. Kaju. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Gova. Jermic. Kempu— Turkaka geru . piles. ringworm. Cashew apple-nut. DISTR. The plant contains Vitamins A. Kakaphal.—in panicles 25-35 cm. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant.— subcoriaceous. The seed contains vitamin A. FAM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. H. :—A native of tropical America. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy.. Upapushpika. hot. NS. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. many flowered. K. G. which is nutritious and emollient. and trace of C. . Sk. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. Sk. & A.—Anacardiaceæ. corns and obstinate ulcers. dysentery. LOC.5-12. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. CHAR. fever. HABITAT :—Coastal regions.5 cm. leucoderma. LOC. digestible. COM. Gerubi. ulcers. 5-nerved.—Menispermaceæ. See—Vegetables. 10-12 X 7. Kakamari. tumours. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. K. M. COM. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. Fish-Louse Berry. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. Corm is poisonous. Kanara. long. sweet. Kakanashika. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. USES :—Bark is alterative. :—E. :—E. Agni-krita. bark vertically furrowed . Oils. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. Garalaphala. skin diseases. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Crow-Fish Killer. Govamba. L. . B. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PARTS USED :—Bark. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Kakamari. It is supposed to have restorative power. ascites. NS. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. M. Kakamari. also cultivated. Kajutaka. G.

DISTR. Ananasa. PARTS USED :—Roots. t. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). :—Konkan. LOC. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. it is useful in jaundice. COM. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. Ananas . to a certain extent in Gujarat. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Kirata.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Kiriyata. Ananas hannu. N. DISTR.—Sept.—Bromeliaceæ. petals absent. dioecious. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda.) LOC. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. LOC. COM. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. H. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. black . Pine-apple . fruits. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Ananas. Creat. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). Ama. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. Kiryat. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. NS.-Oct. causes cough and biliousness. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Ananas . Mahateet. Olen kirayat. K. E. LOC. leaves and fruits. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. from Orissa to Ceylon. FAM. G. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . smooth.—Acanthaceæ. a poison to fish (Yunani). . H. native of Brazil (tropical America). FAM. Kanara. M. G. Olikiriyat. also acts as a purgative. It acts also as diuretic. Sk. Parvati. See—Fruit Trees. Mahatit. good expectorant. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Sk. K. removes gases from the intestines . In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Assam. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. cultivated. Ananas. :—Khasia Hills. :—E. Bengal. diaphoretic and refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. M. Nelabevu gida. Bhuinimba. :—E. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. Kantak sanjika. NS.

rugosely pitted. Malay Peninsula. yellowish brown. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R.—Labiatæ.—nutlets. clothed with woolly hairs . is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. Karitumbe. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. forming a spicate inflorescence. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. white below. smooth. Vaikunth. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. t. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. L.3-10 X 2-4. :—Throughout India. bracts lanceolate. undulate. :—An erect shrub. :—S. Malabar Catmint. K. Br. distant.2-1. Fr. C—2-lipped. :—An erect branched annual 0. crenate-serrate. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. NS. Sundraphul.8 m. Fl. and certain forms of dyspepsia. and N.-Nov. thickly woolly. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic.9 m. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. L. Kanara. lower lip very large and broad . and anthelmintic. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. :—Deccan. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. LOC.3-0..—small. Gojivana. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. 6. C—2-lipped. high. DISTR. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. :—E.—very thick. Oshthaphala. purple. lower 3lobed. polished brown. FAM. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Green leaves. Sd. dysentery.—lanceolate. extensively used in Bengal. CHAR. ellipsoid. DISTR.—Ghats. stomachic. distant. linear-oblong. sometimes cultivated. Alamoda. :—Konkan and Kanara. Sundara. alterative. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. solitary. made into an electuary. Chodhara. COM. . high. pale above. Ceylon. 1. PROPERTIES AND LOC.5 cm. M. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. very small. Sk. LOC.—in dense whorls . dyspepsia and fever from teething.—many. approximate above. G.— capsule. Karnatak. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. Plant is useful in general debility.-Oct. stem quadrangular. Fl. Fl. acute. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo .—Dec. t. oblong-lanceolate. upper lip 2-toothed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. pale beneath.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. tonic. acute at both ends . Fl. rose coloured. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Fr. lateral lobes small. HABITAT.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Sweet-sop. Bejjalu. Durangi. Sitaphala. expectorant. Button Tree. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. LOC. :—A native of West Indies . Sk. Dyes. :—E.—Anonaceæ. K. Dabria. improves taste and appetite . Dhava. M. cooling. enriches blood. Sitaphala. FAM. See—Timbers. Sugar apple. discharges. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Dindala. Damora. Anan. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Seeds—difficult to digest. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. tasty. LOC. LOC. :—Throughout the greater part of India. :—E. now cultivated throughout India. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Pitaphala. erysipelas. Ata. Krishnabija. COM. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. flavoury. enriches blood . Bark is bitter. causes fever and furunculosis . M. Dhavada. G. bark. G.—Combretaceæ. Dhavada. increases biliousness . NS. applied to skin-diseases. good tonic. NS. astringent to the bowels. sedative to heart. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Kanara border. Ceylon. increases muscular strength. stimulant. Root—cathartic. produce ulcers in the eye. Fruit—sweet. and eyesores. cooling . H. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. PARTS USED :—Root. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". Dindiga. Shushkanga. FAM. Amritphala. Dhava. useful in liver complaints. Dhavala. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Custard apple. DISTR. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . COM. LOC. Sk. K. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Bakla.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. H. useful in anaemia. bark. Bark is a powerful astringent. leaves and fruits. Bahubijika. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . DISTR. Sharipha. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Dohu. fruit and seeds. abortifacient. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. leaves. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Sitaphala. Sitaphala. Dhamora. chronic diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Anuram. Sitaphal. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. (Yunani).

Tennaserim. Kaduve. H. sweet. sprouts and fruits. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. COM. strangury. DISTR. vulnerary. Kadamb . M. Valkala. It is generally considered tonic. blood diseases. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. mixed with gram-flour. causes biliousness when ripe. bitter. Fodder Plants. Kanara . Malay Islands. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). stomachic. Kadubale. Kadamb. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Seeds yield an oil and resin. biliousness. :—G. Peninsula. FAM. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. NS. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Niv. :—Throughout India. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. . acrid. See—Fruit Trees. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent.—Moraceæ. Kadamb. Ajjanpatte. Chandkuda. saline. LOC. Jajpugri. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. Nadija. Kadamba. Sk. Fruit—heating. often cultivated. Chandkuda. indigestible. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. sap of the tree. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. :—E. Pegu. aphrodisiac. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Kadam. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. LOC. USES:—In the Konkan. astringent to bowels. Kadamb . COM NS. K. " Vata". fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. alexiteric. " Kapha". USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Bairi. Upas Tree. PARTS USED:—Bark. aphrodisiac. is a good hairwash. Nipa. wild or cultivated. See—Timbers. cooling. Surabhi. M. K. LOC. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Burma. galactagogue. Sacred Plants. In eye inflammations. Chandala. They are detergent and their powder. Ashokari.—Rubiaceæ. common near Yellapur. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Ceylon. FAM. Sprouts—acrid. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. PARTS USED :—Seeds. :—W. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Sk. Malayan Peninsula. H.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Karnapuraka. good in uterine complaints.

Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Nelkadle. CHAR. good in ophthalmia.3-2. :—E. heart and spleen diseases. Moda. H. cure " Kapha ". Bhuchanak. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. scorpion and other stings. vomiting. Fibres. Wild celery. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. Karafs.. Markati. W. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM NS. nasal catarrh (Yunani). Shimbika. scabies. erect. M. rectal troubles. abdominal pain. cure asthma. The plant contains vitamins A. Seeds—carminative. Sk. :—E.— in umbels. hiccup. Bhuimug. urinary discharges. used in anasarca and colic. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. See—Timbers. G. Sk. segments once or twice trifid. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. anthelmintic. Abyssinia. 0. Snehabijaka. Ajmud. L. apex toothed . good for heart. vomiting. G. Ground-Pea-nut. DISTR. Monkey-nut. pedicels 6-16 . Fr. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. Brahmakoshi.:—Foot of the N. N. laxative. . Bhuimug-chana. abortifacient. See—Vegetables. H. Mandapi. Fl. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Glucoside apiin is present. Ajamoda. Europe. ascites. β-antiarin. amenorrhœa. Chinimung. chest-pains. " Vata " .5-2 mm. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. specially near large cities. aphrodisiac. fever with cough. Ugragandha. Africa. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Celery. Ajmoda . Afghanistan. high. tooth-ache. Java and Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. tonic. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Bhuimug. FAM. Bori ajmud. improve appetite .—Umbelliferæ. M. branching. LOC. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. appetiser. rheumatism.— radial. inflammations. astringent to bowels .—1. K. bronchitis. ridges narrow. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Mungphali. W. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. and γ-antiarin. NS. useful in ophthalmia. rays 5-10. COM. LOC. cauline 3-partite. vittae broad. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Bodi ajomoda.4 m. :—A biennial plant. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. Asia. traces of B and C.

Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. LOC. cooling. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. cardiotonic. bleeding gums.:—Extensively grown in N. Areca palm. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Madras. Deccan. Gujarat and S. H. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. Oils. DISTR. Siam.—Palmæ. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Supari. Kaungu. indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. used for eye-inflammations. gleet. Supari. In French Guinea. Suppiyari. LOC. diuretic. M. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. PARTS USED :—Root. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. Betta. Gum pungent. Bengal. gum. Chhataphala. Adki. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Sopari. COM. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Seed cooling. Country. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Areca-nut palm. removes foul breath. Nut astringent. leaves (rarely). Assam. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Hopari. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Tantusara. G. Poga. laxative. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. emmenagogue. FAM. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. Malabar. Mysore. NS. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. giddiness. useful in urinary disorders. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. aphrodisiac. Akota. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Pugiphal. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. seeds.. removes pus (Yunani). :—E. LOC. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Indo-Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Kanara. fairly largely in the Konkan. improves appetite and taste. Burma. ARECA CATECHU Linn. M. digestive. . Sk. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Pophal. LOC. Chikka. Betel-nut palm. See—Food Plants. K. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. DISTR. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). USES. Chikkan.

arecoline. prickly. . useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Fl. L. netted. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. juice yellow. inflammations and bilious fevers. various skin-diseases. :—A glabrous. Sd. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. sinuately pinnatifid. expectorant and demulcent. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. stem 0. Seeds—purgative. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. diam. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds.— terminal. arecaidine. Brahma dandi. Bharbhand.12 m. globose. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. and in pertussis and asthma. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Pirangi datturi. oblong. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Mexican prickly poppy . emetic. H. oblong-ovoid 2. veins white. Shialkanta. destroys worms . cures leprosy. See—Timbers. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. prickly. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.8 cm. Fl. Srigalkanta. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections.—all the year. :—E. 7. useful is strangury.—Papaveraceæ. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. Fr. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. Root anthelmintic. USES :—Root is an alterative. stem clasping. This is said to bring the worm out at once. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. brownish black. Pita-pushpa. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic.5-3. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Fruit Trees. yellow. Seeds are laxative.—thistlelike. Bila dhatura. NS. nauseant. DISTR. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Svarnakshiri.—numerous. M. Indigenous in tropical America. Daruri. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). branching. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. CHAR. G.5-5 cm. Plant enriches blood. It is also diuretic. LOC. t. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. FAM. high. seeds and yellow juice. Darudi.). It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. Juice—used as a collyrium. 2. Balurakkisa. Sk. and guvacine. sedative. Datturi. purgative. antidote to various poisons. Ind. glaucous herb .—capsule. LOC.5-18 cm. relieves blisters. COM. jaundice and cutaneous affections.3-0. PARTS USED :—Root. India. opening by 4-6 valves. K. spinous.

Elephant Creeper. 12-ribbed . Sk. Kidamar. t. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . Sd. Adumuttadagida. Hastivalli. stems. :—A very large climber. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. H. Kitamari. LOC. FAM. LOC. Dhuma-patra.5 cm. NS. H.5 cm. CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. prostrate. anthelmintic. weak. Sk. Dridhadaru. G. strangury. tubular. pubescent outside. painful joints. cultivated. white-tomentose L. Kidamari. Soge.:—Konkan. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. COM. aphrodisiac. M. pedicel with a large bract at the base. Ceylon. K. Peninsula. long and as broad as long. Samandarka phal. stems stout. Fl. Varghoro. Shyambhuna.5-4. W. :—A slender perennial. Country. tropical Africa. DISTR. Deccan and S. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). t. perianth 2. Fr.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Samudrashosh. Bracteated Birth-wort. with revolute margins.—Convolvulaceæ. NS. powdered root is given with milk. :—Bengal. ovate glabrous above. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. diuretic . bracts large .—capsule. M.— globose apiculate. Samudraballi. Fr. Ajantri. Arabia. base cordate.-Nov. Vridhadaraka. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. LOC. Kitakaba. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. In synovitis.— 3. Leaves are maturative. long.—Aug. the bands silky pubescent outside. perhaps a native of Bengal. base cordate with wide sinus . :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan.8-7. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. white-tomentose beneath. Gandali. Ganda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. absorptive.—solitary.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. long. C—5-6. :—Throughout India.3-25 cm. used in gleet.3-2 cm. infundibuliform. (sometimes even larger). Samudrashok.-Sept. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Gujarat and S. rose purple. white-tomentose. glabrous inside..—in sub-capitate cymes. reniform or broadly ovate. " Kapha" fevers. :—E. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. HABITAT. Fl.3 cm. Fl.— 7. . G. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. useful in " Vata". long. Samudrapatrashoh.—deltoid with cordate base .5-30 x 6. Fl. tip linear dark purple. striate. :—E. COM.— Aug. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. Konkan. K. Kiramar. 1. M. Java. DISTR. Krimighni. peduncles stout. tube inflated.—Aristolochiaceæ. Country. oblongellipsoid. L. Samardar sokh. FAM. gonorrhœa. base subglobose.

M. Isvara balli beru . Nepal. Fr. alexiteric. Indian wormwood.. Majtari.5 cm. woody at the base. H. L. LOC. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. K.. dry cough. Dona.—Nov. grooved. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. also useful in dropsy. Ceylon. base vaiable. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections.—flat. joint-pains. bitter. biliousness. t. Ishvari. 3. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa.—in few flowered axillary racemes.—Compositæ.—Aristolochiaceæ. Nagduna. PARTS USED :—Roots. slender. bract opposite the pedicel. LOC. Nagdamani. :—E. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Indian Birth-wort. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Stem long. Bengal. Sk. entire with undulate margins. CHAR. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Gathona. 6-valved. COM. Sugandha. Dovana. M. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. leaves and seeds. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. :—Western Peninsula. winged." pains in the joints. globose-oblong. Fl. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Arkamula. COM. . obovate oblong 10-12. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Mastaru.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. K. DISTR. perianth greenishwhite.5x7. Fl. The plant contains an alkaloid. H. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant.5 cm. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. M. Nilpushpa.5 cm. G. Nakuli. Saraparni. Seeds useful in inflammation. Mother or Mugwort. NS. emmenagogue. Dhor-davana.3-2.:—Konkan and S. Arkamula. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. purgative (Yunani).) FAM. Sapsan. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). reaching 4. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Sk. Flea-bane. :—E. Country. :—A twining shrub. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sd. Isharmula. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. FAM.8-10 X 1. useful in " Tridosha. Ruhimula. tonic. long with globose inflated base. Manjipatri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.—variable linear oblong. dyspnoea of children. NS. — capsule.

aphrodisiac. Halasina. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. but rather difficult to digest. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). temperate Asia. leprosy. Kantakaphala. useful in biliousness. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. Jack-Orange wood. grown in gardens also. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. asthma and brain diseases. lanceolate. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. stems leafy. "Vata".—Urticaceæ. appetiser. although very nutritious.10x2. Thailand (Siam). itching (Ayurveda). tonic. Seeds sweet. G. 0. Java. " Vata".:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. t. LOC.—Jany. L— lower leaves 5. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Phanas. H.5-5 em. Panos. DISTR. See—Timbers. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. oleaginous. minute. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. Chakki. cures "Kapha". Externally it is used in fomentations. LOC. The plant contains an essential oil. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. PARTS USED :—Leaves. An infusion is given as a tonic. inner hermaphrodite. toothed or again pinnatisect.6-2. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Phanasa. Panesa.-Hilly districts. fattening. :—E. often planted along roadsides in N. Ghats. 3-fid or entire. FAM. ripe fruit laxative. enriches blood. Fruit Trees and Dyes. fertile.— achene. Sk. constipating (Ayurveda). Fl. . Tage.:—A perennial shrub. asthma. petioled. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. upper leaves smaller. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Kujja. COM. involucral bracts villous. HABITAT. aphrodisiac. Fl. ulcers. tonic. white tomentose beneath. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. Vanas. DISTR. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Panas. diuretic. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. base lobed. ovate. Skandaphala. LOC. deobstruent and antispasmodic. :—Konkan. Fr. outer flowers female. deeply pinnatisect. M.—heads ovoid or subglobose.4 m. aromatic. K. pubescent above. high. " Kapha". Kanthal. aphrodisiac. Jack-fruit tree. alexiteric. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. solitary or 2. cooling. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. fruit and seeds. oblong ellipsoid. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. Ceylon. The unripe fruit is astringent. NS. lobes entire. :—Widely cultivated. hairy.

Satamulika. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places .—berry.000 m. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. Fl. cultivated as ornamental plant. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. S.—in simple raceme. . NS. :—Extremely scandent.5-10 X 1. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. Fl. 2. leaves and flowers. spinous. Asual Shatavari.—opposite 7. Indies.—Liliaceæ. LOC. throat complaints. t. NS. CHAR. JAVANICA Baker. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. abundant round about Poona. indigestible. astringent to bowels. narrowed at both ends.9-1. naturalised in many parts of India. thin. :—E. long. alterative.5-5 cm. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Java and Australia.— follicles. L. up to 1. FAM. common in the Deccan. tumours.. red when ripe. valvate in bud. curved.ovoid. Flower is a good styptic. C. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. cooling. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. straight.—linear with a stout spinous spur. Fl. Country. Fr. A fibre is extracted from the plants. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. tonic. Kuraki. in the Himalayas. high. from Kashmir eastwards. FAM. M. cladodes in tufts. blood and eye diseases. L. Satavari. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. and moist monsoon forests. appetiser. tapering at both ends. linear. with coma. :—Introduced from the W. K. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. Satavari. t. root-stock tuberous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa.-Feb. erect. M. CHAR. Tropical Africa. LOC.5 cm. Kaktundi. Sd. H. biliousness. dark brown. Satavari. inflammation.2 m. oleaginous. thorn. DISTR. galactogogue. Svadurasa. segments. :—An erect undershrub. Fl. 0.5 cm. Fr.—Asclepiadaceæ. fragrant. stomachic. COM. Sk. spines recurved. :—Deccan.—June-Sept. globose. :—G. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. Shatavari. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—lobes reflexed in flower.3-2. DISTR. Var. Siprimuli. undershrub. Svetmuli. See—Ornamental Plants.-Dec. useful in dysentery.—orange in axillary umbels. solitary. white. PARTS USED:—Root. oblong. PARTS USED:—Root. M. aphrodisiac. lanceolate. 7.

—capsule. Fr. upper 2-fid. Africa. 4 inner small. Konkan and Deccan. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. K.6-1. sedative to gravid uterus . and alterative tonic. t. CHAR. HABITAT:—Swampy places. tonic. Narayana Taila.—sessile. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves good for cough. linear oblong.) LOC. laxative. Seeds fattening. . (Yunani. NS. long. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Vishnu Taila. gonorrhoea. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. aphrodisiac. Gokhran. hispid with long hairs. Fl. aphrodisiac . antispasmodic. Ekharo. galactogogue. 3. 4-8 seeded.) FAM. leprosy. Talamkhan. Phalaghrita. high. demulcent. inflammations. erect.— Acanthaceæ. lower deeply 3-lobed. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. M. gleet. pointed. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. The root is sweet. leaves and seeds. 18 X 3-3. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. aphrodisiac. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. Fl. Kak-Kokilaksha.2 cm. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. Kolavalike. dysentery. aphrodisiac . Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. eyediseases. :—A stout herb. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. Talamkhana. USES. tropical and S. tonic. Kalavankabija. 2 outer large. :—G. H.. bracts. aphrodisiac. Gokshura. DISTR. lanceolate. COM. useful in jaundice and anasarca. like leaves. tonic. diuretic.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. widely 2-lipped. colic. biliousness. thirst.—June-Jany.:—Common throughout the State. subquadrangular. scalding of urine.5 cm. thickened at the nodes. C. LOC. tonic. lips sub-equal. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. ascites. abdominal troubles. USES :—The root is refrigerant. abruptly swollen at the top. Vajrakantaka. Vikhara. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). hairy.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Sk. Used in diarrhœa. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Shrigalghant. improve blood (Yunani). Seeds cooling. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. expectorant. useful in diarrhœa. L. Gokhalkanta. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. Ikshura.— purple blue. urinary calculi and discharges. stems fasciculate. constipation. And. and dysentery. :—Throughout India. ciliate . 0. anuria. anæmia. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. Ceylon.8 cm. hypnotic. tube. Talim-khana.

also used in diarrhœa. t. Sd. lobes equal spangled. rarely wild. M. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Sk. inflammations. enlargement of spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. obovate-oblong or spatulate. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely).:—Throughout India in wet places. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. pale blue or white. leprosy. pungent. K. Fl. DISTR.5-10 mm. decussate. heats the body (Ayurveda). stops diarrhœa and vomiting. Karmare . Bama. H. anæmia. ovoid. FAM. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. 6-25 X 2. .) FAM. striate. Carambola apple. oblong. branches many ascending. causes biliousness. acute. G. Darehuli. NS. Mudgara. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn.—Scrophulariaceæ. digestible. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Jalneam. axillary. Soumyalata. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Nirbrahmi. Brahmi. capsule. Fr. with shining dots. Karmal. tonic. useful in bad ulcers. pale. Kamaranga. LOC. found wild near N. Barambhi. heating. astringent to bowels . L. fruits. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . dried fruit is given in fevers. Manduki. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. fleshy. when fresh. NS. ascites. HABITAT :—Damp places. 2-lipped. emetic.—Oxalidaceæ. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Fruits are used in pickles. COM. Tamarak. perhaps a native of Malaya.:—E. H. allays thirst. Jany-May. indigestion. :—A glabrous. sour. Brahmi. solitary. black dotted : entire.. Kamrang. LOC. Kamarakh. CHAR. :—E. causes biliousness (Yunani). "Vata". Karmar. succulent. K. C. Kamarakha. Fl. Brahmi. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sessile. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Kanara villages. LOC. Karuka. Kirihuli. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . astringent to bowels. Sk. Safed-Kammi. laxative. Ceylon and all warm countries. Shiral. creeping herb. Thyme-leaved graticula .:—Konkan and Deccan. stems rooting at the nodes. Coromandel gooseberry. tumours. M. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. Fruit sour. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. See—Fruit Trees. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics.

diuretic. Fr. the upper small. Guggula. all male or with a few females below.—Burseraceæ. Guggul. :—Bihar. Danti. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Assam. hairy. is used as a local application in rheumatism. W. K. FAM. Fl. DISTR. useful in insanity. NS. Guggula. Peninsula. It is a direct cardiac tonic. COM. Sd. :—A stout undershrub. good in scabies. Uddipta. Root and leaves are cathartic. mottled. in monsoon forests of N. PARTS USED :—Root. Gum gugul. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. leaves and seeds. jaundice (Ayurveda). capsule. N. Jatala. Sk. conjoined with petroleum. itching. NS. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. useful in pains. . often palmately 3-5 lobed. Danti. epilepsy and hoarseness.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. obovoid. purifies blood. smooth. Mukul. FAM. LOC. Devdhup.8 m. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Rechani. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Danti. Vishodhini. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Burma. purgative. Gugul. Jamalgota. M. L. Sk. syphilis . high. 0. of three 2-valved cocci. Kanara. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers.9-1. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity.. inflammations. COM. Dec. yellowish. Kaduharalu. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. LOC. LOC. Seeds are poisonous. Danti. diseases of skin and abdomen. epilepsy and hoarseness. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). aphrodisiac . Guggula. :—E. M. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. sinuate. enlarged spleen. ellipsoid. wounds. CHAR. Malaya. Dantika. the lower large. or in monsoon forests. Fl. Chota Nagpur. toothed. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. Bengal. anthelmintic. t. H. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Dantimul. leucoderma. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. Leaf-juice. alexiteric. They are used in dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. anaemia. piles. :—Dry open Deccan plains. :—G. G. Hakum. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. K. 2-glandular. H. anasarca and jaundice. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac.—Euphorbiaceæ. leucoderma. branching from the roots. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. urinary discharges and calculi. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. flat. diuretic. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. Fr. H. LOC. vaginal discharges. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Shikhivardhaka. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. anal troubles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. tonic to liver. dehiscent. Kushmanda. NS. menorrhagia. leprosy. M. Golkaddu. cures biliousness. Koholu. " Tridosha".8-2. not indigenous. removes foul taste from mouth. burning sensation. G. tonic. oil from the seeds. red and white. ulcers. USES :—Root-decoction is given.-Feb. aphrodisiac. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Root. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. COM. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. cough. 15-20 X 1.5 cm. Tallow-White gourd.—Cucurbitaceæ. cures strangury. leucoderma. See—Ornamental Plants. tuberculous glands. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. LOC. DISTR.—pod. K. t. cough. it is also anti-fat remedy. heart tonic (Ayurveda). Sikkim. LOC. Sd. wounds and ulcers.-Apl. fever.10-15. dysmenorrhoea. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. used in dry cough. . appetising. Dorokaru. thirst. astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. blood diseases. biliousness. Karkutika. Bark—astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. urethral discharges. seeds. eye diseases. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). leprosy. enriches blood. Fl. Kumaon. Sk. Kondha. anthelmintic. Timisha. DISTR. Kohala. blood diseases . China. :—E. Fruit—antiperiodic. PARTS USED :—Fruit. tonic. given' to corpulent persons. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). cardiac and general tonic. cures biliousness. used as gargle in stomatitis. bark and flowers. FAM. There are two varieties. Bhuru-koholu. blood impurities. Seeds— cooling. Ash pumpkin. Buds—indigestible. asthma. Kudimah. used in strangury. in dyspepsia and flatulence. biliousness. Burma. :—Cultivated throughout the State. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. tuberculous glands. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. "Kapha". used in piles. thirst. Budekumbalkai.

high. and diuretic. 0. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. upper subsessile. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields.-achene. China. Country. Fl. Mriduchhada. M. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. H. S. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. . FAM. Bhamurdi. with a strong odour of turpentine. Pilokapurio. L. :—Throughout plains of India. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. :—Annual herb. anti-pyretic. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. mixed with black pepper. Kakarunda.9 m. catarrh. finely silky pubescent on both sides. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. it is given in bleeding piles. pungent. pappus white. haemoptysis. DISTR. Kukkurdru. oblong. Kanara. etc. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. ash colored. fevers. heart diseases. Fruit is made into confections. Sk. Kalhar.—the lower ones petioled. inner bracts with green midrib. Australia. LOC. Tamrachuda. sweetish.-Apl. Ceylon. often incised or lyrate. bitter. Kukurbanda. Oil—is soporific. M. sharply serrate-dentate. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. Fr.3—0. COM. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. :—G. t.—Jany. thirst. not ribbed. good in syphilis (Yunani). good for the brain and liver.:—In plains south of Bombay. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. LOC. base tapered. Konkan. it is also useful in insanity. See—Vegetables. BLUMEA LACERA DC.—Compositæ.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. blood diseases. Kakaronda. cures bronchitis. CHAR. febrifuge. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). asthma. Jangali-muli. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka.—heads many. and nutritious tonic. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. elliptic-oblong. Fl. phthisis. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). laxative. cooling. burning sensation. Tropical Africa. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. astringent. densely glandular. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. NS. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. pubescent. LOC. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. stem erect. Malaya. Deccan.

in pain of joints. Leaves— appetiser. anæmia. G. sub-orbicular.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Sk. useful in biliousness. Leaves useful in dyspepsia.—in unequal pairs at each node. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. useful in ophthalmia. Indian Archipelago. Hogweed. Ceylon. Talimara. LOC. Plant contains large quantities of pot. abdominal pains. DISTR. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. NS. HABITAT :—Coastal districts .—Palmæ. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. LOC. M. Seeds—tonic. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). "Vata". Desert Palm. astringent to bowels . Kolaba and Thana districts. Bitter. stem prostrate or ascending. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. alexiteric. L. fusiform. DISTR. It is used in jaundice. cooling . COM. Fan Palm. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Persian Gulf. asthma. pinkish. common in S. :—Tropical India.—clavate. G. K. very small. FAM. cultivated. gonorrhœa. :—E. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Punarnava. native of tropical Africa. green above. NS. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. scabies. :—E. Moto-satodo. Kommegida. :—A diffuse herb. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. CHAR. It produces a very marked and persistent. M. bluntly 5-ribbed. Varshabhu. leucorrhoea. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. India. t. cultivated and self-sown. tumours. Sk. leaves and seeds. LOC. Ghetuli. useful in lumbago. "Kapha" heating. Burma. Fr. Santhikari. K. —Nyctaginaceæ. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. 1. whitish beneath. Tad. Celyon. root large. Tala. generally found in poorer soils. blood impurities. Palmyra Palm. Tad.—in corymbose umbels. . Fl.— Nov. FAM. inflammations. H. COM. very glandular . Lekhyapatra.3—2 cm. heart diseases.. Africa and America. Vasu. carminative. and dropsy. Shothaghni.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. spleen enlargement. Baluchistan. (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Madhurasa. Dholia-saturdo. Brab tree. Dhvajadruma. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. expectorant. HABITAT :—A weed. H. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). P. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. alterative. Raktakanda. Asavardu. Tad. margins undulate. Uttar Pradesh.

ulcers . antidysenteric. Luban. fatigue. Dhupam. Salai. may cause vomiting. Gums and Resins. scabies. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. thirst. Dup. Mukulsalai. mouth-sores. Kundur. causes " Kapha ". useful in biliousness. Vishesha-dhupa. tonic. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Sambrani. diuretic . vaginal discharges. Salgond. DISTR. Bark-decoction. :—E. "Vata". BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. Liquors.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. fruits. aphrodisiac. cooling. COM. intoxicating. FAM. See—Timbers. purifies blood. M. useful in skin and blood diseases. removes "Kapha". convulsions. fruit and gum. NS. Fruit—cooling. dry. fattening. LOC. allays asthma. strengthens teeth. Salpe. intoxicating. Salashi. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Loban. hot. fevers. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. with a little salt added. cough. heals wounds . bitter. causes headache. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. biliousness. " Vata". Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. skin diseases. useful in intestinal troubles. Gum—hot. with a good flavour. bad throat. Moddi. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. antipyretic. allays thirst. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. used for boils. juice. allays. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). Fruit—aphrodisiac. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. also used as antiperiodic. K. alexiteric. laxative. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. diaphoresis. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Gum is of five kinds . improves taste. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. blood complaints . fattening. invigorating. thirst and scalding of urine. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup.—Burseraceæ.. expectorant. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . bronchitis. helps delivery. H. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. purifies blood (Yunani). Indian olibanum tree. binding. asthma. Dhup. if taken regularly acts as laxative. antiglycosuretic. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). also found in Belgaum District. Sugars. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . antibilious . Fermented juice—tonic. aphrodisiac. Salphali.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. G. expectorant. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. flowers. leaves. Guggali. flowers. LOC. Guggula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . PARTS USED :—Bark. burning sensation. astringent to bowels. . cures dysentery.

Broach. spasmodic. eye-troubles. cure nose. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Taramira . Mohori. :—Cultivated in India. lessen oedema of body. good for throat complaints. biles. Asuri. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Dharwar and Belgaum. cure enlargement of spleen. Surat. and toothache. LOC. Black-True mustard. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. Jwalanti. used with butter in syphilis . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). increase bile. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. Rai. Sarshapa. Kaira. Sk. spleen. kill external parasites. anthelmintic . ear. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. " Vata". G. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. . FAM. :—E. See—Timbers. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. NS. cause burning . Seeds-laxative.—Cruciferae. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. DISTR. M. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. Kali-rai. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. rheumatism. H. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. cure skin-dissases. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. appetiser. internal congestions. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. K. Kari Sasive . Gums and Resins. Khandesh. increase appetite . LOC. bechic. stomachic. Rajika. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. dispel fever . Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. COM. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. good in cough and for inflammations. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. chiefly in Nasik. vermicide. Seeds act as digestive condiment . India.

Lingini. FAM. Asana. long. :—G. :—Deccan.. DISTR. 3—2 . LOC. paler and smooth beneath. useful in "Vata". stem grooved. Ekadivi. 5-lobed. FAM. corolla as in the male . NS. of Shivaling shape . . bitter. Asana. Mahavira. Gauli. or few or many.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS. bark. corolla companulate. lobes oblong lanceolate. deeply cordate base. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Philippines. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Manj. glabrous .. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. Australia. H.—Euphorbiaceæ. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. Kaj. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. M. LOC. S. Malaya. hot. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. HABITAT :—Common in hedges.:—Throughout India. :—G. Shivavalli. Shivlingi. Fr. Country. Ekalkanto. and in fevers with flatulence.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. See—Timbers. It is used in bilious attacks. t. Asana. DISTR.—baccate. Gunjan. diam. Chandra.—yellowish brown. southward to Ceylon. globose. subsessile. Suviraka. Patharphoda.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Mauritius. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. 1 . Gargumaru. PARTS USED :—Root.. Goge. Lingaja. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). lumbago. margins sinuate denticulate. H. Kavodi. bluish green. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. tendrils 2-fid : L. Ishawara-Shivalingi. 5-partite. hemiplegia. LOC. M. Kassi. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Sk. K. pungent. CHAR. green and scabrid above. female flowers solitary. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. streaked with broad vertical lines . COM. Garige. Fl. ovate-oblong. :—An annual scandent herb. heating. Fl. Apastambhini. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent.— Aug-Sept. Sk. 5 cm. tropical Africa. Asana. 10-15 cm. Khaja. Tans. alterative. COM. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests.— membranous. Shivalingi. Mullu-siru Honne. Sd. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn.

M. :—H. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. :—Konkan. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". Burma. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. Fr. Stems obtusely 4-angled. laxative.—variable.—pendant. Charoli. Thailand (Siam). Panphui. PARTS USED :—Roots. cooling. the Dangs. younger reddish. :—Hot and drier parts of India. The bark is bitter and poisonous. Zakhi-haiyat. Fl. Char. crenate or serrate. K. Country. when punctured. M. :—Konkan. ulcers. NS.2 m. lower usually simple. LOC. gum (rarely). CHAR. burning sensation on body. Char. cures blooddiseases. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. expectorant. Sk. leaves. Char. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. Country. buds with root. "Vata" and biliousness. M. Panphuti. inflammations. Piyal. Lalana. COM. Sk. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0.—Jany. H. deciduous open forests. DISTR. seeds. Deccan. Charoli. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. COM.—swollen and octagonal at the base. L. smooth. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). thirst.—small. useful in diarrhœa. Kolegeru. See—Ornamental Plants. Priyal. also wild.—Crassulaceæ. astringent to bowels. Deccan. elliptic. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. carminative. Charpoppu. Cochin-China. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. Cambodia. Parnabija. Leaf-juice digestive. tonic. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. It is a disinfectant. S. NS. HABITAT :—Dry. Paira. Rajadana. the older light-coloured. purifies blood. FAM. Asthibhakshya. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Tapaspriya. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. bruises. Murukali. speckled with white. Snehabija. LOC. high. lobes triangular. binding. in large panicles. Fl. Dhanu. occasionally compound. vomiting. M. reddish purple. with opposite branches . :—G. C. S. t. upper 3-5-7 foliate.3-1. K. allays . DISTR. Lonnahadakana gida. decussate. leaflets ovate. Pyalchar. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).. cardio-tonic. fruit. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . analgesic. aphrodisiac. boils and bites of venomous insects. fevers.) FAM. purgative.—Anacardiaceæ. constricted in the middle. :—Native of tropical Africa. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). fattening. Gujarat.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. LOC.

Flower—aphrodisiac. if chewed. anthelmintic. Ceylon. Kinshuk. biliousness. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. anthelmintic. good in fevers. Palas. DISTR. thirst. topically in piles and hydrocele.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. useful in piles. useful in bone fractures. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. anthelmintic. K. cures excessive perspiration. Yajnika. Gum—acrid. Gum—astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. dry. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. tonic. skindiseases. Sk. in the Khandesh Akrani. Dyes. cure tumours. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. bark. leaves. Muttuga. stomatitis. flowers. pterygium. Bark—appetiser. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. relieves abnormal thirst. See—Timbers. LOC. tumours. pimples. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Bastard teak. burning sensation. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Kakria. M. worms and piles. tonic to liver. Dhak. COM. Gums and Resins. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Leaf—very astringent. digestible. corneal opacities. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. lessens lumbago. cough. anthelmintic. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. India. Oils. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. used in liver disorders. Bark—appetiser. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). good in dysentery. cold and cough. Tripatrak. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . piles. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). dysmenorrhoea. gout. Flowers—cure " Kapha". Palash. seeds. expectorant. lessens inflammations. burning urine. Kuntz. gum. useful in syphilis. Khakera. G. Kshatadru. :—E. Fruit and seed—hot. diseases of anus. inflammations. good in biliousness. gonorrhoea. colic. diuretic . ascends to 1200 m. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Chichra. gonorrhœa. astringent. tonic. cause headache (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Khakhrao. strangury.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS. Leaves—good for eye diseases. aperient used in urinary discharges. leprosy. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. dysentery. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. H. carminative. purifies blood. Palas.) FAM. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Muttala. LOC. cures ulcers and tumours. piles. hydrocele. Seeds tonic to body and brain. stomachic. Khakda. PARTS USED :—Root. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. fractures. buboes. prickly heat and itch. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. useful in elephantiasis. remove bad humours. eye diseases. Fruit and seeds—oily. laxative. LOC. lessens biliousness.

L. Sd.3 cm. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. very common near the sea-coast. CHAR. act as rubefacient. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). 5-7. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Fl. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. M. Leaves contain a glucoside. t. :—An extensive climber. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. elliptic-oblong.5 X 4. anthelmintic. Kakechika. :—Throughout India. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. Dyes. leucorrhcea. heating. Karanja. LOC. Kuberakshi. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious.—pod. Deccan hills. They are applied to orchitis. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Physic nut. oblong 5-7. asthma and colic. K. Flowers are astringent. leaflets 6-9 pairs. sprouts useful in tumours. Gums and Resins. See—Timbers. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. DISTR. Fruit—acrid. flowers and fruit.—1-2 oblong.—yellow. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . malaria. Tapasi. Fr. shortly stalked. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. useful in colic. Sagargota. LOC. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. . Fever nut. wounds. Fl.—abruptly pinnate. piles. strongly mucronate. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry.) COM. Gajaga. cures urinary discharges. Sind. long. :—E. fevers.5 cm.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. skin-diseases. cures inflammation . ringworm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. FAM. hydrocele. petioles prickly. H. Gum solution is applied to bruises. long . astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . leaves. anthelmintic . 30-60 cm. aphrodisiac and diuretic. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them.—JulySept. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Gajga. prevents contagious diseases . densely armed on the faces with prickles. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. Katkaranj. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. leprosy (Yunani). etc. lead-colored 1. NS. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. Katkaleja. Seed—styptic. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". PARTS USED :—Root-bark. G. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. aphrodisiac. Sk. Gajjige. antiperiodic. the tropics generally.5 cm.

Akand. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. base cordate. :—A large shrub. Arka. gum.. :—E.4-3 m. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. East African Islands. Madar. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". CHAR. Dholaakdo. Punnag. Ark. Vuma. very common in N. Kshiranga. Undi. and for its oil. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. DISTR. sometimes amplexicaul. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Malaya.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. branches stout. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Mandara. 10-20 X3. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Polynesia. Surangi. Undi. PARTS USED :—Bark. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. LOC. both surfaces tomentose. used in chronic fevers. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Rui. Surpan. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. sessile. Alexandrian laurel. H.— opposite.—Guttiferæ.8-10 cm. Br. Australia. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. L. elliptic or ovate oblong. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. NS. Oils. Ponne. See—Timbers. NS. covered with cottony pubescence. Kanara associated with littoral species. M. K. :—Cultivated throughout India. astringent. Ak. . It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Kshirparni. Ceylon. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. and oil. The gum from wounded branches. Ekke. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. high.. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. FAM... Gigantic swallow-wort. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. G. COM. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Sultanchampa. Shuka-phala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. 2.—Asclepiadaceæ. lessens appetite. Madar. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. K.H. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. COM. Mandara. Sk. Akdo. much branched. often gregarious. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. LOC. improves complexion (Ayurveda). thick. Purasakeshera. Tungakeshera. Punnaga.. Sk. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Surhonne. Arka. :—E. M. FAM.

comose . See—Fibres. ellipsoid or ovoid. green. Fr. buds ovoid. bark. China. asthma.7—15 X 4. Milk— heating.-July. young parts white. back much curved. Fl.. C. lobes usually erect.. Sd. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. Flowers—digestive. Br. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. Fr. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. spongy. tumours. purgative. dropsy. subglobose. diaphoretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl.5 cm. Mandara. :—An erect shrub usually 1. ringworm of scalp. ascites and anasarca.2 cm. DISTR. comose. oleaginous. high. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places .:—H. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. acrid . Flowers—stomachic. Malay Islands and S. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. catarrh and loss of appetite. NS. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. India. also useful in intestinal worms. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. cures leucoderma. Ak. LOC. apex with two auricles. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. rat-bite. COM. astringent. leaves and flowers. PARTS USED :—Root. Flower—analgesic.4 m. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. very common. Safedak. ascites. tumours. asthma. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. eruption on body. painful joints . M. cures inflammations. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. CHAR. cures leprosy. LOC. very common is S.—subsessile.8-2. Milk— caustic.5-8. flattened tomentose. Juice—anthelmintic. usually 5. Sk. Madar. ovate oblong. Rajarka. piles. L.—lobes deltoid-ovate. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. tonic and stomachic in action.—Asclepiadaceæ. Sd:—many. Ceylon. ulcers.— Feb.—broadly ovate.5 cm. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera.. spleen and liver diseases. leaves applied to paralysed parts. useful in leprosy. 9-10 cm.5-10 X 5-7. elliptic or obovate.—follicles. buds globose.—in umbellate cymes. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. bark corky. across. liver and spleen enlargement. broad. used in cough.—about 2. expectorant and anthelmintic. Ark. FAM. C. swellings. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. Fl. purplish or white. alterative and purgative properties. Root-bark is diaphoretic. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). t. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. . scabies. corona shorter than the column. coughs. laxative. cures asthma and syphilis. elephantiasis. cures piles and "Kapha". good for liver (Yunani). heal wounds. cottony. depilatory. Mandara.—7. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles .— purplish in umbellate cymes. long.

Khadsambal.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. 3 sub-erect. Sambe. M. narrow. Kamakshi. :—E. M. NS. Sarvajaya. but doubtfully wild.. H.5 cm. Gigantea.3 cm. NS. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Kadsambu. P. spatulate.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Gavria. Shitarambha. K. Koshaphala. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. H. See—Vegetables. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. oval or orbicular. high . tropical Africa.9-1. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. tonic. Iran. Shimbi. Kadavare. abundant in Sind. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Arabia.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Sk. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated.. DISTR. COM. Paraholiya. Waziristan. staminodial segments.2 m.—segments 2. L. Fl.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Sk. indigestible. green. Kalehu. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Akalabera. lanceolate to ovate. flowers and milky juice. Nilashimbika. (Chopra). Sema. CHAR. greenish or colored. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. cooling. COM. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. CANNA INDICA Linn. Gavara. Asishimbi. G. membranous. Indian shot. stem 0. FAM. veins arching. Egypt. long. DISTR. hernia and colic. Broad—Sword bean. Kardali. Tamateballi. Sarvajaya. :—E. they are given in cholera.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Afghanistan. Abai. bracts oblong. Warm leaves used as poultice. biliousness. ulcers (Ayurveda).—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. appetiser. See—Fibres. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Tarvardi. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Sabbajaya. G.—Scitaminaceae. LOC. Flowers used as detergent. acrid. The pods contain vitamin A. Hudingana.:—Perennial herb . LOC. useful in burning sensations. on trees and hedges . Devakeli. erect. root-stock tuberous. 1 linear . K. PARTS USED :—Pods.

Ganja. leprosy. Bhang. Sd. DISTR. H. alterative . Bark—tonic. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. upper 1-3. Fl. Mohini. Sk. water extract anthelmintic. insanity. useful in " Kapha". CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. LOC. serrate. usually 0. NS.—more or less throughout the year. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). Central Asia.—many. astringent. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. stomachic. Bhangi. cause headache. tonic. Female inflorescence is stomachic. lower 3-8 foliate. Shivapriya. restlessness. globose. Fl. Siddhapatri. Harshini. They are broken in small pieces. Leaves—bitter.9-1. hallucinations. :—Widely cultivated in India. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). good for hydrocele. aphrodisiac. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated. dropsy. (2) Bhang. flowers and seeds. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. COM. female crowded under convolute bracts. Bhang.5 m. Hemp. shining. PARTS USED :—Roots. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. soporific. dioecious. aphrodisiac. intoxication. Unmattini. Vijaya. excessive use causes indigestion. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). LOC. melancholia. causes thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. imbricate. LOC. hot. soporific. seeds and resin. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. causes thirst and biliousness.—achene. check vomiting. Wild in the Himalayas. echinulate . Ganja. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. abortifacient. inflammations. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. :—E. leaves. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. cough. FAM. also wild. high in its feral state. (3) Charas. intoxication (Ayurveda). Not indigenous. heating.—Urticaceæ. M. 3-lobed. female perianth hyaline. lessen inflammation. Fr. CHAR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling.—sub-globose or oblong . DISTR. black. flowers. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. oil-good for earache. K. piles. G. astringent to bowels. male fascicled. sepals 5. Seeds—carminative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. Ganja. :—Throughout India. male flowers. impotence. Fr. useful in convulsions. leaves.—alternate or the lower opposite. causes biliousness. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. t.—small axillary. tonic. intoxicating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . antidiarrhoeic.

Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). The fruit contains Capsisin. Cayenne-pepper. asthma. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Sk. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence.—Solanaceæ. Marichiphala. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Fruit—pungent. Chillies. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. whooping cough. erysipelas. in the form of electuary. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. K. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Capsaicin and Solanin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. H. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. LOC. The plant contains cannabinin. Lanka mirchi. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Country in Deccan. chronic ulcers. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. :—Extensively cultivated in S. delirium (Ayurveda). useful in indigestion. dyspepsia. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. COM. loss of consciousness. Ujjvala. Mirchi. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Vegetables. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. M. and dropsy. increases biliousness. often found as an escape. DISTR. Madana modak used in cough. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. NS. spermatorrhoea.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. M. See—Condiments and Spices. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). acute mania. cholera. See—Gums and Resins. :—E. . to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. expectorant. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Tivrashakti. and is employed by Indian physicians. Raktamaricha. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. It is stomachic. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Tikshna. increases appetite. useful in brain complaints. Menshinkai. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Marchu . Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Mirchi. and flatulence. LOC. also in gout. G. Lalmirchi. FAM. Fibres. HABITAT :—Cultivated. diarrhœa. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. :—Cultivated all over India. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. muscular pains. Narcotics. dysuria. weakness of body. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep.

and is administered in fevers. bladdery . also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Kangu. Root is considered diaphoretic. epileptic fits. K. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. leaves and seeds. bark. H. piles. Fl. inciso-serrate. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Daddala. Gavvahannu. Karnasphota. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Kumbha. Thailand (Siam). alexiteric. LOC. Sk. Fruit—acrid. trigonous. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Ghats. hot. :—Most warm countries. useful in tumours. G. winged at the angles. The plant contains saponin. subglobose. Karolio. See—Timbers. " Vata ". Ceylon. ultimate segments lanceolate. Wild guava . urinary discharges. Kapalphodi. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. M. Sind. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. LOC. NS. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. leucoderma. Deccan. L. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. introduced. Kalindi. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Malay Peninsula. it is mucilaginous. diuretic and aperient. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. C. Hennumatti. black. rounded at the apex. COM.—Myrtaceæ. leaves. FAM. very acute apex. common in S. CHAR. Kumbhi. flowers and fruits. Fibres. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. :—E. LOC. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). stem wiry. :—Throughout India. Vakambi. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. bronchitis. NS.—Sapindaceæ. smooth. bark. Blister creeper. dyspepsia. Root. G. Shaundi. Maniju balli. COM. Kanphuti. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. Jyotish-mati.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. FAM.—capsule. Balloon vine. Sd.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. Fr. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . :—E.— alternate. Konkan and W. deltoid. Sk.—globose. PARTS USED :—Root. Sakralata. abscesses and ulcers. K. Girikarnika. when moistened. 2-ternate. Agni-erum. Kumbhi. .—white. petals 4. M. colic. Kumbi. dry. HABITAT :—In hedges . bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. PARTS USED :—Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. DISTR. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . skin-diseases.

"Kapha". M. LOC. cures insanity (Ayurveda). Safflower. good for eyes. diuretic. bronchitis. White thin latex contains Papain. PARTS USED :—Leaves. enlargement of spleen. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. made into curries. Flower—tonic to liver. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. Chibda. cure "Vata". it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. NS. LOC. Kusumba. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. appetiser. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. astringent to bowels. :—Grown extensively in Poona. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Papaw. aphrodisiac. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Nalikadala. H. Chirbhita. cures inflammations. Mexico and Brazil. Papayi. expectorant. . Papaya. carminative. Pappayi. Kamalottama. :—Native throughout India. Guppe. cooling. appetiser . diuretic. Indies. Karrak.—Caricaceæ. Papaya. Kusumbo. G. aphrodisiac. Karada. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. K. Kusumba. Kusumba. COM. bile. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. Kusumbha. COM. :—E. Leaves—hot. Sk. diuretic. cause biliousness. FAM. cure urinary discharges. Papaya. removes biliousness . in haemoptysis. ringworm. NS. laxative. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. "Tridosh". unripe fruit. Dyer's saffron. LOC. :— E. Oil—indigestible.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. DISTR. Papita. G. scabies. hypnotic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. strangury. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Fruits contain vitamins A and C. K. depilatory. fruit and seeds. it is used to procure abortion. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Ahmednagar and Nasik. seeds and oil. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. causes burning sensation . M. wounds of urinary track. Seeds—oleaginous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. flowers. See—Fruit Trees. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. DISTR. used. digestive. piles. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). Fruit—stomachic. relieves obesity. Sk. bleeding piles.—Compositæ. removes urinary concretions . cures inflammation. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. H. Popayi. Agnishikha. Pangi. of W. leucoderma. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. leprosy. Barre. Kardai.

bechic. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. good for ear boils. carminative. Dadmardan. cure catarrh. Sk. good for old people. Sk. mucronate. Tivragandha. See—Condiments and Spices. Ringworm shrub.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). myrabolans and rock salt. Afghanistan. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. FAM. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . chest and throat pains. and even in cholera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. enrich blood. rachis . Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. See—Vegetables. enlargement of spleen. kidney troubles. Iran. Dadamardana. hiccup.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. diuretic. Egypt. L. Bishops' weed . carminative. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. and diarrhœa. dyspepsia. paralysis. chest pains. piles. Winged senna. abdominal tumours. anthelmintic. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Dyes. NS :— E. vomiting. Dodda sagate. pungent. M. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. spleen. bitter. Dipyaka. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Seeds—purgative. Owa. LOC. they are used in jaundice . Leaves contain vitamin A.—Umbelliferæ. stomachic. K. cure ascites. They are administered in flatulence. CASSIA ALATA Linn. Omu . laxative. CHAR. pinnate. tonic. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. leaflets 10-12 pairs. 30-60 cm. Elgra. carminative. stimulant. Dwipagasti. DISTR. give lustre to eyes. Datka pat. Baluchistan. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. atonic dyspepsia. :—E. Ajamoda. subsessile. Dadrughna. downy beneath. inflammation (Yunani). H. purgative. Simyatase. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. M. FAM. Oil—good in all diseases. appetiser. Ajowan. abdominal pain. vomiting. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. good for heart and tooth-ache. strengthening. oblong-obtuse. long. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. tonic and carminative properties. improve speech and eyesight. Oma. Ajwain. NS. K. Oils. G. COM. good in weakness of limbs. The seeds bitter and hot. aphrodisiac . oblique at the base. Europe. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. emmenagogue and sedative. Ajamo . COM. liver. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. stimulate intestines. H.

-Oct. CHAR. slightly overlapping. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. FAM. LOC. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . Sd. yellow with orange veins. cures tumours. DISTR.—7. Ph. Avartki. NS. anthelmintic..-50 or more. pedunculate racemes . along the sea coast in laterite region. oblong-obovate. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. leaflets 8-12 pairs. alexipharmic .—bright yellow with darker veins. Indies. . Tangadi. nocturnal emissions. M.—pod long. Fl. dull green above. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). rachis densely pubescent. K. 28-4-88). buds in yellow bracts. H. skin-diseases.6 cm. and throat troubles. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. C. USES:—Bark is considered astringent.3-1. reniform.—in spiciform. Avarike. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. Gujarat and S. Bark has the same properties. J. straight. " In eczema. asthma. Ahmed. vermicide (Ayurveda). relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. Tanner's cassia. cough.5 X 10 cm. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. useful in vomiting. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. ringworm. cure " Vata ". Tarwad. 5 cm. LOC. bark smooth. t. Peninsula. obliquely septate. cm.—pod. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). stipules very large. Mayahari. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). fruits and seeds. urinary discharges . thirst.—30-35. diabetes. rotundate. Charmaranga. itching. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. Sk. pale beneath. across. 20-25.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. mucronate. Fr.-July. Fl. very likely a native of the W. :—E. Mukerji). membranous. skin diseases. Pitakilaka. PARTS USED :—Root.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.. t. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Fr. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. M. The whole plant. G. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). flowers. useful in thirst. leprosy. causes flatulence . leaves. Sd. Ceylon. Country. reddish brown. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. Taroda.—large. Madhya Pradesh and W. :—Introduced into India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. Burma. 10-20 X 1. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. Tarwad. Sakusina.—Jany. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. LOC.. Awal. LOC. HABITAT :—Planted.) COM. DISTR. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. N. rhombohedral. L. long. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. asthma . good for ulcers. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. Fl.

K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. leaflets 3-5 pairs. :—E. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. M. antipyretic. C. :—E. Aragina. Stinking weed. :—Throughout India. Kasundari.) COM. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Fruit—antipyretic. cooling. FAM. safe for children and pregnant women. L. lessens inflammation and body-heat. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Sk. cooling. cure " Kapha ". recurved. Amaltas. griping. Dodda-tagase. Arimarda. leprosy. used in rheumatism. carminative. astringent. Tans. apex acute. Seeds— oily. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. t. Burma. In Konkan. distinctly torulose.—petals 5. tuberculous glands. H. NS. juice given in erysipelas. Kasondi. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Seeds—emetic (Yunani).—in few flowered racemes. rheumatism. heal ulcers . See—Timbers. Kasoda. Chakinda. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Golden shower. throat-troubles. Rechana. also planted. Sk. long. K. 15-20 cm. eye-diseases. Flowers—improve taste. Garmala. long. LOC. Ceylon. Kasonda.—pods. Hema-puspha. Rajataru. Fl.—very foetid when bruised. Fruit—digestible. Konde. Balla. G. Negro coffee. Kacodari. Sd. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. H. improve appetite. LOC. (Ayurveda). Ornamental Plants. Arogyashimbi. See—Dyes. Bahava.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. often purplish. It is a mild laxative. smooth. Kasmarda. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Ane sogate. fruit and seeds. purgative. cures burning sensation. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. useful in chest and liver complaints. faintly veined with orange . demulcent. Rankasvinda. FAM. laxative.— Jany-March. Suvarnaka. biliousness . Flowers—purgative. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. PARTS USED :—Root. . Indian laburnum. M. abortifacient. NS. G. Chimkani. Kakka. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. base somewhat oblique.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. flowers. cause flatulence. hard. DISTR. shining dark olive-green. Fl. Bandartauri.. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. CHAR. Kasari. Vyadivata.) COM. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. yellow.—20-30. branches furrowed. ovate-lanceolate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. Fr. corymbose. Leaves—anti-periodic . Pudding-pipe or stick. syphilis.5 cm. transversely septate. 10—12. purgative. Leaves lessen inflammation. leaves. and Famine Plants.

in Kutch. COM. alexiteric. Banar.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). The bark. petals 5. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. leaves. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm.Jany. when mixed with sandal-wood paste.. lanceolate. Kasondi. long . USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. Fl. FAM. " tridosha " . HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. H. K. LOC.—30-40 broadly ovoid. tonic and febrifuge. C. hiccup.. cures ascites. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. DISTR. " Vata ". Seeds used in heat of the blood. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. . medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. stomachic. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . The plant contains glucoside emodin. fevers. cough. slightly recurved. M. PARTS USED :—Bark. septate between the seeds . See—Famine Plants. dark brown . Baskikasondi. yellow. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. See—Famine Plants.— Nov. with a solitary conical gland near the base .—18-23 cm. Leaves—aphrodisiac.—pod. Talapota. Sd. turgid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Kasamarda. NS. In many countries root is considered diuretic. L. elephantiasis. Kasundari. :—G. Fl. t. obtuse. CHAR. and seeds are cathartic. base rounded. high. Fr. 7. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. asthma. annual or perennial. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. ovate. PARTS USED :—Root. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. Kasamarda. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. :—A shrub 2. rachis grooved . DISTR. are given in diabetes.4-3 m. LOC.—in axillary. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). leaves and seeds. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). mixed with honey.510 cm. Sk. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. heals wounds. Ran tankala. few flowered corymbose racemes. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. opposite. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. cure " Kapha". leaflets 6-10 pairs. leaves and seeds. At Kotra. LOC.

FAM. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Chakramarda. Intellect tree. in diam. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". The plant contains glucoside emodin.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. leaflets 3 pairs.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . small yellowish-green. 30-90 cm. 18 m. Tarota. Pamad. bitter. X 4. Burma. LOC. H.—pinnate. Fl. appetiser. crenate. FAM. brain and liver tonic.5 cm. leaves and seeds. CHAR. Jyotishmati. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. upper petal 2-lobed . Chagoche. expectorant. C. Climbing-staff plant. :—E. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. reddish brown. powerful brain tonic. high. base oblique. Chakunda. DISTR. 7... H.5-20 cm. ovate or obovate. Sk. alternate. DISTR. Sk. 1-6 completely covered with red. covered with lenticels. Fl. Kangli. t. Takala.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. M. in drooping panicles.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee.—after the rains. Velo . . bright yellow. Sphutabandhani. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. branches rough. COM. fleshy arillus. Svarnalata. laxative. hot. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. Sd. Dadamari. Panevar. much curved when young. Malkakni. unarmed. Fr. Ceylon. NS. Black-oil tree. emetic. Dadrughna. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. K. NS. Sd. obliquely septate. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. G. high. cure joint-pains.. K. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. globose. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. 12. Kangodi. capsule.5-10 cm. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. opposite (lowest smaller). Fr. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases.—pod. L. 6. Madras State. :—An annual foetid herb. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. usually unisexual. Tagache.8-7. LOC. :—A very common weed all over the State. stem upto 23 cm. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Foetid cassia. M. Taragosi. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Seeds— acrid.— petals 5. L. Malkamni. Seeds—bitter. rachis grooved. pale yellow. aphrodisiac. long.3-10 X 3. obovate.—Celastraceæ.) COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kangani. :—Large deciduous climber.5 mm. CHAR. Malhangana. Malkangoni. oblong. :—E. cause burning sensation. Kanguni. shining above. Taga. PARTS USED :— Root.

CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. Oil stomachic. :—Konkan.—Feb. LOC. t.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. CHAR. H. persistent. and is employed for external application. Seeds are hot. narrowly oblong . :—G. obovate or oblong. Sk.). paralysis and leprosy. hard-rugose. spreading star-like . M. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. cloves. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. Mahaushadhi.—3 from each node. Brahmamanduki. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. COM.—capsule.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. LOC. Jhinkun-kariatum. Don. Vondelaga.—opposite. stem creeping with long internodes. L. elliptic. M. Deccan and S. Country. :—A slender herbaceous plant. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell).—4 mm. CHAR. reniform. ovoid. :— E. rooting at the nodes. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. G. L. Jangli-karayatu. gout. Brahmamanduki. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. :—Throughout India. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. orbicular. Ekpani. high. linear-oblong.—Umbelliferæ. Barmi. K. cauline smaller.—in fascicled umbels. Fr. aphrodisiac and stimulant. Fl. NS. FAM. base deeply cordate stipulate.-Apl. Mandukparni. Vallari . long. M. used in leprosy. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. pink. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Brahmi. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. pink. radical leaves revolute. H. NS. Fr. COM. DISTR. Lahanchirayat.). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Fl. Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—tubular lobes 5.—May-Nov.—Gentianaceæ. Fl. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. . good for cough and asthma. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). minute. they are also sudorific. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. t. FAM. tonic. C. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. especially in Bengal.

:—In moist situations (streams. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. milky juice. :—Throughout India near the coast. diuretic. DISTR. NS. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. voice. See—Timbers. FAM. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND LOC. alterative. Plant—bitter. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. tonic. COM. ointment. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". Leaf-powder. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . small-pox. tonic. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. " Kapha ". :—South Konkan and N.) DISTR. Chanda. LOC. used in insanity (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. headache . inflammations. urinary discharges. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Leaves are also diuretic. thirst. LOC. LOC. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. plaster or bath are used. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. fevers. China. PARTS USED :—Bark. bronchitis. Kanara. twigs. bechic. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. digestible. sedative to nerves. spleen enlargement. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. fruit. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. carminative. water courses throughout the State. soporific. nut is narcotic and poisonous . Australia Pacific Islands. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. bitter. and a bitter substance odollin. bronchitis. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. Honde. memory. blood diseases. abundant on the Malabar Coast. cures hiccup. biliousness. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. clears voice and brain. Tande. improves appetite.—Apocynaceæ. cooling. laxative. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. asthma. USES :—Bark is purgative. cardio-tonic. stomachic. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. asthma. . Sukanu. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. anæmia. antipyretic. scalding of urine. cures leucoderma. nallas. improves appetite (Yunani). Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. M. Malay Archipelago. :—K. For external use powder. leaves and seeds).

Bathusag. K. throattroubles. H. piles . LOC. . NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Balabhojya. diuretic. Laveni. Chakravarti. Skandhaphala. Tanko. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. abdominal pains. Chalmeri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. Kari-Kempukadale. G. Harparrevdi. improves appetite. LOC. Sk. M.) FAM. Goose-foot. biliousness. K. useful in thirst. piles. See—Fruit Trees. Pandu. NS. Kadale. anthelmintic.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Ksharadala. laxative. DISTR. Chunna. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). acrid. But. Lavali. spleen (Ayurveda). G. Chanaka. sour . constipation. :—Cultivated in India. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Chandanbedu. diseases of blood. Chick pea. tonic. vomiting.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). M. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). The fruit is acrid and astringent. fragrant. "Vata". HABITAT :—Cultivated. Rayara nelli. H. Country. COM. eye-diseases. useful in biliousness. Kanchuki. Fruit is very sour . Wild-spinach. M. :—Widely distributed. The plant yields an essential oil. DISTR. tonic to liver. Bengal—Common-gram. Harbara. :— E. "Kapha". Deccan and S. oleaginous. root and the seed are cathartic. :—Very common in the Deccan. LOC. useful in bronchitis. Harparauri K. H. M. FAM . USES :— Root is purgative. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Agralohita. LOC. COM. NS. Sk. Chakravati.. Chana. COM. :—E. also cultivated as a pot herb. Sk. Chillika. FAM. Cheel. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Country gooseberry.—Euphorbiaceæ. heart. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. aphrodisiac. Chania. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. biliousness. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Chakwat. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Rai-avala. Vajibhakshya. :—E.—Chenopodiaceæ. Chana. fruit and seeds. urinary concretions. PARTS USED :—Root. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. LOC.

indigestion. vomiting. toothache. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. pungent. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. abdominal pains. bronchitis (Yunani). aphrodisiac. piles. headache. pains . FAM. toothache (Ayurveda). chest complaints. Malay Peninsula. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. carminative. tonic to hair. enriches blood. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). refrigerant. Seed—indigestible. Darchini. carminative. heart. PARTS USED :—Leaves. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. . Dalchini. aphrodisiac. rectum and urinary diseases. PARTS USED. cures skin diseases. flatulence. anthelmintic. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Seed—stimulant. itching. appetiser. LOC. :— Bark and oil. causes salivation. M. Kanara district. See—Food Plants. aphrodisiac. useful in hydrocele. abortifacient. Peninsula. :—W. Kash. headache. anthelmintic. Burma. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. cold in head. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. parched mouth. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. Dalchini. biliousness. useful in inflammations. Leaves contain vitamin A. Nisane. causes flatulence. very common in the N. biliousness. NS. astringent to bowels . vomiting. K. Bark—tonic. LOC. expectorant. DISTR. Duk. Dalchini. useful in bronchitis.—Lauraceæ. good for diseases of liver and spleen. liver-tonic . useful in cold. It possesses carminative. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Oils. alexiteric. tonic. seed and acid exudation. tonic . Lavange-hakke. Gudatwaka. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. It checks nausea and vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. improve taste and appetite. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. hiccup. etc. useful in loss of appetite. Sk. tonic. throat troubles. indigenous and cultivated. useful in " Vata ". leprosy. Leaves—purgative. Ceylon. throat troubles. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. diarrhœa and dysentery. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). strengthens liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. foul mouth and fever. diarrhœa. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. anthelmintic . cures thirst and burning. Dalchini. heated brain. blood troubles. causes flatulence. Oil—carminative. thirst. cure bronchitis. Valkala. Oil—styptic. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. :—G. flatulence. COM. emmenagogue.

LOC. mucronate.. NS. sub-globose. Bitter apple. branches more or less pubescent. Indrayan. diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Root. solitary. smooth. helps parturition. Tumtikayi. red or yellowish white. flesh juicy. axillary racemes . deeply divided or but moderately lobed.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. minute. Venivalli. NS. has been isolated. Fl. M. monœcious. Africa and America. Trapusi. red. uterine complaints. G. fever. Fl. heart troubles. angular . Indrayana. :—An extensively climbing annual. Asso. Velvet-leaf. which possibly has a cholinergic action. FAM. skin eruptions. :— E. Fr. subglobose. 5-nerved. CHAR. male flowers in axillary cymes. :—E. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. yellow within. i. COM. waxy coated. diam. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . LOC. Indruk. H. L. Ghorumba. C.—Menispermaceæ. Patha. CHAR.8-10 cm. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. piles. Sd. dysentery. compressed. 3. G. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. :—Deccan. E. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). petals combined into cupshaped corolla. removes intestinal worms. margins ciliate. in conjunction with aromatics.. Sk.e. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. greenish. young shoots woolly. asthma . drupe. Venivel. Chitraphala. greenish outside. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia.— usually margined. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain.—July-Sept. 1949). Mahendravaruni. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India.—A climbing shrub. lobes obovateoblong. Paharmul. DISTR. female flowers in elongate. stem thick. itching . Fl. FAM.—large. Katurasa. burning. upto 25 cm. peltate. . M. Sk. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. orbicular or reniform. Fr. Colocynth. removes pain. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. L. warm parts of Asia. :—In hills. solitary. Kanara. Annual Report. or twin. somewhat hairy. COM. HABITAT. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha".-Jany. H. Pavamekke Kayi. Kaduvrindavan. subcampanulate. t. yellowish. hairy. Indraphal. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. FL t.5-20 cm. R. Pahadvel. The active constituent of the drug. dropsy and cough. 7. Uthika. leaves. Indrayan. K.—Nov. F. tendrils bifid. useful in hemicrania. alleviates vomiting. diam. 5-partite. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. an alkaloid. (Ind. Makal. also for prolapsus uteri. long. cordate at the base. Nirbisi.—Cucurbitaceæ.

Narangi. Narenj. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). M. H. fortifies chest. jaundice. COM. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Flower— stimulant. enlargement of spleen. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Deccan. FAM. urinary discharges. with or without nux-vomica. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. sweet and has agreeable flavour. Sk. good in vomiting and skin diseases. antipyretic. W. purgative. " Kapha". cooling. cures tumours. Rind— anthelmintic. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. anthelmintic. anthelmintic . removes fatigue . CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. leuco-derma. bronchitis. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. good in fevers. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. laxative. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. :—Konkan. asthma. Root and fruit cooling. pain in joints. aphrodisiac . K. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). throat diseases. Doddile. fever and worms. ulcers. Cardiotonic. Nagaranga. dyspepsia. tuberculous glands of neck. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Fruit—sour. DISTR. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). chest troubles. DISTR. :— E. carminative. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . elephantiasis . tonic. LOC. relieves vomiting and retching. Also indigenous in Arabia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. In the Konkan fruit and root. G. Sunthura. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated.—Rutaceæ. :—Widely cultivated in India. Santra. Narange. NS. tonic. diuretic. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Kittale. Naringi. ascites. constipation. astringent. Gujarat. epilepsy. LOC. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Kirmirtvaka. (Poona. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. useful in biliousness. removes " Vata ". bowel complaints. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. useful in piles. Asia. and lumbago. Tvakasugandha. N. Naringa. sea-shores. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. anæmia. relieves colds. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. enlargement of spleen. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Sukkare-kanji. constipation. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. LOC. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. removes biliousness. LOC.

relieves sore-throat. digestible. Kutla. Limonum. Mahanimbu. Thora-limbu. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. the pulp cold and dry. M. Bijaura. Devamadala. astringent to bowels . oily. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mahaphala. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Fruit—sweet and sour. seeds. intoxication. hiccup. Sk. DoddaGaja-nimba. removes colic. B and C. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). heating. COM. flatulence. useful in abdominal complaints. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. Lemon . leaves and flowers hot and dry. stimulant. Paharinimbu . Rusaki. the juice allays ear-ache. G. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. juice refrigerant and astringent. Idalimbu. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. useful in vomiting. VAR.—Rutaceæ. relieve vomiting. jaundice. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Sk. The fruits contain vitamins A. H. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Seeds—indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Balank. its preserve is used for dysentery. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Ghats. M. Motalimbu . LOC. used in constipation and tumours.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Matulunga. LOC. Jambira. Bijoru. Mahaphala. LOC. FAM. increase appetite. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Mahalunga. Bera nimbu. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. tonic and astringent properties. Mavalunga. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. :—Citron rind is hot. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. Matunga. NS. Amlakeshara. NS. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Harale. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). See—Fruit Trees. Flowers—stimulant. cough. According to Theophrastus. Citron . K. dry and tonic . anæmia. cures leprosy. bark and fruit. asthma. :— E. :—Roots. . gastric irritability in general and general debility. Madala. sharp. Turanj. PARTS USED :—Root. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Ruchaka. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. asthma. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . H. flowers. Turanj. cough. Matalunga. G. fruits and seeds. Bijapurna. tonic. rind of the fruit is bitter.:—Grown in gardens in the State. though there are no regular plantations. thirst. said to be wild in W. :—E. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. K. USES. COM. with a sharp taste. also corrects foetid breath. anasarca and chronic fever. Adam's apple.

—Sept.—achenes. stimulant . The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Murhari. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. :—G. t. also useful in rheumatism. burning in the chest. whole plant tomentose. improves liver. leaves (rarely). white. silky villous. CHAR. where there is dry skin and much thirst. Morvel. Sk. Rochana. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. Acida. vomiting. sepals 4-6. Morata. sharp taste. ovoid. VAR. throat trouble. Snuva. NS. NS.5 cm. . K. eyes . Nimbe. cures abodominal complaints. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Fruit. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. H. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Shodhana. relieves vomiting . Kagadi limbu.—petals O. anthelmintic. hemicrania. Moravel. FAM.Nov. LOC. Limbe. Nebu. long ovate or orbicular. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Nimbu. Limpaka. Oil from rind. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. :—E. Fruit—sour. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Churhar. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Morhari. :—An extensive climber. scarletina. but often found trailing amongst grass. L. loss of appetite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. appetiser.. heart. Madhulika. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Nimbuka. Lebu. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. brain disorders. hairy outside. with long feathery tails . Acid-Sour lime .—in axillary corymbose panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Fr. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Fl. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . blades 2-2.—simple or once ternate. Dhantiate. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. Amlasara. plethora. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. bronchitis . Fl. G. Lebu. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. COM. lobes mucronate. K. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa.—Ranunculaceæ. M. H. Limbu. with flavour. COM. Devashreni. constipation. M. measles. Sk. it helps digestion. Khatalimbu. Murva. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. See—Fruit Trees. Ranjai. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. not good in old age. Nimbu. fatigue . weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. it cures and prevents scurvy. C. petioles twinning. relieves biliousness.

Tinmani. leaflets elliptic-oblong. terminal the largest. Bharang. diuretic. Talvari. K. FAM.—Sept-June. bitter. Karnasphota. bitter taste and a strong odour. removes " Kapha". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Tilwan. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Plant has penetrating bad smell. used internally in thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. cooling. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear.—brownish black. stimulates secretion of bile. blood diseases. oblong-obovate. t. hairy. Bharangi. tapering towards both ends . :—G. stomachic. stimulant. and dispel intestinal fermentation. petioles of lower leaves longer. :—Annual erect herb. DISTR. yellow. obliquely striate. transversely striate. Juice— cures ear-ache. Leaves—favour digestion. hairy. :—W. Kanphodi. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Phanjika. C. Konkan. Jangali-harhar.—axillary. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. Fl. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. and fevers. FAM. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. Fl. Barbara. LOC. causes excessive biliousness. Ghats.—petals 4. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. Brahmani. DISTR. M. Hulhul. L. Kanphutia. HABIT :—A common weed. NS. Bharangi. H. LOC. K. CHAR. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Fr. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.—Verbenaceæ. . H. :—Common in grass lands. externally applied to boils.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT.—3-5 foliate. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. reduces tumours and inflammations .—capsule. Sd. COM. dryness and urethral discharges. veined. astringent. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. laxative. high. in lax racemes. Bharangi. LOC. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). mixed with oil. M.—Capparidaceæ. Harhuria. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Sk. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Nayibela. Vatari. erect. very common in the Deccan. anthelmintic. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Gantubarangi. Kasaghni. Adityabhakta. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Kiritekki. stems grooved and glandular. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. Sk. 30-90 cm. good in malaria. laxative. Sauri. Tilparni. subglobose. :—G. useful in leprosy. hot. COM. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani).

3. Kowa. asthma.9-2.. fevers (Yunani). The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. Fl. L. burning sensation. Kalina. wounds (Ayurveda). smooth. leaflets 5-7. pubescent. useful in ascites (Yunani). collectively forming a terminal panicle. burning sensation. alexiteric. laxative. NS. Aparajita. DISTR. tonic to the brain. blood diseases. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. leaves and seeds.—6-10 yellowish brown. good for eye-diseases. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). "Vata". There are two varieties :—white flowered. Koyala.. flat.— Aug. tuberculous glands.:—More or less throughout India. and blue flowered. oblong or elliptic. elephantiasis. tumours. :—G.2 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. useful in inflammation. consumption. COM. black.—ternately whorled. sharply serrate. diuretic. L. solitary. Garani. The plant contains an alkaloid. 12.7-6. Girikarniballi. Fl. epilepsy. H. HABITAT :—In hedges. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. acrid. Gokarni. beaked. M. Fl. Fr. Fr. .—axillary.. LOC. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. inflammations. Root increases appetite. CHAR. FAM. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. LOC. Ceylon. hairy. obovoid.—much exerted. tube hairy within. 2-2. standard bright blue or white.—pale blue. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. Sd.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. the larger lower lobe dark purple. lessens expectoration. Malay Peninsula. in lax dichotomous cymes. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. with an orange centre. biliousness. Sk.2 m. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. also found throughout the State. leaves and seeds. useful in bronchitis. lower one deflexed. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. 0. long . PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. bronchitis. ulcers of the cornea. pains. stems terete. Girikarnika. C. ozœna. elliptic oblong. Kajli. headache. nearly straight. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling.3 cm. t— June-Jany. :—A perennial twining herb. fevers.—Shrub. Vishnukranta.— drupe. stems bluntly quadrangular. asthma. spreading. 4 lobes flat. fleshy. stomachic.—imparipinnate. t.5-15 X 5. heating. high. cures "Tridosha". Root is purgative and diuretic. Wowatheti. C. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills .-Oct. Aparajita.. anthelmintic. Fl. tubercular glands. Gokarnika.—many. sometimes opposite. ulcers (Ayurveda). showy.8-5 cm. leucoderma.5 X 2-3. hiccup. K. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root.

Tana. galactagogue. Tundi. Leaves—acrid. COM.) FAM. Kambhoja. consumption. Ceylon.—Cucurbitaceæ. Sk. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Glum. cures leprosy. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". See—Vegetables. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Garudi. asthma. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Flowers cure itching. K. cause flatulence. Vasanvel. Broom-creeper. M. M. antipyretic . Bimbika. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Dirghvalli. fruit. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). DISTR :—Throughout India. Root bark. PARTS USED :—Root. a hormone and an alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND USES. dried and powdered. G. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. M. Parvel. Vasantitikta. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Ink-berry. H. Tondeballi. COCCINIA INDICA W. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Bimbi. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Malaya. Vasandi. Country. K. Bimba.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Sk. useful in ascites and fevers. The plant contains an enzyme. Hunder. given for uterine discharges. . NS.:—Root cooling. Jamtikibel. S. HABITAT. Ghobe.—Menispermaceæ. astringent to bowels. COM. Seeds are purgative and aperient. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. urinary losses. wild in hedges. Vevdi. " Vata". biliousness. Galedu. & A. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. stops vomiting. tropical Africa. flowers.—E. Tondali. diseases of blood. Oshthi. H. and jaundice. :—G. Kanduri. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Fruit— indigestible. Deccan. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Konkan. Bimb. Tundika. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Vevati. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. leaves. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. USES:—In the Konkan. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Chireta. LOC. LOC. Gujarat. NS. allays thirst. FAM. burning of hands and feet.:—Cultivated in gardens. Faridburti.

Cocoanut palm. Flower-cooling .8-6. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. thirst. India and Ceylon. Sk. COM. young parts densely Villous. aphrodisiac. Kanara. ovate-oblong. seed. good in fractures. useful in biliousness. In the Konkan.:— A straggling scandent shrub. as a cure for gonorrhœa.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Tenginmara. Arabia. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . rugose . useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Mahaphala. subdeltoid or subhastate. Naral. S. ovate. S. Gujarat. 2-8 together. Mad. Konkan. HABITAT :—In hedges. Deccan.3 X 1. tonic. causes "Kapha". useful in leprosy. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. LOC. enriches blood. fattening.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR.—Palmæ. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. useful in diabetes. size of a small pea. keeled. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. China. t. oil. dysentery. Toyagarbha. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. blood diseases. LOC. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. appetiser. cardiotonic.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. tonic. Fl. Mangalya. with a few heads of pepper. G. also in many places in the interior. Pegu. Jataphala. aphrodisiac. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. constipation. Common in Konkan and N. lessens thirst. alexipharmic . tropical Africa.. Antipyretic. flowers. lessens bile and burning sensation. It is also used as a refrigerant.3-3. which is taken internally with sugar. LOC. M.—drupe. India.—dioecious. H. smells sweetish and pungent. L. "Kapha" and "Vata". Narial. laxative and sudorific. aphrodisiac. Nariyal.—3. tumours. and put on to sore-eyelids.—Dec. Milk—cooling. Narikel. burning sensation. Nalivar. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. . destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". bark. DISTR.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. tuberculosis. it is heating. bronchitis. Leaf-juice. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. laxative. laxative. biliousness. indigestible. PARTS USED :—Root. villous . NS. DISTR. Seed-cooling. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Fl.8 cm. 3-5 nerved. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Tengu. FAM. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. fermented juice. it is used for coughs. Fr. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. oleaginous. fattening. :—E. mixed with water. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). female in axillary clusters.

Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). Fibres. Assam. useful in urinary complaints. t. high or more. :—E. useful in lumbar-pain. it also purifies blood. Bengal. LOC. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. increases body weight. DISTR. LOC. Rajputana. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. tropical Asia-Africa. Oils. LOC. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. bronchitis. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. rooting at the lower nodes. L. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. tonic. ulcers (Ayurveda).6-10 mm.—10-15 x 2. Madhya Pradesh. America.5-6. Malaya.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. rachis within the bract slender.5-5 cm. Gurlu . Gojivha. long. Oil—indigestible. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . strengthening and agreeable vegetable. polished. diuretic. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. It is refreshing and laxative. Fl. lessens inflammations . India. Kasai. piles and scabies (Yunani. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. smooth. Fl. midrib stout. Gavedhu. China. G. stout. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. it promotes growth of hair.—Oct. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. :—A tall leafy grass. Dabha. fattening. diuretic . base cordate. liver complaints. Polynesia. fermented juice is intoxicating. notched at the nodes . useful in fevers and urinary disorders. promotes hairgrowth. Sk. long. NS. HABITAT :—Gregarious. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). It is also used for burns. Japan. abundant in standing water. B and C. internodes smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. :—Himalayas. Fr. See—Fruit Trees. Madhya Bharat.—monœcious racemes 2. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. consumption. H. M. piles . Job's tears. S. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Oil—sweet. paralysis. asthma. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. above the bract stout. 6. bluish grey. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy.3 cm. stem 90-150 cm. enriches blood. smooth. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. incipient phthisis and cachexia. Jargadi.—broadly ovoid to globose. Ran-jondhala. useful in fever. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. FAM.—Gramineæ COM. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. sheaths long.. spinously serrate margins. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . polished. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams.

acute or acuminate. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. Lassora. diam. and dyspepsia. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. PROPERTIES AND LOC. histidin. buds obovoid. and intestinal antiseptic. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Jute . lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . lanceolate. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. Challa. L. wedgeshaped. The plant contains leucin. astringent. 12 mm. Chhunchh . The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. PARTS USED :—Root. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. smooth.5-10 X 2-3. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. Sk. It is also used as a bitter tonic. NS. Fl. Bhokar. fever. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. Sd. Chaunchan . Fl. subglobose. Bhokar.—Tiliaceæ. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. Kalasaka. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. Bhukerbudara. ridged and muricated. :—Konkan. yellow. Fr.—7. not beaked. In jutegrowing districts. Patta. carminative. K. also as antiperiodic.—few in each cell. M. Col.:—E. G. 5-valved. M. See—Fibres. C. Gujarat. growing very tall under cultivation. Bargund. FAM. :—E. Gondan.—Boraginaceæ. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. DISTR. stomachic. Hadige. NS. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. :—An annual herb.2 cm. leaves and fruit. anthelmintic. tyrosin.—in short cymes. Sk.— Sept. serrate. . :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. CHAR. Resalla. COM. cultivated in most tropical countries. Pistan. t. brown.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . FAM.—petals 4-5. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts.— capsule. G. LOC. Mannadike. H. lysin. COM. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. Sebesten plum. also efficacious in skin-diseases. arginine and coicin. Bhuselu. See—Fodder Plants. Rayagundo. laxative. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa.

anthelmintic. stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. . USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. chronic fevers. uterus and urethra. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. used in syphilis. often planted. scabies. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. Allaka. DISTR. Ghats. heart and liver.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests.—Umbelliferæ. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. anthelmintic. NS. Kothimbir. headache. highly esteemed in coughs. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). causes suppuration. PARTS USED :—Bark. Vitunnaka. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. COM. Hivija. Konphir. wild and cultivated. G. tropical Australia. cures thirst. Kothambri. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac. stomachic. H. pains in joints. Mesapotamia and Greece. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. widely known from Palestine. prevents coryza and bronchitis. tooth-ache. vulnerary. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. K. diuretic. gleet. also cultivated. cooling. diseases of chest and urethra. Fibres. maturant. stimulant. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. bechic. The plant and fruit— acrid. Kustumburi. aphrodisiac. analgesic. biliousness. jaundice. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Ceylon. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. dyspepsia. bronchitis. :—Throughout India. leaves (rarely) and fruit. gives appetite. Coriander. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. used in dry cough. bleeding gums. tuberculous glands. inflammations. DISTR. diseases of chest. tonic to brain. FAM. laxative. anthelmintic. LOC. Syria. useful in hiccup.:—Throughout the State in W. thirst. carminative and antispasmodic. LOC. Dhania. Fruits are used as spice. removes bad humours. LOC. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. See—Timbers. Cochin-China. purgative. :—Cultivated throughout India. Egypt. HABITAT :—Cultivated. antipyretic. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. Leaves—hypnotic. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit.:—E. used as an expectorant and astringent. Kothamir. eye-pains. Sk. Dharika. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. Kanara. burning of throat. M. stomatitis. biliousness. Fruit—diuretic. indigestion. Fruit is aromatic. Satpudas. piles. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). expectorant. vomiting. LOC.

—Capparidaceæ. lip white with yellow centre. COM. :—G. :—G. By the earliest writers. spirally arranged. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Sk. DISTR. Kemuka. " Kapha".2-2. fever. L. Nervele.—15-30 X 5. Hadawarna. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. CHAR. Fl. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. in moist and shady places. Kushtha. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Sk. sheaths coriaceous . Pushkarmula. It is also astringent and digestive. bright red. Ceylon. nalas. COM. LOC. concave. Pushkarmula. Kashmira. NS. also planted near Muslim tombs. The plant yields an essential oil. Kust.—capsule. Varno. Country. and " Vata".7 m. Karikuttu. FAM. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. K.— black with white aril. hiccup (Ayurveda). a tonic is prepared from it. globosely 3-gonous. Barna. See—Condiments and Spices. Pakarmula. S. useful in catarrhal fevers. Madhya Bharat. M. Kumaraka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Var. M.:—Konkan ghats. oblong. depurative. Shura. M.7-7. Vayavarno. India. useful in bronchitis. Malay Islands. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. lobes ovate-oblong. Penva. Varuna. . Varuna. rheumatism. bracts ovate. Varvunna. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Khandala. red. Fr. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. subsessile. stem sub-woody at the base . coughs and skin diseases. t. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers.—Scitamineæ. :—An erect plant 1. S. NS. Fl. high. Sd. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Biliana. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. K. inflammations. H. China.5 cm. dyspepsia. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Chikke. subequal. root-stock tuberous. :—More or less throughout India. LOC. DISTR. Keu.— tube short. Ajapa. Pinga. lumbago.—Aug. Changalkashta. Mahakapittha. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. PARTS USED:—Root.— in very dense spikes. silky-pubescent beneath. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Castle Rock. C. mucronate. LOC. Var. anæmia. and aphrodisiac. H. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. crisped. many.-Oct. Bitusi. Bilpatri. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. FAM. Vayavarna.

Kanmu. removes "Vata". Chindar. antipyretic. H. laxative. defective vision. useful in biliousness. urinary discharges.—15-50 in an umbel. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. lobes 6. . 0. bulb 5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. leaves. flowers and fruits. Nag-damani. diuretic. USES:—Root is alterative. FAM. then sweet. X 12. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. found wild in North and South Konkan. emmenagogue. Kanwal. Seeds—purgative. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. L. "Pitta" and "Kapha". Wild or cultivated.5-18 cm. expectorant. Nagadown. digestive. bracts 7. vesicant. urinary concretions. Visha-Mandalamardini. thin. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. bark. gonorrhœa. act as rubefacient and vesicant. Sd. Ceylon. laxative. Tonic. heating. cylindric. The plant contains saponin. with a sheathing base.—Amaryllidaceæ.:—G. and seeds. carminative. anthelmintic. Fl. tuberculous glands. bechic. aphrodisiac. leaves. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. strangury. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. detergent. tumours. laxative. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. lumbago.—subglobose. bright green. :—Throughout tropical India. bitter. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Kanda-shalini. beaked. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. diam. as long as the tube. good in strangury. linear.—1 (rarely 2). DISTR. perianth tube greenish-white. K. expectorant. fragrant at night. Vishamungalli.9-1. chest. it promotes appetite. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. LOC. vomiting. diseases of vagina.. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. white. night-blindness. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). long. chest and blood diseases. vulnerary. M. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State.5-10 cm. increases secretion of bile. Patra-pushpi. Nagdavana.—20-30. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. lung and spleen diseases. also wild. NS. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose.5 cm. antilithic. anthelmintic. Nag-damani. anuria. flat. stomachic. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. scape 45-90 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated. toothache. Fr. LOC. See—Timbers.. COM. Pindar. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). Bark promotes appetite. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). useful in bronchitis. Sk.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. linear lanceolate.

useful in mental troubles. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. As an application to sprains. See—Timbers. naturalised or cultivated. Oil cathartic. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Jamalgota. leaves and seeds. near Junnar (Poona Dist).—Euphorbiaceæ. carminative. nauseant and diaphoretic. M. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). DISTR. excessive phlegm. COM. bronchitis (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Purging croton . K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ceylon. emetic. Ganasur. Chota-Natpur. :—Bengal. PARTS USED :—Root. Konkan. Madhya Pradesh. Ceylon . :—H. M. Malay Islands. Burma. Burma. Japala. expectorant. Chucka . :—Rare in the State. NS. LOC. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. :—Sylhet. in small doses. Jamalgota . Nepala. FAM. Bengal. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. China. Seeds cause burning sensation. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Danti. Nepal. :—Naturalised in S. Assam to Malacca. good in sore eyes. convulsions. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Sk. Jepal. inflammations. Oil from the seed is purgative. Danti. Sk. The plant contains lycorin. bark. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. it is in great request. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. COM.. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. G. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. See—Ornamental Plants. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Bhutankusam. insanity. Ieucoderma. Jayapala. Nepala . Kanara. tonic. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. . abdominal diseases. :—E. Western Peninsula. fever. H. NS. DISTR. cathartic. etc. FAM. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre.

USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Karkali. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Chibdu Shakarteti. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. M. fruit and seeds. Sk. COM. LOC. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. :—G. Kakri. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. cures " Vata ". paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. convulsions. Kankadi. oily. cooling. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Kakni. Ripe fruit—sweet. nutritive and diuretic. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. Valungi. Seeds—lachrymatory. Mahanaracha Rasa. DISTR. laxative. colic. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. brain and body. Mutrala. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. H. Kalangida.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. gives headache. Kharbuja. ascites. biliousness. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. H. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Sweet melon . G. Fruit—tonic. It is given internally with great caution. Sk. tonic. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. They are edible. Said to be truly wild in India. Melon. obstinate constipation. Kharbuja. :—In Deccan. Chibuda. Tarkakadi. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). thirst (Yunani). It is useful in apoplexy. See—Timbers. M. bronchitis. Valaka. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. diuretic. K. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. urinary discharges. NS. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. wholesome.:—E. fattening. . galactagogue. Lomashi. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. aphrodisiac. Kachra. cures ophthalmia. ascites. and lock-jaw. laxative. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. insanity. Rind—vulnerary. Shantanu. may cause indigestion. C. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. insanity. PARTS USED :—Root. Pathira . DISTR. chronic fever. FAM. COM. Vrittervaru. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. used in liver and kidney troubles.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kakadi. in ascites and anasarca. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Shadrekha. diaphoretic. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. &c. dropsy. strengthens heart. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. MELO Var. Kharbuja. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. LOC. Karkati. diuretic. synovitis. NS. allays fatigue. LOC.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. Seed oil used in fever. melo var. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. Khira. Vishala. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). with 10 green longitudinal stripes. India is considered to be the original home. tendrils simple. Cucumber. Tavasa. Kakari. Takamaki. G. Tansali. cooling. angled. Sushitala. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—A perennial climber. Kankdi. Seeds possess cooling properties. good for brain and body.—monœcious . they are also used as diuretic. rigid. indigestible. Fr. CHAR. used in thirst. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. enrich blood. LOC. K. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Trapusha. Seeds—diuretic. biliousness. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Cultivated in all parts of India. causes "Vata". Santekayi. Kakdi. hairy. "Kapha" and flatulence. cordate at the base.:—N. stomachic.—yellow segments elliptic. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. roasted and powdered. Ripe one tonic. FAM. Kumbhakshi. Karit. Sk. strangury. Fl. astringent. cures biliousness. purgative.—June-Sept. diuretic. Sd. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Yunani). Hislambhi.—white. improve complexion. LOC. lobes obovate. H. See-Fruit Trees. HABITAT :—Cultivated. are administered in throat affections. margined . . Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C.— suborbicular. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. DISTR. M. fatigue. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. allay thirst. COM. and C. NS.—Cucurbitaceæ. H. stem slender. Fl. NS. Mrigadani. See—Vegetables. Sudhavsa. t. FAM. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh).:—E. antipyretic. female peduncle longer than male. fruits. pulp bitter. lobulate or dentate . fever. seeds. pale yellow when ripe.—subglobose or ellipsoid. male in clusters. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. :—G. Sk. Fruit—fattening . Kothiban. L. They are nutritive. B. cures thirst. Chitravalli. Khira. utilissimus (Ayurveda. dry. C. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. M.

cultivated in many parts of India. K. increases " Vata ". USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. N. Afghanistan. G. Koron. Kaddu. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Tambda bhopala. Kushmand. Pitakushmand. DISTR. H. Melon pumpkin. Sk. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. stomachic. In Malabar. unhealthy ulcers. Australia. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. Karkarn. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Kadimah. G. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. HABITAT. Sk. indigestible.—Cucurbitaceæ. on hedges. Kashiphala. USES. cures cough. NS. DISTR. improves taste (Ayurveda). :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. B and C. LOC. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. See—Vegetables. FAM .:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Kumbala.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. COM.:—Considered to be a native of America. Red squash gourd. LOC. Safedkaddu . Vegetable marrow. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Punyalata. The plant contains glucoside saponin. HABITAT :—Cultivated. increases " Vata" . fruits and seeds. allays thirst. Bhopala. Dried fruit indigestible . M.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Mithakaddu. Malaya. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. Iran. NS. Kumra. astringent to bowels . Fruit contains vitamins A. :—E. Seeds are used as taeniacide. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Kushmand. etc. LOC. Dudia. :—Throughout the greater part of India. carbuncles. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Kumbala. LOC. tonic. M. . cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Ceylon. FAM. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. :—Cultivated. Dangari. H. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. DISTR. : — E. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Pumpkin. LOC.

fatigue. Sk. FAM. remove biliousness. allays thirst. Jirige. M. belching . PARTS USED :—Fruit. cure haemoptysis. Kalimusali. Zira. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. Ajjika. leprosy. cures leprosy. good for teeth. fattening. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. heals corneal opacities. LOC. enlargment of the spleen. tonic. Girautmi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. :—G. fruit and seeds. NS. carminative. cures haemoptysis. stops epistaxis . NS. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. abortifacient. Jiru. uterine stimulant. diuretic and demulcent. biliousness. tonic to intestine. sweet. Cumin. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. cooling. relieves hiccup. Gaurajerka. alexipharmic.—Umbelliferæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. G. purifies blood (Ayurveda). Seeds—diuretic. beneficial in consumption. H. throat and eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Fruit—very cooling. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. DISTR. Talamulika. Neladati. ulcers. antidysenteric. ft contains vitamins A and C. carminative. Dipaka. and the root for making these more potent. Seeds anthelmintic. fever. See—Condiments and Spices. . K. antipyretic. Cures " Vata " tumours. tonic.—Amaryllidaceæ. asthma. :—E. stomachic. eye-diseases. Kalimusali. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Jire. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. astringent to bowels. fever. M. COM. aphrodisiac. scabies. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. bronchitis. haematinic. thirst. analgesic. Kalimusali. emmenagogue. astringent to bowels. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). vulnerary. See—Vegetables. FAM. also a lactagogue. Mushalikand . Seeds are taeniacide. K. appetiser. COM. anthelmintic. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. laxative. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Neltati gadde. inflammations. Fruit yields an essential oil. H. Leaves—digestible. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. Musali. increases appetite . Dirghaka. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. leucoderma. Jira. LOC. gonorrhœa. Sk. Kapha " and " Vata ". carminative. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Fruit astringent. astringent. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region.

Sd. CHAR. LOC. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. fattening. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . antipyretic. cooling. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Kapurahaldi. COM.— in autumnal spikes 7. 1545 X 1. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers.— in racemes. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. appetising. Fl. L. Java. maturant. PROPERTIES AND USES. indigestion. " Vata". t. :—A small herb. asthma.—grooved. ulcers on penis.— May-June. DISTR. causes "Vata". :—E. FAM. very short. scape. :—Bengal.—capsule. diuretic. biliousness. tonic. Malay Archipelago. flowering bract greenish-white. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. bitter. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). common at the beginning of rains. Peninsula. pale yellow inside . 30-45x7.5-12. gonorrhœa. Ambahaldi. C—white or very pale-yellow. Fl. antipyretic.. M. Assam.-Sept.5 cm. cylindric or ellipsoid. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. jaundice. Peninsula. alexiteric. NS. black. K. useful in piles. colic. linear or linear-lanceolate .—long petioled in tufts. inflammations (Ayurveda). Mango-ginger. pains in joints (Yunani). Bitter. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. yellow. Fr. emollient. L. laxative.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. fatigue. gonorrhœa. bronchitis. all skin-diseases. Karpuraharidra. DISTR. distichous. ophthalmia. Fl.8-5 cm. aphrodisiac. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. useful in inflammations. appetiser. Bengal.5 cm. hiccup. lumbago. sessile. rhizome. lumbago.:—W. hydrophobia. Amragandha. useful in biliousness. :—Konkan and Gujarat. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . :—Konkan and N. tubers thick. oblong. root stock large. alterative.:—Sweet. during convalescence after acute illness. G. H. appetiser. hairy on the back. debility and impotence. Kanara. W. Amhaladi. LOC. piles.3-2. perianth segments elliptic. aphrodisiac. useful in bronchitis. Fl. shining . expectorant. with a beak . gleet. Ambehalad. oblong lanceolate. . Sk. Root—carminative. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Root.—sessile or petiolate. clavate . tips sometimes rooting. aphrodisiac. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. alterative and tonic. gleet. oblong. diarrhœa. troubles in the mouth and ear. stomatitis (Yunani).5-15 X 3. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. t. diarrhœa. LOC. :—Stemless herb. scabies.—Scitamineæ. often cultivated. Ambahaladara.

Sk. FAM. the dorsal longer. L. long. variegated above.—tube 2. It is considered tonic and carminative. K. Mangalya. NS. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Vanhaldara. DISTR. Sk. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Haridra. annulate. lateral lobes oblong. Yellow Zedoary. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste.—Scitamineæ. green.5 cm. forming pouches for the flowers. Jayanti. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. Aranyaharidra. palmately branched. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. FAM. :—Western Peninsula. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.— flowering stem sheathed. long. Banhaladi. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. Arishina. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . The plant tubers yield an essential oil. Kapur-kachali. COM. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. Sholi. CURCUMA LONGA Linn.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Harita. Ran-halad. Bengal. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Sholika. Halad. .— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. appearing before leafing stem. Also cultivated in Konkan. also stomachic. Banharidra. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. M. Halad. Vanarishta. sessile. :—E. Varnadatri.-May. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Indian saffron. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil.—Scitamineæ. it is seldom used alone . Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Halada. root-stock large. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Turmeric. t. CHAR. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. DISTR. lip yellow. upper half funnel-shaped. Fl. LOC. H. LOC. Sometimes cultivated. :—Stemless herb. rounded at the tips. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. flowers fragrant. pale green. G. biennial. NS. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Fl. sometimes cultivated. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. in spikes 15-30 cm. lobes pale-rose. H. See—Condiments and Spices. flowering bracts cymbiform. LOC. used as an application for skin-diseases. base deltoid. appetiser . throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. M. 3lobed. :—E..

flowering bract green tinged with red . See—Condiments and Spices. alexiteric. In coryza. C. "Vata ". flowers yellow in spikes. :—Stemless herb. annulate tubers. FAM . alexiteric. H. urinary discharges. LOC. anthelmintic. Jatala. fumes are used during hysteric fits . root-stock of palmately branched. bitter. It contains vitamin A. inflammations. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. Bitter. Hakhir. swellings. blood diseases. emollient. useful in leucoderma. COM. :—Cultivated in the State. clothed with sheaths. Kachuri. bronchitis. pale-yellow inside. coma-bract crimson or purple . . said to be Wild in E. K. laxative. Sk. heating. anthelmintic. scabies. carminative. Fr.—capsule. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. bruises (Yunani). internally administered in blood disorders. antipyretic. tonic. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . an alkaloid.—funnel shaped. bitter. jaundice.—Scitamineæ. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. Himalayas and Chittagong. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. diuretic. small-pox. Narakachora. G. scabies. Kachora. used in prurigo. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. itches etc. LOC. taste bitterish spicy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Karechura. useful in " Kapha". long. vulnerary. appearing before the leaves. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. and yields an essential oil. odour like camphor. destroys foulness of breath. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. fragrant. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. bruises. improves complexion. maturant. In small-pox and chicken-pox. lobed . M. Gandhamulaka sara. asthma. lip 3-lobed. deepyellow. boils. boils and urticaria. DISTR. CHAR. externally applied to leech-bites. Shathi. 30-60 cm. Kachora. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . Kachari. bruises. good for liver affections. Tuber is used as a stimulant. clouded with purple down the middle.—4-6 with long petioles. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. leucoderma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. sprains (Ayurveda). The plant contains curcumin. Fl. oblong-lanceolate. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. L. 3-gonous. cylindric. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. heating. oblong. piles. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo.— flowering stem 20-25cm. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. vulnerary. NS. long. Zedoary. urinary discharges.:—E. an ointment prepared from the rhizome.

Ligule very short. Majjige hullu. laxative. It is also aromatic. LOC. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. chronic rheumatism. gastric irritability. G. emetic. it is also a good application for ringworm. :—A tall perennial. K. sharp hot taste. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. also used as a tonic and depurative. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. others narrow and separating. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). midrib whitish on the upper side. erect. appetiser. probably of Indian origin. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. glaucous green. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). tuberculous glands of neck. L. sheaths of the culm tight. bitter. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. Takratrina. toothache (Yunani). those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. it is stimulant. H. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. sharp. Sk. Lilicha. enlargement of spleen.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. FAM. Purhati hullu. Gandhatrina. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. long. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. LOC. good odour. COM. neuralgia. Gavati-chaha. up to over 1. and other painful affections. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. . hot. long.8 m. culm stout. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. Lemon grass. pains. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. useful in griping of children. applied to bruises and sprains. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. LOC. furunculosis. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. Putigandha. useful in bronchitis. velvety at the nodes. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. epileptic fits. upto over 90 cm. sheaths terete . emmenagogue. high. carminative.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. alexipharmic. sprains. It is an excellent stomachic to children.—Gramineæ. anthelmintic. alexipharmic. of much use in typhoid fevers. CHAR. leprosy. inflammations. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. and is of great value in cholera. Externally it is rubefacient.—linear tapering upwards to a point. laxative. stimulant and carminative. aphrodisiac. carminative. tonic to brain and heart. Bhustrina. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic.:—E. Bitter. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. Tubers yield an essential oil. expectorant.. nodding. M.

leprosy. Ghats. CHAR. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). pungent. Africa to Morocco. Kobbar. stem. H. scabies.—grain. Durva.5-2.-Nov. Fl. Garikehallu. NS. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass.—Gramineæ. Gujarat. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. LOC. L. :—A perennial grass . prostrate . DISTR. G. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. straw coloured. sweet. K. :—Punjab. Bhutika.. Mirchiagand. M. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Fl. Sk. heart diseases. 12-18 mm. most warm countries. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. 1 mm. Geramium grass. Country. H. K. with erect flowering branches 7. glaucous beneath.—Oct. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Durva. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. throughout India. FAM. Rohisha. margins scabrid. Rhusghas. See-Oils. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. :—E. particularly the Deccan trap areas. Roshagavat. thirst. :—Sourashtra.—Gramineæ. hallucinations. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. long. Saugandhika. smooth. through N. skin . slender. high. t.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. Durba. usually broad.5-5 cm. stem. high.—throughout the year.3 cm.:—Grows all over the State. widely creeping. Fl. fatigue. sheaths tight. Konkan. X 1 cm. cooling. Bujina. Mangala. useful in biliousness. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. DISTR. NS.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. useful in fevers. M. bitter. Dhoboghas. long. Sind. COM. COM. Bahuvirya. M. :—Cosmopolitan .t. Rohisha. leprosy. Fr. Vasanchullu. Shyamaka. leafy. subcordate or rounded at the base. epileptic fits. W. Baluchistan. Shatagranthi. wide below. narrowly linear. FAM.4 m. Harali. bronchitis. Roshdo. forming matted tufts. green or purplish. long. Deccan. in the Himalayas. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. upto 2. Afghanistan. vomiting. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. bad taste in the mouth. Shatamula. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. soft.—flat. Burma. :—E.5-30 cm.—2-10 cm. throat troubles. finely acute. L. long. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Fl. Dhro. LOC. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. 1. S. oblique or divaricate. pains. carminative. burning sensation.—spikes 2-nate. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. G.000 m. Gharo.

A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. most hot countries. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. Fl. Nut—broadly ovoid. M. useful in vomiting. Nagarmotha. anthelmintic. Tungegaddo. it is diuretic. :—G. greyish black. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. LOC. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. astringent.— in simple or compound umbel. Granthi. urinary concretions (Yunani). Root— diuretic. They are also diuretic and stimulant. Mutha. K. spikelets 10-50 flowered. COM. stolons elongate.82. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. fever. Sk Bhadramusta. vomiting. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. useful in leprosy. Fl. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Motha. PARTS USED :—Tubers. appetiser. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. bruises. :—Glabrous herb. LOC. biliousness. juice is used in hysteria. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia.. vulnerary. narrowly linear. biliousness. stomatitis. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. Sugandhi-granthila. dyspepsia. 0. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. very troublesome weed. epilepsy. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. epistaxis. FAM. fevers. useful for ulcers and sores. H. Motha. LOC. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. acrid. blood diseases. Kachhola. cooling. t. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. epistaxis (Ayurveda). dysentery. diarrhœa. vulnerary. epilepsy and insanity. pain. DISTR. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. emmenagogue. erysipelas. L. erysipelas (Ayurveda). fever. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Tubers yield an essential oil. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. dysentery. difficult to eradicate.. pruritis. Bimbal. Ceylon. stomachic. NS.5 cm. In Ceylon. Motha. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. hiccup (Yunani). trigonous. Koranarigadde. diaphoretic. USES :—Roots are commonly. expectorant. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. See—Fodder Plants. CHAR. Bitterish.—Cyperaceæ. . diarrhœa. Mustaka. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn.—Sept-Nov. burning sensation.—shorter or longer than the stem. blood diseases. thirst. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. ophthalmia.

paralytic ileus.5 cm. :—Annual shrub. packed. a glucoside.g. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. stem hairy. Black-Purple datura. Utarni. Kariyu-Um-Matta. across. M. Sd. Fr. LOC. DISTR. high. Fl. reflexed. ciliate. subglobose. ovate. . and sub-involution of the uterus.—7. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. broadly ovate or suborbicular. C. Country. Rajdhattura. Gujarat. Kanaka. :—Deccan.—capsule. M. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. green. Fl. Ceylon.—Asclepiadaceæ. on curved stalk 3. somewhat zigzag. Sk. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn.5-15 X 3. outer truncate. Kaladhatura.:—E. tubular. Sk. entire or with large teeth or lobes.—Sept-Dec. HABIT :—A common weed. double. Ns.—thin. L. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Kaladhatura. H. lobes spreading. CHAR. solitary. funnel-shapped. white inside. yellowish brown.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ".—Solanaceæ. Fl.5 cm. Unmatta. corona outer and inner. soft spiny.2-7.—many. long 10-20. CHAR. COM. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. very unequal at the base. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. long. L.—purple outside.-Jany. Bhranta. Sd. inner curved high over the staminal column. velvety pubescent beneath. greenish-yellow or dull-white. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. M. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. COM. :—H.—follicle. FAM. Utran. S. Kala-dhotara. usually pubescent. Fl. e. G. diam. NS. nodding. Kanaka. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. FAM. t.— tubular.. 18 cm.2 cm.—Aug. Administered after the third stage of labour. covered with straight sharp prickles. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. afterwards racemose. t. acute. glabrous above. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. spur acute. Fr. :—A perennial twining herb. Phalakantak. LOC. 30-60 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. divaricately branched. K: Dhattura. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. beak long.

The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. skin-diseases. bitter. The whole plant is narcotic. relieves pain. PARTS USED :—Root. emetic. black (Kala) and white (Safed). Root—useful in reducing inflammation. LOC. mumps etc. (Ayurveda). Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. leaves and seeds. anodyne. biliousness. . nosetrouble. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Sk. LOC. They regarded the drug as intoxicant.. equal in effect to atropine. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. Leaf-juice is given internally. and antispasmodic properties. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. painful tumours. cause headache (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Roots. tonic. H. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. headache. Gajar. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. in combination with subja. G. with curdled milk. nodes.—Umbelliferæ COM. Gajar. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Leaf poultice. Garjara. piles. useful in leucoderma. digestive and heating. bronchitis. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. emetic. The plant as a whole has narcotic. febrifuge. Gajar. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. jaundice. Carrot. to increase their stupefying effect. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. black variety is considered to be more powerful. anthelminitic . alexiteric. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Shikkikanda. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. in gonorrhœa. M. ulcers. toddy. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. ganja. majum. HABITAT :—Cultivated. leaves and seeds. Gajjari. NS. chronic coughs. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. USES :—Out of the two varieties. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. febrifuge. FAM. enlargement of testicles and boils. :—Throughout the tropics.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. DISTR. GranthiPinda-Mula. :—E. Europe. toxic. K. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. heating. Seeds—narcotic. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. Cultivated in many parts of India. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Gajra.

Dirghamula. tumours. China. carminative. throughout India. Ranbhal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. cough. Kanara . Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. urinary discharges. Root marmalade is refrigerant. Kitavinashini. Salwan. LOC. See—Vegetables.. other fevers. urinary complaints. stems and branches angled. Fl. stomachic. chest troubles. they produce a spirituous liquor. thirst. upper edge straight. Salwan. Tonic. Vidarigandha. :— G. biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). CHAR. COM. M. they are also diuretic. It is used in fevers. bronchitis. tropical Africa. hooked hairy. Fl. aphrodisiac. Salpan. K. tonic. hiccup. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. DISTR. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. pains. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. expectorant. Philippines. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. paler and hairy beneath. hairy.—in terminal or axillary racemes. standard cuneate at the base . LOC. Roots contain vitamins A. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. USES :—Externally. Deccan and S. chronic affections of chest and lungs. vomiting. removes " Kapha". nausea (Yunani).—pod. green and glabrous above. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. indigestible. piles. " Tridosha ". fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. astringent to bowels. boiled with honey and fermented. anthelmintic. Sk. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. :—A woody undershrub. joints 6-8. vomiting and asthma. cardiotonic. L. Salparni. margins wavy. cures leprosy. biliousness. cures biliousness. good for liver. astringent to bowels. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). ovate-oblong. good for inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root. burning sensation. t. NS. inflammations. Murele-honne. Salwan. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). " Vata". . useful in chronic fevers. Fr. thirst. fattening. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. high. sub-falcate. FAM. H. LOC. Country. asthma. M. piles.2 m. cures typhoid. Malay Peninsula and Islands . Salpani. B and C. C—violet or white. Ceylon. used in bronchitis. vomiting. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . prevents death of fœtus in womb . Darh. alterative. alexipharmic. 0. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. membranous. antidysenteric. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. aphrodisiac. Shaliparni.—May-July. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. Burma. :—Konkan and N. diuretic. asthma.6-1.—onefoliate. dysentery .

:—Throughout India. H. Kusha. rigid.3-3. sedative to pregnant uterus. useful in blood diseases.) FAM. t. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. branched from the base. Anilsara. creeping. ligule a hairy line . Flowers—aphrodisiac.—Ebenaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. diuretic. Kanara and the Konkan. K. aphrodisiac. diseases of blood. in the beds of rivers and streams.. erect pyramidal or columnar. H. Riber ebony.—Dec.—Gramineæ. Wood cures biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. M. NS. DISTR. Zeeberwo. vesical calculi. :—Perennial tall grass. stems 30-90 cm.—many. Tinduka. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). skin eruptions. cures ulcers and " Vata". erect. tufted. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Tumaki Mara. G. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. L. Gavandu. rootstock stout. flowers. long. covered with shining sheaths. Darbha.—G. Pavitra. good for lumbago. DISTR. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sk. Davoli. Fl. :—Along the coasts of N. . Sacred Plants. Temburni. Tumari. bark. astringent to bowels. cooling. Gale. Malay Archipelago. oleaginous. branches short crowded. asthma. strangury. Thailand (Siam). Dabha. Darbha. Tendu. fruit and seeds. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Wood. LOC. Fl. Fruit—oleaginous. Kalatendu. vomiting. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. smooth. Wild mangosteen. M. thirst. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). :—E. COM. sheaths glabrous. Sphurjaka. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. the basal fascicled. Gujarat. Egypt. interrupted.:—Saurashtra. Sk. Ceylon. margins hispid. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Dab. LOC. Banda. heating. Makurkendi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Konkan. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. jaundice. reaching 50 cm. diseases of bladder. COM. stout. high. FAM. vaginal discharges. Durva. Kalaskandh. NS. See—Fodder Plants.8 cm. Timbwini. Nubia. CHAR. -panicle 15-45 X 1. clothed with sessile spikelets. stolon very stout. Syria.

strangury. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). generally on trees and rocks. Konkan— Ratnagiri. intestinal colic. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. leucoderma. Ashvakatri.Gahat. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. densely clothed with red-brown scales. See—Timbers. urinary discharges. Sori two in each primary areole. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. heart-troubles. variously lobed. FAM. pain in liver. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. emmenagogue. Kulith. anthelmintic. Kulitha. :—M. M. G. Tans. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. PARTS USED :—Seeds. base decurrent on the stipe. See-Food Plants. Kulthi. Kalvrinta. :—Rhizome creeping. Wandar bashing. Kulit. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. inflammation. diseases of the brain and eyes. CHAR. fertile ones long stalked. bronchitis. K. COM. Nasik. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. causes biliousness (Yunani). LOC. improves complexion. Sk. NS. piles. fattening. asthma.—Polypodiaceæ. enlargement of spleen. Hurali. appetiser. astringent to bowels. Kulithaka. FAM. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. Grains contain vitamin A. COM. grown to a certain extent in S. ozoena. Diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Country—Belgaum. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. cordate. cures hiccup. Texture membranaceous to leathery. It is demulcent in calculus affection. piles. Horse-Gram. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. removes stone from kidney. Jurali. Bijapur and Dharwar. tumours. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. hiccup. :—Tropics of the old world. Kulthi. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. M. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. eye troubles. . Sk. cures " Kapha". :—E. stout. DISTR. hot. Sitetara. liver troubles. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. ovate. abdominal complaints. coughs etc. Kulathi. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. "Vata". Surfaces naked. short. acrid.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Basingh. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. LOC. dry. NS. antipyretic.

:—G. biliousness. inflammations. bitter. LOC. Sunilaka. M. Deccan. DISTR. FAM. dyspepsia. usually oblong-lanceolate. Ajagara.3—0.—Compositæ. subentire. branches widely spreading from the base. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Mochand. spines 2. often rooting at the nodes. antipyretic. Dadhal. Root— abortifacient.5 cm. tonic. Sk. cottony.— Nov. globose. Utkantaka.—sessile. t. strigose and hairy. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. stimulates liver. H. wooly beneath. CHAR. Afghanistan. Plant stomachic. sinuate and spinescent. Utkatara. Pitripriya. increases appetite. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. also cultivated to a certain extent. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. astringent to bowels . Utanti. yellowish. glabrous above. diseases of heart. :—G. Utakatara. Balari. stems and branches strigose and hairy. M. NS. useful in brain-diseases. hot. K. Kalobhangro . Utkanto. improves taste. hysteria. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda).:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Fl. :—More or less throughout India. surrounded by strong white bristles. It is used in hoarse cough. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Bhangro. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. cottony pubescent. Kadechubak. . dyspepsia and cough. CHAR. used in strangury. L. " Vata". spiny. hectic fever.-Jany.—heads white. C. deeply pinnatifid.9 m.—limb linear. NS. the lobes triangular and oblong. high. thirst. Fr. Keshrangana. Bhringraj. Kantalu. COM. Utkanta. causes " Kapha". sessile. chronic fever. Konkan. Kantaphala. Garagadasoppu. Sk. H.— opposite. pappus short. COM. densely villous. Shulio. 0. :—Konkan. bracts 3seriate. :—Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. urinary discharges. Fl.—achene obconic. pain in joints. L. M.—Compositæ. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Markara. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. :—A much branched rigid annual. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. oblong. S. long. FAM. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Seeds—wholesome. Maka. Bhangra. Kadigga-garaga. LOC. DISTR. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. gleet. Bhangra. involucre. analgesic. used in ophthalmia. Country.:—Throughout India.

-Dec. lustre of eyes. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Ceylon. hemi-crania. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Karangi. Chandrabala. Fr. Bahula. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. LOC.—Scitaminaceæ. and for strengthening gums. solitary or 2 together. prevents abortion and miscarriage.—achene. Bitter . It is also used as an emetic and purgative. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine.:—India (Bengal. LOC. It is given internally in scalding of urine. hair. syphilis. axillary. tonic. Choti-Elachi. stomachic. disk ones tubular . used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). anæmia. Ela. NS. antipyretic. fattening. :—E. Kanara (Siddapur. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. Elachi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. cultivated. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . night blindness. Peninsula). ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. asthma. It relieves headache when applied with oil. Burma. . eye diseases. expectorant. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. :—Western valleys of N. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). good for spleen diseases. eyes. Malaya. M. cuneate with a narrow wing. K. Gandhkuti. Triputa. it is powdered and applied externally. Yalakki. cures inflammations. See—Sacred Plants. Sk. heart and skin diseases. alexipharmic. Veldoda. hernia. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. cures vertigo (Yunani). fevers. Madhya Bharat. H. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. a reputed and popular liver tonic. ray flowers ligulate. Fl. involucral bracts about 8 . DISTR. Ilaji. anthelmintic. internal diseases. Gourangi. C—often 4-toothed . W. hot. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. Sind.— Oct. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle.—in heads. "Vata".94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. leucoderma. toothache. alterative. pappus 0. bronchitis. There are two forms erect and prostrate.. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. teeth. Velchi. "Kapha". t. COM. FAM. improves colour of hair. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . stomatitis. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Panjab. good for complexion. G. liver pain.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. abortifacient. K. K. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. H. causes thirst. See—Condiments and Spices. M. M.—Myrsinaceæ. :— G. fragrant.:—G. In S. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. PARTS USED :—Grain.:—Western and S. Nagali. Ragi. It is said to be astringent. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. Navalo-nagali. It is stomachic. India. ear and tooth ache. useful in asthma. Kanisha. Vavoding. NS. CUM. laxative. Marua. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. See-Food Plants. Bhasmaka. Sk. Sk. Pavaka. Jantughna. bronchitis. consumption. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. brain and mouth. Vavading. LOC. LOC. tonic to heart. carminative. chest and throat (Yunani). COM. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. Vayuvitang. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. clear head. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. diseases of bladder. most suitable to hard-working classes. diuretic. pruritus. PARTS USED :—Root. Rajika. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. bitter. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. cooling. Bavato. FAM. Narttaka. . cooling. NS. Grains contain vitamin B. stomachic. LOC. H. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Varding. diuretic. piles. Bidanga. Boberang. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). pungent. alexiteric . stimulant and emmenagogue.. cultivated. lessens inflammation. useful in head. fruit and seeds. Seed—fragrant. Nachani. Vidariga. Rotka. bad humours of liver. cause biliousness . DISTR. Wavrung. Makra. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. root is laxative and tonic. useful in biliousness. tonic. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. fruit is tonic. scabies. kidney.—Gramineæ. strangury. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. rich or poor. stomachic.

nearly globose. shining above. Dhatri. analgesic. Dhatriphala. DISTR. COM. branches long. Ther. tonic. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. purgative. ascites. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. internodes long. Arch. Bitter. vomiting. .—Feb. inflammations. thirst. Sk. carminative. leaves. China. bronchitis. NS. greenish yellow. many. Fr. Daula . Fl. Bhoza . It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. carminative. flexible. alexiteric. good for plethoric constitution. alexiteric. Amla. diseases of heart. cures bronchitis . often planted in Konkan. Avala. jaundice. laxative. Paranjpe and G. Int. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. LOC. bronchitis. dyspnoea. Anward. slender. China.—Euphorbiaceæ. Amlika. wild or planted. coriaceous. erysipelas. :—A large scandent shrub. anæmia. HABITAT :—Rain forests. Ambala. Amalaka. M. Dadi. alterative. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. t. Embelic myrobalan. Gokhale. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. (Dymock).—in lax panicles.—berry. hemicrania. sour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. DISTR. et. Western Ghats. urinary discharges. Nellika . " Kapha'. aphrodisiac.—alternate. racemes minute. Konkan and N. Adiphala. fruit and seeds.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. smooth. with a sharp bitter taste. elliptic-lanceolate. flowers. sweats. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. Amlika. antipyretic. :—Throughout India. constipation. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). good appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root. succulent. S. cures tumours. leprosy. :—Hilly parts of the State. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. black when ripe. K. reddens urine. anthelminitic. Anola. paler and silvery beneath. biliousness. mental diseases. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. Seed— acrid. 42-II-1932). EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. G. H. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. LOC. K. Fl. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). laxative. Deccan. L. Malaya. anthelmintic . S. " Tridosha ". Ceylon. bark. piles. useful in burning sensation. Pharm. cooling. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). dries wound discharges . poisoning. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Fruit. alterative. Ceylon. Malay Islands. dry.) FAM. Triphala. urinary discharges. anuria. LOC. vulnerary. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). useful in asthma. strangury. bark studded with lenticels . :— E. like a pepper corn when dried.

used as laxative and astringent. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Malaya. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Fl.—sessile. See—Timbers. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Unripe fruit is cooling. eye troubles. Giant's rattle. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. Gujarat. Mamejavo . S. Country. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm.— capsule. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Nahu. astringent.—sessile. Sind. M. R. in axillary clusters all along the stem. LOC. stops nasal hæmorrhage. :—Throughout the greater part of India. USES :—Root. Garambi. Garbe. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ".—Gentianaceæ. sour. stems erect or procumbent. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. 10—50 cm. Dyes. Fruit Trees. Doddakampi. t. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. expectorant. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. diuretic and laxative. Hallekayiballi. Dried fruits. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. useful in heart-diseases. FAM. Ind.) FAM. M. Nagajivha. improves appetite. Sk. Chhotakirayat. biliousness. Lady nut. thirst. narrowed at the base. H. West Indies. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Mackary bean. LOC. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. sub-quadrangular or terete. Celyon. purifies body humours (Yunani). HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. aperient. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. cooling. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. branched from the base. NS. Madvinashi. tropical Africa. bark and fruit are astringent. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling.—Aug. mid-nerve strong.). Saurashtra.-Nov. C—infundibuliform. Fl. opposite. variable. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Fr. Tans. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. lobes 5. COM. liver complaints. rounded apex. :—G. Tiktapatra. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). LOC. anthelmintic. white. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. 3-nerved. Tanavadi. NS. L. vulnerary. CHAR. Fruit—acrid. ellipsoid. piles. DISTR. Mabhipaka. Kadvinayi. high. :—A perennial glabrous herb. tonic. cold in the nose. Grey). :—Konkan. .

Paribhadra. PARTS USED :—Seeds. anthelmintic. thick.—pod.3-2 cm. wide and 3-8 cm. Tennaserim. USES :—Powdered kernel. Kantakinshuka. :—Konkan and N. in debility and glandular swellings . often along river banks. Andamans and Nicobar. Peninsula.—2pinnate. hot. stalked. compressed. 30-90 cm. Raktapushpa. Planted as support for pepper vines.—6-15. 4. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. glabrous. LOC.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.) FAM. Mandara. oblong or obovate. ORIENTALIS Merr. Sk.-May. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). C. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. slightly curved. Leaves—bitter. leaflets 7-5 x 2. bark.5-10 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Bangaro. Mullumurige. Panderavo. Phandra .— Mar. Sundribans. Mandara. t. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. orbicular. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. :—Coast forests of Malabar. Ceylon. along sea-coast above high-water.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. long. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Fl. DISTR. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. .. Var. Salaki. Arakan. the tropics generally. bark used in dysentery. H. The plant is used as a fish-poison. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. 3. branches terete. N. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. stomachic. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. mixed with spices. :—E. they are given internally as an emetic.. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. for grapevines in Nasik district. rigidly coriaceous. Kanara.5-5-7 cm. Mochi-wood. Fl. LOC. Indian coral-tree. Dadap.—yellow. DISTR. Pangara. woody. M. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Pegu. Halivan. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". smooth. flowers. K. cure urinary discharges. Hongara.7-5x7. diam. indented between the seeds. inflammations. long. Panjira. Panarvo. Pangara. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.. G. improve appetite. Sd. Planted as ornament. pinnae 2—3 pairs.S. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. COM. Nepal. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. dark green. Fr. shining and brown. L. W.

See—Timbers. rugose. Kodukalli. Mondukalli. Dudanali. Achchegida. PROPERTIES AND LOC. pale beneath. Pill-bearing spurge. COM. Milk bush. Sd. Sk. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. t. H. Bahukshira.—opposite. L. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. H. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn.—involucres numerous. :— E. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. branches often 4-angled. Dandasruha. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. Bottugalli. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Sahud. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Nagpur 1931).) FAM. M. K. :—Annual herb. globose. gland minute. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Plant is chiefly used for worms. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. serrulate or dentate. Duddi. LOC. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Australian asthma herb.—ovoid-trigonous. Sk. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. and to relieve pain of the joints. dark green above. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. reddish brown. Milk hedge. Paradeshi thora . Cong. COM. FL. Indian tree spurge. erect or ascending. Dudhi. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. it is anthelmintic. Ceylon. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. base unequal-sided. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Shirthahar. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. with or without a limb. Fl.—Euphorbiaceæ. Sc.—capsule. Dudhi. Dudhi. Govardhan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. G. :—E. M. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Vajradruma. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar.—Euphorbiaceæ. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. CHAR. NS. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. K. 18th Ind. Sendh. high. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Nevli. 15-50 cm. appressedly hairy. . Sher. NS. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. The plant contains an alkaloid. FAM. —throughout the year. Pusitoa. Dandalio thora. G. bowel complaints and cough in children. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Fr.

It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. LOC. Fl. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. and with oil to promote growth of hair. elliptic-oblong. pungent. The plant contains an alkaloid. Ceylon. cocci velvety. polished. Shyamakranta . globose. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. base acute. anthelmintic. :—A small tree. tropical and sub-tropical countries. whooping cough. :—Throughout the State. Sd— glabrous. NS. wiry. Vishnukranta. employed to raise blisters.-light blue. :—A perennial herb. Fl. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. asthma. usually clothed with long hairs . solitary or sometimes 2.-Aug. biliousness. carminative. Fr. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. about 6 m.-Sep. epilepsy. branches erect. teething of infants . more than 5 cm. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. also as an alterative. Fr. useful in bronchitis. milk is alexiteric. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . alexiteric. LOC. campanulate.—many.-July-Nov. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. naturalised in India. terete.—ovoid. Vishnugandhi. M. smooth. long. LOC. enlargement of spleen. . prostrate. silky hairy. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). DISTR. leucoderma. L.—Convolvulaceæ. Kalisankhavali. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Konkan and Gujarat. long (appearing in rainy season) . colic. linear. Sd. Vishnukranta. 4valved. peduncles very long. dropsy. dyspepsia. Fl. thick like quill. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. alterative. brightens intellect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. mostly female. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. 6-13 mm. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. rootstock woody . LOC.—small. spreading. Sk. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Juice is purgative. DISTR. L. high. carminative. FAM. K. leprosy and leucorrhoea. CHAR. smooth. thin. useful in gonorrhœa. tumours. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. t. COM. stone in bladder (Yunani). almost leafless.— capsule. leprosy. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. :—G. tonic. axillary. useful in abdominal troubles. :—Sind.—capsule. Nilpushpi. useful in biliousness. branchlets whorled. stems many. Vishnukranti. jaundice. :—Native of East Africa. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. Jhinkiphudardi. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. t.

it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. deeply 5-partite. NS. M. CHAR. M. Kashaya. stomatitis. quadrangular. Hinguna. long. Baluchistan. the upper blue. CHAR. Bark is used in scabies. Fr. ovate. ellipsoid. W. Udichirayat. :— Sind.— showy. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. glandular hairy. DISTR.). Mediterranean.-Oct. purifies blood (Ayurveda). Fl. Fl.—opposite. also used in chronic fevers. more or less glandular. petioles deeply striate. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Coimbatore. emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). shining. Circars. NS. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. asthma. small. pale rose-coloured. high. Dhamasa. Dusparsha. Dhanavi. Iran. :—Madras State. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. Atmamuli. scarcely branched. obliquely obovate. typhoid. the middle the largest. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers.—very variable in size and form sessile. it has got cooling properties. t. COM. about 1. DISTR.-Aug. 5-nerved. FAM. Sk. LOC. Country. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—G. fever. toothache." asthma. cooling. removes "Vata". The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Fl. LOC. H.—capsule. FL. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. Maval.2 cm. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. erysipelas. reaching 60 cm. in chronic bronchitis. alexipharmic. sessile. vomiting. removes "Vata. Sd. Barachirayat. Punjab. stem. flattened. yellowish brown. smooth. spitting of blood. thirst. :—Konkan. elliptic or lanceolate. smooth. 1-3 foliate. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Rajasthan. arising from between the stipules . of 5. L.— ovoid. westwards to Afghanistan. ophthalmia. N. Upper Gangetic plains.—Gentianaceæ. Arabia. in copious terminal cymes . Ghats. t. Gujarat. COM.-Dec. Mysore. Prabhodhini. lower half white. :—An erect annual. L. Cooling. C—lobes 4-5. LOC. Waziristan. urinary discharges. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. acute. . used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. Ustarkhar. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. leaflets linear. pyramidal to the apex. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. FAM. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. cures dysentery. Deccan hills and S. good for liver troubles. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Ind.-Nov. :— H. root fibrous. Dhamaso . reduces tumours.—solitary.—Zygophyllaceæ. 1-seeded cocci. Fr.

Kathel. Sk. often planted. Goli. removes biliousness. country and N. Kanara. Kavath. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara.—Rutaceæ. Kotha. Kathinyaphala. fatigue. Fr. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. India. :—Cultivated all over the State. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. 10-20 X 5-12.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Bhringi. ovate to elliptic. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. tumours. with male. L. :—Indigenous in S. asthma. heart diseases. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Sk. H. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . common in the Tapi Valley. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. useful in biliousness. Elephant or wood apple. Self-sown.. ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. G. acrid. LOC. Dadhiphala. consumption. Nyagrodha. COM. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . COM. Monkey fruit. Bargat. Ala. Malura. refrigerant. M. M. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Vadlo . Grahiphala. S. shining above. LOC. Vat. hiccup. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. See—Timbers. Vad. Fruit Trees. alexipharmic. refrigerant . Manmadha. vomiting . blood impurities. Jatala. FAM. " Vata ". CHAR. cordate or rounded base. NS. cures cough. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. Kavitha. Bar. Avaroha. Alada. about 2 cm. Ghats. LOC. diam. Kapitha.— globose. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. with spreading branches. tonic to heart. Balin. dysentery. DISTR. Bahupada. binding diuretic. " Tridosha". often cultivated. K. Leaves—very astringent. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda).5 cm. K. astringent.—coriaceous. NS. Kait. female. Vata. Belada. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Byala.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m.—Moraceæ. difficult to digest. Seeds—antidote to poison. Fruit—sour . H. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Bargad. Banian tree. :—E. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . good for throat. Kavit. liver and lungs . Kothun. M. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Ceylon. strengthening to gums . :— E. aphrodisiac. thirst. leucorrhoea. Vad. G. . Kapipriya. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Java. high.

A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Anjir. PARTS USED :—Bark. laxative. Aerial root is styptic. biliousness. useful in syphilis. Fig. W. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. ringworm. liver and spleen diseases. Grown scattered elsewhere. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. pain in chest cures piles. Anjir. :—Baluchistan. FICUS CARICA Linn. G. thirst. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Dharwar. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. tonic. vomiting. ulcers. LOC. Anjir. inflammation of liver (Yunani). FAM. NS. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). lessens inflammations. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). stimulates hair-growth. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. paralysis. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. LOC. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. useful in "Vata". Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Afghanistan. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. weakness. Sacred Plants. LOC. Bijapur. Sk. India. W. :— E. demulcent. gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. See—Famine Plants. H. maturant. Root—tonic. useful in piles. DISTR. leprosy (Ayurveda). nose-diseases. biliousness. Cultivated in N.—Moraceæ. Anjir. lithotriptic. India. aphrodisiac. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. COM. Asia and Mediterranean. boils and carbuncles. hill ranges of S. leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. diuretic. root-fibres. leprosy. useful in "Kapha". Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. erysipelas. . Leaves are applied heated as poultice. vaginal complaints. seeds and milky juice. inflammations. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. Fibres. alexiteric. useful in inflammation . Simeyatu . nutritive. vulnerary. Kakodumbar. M. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Seeds are cooling and tonic. dysentery. useful in leucoderma. bruises.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. in rheumatism and lumbago. diseases of head and blood. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. K. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. fever. Milky Juice—expectorant. Anjura.

causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). blood diseases. Gular-Country fig. uterus . Sk. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. latex. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. cummin. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. Sk. useful. Rumadi.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. FAM. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. Ashwatha mara. K. . Bark useful in asthma and piles. Pippala. galactagogue. Bodhidruma. good for gravid uterus. in diseases of blood. bark. Fruit— useful in dry cough. good for bronchitis. Peepal tree . Ashvatha. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Yajnika. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. ulcers. Leaves—astringent to bowels . diseases of kidney and spleen. Vriksharaj. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Atti. (Yunani). HABITAT :—Planted. biliousness. Pipal. Fruit—astringent to bowels.—Moraceæ. leucorrhoea. useful in "Kapha". In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Gular. Umar. acrid. :—Widely spread throughout India. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. styptic. DISTR. menorrhagia. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. ground with onions. H. Lalka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. leprosy. COM. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. allays thirst. Pipli. fruit. LOC. Demera. Milk—aphrodisiac. COM. Umbar. K. bark. Arani. vulnerary. Bark is cooling. Pavitraka. :—E. Pipal. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Jari. leaves and fruits. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Bark. Udumbara. Hemadugdha. FAM. planted all over. leaves. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. :—Throughout the State near villages. G. DISTR.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Sacred Plants. NS. nose bleedings. burning sensation. Pimpal. See—Timbers. given in leucorrhoea. fatigue. NS. Shuchidruma. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. LOC. Pipers. tonic. G. good for foul taste. Umar. Ragi.—Moraceæ. Umbro. loss of voice. biliousness. urinary discharges. LOC. M. vagina. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. M. burning sensation. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Pippala.

Circars. astringent in leucorrhoea. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Kanara Jungles. Burma. N. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. :— G. cleans ulcers. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. DISTR. M. Fruits are sweet. M. Badishep. common in the Peninsula.—Umbelliferæ. G. Mullutari. promotes granulations. Country and N. bark. Bhuripushpa. FAM. COM NS. checks vomiting (Yunani). :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Tapaspriya. Ghats. and produces sterility in women. Fennel. HABITAT :—Hills. Variari. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. upper Gangetic plain. FAM. H. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Young bark useful in bone fractures. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Sacred Plants. K. aphrodisiac. appetising and digestive. Handi Kandai. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. W. Khandesh. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Swadukantaka. Paker. Shateya. Hettarimullu. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Fruit—purgative. K. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Bilangra . Sk. Satpura. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Soupa. Potika. NS. Kankod . Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Akrani. Sk. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. heart diseases. Hunmunki. gum. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Gajale. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Fodder Plants. S. Katar. H. fruit. seeds. See—Timbers. Bhakal. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Badisoppu. Tambat. :—E. The juice is employed in hiccup. Variali. LOC. Finkel. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Shalina. good for lumbago. See—Timber. Root good for gout. . M. SAPIDA Roxb.—Flacourtiaceæ. Bhanber.

Konkan and N. DISTR. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. G. burning sensation. :—Apparently a native of S. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. LOC.6-0. leaves and seeds. NS. :—E. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. dysentery. K. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery.—in large umbels . dysentery. carpophore 2-partite. kidney. causing constipation . Fr. amenorrhœa. aphrodisiac. . DISTR. yellow. fissures of lips. Ratambi. lessen inflammations. laxative. high. FAM. galactagogue. thirst.—Guttiferæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. useful in diseases of chest. Ghats. wounds. demulcent and emollient. Coorg. See—Condiments and Spices. Oils. Tintidika. See—Timbers. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. ultimate segments linear. ridges prominent. (Mhaskar and Caius). Kokam . Ghats south of Bombay. fever.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. difficult to digest. aromatic and carminative. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. It is much used as a nutritive. :—A tall glabrous. :—Endemic in W. alexiteric. furrows vittate. common in S. COM. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. :—W. cardiotonic. leprosy (Ayurveda). USES :—Bark is astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". PARTS USED :—Roots. Leaves—improve eyesight. FL. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts.—ellipsoid. H. leaves (rarely). bracts and bracteoles absent. Kokam. 0. Sk. spleen. " Vata ". cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. LOC. Murjinhalli.— decompound. diuretic. dark green. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. anthelmintic. Kokam . pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). M. stimulant. Atyamla. strengthen eyes (Yunani). In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. seeds-carminative. cures "Tridosh". tumours. cough and asthma. Wynaad. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. Amlabija. often cultivated. anthelmintic. biliousness. useful in bleeding piles. LOC. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. annual. in headache. L. appetiser. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated.9 m. USES :—used as stimulant. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. eye-diseases. Wild mangosteen. wounds etc. Tittidika . Mulgala. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. Kanara. improves appetite and allays thirst. fruit and seeds.

COM.5-3. Pinda. DISTR.8 cm. Western Peninsula. lucida. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic.5 cm. FAM. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). H.8 m. Fl. oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. oblong or ellipsoid. LOC. See—Timbers.—Rubiaceæ. C. LOC. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. M. L. Dikemali. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Hingu. astringent to bowels. Sk. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. COM. :—India (W. not fragrant. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. high. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. NS. Bikke. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. :—India. Dikamali. See—Gums and Resins. long.-tubular. Fr. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. shining. PARTS USED :—Gum. elliptic-obovate. Dekamari. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. CHAR. :—Common from Konkan southwards. Suvirya. K.—2. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . unarmed. Peninsula). t. Burma. Cambi resin tree. relieves pain of bronchitis. 4. LOC. Gums and Resins. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. lucida (Ayurveda). Dikamari. same as for G. Fl. . G.-sessile. FAM..—Feb. about 1. Northern ghats of Madras State. :—E. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. -June. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. NS. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. 1-3 together. As sold in the bazar it is hard. DISTR.—Rubiaceæ. :—A deciduous shrub. Dakamali.5x22. Jantuka.-subsessile. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. first white then changing to yellow. all dry districts of Madras State. Kanara. common on laterite in southern parts of N. HABITAT :—Open situations. opaque. Dikkamalli. PARTS USED:-Gum. buds resinous.

Sk. NS. used to remove placenta from uterus. Linn. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.5 X 15 X 2-4. heating. Languli.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. expectorant. given off from young tubers . Fl. scarlet.-July-Oct. solid. Karianag. acrid. sometimes whorled. Indai. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). leaves and flowers. abdominal pains. PARTS USED :—Tuber. Agnimukhi.—sessile. FAM. inflammations. axillary . LOC. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. Akkitang hall. changing colours from greenish yellow. bitter. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. :—Throughout tropical India. LOC. Nangulika. Kulhari. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. Garbhapatani. DISTR. filaments long spreading. solitary. Tropical Africa. abortifacient. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. FL.5 cm. In case of retained placenta. Tuber— astringent. Cochin-China. root-stock of arched. linear-lanceolate. anthelmintic. ovate lanceolate. K. orange. linear oblong.—capsule.2 cm. COM. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. Dudhio vachhonag. Fr. useful in chronic ulcers. Ceylon. In Guinea. The former is supposed to be male.—Liliaceæ. Malay Peninsula. Sivasaktibalb .3 cm.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. t. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. Kalihari. Kalikari. :—G. M. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. leprosy. and crimson from blooming to fading. There are two varieties of the plant. tall. L. perianth segments reaching 6. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. :—Herbaceous. Kathari. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani).5-3.. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Huliyuguru. laxative. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. margins wavy. piles. itching.. thirst. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. CHAR. scattered or opposite. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. 7. . alexiteric. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Khadyanag. branching climber . stems annual. H. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State.—large. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa.

scalds etc. Ceylon. H. leprosy. LOC. G. the root. stomachic. Madhya Bharat. Karibatti. Provinces. Gandhari. G. K. :—Throughout the State and about temples.:—E. anthelmintic . Oils. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. alterative. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. Hanji. Shivan . Khandesh. :—Throughout India. Malaya. Philippines. NS. White teak. Coomb teak. Karpasam. FAM. indigestible. consumption and some catarrhal affections . promotes hair-growth. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Kashmari. H. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. chronic cystitis. anæmia. made into paste. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. consumption. Flowers—astringent. laxative. improves appetite . aphrodisiac. Devkapas. Sind. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. urinary discharges. Var. LOC. abdominal pains. FAM. piles. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. flowers and seeds.—Malvaceæ. M. burning sensation. catarrh of the bladder etc. Nurma . root is also stomachic and laxative. gleet. Sk. :—Throughout the State. Cashmere tree. Bachanige. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Shivani. COM. K.—Verbenaceæ. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. anasarca. Gambhari. Shripani. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in indigestion. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Tree cotton. Savan. useful in fevers . HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. PARTS USED :—Root. Kumbudi. Shiwan. thirst. Mahabhadra. thirst. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. DISTR. Rajasthan and N. tonic. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Shiwan. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Gambari. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Gumbhar. Fruit— diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Gupsi. . W. NS. DISTR. " Tridosha ". Deokapas. Devakapus. :— Bengal. COM. Sk. common on Satpuda. M. leaves. ulcers. See—Timbers. Root taken with liquorice. LOC. :— E. useful in hallucinations. leaves. flowers and fruit. See—Fibres. strangury. scattered in monsoon forests. fevers. In the Konkan. useful in "Vata".

Tula. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. A.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Anagnika. LOC. Gujarat and S. cures inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. Kupas. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. Mesapotamia. increase flow of urine. laxative . Mediterranean. Leaves remove " Vata " . fomentation for burning eyes . Oils. Arabia and Asia Minor. allay thirst. Parapera. Karihariyale. expectorant. Egypt. K. tonic. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. expectorant and aphrodisiac. Kapas . Cotton . Sk. G. In India they are used to procure abortion. LOC.Phalse. Seeds are laxative. cure all ear-troubles. M. DISTR. Hatti. W. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. heart and blood disorders. sour. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. FAM. Badari. Buttiyu-dippa. Dhamin. U. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. extensively cultivated. Ripe fruit—sweet.. fruits and seeds. demulcent. bark. in hills near Poona. probably in N. scabies . Kapus. East Tropical Africa. Tadasala. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. leaf-juice good in dysentery. :— Cultivated in N. Rui. Rui. wild in Deccan. fevers and consumption. Syria. Phalsa. good for all kinds of inflammations. fruit. Seeds— ' galactagogue. F. NS. Iran. aphrodisiac. COM. LOC.—Malvaceæ.—Tiliaceæ. Afghanistan. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . Phalsi. H. Country. Sk. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. leaves. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. poultice applied to burns' scalds. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. preventing their access to wounds etc. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Arali. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. analgesic. good for throat . Karpas. NS. Province (Pakistan). S. PARTS USED :—Root. extensively in Gujarat. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. H. cooling. Seeds—aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Pharuah. DISTR.. Sutrapuspha. FAM. Baluchistan. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. See—Fibres. in hypochondria. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. tonic. :—Sind. Jana. M. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. acrid. enrich blood. :—E. Roshana. removes " Vata ". :—Cultivated in the State. digestible. removes " Vata" and biliousness. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). K. COM. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. (Yunani). M. used in orchitis. restore consciousness. Parusha.

vitreous body) burning sensation. Meshashingi. yellow . should not be eaten raw. much branched. Hulhul. Pandhari tilwan.— with thin marginal wing. young stems densely pubescent. G. CHAR. strengthens chest and heart. Bastagandha.— Apl. Hulhul. Ugragandha. :E. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. NS. Tilparni. . PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Sk. Kanara coast. Small Indian ipecacuanha. COM. corona of 5 processes .— companulate . Sannagerse. stomachic. Meshavalli. The ease of administration. acrid. Churota. DISTR. Shrikala. H. LOC. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). S. Karnasphota. H. Sanngera. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. L.-May. Kanphodi.— opposite. Fruit—sour. Fl. :—Western Peninsula. ovate. Merasingi. Kavali. Caravella. bronchitis. Vishani. LOC. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda).—in cymes . Vakundi. helps removal of dead fetus. Sati talvani. See—Fruit Trees. FL. Kabari. Root and bark used in strangury. t. usually single. Bedki. elliptic. LOC. ulcers. tonic. — Asclepiadaceæ. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Ceylon. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. inflammations. Mardashingi. C. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. Gurmar. NS. alterative. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. good in heart-diseases. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Mabli. anthelmintic. K. :— E. :—A large woody climber. M. G. Mahabaleshwar and N. Tropical Africa. Karalia . base rounded or cordate . Arkapuspika. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. the stomachic stimulant. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. K. FAM. leucoderma. Periploca of the woods. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. M. common in hedges in Dharwar district. sweet. Fr. asthma. India. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. FAM. COM. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell).—follicle. cornea. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Adiyakharan. alexiteric. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. SK. piles.—Capparidaceæ. Tanmani. lanceolate. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. cooling. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. relieves thirst and hiccup. Br. Sd. :—Throughout the State. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). cures eye complaints (opacities of lens.

good in ascites.8-9 cm. leaflets subsessile. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. tapering at both ends. pedicels viscid hairy. LOC. Jonkaphal Maraphali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Mrigashringa. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. 5-9 cm. stipules triangular. China. :—G.—capsule. Fl. hills in Supa Taluka. producing copious exudation. . Murdasing.2 m. pubescent.—3-5 foliate. H. :—Konkan—Karanja Island.—in dense bracteate racemes. DISTR. elliptic-lanceolate. Kewan. acute. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. elliptic-obovate. Gidesa Jitasai. margins crenate-dentate. stomachic . L. Edamuri. LOC. stem and branches hairy. with divaricate herbaceous branches . :—M.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. Avartant. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . opposite. glabrous or pubescent above. NS. Sinhgad hills. Sd. t. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar.-Feb. ellipsoid . earache. high. CHAR.—June. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation.—Rubiaceæ.5-20 X 3. long . Fl. S.—many. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. white or blue. M. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. sessile. pain.. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Fl. vesicant. pink . L. :—A small deciduous shrub. (Kirtikar and Basu). COM. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. viscid. DISTR. Fr. :—Deccan. gynophore 2-2. hairy on the nerves beneath. hills near Nagothana. HABITAT:—Hills. long. M. PARTS USED :—Root. hairy. Kavargi.12. Murudseng. Katraj Ghat.—muricate.—petals 4 with long slender claws. tumours. K. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil.6—1. COM. Kanara. C. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles.—Oct.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Murudi. removes "Vata". Country. ulcers. FAM.—capsule. leaves and seeds. dark-brown . Marosi. . :—An annual erect herb 0. Fl.—rather rigid.. Sk. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda).—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. LOC. FAM.—Sterculiaceæ.5 cm. Gujarat. Fr. t. hairy.

.Sd. Anantmula. Br. blood diseases. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. LOC. root-Stock woody . Root useful in hemicrania. "Kapha". and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). joint-pains. beaked. diaphoretic. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). Fl. DISTR.—Asclepiadaceæ.-biferous. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. fevers.. bark and fruit.— with silvery white coma . lessens griping.—follicle cylindric. useful in gleet. epileptic fits. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. Australia and West Indies. COM. cough. :— E. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. DISTR. astringent to bowels. eye troubles. Kapurimathuri. astringent to bowels . anti-galactagogue. Sd. :—Large shrub or small tree. Fr. Sugandhi-balli. tapering . NS. paralysis. :—Upper Gangetie plain.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. Kanara ghat forests. leucorrhoea. t — Aug. M. bronchitis. HABITAT :—In hedges. useful in piles. often variegated with white above. bilabiate.-Dec. rat-bites. M. LOC. Hindisalse. 7. scabrous above. Indian sarsaparilla . good for brain. Dhaval kashtha. alexiteric. liver and kidney diseases . asthma. Stem lessens inflammation. Utpalashariva. FAM. Malaya. spirally coiled. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.5 X 5-10 cm.— very variable. FL. Country. foul body odour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. L. red at first fading to lead colour. PARTS USED :—Root. India. G. :—Throughout the State. poisoning. common in hedges. 5-6.—throughout the greater part of the year. Fl. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. K. Burma. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Root and stem—laxative. cures all skin-diseases. H. Anantmula. They are demulcent. greenish outside. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. stems thickened at the nodes . mildly astringent.512. “tridosh". obliquely cordate. CHAR. ovate orbicular. dark-green. low appetite.— in cymes in opposite axils. asthma. stem. L. purplish inside. Deccan and S. See—Fibres. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. antidiarrhœal. Upalsari. diarrhœa.—tubular. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. Magrabu. uterine complaints. Fr. syphilis. C.—numerous. Upalsali. urinary discharges. angular . The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Konkan. Durivel. irregularly crowded. "Vata' dysentery. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. Ceylon. thirst.—follicle of 5-6. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). t.3 cm. burning sensation. Sk. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. and leaves. diuretic. long. demulcent. Hamadaberu .

tubular below. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. L. :— E. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. uterine and vaginal discharges. flowers. bright red. Harivallaba. Dasavala. FAM. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. Rudrapushpa. Root roasted in plantain leaves. and as early as 1864.—no fruits produced in India.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). t. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. diam. DISTR. LOC. Jasum.—short petioled. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. H. Shoe flower. tonic. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. Native country probably China. useful in loss of appetite. G. yellow. CHAR. red. pedicel jointed above the middle. . glabrous. In the Konkan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). LOC. :—A perennial shrub. Sk. crimson. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . seminal weakness. solitary. Dasanihu. cm. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Raktapushpi. skindiseases. involucral bracts 5-7. entire near the base. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Fl. Japapushpa. petals thrice as long as the calyx. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. cooling. NS. bark and petals are demulcent. and mixed with ghee. C. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root.5.—axillary. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals.—during most of the year.—7. demulcent. Fl. Kempupundrika. fevers.. Aruna. magenta. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. urinary discharges. syphilis and leucorrhoea. etc.—Malvaceæ. piles. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. ovate or ovate lanceolate. Jasuva. It is said to purify blood. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. remove burning of body. irregularly serrate towards the top. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. Jasavand. M. K. COM. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. Jasut. Root is valuable in coughs. astringent. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). It is also diuretic. leaves. See—Ornamental Plants.

black-brown. young parts silky. pepper.3-7. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. C. on the margins. Atimukta. Madhavi. Kampti. :—G. covered with minute hairs . Fibres. t.—petals 5. sedative and refrigerant.— solitary. Haladvel. :—Cultivated.lobes oblong. Lal ambadi.—5-7. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. CHAR. tropics of the old world. L. H.5 cm. t. purple.—1-3. Rozelle. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. Vasanti. Madhavi. Fl. Patwa. 10-18 X 4.5 cm. NS. Madhalata. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic.—Malpighiaceæ. uppermost petal broader. beaked. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. (lower leaves sometimes entire). L. Kamuka.—axillary. Lal ambari. often blotched with purple with darker centre. calyx fleshy. FAM. See—Vegetables. Sd. acuminate. Malati.-Mar. and adding a little salt. glabrous. white. entire glabrous. NS. Ceylon. much used in curries. Grows abundantly on the W. base cuneate. globose. COM.) FAM. involucral bracts 10.2-2 cm. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Madmalati. flowers. mid-lobe the longest. asafoetida and molasses. CHAR. 1. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. Fr.— Jany. PARTS USED :—Leaves. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. . Kempupundrike. serrate. 5th petal yellow at the base. long.-Dec. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Fl. Sk. Kanara. clawed. erect. G.—Oct. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. stem and branches purple. Konkan. 3-winged. C. 3-5 lobed. HABITAT. Atimukta. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. :—An annual. COM. Pundi-bija or soppu. Deccan. :—Throughout the State. Madhavi. orbicular. Fr.—in erect racemes. Madhumalati. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. fringed. :—E. DISTR. elliptic-oblong. petioles silky. H. Vasantduti. long.—capsule.. Vasantduti. Madhavi.—purple with darker centres. Lal ambadi. Ragotpiti. Fl. LOC. fruits and seeds. fragrant. Fl. Adimurtte Adirganti. across. ovoid. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Sd. LOC. Chandravalli. M. hairy.—large. M. Ghats. K. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. purple. Red sorrel.—coriaceous.—Malvaceæ.

Circars. insecticidal. PARTS USED :—Bark. Malay Peninsula. DISTR. good in erysipelas. M. hallucinations (Ayurveda). heating. ulcers. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. diarrhœa. appetiser cure blood diseases. Seeds—appetiser. cooling. boils.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. PROPERTIES. Veppale. biliousness. Assam. often dotted with white spots. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). :—E. cause "Vata". C—tubular. K. Mt. skin diseases. LOC. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Seeds—carminative. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. wounds. Karohi. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. H. skin and spleen diseases. NS. Andamans. LOC. vulnerary. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. remove "Tridosh". given in chest affections.—10-20 X 5-11.5 cm. Ceylon. Leavesastringent. L. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts.—Apocynaceæ. tonic. flowers and seeds. aphrodisiac. fatigue. burning sensation. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Kaduoindrajav. Conessi bark tree. Kutaja. FL. leprosy. Burma. cool the brain. Flowers— acrid. thirst and inflammation. LOC. remove muscular pains . bleeding piles. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Kuda. lumbago.. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. t. biliousness. acrid. lessens inflammations. bitter. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. styptic. good in chronic bronchitis. astringent to bowels cure pains. CHAR. vulnerary. Kuda. strengthens gums. tonic. colic. leprosy. acrid. long. FAM. asthma. Thailand (Siam). galactagogue. Karuindrayan. See—Ornamental Plants. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Kodasige. Karnatak. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. cylindric. Madras State. Fr. anthelmintic. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. broadly ovate or elliptic. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. leucoderma . China. inodorous. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Dudhi. Siwalik. :—Throughout the State. COM. smoke good for piles. Kaling. Pandhara Kuda. Abu. cures dysentery. main nerves conspicuous . " Kapha". Sd. N. burning sensation. thirst. piles. urinary discharges.—follicles 20-48 cm. Bark—bitter. Hath. Indrayana.—Feb. Sk. excessive menstrual flow. Kumaon. fevers. branchlets drooping. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. good in headache.-June. white. throat hairy inside. leaves.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Fl. Nepal. Kura.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Kurchi tree.. cough. Kudsalu. G. Hale. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. diuresis (Yunani). USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion.

and kurchicine. Satu. COM. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. (R. lowers the pulse. . improves voice. bronchitis. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. stomachic. :—E. malt sugar and diastase. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. They are also used after delivery. fevers (Yunani). widely cultivated in temperate regions. Sk. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Germinated barley. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. Barley. aphrodisiac. Med. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. FAM. K. See—Food Plants. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. Gaz. Aug. useful in fevers. useful in biliousness. pains in chest. fattening. causes constipation. nor astringent. Jawa. demulcent and expectorant. Java. The grains contain vitamin B. Knowles. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. LOC. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. LOC. useful in bronchitis. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. Tasteless. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Hayapriya. febrifuge. sweetish. Shaktu. good for ulcers. anæmia. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). —Cultivated chiefly in N. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. diarrhœa. 1928). especially cod-liver oil. Ymvah. They are astringent. Jav. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Javegodhi. Jav. India. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. asthma. PARTS USED :—Seeds. inflamed gums. headache. Ind. allays thirst. DISTR. G. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue.—Gramineæ. nor styptic. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. Suj. M. biliousness. acrid. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. NS. appetiser. burns. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. dysentery and intestinal worms. Yava. Divya. kurchine. with radicle attached to it.

:—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. Dondru. flat. H. LOC. sulphur. Bhanina. high.. dioecious .—Bixaceæ. 12. Common in N. Phaldu. Southern and Western India. Garudphala. young parts brown pubescent. Sk. Garudphala. Kastel. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Country and Kanara. pungent. For scald-head. M. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. white. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . DISTR.—Apl. Madhya Pradesh. FL.5-23 X 3. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Niradivittulu. :—W. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Sk. Bandaru. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. PARTS USED :—Seeds. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Kshiradru. . See—Oils.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Malabar. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. Sd. COM. Fr. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats.—numerous.5 cm.—solitary or in racemes. Dondra. FAM. DISTR. NS. Bhrijatuaka.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. increases taste and appetite. Ugragandha. Bihar.—berry.—Rubiaceæ. broadly ovate. CHAR. COM. M. NS. Bhutabi. camphor and lime-juice. Amarachala. M. common in Travancore. Gandele.—Jany.8-7. Bhoswar. K. :—G.) FAM. Peninsula. acuminate. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. globose or ovoid. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Kanara evergreen forests. Doti. S. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. size of small apple. t. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). :—K. Bhorsal. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Bharnarasalya. bitter. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Betaga. Fl. tomentose. Kadukavata. Kowti. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. L. Ghats. more or less coriaceous. sometimes along river banks. Bhringamallika. good for the throat. C.

Kalidudhi. Karmi. Country. Nalanibhaji. fever. thirst. COM.—4-5-7 X 2-3. lobes obscure . M. The outer layer is tasteless. . Kalaka. PARTS USED :—Root. cylindric . :—A large twining shrub . middle portion much inflated. Potuasaga.2 -7. LOC. pubescent. Karihambu. t. L. M. M.—1-5 flowered peduncles . cordate or hastate.—5-12. Kanara. ovoid . Chandangopa. Ceylon. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. Fr. LOC. rooting at the nodes . rusty pubescent. Nalichibhaji. Sk. H. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . black with white scanty coma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla.—Nov.—Apocynaceæ. :—Throughout the State. prostrate. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda).—4 or 2.— Nov. Shradhashaka. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. CHAR. aphrodisiac. Fl. glabrous above. Sd. Fr. FAM. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. Sk. LOC.—linear.5 cm. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Pechuli. Kalmisag. S. Common in the evergreen forests of N. :—G. K. See—Timbers. Australia. Gorwiballi. Sariva. thick. Fodder Plants. greenish white. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. Br. 10-15 cm.-Apl. NS. Siamalata. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. acute. FL. In Indo-China. Fl.5x 3. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. trichotomous cymes.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). COM. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. stems long. base rounded. Kalambika. very slender. straight or slightly curved. cures " Kapha ". biliousness. FAM. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. CHAR. upper constricted. vomiting. numerous . Kantebhovari. Fl. :—Konkan. Krishnasariva. very common in Gujarat.—capsule.—Convolvulaceæ. :—H. L. cooling. DISTR. trailing on mud or floating.—in axillary and terminal. Kalaghantika.—follicle. the powdered wood is used for herpes. t. :—More or less throughout India. stalks and leaves. " Vata ". X 4 cm. throat and tube dull purple .MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC.-Dec. C. hollow. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. C. Sd.8 cm. Kanara.. Java. blood diseases. :—Annual or biennial herb. Gopini. elliptic oblong. Bhadra.—tube with narrow portion below. Nadika. NS.

(Yunani). t. stimulant. LOC. useful in fever. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . :—Perennial. 4-valved. aphrodisiac.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). lobes 5-7. also useful in liver complaints. Giant potato . aphrodisiac. carminative.-July-Sept. tropical Asia. cures biliousness. Fr. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. tonic.8—6.3 cm. Kanara sea coast. :—Throughout India. " Kapha " . gonorrhœa and inflammation. long. Fl. entire. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. root large.—10-15 cm. galactagogue. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. expectorant. diuretic. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. useful in syphilis. vomiting. Flower causes " Vata ". purple. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. Australia in moist climate. long. dry. FAM. Africa and Australia. See—Gums and Resins. deeply palmately divided. alterative. leaves. pale. (Ayurveda). Bhunichahragadde. improves voice and complexion. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. burning sensation. flowers (rarely). USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. galactagogue. tropical Asia. being regarded as tonic. . glabrous. Bhumikushmanda. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—capsule. leprosy. stem long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. indigestible. Bhuikohala. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. useful in leprosy. 4-celled. biliousness and fevers. Africa. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. biliousness. Sk. LOC. anthelmintic. anthelmintic . enclosed in fleshy sepals. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. Nila-kumbala. alterative. appetiser. thick. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. LOC. H. In Burma. NS. lessens inflammation. useful in leucoderma. peduncle solitary axillary. Ceylon. (Yunani). to children in case of emaciation. often broader than long. Swadu Vidarikand. bronchitis. ovate-lanceolate. K. Sd. jaundice. near sea coast. liver complaints. America. :— E. twining. Carminative. Bilaikand .—clothed with brown cottony hairs. Leaves enrich blood.—Convolvulaceæ. debility and want of digestive power. 3.—in. Root—heating. stomachic. demulcent and lactagogue. L. M. Fl. COM. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. blood diseases. CHAR. ovoid. PARTS USED :—Root.

fevers. CHAR. bechic. Sd. broad.—capsule. 3-celled. FAM. :—E. Kaladanah. ovate-cordate. Ganribij. :—G. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. bronchitis (Ayurveda). scabies and biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. K. :—An annual herb.—capsule. diseases of head. Fl.—1. E. Nilvel. Fl.-5-12. t. surrounded by ciliate sepals. L. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. sparsely hairy.. headache. blue tinged with pink. useful in liver and spleen diseases. lobes ovate. L. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. Morning glory. Ceylon. petioles hairy. :—A herb . abdominal diseases. CHAR. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Sd. subglobose. . filiform. in the Himalayas. COM. crenate. S. Krishna—Shyama-bija. LOC.—3.—Convolvulaceæ.-Oct. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. pains in joints. Shyamala-bijak. subglobose or ovoid. carminative. leucoderma. Africa. Fr. dries the phlegm. H. Undirkani. Deccan. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Vrishchikparni. See—Ornamental Plants.— yellow. reniform or ovate-cordate. S. Undirkani. axillary. anthelmintic.—Sept. The plant contains a glucoside. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. Sk. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. DISTR. COM.—Convolvulaceæ. Kaladana. believed to be of American origin.— 4-6. M. Purgative. Musekani. cures inflammations. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu).) FAM. glabrous . DISTR.5 cm. C. G.5 cm. Indian jalap. deeply three-Iobed.3-2. LOC. PARTS USED :—Seeds.:—Throughout India. Fl. Nilpushpa. stems twining. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. :—Konkan. long tubular funnel-shaped. tropical Africa. H.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . bracts linear. Sk. stems many. diam. creeping and rooting at the nodes.—dark chestnut coloured . cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. Kalokumpo. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. LOC. NS.8-5 cm. Fr. K. Mirchai. M. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. Country. :—Western Peninsula. clothed with long hairs.

—white. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). DISTR. Kanaka. pains of chest and joints. enclosed in enlarged sepals . Root with bark should be used. uterus. Malay Islands. ovate or oblong. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. Nashotar. globose. fistula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Turbith root. C. Nahatara. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Trivrit. useful in bilious tremors of body. urethral discharges. long. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. Indian rhubarb. lungs. carminative. CHAR. HABITAT :—Wild . laxative. Mauritius. base cordate or truncate . other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). rarely slightly lobed. paralysis. anthelmintic. H. acrid. muscular pains. good in pain. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. PARTS USED :—Root. when used alone . bladder. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. angled and winged. Nandi. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. applied in diseases of eye and gums. Kalaparni. pedicels thickened upwards. Nishottara.-Jany.. cooling. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. bracts large. also in the Konkan and N. bechic. Fl. 3. paralysis. useful in spleen enlargement. t. good for weakness. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). fevers. COM.—5-10 X 1. Triputi. antipyretic. bronchitis. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative.—Oct. white variety is a mild cathartic. FAM. Common in southern Gujarat. :— E. often pinkish. NS. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. False-Indian jalap. M. It is also alterative. laxative. K. heart and abdomen. twining and twisted together.3-7 cm. strangury. stems very long. fleshy. Fl. useful in diseases of kidney. Root— bitter. expectorant. much branched. mucronate. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. Br. Sk. . headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. leucoderma.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. sometimes cultivated. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). brain diseases.8-5 cm. like others of the genus . Nishoth. Philippines. anæmia.—Convolvulaceæ. burning sensation and intoxication. inflammations and abdominal diseases . L. root long. wounds. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Ceylon. inflammations. :—Throughout India. tropical Africa and America. purgative. G. Pithori. useful in bilious fevers.—capsule. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. LOC. Rechani. Fr.—in few flowered cymes. useful in loss of consciousness. removes bad humours. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. LOC. pungent.

white. COM. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State.—Oleaceæ. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. IXORA COCCINEA Linn.3 coriaceous. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. Sk.—globose. obtuse.8 cm. coriaceous. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. Kepala. size of a pea. Sk. M. DISTR. often tinged with pink outside.—opposite.—July-Sept. 5-12. DISTR. tube long. Jati. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. FL—numerous. K. oblong. Pankul. Bandhuka. oblong. :—Cultivated throughout India.3 cm. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes.—3. Jajimalle. petiole and rachis margined. Fl. distal pair confluent with the terminal. See—Ornamental Plants.—ripe carpels 2. FAM. Ajjige. Flame of the woods . obtuse . smooth. . Pendgul. :—A large subscandent shrub. t. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. very slender . Bakali. stipules . 5-10 X 3. Jai.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. LOC. CHAR. Fl. sessile. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. Raktaka. H. CHAR. across. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range.. lobes 4 (rarely). Ceylon. leaflets 7-11.—tubular. COM NS. L. very common in Konkan and N. pale when dry. :—E. fleshy. Chambeli. 3. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. proximal petiolulate.—throughout the year. high. :—E. G. purple when ripe. Guddedasal. wild. stipules with a long rigid point. Kisukare.9 m. intermediate sessile . sessile.2-6. :—Western Peninsula.2-6. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. K. Chambeli. Surabhigandha.— Rubiaceæ. Fr. HABITAT :—Cultivated . C. NS. Fr. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Fl. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. of stems and roots. Anemallige. Priyanvada. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. Parali. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. :—Bombay southwards . also along river banks. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant.—opposite. LOC. M.. t. FAM. imparipinnate. terminal rather larger. pale when dry. Chambali.5 cm. L.

aphrodisiac. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. Banmallika. Leaves are also used in toothache. Mogra. black. Flower has bitter taste . alexiteric. useful in diseases of eye.—opposite. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess.—white. M. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. good for pains in joints and ear. FAM. DISTR. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. heating. flowers and oil. leprosy. See—Ornamental Plants. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). Tuscan jasmine. entire. good in asthma. brain tonic . useful in stomatitis. tonic to brain. base rounded or subcordate. biliousness. :—A sub-erect shrub. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . subglobose. mouth and skin. In Goa. CHAR. Flowers—tonic. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. alexiteric. Mogro. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. surrounded by calyx-teeth. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Iravantige. and for scabies (Yunani). Sk. rheumatism. expectorant. ear. Navamallika. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. teeth. Oil—lessens inflammations. Vanchandrika. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. Motia.—more or less throughout the year . L. Mogara. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. ulcers. it is used in cases of insanity. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Root—purgative. diuretic. Ananga-mallika. soporific. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. alexiteric. t. See—Ornamental Plants. intoxicating. H. COM NS. softens skin. emetic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. paralysis. G. LOC. K. . Pramodini. Fr. otorrhoea. LOC. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. caries of teeth. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). very fragrant. eyes and ear. scarcely climbing. headache and weak eyes. Plant—deobstruent. anthelmintic.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. The plant contains an alkaloid.—ripe-carpels 1-2. variable in shape. vulnerary. LOC. Sambac. cures headache. Chamba. Fl. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Fl. Mallige. allays fevers . suppurative. head. abundant in April-May. given in blood diseases. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Arabian Lily. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. emmenagogue. biliousness (Ayurveda). aphthae. stomatitis. :—Cultivated throughout India.—Oleaceæ. membranous. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. diseases of mouth. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases.

—monœcious. large.—E.—orbicular.5 cm.—Euphorbiaceæ. Sk. urinary discharges. stipules capillary. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. when applied to boils. " Tridosha". Virechani. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves. across. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. NS. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence.— alternate. fistula.—in flat-topped cymes. juice sticky opalescent. subfleshy. Simeavadala. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. coral-red. :—Native of tropical America. black. disk of female flower urceolate. The acrid. G. herpes. Fr. 7. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.8 cm. long-petioled. L. 10-15 X 7. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. Dundigu. CHAR. FAM. Jangali erandi. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. The seeds act as drastic purgative. . multifid. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. Akhuparnika. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. FAM.5-12. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments.— ovoid. CHAR:—A handsome. Jangali—Pahari erand. fruits and seeds. Ratanjot. COM. Bhadradanti. and also promotes healing. DISTR. male flowers. K. L. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa.5 mm. Seeds contain active principle curcin. garden shrub . diam.—ovoid oblong. long. Vilayati haralu. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. :—E. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. PARTS USED :—Wood. Sd. Fl. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. anaemia. Kananerand. Jyotishka. H. COM. NS. thirst. M. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . broadly ovate. Sutashreni. LOC. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn.5-12. 7. longer than calyx. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. Sk. villous within. 3-lobed. Fl. Mogali—Ran-erand. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ.5 cm. French or Small physic nut.—capsule. yellow. Fr.. K. 1. biliousness. have suppurative effect. Coral plant. abdominal complaints. corolla lobes 5.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. cordate. useful in chronic dysentery. Barbados Physic nut. dull brownish black. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil.

Sk. Seed— oleaginous. 7. dry .5 cm. . :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. hot.—white spotted. LOC. fevers. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. NS. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . Nilmanjari. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Leaves are used in scabies. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. Bakas. Nilinirgandi. NS. high . DISTR.5 cm. Fl. Kala adulsa. heating.5-12. COM. Fr. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. M. LOC. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. in interrupted spikes. purgative. useful in bronchitis. CHAR. bitter. Kalmashi. causes " Kapha ". native of N. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). LOC. :—H. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. rheumatism and dysentery. enlarged spleen. :—Bomb. branches subterete with raised lines. long. wild in Tenasserim. M. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. In Cambodia. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.—Acanthaceæ. :—A native of China. COM. useful in piles. all over the State.—Acanthaceæ. FAM. often met with in Bengal. wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. Krishna-nirgundi. LOC. HABITAT :—Shady positions. purple within.6-1. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. inflammations. L. America. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. Bhutakeshi. vaginal discharges. " Vata ' and "Pitta". Karinchki. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Nachukaddi.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated.2 m. 5-12.—Ghati pitpapda. Karambal. dyspepsia. DISTR.—capsule. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. tympanitis. leaves. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. fattening tonic . FAM. pains. Shindhuka. K. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. clavate glabrous. skin-diseases.

elliptic. P. oblong shortly pointed. FAM. softly pubescent. Konkan. . round. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). fever. stops vomiting. Chandramala.—Oct. t. pale violet pink. expectorant.— June-July. fragrant. NS.—2-lipped. lower 3-lobed . good in spleen diseases. Fl. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. thin. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). LOC.5-9 cm. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. M. aromatic. gives lustre to eyes.. Madras State. :—Western Peninsula. Travancore. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :— H.—lobes lanceolate. biliousness. tired feeling. deep green. K. ovate or lanceolate. teeth.5 X 4. tube funnel-shaped .:—Stemless herb. diaphoretic. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. Sd. pure-white. :—More or less throughout India. Plant diuretic.3-12. diuretic. Kapurkachri. Deccan. Kachri. Malay Islands. Cultivated in gardens. Fr. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . burning of body. intoxication. root-stock tuberous. oval. fugacious. good in leprosy (Ayurveda).—capsule. LOC. South Konkan. stomachic. enriches blood. Ceylon. urinary discharges. strengthens lungs. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. t. purifies blood in skin diseases. C. thirst.—2.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. DISTR. lying flat on the ground. upper lip notched. Panchgani. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Western Ghats . aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Tubers. wandering of mind. Maval in the Deccan. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. L. CHAR. Sk. LOC. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. Chandramulika. 6. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. Fl. :—N. constipating . obtuse at both ends. HABITAT :—In hilly parts.—in cylindric terminal spikes.—612 from the centre of the plant. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. Sugandhavachai. Fl. removes indigestion. L. Tubers yield an essential oil. increases " Vata ". vomiting. DISTR. Australia. :—Konkan.—finely tuberculate. (Yunani). Malaya.. constricted between the seeds . COM.—variable.-Mar. spreading horizontally. petioles channelled.—Scitaminaceæ. Kachchura .

Halagumbala. Fl. DISTR. elliptic-oblong. furrowed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Country. rootstock reaching 5 cm. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps.5 X 5-12. t. used in the form of poultice.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Malay Islands. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. FAM.—Scitaminaceæ. Danta-bija. Alkaddu. S. t. petiole as long as blade. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. Dudio Tumbada. remedy for itch. DISTR. Cochin. :—M. Katutumbi. FAM. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath .. semicylindric. female cylindric. in many cycles. very poisonous . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Dudhya bhopala. yellow. Coorg. H. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. COM. Bhuichapha. Bottle-gourd. Dudhi. :— G. CHAR. The whole plant. Bhuichampa . L. HABITAT :—Marshy places. NS. Ceylon. N. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—30X7. L. NS. long.-Apl. annulate .—15-37. inflorescence of many ovaries. creeping. diam. K.5 cm. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . Bhuichampo . crowded in a globose bead . Tumbaka. Kadu—Mithi tumbi.5-10 cm. Kanara. Fr.— inflorescence. COM. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. Travancore. midrib very stout. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. NS. coriaceous.—narrowly oblong. Fl.5-23 cm.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—An aquatic herb. Labuka. tubular below. COM.. :—Mysore. Nelasampige .8-5 cm. Vatsanabhi. Lauka. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. oblong. spathe 7. margins undulate.-Mar. FAM. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. thick. M. Fl. Sk. promotes suppuration. Tubers yield an essential oil. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M.—Aroideæ. entire. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. LOC. H.— sweetly fragrant. simple. :—Stemless plant. Bhuchampaka. CHAR. LOC. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser.. of various shades of purple and white. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root.—globose 3. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. :—E.. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. Kadu bhopala. K. Kaddu. .. M. Calabash. :—Konkan. anthers crowded. —Feb. Sk. G.

Ornamental Plants. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. COM. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. leaves. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. in many cases only cultivated. There are two varieties. :—H. dry cough. fever. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. antipyretic. Malaya. DISTR. See—Timbers. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. ulcers. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. Seeds—good for hot constitution. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. causes bronchitis. Nirbendeka: M. seeds are narcotic. earache. cures asthma. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. improves taste. Fruit good in bronchitis. See—Vegetables. Holematti. wholesome to fœtus. Arjuna. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. USES :— Leaves are purgative. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. muscular pains. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. styptic. Bark and leaves are purgative. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. LOC:—North Kanara and S. Ceylon. pains (Ayurveda). wild (rarely). cause haemoptysis. Tarul. diuretic. piles. bronchitis. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. scalding of urine. bitter. anti-periodic. oleaginous. Konkan Ghats. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. brain-tonic. Taman. PARTS USED :—Root.) FAM. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . anti-bilious. fruits and seeds. earache. LOC. In the Andamans. lessens inflammations. DISTR. PARTS-USED :—Root. K. flatulence. Seeds emetic (Yunani). Challa. LOC. Assam. flowers. refrigerant and anti-bilious. inflammations. "Vata". LOC. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. . laxative. cardiac and general tonic. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. alexiteric. China. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . vulnerary. bark. fattening. Bandhara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. Arjuna.—Lythraceæ. Flowers cooling. NS. fruits and seeds. cooling. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. Sk. increases "Vata". aphrodisiac. :—Western Peninsula. emetic. cures leucorrhoea. cures blood diseases. leaves. bitter variety is diuretic. sweet.

—Dec-May. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. K. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. Sandika. Mukute. Kassar. Basu). lameness. COM. glabrous above. inflammation. COM. common at Mahabaleshwar. NS. Belgaum hills . burning. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. CHAR. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts .—Lythraceæ. heart-troubles. subsessile. Latri. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5-3. Lakh. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. Wooly-headed gnidia. M. pain. bark mottled. NS. Nakharanjaka. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. cooling.—in erect. Fr. H. LOC.—opposite or scattered. pointed. :—E. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Medi. lobes 4. oblong flat. oblong lanceolate. M. Chickling—White vetch. Gorantha. Kanara.8 cm.5 X 2-2. Deccan hills. piles and wandering of the mind. M. Sk. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. 5-7.—Thymelaeaceæ. Rametha. Ragangi. dense terminal heads 2. (B. but dangerous cathartic. Lang. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. Mendi.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. Triputi. Sk. See—Food Plants. The bark is used to poison fish. FAM. :—A much branched large shrub. Mehndi. FAM. G. t. Yavaneshta. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Rami. :—W. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. NS. silky beneath. LOC. Medika.5 cm. S. Madaranga. G. enclosed in the perianth . Grains contain vitamin A.—ellipsoid-oblong. Khesari. tonic. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. COM. Tree mignonette. FAM. :—Konkan southwards. causes much flatulence. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. DISTR. (Ayurveda). Kukurgal. K. D. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark.. Country. PROPERTIES AND LOC. N. :—E. improves taste. Henna plant.. yellow. perianth-tube densely silky villous . . Fl. :—E. Peninsula—Ceylon. common on the Supa Ghats. swellings etc. M. diam. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division.

COM. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. G. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". stomatitis. M. vulnerary.—Apl-July. The plant contains a glucoside. expectorant.—angular. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. HABITAT:—Cultivated. DISTR. Sk. Asia.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fr. DISTR. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. FAM. Belgaum and Poona districts. Sd. many. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . cure insanity (Ayurveda). LOC. lumbago. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. cure strangury tumours. finger nails and hair. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. See—Dyes. diseases of spleen. favours hair-growth. in diseases of heart and of . Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. fragrant. Lentil. useful in headache. amenorrhœa. Iran and Baluchistan. Masura. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. diuretic. K. seeds. lateral branches 4-gonous. useful.—in terminal. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Massur. ulcers. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice.—opposite. often ending in spinous point. dysentery. pyramidal and panicled cymes. Ceylon. :—E. supported by persistent calyx. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. LOC. globose. Flowers are refrigerant. skin diseases . Chanangi. mucronate. t. Masur. planted as hedge. Sura. Ragadali. Masur. diuretic.). Fl. improve appetite.—capsule. ophthalmia. Gabholika. flowers. cure leucoderma. veined outside. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). L. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. H. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. LOC. truncate. scabies. Gurubija. & Gib. syphilitic sores. wild in Arabia. Masuridal. Europe and in temperate W. allay burning sensation. NS. The oil and essence keep the body cool. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. E. enriches blood. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. Fl. PROPERTIES. white or rose coloured . bronchitis. :—Grown in Nasik. indigenous in S. Leaves—bitter. boils.

M. Allibija. Suvasura. H. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. The covering is styptic and astringent. L. bronchitis. They contain vitamin B. Halim . diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. stomatitis . often with linear segments . :—Cultivated throughout India. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. DISTR. constipating. aphrodisiac . :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. bechic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. C—petals 2-4 or 0. upper sessile. CHAR. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). good for pain in abdomen. eye diseases (Ayurveda). white. Garden cress . Seeds contain fatty oil. aperient. COM. Halim. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. FAM. Asahio. G.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. the lower petiolate. chest complaints. tonic. :—An erect glabrous annual. useful in diseases of chest. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. good in inflammations. bronchitis. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. Hurfi. Ashalika. HABITAT :—Cultivated. laxative. Hot and dry.—Cruciferæ.—small. aphrodisiac. K. cures dysentery . tonic. See—Vegetables. NS.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. LOC. Asia. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Raktabija. Kurutige. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Grains contain vitamins A and B. LOC. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . leaves and seeds. and muscular pains. Chandrika. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Fl. diuretic. Ahaliva. bitter. Fr. See-Food Plants. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. affections of spleen. They are mucilaginous and laxative. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Sk. . Seeds—indigestible. Leaves are used as pot-herb. blood and skin diseases.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). :—E. Chandrashura. tumours and injuries. enrich blood. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. very likely indigenous in W. rheumatism. Chavnsar. galactagogue. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic.

Tisi. seeds and oil. Medini. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Common tallow laurel. CHAR. glossy dark-green above. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac . :—Cultivated throughout India. Fr. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. G. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Alsi. back-ache. colds and throat complaints. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. Garbijaur. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. heal ulcers. Fl. Fl. Common flax. black. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Roasted seeds are astringent. bark somewhat corky. COM. Sk. Javas . 10-25 X 5-10 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. galactagogue. aphrodisiac. LOC. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). FAM. H. Alashi. Alashi. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Seeds contain vitamin A. Maidelakri. diam. yellowish. Flowers—brain and heart tonic.. LOC. M. urinary discharges . branchlets densely tomentose. cure leprosy. M. Madagandha. "Pitta". remove biliousness. flowers. M. Alshi.. Linseed. 7. pale beneath. remove "Vata". Maidalakadi. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. Jivanika. good for cough and kidney troubles. "Kapha". :—E. lenticellate. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate.—Lauraceæ. 8-12 together in heads. Kanara. inflammations. Sk. urinary complaints. Country.—crowded at the ends of branches. causes loss of appetite. Haimwati.:—E. NS. gouty and rheumatic swellings.— globose.—Linaceæ. native country probably Egypt. DISTR. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. LOC. burnt bark styptic and healing. diuretic. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. bad for eyesight. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. usually alternate. PARTS USED :—Bark. COM. Seeds—mucilaginous. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. hard to digest.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. . The plant contains glucoside linamarin. tonic. Alsi. Alasi. Sedhavi. Malina. FAM. See—Oils.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. emmenagogue. hot. t. leaves.:—A small evergreen tree. Tailottama. NS. Fibres. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. K. used in consumption. base narrowed. supported by the thickened pedicel.—May-July. boils. lead to impotency. perianth lobes wanting.5 mm. dysentery. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. L. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. bronchitis.

COM.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Karvituri. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. paralysis. light green. thirst. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. throat troubles.5-3. hollow. stem stout. Katukoshataki. Devanala. Fr. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . Wild tobacco. . long. Fl. "vata".100 m. lower much longer. Divali. leaves. LOC. Country. H. midrib white. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. FAM. Kandele. lanceolate.9 cm. uterus. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. useful in inflammations. much curved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. Ceylon. Sk. Kalahogesoppu. Dhamana. Sthulanala. Ridge gourd.—Nov. biliousness. spleen diseases. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. consumption. K. bronchitis.2-3 m. diuretic. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . white. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. Kadudodka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. aphrodisiac. very small. all oblong. Ranturai. lobes linear. overheated brains. DISTR. heart. strangury. G. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. Leaves are mucilaginous. Jhinga.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. LOC. Australia. erysipelas (Ayurveda).—Lobeliaceæ.—alternate. M. vagina. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. cure cough. long. Root—astringent. L. opening by 2 valves. M. Nal. yellowish brown . 2. tonic. subglobose. many. stomachic. pains in joints. t. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". Ghontali. NS. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. Narsala. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. nearly sessile. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. expectorant. G. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. :—E. NS. COM. SK. Bibhishana. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. Deccan and S. fever. burning sensation. Narttaka. heating. H. 1. LOC. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. aphrodisiac. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. bitter. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). AMARA Clarke. Kahire. fruits and seeds. Jalini. It acts as anodyne.—capsule. Malay Islands. Devnal. FAM. CHAR.—numerous. aphrodisiac. useful in biliousness. :—E. :—Konkan. acrid. Sd. Nali. Fl. C—2-lipped.—.—Cucurbitaceæ. Dhaval. Mrityupushpa. leprosy (Ayurveda). finely serrulate. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. branched upwards. M.-Mar. 3 usually connate throughout . diseases of blood. bark. high. K. PARTS USED :—Root. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . galactagogue. burning sensation.

flowers and fruits. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. asthma. liver complaints. Sk. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. H. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. Fr. Mowa. 5-10 cm. fruit and seeds. alexiteric. useful in rat-bite. LOC. "Kapha". The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. bitter. Root-bark is abortifacient. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Ceylon. inflammations.) FAM. females. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. Fruit cures fever. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani).—monœcious. Pokka. COM. tonic and diuretic. 5-7 lobed. hydrogogue. Fl. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb.—Sept. tonic to intestines. biliousness. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. ascites. :—Throughout India. solitary in the same axil as males. NS. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. diuretic. M. PARTS USED :—Bark. Gudapushpa..53. Madhya Pradesh. Mowda. cathartic.—petals yellow with green veins .:—A large climber. especially in western Peninsula. DISTR. Doddippa. piles. DISTR. leucoderma. leaves. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis.—obovoid.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. C. at length scabrid. Mahua. . in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. also in Konkan and N. W. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). asthma. thick. digestible. Madhuka. uterine and vaginal tumours .8 cm. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. bronchitis. LOC. Bengal to the W. tuberculous glands. bitter. piles. Mahura. stems 5-angled. tendrils usually 3-fid. base cordate. Burma. palmate. USES. recommended in splenic enlargement.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. L. Moha. Madhusrava. Butter tree. 10-ribbed. obtusely conical at both ends. LOC. at first whitish and softly villous. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Mahula. K. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). tumours. Mahuda. carminative. cures "Vata". :—E. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). long and about 2. pale green. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. cough. laxative. acrid. Mhowra. Hunage. thrives in Deccan trap. cures urinary discharges. G. anæmia. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. :—Plant is bitter. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Kanara (rare) .—small.—Sapotaceæ. jaundice. Mahua tree. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. t.

H. G. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. consumption. Moha. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Huli. See—Timbers. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Flowers—oleaginous. fattening. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Hullichillu. flowers and oil. good in heart diseases. Monkey-face tree. Famine Plants. Honey tree. astringent. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Fruit-tonic . Sk. tonic and nutritive. India . leprosy. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. :—Western peninsula. flowers act as a mild purgative. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. cures biliousness. expectorant. and appetiser (Sushruta). Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. Mohache jhad. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Movaro. H. heals wounds . Flower—sweet. anthelmintic. Kapilo. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Kampillaka. aphrodisiac. Kapila. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Mysore. and Upper Burma. Oils.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. tonic. and also a remedy for itch. and Kanara. Liquors. fatigue . K. Kesarimavu. cooling. :—-E. NS. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. . causes "Kapha". yields two important products. Oil—emollient (Yunani). LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. burning sensation. K. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Mahuda. M. M. Kapila. :—E.—Euphorbiaceæ.) FAM.. often planted. Mohwa. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. carminative.—Sapotaceæ. DISTR. fixed oil and a spirit. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Ippe. Movanuhjad. Oils. There is a trace of alkaloid. aphrodisiac. COM. galactagogue. LOC. Madhuka. Mehua. Ceylon. USES :—Astringent and emollient. Karnatic. :—Konkan. Kambhal Raini. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. bronchitis. thirst. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. NS. ulcers. used in fractures. G. COM. Shendri. FAM. cures blood diseases. Sk. See—Timbers. Mahuva of S. Kamala.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. sweet. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. clears brain. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. it exudes a pink coloured gum. biliousness. :—E. flowers. anthelmintic. Sk. stomachic. Am. LOC. piles. leaves. vermifuge and. Sind. carminative. beautifies complexion. Bihar. improves complexion. ulcers. appetiser. astringent to bowels. See—Timbers. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Mango tree. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. FAM. LOC. liver pain. Ghats and the Satpudas. Burma. bronchitis. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Amri. Ambo. laxative. Rasala. wild and cultivated. urinary discharges. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. heals ulcers. sour. "Kapha". Kanara. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. thirst. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. a good collyrium (Yunani). Khasia Hills. purgative. wounds. cultivated throughout the State. Mavin-mara. dispels langour and burning of body. cure "Vata". :—Throughout tropical India. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). alexiteric. :—-Throughout the State. hiccup. Kamarasa. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. removes bad smell from mouth. good in cough. good in dysentery. PARTS USED :—Root. Cuckoo's Joy. tonic to body. Mavu. Astringent. Gum . Sikkim. vulnerary. cause flatulence and constipation. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. "Pitta". Introduced. Dyes. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). K. M. chronic dysentery and gleet. improve taste and appetite. fruits and seeds. spleen. diseases of abdomen.—Anacardiaceæ. G. stone in bladder. cooling. useful in bronchitis. Amba. Sahakara. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. China. Bhutan. detergent. diuretic. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. cure leucorrhoea. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. used in chronic diarrhœa. lessen intestinal pains. cooling. Chuta. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. aphrodisiac. DISTR. styptic. enriches blood. Seeds-astringent to bowels. liver. tumours. good in heart trouble. improves cough. maturant. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. fruits and seeds. throat troubles. :—Tropical Himalayas. Fruit—heating. in "Tridosh". Amra. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. H. NS. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. anthelmintic. bad blood. leaves. DISTR. useful in skin-diseases. styptic. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. COM. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. dysentery. tonic. purgative. Australia. LOC. Malay Islands. vaginal troubles.

.—many. fleshy. Fr. coma copious . K. M. Suparnika. Nakchhikni. Balant nimba. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Java. L. flattened.—Meliaceæ. Bevu. with lenticels and black dots.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. G.5-10 cm. Ceylon. Fl. rat-bite (Ayurveda). good for dyspepsia. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. biliousness. K. Assam. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. antipyretic. older branches ash coloured. :—G. H. CHAR.—Apl. Nimla. Ripe fruit is laxative. Khandodi.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. inflammations. Nimbaka. cures "Vata".—follicles. margined. Ambri. all plains districts of Madras State. asthma. astringent to bowels. NS. piles. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. alexiteric. Dodi. rugosely striate. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Kharkhodi. Sd. DISTR. Kadulimb. long. See—Timbers.—broadly ovate. urinary discharges. t. Fruit Trees. Nimba. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. . cooling. Limbada. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic.5-11. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. COM. Limbra. 7. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Paribhadraka.) FAM. green or yellowish green. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. :—Bengal. Harandori.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs.5 cm. Hari. Nim or Margosa tree. LOC. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. leucoderma. LOC. few glands above the petiole cordate . corona lobes large. Dugdhike . Nimba. :—-E. pale yellowish brown. broadly ovate or suborbicular. M. useful in diseases of eye. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. H. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. overlapping to the right. :—A large twining shrub.—6. M. Fl. if snuffed. useful in bleeding piles. COM.—Asclepiadaceæ.) FAM. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. :—Deccan and S.—rotate with broad lobes. It is also anthelmintic. Juss. Sk. Country. NS. C. Madhumalati. burning sensation. tumours. aphrodisiac. USES. Juice of kernel. Nim.3-15 X 4. Sk. stops nasal bleeding. Hemajyoti-valli. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.

leaves. Burma. asthma. blood complaints. DISTR. maturant. H. general debility. good for leprosy. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). FAM. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. swollen glands. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . resolvant. anthelmintic. Banmethi. boils. bruises. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. convalescence. pectoral. insecticidal. flowers." vomiting. thirst. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. alexiteric. The flowers are stimulant. Ranmethi. chronic leprosy. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. Tonic. burning sensation near heart. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. . M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. biliousness. refrigerant. earache. :—E. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. Sk.. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. cough. tonic and antiperiodic. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. piles. rheumatism . good in ophthalmia. skin diseases. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. leucoderma. urinary discharges. it is a general vermifuge. lessens inflammation. bark. and loss of appetite. useful in syphilitic sores. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. stimulant and stomachic. "pittadosh. for unhealthy ulcers. lumbago. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. tonic. NS. maturant. bad taste in the mouth. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. fever. leprosy. carminative. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. fruits and seeds. aphrodisiac. LOC. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . valuable in consumption. cures ulcers and inflammations . anthelmintic. fatigue. Vanmethika. stomachic. toothache. PARTS USED :—Root. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). expectorant. antiperiodic. relieves "Kapha". Small melilot. sprains. piles. tumours. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. Oils. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . COM. astringent.

M. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. Agamaki. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. given as a gruel (Murray).—pale yellow.—variable in size. t. slightly echinulate. Khasia. Bilari. It has expectorant properties to some extent. LOC. Pudina. glabrous.— Jany.—3-foliate. Fl. ellipsoid. very hispid . Externally used as a fomentation. Pudinah. male fascicled on short peduncles. G. HABITAT :—In hedges. truncate at the apex. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Country and Gujarat. glabrous or slightly hairy. NS. tendrils simple. Fl. M. :—India (tropical zone). tapering at both ends. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn.—monœcious . Pudina. Fr. K. scabrid. brown. C.. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. young parts white-hairy. :—H. DISTR. NS. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. north Bengal.—one. Assam.—size of a pea. :—Western Peninsula. FAM. DISTR. . MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. FAM. Europe. stem angular. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. rounded. L. Corn-March mint. lobes dentate or serrate . leaflets toothed. :—Common in Deccan. introduced into many other regions.—pod. deltoid-ovate entire. base cordate. Fr. M. females sessile. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. Afghanistan. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan .—Cucurbitaceæ. especially in strained back. :—E. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. finally red. "Sikkim. COM. in spicate close racemes. leaves and seeds. of terminal rather long. Iran. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. at first green and variegated with yellow. poultice or plaster for swellings. CHAR. high. LOC. S. Malaya and Africa. 30-45 cm. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. standard exceeding the wings and keel. oblanceolate. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed.—small. oblong-ellipsoid. Chatinmaragu. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. H. Ghugri. Sd. also in S. COM. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). L.—Labiatæ. Ceylon. :—An erect annual herb.

Oils.-narrowed below. K. S. Country. Suvarna. headache. used for cough. MESUA FERREA Linn. DISTR. Assam Iron-wood. :—A perennial erect herb . In N. Kanara. Nagchapha. flowers and fruits. COM. LOC. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. vomiting. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. ovate. Himalayas. the upper similar and large. See—Timbers. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—E. emmenagogue. H. Bengal. binding. dry. Naghas. digestive. pains in joints (Ayurveda). cardiotonic. LOC. Nagkesara. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. NS.—Guttiferæ. L. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. :—Western Himalayas. Fl. Andamans. M. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. The plant is used in chutneys. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. good in asthma and sweats. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. asthma. Fr. hiccup. diuretic. Nagsampige. infusion is given in fevers. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. good for fevers. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani).—nutlets dry. Nagakeshara. indigestion and cephalagia. toothed. Ceylon. USES :—Root. expectorant. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Konkan and N. useful in liver and spleen diseases. E. . alexipharmic. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. LOC. thirst. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. small tumours. stem short. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. stalked. Burma Tenasserim. sweats. leaves. Travancore. lanceolate.—sub-equally 4-lobed. smooth. and stimulant. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—E. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR.—in axillary distant whorls. sorethroat. foul breath. Sk. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. lilac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Carminative. skin diseases. hairy. LOC. Assam. Kashmir. Nagkinjalka. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. C. Ceylon Iron-wood. cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Europe. North and West Asia. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. oblong. blood and heart troubles. Nagkesara. lined with hairs and hairy outside. FAM. China. none at the top. tonic to kidneys . Gums and Resins.

Nachike-gidda.-Oct. clothed with glandular hairs . Lajja. Fl. in vertigo. K.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. H. Raktamula. Lajalu. DISTR. :—E. removes worms. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. M. L. blood affections. gout. stems and branches sparingly prickly. COM. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. G. also used as purgative. :—E. cultivated.—4-merous. See—Timbers. leaves. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Lajjavati. acrid. K.-pod flat. :—Cultivated all over the State. NS. Hem-pushpa. India. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Lajalu. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. M. near temples and in gardens. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. 45-90 cm. sensative. bile. NS.5 cm. Champo. Flowers-stomachic. Sampige. Champaka. Sensitive plant. slightly recurved. Vanamallika. G. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. "Vata". Surabhi. Fl. Sone-chapha. Sk. evergreen rain-forest of N. Risemani. destroys poisons. Flowers— expectorant. stimulant. pinnae 1-2 pairs. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Yellow champa . Fruit. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Assam. IndoChina. high.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). :—A diffuse under-shrub. Pivala chapha. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses .. aphrodisiac. nausea and fevers . COM. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. it is given with honey to relieve colic.—Magnoliaceæ. . remove biliousness. Suvarna champaka. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda).—Sept. ophthalmia. FAM. t. Lajjika. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. leaflets 15-20 pairs. S. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. facilitates micturition. FAM. rheumatism. CHAR. pink. Sk. Lajalu. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. flowers and fruits. useful in cough. Sparshalajja. Fr. diuretic. Lajari. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. W. Champaka. 57. Yunnan. "Kapha". Golden champa. good in leprosy. Dyes. Humble plant. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Muthmurika. bark. Sonchampo. digitate. Champaka. Sankochini. in globose heads. petioles hairy. glabrous above. rachis bristly. LOC. rheumatism. LOC. diuretic. Champa. diaphoretic. Ghats. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. long.—bipin-nate. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Kanara. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Pilochampo. H.. Burma. hairy beneath.

cure biliousness. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. DISTR. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). jaundice. ulcers. In Brazil root is used as emetic. LOC. cures biliousness. :—G. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Ranjal. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. oleaginous. biliousness. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers and fruits acrid. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. asthma. smallpox (Yunani). blood diseases (Ayurveda). sweet. cultivated in the tropics. Fruit causes flatulence. nose diseases. Mukul. Varsuli. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. leucoderma. liver complaints. Kanara and Konkan. alexipharmic. Seeds fix loose teeth. alterative. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Malaya. Root is resolvent. M. bilious fevers. anthelmintic. stomachic. acrid. H. vulnerary. cultivated in gardens in pots. vaginal and uterine complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. cure blood diseases. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. leprosy. leprosy. Bark cardiotonic. inflammations. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. DISTR. Bakula. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Bakul. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. cures "Kapha". flowers. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. :—Common in the rain-forests of N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. bark. cooling. in piles and fistula. cooling.—Sapotaceæ. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. Flowers—expectorant. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. Bolsari. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Root. Kanara. Baphuli. good for gonorrhœa. fruits and seeds. It is also resolvent and alterative. often planted in gardens. dysentery. Sk.:—Western Peninsula. Juice is applied externally. Bakul. Borsalli. Mugule. Kalhala. Mulsari. LOC. :—Naturalised throughout India. fatigue. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). Sharadika. Vovali. useful in blood and bile diseases. NS. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. LOC. FAM. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Bakul. astringent to bowels. Flowers give taste. headache. See—Ornamental Plants. COM. K. Anangaka. alexipharmic. probably a native of tropical America. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. teeth and gum diseases. burning sensation.

NS. K. . In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. HABITAT -Cultivated. Carella fruit. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. blackish. :—Grown throughout India. COM. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Sk. K. M. Fruit Trees. It is also tonic and febrifuge.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands.—large. LOC. native of tropical America. Fl. Leaves are maturant. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Karala. Hagalkai. yellow.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. FAM. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. COM. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. M. NS. LOC. each one surrounded by an involucre. :—E. Karela. Kandura. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Guleaabbas . high with large perennial tuberous roots. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. See—Timbers. G. Fr. lessen inflammations (Yunani). cordate. Marvel of Peru. Karavalli.—Nyctaginaceæ. Sandhya-kali or Raga.—Cucurbitaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Hagala. FAM. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika.—E. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline.—continually in bloom. Four o'clock plant.—membranous. Karli. Fl. it is applied to relieve headache. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. H. CHAR. Krishnakali. Oils. and rather fleshy stems . MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. 30-75 cm. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. Karela. Gulbasa . Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Kareli. H. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. often ribbed or rugose. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. :—A herbaceous plant. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. L. t. Karelo. DISTR. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. See—Ornamental Plants. good for syphilitic sores. Sk. brightly coloured (dark crimson.

Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. tumours. excessive salivation. B and C. PARTS USED :—Root. hearttroubles. :—Throughout India. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fruit— bitter. Leaves act as galactagogue. all kinds of poisoning. DISTR. Plant cures diseases of blood. Vandhya. bronchitis. longpepper. Kanta. Sk. piles. Karehiballi. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. hiccup. erysipelas (Ayurveda). the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. M. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. urinary discharges. Leaves—aphrodisiac. sparingly in Konkan. antibilious. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. cooling. Ceylon. FAM.—Cucurbitaceæ. laxative and authelmintic. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. "Kapha". Beksa. bronchitis. leaves and fruit. Gid-hagalu. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. laxative. Golkandra. etc. China. asthma. also in Malaya. . used in syphilis. cure "Tridosh". Fruit—bitter. anthelmintic. anæmia. NS. digestible. Kartoli. and externally in ague as an absorbent. urinary calculi. H. Malaya. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Fruit is tonic. antipyretic. ulcers. M. LOC. stomachic. Vishakankini. Fruit—very bitter. asthma. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. lessens expectoration . stomachic. Kantoli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. Fruits contain vitamins A. urinary discharges. tropical Africa. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. rheumatism. rheumatism. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). tonic. leaves and fruit. laxative.'. cure "Vata". DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. fever consumption. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. anthelmintic. and America. It is useful in gout. blood diseases. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. See—Vegetables. Kantolan. K. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. diseases of spleen and liver.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. hot alexiteric. LOC. leprosy. boils. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. S. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . aphrodisiac. stomachic. Karkotaki. Country and Gujarat. eye and heart. COM. Nagarali. LOC. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. cures biliousness. piles. jaundice etc. carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. appetiser. burns. :—G.

Nuggi. useful in heart-complaints. Sk. Burma. astringent to bowels. M. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. NS. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. G. COM. fattening. digestible. LOC. ulcers. Formosa. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Ashyuka. Root-tonic to body and lungs. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. makes blood impure . alexiteric. China. dyspepsia. leaves and fruits. Sk. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. fruits and seeds. Seglo. Ainshi. "Vata". Introduced var. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. Guggala. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Ugra. also in the Oudh forests. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Saraoji. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. spleen enlargement. "Kapha". Mochaka. Ak. all "tridosha" fevers. cultivated throughout India and Burma. DISTR. flowers. Indian mulberry. earache. causes burning sensation. Mochaka. Al. emmenagogue. K. Tagase . :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. Bartondi. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. NS. Aal. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stuttering. Munigha. analgesic. See—Dyes. Murangi. FAM. :—E. eye diseases. Rochana. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. also wild. H. Drum-stick Tree. COM. Shevaga. PARTS USED :—Root. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. K. Mulgule. Sajina. leaves. :—E. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. removes all kinds of pains. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Haladipavate.—Rubiaceæ. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Ab. FAM. Sargavo. tumours.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. bark. biliousness . . The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Segua. M. anthelmintic. Famine Plants. Tikshnamula. LOC. Achchuka. Achi. tuberculous glands in neck. improves appetite.—Moringaceæ. Indian horse radish . inflammations. See—Vegetables. H. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums.

epilepsy and hysteria. MORUS INDICA Linn. rheumatism. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. bark. Shetur. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Ambat. See—Vegetables. lumbago. Seeds yield a fixed oil. sweetish. sour. Tut. lumbago. biliousness. Fruit—tonic. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". heart. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. White mulberry. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. Oils. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. Kambali. Gums and Resins. Fibres. NS. enriches blood.—Moraceæ. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Fruits contain vitamins A. H. wounds. common about villages in N. Tuta. diuretic. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. anthelmintic. useful in small-pox. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. fattening. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. Siahtut. See—Fruit Trees. G. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. cures gleet. turmeric. obstinate asthma. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. carminative. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. urinary discharges. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. DISTR. internal inflammations and calculous affections. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. gout. leaves and fruit. diarrhœa. LOC. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. diuretic. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. enriches blood. piles. B and C. Madhu pippali. Sk. loss of appetite. . Karihannu. COM. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). aromatic and acid flavour. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. The plant contains an alkaloid. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Leaf paste. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. appetiser. Tut. Tutri. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). aphrodisiac. K. Kanara. ulcerated intestines. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. Tuda. spleen. good for inflammations of throat and chest. with garlic. enlarged spleen or liver. :—E. good for brain. M. burning sensation (Ayurveda). Peninsula. salt and pepper.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. stomatitis. cooling. expectorant. laxative. expectorant. FAM. it is cooling laxative. Root is purgative. increases biliousness. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia.

pods and seeds. :—E. Kavatch. G. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. LOC.—Oct-Nov. improves blood. NS. Kivanch. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. DISTR. Havanch.—pod. H.—5-6 small. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Adam's Fig. :—Punjab plains. COM.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. grey-silky beneath. stem. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. M. . Fruit— aphrodisiac. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). COM. L. M. terminal smaller. Turashi. K. with honey is given in cholera. cures blood diseases. tonic. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Root useful for delirium in fevers.5x1. Kadvare. " Vata ". Fl. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Rambha. leaves. HABITAT :—Humid areas . petioles 6. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . sometimes cultivated. Sd. Kela. Kadali. consumption. :—An annual twiner. FAM. Ceylon.—in drooping racemes. dark-purple. Kivanchha. NS. K. Vanari. 5-7.2 cm. Tikshna. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. MUSA PARADISIACA L. Kapikachu.—Scitaminaceæ. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Seed is considered a nervine tonic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Plantain. spermatorrhoea etc. Cowhage. LOC. biliousness . Bale. Himalaya up to 1200 m. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. covered with tawny stinging hairs. juice given for headache. Kunth. Goncha. G. Kavach. Nayi songuballi. Sk. Root—emmenagogue. CHAR. Hasaguni. flowers and fruit. They are used as anthelmintic. Kuhili. SAPIENTUM O.3 cm. LOC. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. tonic.3-11. t. common in hedges. leaflets membranous. Maoz kela. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. DISTR. Strong root infusion.) FAM. Atmagupta. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics.—3-foliate. which produce intensa irritation of skin.. 6-30 flowered. HABITAT :—In hedges. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Banana. Kela. Urustambha.. turgid-shaped. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Seeds— alexipharmic. H. Fr. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Fl. :—E. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. long. Dirghapatra. lateral very unequal sided. Kela. cultivated. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. Var. silky.

t. Fl. Kanara. buds densely hairy. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. causes bronchitis . . heart-burn and colic. diabetes.—tubular. FAM. in thirst. leaves. K. :—S.—Rubiaceæ. appetiser. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Bhutakes..— berry. increases appetite. Shrivalli. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. urinary discharges. diseases of uterus and vagina. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. :—Konkan and N. LOC. useful in "Kapha". Tropical Himalayas. Bellotti. Nagavalli. COM. Lawsat. hairy. ear-pain. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. See—Fruit Trees. menstrual disorders. biliousness. antidysenteric. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. :—A rambling shrub. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. broad at base. Andamans. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. M. astringent to bowels. blood diseases. broadly elliptic. Fr. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Fruit—sweet. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . CHAR. stipules twin. Ipparati. Serwadh. lobes broadly ovate. deep golden yellow. DISTR. aphrodisiac.—opposite or 8nately whorled. PARTS USES :—Root. Fibres. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. kidney troubles (Yunani). flowers and fruit. Assam. NS. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. leprosy. indigestible . dyspepsia. tube slender. very hairy outside. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Burnt stem is vulnerary. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Hastygida. Sk. good for dry bronchitis. consumption and bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC. linear. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. :—H. Bedina. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes .--in terminal cymes. pubescent. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. in " Vata". Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. thickens blood. astringent to bowels. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. C. sore-throat. L. tonic. strangury. and are used in acidity. Root-juice. subglobose.— July-Oct. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. B and C. Root-juice is anthelmintic. tonic. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Fl.

axillary on slender peduncles. Vilayantimendhi. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Galen and the Arabian writers. Murad. Malabar. NS. COM. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. M. It is used as a substitute for true mace. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. Habules. Kaiphal. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. white. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. allaying pain. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. LOC. DISTR. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. :—E. cures headache. Fr. enriches blood. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Pliny.—Myrtaceæ. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. Ram-patri. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. LOC. L. common in the Kumta taluka. :—A shrub. FAM.— Myristicaceæ. ellipsoid. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. W. Himalayas.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic.— solitary. Fl.—small. very sweet smelling. :— E. :—Konkan and N. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. CHAR. COM. LOC. promotes growth of hair. intermittent fevers and dropsy. Sk. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . M. especially epilepsy. NS. False nutmeg.—berry. :—Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Leaves. It is credited with opposite qualities. black when ripe. fruits and oil. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. A decoction is employed. K. Myrtle. smoke beneficial to piles. DISTR. Kanage. FAM. used in stopping vomiting. emmenagogue. small. Kanara Ghats . Dioscorides. all over the State. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Malati. They are given in asthma. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. diuretic. ovate to lanceolate. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). applied locally to relieve pain. Kamuka. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. is regarded as. Malati. Condiments and Spices. PARTS USED:—Seeds. as . H.

CHAR. solitary or 2 together. DISTR.—capsule. rough with distant prickles . Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. long. Kanara. in diam. Kandabahula. alexiteric. Ripe carpels. muricate. top flat. C. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. peltate.—alternate. Pitmari. FAM.. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. ovoidglobose. 3-valved. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Fl. high.3-0. LOC. 0.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. Aravinda. M. t. Belakanji. Chinese water-lily. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant.—Meliaceæ. dysentery. Indian sacred lotus. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. 3-foliate. Ambuj. NS. free. Sd. anthers with clavate appendages. Amlavalli. Fl. Goanese ipecacuanha. white or rosy. PARTS USED :—Root.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. Pundarika. Suriyakamal. t. :—Konkan. concave or cupped. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. orbicular.5 cm.-Dec.. Nelanaringa . Sk. H. diam. Kamala. petiole winged. erect. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. entire. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. fleshy. Fr. G. leaves. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd.—solitary. elliptic. :—W. Pankaja. Kapurbhendi. LOC. Sarasija. spongy. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. with slender. Kamal. hæmorrhage. :—E.—Nymphæaceæ. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. elongate. stem. Timpani. petals 5. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. :—A large aquatic herb. cells 2-seeded. linear spathulate. Fl.—white. Kamal. bronchitis. ovoid. Papra-vel. Kandalu. M. Tavari-bija or gadde. 10-25 cm. L. Sk. Padam.-Nov. & A.6 m. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. COM. from Iran eastwards to Australia. radiately nerved.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. . petioles very long.—membranous. cures asthma. Fl.—petals many 5-12. :—A small branching undershrub. CHAR. ulcers (Ayurveda). COM. DISTR. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. vulnerary. Kamal. torus 18 mm. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. axillary. biliousness. disk annular.—pendulous. curved. K. K. :—E. Padma. Ambuja.—July. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. NS. L. glabrous.

:—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. fever. Kaner. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Cool. Fl. vomiting. in fever and liverdiseases. rose or white. 10-15 cm. long. spermatorrhoea. good in throat-troubles. leaves. improves watery eyes (Yunani). NS. 15-23 cm. In China and Malaya dried red petals. S. also as a hedge plant. chest-pains. :—Madhya Bharat. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. flowers. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. heart and brain tonic . LOC. useful in fevers . useful in piles. rigid. tapering into short petiole. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin.—flowers more or less throughout the year. good in blood-complaints. Kaner. honey. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. Salt Range. G. Filaments are astringent and cooling. coriaceous. Waziristan.—follicles. K. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. PARTS USED :—Root. cures cough. aphrodisiac. removes worms. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. LOC. COM. inflammations and poisoning. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). CHAR. Kanagile. dark green and shining above. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. :—E. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs.—funnel-shaped. gives tone to breast. FAM. seeds. Karvira. throat scaly. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. lobes rounded. Fr.—red. fragrant. See—Ornamental Plants. allays thirst. at length separating. also cholera. also recommended as cardiac tonic. Kanher. strangury. Fl. DISTR. Cool. astringent to taste . Paddali. menorrhagia. linear-lanceolate. diuretic. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . diseases of skin and eye . The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. useful in burning sensation of the body.—Apocynaceæ. Karvira. Pratihasa. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. long. planted in gardens throughout the State.—in threes. fruit. Karber. L. Sind. Ashwa-marak. M. Sweet scented oleander. Kanel. flowers. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . . H. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. leucoderma. small-pox. slightly bitter. leaves. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". India. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . stem. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. Upper Gangetic Plains. allays thirst. t. Baluchistan. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. C. ulcers and sores of mouth. Sd. biliousness. Vishavrikshanka.

:—Native of America. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. M. LOC. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Bujjarbhang. G. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. Tobacco. useful in bronchitis. cultivated in all tropical countries. very poisonous. tubercular glands of neck. headache. especially root. LOC. sedative and emetic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. foul nose. Krimighni. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. Tamarakuthika. The plant contains a glucoside.—alternate. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). Root—aphrodisiac. tonic. :—E. CHAR. are poisonous and are used externally. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. USES :—All parts of plant. H. DISTR. water from hookha is diuretic. Sk. tonic.8 cm. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). M. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. asthma. NS. Fr. Dhumrapatrika. C. oblong or elliptic. sores. conical. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. K. inflammations. scabies (Yunani). wounds. Tamaku. dimness of sight. nervous depression and sleeplessness. emetic. smoke constipating. laxative. a mental stimulant. See—Ornamental Plants.—Solanaceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves. carminative. Flowers— aphrodisiac. Kalanja.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. An ointment made . Hoge soppu. Tambakhu. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Tabak. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses.—in open corymbose panicles . large (especially lower ones). HABITAT :—Cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). also applied in leprosy. inflammations. the surface is plain or bullate. lobes spreading. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. good for lumbago.—pink or white. base wedgeshaped . It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. across. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. skin diseases. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). Tambak. FAM. scabies. useful in caries of teeth. disinfectant. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. about 1. Fl. bronchitis. COM. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. anthelmintic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. caries of teeth. Tamakhu. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). Poisonous to fish.—capsule. funnel-shaped. L. LOC.

See—Ornamental Plants. Chotakanwal. Sephalika. COM. Parijataka. LOC. Bilitavarai. Burma. Assam. M. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. axillary. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. M. Nalkumkuma.— fragrant.3 cm. Cultivated in many parts of India. tube orange-coloured. Nilophhal. H. Kumuda. PARTS USED :—Root.—Oleaceæ. southwards to the Godavari. HABITAT :-Cultivated. lessen inflammation. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. 2-celled. Jayaparvati. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. cures fevers. rough above with bulbous hairs. Parijata . :—E. ovate acute. Har-singhar. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. G. Prajakta. Sk. Prajakta. obcordate or merely orbicular. Parijata. (Ayurveda). found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. DISTR. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). Alipriya. hairy. Madhya Bharat. useful in bilious fevers. LOC. Nyadale huvu . H. Kharapatraka. solitary. C. carminative. K. Har. Kanval. Bark cures bronchitis. compressed. astringent-to bowels. Buds are tonic. Sk. Shonapadma. Bengal.— more or less throughout the year. . in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. young branches quadrangular. bark. Fr. tonic to hair.) FAM.—capsule. Fl. NS. Sephali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . Flowers have a bitter bad taste. bark. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Aravind. CHAR. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. :—E. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. scalp affections etc. FAM. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Kanwal. It is used with honey in chronic fever. a decoction of root.—opposite 5-10x2. Fl. Lotus. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. NS. L. leaves. Harsing. densely pubescent beneath. Lalkamal. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala.—Nymphæaceæ. in terminal trichotomous cymes. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. stomachic. flowers and seeds.5-6.. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine.—lobes white. abundant July-Sept. K.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. COM. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. peduncles 4angled. t. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. :—A large shrub or a small tree. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Indian Mourner : G.

LOC. filaments dilated at the base . globose..MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate).—peltate. Fr. :—An erect herb 0. useful in diseases of heart and blood. rough. PARTS USED :—Roots. DISTR. G.— in whorled racemes . biliousness. deeply cordate at the base. Ceylon. fleshy. toothed or lobed. Bahari. ripening beneath the water. cooling . oblong.—2-lipped. M. Sabzah. long. Sd. chronic pain in joints. Var. Philippines. t. allays thirst. Fl. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. submerged . Fl. C. pink or purplish. itch. Rihan. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. hot taste.—Labiatæ. stems and branches green or purplish. leucoderma. Africa. black and pitted. green. diarrhœa and piles . inflammations. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). thyrsiflora. pale rose or white. DISTR. purple stem. LOC. Ramkasturi. 8-13 mm. antipyretic .—all the year. Tukhamariya . Barbar.6-0. emmenagogue. erect. Plant has a sharp. flowers and seeds. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). leaves and flower. 7. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. See—Ornamental Plants. root stock tuberous. long. Burma. FAM. obtuse. asthma. K. "Vata". febrifuge.5-20 cm. bracts stalked. C. Sabja. stamens about 40. glabrous or pubescent. CHAR. Surabhi. COM.9 m. bitter. Sabja. and nigropunctate above. Tungi. Damaro. L. open in the morning only. Hungary.—solitary. lessens bile. "Kapha".—3 cm. Java. juice gives lustre to . H. causes burning sensation. red. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. 15-25 cm. alexipharmic. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Ajagandhika. irregularly sinuate-dentate. NS.—petals about 12. entire. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. improves taste . Sk.—ovate. "Vata".:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. high. Sajjebija. leaves. enlarged spleen. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . aphrodisiac . ellipsoid. :—Var. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. peduncles very long . short. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. " Kapha". Manjarki. L. glabrous. :—Large aquatic herb . useful in diseases of heart and brain. removes impurities from blood .—nutlets about 2 mm. Common sweet basil. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn.— ovoid. white. cylindric. diam. across. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. bitter taste. stomachic. roundish. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. petioles very long. Surasa. Barbar. :—E. diuretic. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. Nasabo. anthelmintic. Fl. diameter. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. acute. Fr.

aphrodisiac . causes insomnia (Ayurveda). It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. Large basil. removes foul breath. Country. liver and spleen. Deccan. woody below . On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women.—6. During fever when the extremities are cold. brown.. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. inflammations. useful in vomiting. Sumukha. gland-dotted. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. heating. t. LOC. fits. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. diuretic and stimulant. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. Avachi-bavachi. S. Fl. LOC. skin diseases. . good for toothache.—2-lipped. FAM. H. :—A perennial shrub. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children.3—12. BanMal tulasi.8 m. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. branched. headache. LOC.—nutlets subglobose. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. It is also styptic.8—5. lower lip longer. :—Throughout India. :—E. elliptic-lanceolate. Lemon—shrubby basil. Rantulasi.—Labiatæ. coarsely crenate-serrate. pubescent. Fl. strangury . PARTS USED :—The whole plant.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. COM. M. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. strengthens gums.7 cm. Java. high. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. sharp taste .2—1.-July-Oct. :—Konkan. Gujarat. pale greenish yellow. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. young ones pubescent. they are also aphrodisiac. CHAR. rugose.5 X 3. " Vata". alexiteric. L. G. C. Ram Tulasi. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. Plant has bitter. stimulant. 1. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. M. NS. good for griping and piles (Yunani).— in simple or branched racemes. rachis quadrangular . " Kapha". The flowers possess. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Sk. earache. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. diuretic and demulcent properties. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Ajaka. heart. DISTR. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. Rama-Ran tulasi. stems and branches subquadrangular . useful in diseases of brain. carminative. in close whorls . often cultivated : Ceylon. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. Fr.

varying from 7. .—subsessile. M. C. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. minutely gland-dotted. alexiteric. bronchitis. Tulasa. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts).6— 3. upper lip pubescent on the back. Pavitra. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. M. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. Phapti. of children and in hepatic affections . angular. leaves and seeds. Australia. stems numerous. clothed with soft hairs . Fl. stems and branches subquadrangular. DISTR. Parapate. Sk. Fr. bitter. long. Tulasi. FAM. asthma. " Kapha". :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State.— in racemes 15-20 cm. LOC. Tropical E.—2-lipped. Sk. FAM. HABIT :—A common weed. West Asia.2 cm. lobes acute. especially in children. See—Sacred Plants. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . H. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Arabia. Fl. :—G. Fr. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. used in catarrh and bronchitis .. H. entire or serrate. linear or linear-lanceolate. NS.—pale brown. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Country. high. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Tulasi. Kala tulasi. Krishna tulasi. strangury. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. L. high.— capsule. purplish. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. pubescent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.5-5 X 1. Ceylon. yellow with black marking. DISTR. anthelmintic. Vrinda. Vishnuvallabha. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. COM. painful eye.:—E. obtuse or acute. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. :—Throughout India. Malay Archipelago. vomiting. leucoderma. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Deccan and S. :—An annual plant. usually 2-3 cm. 30-60 cm. L. Asia to Java and the Philippines.—2. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—An annual herb.—on filiform pedicels. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. foul smells. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. :—Konkan. CHAR.—Labiatæ.— nutlets. elliptic-oblong. NS. K. COM. margins recurved and scabrous. purplish. cholagogue. Papli. t. " Vata". purulent discharge of ear. M. Fl. stipules with bristles . Damanpaper. Manjari. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. Sd. Tulasi.5—38 cm. stomachic.—Sept-Nov. globose or pyriform . antipyretic. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. long in close whorls . Vranda. hiccup. lumbago pains. useful in heart and blood diseases. heating. smooth. Parpat. and are given with honey. Suravallari. CHAR.

Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. introduced into India. it is also used in liver complaints. dull bluish-green. G.5 mm. spleen enlargement. CHAR. L. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. vesicular calculi. H.—5 cm. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. Nagdali. long. laxative. Plant juice—heating. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. FAM. pyriform. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. largest 3. COM.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Plant bitter. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. xerophyte. Hathathoria. burning. :—E. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers.— berry. angular or warty. Sher. rusty brown. Sk. piles. Joints variable in size. reddish at the tips. stomachic. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. Snuka. good for leucoderma. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). purgative. Grown as hedge. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. LOC. across. Phadyanivdung. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. flowers and fruits. or more high. urinary complaints. subulate. digestive. yellow at the edges. lumbago. Nagaphana. LOC. liver complaints. cures biliousness. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. cures inflammations. yellow or orange. " Vata". K. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. Vajrakantaka. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). 3 m.5 cm. diuretic. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. reddish purple when ripe. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. alexiteric. Prickly pear. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . obovate or elliptic. leucoderma. juice cures earache (Yunani). Fr. perianth rotate. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Slipper thorn. M. Mullugalli. antipyretic. inflammations. carminative. loss of consciousness.—7. ascites. Nagaphani. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. long. cures bronchitis in children. anæmia. Fl. recurved. NS. spleen enlargement. carminative. inner spathulate. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest.—Cactaceæ. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . Nagaphana. tumours. Zhoratheylo. . outer segments ovate red in the centre. Chorhothalo. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. rather thin. used in ophthalmia. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. Nagadru. DISTR. ulcers.

good in heart and throat diseases. :—E. LOC. tonic. Kanara ghats . Fruit—acrid. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. vomiting. Chaval. DISTR. NS. :—E. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). diuretic. Mayarjangha.—Gramineæ. Pharri. M.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. astringent to bowels . bronchitis. biliousness. HABITAT :—Aquatic. :—The Konkan and the N. sweet. Rice. oleaginous. useful in biliousness . Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Podval. FAM. Shali. Tetu. Vrihi. Sk. anthelmintic. H. Tuntaka. cooling. Tans. Akki.S. Sk. Ceylon. M. G. Malaya. LOC. Seeds are purgative. NS. PARTS USED :—Grain. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. LOC. Mokka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Dyes. Nivara. Alangi. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Dirghavrinta. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. It is astringent and tonic. Cochin-China. Bhat. Ullu. Tandula. FAM. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Fruit—expectorant. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. piles.—Bignoniaceæ. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. :—Widely cultivated. Ghats. K. fattening. leucoderma. Rice . asthma. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. stomachic. inflammations. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. COM. improves taste. G. appetiser. fevers. Indian trumpet flower. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. DISTR. Bagi. Araluka. improves appetite. anal troubles. Tetu. Ava. aphrodisiac. COM. Chokha. dysentery. tonic. K. Tandula. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). LOC. R. intestinal worms. See—Timbers. useful in " Vata". aphrodisiac. Tetu. Arlu. K. Shyonaka.).

Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases.5 cm. used externally. Amlalonika. Dudhialata. Kyirin . petioles very slender. M. to which a little lemon juice is added. pubescent. FAM. linear-oblong. inflamed piles. Ambastha. PARTS USED :—Leaves. ulcers. It is an excellent application to abscesses. stems rooting. sub-umbellate . if applied to chest. It is a pleasant. base cuneate subsessile. Dugdhike. DISTR. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). NS. H.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Dugdhica. The grains contain vitamin C. LOC. bruised. obcordate. 5-angled. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach.—petals 5. Ceylon. boils. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. ovoid. Shuklika. bowels or kidneys. beaked. Marudbhava. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. leaflets 1. Ambuti. Sk. Fl. Dudhatani. Chukrita. Br. :—Throughout the State.— capsule. CHAR. See—Food Plants. Amrul. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache.2—2. :—E. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. Rice water. buboes. diarrhœa. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Dudhani. oblong. COM. Kshiravi. brown. H. K. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . cures dysentery. FAM. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. LOC. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . :—G. margins ciliate.— many. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. scarlet fever. measles.—axillary. transversely striate. . good appetiser . long. Sd. K. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Dudhialata. Fl. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. Jaladudhi. C. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . Sk. L. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. also in burns and scalds. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. astringent.—Oxalidaceæ. small-pox. NS. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). rounded at the apex. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m.—Asclepiadaceæ. easy to digest. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. COM.— Oct-May. Changeri. t. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. " Vata " and piles. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. M. In dysentery. Dudhari. Dugdhika. yellow. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever.—palmately 3-foliate. Fr. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Indian Sorrel. removes " Kapha ". gives great relief. dysentery and scurvy.

DISTR.8-6. often planted. Ketaki. Flowers improve complexion. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. lobes ciliate. thin. LOC. indigestible. anthelmintic. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Kedige. margins and midrib spiny. corona staminal.3 cm.— large. gonorrhœa. stem supported by aerial roots . NS. C. leaves. G. :—Konkan. long. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. cough. root. high. Kanara. 0. black. :—A shrub up to 6 m. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. Keora. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Giripriya. Sd. HABITAT :—Usually near water.—glaucous green. K. L. Kanara. milky juice.—deciduous. small-pox. stems many. L. 4. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. Fl. S. Burma. mouth with pubescent ring. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda).—follicles. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". Anthers useful in pruritus. female flower spadix solitary. rarely erect. FAM. Screw pine. diuretic. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat.—oblong or globose. Java. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. tonic. much branched. fruit. with flavour. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. syphilis. CHAR. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. :—E. Deccan. COM. PARTS USED :—Plant. pale rose or white. laxative.—dioecious. causes flatulence.5 m. expectorant.—Pandanaceæ. M. bitter. strikingly handsome. palegreen. aphrodisiac. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). purple veined. pain in the muscles. Fr. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. Dhulipushpika. juice is used in gleet. Gogandhul. heat of body. X 3. leucoderma. yellow or red. linear or linear-lanceolate. Fl. " Kapha ". fruit and oil from bracts. coriaceous ensiform.8 mm. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. 3.. LOC. Kevada. Sundarbans. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. long. anthers. Chama-pushpa. scabies. Mundige. pain.9—1. Leaves are useful in leprosy. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Poona Sangam. Country— Belgaum. aphrodisiac. dry. Fruit—tonic. diseases of heart and brain. Kewoda. M. coma present. useful in strangury and tumours. Gandha-pushpa. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. H.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. Andamans. alexiteric. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes .—Dec. Ketaka. Fl. Ceylon. :—Konkan and N. Umbrella Tree. . PARTS USED :-Root.—very numerous. Ketgi. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. DISTR. somniferous. Fr.5-9 cm. Sk. LOC. given to children as an astringent (Yunani).

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Kashayi. Fr. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Malay Islands. Ranmath. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. long. H. Magavala.—Oct. dry. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. good for the eyes . peduncles 10-23 cm. Adavada. nose complaints. antipyretic. LOC. glabrous or hairy. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Fl. blood diseases. :—Largely grown in. Kolaba and Kanara. inflammations. Kajuri. layer. Kharjurika. Abyssinia. prostrate. Dharwar.— pod. See—Food Plants. NS. DISTR. Kallu.—in sub-capitate. Deccan and Gujarat. Trianguli. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. digestible. M. Adabanmagi. LOC. light and astringent. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Ahmednagar. The grains contain vitamins A and B. Tadi. membranous. Konkan.—3-foliate. Vanmudga. Sind. DISTR. Seeds— tonic. :—E. M. Swadi.5—5 cm.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. headache. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). throat inflammations. gout. Kalli-chalu. K. long. Indian wine palm. styptic. NS. leaflets 1. as a kharif crop. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. thirst. FAM. Kapila. COM. Ichela-mara. Kharjuri. PARTS USED :—Seeds. cure biliousness. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration.5 cm. laxative. and southwards to Ceylon.3—2. eye troubles. anthelmintic. Khandesh. Sd. broadly spathulate. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. :—G. enrich blood. slightly recurved. Belgaum. Boichand. CHAR. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. cough. Sk. long. H. COM. G. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. LOC. astringent. astringent to bowels. yellow.—Palmæ. straight subcylindric. t. Satara. Sk. Ranmug. FAM. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. mugawana. Khaji. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. good for eyes. Burma.—6-12. wiry. Khajuri. dysentery. aphrodisiac. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. piles. 2. :—Annual or perennial. L. burning sensation. " Kapha". Date sugar palm. wild date palm. . good in fevers. Siyindu. LOC. bitter. Ahmedabad. Kidney diseases.:—Very common throughout the State. Shindi. K. bronchitis. " Tridosh". cures consumption. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Mugani. Shimbiparni. Kurangika.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. biliousness. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Kohesaru. petioles grooved. Kherk. few flowered racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Sendhi. Koshila. Afghanistan.

DISTR. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. H. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). :—Throughout India. Jalapimpli. Fl. Okra. sharply serrate in upper part. Fl. Sd. aphrodisiac. cooling.5—3. upper 2-lobed. fattening. Poona and Belgaum districts. Vashira. fevers.—pinnate. wild or more often cultivated. ensiform. Fl. oblique. :—A tall graceful palm. cooling. Toyavallari. subsessile. deeply grooved on one side. . greyish-green. Bihar.—white or pale-pink. Agnijwala. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic.. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). L. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. :—G. constipating.—Jan-Feb. spadix 60-90 cm.—rounded at the ends. Ratoliya.5 m. L. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. triangular. angular. male white. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. :—Found fairly in Surat. NS. oblong-ellipsoid.5 m. petioles compressed towards the apex. :—A creeping perennial herb.—Verbenaceæ. Sk. oleaginous. Jalpippali. flowers very many. Bengal. Sholapur. useful in diseases of heart. alexiteric. much branched. Africa. lower 3-lobed. long. t. blood and eye. erect. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice.—2. Fr. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. This is called neera. flowers distant.—opposite.—more or less all the year. wandering of mind. Bhuiokra. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places.) FAM.—Fibres. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. Coromandel Coast. LOC. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. vomiting. and in beds of streams and water courses. Fl. fruit and juice of the tree.—globose. 2-lipped. good in heart and abdominal complaints. Famine Plants. DISTR. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. COM. Mysore. scented. Rohilkhand. Baluchistan. female spadix and spathe as in the male. Fr. stems rooting at the nodes. rigid. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. :—Tolerably common throughout India. 9-15 m. spiny at the base. usually along banks. rounded at the apex.—sessile. crown hemispherical. cardiotonic. C. clothed with appressed white hairs . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. densely fascicled. roundish. Langali. pointed. long. Ratuliyo. LOC. See. high. long.— dioecious. large and thick. spatulate. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Ceylon.2 cm. pinnules many. 3-4. Jalapipali. 15-45x2-2. CHAR. orange-yellow. spinous. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. Sharadi. Ratoliya. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. LOC. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. outer Himalayas. Siwalik. oblong. M.

. t. annular. axillary. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. Bhumyamali. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . LOC. NS. H. It is valuable in scurvy. Fl. sores. scabies. smooth. Leaves are stomachic. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. burning sensation. high . and without salt may be applied to bruises. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. bronchitis. distichous. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. L. angular. elliptic-oblong. CHAR :—An annual herb. leaves. :—Throughout India. diuretic. wounds. 30-60 cm. Infusion is a good tonic. longitudinally ribbed on the back. very numerous. Bhuiavli. LOC. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. Stomachic. Fl. anuria. Jaramla.— July-Aug. monœcious. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). maturant. males 1-3. :—G. very small. Bhumyamalaki. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. urinary discharges. M. Fr. Sukshmadala. Vituntika. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. FAM. Plant—hot. :—Konkan and Deccan. milky-juice. dry. Sadahazurmani. anæmia. Sd. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). leprosy. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. lobed. Ajata. useful in thirst. . Bhuianvalah.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. hiccup. cooling. K.—yellowish. LOC. Sk. alexipharmic .— numerous. asthma. stem branched at the base. globose. DISTR. good for ulcers. ringworm (Yunani). disk of the male of minute glands. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Bhumyamali. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. Tropics generally. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). COM. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst.useful in fevers. asthma. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. scarcely lobed. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Amala. Kiranelligida. wounds.—Euphorbiaceæ. The whole plant. of female.—3-gonous. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. biliousness. Ceylon. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections.—capsule. fruit. except Australia. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). females solitary.

Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Kanara forests. K. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. ozœna. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. :—E. M.—Piperaceæ.—Piperaceæ. spleen diseases. :—E. Satara. LOC. aphrodisiac. smeared with oil. It contains an aromatic essential oil. useful in "Kapha". LOC. liver and muscular pains. satyriasis and to allay thirst. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. :—Wild in the N. purgative. leavs. LOC. generally in Konkan. useful in "Vata". Kalaka. asthma. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. K. Vidyache-pan. Menasu. bronchitis. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. Poona. alexipharmic. stomachic. NS. acrid. Sholapur. Pan. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. increases biliousness. G. See—Condiments and Spices. Warm leaves. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. foul smell in the mouth. hot. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. improves voice. Malimirich . throat diseases. Tambola. Eleballi. cultivated in Konkan and N. inflammations. night blindness. Golmirch . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Betel leaf vine. DISTR. NS. ozoena. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. DISTR. carminative and astringent. Betelleaf. Kalamiri. Kaphavirodhi. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. given with milk in hysteria. Nagavalli. Vata". tonic. H. strengthens teeth . :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. COM. aphrodisiac. Black-pepper. Kalimiri. Saptashira. Fresh leaves. heart and liver. Vileyad-ele. vulnerary.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. FAM. Kalamirich. It sweetens breath. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. pains. removes all foulness from mouth. FAM. " Kapha ". H. Kanara. carminative. useful in toothache. heating. Pan. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. . Bhakshyapatra. bechic. Sk. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. tonic to brain. tonic and digestive. carminative. improves appetite (Ayurveda). clears throat. Tambulavalli. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Panu. Tikshna. anthelmintic. and fruits (rarely). piles. Sk. urinary discharges. Marich. laxative. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Betel pepper. styptic (Yunani). COM. M. Mensinballi. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. G. PARTS USED :—Fruits. elephantiasis . Menasin-kallu . alterative. Pan. It increases saliva. Linn.

as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. . Fr. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. bruises. lanceolate or greenish . COM. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. Tammata. C. sprains. See—Timbers. Khandala (pretty common). and possesses narcotic properties . ovate or oblong. long.5 cm. Kanara in ghat forests. Fl. :—K. vertigo.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. sciatica. Khasia Hills. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. Bark contains a glucoside. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. W. N. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. used in chronic bronchitis. LOC. variable in width. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Vehkali. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. H. base tapering into petiole.—capsule. Greater plantain . :—E. dries body humours (Yunani). Externally it is rubefacient. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. COM. & A. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats .— alternate. petiole longer than leaf-blade. Bartang. piperidine and an essential oil. coma. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. ophthalmia and phthisis. DISTR. It is a good expectorant. CHAR. Lahuriya. the oil is alterative. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations.—lobes 4.5-12. NS. In physiological action. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. chest affections. radial 2. used as febrifuge. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. See—Condiments and Spices. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Konkan. facilitates menstruation. weakness following fevers. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Vikhari. leprosy. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. lumbago. Deccan. L. ovoid. M. paralysis . It yields an essential oil. piles and some skin-diseases . Arcot and Salem. hills of S. Burma.—Plantaginaceæ. LOC. chronic fevers. entire or toothed. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. tonic and a local stimulant. FAM. FAM.—Pittosporaceæ.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . NS. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. various forms of cutaneous diseases. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries.

FAM. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Sk. Fl.-Feb. NS. LOC. striate . and seeds. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Rosy-coloured leadwort. Assam. LOC. t. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Malaya. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Chitra. COM. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). oblong. H. LOC. dull-black. Lalachitraka. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. alterative. Fattening. stems herbaceous.Sept.—throughout the year. Mahang. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Lalchitrak. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. top coming off as a conical lid. PARTS USED :—Roots. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. CHAR. Agnishikha. lax spikes. PARTS USED :—Roots. DISTR. Sd.. obtuse. Fire plant. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Lead-wort. base passing into amplexicaul. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). They are used in diarrhœa and piles. limb wide. Raktachitraka. high. Fl. HABITAT :—Along river banks. zeylanica. Lalchita. leaves. :—Konkan : Deccan. Palni hills. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . K. L. angled. afford relief. Baluchistan.—Plumbaginaceæ.Kempuchitramula. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Ratochatro. LOC. alterative and diuretic.. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Cultivated. erect. rosy scarlet. Lalchitrak.—large. :—Cultivated throughout India. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. Chitraka. DISTR. attenuate. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State.—3-5 cm. exauriculate petiole. Nilgiris. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. W. long in long terminal axillary. G. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling.-4-8. C. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. t.—tube slender. :— E. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Ghats. :—Temperate Himalayas.

Chitra . Ceylon. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. NS. leucoderma. leprosy. Malay Peninsula. aborti-facient. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. ring-worm. rachis glandular . Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. Chitra. hot. LOC. leaves. Agnishikha. useful in laryngitis. wild in Western Peninsula. Medi. Fr. In S. tonic. Chitramula. L. vesicant. oblong. Root—bitter. pointed. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. terete. G. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. carminative. . It is used as a powerful sialogogue. scabies. skin disease. inflammations. stems 0. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bengal. :—Throughout India. Jyotishka. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. :—E. itching. entire. COM.—Aug. leucoderma. Fl. " Vata" and " Kapha". rheumatism.—capsule. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. stomachic. " Tridosha" . PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. stomachic. it is useful in dyspepsia. alexipharmic. diarrhœa. diseases of liver. Journ. alterative . K. t. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. cultivated . Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. dysentery. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. striate. appetiser. ovate. attenuated into a short petiole. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. January 1933). Chitranga. Ind. juice. FAM. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal.—in elongate spikes. anthelmintic. bechic. bronchitis.5 m. woody. Chitaro Chitrak. The use of Pl. M. lobes 5.—Plumbaginaceæ.—white. anasarca. consumption. and in leucoderma. Fl. Bile-Chitra-mula.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. piles. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State.—thin. H. laxative. cure intestinal troubles. long. ascites. spreading. Tropics of the old world.6-1. expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. DISTR. leaves are caustic. Chitra . Chitraka. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). a favourite medicine for flatulence. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. piles. Vahni.-Sept. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. Chitrak. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. astringent to bowels. It is used in procuring abortion. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Res. Vallari. a paste is made with milk. C. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. root-bark. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). diseases of spleen. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles .

itching. heating. Country. :—A small shrub 1. long. NS. Kadu-sampige. 15-30 cm. Frangipani. Fl. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. purple.—salver-shaped. Fl. Fl. CHAR. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. rarely maturing. divaricate. t. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. broadly ovate. many flowered.5-18x3. useful in gleet. Deccan. L. 7.. Champakam. 3-lobed. Mahabaleshwar.8-9 cm. abundant from Mar. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut.—Apocynaceæ. inner face angular. Pangli. acute at both ends. Pagoda tree. abundant. S. FAM. Rhuruchapha. white with a pale yellow centre. bark. :—All throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. pungent. upper lip white shot with purple.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. DISTR. laxative . PARTS USED :—Root. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. acrid. See—Ornamental Plants. ascites (Ayurveda). high. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. C.-May. Fr. ulcers. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. Devagangile.:—More or less throughout India. Fr. L. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. LOC. COM. oblong-lanceolate.—Labiatæ. G. Fl. M. rounded. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. CHAR. useful in leprosy.—practically throughout the year. shining black. Golainchi. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. :—M. Khairchapha. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. Root-bark is purgative. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. K. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. FAM.-Feb. stems and branches quadrangular. Radha-champo. NS. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). with an intra-marginal vein. :—Konkan.—Dec. Phangla.—2-lipped.-nutlets ellipsoid. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. cylindrical. :—Native of tropical America. Goleurchampa. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. :—E. spirally arranged. M. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings.— large. Kanara. shining. very fragrant.—follicles. common. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. entire. 4-lobed. long. LOC. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. irregularly doubly toothed. venereal sores.8 m. whorls close. leaves and milky juice.2—1. t. cultivated. Sk. lower lip white. smooth. H. Belchampaka. C. carminative. 12 cm. .—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. pains. urinary discharges.

enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Karanja. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). anthelmintic.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Jayanti. . Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Sk. useful in diseases of eye. Indian beech. Karanj. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Kirmal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. cures biliousness. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. bark. Arni. wounds. J. cure earache. wounds (Ayurveda). G. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. juice is given in colic and fever. Seeds—acrid . USES :—The fresh leaves.—Verbenaceæ. liver pain. itching. Kanaji. COM. LOC. lumbago. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Oils. cures eye diseases. COM. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. chronic fever. Huligili. " Vata ". alexipharmic . Oil—anthelmintic. skin diseases. Arni. Karanjmara.) FAM. :—E. K. Oil—styptic. Agnibijaka. rheumatic pains. K. F. Chamari. Gaura. relieves inflammation. purify and enrich blood. along Deccan rivers . skin and in keratitis . chronic fever and hydrocele. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Sk. urinary discharges .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Pavaka. ulcers. FAM. carminative. LOC. Agnimandha. M. chest complaints. Karanj. vagina. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. M. NS. " Kapha ". In Satara. NS. Gracie). leucoderma. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. lumbago. Honge. :—G. Arand. Aran. Agetha. good for tumour. H. See—Timbers. bruised. ascites. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. Naktamala. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. fruits and seeds. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. head and brain diseases. good in scabies. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Karanja. Ustabunda . DISTR. H. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. also planted. Ichu. Kanika. flowers. piles. Kanja. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. PARTS USED :—Root. piles. leaves. leprosy.

LOC. piles.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). cooling. blue-black. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Piyara. greenish yellow. Kanara. NS. cool heated brain.—tubular. Fruit—tonic. seated on the calyx . Jamb. Andamans. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Root is laxative. Nicobars and Malaya. Peru . :—Throughout the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. rough-tubercled . decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. LOC. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Ash—caustic (Yunani). useful in anaemia. LOC. It is given in the form of decoction. It is also employed in scurvy. Anthers—dry wound. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Sk. fever. Fr. C.. high. causes "Kapha". Perala. stomachic. Gum is tonic. smooth. Jamud-rukh. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. common about Karwar. Fl. Jamphal. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. aphrodisiac .—Myrtaceæ.—hard.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. :—Cultivated all over the State. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. dyspepsia. laxative after food. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). M. Dridhabija. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. Gova. cylindric. Peru.3 cm. G. Safedsafari. diabetes. fruits and gum. Vastula. good for liver complaints (Yunani). Flowers cool body. H. See—Famine Plants. hairy in the throat. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. used in bronchitis. inflammations. Fl. Amrut. t. broadly elliptic. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. DISTR. L. Ceylon.— globose.— June-July. heating. for unhealthy ulcers. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. flowers. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. stomachic. Peruka. applied to sore eyes. cooling.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Guava tree. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. entire or upper part dentate. chyluria. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers."Vata". chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. bronchitis. DISTR. pungent. COM. laxative. Young leaves are tonic in the . Sd. as an astringent to bowels. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children.2-6. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. small. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. . LOC. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. bark yellowish.—5-9 X 3. Perala. lobes 4. K. constipation. sour. good in colic and for bleeding gums. FAM.

an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Seed—purgative. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. L.—bluish purple . " Rakta-pitta". CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. Country. Fl.6-1. mucronate. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally.—simple. antipyretic. alexiteric. scabies. Seeds— refrigerant. Babachi. COM. LOC. vomiting.—Aug-Dec. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. improves appetite.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. anthelmintic. Kalameshi. 0. Bavachi. high.—pod. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). C. See—Fruit Trees. Fr. NS. stem and branches grooved. HABITAT :—Waste places. bitter taste. fruit and seeds. nigro-punctate. nephrites and cachexia. piles. aphrodisiac. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Vanguji. H. smooth. diuretic. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. black. alterative. Chandralekha. .5—5 cm.2 m. Sd. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Bowach-chi. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. Bavachi. Fl. laxative. ovoidoblong. FAM. urinary dis charges. studded with glands and white hairs. leaves. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). t. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. good for leucoderma. 3.—one. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. causes biliousness. Babachi. LOC. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. improves hair and complexion. 10-30 flowered racemes . inflammation. Leaves—good for diarrhœa.—in dense axillary. Sk. raw one is used in diarrhœa. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. :—An erect annual. stimulant. good for heart troubles. Bhavanj. Fruit—diuretic. :—E. leprosy. closely-pitted. stomachic. anthelmintic. cures blood diseases . heals ulcers. biliousness. K. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. Kushtaghni. M. vulnerary. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. white hairy. solitary. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. standard orbicular. G. bronchitis. clawed. Bukchi.8 X 2. DISTR. skin diseases. rounded and mucronate at the apex. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. cures "Vata".—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Konkan and S. PARTS USED :—Root. Bakuchi. difficulty in micturition. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". M. anæmia.

Bibla. alterative . DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Dadam. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. M. scabies. Fruit-appetiser. laxative. biliousness. flowers and fruits. " Kapha ". Malabar kino-tree. Gums and Resins. Bark—astringent. griping. ulcers. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. FAM. Kabul and Baluchistan. urinary discharges. boils. bark. good for biliousness. Sk. useful in all body diseases. Bibla. Dalimb . allays thirst. somewhat milder in action than catechu. anthelmintic. Bija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils.—Punicaceæ. cures " Vata ". erysipelas. useful in eye troubles. Flowers—check vomiting. sore eyes brain diseases. colic. Bijak. called kino. prolapsus ani. Bia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Indian kino-tree. diuretic. antipyretic. enriches blood. :—Western Peninsula and S. Honi. fever. LOC. Khandesh and Dangs. FAM. flowers and gum. LOC. G. Benga. H. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. strengthens gums. " Tridosh". tonic. Bibla. earache. Dadima. Ceylon. Dadimba. applied to hydrocele. NS. useful in biliousness. heart-disease. in Akrani.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Sunila. blood diseases. spleen complaints. liver tonic. Sk. Kanara. Raktabija-pushpa. used in sore throat. vulnerary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. Flowers— improve appetite. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. laxative. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. M. H. anthelmintic. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. tonic. Hirdokhi. also in Konkan. urinary discharges (Yunani). COM. stomatitis. K. gleet. ascends to 1100 m. Valka-phala. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Dadima. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). PARTS USED:—Root. LOC. Common in N. elephantiasis. scattered but not gregarious . It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. body eruptions. :—Wild in Iran. :—E. ophthalmia. Mahakutaj. burning sensation. K. G. :—E. used in piles. Anar. PARTS USED. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). Gum. thirst. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. NS. Hulidalimb . Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Bigsah. useful in vomiting. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. Gum—bitter. leucoderma. leprosy. Pomegranate tree. Bio. Honne. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Dalimba. Pitasar. DISTR. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). cultivated in many parts of India. :—Leaves. Dhalim. styptic. sore-throat. . fattening. chest troubles. COM. Dharimb . anal troubles.

:—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. hairy beneath.— ellipsoid. :—E. long. Mindhola. Malaya. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. It is given in the form of decoction. acutely 5-angled. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . lanceolate .—Mar. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. Karhar Mainphal. glabrous above. Rangoonkibel. calyx tube long. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness.—Combretaceæ. S. Minkare.5 cm. Fr. Gela. Chinese honeysuckle. DISTR. Konkan. widely cultivated all over India. Fl. Lalchameli. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. dark green. Fl. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LOC.—in axillary and terminal spikes. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. . Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. elliptic. Annam. G. t. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Country and Kanara. Karigidda. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. H. 7. Sk. The rind of the fruit. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Rangoonchavel. NS. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection.-Aug. Midhola. COM. Emetic nut. Dharaphal. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. M. at first white then deep red . LOC. C—petals 5. M.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. base rounded. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. acuminate. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. H.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Barmasinivel. CHAR. FAM. Mangari-kai. NS. Gelphal. COM. FAM. Fruit contains vitamin C.—opposite. :—A strong climber. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. jasmine . :—E. LOC. USES :—In Amboyana. K. G. numerous. See—Ornamental Plants. M. Madana. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. In China. pendant. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. nearly 6 cm. L. Pinditak.—Rubiaceæ. Rangoon creeper.

useful in chronic bronchitis. leucoderma (Yunani). eruptions. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . China. carminative. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. DISTR. anthelmintic. Seeds-sharp. binding. asthma. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. COM. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. carminative. amenorrhœa. aphrodisiac. sweet. Muro. piles (Ayurveda). Hastidanta. bad taste. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. destroys "Vata". Mula. Juice of . cures abscesses. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. :—E. skin-diseases. Muri. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Mura. Mali. paralysis. certain and regular. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Ksharmula. stomachic. S. See—Timber. good in tumours. It also contains an essential oil. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. tumours. ulcers. NS. Bili Mulangi. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. useful in diseases of heart. The plant contains glucoside saponin. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. its action is very safe.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. boils. juice relieves earache. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. It is also used to poison fish. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . H. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). Ceylon. it is equal to it in every respect. heating. Sk. G. muscular pains. emetic. laxative. antipyretic. and all inflammations . E. produce alopecia (Yunani). Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. " Vata" and " Kapha".—Cruciferæ. Java. leprosy. Ruchira. inflammations. piles. cholera. alexiteric. :—Throughout India. LOC. used in diseases of the brain. LOC. Tropical Africa. FAM. emmenagogue. hiccup. Bitter. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. purgative. M. Mula. Radish. Mulak. fruit and seeds. emetic. leprosy. Sumatra. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. flowers. inflammations. leaves.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. DISTR. good for spleen and in paralysis.

PARTS USED :—Root. B and C. Sarpakshi. diuretic. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels.) FAM. Sivanabhi. NS. COM. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Sarpagandha. often tinged with violet. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. M. expectorant. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Kanara. Java. Harki. Chhotachand. :—An erect perennial shrub. It is hypnotic. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. Fr. DISTR. acrid. Nai. pungent. CHAR. ajamalinine. ginger. yellowish root stock. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0.—Acanthaceæ. K. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. nodular. Gaja-karni. white. black shining. COM. lanceolate. shady open places near rain-forests. laxative. Doddapatike. thin. Ceylon.-May. :—H. Sk. Chandrika. ajmalicine. 7. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Garudpatala. pale beneath. cures " Tridosha ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter.—Apocynaceæ. Root contains vitamins A. NS. sedative. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. Group B — Serpentine. Palakjuhi. Western Peninsula. Mungusavel.— Mar. specific for insanity. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking.. LOC. M. corrective and emmenagogue.3 cm. In the Konkan... . carminative. single or didymous. leaves (rarely). Sk. Andamans. Fl. :—H.—drupe.5-18 X 2. L. bright green above.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. Nakulikand. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. Juipani. bright red . anthelminitic . acute. See—Vegetables. t.5-6. sharp. seeds are considered peptic. irregularly. used in hyperpiesis .-in whorls of 3. ulcers (Ayurveda). Harkaichand. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica.9 m. Chandrika.—in irregular corymbose cymes. K. with a long. LOC. swollen a little above the middle.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. Fl. Yuthikaparni. FAM. heating. C. and black salt. serpentinine.—tubular.

S. increases "Kapha". Leaves—galactagogue. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". alterative. Vardhamana. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. bracts ovate lanceolate.—Euphorbiaceæ. Castor oil plant. L. ascites. Country (Dharwar. Eranda. LOC.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Arand. elliptic lanceolate.5 m. Khandala. useful in liver troubles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Madagascar (cultivated). :—E. high. glandular. white. M. ascites. Very little in other districts of the State. aphrodisiac. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Erand. dropsy. M. asthma. useful in pains. M. Erand. Triputiphala. black. solitary. bronchitis. DISTR. Haralu. :—Throughout India. pubescent: C.-Jany. glands. asthma. pains. Fl. Chitrabija. ascites. Erand. hills near Belgaum. narrow. purgative. tropical Africa. :—Deccan. convulsions. H. Cattle are fed with leaves for . 0. Seed and oil—cathartic.9—1. Divald. generally cultivated. ring-worm. useful in inflammations. NS. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Mahabaleshwar. Sholapur). flowers and seeds. paralysis. anal troubles. eructations. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. LOC. liver and spleen diseases.. Sk. leaves and seeds. LOC. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Country. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. fevers. K. FAM. piles. intestinal worms. useful in heart diseases. alterative. cultivated.—Oct. inflammations. Divaligo. G. Fl. body pains. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil.—lipped. Palma christi.— tuberculate. typhoid. entire. hairy outside . velvety hairy Sd. amenorrhœa (Yunani). vaginal pains. Vardhaman. oil—anthelmintic. some fevers. Belgaum. Straits-Settlements. :—Probably of African origin. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). Ceylon (wild) . stems obscurely angled. earache. rheumatism. boils. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. diseases of rectum and head. leprosy. pointed. Tirki. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula.—nearly sessile.—capsule. carminative . elephantiasis. lumbago. night-blindness. increase biliousness. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. useful in skin-disease. Fr. good for burns. HABITAT :—Hills. upper lip bifid . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. inflammations. widely cultivated in tropical countries. strangury. t. Root-bark—purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Java. tumours. :—Undershrub. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). DISTR. pain in back. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. piles. leaves. LOC. Fruit— appetiser. lumbago.

inflammations. stipules scarcely dilated. Gulab . Shatadala. antipyretic. cooling. tooth-ache. biliousness. astringent when dry (Yunani). tonic. sometimes striped . ovate oblong. Pannira. kidneys. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. CHAR.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. FAM. Soumyagandha. See—Ornamental Plants. L. Ati-manjula. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. pink or white. acrid. COM. Greece and Germany. expectorant. sweetish. head-ache. Fr. LOC. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. t. mild and safe purgative. PARTS USED :—Flowers. NS. sometimes glandular. benefits lungs. cures leprosy. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Fl. burning sensation. :—E. cultivated all over India. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. Ghazipur is a chief centre. H. K. liver.. good for eyes. used in heat of body. " Vata". stems with stout and hooked prickles. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth.—pinnate. with a good odour. stomatitis. G. serrate. :—Origin unknown.—obovate . M.— all the year. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. etc. They are also applied to painful joints.5 m. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . excessive perspiration. dry. Fl. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections.—Rosaceæ. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . Italy. Lakshmipushpa. long.— usually corymbose. seldom griping or causing flatulency.5-6. Flower—bitter. France. double. cardiotonic. In constipation it is used as an enema. Sudburj. Gulab. adults. which is a powerful poison. laxative. attaining 1. chronic fevers. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . intestinal affections. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. P. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. petioles prickly. Punjab and U. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. cardiotonic. :—A perennial shrub. See—Oils. they are cold. laxative. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. . Oil from seed is a non-irritant. DISTR. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain.3 cm. 2. Sk. Gulab. hairy. cephalic. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. red. aperient removing bile and cold humours. removes bad odour from mouth. aphrodisiac. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. Tarana. much used in lotions and collyria .

—in whorls of 4. cylindric. 15-30 cm. ulcers. heating. ear. diseases of uterus. Manjit. NS. oleaginous . paralysis. branched from the root. L. inflammations. Root—bitter. Raktasara. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. :—E. Sk. alexiteric. FAM. the Konkan and S. M. smooth. bitter. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. and was much used in dropsy. antidysenteric. blood. LOC. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. obtuse. Fl. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. laxative. acrid. inner perianth-segments membranous.—didymous or globose. LOC. rheumatism. high. Manjishha. anthelmintic. Fl. Sk. diuretic. Tamravalli. M.—in terminal panicled cymes. COM. Aruna. piles. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. Bladder. liver complaints. used in eye-sores.5 cm. roots very long. t-Oct. all scabrous with white prickles. Fr. Java. ovate. DISTR. :—Perennial climbing herb. orbicular . H. elliptic. antipyretic. increase appetite. ulcers and skin-diseases.—Polygonaceæ. improves voice and complexion . dysentery.—2. analgestic. spleen-enlargement. prickly. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. L. purplish black when ripe. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). leucorrhoea. leaves and fruit. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. branches quadrangular . greenish. shining. CHAR. FAM. erect glabrous herb. valves hyaline.-Jany. :—Annual. lower leaves larger. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. vagina. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. Malay Peninsula. urinary discharges. Fr. Amlavetasa. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. :—Root. Sorrel.. Chukra.5—7. eye. erysipelas. jaundice. cordate or hastate. leucoderma. Dock. emmenagogue. it powerfully affects the nervous system.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . tropical Africa. lactagogue. urine and even bones red. Gulmketu. Leaves-sweet. Indian Madder. Rohini. Ceylon. Fl. CHAR. Decoction tinges blood. lethargy. pains in joints. uterine pains (Yunani). It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. paralysis. Majit. Japan. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. Ambat Chuka. Manjishtha. grooved. Chitralata. with a thin red bark. leucoderma. Country.—Rubiaceæ. M. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. petioles triangular. base cuneate. cures " Kapha ". COM. . K. analgesic. Chuka. jaundice. :—E. one pair with longer petioles ovate. NS. five-nerved. stems very long. Manjishtha.—white or pink. H. PARTS USED.

NS. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. L. See—Vegetables.—suborbicular. The seeds have the same properties . also considered as a vermifuge. C. pains.—Acanthaceæ. Satap. constipation. Kanara. tonic. H. COM. in dysentery. Sadapaha. Nagadali. they are prescribed. Country. bracts elliptic. acute. Parpatha. leucoderma. blue or pink. :—A herb .184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—Leaves are cooling. aperient and diuretic.—white. piles. lower shortly 3-lobed. Deccan. :—G. ciliate. Satri.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. M. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. N. Ceylon. often rooting near the base. PROPERTIES AND LOC. diseases of the spleen. M. Pismarum Sadab. upper emarginate. G. NS. with darker spots. analgesic. LOC. Sk. Satapa . useful in heart troubles. vomiting. 2-lipped. Trans-Indus Hills. Khatselio . M. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. Fr. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. The juice allays tooth-pain. Kharmor. :—Common throughout the State. Cooling. asthma. LOC. while fresh they are bruised. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. Fl. laxative. K. toothache. LOC. S. hiccup.—capsule. checks nausea and promotes appetite. pale brown. COM. alcoholism. oblong lanceolate. bronchitis. Common—Garden-rue . checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). Konkan. generally in the Deccan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). rugose with furrow.—Nov. Sk. stomachic. Afghanistan. FAM. with scarious faces and hard ridges. CHAR. Vishapaha. dyspepsia. Havananju.—Rutaceæ. flatulence. DISTR. roasted. useful in scabies. Africa. t. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. Persia. :—E. ovoid oblong. :—Western Punjab. H. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. . DISTR. stems usually decumbent. FAM. bites and stings of poisonous animals. Ghati pittapapada . acute . tumours.— subsessile. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Fl. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. Sd. Sadabu. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.-Jany. then erect.

Rikhu. glandulose punctate. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Tanigarbu . M. all over the State. K.—petals 4. emmenagogue. amenorrhœa. Sd. :—Grown everywhere in India. Ikshu. There are three varieties . petioled. anti-aphrodisiac . LOC. flawed. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. Kumad. decompound. FAM. heats body. Sk. aphrodisiac. in pots.. The plant is tonic. The oil is the best form for administration. Sugarcane. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Satara. cooling. M. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. S. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. forest and mountain. tonic. colic. :—Egypt and Algeria. The plant contains glucoside glutin. DISTR. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. oleaginous. laxative. obtuse . grown in gardens. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . epilepsy. useful in fatigue. Fr. cultivated throughout India. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. yellowish. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. particularly Deccan. oblong-obovate.—angled. digestive. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Gudatrina. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. Naisakar. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. HABIT :—Cultivated. S. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). flatulence. etc. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. diuretic. heating to body . C. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. Kabbu. Poona. COM. spathulate or linear-oblong . Fl. thirst. increases mental activity. segments cuneate. garden.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. and externally used as a rubefacient. G. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. :—A strong smelling herb .-alternate. abortifacient. Rasala. Powdered and combined with aromatics. diuretic. it may be given internally in hysteria. Ingotu. Gudakastha. NS :—E. Us .—in divaricately spreading corymbs. Sherdi. indigestible. leprosy. LOC. Ganna. . See—Ornamental Plants.—Gramineæ. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. H. L. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. LOC. Madhuyashti. Ukh . Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR.

useful in heat. bile. :—Dry districts of the State. diam. useful in biliousness. PARTS USED :—Bark. leucoderma. In cases of poisoning by copper. opposite. 3 mm. purifies blood . often mucronate at the apex. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. Kharijal. pectoral and aphrodisiac.-Feb. anæmia. t. leaves. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. lessen inflammation . applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. It is good in calculous complaints. tonic to liver.—very thin. greenish-yellow. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Fr. improve diuresis (Yunani). The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. fruits seeds and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. Pilu. tonic and aperient. Piludi. In the Punjab. Sugar causes " Kapha". inflammations. improves appetite. LOC. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . useful in nosetroubles. globose. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. Cane—sweet. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism.. COM. fattening. LOC. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. Seeds—purgative. Leaves—bitter. stomachic . HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. Jal. LOC. Egypt. Sind. piles. delirium.". red when ripe. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. Fl. good for lungs . Fruits are deobstruent. deobstruent. useful in biliousness. FAM. strengthen teeth. Kanara in littoral forests. Abyssinia. erysipelas.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles.—drupe. white. Brihat madhu pilu. finely striate. C. astringent to bowels. diuretic. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). smooth. carminative and diuretic. Tooth-brush tree. laxative. K. corrective. disorders and wind. numerous. Mahaphala.—Salvadoraceæ. dry regions of W. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. Pilu. Asia. L. aphrodisiac . anthelmintic. near the coasts of Gujarat . drooping. sometimes it raises blisters. bad for liver (Yunani). :—E. oil is digestible. often planted near Muslim tombs. G. fleshy. ulcers. Ceylon. Pilu. NS. Goni. H.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. Fl. . analgesic. diuretic. scabies. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. causes " Kapha. the Konkan and N. See—Food Plants. Pilu.—Nov. lobes much reflexed. branches numerous. The juice contains vitamins A and B. sugar is considered heavy. deeply cleft. DISTR. Sk. carminative. alexiteric. Khakan Mirjoli. :—Drier parts of India. shining. M. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons.

Cultivated elsewhere. Ringni. LOC. Fruit—bitter. to temples in fever. Kumblabijaka. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. S. Chandan. Chandan. Bhadrasri. Sk. Chandal. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . paralysis. hemicrania. COM. astringent to bowels . useful in inflammations. Country and N. lumbago. burning sensation. abortifacient. fruit and seed. exhilarating. allays uterine pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. gleet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. alexiteric. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Bhadrasara. Arithan . head-ache (Yunani). FAM. Ritha . LOC. Root—expectorant. laxative. H. aphrodisiac. Oils. LOC. :—Western Peninsula. G. See—Timbers. Rishta. Anthuvala. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. tonic. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. :—Indian Peninsula. emetic. Sukhad . ground. stomachic. up with water into a paste. " Kapha ". M. DISTR. much cultivated. NS. K. India. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. Burugukayi. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. alexiteric. Ritha. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . :—E. Phenilu. PARTS USED :—Root. cures "Tridosha". tubercular glands. Bhogivallabha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. chiefly in S.—Sapindaceæ. M. M. biliousness. epileptic fits of children. H. Arishtaka. Sandal. :—E. Oil. Chandan. Malayaja. Mangalya. vaginal discharges. Aritha. Suket. aphrodisiac. in skin-diseases. Soap-Nut tree. bronchitis. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Ceylon. alexipharmic. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis.. cholera. strangury. Agarugandha. Mysore and parts of Madras State. cold in head. K. antipyretic.—Santalaceæ. Sk. Phenila. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. diarrhœa. small-pox (Ayurveda). often planted. is applied to local inflammations. thirst. acts as diaphoretic. to allay heat and pruritus. useful in chronic dysentery. Sandal-wood Tree. DISTR. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. useful in diseases of heart. NS. USES :—Wood. . PARTS USED:—Wood. Kugale. FAM. Kanara. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Shrigandhalmara. gonorrhœa. G. COM. Antharalo. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

suppurating wounds. enrich blood. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. seeds. biliousness. :—A soft-wooded shrub. Fl. white and red. applied to ulcers and piles.—pod. seeds. K. useful in sorethroat. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. indigestible . applied to gouty joints. Jayanti. Jaya. diuretic.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. tonic. strengthening. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. :—Cultivated all over India. promote hair growth. Nadeyi. :—G. leaves. linear-oblong. spleen troubles. There are three varieties of seeds : black.—20-30. Jayanti. obscurely angled . opposite. tonic. aphrodisiac. etc. in height. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. few flowered axillary racemes. useful in dry cough. inflammations (Yunani). long. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. FAM. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). Black variety is common. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. useful in diarrhœa. 15-23 cm. galactagogue. Jayanti. cooling. astringent to bowels. Jayantika. septate between the seeds. beaked. Seed-oil—fattening. Sd. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. NS. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. Raysingani. They are also emmenagogue. gouty joints.— abruptly pinnate. leaflets 914 pairs. oleaginous. anthelmintic. branches striate. Waziristan. hair-tonic. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . strangury. They are nourishing.—in lax. bleeding piles. leaves. Baluchistan. See—Oils. urinary concretions. Janjhan. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. Seeds contain vitamin A. 4-5 m. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. removes "Kapha". Jinangi. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. pendulous. cure menorrhagia. syphilitic ulcers. C. such as dysentery etc. eye diseases . Sk. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. PARTS USED :—Root. yellow. CHAR. inflammations. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. 7. Jayat. an emollient poultice is also made from them. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break.. carminative. They have been used to procure abortion. and as an oildressing for ulcers. LOC. L. Rasin. alterative. H. Shewari.—standard as broad as long. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. diuretic and lactagogue. oil. bark.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). diseases. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. burning sensation.5-15 cm. cures . It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Fr. DISTR. of eye and ear. lung diseases. into claw. COM. probably a native of tropical Africa. inflammations. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. asthma. long. scabies. small-pox. mottled with purple on the outside. slightly torulose.

—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).5-8. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). See—Fodder Plants. H. Agathio. relieves throat-troubles. tumours . Agase. HABITAT :—Cultivated. fruits. useful in ozœna. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). cure itching. See—Vegetables.— pod. maturant. Bark—astringent. astringent. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. 15-30-cm.— flowers at various times. 50 cm. Seeds—emmenagogue. CHAR. leaves. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). Kanali. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. fevers. flowers. cure quartan fever. demulcent. Dirghashimbi. dysentery and paludism. long.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Fr. Agati. anthelmintic. anaemia. Indigenous from Malaya to N. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. useful In diseases of spleen. LOC. 2-4 white or red. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Bak. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. K. LOC. M. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. t. biliousness. night-blindness. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". cures " Tridosh " pains. improves taste. Australia. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. long. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Leaves—purgative. useful in ophthalmia. gout. is applied in rheumatism. L. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. bronchitis. Agasti. The plant contains vitamin A. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. FAM.—in racemes . high. anthelmintic. Hatiya . leucoderma. . NS. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. :—G. Vranari.8 cm. Flowers—cooling. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. Fl. Agusta. Ornamental Plants. rubbed into a paste with water. long. :—A soft wooded tree . An infusion is given in small-pox. LOC. ulcers. is applied in painful swellings. diarrhœa. stimulant. Bark— astringent. 6-9 m. DISTR. Leaves—indigestible. leprosy. alexiteric. Fruit—laxative .—7. Basna. Sk. improve appetite . Munidruma. "Kapha" and inflammation. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. COM. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). linear oblong. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. Fl. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . epilepsy. PARTS USED :—Root. allays thirst.— pinnate. Agasta. Kempagase. diabetes. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. very showy. gout . C.

NS. carpels 5-9.—5-6 mm. sharply serrate. Tukti. digestive. PARTS USED :—Root. Deccan and S.—2. crenate. Fl. G. softly hairy all over. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). Country. Fl. Kharanti. COM. Country. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine.-Nov. :—Konkan. HABITAT :—Moist places . :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Prahasa.—Nov. Sd. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fr. glabrous.. pedicel jointed much above the middle. Kumghi.—solitary or few together. cooling. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi.—6-8 mm. Gujarat and S. yellow. Batyalaka. diam. Chikna. is given . linear. Kareta. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres.5-5 cm. lanceolate. Kherati. LOC. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. pedicel jointed about the middle. Bariara. M. M. long. :—Konkan (common). base rounded. puberulous.—1-2 in each axil. Baladana. useful in blood and throat diseases. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. linear . :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. DISTR. H. M. Fl. branches slender. dorsal margins toothed.—Malvaceæ. FAM. :—E. scabrid-hairy. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. L. H. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Root—cooling. carpels 7-10. black. M. Vatyapushpi. long. L. t. CHAR. COM. aphrodisiac . awns 2. " Pitta ". decoction. :—G.3 cm.-Oct. :—A shrub. stomachic and tonic. cordate. Sk. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. astringent. C.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. bark. DISTR. removes " Vata ".—2.. Hettutti-gida. Jayanti.. Rajbala. emollient.—smooth. K. dorsal scabrid. with ginger. useful in fever. bleeding piles.— yellow. PARTS USED :—Root. t.5-6. obtuse. astringent. strongly reticulated . awns 2. CHAR. K. Fr.Dec. Chikna. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. upper margins ciliate. Bala. diuretic. Bala. LOC. LOC. Pata. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). LOC. strongly reticulated. NS. Pata. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. a weed. :—Hotter parts of India.—Malvaceæ. diam. FAM. Khareti. leaves and seeds. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Samanga. Sk. Chittuharatu. Barial. minutely hairy. Kisangi. Country Mallow. ovate-oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. " Kapha " . Bala.

Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. FAM. facial paralysis. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. COM. Externally. high. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. and head-ache. M. Country. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Fl. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn.—yellow.-Dec. stiff-neck.6—1. DISTR. cystitis. NS. L. slightly rough. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. diaphoretic. triangular-ovate. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra.2 m. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections.—heads small in leafy panicles . Katampu. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. administered in hemiplegia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. Pilibadkadi. erect. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. Fl. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa.—Compositæ. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. :—Deccan. common. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. Linn. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. all running down wing-like into petiole. Fr. :—Throughout India. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. those of the ray red beneath. pappus 0. stem stiff. rhomboides Roxb. juice is used for healing wounds. :—G. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. S. .—Nov. 5 outer clavate. Ceylon. CHAR. LOC. M. :—A large annual herb. black. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. also in colic and tenesmus. t. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. tinged with purple. noise in ears. It is also used to favour menstruation.—opposite. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores.—achene. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. involucral bracts 2 rows. 0. 5 inner boat-shaped. deeply and irregularly toothed. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn.

—minutely pitted: Fl. stem stout. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. Hinguli.3—1. Dorli. subentire. astringent to bowels. Fr. Kattarta.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. FAM. Ceylon. prickly. Vrittaphala.—Solanaceæ. t. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Habba-Kirigulla. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. maturant. Egg Plant. M. " Vata". Sd. Bhantaki. K. prickles large.—pale-purple. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. cardiotonic. sharp.. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. 0. Fruit—cardiotonic. pruritus ani. Sk. or triangular-ovate. PARTS USED :—Root. Nilaphala. lessens inflammations. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. fever. lobed. causes biliousness. bronchitis. Brihati. 8 mm. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). Kadusonde. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. Rigana. Mhotiringni. aphrodisiac. LOC.-Aug. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Bhanta. Barhanta. It is seldom used alone. useful in leucoderma.. H. high. Vayase. :—E. DISTR. loss of appetite. Hinguli. K. covered with stellate hairs.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. Vengni. Vange. LOC. clothed outside with purple hairs . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. :—Throughout tropical India.-Oct. asthma. G. H. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache.5—7.— berry. enriches blood. rarely wild. Indian Nightshade. Fl.—Solanaceæ. Vartaki. bad for piles if taken internally. DISTR. NS. Vadikadheri. Root is applied to lessen pain. PARTS USED :—Root. very. . laxative. Brinjal. Vantak. :—E. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. COM. COM. leaves. ovate. fruit and seeds. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. Malpya. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. recurved.5 m. Ranringni. HABITAT :—Cultivated. digestive. anthelmintic. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. vomiting. petiole prickly. base unequal-sided. leaves (rarely) and fruits. eye diseases (Ayurveda). " Kapha". C. removes foulness of the mouth.—5—15 X 2. pain. analgesic. FAM. Bhantaki. L. improves appetite. globose.5 cm. Ubhi-bhuringni.. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Sk. NS. LOC. Mahotika. Baingan. Badanikai. diam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. G. :—Widely cultivated in India. dark-yellow when ripe. Philippines. M. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. China.

useful in diseases of eye. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. in extra-axillary. Fl. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State.—discoid. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). griping. NS. Katuphala. See—Vegetables. Sk. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. piles. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. " Tridosha". FAM.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . Root-bark—laxative . chronic fever. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. good for neck ulcers. fever.— berry. PARTS USED :—Root. improves voice . USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. Ceylon. H. smooth. LOC. itch. urinary discharges. favours conception and facilitates delivery . leucoderma. asthma. ear and nose . Fl. 3-8 flowered cymes . useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. gonorrhœa (Yunani). The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. COM. Hound's Berry. DISTR. bitter. throat burning. in pains. fever. It acts as a hydrogogue. inflammation. minutely pitted . bark. Kakamunchi. laxative.-Jany. yellow. Vayasi. Kabaiya. shining. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. Makoi. M. improves appetite. C. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. taste. tapering into petioles. entire or sinuate toothed. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Black Night-shade. bronchitis. diuretic. and used with success in psoriasis. . cathartic and diuretic.—Sept. Piludi. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. B and C. :—A variable annual herb . heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. vomiting. Seeds—laxative. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. 6 mm. eye-diseases hydrophobia. L. Kamoni. etc. :—E. worms in ear. G. stem erect. Fr. ovatelanceolate. not to be given to pregnant women. dysentery. liver inflammation. diam. much divaricately-branched . In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. useful in heart and eye-diseases. leaves and fruit.—many. The seeds are used as a stimulant. CHAR. diarrhœa. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. inflammation. LOC. Kakamachi.. Fruit contains vitamins A. alterative. subumbellate. t. tonic. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. Tiktika. hiccup. K. Kakamachi.—Solanaceæ. useful in giddiness.—small. Sd. dysuria and asthma. :—Throughout India. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. In S. Gurkamai. Morellel.

expectorant and febrifuge. 3-2 cm. Konkan. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. H. Basu). Nele-Rama-gulla . Kenjal. FAM. bright green perennial herb . Fl.—Gramineæ. Yuvanala. C. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. Kantakini. petiole prickly. strangury. Fruit—laxative. G. LOC. & Wendl. stems. M. NS.—Solanaceæ. H. LOC. fevers.. urinary concretions. "Vata" and " Kapha". In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Sind. asthma. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers.—purple. :—Common in the Deccan . ozoena. prickles compressed. Durrah. laxative. Chikka-sonde. Shalu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kantakari. thirst. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. Malaya. often exceeding 1. biliousness. Yengara . ovate or elliptic. Dhavani. Africa. Sholapur. flowers. sterility in women.3 cm. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR.—berry. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Ringni. leaves. Jowari. long. stone in bladder. COM. pains. base unequal-sided. straight. Jundri. they are used in the burning of feet.-5-10 X 2. sinuate or subpinnatifid.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. M. chronic bronchitis. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. L. Great Indian millet. tropical Australia. Jowar. Nidigdhika. Kateli. aphrodisiac. Sk. useful in bronchitis. Fr. Vrittatandula. hairy outside. Ikshupatraka. E. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. Jonera. K. muscular pains. hairy on both sides. S.. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Dirghashara. Bijapur and E. lumbago. It is used in asthma. Jondhala. anthelmintic . t. heating. Leaves—good application for piles. COM. :—Throughout India. Sk. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). appetiser. catarrhal fever and chest pain. pruritus . Sorgho. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. :—A very prickly diffuse. K. :—E. Nirgol.7 cm. diam. fever. yellow and shining. Bhoyaringni. stomachic. dysuria. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. D. stem zig-zag. :—G. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . surrounded by enlarged calyx . NS. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . good in inflammation. LOC. yellow or white with green veins.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Ceylon. Katai. heart disease. asthma. Brihati. Fl. Jolah. Seeds—anthelmintic. FAM. lobes deltoid.— June. Sundia . piles. Root—aphrodisiac.5-5. Bhui-Kate-ringni. CHAR. fruits and seeds.

indigestible. LOC. Poona. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Mahamundi. ulcers. tumours (Ayurveda). useful in " Kapha". :—G. LOC. fevers. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. :— E. introduced into America and Australia. DISTR. Bijapur and E. See—Food Plants. Pravrajita. NS. CHAR. Karanda-gida. aphrodisiac. Some.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Fibres. on dry stony hills. Bodiakalara. FAM: —Compositæ. :—Seeds. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Open situations. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Indian Red-Wood. Gorakhmundi. Ahmedabad. Juss. high. cures " Tridosha ". Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. M. bladder and kidney complaints. PARTS USED. laxative. :—Widely cultivated in India. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). general debility. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Asia and Africa. Country.—Meliaceæ. COM. vaginal injections and enemas. :—Bark-acrid. Dharwar. Rawtarohan. ulcers. glandular. G. while Belgaum. Agniruha. biliousness. Rohina. Ruhin. tonic and antiperiodic . Tans. hairy. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Ceylon. M. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . Swami-mara. Rohani. Gums and Resins. H. improves appetite and taste. Rohun. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Dry forests of W. Khandesh and S. leprosy and dysentery . K. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Sk. Vritta. L. common in Gujarat. constipating. H. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Sk. FAM. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Sumbi. with toothed wings. Aruna. :—The grain is cooling. refrigerant.—sessile. PARTS USED. Rohini. M. COM. good for sore-throat. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. NS. Bastard Cedar. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. stem and branches cylindric. Kumbhala. DISTR. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. . Munditika. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gorakmundi. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. diseases of blood. K. piles. Gorakhamundi. anthelmintic. hence used in intermittent fevers. :—Bark. Grains contain vitamin B.

used also for local application.—Nov. :—Root. anthelmintic. epileptic convulsions. t. stalked. Malay Islands. scabies. M. leaves and flower-heads. laxative. Tonic. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. asthma. irregularly crenateserrate. gives lustre to eyes . vomiting. bronchitis. L. biliousness. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. :—Common in the Konkan. strangury. Fr. oblong. flowers and seeds. base usually acute. Celyon. biliousness. PARTS USED. fattening. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. used in insanity. ovate. cools brain. M. DISTR. gleet. :—Common in rice-fields. solitary or subpanicled. Fl. H. leaves. HABITAT. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. jaundice. stem and branches hairy. :—Root.. scalding of urine. . S. boils. elephantiasis. sometimes grown in gardens. :—E. alterative.—opposite. LOC. glaborous.—in heads ovoid. digestible. CHAR. urethral discharges and jaundice. glandular hairy. looseness of breasts.— achene. They are chewed to relieve toothache. involucre bracts linear. peduncles reaching 10 cm. peduncles with toothed wings. long. :—Annual herb. ovate-oblong. Akarakara . depurative. dysentery. LOC. pain in uterus and vagina. globose ovoid. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. ring-worm of waist. urinary discharges. and tonic (Stewart) . indigestion. hemicrania (Ayurveda). emmenagogue. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. piles. :—Throughout India. chest diseases. the latter when present minute. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Country and Kanara. NS. enriches blood . :—Hot. rectal pain. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. Fl. C. Fr. compressed . Pellitary . spleen diseases. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . t. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT. truncate. leucoderma. DISTR. Pappuso. :—Throughout India. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).—Compositæ.—Achene. They are given in powder form. FAM. useful in skin diseases. USES. serrate or dentate. bark. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic.—compound heads. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. Fl. PARTS USED. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. anæmia. good for eyesore.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. tonic. alexipharmic. in cases of worms and indigestion. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. laxative. :—Deccan. all warm countries.. cooling. LOC. ciliate near the ends . tuberculous glands. Australia. Akkalkara . with honey they are given in cough. Sk. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid.—purple. increases appetite. :—Wild and cultivated. Akara-karava. lessens inflammations . COM. Africa. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ceylon.—Nov-Jany. Fl. Powdered root is given as tonic.

Burma. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Hude. Gujarat. Kanara. t. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Salt Range.Feb.8 cm. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. entire. Parur. Patala. Indian Hog-Plum. Toyadhivasini.—Anacardiaceæ. branches nearly horizontal. FAM. long. widely planted. astringent.—drupe. refrigerant. Sd. good for sore-throat. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. :—H. M. Avatekayi. CHAR. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. leaves and fruit. Wild Mango. :—Bark. Western Peninsula. DISTR. See—Gums and Resins. NS.. Giri Hadari. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. :—Often planted throughout the State. Patala. appetising. enriches blood . Kariguddada. Dr. ash-coloured . H. Padiala. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ran-amba . ovoid.5-18 x 3. ulcers. :—Leaves-tasty. bark smooth. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Kalavrinta. Country. Amate. . trunk straight. Andamans. Fr. Amra. round with furrows and cavities. pinkish green. LOC. high. M. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Pahad. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Padal. oblong. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. COM. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Hongkong. Kamduti. hard. Marahunise. LOC.5 cm.-Apl. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Padal. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Gum is demulcent. destroys " Vata ". long. blood complaints .. Ceylon. PARTS USED. C. Sk. Hulave. biliousness. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. COM.. W. 3. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Tungi. Ambada. yellow. NS. Amrataka. S. Pitana.8-7. Kapichuta. Fruit—indigestible. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).— petals 4-5. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Sk. :—E. Pandri. ovate oblong. Ambodha. phthisis. stone woody. tonic. M. K. Indian Archipelago. burning sensation. aphrodisiac. It has been found useful in dysentery. oblique. :—Cultivated. HABITAT. L.5 m. Ali-vallabha. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves.-usually 1. Bile Tree. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. K. :—A tree 9-10. cures rheumatism. Kumbhi.—Bignoniaceæ. Konkan. Fl.

PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue . See—Timbers. fruit. useful in bilious diarrhœa. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. Kupaka. leaves. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. piles. itching. Hemushti. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). Kelakutaka. tonic. diuretic. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. Laos. Kachita. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES. It is regarded as cooling. antipyretic. Indo-China. LOC. heating. bitter. sub-Himalaya. DISTR. inflammation. Fruit—bitter. Crow Fig. tonic. FAM. Nirmal. thirst. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Travancore . LOC. seeds. Sk. ring-worm. :—Fruit-acrid. heating. Kuchla. PARTS USED. :—Monsoon-forests. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. :—Wood (rarely). "Kapha". leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda).. LOC. PARTS USED. fevers. :—More or less throughout tropical India. N. Flowers— acrid . asthma. vomiting. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. flowers. :—Root. Kangira. Kuchla. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . :—Very common in Konkan and N. diuretic. "Vata". common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. ulcers. Circars. piles . anæmia. Karaskara. Kanara. LOC. pungent. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. burning sensation. :—Root-bitter. blood diseases. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . COM. Kanara. Karnatak. Kakatinduka. M. Kuchala. G. Kajavara. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. fruit. blood diseases. K. aphrodisiac. :—E. cures leucoderma. eructations. astringent to bowels. Burma. DISTR. Ittangi. Planted in Ceylon. H.—Loganiaceæ. Poison Nut. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Visha-druma. loss of taste. :—In forests south of Bombay. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Ceylon. cures pains in joints. heating. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. poisonous. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . lumbago. tonic.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. jaundice. NS. Travancore. Kajra. Vishamushti. west coast of Madras State. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Kajra.

M. astringent to bowels. NS. Seeds—bitter. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Nelmal. cure strangury. Chittu bija. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. relieve colic (Yunani). diaphoretic. improve eye-sight. :—Root (rarely). Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. anæmia. aphrodisiac. HABITAT. increases "Vata". good for liver. poisoning. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Clearing Nut Tree. tonic. cures inflammations. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES. Seeds—acrid. :—E. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. :—Deciduous dry forests. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. lithotriptic. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. M. alexipharmic. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. thirst. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. :—Sand-stone hills of S. :—Western Peninsula. Burma. FAM. PARTS USED. Sk. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. causes biliousness. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Madhya Bharat. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. K. COM. fruit and seeds. Nirmali. See—Timbers. emetic. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. jaundice. LOC. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. H. LOC. head-diseases (Ayurveda). kidney complaints. Kanara and Khandesh. also in Konkan. Nivali. Country. . diuretic. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Ambuprasadini. Kataka. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Fruit useful in eye diseases. urinary discharges. Shodhanatmaka. :—Root cures leucoderma. alexiteric. DISTR. gonorrhœa. The demand for strychnine is increasing. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis.. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. hallucinations. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Aduguchali-bija. See—Timbers. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system.—Loganiaceæ.

tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . astringent to bowels. FAM. alexiteric. eye-diseases and ulcers . Lodhra. HABITAT. Lodh is used in raw condition. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES.— lobes 4-5. throughout N. Fl. :—W. 5-nerved . Burma. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. C. Bose). 0. :—Konkan and N.. decussate. PARTS USED. dysentery. :—Western Ghats . COM. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). astringent and useful in bowel complaints. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. . C. digestible. Sk. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. Bhilli.— Oct. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Country. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Deccan. biliousness. ovoid or oblong. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . Kadu. Torna fort. C. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. E. white with blue veins. Californian Cinchona. :—Hilly parts. L. :—Bark-acrid. colloturine and loturiaine.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. quadrangular. M.-Jany. Balaloddujinamara. inflammations.9 m. 4-winged. Mahabaleshwar. aphrodisiac. :—M. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. 2-valved. H. Dyes. Bark—bitter. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. Tiritaka. :— E. :—The whole plant is bitter. vaginal discharges. winged . emmenagogue. PARTS USED. K. Peninsula). "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". stem densely leafy. bleeding gums . leprosy. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas.— sessile. DISTR. cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES. Broughton). NS. Loder. CHAR.—capsule.. Lodh . flowers (rarely). Shavaraka. t. Lodhra .—Gentianaceæ.—many. FAM. in powder or in fresh decoction. Fl. broadly ovate. Peninsula. :—An erect herb. Fr. S. acrid.3-0. COM. LOC. :—India (W. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). Lodhraka. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. Tillaka. Chota Nagpur.—Symplocaceæ. useful in eye-diseases. LOC. Deccan . M. DISTR. diseases of blood. NS. :—Root. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Lodh. LOC. useful in abortions . high. Sd. See—Timbers. cures cough. Lodh Tree.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . China Nora. :—Bark. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb.

Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. also wild. etc. Jamen. :—Bark-acrid. anthelmintic. gargles and washes . Jamburaj. asthma. .—Myrtaceæ. K. Nenda. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. thirst. Malaya. bronchitis. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. carminative and diuretic. astringent. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. sweet. Gulab-Jamb. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jambu. dry. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. removes bad smell from mouth. carminative . :—E. Shukapriya. common at Mahabaleshwar. Fruit Trees.) FAM. astringent to bowels. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Ceylon.) FAM. Jambu. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. dysentery. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Jambul. increases "Vata". H. G. Jambula. good gargle for sore-throat. LOC. Jambul. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. blood impurities. enriches blood. LOC. Pannerali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. strengthens gums and teeth. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Seeds—diuretic. COM. COM. astringent to bowels. Jam. Gulabjaman. K. PARTS USED. Sk. Sk. common along river banks. See—Timbers. sprouts. very often planted. :—Throughout India. Jambudi. DISTR. Fruit—acrid. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. both wild and cultivated. :—Throughout the State. Jambura. M. also used in spongy and painful gums. H. Nilphala. NS. :-Black-Java Plum. Neralu. Kokileshta. fruit vinegar is tonic. good for sore-throat. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. fruits and seeds. Australia. ulcers. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. biliousness. LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. Shukapriya. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). NS. Jambu. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Nerate. Pharenda. M. Jambu-Nayinerale. :—Bark. Jambu. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. good lotion for ring-worm in head. cooling.—Myrtaceæ. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). useful in spleen diseases. Malay—Rose apple. digestive. Surabhipriya.

PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Yunnan to Australia. bitter. . across.5-15 X 2. Fruit—sweet and tasty. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). orange within. astringent to bowels. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. Nandi. liver and spleen . CHAR. Tagara. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Timbers. Ashvathabheda. inodorous during the day. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. LOC. :—Bark is sweet. M. indigestible. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Root is acrid. heavy speech. COM. aphrodisiac. tonic. Tagar . K.5-5 cm. useful in paralysis.—Apocynaceæ. weakness of limbs. Root—bitter . LOC. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes.) FAM. thirst. hot. Maddarasa gida . Br. used in syphilis (Yunani). heating. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. C—lobes overlapping to the left. useful in "Kapha. Fr. Khasia Hills. Root chewed relieves toothache . :—Bark. alexipharmic. Cultivated in many places. used in asthma. astringent to bowels. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. Taggar. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. Fl. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. Assam. bronchitis. Seeds are astringent to bowels. Sk. Hills of Visakhapatanam." biliousness. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. fatigue. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani).—follicles. margins wavy. Trinidad . tonic to brain. Kottuhale. Tagar. divaricate.—snow-white. Bengal. Wax flower. HABITAT. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). with milky juice . LOC. H. purgative. :—E. Fl. 7. wood and oil. glossy green above. double.5-5 cm. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. 1-3 ribbed. . pale beneath. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. astringent to bowels. Garhwal. acrid. The plant contains an alkaloid. fragrant at night. cultivated in many parts. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant.. cures epilepsy. :—Sikkim Terai. NS.—rainy season. digestible. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. :—Cultivated in gardens. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. lessens pains in limbs and joints . lobes 5 in single. and an essential oil. used in liver complaints. E. PARTS USED. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. :—Root. dysentery. DISTR. PARTS USED. L. Burma. indigestible. Chandani. tonic to brain. fruit and seeds. Ananta. salver-shaped. G. t.— opposite. removes bad humours. strangury. improves voice.

000 m. somewhat boat-shaped. :—Malabar. oil.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). NS. Halmeti. HABITAT.5 m.— tube inflated near the top. PARTS USED. G. Guljharo. Amlika. LOC. t. Chinch.4-4.. Nuli. LOC. Amla. wood. :—Native of Mexico. LOC. :—Cultivated. FAM. divaricata. Maddarssa. L.2-7. H.— Mar-Apl. oblong lanceolate . Zanduga. lessens inflammation . :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . NS.. Kanara. . throughout the Konkan and N. grown in gardens all over India. M. Makhamali. Fl.5-20 X 3. Pandarakuda. bitter. Sk. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. 7. CHAR. Fr. Teter. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. Makhamal. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. Flower—bitter.. Sk. high. Sthulapushpa. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. astringent. carminative. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. stomachic. :—E. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. French Marigold. COM.—Apocynaceæ. Zendu. 2. FAM. Nagaskuda. Sd. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. :—Flower-pungent. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. Chinch. C. belching. PARTS USED. muscular pains. across in pedunculate cymes . kidney troubles.—follicle. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . HABITAT. their juice is given in ear-ache. rough. K. Amala. Travancore up to 7.—white. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda).5 cm. Amli. Genda. :—Root. Gultora. Tintrani. See—Ornamental Plants.. COM. :—Rain-forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. :—Same as T.—opposite. internally they are said to purify blood. :—E. Makhamala. common in rain-forests. yellow when ripe. Leaves—good for piles. Imli. M. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. Fl. Amli. G. coriaceous.—surrounded by red pulp. Sandu. : K. M. bark grey. Tintidika. :—Leaves and flowers. Nagakuda. useful in scabies.—Compositæ. good for teeth . Chinchika. NS. acrid.5 cm. COM. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). FAM. DISTR. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. Kalaga. Amlike. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. Tamarind.

Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Kanara. LOC. See—Timbers. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Cultivated also. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Sag. FAM. Sag. stomatitis. Sagach. earache. G. :—Throughout India. K. . leaves. Fruit—sour. such as body-burning. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). causes cough. Sagwan. intoxication &c. Seeds are good astringent. sore-throat. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. bark. Sagwan. flowers and seeds. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. tasty. costiveness. :—E. useful in liver-complaints. heating. DISTR. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. scabies. Kanara. tonic. wood. boiled they are used as a poultice. H. sweetish. Sumatra and Java. Teak. fruit and seeds. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Tropics generally. NS. Tegu. indigestible. flowers. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. urinary discharges. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Bark—astringent. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. thirst. anthelmintic. Seeds astringent. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Anil. small-pox. Tega. tonic to heart. Malay Peninsula. Burma. abundant all along the slopes of W. Madhya Bharat. aphrodisiac. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C.. Teka. and for sizing materials. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. carminative. heals wounds and fractures. DISTR. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Condiments and Spices. Fruit-sour. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. biliousness. heals ulcers. digestive.—Verbenaceæ. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Mahapatra. :—Bark. Sagun. eye-diseases. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Arna. Sk.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. laxative. Flowers— appetising . Leaves applied to reduce swellings. M. and laxative. LOC.. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. laxative. vomiting. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Circars.

"Root—diuretic. mucronate. Wood good for head ache.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . bitter. it acts also as a vermifuge.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. Kalika. boils and pimples. PROPERTIES AND USES.. LOC. useful in piles. :—A perennial herb. high. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. allays thirst. Country. asthma. ulcers. oblanceolate.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. Sarphonka. LOC. cooling. asthma.—petals clawed. cultivated lands and roadsides. spleen diseases. t. Fl. tumours. slightly curved. :—Plant-digestible. long. 2—2. poisoning. antipyretic. liver. biliousness. anthelmintic. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. L. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic.2 cm. gonorrhœa (Yunani). enriches Blood . syphilis. Deccan. good in piles. M. along forest borders. linear. S. useful in bronchitis. M. FAM.. COM. useful in lung and chest diseases. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). Fl. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. root.-June. NS. :—The whole plant. Sd. Sarpankho. HABITAT:—Open situations. CHAR. leaflets 11—21. Sharapunkha. dry. H. silkyhairy beneath. 30—60 cm. Empali. DISTR. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. sedative to gravid uterus.—5-6 . :-G. biliousness. pubescent on the back. .8—1. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . ground and made into a pill. inflammations. useful in scabies. glabrous above. Malay Peninsula. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. standard. leaves and seeds. Ghodakan. urinary discharges. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). K. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. Leaves—tonic to intestines . increase "Vata". USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. red. C. LOC. Kogge. suborbicular. Gujarat. Jhila. Udhadi. Sk. :—All over India. Bark is an astringent. mucronate. Unhali. See—Timbers. Plihari. alexiteric. alterative. burning pain over the region of liver. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. PARTS USED. cures diarrhœa . anthelmintic.—pod 3—4. Fr. Sarphoka. blood. leprosy. useful in bronchitis. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. heart. Wood—acrid.8 X 0. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. branches spreading. Sharapunkha. allays thirst. spleen. cures diseases of liver. expectorant. fresh root-bark. long. Phanike. Flowers—acrid.—Oct. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). Konkan.5 cm. improve appetite. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals.

inflammation. useful in biliousness. Dhanvi. sore-throat. Bahaza. M. Madhya-Pradesh. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. urinary discharges. anæmia. Aksha. Beheduk. leaves. Behada. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Kahu. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. PARTS USED. Arjun Sadada. Kakubha. G. Voting. in Khandesh Akrani. COM. Bahara. aphrodisiac. diuretic. Bibhitiki. Burma. H. Indradruma. :—Throughout the forests of India. :—Bark. Rajastan and Sind. Shantimara. Buhura. " Kapha". Sk. NS.—Combretaceæ. Tara. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Sk. DISTR. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Arjuna. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). H. laxative. M. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. PARTS USED. digestible. Belleric Myrobalan. Sadado. Fruit-pungent. biliousness. Vibhitika.—Combretaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. strangury. :—E. Kalidrum. Koha. tonic. Sagona. G. biliousness. Vibhata. Karshaphala. styptic. DISTR. White Marudah. Bera. :—Konkan and Deccan. Sadura. PROPERTIES AND USES.. Arjuna. with milk. false presentation of fœtus. Madhya-Bharat. Arjun-Sadada. excessive perspiration. . :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Madras State. fruit and seed. K. :—Alexiteric. asthma. strangury. in the sub-Himalayan tract.. See—Timbers. Chota-Nagpur. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. heart disease. anthelmintic. :—E. useful in bronchitis. very common in South Konkan. FAM. Karvirak. Kushika. Ceylon. anthelmintic . fruit (rarely). except in dry arid regions. & A. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. LOC. LOC. tonic. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. blood-diseases. externally in wounds and fractures. FAM. Hela. Bedda Nut.. LOC.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Arjan. Behedo. Bastard Myrobalan. :—Bark. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. tumours. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. NS. intoxication. Baire. Arjuna. K. COM. Tari. ulcers. leucoderma. Expectorant. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. useful in fractures. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. acrid.

vomiting. COM. itching pain. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. anaemia. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. is used as an application in ophthalmia. applied to eyes. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . Abhaya. Fruit-astringent. tonic. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. LOC. K. diseases of spleen. vomiting. Chebulic myrobalan. bilious headache. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Haritaki. the fully ripe or dried fruit. gums. eye diseases etc. Hirdo . intoxicating. elephantiasis. Haria. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. Sk. Harara. Har. mixed with honey.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). USES. aperient. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES. bleeding and ulceration of gums. expectorant. Kernel has narcotic properties. Black myrobalan. G. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. useful in caries of teeth. Jivantika. inflammations. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. good in ophthalmia. :—Fruit-dry. heart and bladder. nose. leucoderma. attenuant. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. ascites. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. Ripe fruit—purgative. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. dyspepsia. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. Haritaki. brain tonic (Yunani). constipation. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. piles. stomachic. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. heating. :—Bark and fruit. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. Jivanti. sore-throat. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. Alate. Gums and Resins. typhoid fever. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. in Travancore. useful in dyspepsia. strengthens brain. PARTS USED. diseases of eye. diarrhœa. cold in head. delirium (Ayurveda). antidysenteric. useful in asthma. hoarseness. used in paralysis (Yunani). eyes. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. biliousness. M. antipyretic. which is considered a good digestive. hiccup. Seed—acrid. urinary discharges. useful in thirst. NS. DISTR. vesicular calculi. tumours. carminative. piles and diarrhœa. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. carminative. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. bleeding piles. Harade. piles. common in Khandesh Akrani. diseases of eye. H. anthelmintic. LOC. gout. Burma. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". heart and bladder. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. corneal ulcers. Hirda. strangury. See—Timbers. FAM. Kanara. Dyes. enriches blood. tonic. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m.—Combretaceæ. Ceylon. —E. thirst. tonic. LOC. alterative .

COM. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman).212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. :—E. Phalisha. Burma. G. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bengal. Bugari. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Arasi. produces worms in intestines . Sacred Plants. Kanara. Portia Tree. Hucerasi.—Malvaceæ. increases " Kapha " . removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Bhandi. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Kuberaksha. Sk. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Gajadanta. Ranbhendi. Paraspipal. :—Coast forests of India. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Mhaskar and Issac). :—Districts of Konkan and N. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. flowers and fruit. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . :—Bark. especially centipedes. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. LOC. Parasipu. DISTR.. Fibres. Tulip Tree. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. profuse discharge. Dyes. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. See—Timbers. NS. :—Fruit-sour. difficult to digest. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Jogiyarale. acrid . . M. K. FAM. Bhend. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Bhindi. Parisha. Tans. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. PARTS USED. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Paras-piper. Paraspiplo. H. aphrodisiac . Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. also planted as roadside tree. Suparshuakan. LOC. Kandarala. burning of body . It is also used in chronic dysentery. leaves. Gandarati.

America and W. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State.—generally 4. M. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. male fascicled.—Menispermaceæ. HABIT :—In thickets. frequently planted. long. ventrally flat.—Apl. bright green and shining above. Gurch.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter.—in axillary and terminal racemes. hot. CHAR. t. Shatakumbha. and blood vessels . See—Ornamental Plants. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. :—E. Fl. wounds. NS.—broadly obovate. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). Amarvel. :—Throughout tropical India. useful in urethral discharges. 7. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. FAM. Gulvel. crowded . 1—3. linear. worms. Pila kaner. Gulo. acrid. C. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . L. mesocarp bony. yellow. PARTS USED. Fl. Fr. dorsally convex.—membranous. Amritvalli. Pivali kanher. cures " Vata " . H. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. virgin uterus. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. piles. L. :—Bark. Amrita-Valli. skin diseases. lobes 5. Pila kanir. yellow. exocarp fleshy. eye-troubles. growing on mango and other trees. :—Native of S. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative.5—12. bronchitis . bark corky. CHAR. females solitary. with milky juice. G. COM.5 cm..—drupes. :—Often planted. 5—10 cm. Zard kunel. Vatsadani. NS. Fl. red. Andamans and Ceylon.—Apocynaceæ. endocarp corky. astringent to bowels. grooved . leucoderma. H. Uganiballi. across. pungent. :—An extensive climber. Ashvaghna. G. Gado. COM. LOC. Heart-leaved moonseed. corona in the throat. Sd. tubular. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. Jwaranashini. Gulancha. Gulvel. HABITAT. fevers. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. :—E. FAM. Fr. LOC. Indies . but its use is attended with considerable danger. bladder. Sk.—in terminal cymes. PARTS USED. DISTR. Sk.-spirally arranged. Exile or yellow Oleander. LOC. K. seeds and milky juice. Gulhel. Karvira. . 7—9 nerved.. 5 cm. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. often planted in India. it has no action on digestive enzymes . throat campanulate. M. Haripriya. DISTR. Pittaghni. size of a pea . Burma. very poisonous (Ayurveda).. root. :—Stem. elliptic.

:—Root. ovary rudimentary. expectorant. enriches blood. Ceylon. vaginal and urethral discharges. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Forest Pepper. renews blood. Dahan. 5-10 X 1. leaflets sessile. Jangali-Mirchi. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. Kaduhakukare. common in S. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. piles. China. Limri. 15 m. stomachic. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. LOC. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. crenulate. dark shining green above. Kumaon to Bhutan. jaundice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. also in the Deccan hills.—in axillary cymes. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. Mirchi.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. causes constipation. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. PARTS USED. Fl.-Jany. Kadu-menasu. :—Rain-forests. good in cough. Gangalaki.—globose. cures jaundice. anæmia. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. Stem-bitter. fruits. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. H. fever. DISTR. bark. FT. burning sensation. M.8. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. tropical Africa. Sumatra. :—E. digitately trifoliate. unisexual. (Kirtikar). Fl. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. stimulant and anti-periodic. Konkan and Kanara. K. tonic appetiser. pitted on the rind. armed with small hooked prickles .—Dehan. USES. giddiness. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. LOC. female flower buds oblong. FAM. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Manger. Philippines. t. 3-5 grooved. HABITAT. . Java. white. juice useful in diabetes. coriaceous. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. male flower bud globose. antipyretic. orange coloured.—Aug. oblong. 5-7 lobed.. especially acid. Root-bark is aromatic. L. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). useful in skin diseases. stomachic . Sk. Macimullu. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. :—All over the Madras State . NS.—Rutaceæ. diarrhœa. size of a large pea. Khasia Hills. CHAR. COM. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. tonic. stimulates bile secretion. chronic fever. vomiting. stigma sessile. :—Stem-bitter. Lopezroot Tree. vomiting. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil.8-3. leaves. high. allays thirst. Root and stem are bitter. diuretic.— alternate.

aphrodisiac. Kanara. FAM. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. PARTS USED. :—Cooling . Apina. cardio-tonic. DISTR. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Tundu. :—Bark and flowers. Malaya.. strangury. COM. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Shingada. Bark—bitter. "Tridosha". :—Bark-acrid. cooling. headache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. leprosy. Chittagong. Waitz). tropical Africa. causes " Vata " . often cultivated. aphrodisiac. Burma. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Dyes. LOC. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Trikota.—Onagraceæ. NS. Lim. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Shingoda. Indian Mahogany. removes " Tridosha". Water-chestnut. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. COM. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. :—Throughout India. Assam. Singodi. Gandhagarige. good for scabies and gleet. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. Lud. biliousness. itching. LOC. useful in ulcers. removes " Kapha ". K. Tun. :—Aquatic (in tanks). blood diseases. Shringa-kanda-taka. astringent to bowels. Singhara. digestible. antipyretic . It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Chota-Nagpur. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Mahalimbu. PROPERTIES AND USES. indigestible. Toon. :—E. fatigue. Sk. Trikone-phala. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago.) FAM. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Deodari. aphrodisiac. Kuberaka. urinary discharges. astringent to bowels. :—Throughout the State in tanks. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. biliousness. M. cures leprosy. Kaechaka. cures fevers. H. H. Mandurike. Ceylon. Nand-vriksha. Garige. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. inflammation. Sandal Neem. G. :—Fruit. Jalakantaka-valli. :—E. useful in . Kalingi. PARTS USED. HABIT. burning sensation. tonic. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). burning sensation. NS. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. LOC. astringent to bowels. M. Tuni. Tunika. anthelmintic. fattening.—Meliaceæ. DISTR. See—Timbers. expectorant. of India). Gums and Resins. Kuruk.

USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. Sarata. t.. bile and phlegm. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. bronchitis. Seeds abound in starch.—opposite. CHAR. Kere Padye. DISTR. bad-teeth (Yunani). Beta-Nahan Gokhru. hairy. Hussuk. M. Kanara.—globose. Kurangaha. thirst. sore-throat. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. abruptly pinnate. :—A procumbent herb. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. L. Tumri. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Kantaphala. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. :—The whole plant. base oblique. Chhota gokhru. Country. Fibres. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Timbers. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Ceylon.—throughout the year. lumbago. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. Negalu . Java. one pair longer than the other . stems and branches pilose. pain. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. COM. young parts silky. :—Plant is cooling tonic. Gokshura. H. yellow. Gokhura. Malay Peninsula. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . K. considered cool and sweet. M. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. :—H. Gokharu. improves taste . alexiteric.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Petari . PARTS USED. Fr. G. leaflets 3—6 pairs . :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. :—E. COM. :—Throughout India. Gamhar.—several in each coccus . antipyretic. Trikantaka. NS. all warm regions of both the hemispheres.—Zygophyllaceæ. in Kashmir. Calthrope.:—Saurashtra. one of each pair smaller than the other. Ceylon. solitary. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. biliousness. LOC. They are also used in the form of poultice. appetiser. Pindara. a common weed of the drier parts. Gokhru. Fl. Assam. Aphrodisiac. LOC. . The plant contains an alkaloid. along nalas and in swampy localities.—Euphorbiaceæ. NS. mucronate. Karahate. LOC. upto 3300 m. Gujarat. Sd. Shadanga. of 5 woody cocci. sharp spines.. useful in chronic fevers. FAM. Sk. Deccan and S. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed.. Pindara. Sumatra. See—Food Plants. each with 2 pairs of hard. oblong. DISTR. used as food. Gokshri. K. M. FAM. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. LOC. Gokhru.

slender. "Vata". increases menstrual flow. PARTS USED. FAM. Brahmadandi. CHAR. diuretic. fruits. :—A glabrous herb. the Deccan.—sessile. LOC. linear-oblong or lanceolate. Fl. improves appetite . TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC.— Dec. leprosy . cough. fattening. —achene. stomachic. enriches blood . and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. Brahmadandi. tonic. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). Fl. leaves. aphrodisiac.—heads 6—8 mm. copious. alterative . . Kanara. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. Mota-Motachor. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. inflammations. Sk. Kantapatraphala. Central India. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. tonic. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. purifies blood . useful in strangury. asthma. S. cures skin and heart diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. cures "Kapha". Brahmadandi. : — G. bitter. :—Hot. Konkan. Fr. spinous toothed or serrate. LOC. :—Western Peninsula. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). piles. oblong.—Compositæ. removes " Tridosha ". :—Cooling . urinary disorders and impotence. :—Root. lumbago . :—The whole plant. pappus shorter than the achenes. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. gleet. ovoid. Country. LOC. Aja-dandi. vesicular calculi. Physiaran. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Abu. reduces inflammation . S. bloody urine. L. NS. C. Brahmadandi. appetiser. which is taken in large quantities. HABITAT. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. :—Wild in places.— purple. faintly ribbed. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. reduces inflammation. long. M. West Rajastan. Mt. t. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . M. branches angled and ribbed. urinary discharges. H. alleviating burning sensation. yellowish brown. K. DISTR. ciliate. pruritus ani. seeds. S. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. Brahma-dandi. COM. pain . gonorrhœa. Kanara. Talakanto. tonic . emmenagogue (Yunani). cures strangury. suppression of urine.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). stem erect. diuretic. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . USES :—Fruits are cooling. Diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES.

fruit.3-12. Kaundal. furrowed. slightly hairy. cures itching. palmately 3-5 lobed. with a long sharp beak. paler beneath. Ratan-indrayan. :—A scandent annual. the Deccan. lobes ovate-oblong.—2. alexiteric. axillary. pungent. :—E. distantly denticulate. alterative. Sk. Malaya. K. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.. — surrounded with red-pulp . In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). LOC. scarlet when ripe. FAM. :—Root.5—7. H. tendrils 3 cleft. it is given in decoction with ginger. t. COM. N. Australia. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. variable. asthma. dentate or serrate. anasarca and ascites. Avagude-hannu. Wild Snake-gourd. :—Throughout India. long. L.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Patola. females solitary. —G. orbicular. DISTR.6—4. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. blood diseases. woody below. burning sensation.. LOC. Kiripodla. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. stomachic. Fr. deeply 5-lobed. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. H. long as well as broad. oil. leaf-juice is emetic. ovoid-fusiform. male in axillary racemes. :—Root-cathartic . M. green with white stripes when raw. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. K. slender. headache and boils. Fl. long.5 cm. HABITAT:-In hedges. Fl. Kadvi-padyal or patola . NS. Fl. In Bombay. CHAR. Indrayan. Lal-indrayan. COM. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. CHAR. Betlada padaval. leprosy.-male in axillary . Malay Peninsula. allays thirst.5 m. G. long.5 cm. chireta and honey. Panduka. Makal. white. Leaves—good for biliousness. antipyretic.-5-12. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. tendrils 3-fid. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. base deeply cordate. leaves. bitter. laxative. eye diseases. stem robust. erysipelas.—monœcious. useful for boils and intestinal worms. L. stems 3. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. Jangli— Kadu padval. dark-green above. NS. antipyretic. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Jangali chichonda. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). ulcers. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. leucoderma. cures bronchitis. Ceylon.-6. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic.—Cucurbitaceæ. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. base cordate .—July-Oct. Sd. Perula.. Jyotsna.3 cm.—Cucurbitaceæ. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. Sk. reniform or broadly ovate. Mukal. Katuka. FAM . PARTS USED. Fruit—hot. Root-juice is very purgative. Mahakala.

Country.5 cm. CHAR. . petioles densely hairy. bruises and wounds. :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. Australia. DISTR. heat of brain.—throughout the year. middle lobe smallest. :—M. Fr. limbweakness. inner slightly longer than outer. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. lessens inflammations . Fl. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. :—A perennial straggling herb. Fl. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). glandular. China. Japan. many years ago. boiled with gingelly oil. acute. ophthalmia. 3-partite.—Compositæ.75 X . L. HABITAT. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. which is found abundantly all over the country. FAM. t.. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. black.—1. very hairy. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. PROPERTIES AND USES. slender. used in epilepsy. hairy. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic.—petals wedge-shaped. M.. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. Sd. leprosy. LOC. Ray flowers ligulate. Ceylon. densely silky hairy. LOC. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. DISTR. ovate-elliptic. the smoke causes hæmatemesis.—globose 3-8. LOC. Malaya. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). :—Throughout India. abortifacient. bracts large.-July. all over the State. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. gargle good for toothache.—head solitary. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. C. cures hemicrania. high. Fruit—carminative. fringed. N. :—Abundant in the Deccan. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. rheumatism.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. peduncles very long. PARTS USED. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. Deccan and S.. Ekdandi. outer involucral bracts ovate. Fl. :— Wild in Konkan. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. Kirkee. Juice of fruit or root-bark. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. t.— Apl. 30-60 cm. sparsely white hairy.. :—Wild in hilly parts. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. PARTS USED.— achene. female solitary. COM. stem and branches hairy. on the Himalayas. purgative. white.—many . axillary. NS. Fr. ligules yellow.75-1 in. diam. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . :—Root and fruit.

Methi. H. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Country. FAM. Methi. Janglipikvan. removes bad taste from mouth. purplish within.—opposite. PROPERTIES AND USES. . K. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. emmenagogue. LOC. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. LOC. NS. tonic and carminative..—Aug. roots many. also in low and sandy localities. diuretic. 5-10 x 2. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. suppurative. Nepala . M. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. Methini. flatulence.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). piles. :—Hot.5-5. DISTR. Chandrika. COM. Antamul.5—10 cm.—follicles. large for the genus. 7. enlargement of spleen and liver. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. aperient. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). astringent to bowels. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. dysentery. PARTS USED. Pitakari (Pitamari). antipyretic. useful in dropsy. HABITAT. narrowed at the apex to a free point. Hot and dry. appetiser.—deeply lobed. enlargement of spleen and liver.—Asclepiadaceæ. base cordate. Sd. anthelmintic. FAM. Sk.. Methi. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. :—Cultivated. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. FN. fleshy. greenish-yellow outside. "Vata". vomiting. Methi . applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. long. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. M. cures leprosy. Muthi. cultivated in many parts of India. See—Vegetables. Fl. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. K. tonic. they are also aphrodisiac. long. corona gibbous below.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. LOC. t. ovate or elliptic oblong. Jyoti. NS. Fenugreek . much used in colic. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. S. C. Pitabija Vedhini. COM. diarrhœa. :—E. dropsy. :—A twining perennial. with coma . Konkan. :—H. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. bronchitis. :—Punjab. Fl. G. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. tapering to a fine point at the apex. Menthe—palle.-Nov. Kashmir. L. :—South of Bombay.7 cm. M.—in umbellate cymes . chronic cough. CHAR. Kanara. and the seeds contain vitamin A. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism.— broadly ovate. :—Leaves and seeds.

H.. KolaPutakand. Malay Islands. Dabra. FAM. linear. LOC. :—Western Himalayas.5 cm. t. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. COM. perianth campanulate. drooping. long. Indian Squill. Fl. Ceylon. CHAR. Vanapalandu. joints 3-6. 15-45 x 1.9-1..— flattened. Sk.-Sept.—capsule. W. Peninsula. HABITAT. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. 0. DISTR. Pithavan.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Thailand (Siam). white. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. :—G.—in racemes 15-30 cm. L. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. PROPERTIES AND LOC.. Jaglipiaz. M.. 20-30 cm.— pod. Chota-Nagpur. Pitavan . C. Shankaraja . Burma. Fl. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. scape erect 30-45 cm. :—Sandy places. NS. Jangli-Ran-khanda. M. COM. :—Common on sandy shores. hairy beneath. ellipsoid. tropical Africa. folded on one another. HABITAT. Borneo. :—A herb. NS. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Fl. :—Roots and leaves.—Aug. Prishna-parni. Fr. Panjala. high. URARIA PICTA Desv. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—A perennial shrub.— Liliaceæ. . C. :—Throughout the plains of India. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. Pitvan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. Bihar. USES. stems downy with hooked hairs. Sd. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. Rankanda.— imparipinnate. PROPERTIES AND LOC.. diaphoretic and expectorant. :—Konkan. Fr. polished. FAM. L. found useful in dysentery. 10-20 cm. long. flat. G. black. PARTS USED.— petals lanceolate. Philippines. :—Throughout India. long. stalks long. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. Sk. Malay Islands. H.. pale lead-colored.—appearing after the flowers. Ceylon. Dried leaves are emetic. blotched with white above. tapering to both ends . linear-oblong. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha.3-2. DISTR. Ranganja . PARTS USED. LOC.—purple. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. 5-7 (rarely 9). :—Bulb. tropical Africa. USES. :—Wild. light-brown .8 m. CHAR. glabrous. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion).

lessens inflammations . Rasna. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. Peninsula. recurved. and was found useful (Koman). bronchitis. heals fractures (Yunani). Banda. Chota-Nagpur. stem 30-60 cm. The bulb is stomachic. hiccup. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. LOC. cardiac. DISTR. Sarpagandha.. Root is bitter. long. diuretic. FAM. stimulant and diuretic. :—Konkan. pollinia ellipsoid. Atiras.5—9 cm. useful in paralysis. Br.3-2 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES. tip. rheumatism. alexiteric. L. useful in dyspepsia.—Orchidaceæ. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. lip bluish dotted with purple. lumbago. antipyretic. long. S. and U. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. COM. HABIT. CHAR. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. Gaz.— July. 2-lobed. USES :—Expectorant. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. long. Travancore. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. K. inflammations. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. (In Med. Bandanike. scilla of Great Britain. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. Rasna. rheumatic pains. heating. renal calculi. Fl. diseases of nose. purgative. 1931. H. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. alexiteric. Persara. praemorse. W. :—Epiphyte.. Vriksharuha. t. bronchitis. The plant contains an alkaloid.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. acute. scandent by simple or branching roots . in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. obtusely keeled. :—G. :—Root and leaves.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. M. LOC. Ceylon. :—Bengal. and an acute interposed one. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. good for piles. skin diseases. internal pains (Yunani). anthelmintic. column very short. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . complicate. Fr. Rasno. maritima of U. . NS. A. Rasna. dropsy. alexiteric.—thickly coriaceous. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. asthma. 15-20 X 1. :—An epiphyte. laxative. Bihar. Gujarat and Kanara.—capsule. Fl. erect. tonic to brain and liver. diseases of the abdomen. Madhya-Pradesh. toothache. Vanda. :—The bulb is pungent. boils in the scalp. tremors (Ayurveda).. :—Root is bitter. bronchitis. Sk. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Nakula. anthelmintic. emmenagogue. PARTS USED. heating. LOC. stout.

whitish). Oils. LOC. COM. anæmia. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Fl. Tenasserim. greenish. Raktavalli. Poppli. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bechic. expectorant. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests .—5-10 X 2. dysentery. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Sk. :—Bark-hot. Mysore. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. PROPERTIES AND USES. Coorg in Ghats. FAM.8 cm. tonic and stimulant. (T. Safed-damar. :—A large much branched woody climber. diarrhœa.. NS. resin. See—Timbers. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Sekalyel. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. Ragatarshado. Pitti. USES.-Jany. Malamaitra. M. K. cures cough.. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. . with an offensive odour. Kaharub. M. Travancore. Madidhupa. Gums and Resins. Bilidhupa. abundant in S. LOC. H. DISTR.. useful in atonic dyspepsia. buds 5-angled. K. also in N. Dhupa. acrid. tonic.5-3. urinary discharges. :—North Kanara. Shala. :—E. Lokhandi. alexipharmic. L. carminative. Kubbila. debility and slight cases of fever. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. good for sore-throat. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Khandvel. fruit. dark. useful in leprosy. H. NS. Country. G. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. detergent. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). itch (Ayurveda). :—Bark. Fr. Shandike. amenorrhœa. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani).—Dipterocarpaceæ. Kundura. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. diam. piles. HABITAT :—Hotter parts.—petals 5. Haruge. PARTS USED.—Dec. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. yellowish. boils and ringworm.—Rhamnaceæ.-nut about 5 mm. globular. skin eruptions. ulcers and wounds. DISTR. :—E. FAM. 1-nerved wing. :—Bark. Kanara and S. Sarjaka. M. rheumatism. LOC. C. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. COM. PARTS USED. Red Creeper. Sandras. in chronic bronchitis. hemicrania. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. alexipharmic. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul.—in large drooping terminal panicles. :—Western India. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. also planted. young branches and panicles pubescent. Kanara. entire or crenate. stomachic. eardiseases. Dhupa. Sk. tuberculous glands. CHAR. Fl. :—Madras State. t.

:—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda).5—3. :—Throughout India .8 cm. L. :—G. Vanajiraka. often cultivated. rachis glandular pubescent.) FAM. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile.—Scrophulariaceæ. LOC. PARTS USED. NS. CHAR. Kulhala. Country.-achene oblong cylindric.—heads subcorymbose. Sk.2 cm. all coarsely dentate. Purple Fleabane. Fl. on long petioles. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. Ceylon. Fl. pappus reddish. "Vata" and "Kapha".-rotate.—Dec. Kadvojiri. Afghanistan. coarsely serrate. :—Seeds-acrid. and leaves. high . leafy herb ... CHAR. t. hairy. lanceolate. DISTR. DISTR. lobes 5. with purple tips ..9 m. :—Annual. compound or pinnatisect. Kalejire. NS. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. Java . FAM. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. Ceylon .—in simple or branched terminal racemes. erect. Seeds— anthelmintic.Feb. Sd. COM. Kalizhiri. Kalijiri. C. L. yellow. high. hairy.. hairy on both sides.—capsule.-May. Fr. Somaraj. Kalhara. :—Throughout India.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Fl. Vapehi. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. :—E. Fl. innermost the longest. cure ulcers. PARTS USED. China.—alternate. Deccan . squeezed out by pounding. Bakchi. stem 0. K. Fr. LOC. Gujarat. G. Kutki. 5—9 x 2. H. astringent to bowels. anthelmintic. Vishamushti. Agnibija.—Compositæ. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. ofter cultivated. hairy. Somaraj. :—Plant. used in skin-diseases. truncate. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). sub-globose. about 40-flowered. COM. robust. t— Jany. 10-ribbed. stems 60—90 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES. The juice of the whole plant. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. Sk. branched near the top. in equal proportions. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. rounded. Sundika. H. :—Konkan . Gadar-tambaku. LOC. HABITAT:-Waste places. involucre bracts linear.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. lyrate. Kulara. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bhutakeshi. M. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. . M. M. warted.6-0. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. The juice mixed with mustard oil. :—An annual herb.—oblong. K.

Africa . clothed with white hairs . Sahadevi. alternate. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. kidney troubles. M. Sind. Vala. LOC.—simple.—Gramineæ. stomachic. COM. M. Osari. K. COM. G. Sahadevi. good for sores and itching of eyes. silky on the back. Kuruvelu. LOC. The plant with quinine. erect herb.— pinkish violet. Fl. NS. Dandotpala. FAM. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Sahadevi. L. consumption. Sedardi. cures "Tridosha". Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). In Ceylon. CHAR. heads small. They are also used as tonic. Bena. Koosa. Valo . VERNONIA CINEREA Less.-Feb. :—Throughout India. tonic. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. Khas. . HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. pappus white. hiccup . VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. high. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). K. stomachic and diuretic. Sadori. pubescent. Sk. :—A common weed throughout the State. remove blood from liver. Panni. astringent. Sadodi. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Ushira. oblong. applied in inflammatory swellings . Bala.—achene. 15—75 cm. with lime-juice. used for asthma. Sk. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). NS. H. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. a depilatory (Yunani). asthma. stem stiff. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. G. Devika. plant is used in fever convulsions. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis).MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative.—Compositæ. seeds. :—Plant. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. Australia. :—E. are used in destroying pediculi. bruised seeds ground up in paste. awned. cold. :—Annual. LOC. t. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. Lavancha.. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. Cuscus grass. bronchitis . H. DISTR. Mudivala. striate. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Ash-coloured Fleabane . FAM. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Fl. Fr. The expressed juice is given in piles. tropical Asia. PARTS USED. made into a bolus with lime-juice. :—E. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. flowers. Shit-Sugandhi mulak.—Jan. Vecrnam. Ardhaprasadana.

long. blood diseases (Yunani). stimulant and tonic. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. bronchitis. consumption. Leaves are aromatic. slender. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. Nirgari.—Verbenaceæ. inflammations and irritability of stomach. Nirgud. Culms stout. pale green. NS. febrifuge. Sinduvara. leaves. racemes up to 5 cm. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. Nilpushpi. bitter. :—G. DISTR. PARTS USED. useful in burning sensation. anthelmintic. useful in eye diseases. rachis stout. long. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. useful in spermatorrhoea. Cooling to brain. colour varying from yellowish to black. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. COM. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . LOC.8 m. Afghanistan. diuretic. West-Indies and Brazil. bitter. leucoderma. high. up to over 1. Sind. head-ache. stomachic. also cultivated. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. H. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. usually sheathed all along. Fl. bilious fevers.. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . :—Common in Gujarat and N. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. Nukki. :—Throughout India. Nirgundi. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. PARTS USED. margin spinously rough. Sessile spikelets. Sambhalu. Nirgundi. Sk. biliousness. lower ones keeled and fan-like. The otto is used as a tonic. inflammations. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. K. LOC. Philippine Islands. LOC. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. foul breath. stomachic. The roots contain an essential oil. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. strangury. Ceylon.. Bilenekki. erect. soporific. bitter. Kanara in damp places. asthma. promotes hair-growth. sweats. cephalic.-leaf sheaths compressed. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. heating. Indrani. astringent. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda).226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. :—Root. M. L. Nirgundi. spleen enlargement. Lakki. :—Cooling. alexiteric. USES :—Root is tonic. :—Roots. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. tonic and vermifuge. :—Throughout the State. refrigerant.—panicle up to 30 cm. expectorant and diuretic. Nigod. throughout the Malayan regions. Konkan and Deccan. astringent. DISTR. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES.

:—A native of western Asia. Draksha. There are numerous cultivated varieties. seeds. The plant contains an alkaloid. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. applied in scabies. Grape-vine. allays vomiting. DISTR. Draksha. cooling . M. :—Cultivated. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. COM. useful in old fevers. fever. produces constipation. fruits. expectorant. heat of body. Guchaphala. Yakshmaghni. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. and given in coughs. fever. Madhurasa. Draksha. piles. syphilis. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. leaves. M. appetiser. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. bad effects of drinking. Khandesh. . Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. produces alopecia. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. Country. Fruit— digestive. good for eyes and throat. HABITAT. H. NS. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. LOC. Seeds—aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Stem. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). strangury. Darakh. Flowers—expectorant. Sap of young branches. laxative. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. cough. a remedy for skin diseases. cooling useful in thirst. Fruit is nervine. good for lungs. Drakh . emmenagogue. laxative. FAM-—Vitaceæ. diarrhœa. allays vomiting. fattening. fattening . emmenagogue. testicle swellings and piles. blood diseases. purifies and enriches blood . diuretic. stones in bladder. liver and kidney. good in chronic bronchitis . spleen inflammation. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. causes gases in the stomach.. sparingly in Poona. stomachic. K. LOC. skin should not be eaten. PROPERTIES AND USES. tonic to liver. :—Deccan. hoarseness and consumption. catarrh and jaundice. sweet. jaundice. Sk. cures thirst. Angura. W. :—Fruit-acrid. aperient. G. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). and traces of vitamins B and C. Angur. Ahmednagar. aphrodisiac. India. See—Timbers. :—E. Gujarat and S. diuretic . The fruits contain vitamin A. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. asthma. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". burning. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. difficult to digest. stops bleeding from mouth. Draksha. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. cooling. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. astringent to bowels. flowers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache.

K. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. G.— Sept. armed with prickles . somewhat scurfy. PROPERTIES AND USES. dark-green. smooth. pretty common in the ghats. FAM. Tuber—bitter. good in asthma. Sd. emmenagogue . "Kapha". tonic. long. :—E.—yellow.—2-pinnate. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Asgundh. Amangura. red.—greenish or lurid yellow. Hirimaddina-gadde. alexipharmic. Fr. ovate. CHAR. marasmus of children. USES. tonic. psoriasis. Asgund. chest troubles etc. Wakeri. 7. NS. Asan. rachis grooved with soft hairs.—berry. Fl. :—K. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. Mediterranean regions.. t. constricted between them. COM. Canaries. M. high. Kamrupini. base dentate. LOC. diam. :—A robust woody climber.-Jany. main rachis armed with prickles. hoary tomentose . . :—Deccan. coriaceous. Deccan. :—Drier regions. Cape of Good Hope. Kanara. insomnia. asthma. L. hard. Punir. Asoda. LOC. inserted on the top of. aphrodisiac. Sogada-beru. 0. Winter-cherry. alterative. Kanchuki. H.) DISTR. spathulate. long. L. obovate. Sd.5 cm. M. FAM. Hooliganji. branches armed with recurved prickles . Ceylon. swollen above the seeds. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases.5-5 cm. oblong. bony Fl. :—In the drier regions of India . 6 mm.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. branches terete. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. HABITAT. pinnae 4-6 pairs. Wagati. anthritis.—3-4. slightly 5-angled.5-12. Drakshasava—used as tonic. Fl. oblong. PARTS USED :—Root.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). scabies. Vajini. Fr. Balada. leaves.. :—Konkan jungles. heating. (not common. senile debility. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. linear oblong. green berries. NS. PARTS USED. lumbago. aphrosidiac. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme .—petals 5. useful in "Vata". long. C.—5-10 X 2. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. enclosed in inflated calyx.5 m. Fl. minutely hairy. consumption. 23-30 cm. Wagati. Ghodasoda. :—A branched erect undershrub.—Solanaceæ. t. inflammations. calyx-tube. bronchitis. acrid.3-1.-Feb.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. Gujarat. :—Tubers-bitter. ulcers. COM. leucoderma. favours constipation (Yunani). dark-orange. inflammations. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). abundant in Sind . anthelmintic. Ashvagandha. entire.—pod. Gandhpatri. seeds. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . See—Fruit Trees. CHAR. :—Root and bark. bronchitis. Sk. leaflets 5-7 pairs..

FAM. alterative.—capsule. PARTS USED. haemorrhoids. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Baluchistan.) FAM. K. Indrajav. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. emaciation of children. Hayamaraka. velvety above.-May. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kanara near the sea-coast. Indrajav. ovate-lanceolate. Vanhishikha. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). leaf-infusion is given in fever. COM. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles.—Apocynaceæ. :—Pungent. Dyes. used in thirst. :—G. Fl. common in the Konkan and N. blood diseases. cooling. nigro-punctate beneath. It is narcotic. Sd. diuretic and deobstruent. LOC. long.—numerous. Madhavasini. wedge-shaped. Dhaw. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Dudhi. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Phulsatti. LOC. tropical Africa. M. Dhawadina. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Kuda. dysentery. . Kodamurki. HABITAT. Sk. ulcers and painful swellings .—Lythraceæ. Bela. :—Bark and flowers. Dhawai. H. 1 cm. :—Monsoon-forests. brown. 5-9X 1. Fl. leprosy. Dhavani. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . :—Root is regarded as tonic. Madhuindrayava. L. Are. DISTR.—mostly opposite. See—Tans. scarlet. K. anthelmintic . uterine sedative. Kalikari. Sk. irregularly dehiscent. useful in leucorrhoea. debility from old age. Khirni.3-2. Ceylon. Indrajav. erysipelas. Dhavani. Kalakuda. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. NS. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Java. Dhaiti. Fr. simple. :—G. NS. Swetakutaj. branches long. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Sumatra. Santha. M. Japan. toxic. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Hallunova. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . COM. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. Tamrapushpi. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. acrid. Ornamental Plants. t. Dec. smooth. lumbar pains. The plant contains an alkaloid. Br. :—Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. on trap in the Akrani. Hale. H. Madagascar. alexiteric. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar..5 cm. rheumatism. Dhateki.— numerous. China. USES. and in derangement of liver .

Fl. :—Cooling. the bark is specially useful in piles. laxative. Sk. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. LOC. fattening. :—Bark and seeds. :—The whole plant. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. anthelmintic.. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda).230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. CHAR. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. L.. poisonous bites of insects. especially root and fruit. Khandesh at 1050 m. stem short. :— Throughout India. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. USES :—Root is bitter. In S. tonic. G. fever. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. LOC.Feb. Kambu-Vanamalini. barren heads many. PARTS USED. Shankhahuli.. improves appetite. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. PARTS USED. See—Timbers.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. . biliousness. Dutundi.achene. antipyretic. FAM. Sarpakshi. rough with short hairs . 5-7. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. Banokra. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. memory. cures leucoderma. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . :—Annual herb . long and broad. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. t. axillary. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. COM. Bur-Weed. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. voice. irregularly incisoserrate . alexiteric. long. M. Fl. digestive. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world.—Compositæ. Dumundi. Aristha. all over the State. in W.1-6. Sankeshwar. LOC. with 2 erect beaks. NS. Itara. hard and tough. Gadrian.-E. compressed . West-Peninsula. hairy on both sides. 3-lobed. ovoid in fruit. Clot-Cockle-bur. Ceylon.—many. Fr. :—Rajastan. DISTR. at the top. H. salivation. Madhya Pradesh. oblong ovoid. complexion. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. antidysenterica (Yunani).5 cm. stout.—Jany. involucre of fertile head. tonic. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. 1-3 cm. Timor. epilepsy. fertile heads few.

aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. Ipanji. on poor soil and in rocky places. Kandara. G. pains. laxative. stomachic. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. loss of appetite and piles. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. aphrodisiac. Alen. COM. PARTS USED. :—E. Sk. vomiting. Bordi. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. head-ache. Indian Cherry. H. expectorant. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. it is also given in the form of infusion. pains (Yunani). flatulence. Ginger. FAM. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Bor. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Badari. vomiting. tonic. "Vata".. K. COM. Koli.—Rhamnaceæ. Beri. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. and dry situations. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. piles. Ada. it cleans throat. Ber. eructations. rheumatism. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). Chinese Date. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. Adrate. inflammations. LOC. alexiteric. tongue and increases appetite. good in piles. Shringavera. LOC. gives lustre to eye. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). :—E. appetiser. Dridhabija. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Egasi. heating. stomachic. carminative. Ardraka. Bor. :—Rhizome. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. See—Condiments and Spices. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. Anupama. Hasisunthi. NS. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Ber. useful in heart and throat diseases. useful in elephantiasis. FAM. Alla Adrak. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. It is stimulant. Alen. . colic. dyspepsia. Gulmmula. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. removes pain due to cold. Bore. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. K. Ajapriya. :—Rhizome-pungent. Rhizome—pungent. NS. Plum. HABITAT. "Kapha". Bogari. M. H. Boyedi. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk.—Scitaminaceæ. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. M. Kuvali. Sk. to prevent nausea and griping. carminative. G. asthma. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . lumbago.

biliousness. removes biliousness. cooling. Fruit—sweet and sour. head-ache. Burma. Fruit Trees. frequently planted as a fruit tree. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. :—Root-bitter. allays thirst (Yunani). :—Root. good in consumption and blood-diseases. Australia. Ceylon. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). abundant in the Deccan. seeds. bark. Africa. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. vomiting. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . PARTS USED. Leaves antipyretic. tonic to heart and brain .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. laxative. reduce obesity. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. Seed—astringent. on the laterite near the coast in N. useful in fevers. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Fruit— cooling. leaves. Afghanistan. Kanara. cure asthma. causes cough. good in liver complaints. LOC. Leaves—anthelmintic. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. indigestible. thirst. Fruits contains vitamin A. fruit. Bark—causes boils . .. aphrodisiac. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. causes diarrhœa in large doses . heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . See—Timbers. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Leaves form a plaster to boils. tonic. China. Root and Bark tonic. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. burning sensation. wounds and ulcers.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful