This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
:—Throughout India. Dantadhavan. See—Timbers. DISTR. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Chikakai. sore-throat and tooth-ache. inflammations. erysipelas. strengthens teeth. anthelmintic. Tans.-t. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. M. L.8 cm. tonic. Saptata. Saradruma. measles and other skindiseases. Shige. Ritha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. G.—bipinnate. bronchitis. Dipta. gums. Burma. yellow..5X2-2.5-12. It is given in diarrhœa. leprosy. DISTR. Malay Islands. NS. FAM. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. along the coasts of Konkan and N. urinary and vaginal discharges. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils.-6-10 . M. acrid. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Phena. piles. wrinkled when dry . anti-pyretic. Khandesh Akrani S. leucorrhoea. 7. boils. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. linear-oblong. cooling. Manda-otte. throat diseases. hypertrophy of tonsils.—pod. 5-10 cm. Dyes. " Kapha ".—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. H. psoriasis.-Mar.—in fascicled globose heads. heaviness. aphrodisiac. fleshy when green. CHAR. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Yajnika. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence).USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Western Peninsula. astringent to bowels. COM. Pegu. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. :—An extensive woody climber. M. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. China. Vidula. Kushthari.. Himalayas up to 1700 m.-July. Deccan. Soap-pod tree. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. :—Rajastan. relaxation of the uvula. overlapping. Bhuriphena. . Kath-bole. Khadira. palate and tongue (Chakradatta).MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. indigestion. given in elephantiasis. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). ulcers. Kochi. Sk. Fl. antidysenteric. leaflets 10-20 pairs. :—Common throughout the Stale . Kanara (often on laterite). Khair. " Vata ". LOC. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Fr. Kanara forests. Lalkhair. Sige-balli or kai. Fl. Sk. cures itching. Charmakusha. prurigo. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Sikkim. mouth troubles. LOC. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Shikekai. LOC. K. Country and Gujarat. :—E. long. Sd. In ulceration of the gums.
eczema. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter.. prurigo. ascites. cures stomatitis. alexiteric. leaves and gum. See—Timbers. tonic. blood-diseases. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. detergent. Sauna jali. leucoderma. Vilavati kikar. burning sensation. anthelmintic. anti-diarrhoeal. inflammations. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. DISTR. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. erysipelas. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. M. LOC. G. Sponge tree. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. HABITAT :—Moist situations. bronchitis. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. H. Gums and Resins. deobstruent. NS. Gandhbabul. Kankri. ulcers. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . erysipelas. Jali. LOC. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. digestible. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. buboes. Girimeda. biliousness. caries of teeth. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. improves appetite. LOC.pungent. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Devababhul. K. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Gum—sweetish. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. piles. Sind. Stinking acacia. Internally they are aperient. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. COM. causes " Vata". often planted . Cassia flower. Sk. Pissibabul. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. cooling. In Philippines decoction. :—E. Gandhelo khair . leucoderma. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). Arimeda. PARTS USED :—Bark. stomatitis. not indigenous but naturalised. Marudruma. blood diseases. purgative. Jheri baval. anthelmintic. itching. Kari jali. cardio-tonic. anti-dysenteric. cures " Kapha. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . often cultivated. . expectorant and good emetic. FAM.
Aghada . oblong-cylindric. few. females. about 50 cm.. Prickly chaff-flower. long in fruit. hispid. many. Fl. Latjira . HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.5 cm. CHAR. males. 3. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Merkati. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. M. Sd. erect herb. H.— ovoid.8-6. t. elongate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. erect. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. CHAR. :—Common in the Deccan and S. Var. . and shining sepals with narrow white margins.—Euphorbiaceæ. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. Arittamanjaria.-Jany. crenate-serrate. brown. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. Kuppi-gida. asthma.3 X 2. Khajoti. M.5 cm. 30-75 cm. L. smooth. 2. ovate or rhomboid-ovate.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. It is used in congestive headache. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. H. Apamarga. tropical Africa. LOC. Kuppi. high. Fr. COM.57. t. Chirchira. NS.5-4. FAM. :—Throughout India. minute. COM. Chalmari.—monœcious. ascending. Ceylon. :—An erect herb 0.—greenish white. Khokali. :—E. brown. elliptic obovate.—capsule. G.—utricle. Chichra. somewhat 3-nerved. Kharamanjiri. Utranigida.3-0. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. branches long. Fl. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. in elongate terminal spikes. one-seeded. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. DISTR. Vasira.—Amarantaceæ. Kantarika. Agheda-di. branches terete or quadrangular striate. angular. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms.. M. K.—truncate at apex. perianth 4-5 segments. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. high. Fl. pneumonia and rheumatism. small. :—Annual. rounded at base. :—G. pale-brown. Khokla. enclosed in perianth smooth.9 m. The plant contains acalyphin. stem stiff. softly hairy. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. FAM.—June-Sept.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. scattered. NS. K.—Nov. LOC. Uttrane . Country. Sk. Vanchhikanto. Philippines. Sk. axillary spikes . clustered near the summit of spike. in lax.5x2-4. Apang. Ksharamadhya.—opposite. Fr. Sd. L. Fl.
dysentery. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. :—Throughout India. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Gandhilovaj. and is considered useful in dropsy.8 X 1. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. useful in dyspepsia. Africa. emmenagogue . tumours. PARTS USED : —Root. inflammations. spadix. bright-green. piles. Vekhand. . PARTS USED :—Root. Ceylon. Europe and N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. piles. :—E. diuretic. 5-10 cm. anthers yellow. Gorbach . Bach. DISTR. fevers. Godavaj. rat-bite. boils. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. NS. stomachic. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. carminative. liver and chest pains. good for mouth diseases. LOC. improves appetite. LOC. ascites. laxative. abdominal pains.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. America. flowers and seeds.—turbinate. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers.. itching. heart diseases. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. leucoderma (Yunani). loss of memory. LOC. flatulence. leaves. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. bronchitis. "Vata". useful in vomiting. thickened in the middle. etc. Tropical Asia. margins wavy.8 cm. dysentery. Bitter. alexiterie. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. epilepsy. useful in abdominal pains. COM. Sikkim. Fr. H. blood diseases (Ayurveda). 0. Ugragandha. brain-tonic. pungent. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. L. sepals scarious. M. bronchitis. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. skin eruption etc. thirst. Sweet flag . worms in the ear (Ayurveda). Jatila. inflammations. Vacha. Australia. long.7-3. long. hysteria. FAM. acute. Throughout Asia. See—Sacred Plants. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. dyspepsia. bitter. CHAR. kidney troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. stomatitis. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. carminative. improves appetite. expectorant. green . Sk. obtuse. laxative. throat. useful in general weakness.9-1. Baluchistan. slightly curved. prismatic. delirium. :—An aromatic herb . carminative. Bhutnashini.—Araceæ. America.. top pyramidal. G. toothache. Baja . Vekhand . laxative. creeping and branching. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. HABITAT :—Marshy places. anthelmintic. heating. heating. K. spathe 15-75 cm. emetic. voice.
Deccan. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. K. LOC. NS. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. HABITAT':—Cultivated. H. FAM. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms.:—Planted here and there throughout the State .USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. anti-pyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. PARTS USED : —Root. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Monkey-bread tree. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. etc. Tudgensu . Goremlichora . useful in biliousness. Panch-parnika. fevers and other maladies. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. in children. Bukha. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). vomiting. N. LOC. :—E. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. DISTR.:—Konkan. Kanara evergreen forests. Sk. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. M. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. Pisa. colic. Gorakhaamli.. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. It is a good remedy in asthma.—Bombacaceæ. Haggodgimara. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Brahmamlika. fever. DISTR. bark. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. M. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. indigenous in tropical Africa. FAM. Gorakshi. Gorakamali. :—Grown in many places in India . used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. See—Timbers. Powder is very effective insecticide. Gujarat. :—K. Pichli. dysentery. :—Western Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. Baobab. LOC. African calabash. COM. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . leaf and fruit. Gopali. Gorakhchinch.—Lauraceæ. COM. G. Rukhdo . NS.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Ankola. Shirisha. COM. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Kanara. H. :—Throughout the State. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Juice—emetic. Shyamala. LOC. inflammations. H. leaves (rarely). spermatorrhoea. Sirai. NS. expectorant. anthelmintic. Vamaka. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. fish-poison. Sirsul. Kaloshirish. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. diarrhœa. Shirish. FAM. Karnapura. Ankola. burning of body. Gudhapatra. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. rat-bite. poisonous bites. tonic. Garso. M. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. alexiteric. and fruit. Dridhakantaka. Sk. Kullumavu. Shankiniphala. Seeds—cooling. Dodda-Hombage. Sirisa. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Kalashirish. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Piloshirish. biliousness. pungent. it is said to stop after-pains. K. Fruit—laxative. Root-bark— used in piles. DISTR. Ankotha. blood diseases. Onkla. blood diseases. (Mimosaceæ). Malaya. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). dysentery. often along banks of nalas in N. Shirish.—Alangiaceæ. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. G. Asroli. Kalosadasado. G. cures " Kapha". heating. Sk. Ankoli. NS. carminative. Kathora. aromatics or honey. " Vata "-pain.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Ankota. Ankola. Anedhera. Ankora. See—Timbers. cures erysipelas. colic. Tantia. stem. useful in inflammations.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Chinchola. inflammations.) FAM. indigestible. Ankol. Uddanaka. alexipharmic . Akoly. See—Timbers. Krishnashirisha. . :—E. Kalshish. useful in worms. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. Root-bark poisonous. COM.—Leguminosæ. commonly planted along roadsides. M. Ceylon. lumbago. wasting diseases. Sage-leaved alangium. alterative. acute fever. lumbago (Yunani). S. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. gleet. LOC. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Philippines. China. hydrophobia. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. K. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Tamraphala. LOO. Ankoli.
weakness. bark. eruptions and swellings. leucoderma. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. improves taste. used in leprosy. Burma. paralysis. biliousness. ophthalmia. boils. DISTR. Rajapriya. Root—astringent. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). ear-ache. leaves. bleeding piles. strengthens gums and teeth. Piyaz. Bark— anthelmintic. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy.—Liliaceæ. scabies.:—E. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). erysipelas. See—Vegetables. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. maturant. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. relieves tooth-ache. Bark and seeds are astringent. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. useful in malaria. etc. itching. H. LOC. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). Seeds—tonic to brain. Kanda. Dungari. Sk.K. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. etc. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. catarrh. G. body pains. Ulageddi. stimulant and expectorant. useful in vomiting. cultivated everywhere. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). enriches blood. Bulb—tonic. piles. occasionally used in fever. which acts as a diuretic. excessive perspiration. and also in skin diseases . and chronic bronchitis .: —Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. Ceylon. Bark-bitter. vomiting. flowers. deafness. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. scabies. spleen diseases. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. :—Native country probably Persia.. given in piles. blood diseases. Bengal. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. cooling. . See—Timbers. bronchitis. B & C. LOC. Leaves—good in night blindness. Oil is used in leprosy. usually planted. COM. dropsy. appetiser. prescribed in ophthalmia. anthelmintic. Rochaka. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. diarrhœa. syphilis. M.. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. FAM. epistaxis. LOC. tumours. volatile oil. good in rat-bite. It is an important garden crop. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. skin-diseases. their smell useful in hemicrania. Palandu. Onion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. emollient. alexiteric. tonic. seeds. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. asthma. inflammations. piles. Flowers—aphrodisiac. cures "Vata". The plant contains vitamins A. seeds. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. Seeds—fattening. aphrodisiac. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. stomachic.
Ghi-kumari. chronic fevers. G. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. NS. COM. voice. low fevers. lumbago. Kumari. See—Vegetables. leucoderma. Sk. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. thirst. Kapila. M. Lashuna. Indian aloe. In Cambodia. M. Ugragandha. G. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. K. thins the blood (Yunani). Sk. Kattali. Ikshurmallika. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. Bellulli. asthma. coughs and other debilitating conditions.—Liliaceæ. Lasan. Kanya. H. Lolisara. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Korphad. thirst. digestive. . COM. heating. alexipharmic. Lasun. " Vata ". oleaginous . Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. FAM. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. M. LOC. caries of teeth. aphrodisiac. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. anthelmintic. Korkand. tumours. FAM. liver and lungs . piles. carminative. ear-ache (Ayurveda). K. hemiplegia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. In pulmonary phthisis. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. The plant contains vitamin C. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. NS. Lasan. ALŒ VERA Linn. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. sciatica. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. troubles of spleen. PARTS USED :—Bulb. leucoderma. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. :—E. Kumari. Country. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. LOC. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. H. epileptic fits. Lahsan. Rasonaka. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. In cases of diphtheria. body and joint pains. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. :—E. clears voice. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. good for lumbago. Kuvarpatha. paralysis. It is an important garden crop. inflammation.—Liliaceæ. useful in diseases of eye and heart. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Diuretic. Garlic.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. complexion. aphrodisiac. fattening. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. useful in inflammations. paraplegia and convulsive affections. improves appetite. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. tonic.
India. gonorrhœa. skin diseases. Saptachhada. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. simple or branched. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Kadusale. yellow. spleen enlargement. :—A perennial herb . pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. margins spiny. crowded. liver complaints. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. digestive. COM. jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. cooling. :—E. It also acts as a mild purgative. bark.—in dense racemes . scape longer than the leaves. alterative.—sessile. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. fleshy. wild along the coast. biliousness. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Barbados. LOC. Bitter . :—Wild along the coast in S. aphrodisiac. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. tonic. LOC. scaly. biliousness (Yunani). Native of S. Mediterranean. perianth cylindric . M. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. strangury. Br. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. The plant contains aloin. Root. liver troubles. lumbago. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. L. C. milky juice. carminative. ophthalmia. PARTS USED :— . lanceolate. Jamaica. Ceylon. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. vomiting. stem short thick. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. West Indian Islands. Sk. used in fevers. E. asthma. pale-green. useful in eye-diseases. K. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools.—Apocynaceæ. Hale. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Satian. Kaduhale. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Chatian. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. Australia. :—Throughout India. emollient and demulcent. H. tropical Africa. Dita bark tree. and it is largely imported into India. bronchitis. inflammations. Java. piles. useful in splean inflammation. Satwin. Satwin. common in the rain-forests of N. pain in muscles. DISTR. pendulous. PARTS USED :—Leaves. isobarbaloin and emodin. DISTR. planted in Indian gardens . Fl. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. also cultivated. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. FAM. purgative. fattening. somewhat divided. Africa. NS. alexiteric. leaves. Saptaparna. tumours. methritis. tonic. purgative. Kanara. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles.
asthma. digestible. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. laxative. also in fields. Pathyashaka. piles. Tandulja. diuretic. Kantalo dambho. long. See—Vegetables. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. laxative.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. K. ovoid. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. rugose.. female calyx oblong. rat-bite. good in diseases of the heart. useful in " Kapha ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Cholai. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. See—Timbers.— capsule. stomachic. COM. FAM.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. rubbish heaps . branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. HABITAT :—In waste places.— 3. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. diseases of the blood. obtuse. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Tandulibija. anthelmintic. improves appetite. obtuse. lanceolate. rubbish heaps and fields. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. Tandulaja. M. NS. burning sensation. Drug Com. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. CHAR. Bark—acrid. sudorific and febrifuge. bristles pointed. tumours. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). 30-60 cm. Kantanu-dant. often reddish. high. biliousness. thickened at the top. Kante math. Sk. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. leucoderma. male calyx acute. entire. LOC. Kantanatia.2—7. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. oleaginous. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains.—Amarantaceæ. apiculate. galactogogue. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. :—Throughout India. appetiser. :—An erect glabrous herb. leprosy. Mulladantu. Prickly amaranth. numerous.3—3. unisexual. bronchitis. Fr. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. L. bitter. tropical countries. G. Ceylon. :—E. antipyretic. blood diseases.8 cm.5 X 1. Root—heating expectorant. LOC. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. DISTR. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . heating. ovate. alexiteric. leucorrhoea. ulcers. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. LOC. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). boils and burns. " tridosha " pain.). Apamarisha. hallucination. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. antiperiodic and febrifuge. Mullarave-soppu. also useful in catarrhal fever. . H. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic.
much narrowed at the base. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kandala. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. Afghanistan. Sk. Ceylon. Kandavardhan. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Kuranda. appetiser.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. FAM. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). COM. " Vata. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils.—capsule. K. Grows wild on the banks of S. Dadmari. H. Bharajambhul.—Araceæ. corm. Suran. acrid. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Elephant's foot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. asthma. :—Throughout India in moist places. 8-65 cm. removes " Kapha ". stomachic. Blistering ammania. Jangli mehandi. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. sessile.—Lythraceæ. China. LOC. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Leaves. blood diseases. Tropical Africa. :—E. LOC. enlargement of the spleen. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. laxative. Arshaghna. elephantiasis .:— Konkan. Suran. Suran. strangury . erect or subscandent herb. L. LOC. NS. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. fevers etc. Malaya. Vatari.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Vikata. abdominal pains. Kuranti. Jalavgiyo.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. :—E. :—Cultivated widely in the State. . Kurendika. high. harmful in "Kapha". CHAR. Australia. In the Konkan. the plant. tumours.—Nov. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. pungent. COM. globose. constipating. t. Sd. Kanthalla. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Konkan rivers. LOC. :—An annual. Deccan. depressed. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. bronchitis. vomiting." blood troubles. Bitter and acrid . M. DISTR. G. Fl. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. red. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. branches usually opposite. stomachic.—opposite. Sukaranda. NS. Sk. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. fresh or dried. Fl. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Fr. M. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. DISTR. causes itching sensation. aphrodisiac. useful in piles. Gujarat and Kanara. H. Suran . increases appetite and taste.
ringworm. fever. Sophara. DISTR. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. The plant contains Vitamins A. Kakamari. Agni-krita. Kakamari. CHAR. swollen peduncle of fruit. . ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Kaju . dysentery. 10-12 X 7. K. Crow-Fish Killer. sweet.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. :—E. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . Kaju. leaves. long. hot. K. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. .5 cm. skin diseases. LOC. FAM. Kakamari. H. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". loss of appetite (Ayurveda). It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. & A. G. PARTS USED :—Bark. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. Fl. G. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. M. Gerubi. cordate or truncate. USES :—Bark is alterative. Kanara. 5-nerved. Govamba. Kakamari. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. L. Gova. piles. ulcers.—in panicles 25-35 cm. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height.— subcoriaceous.—Menispermaceæ. See—Timbers. COM. :—E. B. anthelmintic. COM. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant.5-12. NS. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. which is nutritious and emollient. leucoderma. Kajutaka. H. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid.—Anacardiaceæ. Kakaphal. Kakkisoppugida . corns and obstinate ulcers. Cashew apple-nut. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. and trace of C. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Kakamari. See—Vegetables. Oils. digestible. flowers. many flowered. equal to almond oil. The seed contains vitamin A. :—A native of tropical America. ascites. Garalaphala. Kaju. It is supposed to have restorative power. Jermic. FAM. Kakanashika. bark vertically furrowed . Fish-Louse Berry. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. Prithagbija. Sk. NS. aphrodisiac. broadly ovate. Corm is poisonous. LOC.. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. also cultivated. Upapushpika. tumours. Kempu— Turkaka geru . M.
E. LOC. N. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. native of Brazil (tropical America). Ananas . :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. H. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). FAM. H. See—Fruit Trees. Ananas. Olikiriyat. to a certain extent in Gujarat. Kiriyata. black . NS. petals absent. Ananas hannu. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Mahateet. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. DISTR. M. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. also acts as a purgative. Pine-apple . cultivated. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. Ananas . :—Khasia Hills.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. NS.) LOC.-Oct. :—E. FAM. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. also allays gastric irritability in fevers.—Sept. COM. Kanara. COM. Sk. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Ananas. It acts also as diuretic. diaphoretic and refrigerant. G. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. dioecious. Ama.—Bromeliaceæ. M. K. Creat. Kiryat. Bengal. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . . Assam. Parvati. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). smooth. a poison to fish (Yunani). removes gases from the intestines . leaves and fruits. K. causes cough and biliousness. Ananasa. fruits. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. from Orissa to Ceylon. :—Konkan. it is useful in jaundice. :—E. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Mahatit.—Acanthaceæ. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Olen kirayat. G. good expectorant. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. Nelabevu gida. t. PARTS USED :—Roots. Fl. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Sk. Bhuinimba. LOC. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Kirata. Kantak sanjika.
—Ghats. Green leaves. M. oblong-lanceolate. distant. NS. polished brown. Gojivana.9 m.—lanceolate. Malabar Catmint. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. purple.3-0. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. undulate. dyspepsia and fever from teething. PROPERTIES AND LOC.8 m. acute. very small. distant. Malay Peninsula. HABITAT. extensively used in Bengal. Fl. acute at both ends . pale beneath. Fr.—in dense whorls . DISTR. C—2-lipped. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. high. crenate-serrate.-Oct. C—2-lipped. sometimes cultivated. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. smooth. lower lip very large and broad .22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—Deccan. :—E. and N. :—S.—many. Sk. Fl. Fl. Chodhara. white below. :—Konkan and Kanara. LOC. dysentery. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. forming a spicate inflorescence. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. pale above. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. solitary. Alamoda. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves.—Dec. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. bracts lanceolate. tonic. Fl. L. lateral lobes small. Oshthaphala. :—Throughout India. t. thickly woolly. Ceylon. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. DISTR. Sundraphul. Sd. high. :—An erect branched annual 0. t. stem quadrangular. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth.— capsule.2-1. upper lip 2-toothed. clothed with woolly hairs . The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. FAM. Plant is useful in general debility. alterative. Karnatak. :—An erect shrub. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . COM.—Labiatæ. 1. lower 3lobed. 6. G. made into an electuary.5 cm. and certain forms of dyspepsia. yellowish brown. Kanara.-Nov. . Sundara. Vaikunth.—small. L. rugosely pitted. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. stomachic.. PROPERTIES AND LOC. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease.—nutlets. ellipsoid. linear-oblong. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Karitumbe. rose coloured.—very thick. K.3-10 X 2-4. and anthelmintic. LOC. CHAR. Br. approximate above. Fr. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part.
ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Dhava. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. PARTS USED :—Root. Sugar apple. good tonic. Sweet-sop.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. Bark is a powerful astringent. M. produce ulcers in the eye. Anan. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Dhava. (Yunani). LOC. Ata. and eyesores. useful in liver complaints. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Sitaphal. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. :—E. Sitaphala. Dabria. fruit and seeds. LOC. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". applied to skin-diseases. Bahubijika. erysipelas. :—A native of West Indies . Ceylon. COM. Krishnabija. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. causes fever and furunculosis . Button Tree. FAM. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Fruit—sweet. Bejjalu. Kanara border.—Anonaceæ. Bakla. enriches blood. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). K. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Seeds—difficult to digest. DISTR. Root—cathartic. G. Dhavada. expectorant. M. cooling . Damora. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). :—E. bark. sedative to heart. Dyes. bark. leaves and fruits. Sitaphala. DISTR. improves taste and appetite . LOC. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. increases muscular strength. increases biliousness . Custard apple. Durangi. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Dhavada. Shushkanga. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Dhavala. Bark is bitter.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. flavoury. stimulant. NS. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Dohu. Dindiga. LOC. Dhamora. H. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . NS. leaves.—Combretaceæ. Anuram. discharges. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. astringent to the bowels. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. H. Dindala. K. now cultivated throughout India. FAM. chronic diarrhœa. See—Timbers. G. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. useful in anaemia. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Sharipha. abortifacient. Sk. COM. tasty. Sk. cooling. enriches blood . Sitaphala. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Sitaphala. Pitaphala. Amritphala.
blood diseases. Malayan Peninsula. stomachic. Sprouts—acrid. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. DISTR. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. Malay Islands.—Moraceæ. Kadamb . Pegu. COM. Peninsula. :—G. Bairi. Fruit—heating. H. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Ashokari. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. See—Timbers. Tennaserim. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. They are detergent and their powder. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. Kadamb. DISTR. Valkala. PROPERTIES AND LOC. In eye inflammations. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. " Kapha". Seeds yield an oil and resin. K. Kadamb. indigestible. Kadamb . astringent to bowels. strangury. LOC. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Karnapuraka. K. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. Chandkuda. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. FAM. :—E. M. It is generally considered tonic. LOC. " Vata". good in uterine complaints. Kadam. Kaduve. is a good hairwash.—Rubiaceæ. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. alexiteric. causes biliousness when ripe. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Kadamba. Sacred Plants. bitter. Jajpugri. LOC. burning sensation. See—Fruit Trees. H. Chandkuda. USES:—In the Konkan. FAM. :—W. Ceylon. galactagogue. Chandala. Nipa.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Nadija. saline. M. Kadubale. biliousness. Ajjanpatte. Upas Tree. sweet. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. vulnerary. sap of the tree. aphrodisiac. cooling. Burma. Fodder Plants. mixed with gram-flour. Niv. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. wild or cultivated. sprouts and fruits. NS. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. COM NS. Surabhi. Sk. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. aphrodisiac. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. acrid. . Kanara . common near Yellapur. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . PARTS USED:—Bark. often cultivated. Sk. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N.
used in anasarca and colic. Bhuimug. rays 5-10. . It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. segments once or twice trifid. Nelkadle. Sk. urinary discharges. NS. anthelmintic.—Umbelliferæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Snehabijaka.5-2 mm. Wild celery. Bhuimug-chana. fever with cough. 0. Fr. abdominal pain. erect. ridges narrow. improve appetite . Glucoside apiin is present. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. appetiser.. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). DISTR. Ground-Pea-nut. COM NS. Karafs. Chinimung. pedicels 6-16 . nasal catarrh (Yunani). See—Vegetables. M. W. Sk. rheumatism. Ugragandha. Asia. See—Timbers. :—E. branching. bronchitis. abortifacient. FAM. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab.— in umbels. β-antiarin. M. Mandapi. CHAR. high. K. vittae broad. tonic. Ajmud. G. useful in ophthalmia. L. Shimbika. chest-pains. Monkey-nut. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. Europe. cauline 3-partite. LOC. ascites. Moda. scabies.—1. cure " Kapha ".:—Foot of the N. traces of B and C.3-2. aphrodisiac. rectal troubles. Afghanistan. hiccup. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. specially near large cities. Celery. Java and Malaya. scorpion and other stings. Seeds—carminative. Bori ajmud. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. :—E. laxative. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Fl. W. Bodi ajomoda. G. LOC. COM. and γ-antiarin. tooth-ache. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. Abyssinia. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. inflammations. apex toothed . Ajmoda . N. Fibres. vomiting.— radial. " Vata " . Bhuchanak. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. cure asthma. Bhuimug. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. astringent to bowels . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.4 m. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. :—A biennial plant. The plant contains vitamins A. amenorrhœa. good in ophthalmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. Brahmakoshi. H. H. Mungphali. Africa. Markati. Ajamoda. heart and spleen diseases. good for heart.
leaves (rarely). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Kanara. Siam. LOC. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Akota. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Suppiyari. Country. G. Areca palm. used for eye-inflammations. gum. Bengal. diuretic. DISTR. USES. bleeding gums. COM. Assam. Chikkan. Tantusara. Areca-nut palm. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Kaungu. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. M. removes foul breath. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). seeds. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. H. gleet. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. Hopari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. In French Guinea. Gujarat and S. Betel-nut palm. Gum pungent. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Chhataphala. cardiotonic. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. Indo-Malaya. K. :—Madras. LOC. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Seed cooling.—Palmæ. Pugiphal. removes pus (Yunani). improves appetite and taste. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. Supari. Malabar. emmenagogue. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. LOC. laxative. See—Food Plants. Burma. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Chikka. Adki. FAM. LOC. Betta. Pophal. Sopari. useful in urinary disorders. Supari. giddiness.:—Extensively grown in N. Mysore. Oils. fairly largely in the Konkan. ARECA CATECHU Linn. indigestible. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. cooling. DISTR. Poga. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Deccan. NS. . digestive.. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. Nut astringent. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms.
HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. opening by 4-6 valves. Svarnakshiri. sinuately pinnatifid. CHAR. COM. It is also diuretic. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. branching. relieves blisters. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. diam. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. arecaidine. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy.—all the year. glaucous herb . Pita-pushpa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent.12 m. Seeds are laxative. Sk. various skin-diseases. jaundice and cutaneous affections. netted. Shialkanta. Fruit Trees. K. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. Daruri. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.—thistlelike. Srigalkanta. spinous. useful is strangury. expectorant and demulcent. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). nauseant.5-18 cm. juice yellow. India.—numerous. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. and in pertussis and asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. H. destroys worms . Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. emetic. 7. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. antidote to various poisons. oblong. LOC. Fl. inflammations and bilious fevers. and guvacine. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. LOC. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Balurakkisa. oblong-ovoid 2. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Ind. globose. Sd. purgative. Pirangi datturi.8 cm. Fr.3-0. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. Brahma dandi. This is said to bring the worm out at once. stem clasping. stem 0. yellow. seeds and yellow juice. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. USES :—Root is an alterative. Seeds—purgative. Root anthelmintic. sedative. high. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. brownish black. prickly. Bharbhand.— terminal. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. L. :—E. Mexican prickly poppy . DISTR. :—A glabrous. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. arecoline. cures leprosy. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). 2. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Indigenous in tropical America. See—Timbers. Bila dhatura. FAM. Fl. . veins white. G. Plant enriches blood.—capsule.5-5 cm.). In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap.—Papaveraceæ. Datturi. M. prickly. Juice—used as a collyrium. Darudi.5-3.
Ganda.—Aristolochiaceæ. Shyambhuna. powdered root is given with milk. base cordate with wide sinus . (sometimes even larger).5 cm. :—E. Country. long. M. Vridhadaraka. :—A very large climber. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). absorptive. Arabia.—Aug. Dhuma-patra. Kidamar. white-tomentose beneath. Fl. infundibuliform. bracts large . oblongellipsoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . weak. Gandali. Samardar sokh. tip linear dark purple. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Ajantri. perianth 2. Kitamari. Soge. white-tomentose L.3-2 cm. aphrodisiac. rose purple. 12-ribbed . Bracteated Birth-wort. Samandarka phal. M. long.5 cm. Sd.3-25 cm. Deccan and S. COM. prostrate. Fr.—Convolvulaceæ.5-4. strangury. C—5-6. G. base subglobose. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. :—Throughout India. white-tomentose. Fl. tropical Africa. CHAR. useful in " Vata". peduncles stout.— 7. diuretic . Samudrapatrashoh. LOC. FAM.. DISTR.-Nov. LOC. M. H. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Adumuttadagida. In synovitis.-Sept. L. Samudrashok. glabrous inside.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. G.3 cm. Kidamari. " Kapha" fevers. pubescent outside. anthelmintic. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan.8-7. Fr. stems stout. Kiramar. COM.— Aug. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. . HABITAT. Fl. with revolute margins. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Country. :—Bengal.—capsule. 1. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic.:—Konkan. M. base cordate. DISTR. perhaps a native of Bengal. H. Java. FAM. t. the bands silky pubescent outside. Sk. pedicel with a large bract at the base.5-30 x 6.— 3. tubular. Ceylon. Elephant Creeper. NS. cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. Hastivalli. reniform or broadly ovate. Peninsula. Konkan. Dridhadaru. gonorrhœa. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. t. Varghoro.—in sub-capitate cymes. CHAR. NS. Samudraballi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. :—E. striate. Krimighni. long and as broad as long. LOC. Sk.—deltoid with cordate base . long.— globose apiculate. Leaves are maturative. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. K. Gujarat and S. Samudrashosh. W. K. Kitakaba. tube inflated. Fl. :—A slender perennial. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. used in gleet.—solitary. painful joints. stems. ovate glabrous above.
Arkamula. winged. Country. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. Nepal.—Aristolochiaceæ. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. PARTS USED :—Roots.—variable linear oblong.. Ruhimula. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. woody at the base. Flea-bane. M. Nagdamani.5 cm. G. K. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. also useful in dropsy.5 cm. — capsule. bitter. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. 6-valved. dyspnoea of children. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC.3-2. bract opposite the pedicel. Plant is used as an abortifacient. :—Western Peninsula. alexiteric. t. The plant contains an alkaloid. M. Majtari. M. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. :—E. H.5 cm. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). K. Mother or Mugwort. Manjipatri. Sapsan. Isvara balli beru . 3. long with globose inflated base. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Seeds useful in inflammation. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. NS. Dovana. FAM. slender. leaves and seeds. Saraparni.. perianth greenishwhite. biliousness. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Ceylon. H.:—Konkan and S. Dona. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Nilpushpa. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—A twining shrub. Isharmula. tonic. Sugandha. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Ishvari. useful in " Tridosha. Gathona. Sk.—flat. LOC.5x7. Bengal. base vaiable. COM. Indian wormwood.—Compositæ. Indian Birth-wort. COM. Fl. entire with undulate margins.8-10 X 1. Nakuli. LOC. :—E. Fl. Arkamula. Dhor-davana. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. purgative (Yunani). emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. obovate oblong 10-12. Stem long. dry cough.) FAM. NS.—Nov. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. reaching 4. Nagduna. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. . and is also applied externally to the abdomen. globose-oblong. grooved. Sk. emmenagogue. joint-pains. Sd." pains in the joints. Fr. CHAR. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Mastaru.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Vanas. Seeds sweet. Externally it is used in fomentations. Thailand (Siam). ovate. alexiteric. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. enriches blood. aphrodisiac. NS. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. temperate Asia. 0. Phanasa. useful in biliousness. Kanara. Ceylon.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. ulcers. An infusion is given as a tonic.5-5 em.6-2. Panas. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Kantakaphala. ripe fruit laxative. involucral bracts villous. diuretic. deobstruent and antispasmodic. high. Panesa. "Vata". Ghats. Kujja. K. minute. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. Fruit Trees and Dyes. but rather difficult to digest. DISTR. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. LOC. appetiser. inner hermaphrodite. aphrodisiac. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. outer flowers female. Halasina.-Hilly districts.4 m. upper leaves smaller. lobes entire. Jack-fruit tree. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. tonic. aphrodisiac. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. FAM. white tomentose beneath. Sk. lanceolate. Jack-Orange wood. The plant contains an essential oil. Phanas. asthma. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. aromatic. :—Throughout hilly districts of India.—heads ovoid or subglobose. M. cooling. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. pubescent above. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. fruit and seeds. 3-fid or entire. fattening. although very nutritious. The unripe fruit is astringent. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. :—Konkan. Chakki. hairy. leprosy.—Urticaceæ. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. " Vata".— achene. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. stems leafy. Skandaphala. Kanthal. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. " Kapha". oblong ellipsoid. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. L— lower leaves 5. LOC. . base lobed. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani).10x2. deeply pinnatisect. often planted along roadsides in N. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. constipating (Ayurveda). fertile. Fl.—Jany. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. :—Widely cultivated. t. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. petioled. Fl. toothed or again pinnatisect. itching (Ayurveda). solitary or 2. Fr. Java.:—A perennial shrub. LOC. oleaginous. :—E. See—Timbers. asthma and brain diseases. H. grown in gardens also. Panos. Tage. cures "Kapha". given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. G. tonic. COM. HABITAT.
It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. aphrodisiac. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. Sk. undershrub.. abundant round about Poona.—Liliaceæ. Var.5-5 cm. 0. t. curved. valvate in bud. oblong. :—G. stomachic.—opposite 7. erect. segments. globose.-Feb. in the Himalayas. DISTR. :—Introduced from the W. high. COM. indigestible. Svadurasa. Shatavari. dark brown. LOC. solitary. leaves and flowers. root-stock tuberous. . NS.000 m. Siprimuli. :—An erect undershrub. 7. S. Fl. linear. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. fragrant. :—Extremely scandent. and moist monsoon forests. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. Sd. 2. from Kashmir eastwards. astringent to bowels. L. blood and eye diseases. Flower is a good styptic. PARTS USED:—Root.—Asclepiadaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn.—linear with a stout spinous spur. white. narrowed at both ends. Tropical Africa.5 cm. Fl. LOC. straight. red when ripe.— follicles. tapering at both ends.ovoid. Fl. common in the Deccan. :—Deccan. alterative. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. appetiser.9-1. JAVANICA Baker. Svetmuli. CHAR. FAM. PARTS USED:—Root. Fr. FAM. up to 1. Java and Australia. Indies. biliousness. Asual Shatavari. Kuraki. galactogogue. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. Satavari. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . Satavari.3-2.—berry. Fr. L. spines recurved. inflammation. tumours. COM.—orange in axillary umbels. :—E. NS.5 cm. t. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. cultivated as ornamental plant.2 m. with coma. M. DISTR. useful in dysentery. long. Satamulika. A fibre is extracted from the plants. Satavari. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. M. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. naturalised in many parts of India. Country.—June-Sept. spinous. thin. tonic. lanceolate.5-10 X 1. See—Ornamental Plants.-Dec. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. CHAR. oleaginous.—lobes reflexed in flower. H.—in simple raceme. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. C. cladodes in tufts. M. thorn. cooling. K. throat complaints. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. Kaktundi.
erect. anæmia. Phalaghrita. improve blood (Yunani). hispid with long hairs. pointed. . C. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. and alterative tonic. laxative. L. M. abruptly swollen at the top. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. HABITAT:—Swampy places. Sk. and dysentery. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. 18 X 3-3. stems fasciculate.6-1. useful in jaundice and anasarca. :—A stout herb. Seeds cooling. Talamkhan. Ikshura. Gokhalkanta.2 cm. tropical and S. sedative to gravid uterus . LOC. K. The root is sweet. 4-8 seeded. abdominal troubles. Narayana Taila. Fl. Vishnu Taila. :—Throughout India. lower deeply 3-lobed. leprosy. thickened at the nodes. aphrodisiac . And. scalding of urine. upper 2-fid. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. thirst. galactogogue. Seeds fattening. Konkan and Deccan. 3.—June-Jany. urinary calculi and discharges. eyediseases. (Yunani.—sessile. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. aphrodisiac. tonic. hairy. colic. 4 inner small. linear oblong. constipation. useful in diseases of kidney and liver.— Acanthaceæ. Kalavankabija. hypnotic. LOC. tonic. NS. like leaves. subquadrangular. useful in diarrhœa. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). :—G. aphrodisiac. night-blindness (Ayurveda). ciliate . Leaves good for cough.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. expectorant. tonic. gonorrhoea. antispasmodic. ascites. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. leaves and seeds. Fr. Vikhara.) LOC. Talim-khana. Talamkhana. Gokshura. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. H. Ekharo. USES. Africa. aphrodisiac. 2 outer large. bracts.:—Common throughout the State. Fl. t. long. Vajrakantaka. widely 2-lipped. Kak-Kokilaksha. COM. 0. gleet. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. Prameha-Mihira-Taila.— purple blue. Shrigalghant. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. Ceylon. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. lips sub-equal. aphrodisiac .—capsule. Gokhran. anuria. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . diuretic. Kolavalike. lanceolate. tube.. high.8 cm.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous.5 cm. inflammations. tonic. demulcent. Used in diarrhœa. biliousness. DISTR. dysentery. USES :—The root is refrigerant. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis.
MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. NS.—Oxalidaceæ. acute. Nirbrahmi. LOC. Fl. tonic. Kamaranga. H. oblong. found wild near N. Sk. LOC. FAM. Jalneam. decussate. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. axillary. useful in bad ulcers. :—A glabrous. Thyme-leaved graticula . G. emetic. digestible. pungent. Kamrang. solitary. HABITAT :—Damp places. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Carambola apple. K. enlargement of spleen. Fr. obovate-oblong or spatulate. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Ceylon and all warm countries. capsule. L. astringent to bowels . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet.) FAM.:—Konkan and Deccan. Karmar. Safed-Kammi. ascites. sour. M. Fruits are used in pickles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. indigestion. Brahmi. dried fruit is given in fevers. t. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). . K. Sk. COM. Kamarakh. leprosy. Karmare . See—Fruit Trees. CHAR. Shiral. 6-25 X 2. laxative. Tamarak. "Vata". striate. sessile. DISTR. astringent to bowels. Kirihuli. M.:—Throughout India in wet places. Root is given in cases of poisoning. tumours. Sd. Jany-May. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Manduki. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. causes biliousness. Brahmi. LOC.. Barambhi.—Scrophulariaceæ. stems rooting at the nodes. C. lobes equal spangled. perhaps a native of Malaya. COM. Brahmi. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . Fl. creeping herb. Fruit sour. Bama.5-10 mm. allays thirst. Kamarakha. Soumyalata. with shining dots. anæmia. Coromandel gooseberry. pale blue or white. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Darehuli. also used in diarrhœa. pale. ovoid. NS. Karmal. DISTR. branches many ascending. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. when fresh. 2-lipped. Kanara villages. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. inflammations. H. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . fleshy. black dotted : entire. heats the body (Ayurveda). stops diarrhœa and vomiting. succulent. causes biliousness (Yunani). rarely wild. :—E. Mudgara. fruits. Karuka. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.:—E.
Uddipta. Sd. inflammations. W. Seeds are poisonous. Danti. capsule. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. Jamalgota. hairy. leaves and seeds. Malaya. Guggula. LOC. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. :—E..—Burseraceæ. H. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. CHAR. NS. :—G. Jatala. diuretic. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Rechani. Sk.9-1. is used as a local application in rheumatism. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. branching from the roots. DISTR. L. obovoid. Danti. Kanara. wounds. Peninsula. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Devdhup. conjoined with petroleum. high. . Dantimul. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. COM. jaundice (Ayurveda). M. Dantika. or in monsoon forests. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic.—Euphorbiaceæ. epilepsy and hoarseness. Guggul. the lower large. ellipsoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Sk. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. purgative. itching. COM. Mukul. Dec. 2-glandular. Guggula. Fl. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. Danti. piles. :—Dry open Deccan plains. diseases of skin and abdomen. M. It is a direct cardiac tonic.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. :—A stout undershrub. FAM. Chota Nagpur. Burma. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. 0. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. all male or with a few females below. epilepsy and hoarseness. PARTS USED :—Root. Hakum. abundant on the hills of Karanja. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. yellowish.8 m. Guggula. They are used in dropsy. aphrodisiac . enlarged spleen. Kaduharalu. the upper small. leucoderma. Fr. good in scabies. purifies blood. LOC. useful in pains. Assam. anaemia. Leaf-juice. LOC. K. useful in insanity. G. alexiteric. often palmately 3-5 lobed. Bengal. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. toothed. syphilis . INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. smooth. anasarca and jaundice. t. Fl. Root and leaves are cathartic. K. Danti. sinuate. mottled. N. NS. Vishodhini. H. Gugul. Gum gugul. :—Bihar. FAM. leucoderma. in monsoon forests of N. anthelmintic. of three 2-valved cocci.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Kohala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. vaginal discharges. used in dry cough. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. DISTR. leprosy. M. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Fr. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. PARTS USED :—Root. Bhuru-koholu. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Seeds— cooling. Buds—indigestible. aphrodisiac.-Apl. in dyspepsia and flatulence. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). wounds and ulcers. :—E.—pod. Dorokaru. tonic.5 cm. Kushmanda. Sk. :—Cultivated throughout the State.-Feb. t. cures biliousness. removes foul taste from mouth. FAM. Fruit—antiperiodic. anthelmintic.8-2. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. oil from the seeds. tonic. ulcers. biliousness. NS. Kumaon. Burma. diuretic. China.—Cucurbitaceæ. Sikkim. asthma. Kudimah. given' to corpulent persons. G. thirst. See—Ornamental Plants. Shikhivardhaka. asthma. red and white. astringent. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. COM. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. tuberculous glands. Ash pumpkin. LOC. urethral discharges. LOC. Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. enriches blood. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. dehiscent. it is also anti-fat remedy. Koholu. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. flat. leucoderma. blood impurities. cough. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cardiac and general tonic. Sd. cough. burning sensation. Tallow-White gourd. K. used as gargle in stomatitis. used in piles. . thirst. cures biliousness. leprosy. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. "Kapha". fever. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. dysmenorrhoea. H. " Tridosha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. seeds. Golkaddu. used in strangury. appetising. Timisha. urinary discharges and calculi. menorrhagia. anal troubles. USES :—Root-decoction is given.10-15. aphrodisiac. 15-20 X 1. Fl. tonic to liver. eye diseases. not indigenous. biliousness. blood diseases . heart tonic (Ayurveda). Kondha. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. blood diseases. Budekumbalkai. bark and flowers. LOC. There are two varieties. Karkutika. DISTR. Bark—astringent to bowels. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. cures strangury. tuberculous glands.
USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. t. stem erect. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). China. fevers.3—0. Konkan. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative.-achene. anti-pyretic. sweetish. blood diseases. laxative. high. it is given in bleeding piles. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. COM. See—Vegetables. it is also useful in insanity. heart diseases. sharply serrate-dentate. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Deccan. :—Throughout plains of India. Kakarunda. phthisis. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial.—heads many. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. Mriduchhada. Kalhar. Fruit is made into confections. finely silky pubescent on both sides. epilepsy and other nervous diseases.—Jany. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. not ribbed. H. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages.9 m. astringent. DISTR.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. BLUMEA LACERA DC. Australia. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. catarrh. Bhamurdi. :—Annual herb. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. Kukkurdru. S. FAM. pubescent. good for the brain and liver. Country. Malaya. densely glandular.—Compositæ. thirst. Kukurbanda. LOC. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.—the lower ones petioled. burning sensation. cooling.-Apl. elliptic-oblong. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. bitter. mixed with black pepper. LOC. etc. upper subsessile. Sk. L. Fl. . often incised or lyrate. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. pungent. and nutritious tonic. NS. M. Oil—is soporific. haemoptysis. Tropical Africa. Ceylon. febrifuge. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. 0.:—In plains south of Bombay. oblong. M. Kanara. :—G. good in syphilis (Yunani). Fr. Pilokapurio. Kakaronda. Tamrachuda. LOC. pappus white. base tapered. cures bronchitis. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. ash colored. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). inner bracts with green midrib. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Fl. asthma. CHAR. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. and diuretic. Jangali-muli. with a strong odour of turpentine.
FAM. India. LOC. COM. common in S. It produces a very marked and persistent. Tad. fusiform. K. leaves and seeds. Santhikari. Sk. It is also laxative and anthelmintic.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. heart diseases. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Burma. Uttar Pradesh. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. expectorant.—clavate. whitish beneath.— Nov. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. Kolaba and Thana districts. Celyon. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Hogweed.—in corymbose umbels. leucorrhoea. Fl. scabies. astringent to bowels . . useful in lumbago. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. 1. Madhurasa. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Kommegida. "Kapha" heating. Varshabhu. It is used in jaundice. native of tropical Africa. Palmyra Palm. DISTR. Seeds—tonic. margins undulate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava).MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. very small. stem prostrate or ascending. Vasu. LOC. green above. Ghetuli. generally found in poorer soils. and dropsy. Brab tree. NS. Raktakanda. inflammations. Sk. P. PARTS USED :—Root. Shothaghni. Dholia-saturdo. Fan Palm. asthma. (Ayurveda). Indian Archipelago. H. alexiteric. Lekhyapatra. cultivated and self-sown.. M. :—Tropical India.—in unequal pairs at each node. L. Plant contains large quantities of pot. "Vata". Moto-satodo. Desert Palm.—Palmæ. useful in ophthalmia. Persian Gulf. Tad. Leaves— appetiser. cultivated. abdominal pains. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. M. alterative. :—E. anæmia. carminative. :—E. gonorrhœa. Punarnava. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . LOC. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. Tad. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. t. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. Asavardu. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). COM. HABITAT :—A weed. Talimara. useful in biliousness. sub-orbicular. —Nyctaginaceæ. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. Bitter. H.3—2 cm. in pain of joints. tumours. cooling . bluntly 5-ribbed. Ceylon. Dhvajadruma. Fl. Fr. very glandular . CHAR. G. K. root large. Tala. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. G. FAM. Africa and America. DISTR. spleen enlargement. blood impurities. pinkish. Baluchistan.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. NS. :—A diffuse herb.
allays. astringent to bowels. fruit and gum.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. purifies blood. intoxicating. convulsions. Dhupam. allays asthma. NS. cough. bronchitis. Fruit—cooling. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. intoxicating. aphrodisiac. Gum is of five kinds . Flower— good for spleen enlargement. mouth-sores. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Salai. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). diaphoresis. Dhup. used for boils. hot. Dup. :—E. Liquors. Bark-decoction. useful in intestinal troubles. cooling. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. alexiteric. Vishesha-dhupa. with a little salt added. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. fattening. laxative. antipyretic. purifies blood (Yunani). vaginal discharges. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. bad throat. Sugars. LOC. flowers. also found in Belgaum District. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. scabies. also used as antiperiodic. useful in skin and blood diseases. Salphali. antiglycosuretic. thirst and scalding of urine. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. flowers. helps delivery. FAM. fattening. . ulcers . Gum—hot. diuretic . causes headache. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. thirst. useful in biliousness. may cause vomiting. biliousness. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Guggula. asthma. blood complaints . Kundur.. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . causes " Kapha ". with a good flavour. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. Sambrani. Salpe. burning sensation. skin diseases. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. juice. K. Salgond. invigorating. leaves. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Luban. heals wounds . BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. binding. fatigue. Fruit—aphrodisiac. antidysenteric. Gums and Resins. allays thirst. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Moddi. fruits. Sk. PARTS USED :—Bark. M. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . "Vata". tonic. expectorant. bitter. Indian olibanum tree. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). improves taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. G. DISTR. aphrodisiac. Guggali. See—Timbers. Loban. antibilious . HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. Salashi. cures dysentery. Mukulsalai. dry. removes "Kapha". H. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. expectorant.—Burseraceæ. strengthens teeth. LOC. tonic. COM. Fermented juice—tonic. " Vata". fevers.
See—Condiments and Spices. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Jwalanti. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. . neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Taramira . BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. India. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. LOC.—Cruciferae. kill external parasites. spleen. increase bile. bechic. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. Kaira. cure nose. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. Black-True mustard. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Khandesh. :—E. Sk. ear. Kali-rai. and toothache. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. Broach. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. eye-troubles. Rai. biles. rheumatism. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Gums and Resins. COM. FAM. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Seeds-laxative. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. good for throat complaints. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. internal congestions. dispel fever . cure skin-dissases. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. appetiser. M. K. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Rajika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. anthelmintic . The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). DISTR. NS. chiefly in Nasik. cause burning . cure enlargement of spleen. LOC. increase appetite . Dharwar and Belgaum. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. G. H. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. used with butter in syphilis . :—Cultivated in India. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Seeds— remove cough tumours. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. lessen oedema of body. spasmodic. Seeds act as digestive condiment . Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. good in cough and for inflammations. " Vata". Kari Sasive . Sarshapa. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. stomachic. vermicide. See—Timbers. Mohori. if swallowed whole they are laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). Surat. Asuri.
LOC. tendrils 2-fid : L.— Aug-Sept. LOC. streaked with broad vertical lines . corolla as in the male . Asana. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Lingaja. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. It is used in bilious attacks. 1 . M. Kassi. 3—2 . Fl. Patharphoda.— membranous. Lingini. :—An annual scandent herb. :—G. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. hot. glabrous . subsessile. tropical Africa.—Cucurbitaceæ. lobes oblong lanceolate. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. H. NS. Asana. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. . hemiplegia.. Kaj. deeply cordate base. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Asana. ovate-oblong. Shivlingi. Sk. M. corolla companulate. Kavodi. bark. smooth. female flowers solitary. useful in "Vata". Apastambhini. :—G. COM. bitter.—baccate. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Fl. Mauritius. stem grooved. Gauli. Ekalkanto. Australia. FAM. or few or many. Tans. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Khaja.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. Malaya. CHAR. Shivalingi. LOC. pungent. Gargumaru. DISTR. COM. southward to Ceylon.. long. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. margins sinuate denticulate. heating. M. diam. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Gunjan. Suviraka. Garige. 5 cm. Goge. Asana. alterative. bluish green.—Euphorbiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. Mahavira. Mullu-siru Honne. Sk. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. globose.:—Throughout India. DISTR. FAM. 5-lobed. NS. Ishawara-Shivalingi. lumbago. Manj. Philippines. of Shivaling shape . t. Shivavalli. H. 10-15 cm.—yellowish brown. Country. Fr. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. paler and smooth beneath.. :—Deccan. 5-partite. S. Chandra. Ekadivi. K. green and scabrid above. and in fevers with flatulence. Sd. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng.
boils and bites of venomous insects. M. Lalana. cures blooddiseases. COM. "Vata" and biliousness. aphrodisiac. Charoli. burning sensation on body.—swollen and octagonal at the base. Rajadana.—small. gum (rarely). seeds. :—G. Stems obtusely 4-angled. decussate. Country. Piyal. Lonnahadakana gida. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". with opposite branches . Deccan. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). in large panicles. also wild. astringent to bowels. K. Panphuti. :—H. Leaf-juice digestive. Sd. Char. t. Fl. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. LOC. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. DISTR. Fl. tonic. lobes triangular. :—Native of tropical Africa. Sk. C. inflammations. high. DISTR. Cambodia. the older light-coloured. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. M. vomiting. Priyal. S. COM. cardio-tonic. :—Hot and drier parts of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). NS. fattening. Kolegeru. PARTS USED :—Roots.—variable. leaflets ovate. M. ulcers. M. analgesic. thirst. speckled with white. Burma. younger reddish. CHAR. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Char. Charpoppu. upper 3-5-7 foliate. The bark is bitter and poisonous.—Crassulaceæ. carminative. expectorant.2 m. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. buds with root.3-1. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. It is a disinfectant. purifies blood. Zakhi-haiyat. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . L. purgative. See—Ornamental Plants. binding. Snehabija. alexipharmic. Dhanu.—pendant. S.—Jany. Deccan. useful in diarrhœa. LOC. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Tapaspriya. fevers. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. leaves. Cochin-China.) FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. smooth. bruises. the Dangs. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. elliptic. Asthibhakshya. FAM. Murukali. when punctured. lower usually simple. reddish purple. Charoli. Gujarat. Thailand (Siam). cooling. Paira. :—Konkan. Parnabija. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. aphrodisiac. NS. :—Konkan. Pyalchar. allays . fruit. Country. Sk. HABITAT :—Dry. K. Char. Panphui. LOC. crenate or serrate.. H. occasionally compound. constricted in the middle. deciduous open forests.
pimples. cure tumours. K. used in liver disorders. aphrodisiac. LOC. hydrocele. piles. Flowers—cure " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. tonic. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. Muttuga. inflammations. anthelmintic. relieves abnormal thirst. Fruit and seed—hot. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. ascends to 1200 m. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. LOC. anthelmintic. seeds. thirst. bark. useful in syphilis. M. if chewed. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. skindiseases. stomatitis. anthelmintic. India. corneal opacities. worms and piles. strangury. Bark—appetiser. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. gout. purifies blood. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. used in diseases of chest and lungs. useful in piles. COM. emmenagogue.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). aperient used in urinary discharges. Sk. good in dysentery. Kshatadru. cures excessive perspiration. :—E. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . G. tonic. Khakera. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. lessens lumbago. carminative. aphrodisiac. Leaves—good for eye diseases. See—Timbers. gonorrhœa. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. cough. Dhak. Khakda. laxative. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. digestible. Leaf—very astringent. leaves. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. Palash. DISTR. Bark—appetiser. cause headache (Yunani). Seeds tonic to body and brain. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Yajnika. prickly heat and itch. Kinshuk. expectorant. lessens inflammations. useful in elephantiasis. diuretic . Dyes. piles. diseases of anus. astringent. dysentery. tonic to liver. Gum—astringent to bowels. topically in piles and hydrocele. Kuntz. Gum—acrid. fractures. buboes. stomachic. Palas. flowers. burning sensation. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. dry. anthelmintic.) FAM. Oils. Tripatrak. Flower—aphrodisiac. eye diseases. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. lessens biliousness. dysmenorrhoea. biliousness. good in fevers. Chichra. pterygium. gonorrhoea. NS. burning urine. Bastard teak. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . cold and cough. colic. Khakhrao. Ceylon.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Gums and Resins. Palas. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. aphrodisiac. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). gum. Fruit and seeds—oily. leprosy. Kakria. tumours. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). H. useful in bone fractures. remove bad humours. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Muttala. good in biliousness. in the Khandesh Akrani. cures ulcers and tumours.
pinnae 6-8 pairs. Deccan hills. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. shortly stalked. Physic nut. strongly mucronate. piles. Karanja. Katkaleja. prevents contagious diseases . ringworm. aphrodisiac. Gajjige. flowers and fruit. Tapasi. Flowers are astringent. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Gajaga.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. CHAR.—yellow. 5-7. :—Throughout India. NS. asthma and colic. astringent to bowels.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ.5 cm.3 cm. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. They are applied to orchitis. Fever nut. Gajga. very common near the sea-coast. Katkaranj. Fruit—acrid. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. skin-diseases. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. malaria. See—Timbers. When made into paste they are used for ringworm.—1-2 oblong. leaves. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac and diuretic. K.—JulySept. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. :—An extensive climber. antiperiodic. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Leaves contain a glucoside. Kakechika. M. cures urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . . wounds.5 cm. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. Kuberakshi. Gums and Resins. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic.—abruptly pinnate. leprosy (Yunani). HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Fl. Dyes. useful in colic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. LOC. act as rubefacient. H. elliptic-oblong. Sagargota.—pod. t. oblong 5-7. Sind. Gum solution is applied to bruises. fevers. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". L. lead-colored 1. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. petioles prickly. cures inflammation . heating. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Seed—styptic. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). anthelmintic .) COM. Sk. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . DISTR. etc. Fl. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. sprouts useful in tumours. the tropics generally. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Sd. long . It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. FAM. :—E. long. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Fr.5 X 4. leucorrhcea. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. 30-60 cm. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. G. hydrocele. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. LOC.
Shuka-phala. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. DISTR. Madar. NS. Rui. Arka... is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. FAM. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Kanara associated with littoral species. Oils. :—E. sometimes amplexicaul. Ak. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mandara. Undi. . Sk. Polynesia. Punnaga. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. much branched. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Alexandrian laurel. Akand.—Asclepiadaceæ. G. Ekke. Ceylon. :—Cultivated throughout India. Kshirparni. Surhonne. Malaya. :—A large shrub.. often gregarious.4-3 m. NS. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. and oil. astringent. Akdo. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Sk. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. COM. Arka. See—Timbers.. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. both surfaces tomentose. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Surangi. Ponne. Ark. branches stout. Vuma. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. L. Gigantic swallow-wort. Tungakeshera. base cordate. LOC. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. high. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). used in chronic fevers. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. elliptic or ovate oblong. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata".— opposite. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Kshiranga. Mandara.8-10 cm. COM. FAM. Sultanchampa. The gum from wounded branches. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. H. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. 10-20 X3.H. :—E. Br. sessile. 2. Australia. very common in N. LOC. East African Islands. gum. K. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. covered with cottony pubescence. Madar.. CHAR. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Surpan. M. Purasakeshera. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. lessens appetite. Undi. Dholaakdo.—Guttiferæ. mixed with bark strips and leaves. thick. and for its oil. Punnag. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. K.
:—H. C.—follicles. spleen and liver diseases. elephantiasis. Safedak. Root-bark is diaphoretic. expectorant and anthelmintic. China. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. spongy. green. bark. Milk— caustic. Flowers—digestive.— purplish in umbellate cymes. subglobose. leaves and flowers. ascites and anasarca. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . L. also useful in intestinal worms. bark corky. lobes usually erect. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. Fl. NS. buds ovoid. used in cough. rat-bite. Malay Islands and S.. cures leprosy. purplish or white. asthma. acrid . apex with two auricles. very common. young parts white. ascites. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. Fr. catarrh and loss of appetite. Milk— heating. high. M. C.5-8. laxative. cures piles and "Kapha". See—Fibres. Sd. Sd:—many. Flower—analgesic. long. Rajarka. flattened tomentose. heal wounds. cures inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. leaves applied to paralysed parts. asthma. CHAR. Flowers—stomachic. Br. astringent. tonic and stomachic in action. Ak. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . India. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. liver and spleen enlargement. alterative and purgative properties. depilatory. cures asthma and syphilis.—in umbellate cymes. oleaginous.7—15 X 4.—7. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic.— Feb. ringworm of scalp. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. ellipsoid or ovoid.2 cm. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera.—Asclepiadaceæ. cures leucoderma. corona shorter than the column. t.. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. diaphoretic. purgative. FAM.8-2. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. Mandara. Ark. COM.5 cm. dropsy. ovate oblong. HABITAT :—Dry waste places.—subsessile. Sk. 9-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.5-10 X 5-7. Mandara. very common is S. piles.. tumours. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. usually 5. Ceylon. DISTR.—broadly ovate. useful in leprosy.4 m. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. good for liver (Yunani). tumours. swellings. elliptic or obovate. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Fr.-July. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. buds globose. back much curved. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. eruption on body.5 cm. ulcers. Fl. coughs. comose . Juice—anthelmintic. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. across. cottony. broad. comose. . painful joints . :—An erect shrub usually 1. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. scabies.—lobes deltoid-ovate.—about 2. Madar.
DISTR. PARTS USED :—Pods. Koshaphala. K. P. M. Sarvajaya. FAM. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. NS. on trees and hedges . Waziristan. abundant in Sind.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. G.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. they are given in cholera. Hudingana. There is an alkaloid present in the pods.. K. useful in burning sensations. appetiser. H. Gigantea. :—E.—segments 2. CHAR. FAM. Kadavare.3 cm. 3 sub-erect. acrid. PARTS USED :—Leaves. erect.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Sema. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Gavria. Kardali.—Scitaminaceae. veins arching.:—Perennial herb . but doubtfully wild. Kamakshi. LOC. LOC. Sabbajaya. Shimbi. Egypt.5 cm. Arabia. Kadsambu. green. cooling. stem 0. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Shitarambha. indigestible. biliousness. Sambe. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. See—Fibres. Asishimbi. Kalehu. Paraholiya. L. narrow. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. staminodial segments. Iran. The pods contain vitamin A.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. greenish or colored.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Warm leaves used as poultice. Sarvajaya. oval or orbicular. Abai. :—E. COM. COM. CANNA INDICA Linn. Sk. high . Broad—Sword bean. Nilashimbika. Fl. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. membranous. Indian shot. bracts oblong. tonic. LOC. Akalabera. long. G.. Devakeli. NS. lanceolate to ovate. Sk. DISTR. flowers and milky juice. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. spatulate. M. tropical Africa. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. ulcers (Ayurveda). Gavara.9-1. Tamateballi. Khadsambal. 1 linear . root-stock tuberous. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. See—Vegetables.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).2 m. Flowers used as detergent. Tarvardi. hernia and colic. (Chopra). Afghanistan.
FAM. Bhang. DISTR. Vijaya. COM. Seeds—carminative. M. useful in " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND LOC.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. globose. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Ganja. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. alterative . aphrodisiac. impotence. piles. 3-lobed. shining.5 m. water extract anthelmintic. male fascicled. Not indigenous. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. HABITAT :—Cultivated. t.—sub-globose or oblong . :—E. Mohini. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. dioecious. inflammations. Sk. excessive use causes indigestion. causes thirst and biliousness. Shivapriya. LOC. astringent to bowels. Ganja. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute .—Urticaceæ. K. cause headache. cough. See—Ornamental Plants. good for hydrocele. causes thirst. stomachic. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. male flowers. PARTS USED :—Bark.9-1.—many. seeds and resin. Bark—tonic. intoxicating. PARTS USED :—Roots. Hemp. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. intoxication (Ayurveda). black. serrate. leaves.—small axillary. Wild in the Himalayas. Bhangi. Sd. Leaves—bitter.—alternate or the lower opposite. female crowded under convolute bracts. Bhang. hallucinations. Harshini. Fr. LOC. antidiarrhoeic. lower 3-8 foliate. useful in convulsions. imbricate. soporific. Unmattini. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). tonic. Female inflorescence is stomachic. sepals 5.—achene. hot. soporific. Fr. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. :—Throughout India. flowers and seeds. tonic. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. DISTR.—more or less throughout the year. echinulate . intoxication. :—Widely cultivated in India. upper 1-3. Central Asia. abortifacient. Fl. heating. astringent. LOC. They are broken in small pieces. insanity. CHAR. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. lessen inflammation. (3) Charas. check vomiting. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. dropsy. female perianth hyaline. restlessness. G. NS. Siddhapatri. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. flowers. also wild. H. oil-good for earache. Ganja. melancholia. high in its feral state. (2) Bhang. causes biliousness. aphrodisiac. leprosy. usually 0. Fl. leaves.
increases appetite. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. Vegetables. See—Condiments and Spices. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. M. asthma. Mirchi. often found as an escape. Narcotics. Capsaicin and Solanin. COM. NS. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. increases biliousness. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. Country in Deccan. Lanka mirchi. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Fruit—pungent. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. DISTR. muscular pains. FAM. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. The plant contains cannabinin. acute mania. Cayenne-pepper. LOC. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). Mirchi. chronic ulcers. cholera. useful in brain complaints. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. . The fruit contains Capsisin. Chillies. delirium (Ayurveda). It is stomachic. Fibres. Lalmirchi. dyspepsia. K. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Ujjvala. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. and is employed by Indian physicians. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. diarrhœa. expectorant. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. useful in indigestion.—Solanaceæ. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. whooping cough. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. also in gout. and flatulence. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. M. Raktamaricha. in the form of electuary. PARTS USED :—Fruit. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. spermatorrhoea. Tikshna. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Tivrashakti. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Menshinkai. and dropsy. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. :—Cultivated all over India. Sk. LOC. :—E. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. loss of consciousness. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. weakness of body. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Madana modak used in cough. G. erysipelas. dysuria. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Marichiphala. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. See—Gums and Resins. Marchu .
—Sapindaceæ. common in S. epileptic fits. Kapalphodi. bark. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Sakralata. PROPERTIES AND LOC. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. CHAR. smooth. Sd. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period.—globose. inciso-serrate. deltoid. Root is considered diaphoretic. Kumbhi. when moistened. C. Daddala. COM. very acute apex. diuretic and aperient. Kanphuti. " Vata ". Sind. LOC. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. bladdery . K. it is mucilaginous. Jyotish-mati. Kumbhi. dry. DISTR. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda).—Myrtaceæ.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. colic. PARTS USED :—Root. Malay Peninsula. M. HABITAT :—In hedges . The plant contains saponin. dyspepsia. LOC. Kumbha. flowers and fruits. Vakambi. Kangu. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . trigonous. Balloon vine.— alternate. FAM. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Fibres. and is administered in fevers. anthelmintic. :—E. Blister creeper. LOC. NS. Deccan. ultimate segments lanceolate. bark.—capsule. Sk. hot. skin-diseases. alexiteric. useful in tumours. Thailand (Siam). aphrodisiac. Fr. :—E. . urinary discharges. Karolio. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Konkan and W. Wild guava . M. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. abscesses and ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. :—Most warm countries. black. Hennumatti. G. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Fruit—acrid. subglobose. FAM. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . Root. K. rounded at the apex. PARTS USED :—Root. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Karnasphota. DISTR. Kumbi. L. leucoderma. bronchitis. See—Timbers. introduced. Ceylon. winged at the angles. COM. Fl. Agni-erum. Ghats. stem wiry. NS. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. :—Throughout India. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Shaundi. leaves and seeds. Kalindi.—white. Gavvahannu. 2-ternate. petals 4. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. Girikarnika. leaves. Sk. G. Maniju balli. H.
bronchitis. LOC. bleeding piles. G. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. fruit and seeds. See—Fruit Trees. Sk. Nalikadala. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). carminative. made into curries. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. used. diuretic. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. FAM. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. leucoderma. Flower—tonic to liver. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. :— E. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Kusumba. LOC. laxative. Sk. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . appetiser.—Caricaceæ. cooling. removes urinary concretions . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. good for eyes. cures inflammation. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. heating. hypnotic. it is used to procure abortion. H. Kusumbo. Karada. M. astringent to bowels. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. cures inflammations. Mexico and Brazil. H. K. COM. wounds of urinary track. :—E. . Indies. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. "Tridosh". diuretic. M. Barre. Kamalottama. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Ahmednagar and Nasik. FAM. bile. Seeds—oleaginous. scabies.—Compositæ. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. cures insanity (Ayurveda). White thin latex contains Papain. aphrodisiac. Papaya.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. NS. Papaya. :—Grown extensively in Poona. Chibda. Kusumbha. COM. Agnishikha. Pappayi. relieves obesity. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Papaw. Leaves—hot. digestive. expectorant. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Pangi. removes biliousness . Karrak. Guppe. Papayi. leprosy. DISTR. of W. Dyer's saffron. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Fruit—stomachic. Oil—indigestible. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. K. unripe fruit. piles. causes burning sensation . LOC. aphrodisiac. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. Kardai. "Kapha". Kusumba. G. appetiser . cure urinary discharges. depilatory. cause biliousness. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. cure "Vata". Papita. Kusumba. diuretic. Papaya. strangury. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Chirbhita. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Popayi. enlargement of spleen. flowers. Safflower. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. :—Native throughout India. NS. in haemoptysis. ringworm. seeds and oil. DISTR.
Dyes. FAM. stomachic. Ajamo . myrabolans and rock salt. LOC. stimulate intestines. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. good in weakness of limbs. laxative. Europe. enlargement of spleen. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. subsessile. Egypt. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. oblong-obtuse. Afghanistan. good for heart and tooth-ache. Ringworm shrub. Bishops' weed . bitter. Sk. emmenagogue and sedative.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). atonic dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. liver. abdominal tumours. Oils. CHAR. M. abdominal pain. kidney troubles. dyspepsia. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. L. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. COM. and diarrhœa. Dadmardan. COM. G. improve speech and eyesight. Winged senna. K.—Umbelliferæ. tonic and carminative properties. Seeds—purgative. bechic. diuretic. Ajwain. and even in cholera. paralysis. Dwipagasti. enrich blood. oblique at the base. The seeds bitter and hot. carminative. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. Iran. H. 30-60 cm. Omu . pungent. stimulant. carminative. Oma. pinnate. M. Dadrughna. Leaves contain vitamin A. rachis . Dodda sagate. Dadamardana. mucronate. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Dipyaka. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Baluchistan. chest and throat pains. NS :— E. spleen. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. good for ear boils. Ajowan. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. cure catarrh. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). hiccup. strengthening. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. good for old people. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. Elgra. chest pains. vomiting. piles. cure ascites. Oil—good in all diseases. Tivragandha. Ajamoda. H. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. appetiser. purgative. long. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. FAM. carminative. they are used in jaundice . leaflets 10-12 pairs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Sk. aphrodisiac . Datka pat. tonic. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . inflammation (Yunani). CASSIA ALATA Linn. Owa. give lustre to eyes. NS. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. LOC. K. :—E. See—Condiments and Spices. Simyatase. downy beneath. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. anthelmintic. DISTR. See—Vegetables. They are administered in flatulence.
—Jany. Tarwad.—30-35.—in spiciform. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Fr.) COM. skin diseases. C. LOC..6 cm.-Oct. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. CHAR. 20-25. pedunculate racemes . Fl. Peninsula. fruits and seeds. rachis densely pubescent. 28-4-88). cough. rotundate. :—E. LOC. Sakusina. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. Ceylon. Fr. leprosy. LOC. stipules very large. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. Fl. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. reddish brown. across. t. NS. and throat troubles. useful in vomiting. itching. . Sk. Sd. Avartki. mucronate. 5 cm. Indies. pale beneath. slightly overlapping. Mukerji). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. dull green above. membranous. N.. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). FAM. anthelmintic. Fl. :—Introduced into India. reniform. LOC. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. PARTS USED :—Root. skin-diseases. rhombohedral. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. G. Tanner's cassia. long. cures tumours. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. Bark has the same properties. L. " In eczema. Gujarat and S. The whole plant. Pitakilaka. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. DISTR. M. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. thirst. Awal. straight. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. Ph.5 X 10 cm. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). cm. Tarwad. nocturnal emissions. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T.3-1. Charmaranga. H. bark smooth. K. urinary discharges . yellow with orange veins. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). Madhya Pradesh and W.. USES:—Bark is considered astringent.—bright yellow with darker veins. Fl. very likely a native of the W.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. M. diabetes.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. Avarike. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. cure " Vata ". t. 10-20 X 1. DISTR. ringworm. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . causes flatulence . Burma.-July. asthma . flowers. asthma. Sd. alexipharmic . oblong-obovate. leaves. J. along the sea coast in laterite region. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). vermicide (Ayurveda).—large. leaflets 8-12 pairs.-50 or more. obliquely septate. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. useful in thirst. HABITAT :—Planted. Taroda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric.—pod long. Country. buds in yellow bracts. good for ulcers.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Mayahari.—pod. Tangadi. Ahmed.—7.
Dodda-tagase. used in rheumatism. It is a mild laxative. Chakinda. Tans. See—Dyes. purgative. DISTR.) COM. improve appetite. antipyretic. Kacodari. L. juice given in erysipelas. NS. Bahava. Kasondi. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. M. Kakka. Hema-puspha. Leaves lessen inflammation. H. apex acute. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Sd.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Konde. M. Leaves—anti-periodic . lessens inflammation and body-heat. 10—12. astringent. cooling. Vyadivata. Bandartauri. Pudding-pipe or stick.— Jany-March. H. useful in chest and liver complaints. LOC. LOC. In Konkan.—very foetid when bruised. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Rajataru.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. leaflets 3-5 pairs. griping. axillary and forming a terminal panicle.—petals 5. branches furrowed. fruit and seeds. yellow.. Kasonda. transversely septate. Rankasvinda. safe for children and pregnant women. abortifacient. G. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. G. Fl. Ane sogate.—20-30. Fruit—antipyretic. Kasoda.) COM. Chimkani. CHAR. hard. shining dark olive-green. cooling. eye-diseases. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. FAM. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. syphilis. Fl. laxative. Negro coffee. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. heal ulcers . Sk. Flowers—improve taste. :—E. Balla. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. faintly veined with orange . FAM. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. long. Ceylon. t. Golden shower. Fruit—digestible. Kasundari.—pods. cause flatulence. Rechana. ovate-lanceolate. Kasmarda. leaves. Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. and Famine Plants. Fr. Arogyashimbi. throat-troubles. base somewhat oblique. rheumatism. distinctly torulose. Sk. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. also planted. biliousness . Amaltas. :—E. long. NS. carminative.—in few flowered racemes. cures burning sensation. See—Timbers.5 cm. 15-20 cm. cure " Kapha ". often purplish. leprosy. Kasari. Flowers—purgative. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. tuberculous glands. Suvarnaka. Aragina. Seeds— oily. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. recurved. :—Throughout India. Arimarda. smooth. . Indian laburnum. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. demulcent. Stinking weed. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. C. flowers. K. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). purgative. Garmala.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. (Ayurveda). Burma. corymbose.
:—Throughout India and most tropical countries. LOC.— Nov. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. with a solitary conical gland near the base . base rounded. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant.—in axillary. DISTR. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis.. asthma. tonic and febrifuge. Leaves—aphrodisiac. CHAR. " Vata ". See—Famine Plants. heals wounds. Kasamarda.4-3 m. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. L. turgid. C. few flowered corymbose racemes.—30-40 broadly ovoid. PARTS USED :—Root. In many countries root is considered diuretic. high. Fl. K. Kasamarda. cure " Kapha". USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. leaflets 6-10 pairs. LOC. Banar. fevers. leaves. M.510 cm. Kasundari. lanceolate. Sd. cough. dark brown . Seeds used in heat of the blood. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Sk..58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. LOC. septate between the seeds . medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. leaves and seeds. mixed with honey. rachis grooved . plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Kasondi. Baskikasondi. :—G. cures ascites. See—Famine Plants. NS. The bark. hiccup.Jany. LOC. Fl. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. opposite. alexiteric. leaves and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. petals 5. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. slightly recurved. annual or perennial. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. 7. DISTR. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. H. :—A shrub 2. yellow.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—pod. At Kotra. and seeds are cathartic. in Kutch. t. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State.—18-23 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. stomachic. Talapota. " tridosha " . Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. FAM. ovate. elephantiasis. Fr. obtuse. Ran tankala. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). COM. . long . are given in diabetes. PARTS USED :—Bark.
M. C. Fr.5-20 cm. .— petals 5. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Dadrughna. Chakunda. CHAR. oblong.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. leaflets 3 pairs. usually unisexual. Tarota. Pamad. Fr. in diam. branches rough. H. in drooping panicles.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Ceylon. cause burning sensation. much curved when young. Burma. Kanguni. K.5 cm. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. CHAR. NS. high.) COM. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Svarnalata. FAM. Chakramarda. LOC. unarmed. rachis grooved. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. Dadamari. Sk. 18 m. obovate. upper petal 2-lobed . emetic. 1-6 completely covered with red. bitter. Intellect tree. :—An annual foetid herb. Sd. Taragosi.. reddish brown. PARTS USED :— Root. PROPERTIES AND LOC. high. Kangodi.—pinnate. Climbing-staff plant. base oblique. LOC. appetiser. Malhangana. Malkakni. alternate. Madras State. DISTR. shining above. Takala. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. FAM. Seeds— acrid. fleshy arillus. small yellowish-green. NS. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Malkamni.—after the rains. aphrodisiac. :—E. :—Large deciduous climber. The plant contains glucoside emodin. cure joint-pains. L. bright yellow. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". Fl. expectorant. t. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. crenate. stem upto 23 cm. Taga. G. obliquely septate. Kangani.3-10 X 3. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. capsule.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Kangli. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. long. :—E.5 mm. 6. L. Sk. Panevar. hot. opposite (lowest smaller). pale yellow. :—A very common weed all over the State. Sd. globose. leaves and seeds. ovate or obovate.5-10 cm. M. Seeds—bitter. brain and liver tonic. Fl. Tagache.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. DISTR. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. 30-90 cm.—pod.8-7. K. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. COM. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. X 4. Sphutabandhani. Black-oil tree.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . Velo . 7.—Celastraceæ. powerful brain tonic. Chagoche. H. Jyotishmati. 12... covered with lenticels. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. laxative. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Foetid cassia. Malkangoni.
rooting at the nodes. FAM. paralysis and leprosy. Sk. obovate or oblong. Ekpani. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. narrowly oblong . Don. Fl.—in fascicled umbels. minute. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Brahmi. :—G.—Umbelliferæ. persistent. L.—Feb. they are also sudorific. C.—May-Nov. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort.). Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. CHAR. used in leprosy. G. DISTR. Mandukparni. good for cough and asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. gout. Fr. Barmi. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. and is employed for external application. Fl. :—A slender herbaceous plant. orbicular. Vallari . cauline smaller. M. Brahmamanduki. hard-rugose. pink. LOC. elliptic. Oil stomachic. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. high. Country. Vondelaga. Lahanchirayat. especially in Bengal. radical leaves revolute.—4 mm. H. tonic. pink. long. M. :— E. .—capsule. L.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. Jangli-karayatu. linear-oblong. NS. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. CHAR. M. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory.—opposite. reniform. Deccan and S. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Fl. t. spreading star-like . LOC. aphrodisiac and stimulant. NS. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. stem creeping with long internodes.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). :—Konkan. Fl.—3 from each node.-Apl. COM. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). K. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. Fr. Seeds are hot. H. FAM. base deeply cordate stipulate. t. cloves. COM. :—Throughout India.—tubular lobes 5. Jhinkun-kariatum. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn.—Gentianaceæ. ovoid. Mahaushadhi. Brahmamanduki. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn.).
thirst. sedative to nerves. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. cooling. used in insanity (Ayurveda). small-pox. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. asthma. . bitter. voice. twigs. cardio-tonic. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. water courses throughout the State. scalding of urine. Leaf-powder. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. :—In moist situations (streams. " Kapha ". As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. Australia Pacific Islands. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. abundant on the Malabar Coast. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. USES :—Bark is purgative. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. :—Throughout India near the coast. bechic. :—South Konkan and N. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Bark. milky juice. nut is narcotic and poisonous . PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root.) DISTR. DISTR. See—Timbers. alterative. asthma. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. alexiteric. carminative. blood diseases. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. cures hiccup. stomachic. Honde.—Apocynaceæ. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves and seeds). improves appetite (Yunani). :—Throughout India and Ceylon. LOC. soporific. PROPERTIES AND LOC. fruit. diuretic. improves appetite. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. and a bitter substance odollin. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Plant—bitter. FAM. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. cures leucoderma. antipyretic. headache . spleen enlargement. ointment. plaster or bath are used. Kanara. fevers. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". digestible. clears voice and brain. inflammations. tonic. China. :—K. COM. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. For external use powder. Tande. LOC. Leaves are also diuretic. bronchitis. memory. tonic. nallas. NS. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . M. Sukanu. LOC. Malay Archipelago. Chanda. laxative. anæmia. urinary discharges.
Chania. acrid. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. Chakravati. Cheel. Sk. anthelmintic. Vajibhakshya. Wild-spinach. H. M.. diuretic. Chanaka. DISTR. Tanko. Chandanbedu. Chunna. Harbara. oleaginous. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Rai-avala. COM. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Sk. Ksharadala. useful in thirst. piles . sour . "Kapha".—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Kanchuki. vomiting. throattroubles. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. eye-diseases. abdominal pains. G. K. Chakwat. LOC. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. K. diseases of blood.) FAM.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Laveni. HABITAT :—Cultivated. urinary concretions. CICCA ACIDA Merr. biliousness. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Rayara nelli. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. NS. Chana. fruit and seeds. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. spleen (Ayurveda). LOC. fragrant. Chalmeri. Deccan and S. piles. . :—Cultivated in India.—Euphorbiaceæ. M. Kari-Kempukadale. :—Widely distributed. FAM . increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). also cultivated as a pot herb. Country. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). LOC. G. H. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. Harparauri K. constipation. Sk. Chana. :—Very common in the Deccan. Agralohita. FAM. Pandu. LOC. Balabhojya. heart. But. Lavali. M. root and the seed are cathartic.—Chenopodiaceæ. USES :— Root is purgative. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Skandhaphala. improves appetite. :— E. Bathusag. Chick pea. Chakravarti. M. "Vata". Country gooseberry. aphrodisiac. Kadale. tonic to liver. Goose-foot. :—E. The plant yields an essential oil. useful in biliousness. :—E. Harparrevdi. Bengal—Common-gram. laxative. LOC. NS. See—Fruit Trees. Fruit is very sour . DISTR. H. Chillika. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. NS. biliousness. COM. useful in bronchitis.
causes salivation.—Lauraceæ. K. bronchitis. It checks nausea and vomiting. cure bronchitis. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. flatulence. H. hiccup. pains . tonic. aphrodisiac. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. :—W. Oil—styptic. heart. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. cures skin diseases. abdominal pains. aphrodisiac. Gudatwaka. headache. Burma. pungent. abortifacient. tonic . Dalchini. etc. useful in cold. Sk. Kanara district. Malay Peninsula. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. causes flatulence. vomiting. throat troubles. LOC. See—Food Plants. biliousness. Dalchini. Ceylon. Seed—stimulant. diarrhœa and dysentery. itching. Seed—indigestible. emmenagogue. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Bark—tonic. expectorant. anthelmintic. refrigerant. Leaves—purgative. LOC. tonic. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. useful in " Vata ". toothache. blood troubles. :— Bark and oil. very common in the N. seed and acid exudation. anthelmintic. rectum and urinary diseases. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. improve taste and appetite. Kash. useful in loss of appetite. useful in inflammations. leprosy. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. alexiteric. indigestion. Darchini. astringent to bowels . causes flatulence. strengthens liver. . :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. It possesses carminative. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. aphrodisiac. biliousness. PARTS USED. liver-tonic . toothache (Ayurveda). Valkala. headache. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). diarrhœa. carminative. heated brain. LOC. DISTR. thirst. Peninsula. useful in hydrocele. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. useful in bronchitis. See—Condiments and Spices. flatulence. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Nisane. Dalchini. cold in head.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. COM. tonic to hair. indigenous and cultivated. throat troubles. Oil—carminative. appetiser. NS. aphrodisiac. parched mouth. foul mouth and fever. chest complaints. :—G. enriches blood. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. Dalchini. FAM. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Oils. piles. vomiting. M. Lavange-hakke. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Duk. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). anthelmintic . cures thirst and burning. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. bronchitis (Yunani). Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. Leaves contain vitamin A. carminative.
Sk. subglobose. lobes obovateoblong. Fr. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". leaves. Trapusi. stem thick. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . 1949). removes pain. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic.. FAM. sub-globose.—Cucurbitaceæ. Velvet-leaf. male flowers in axillary cymes. red or yellowish white. greenish. . angular . It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. :—E. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. piles. Colocynth. Annual Report. helps parturition.—Nov. dropsy and cough. M. diam. margins ciliate. upto 25 cm. young shoots woolly. Sd. Paharmul. heart troubles.. LOC. warm parts of Asia. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. burning. Indrayan. diam. itching . Tumtikayi. 5-partite. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. an alkaloid. Bitter apple. removes intestinal worms. diarrhœa. solitary. Katurasa. Indrayana. yellow within. FL t. Kanara. branches more or less pubescent. C. :—Deccan. 7. skin eruptions. alleviates vomiting. Fr. drupe. Nirbisi. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. PARTS USED :—Root. orbicular or reniform. Makal. peltate. COM. in conjunction with aromatics. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Indrayan. NS. uterine complaints. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. :—An extensively climbing annual. waxy coated.—July-Sept. t. H. The active constituent of the drug. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. NS. Fl. somewhat hairy. compressed. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Asso. minute. Indruk. Venivalli. red. (Ind. or twin. Venivel. G. flesh juicy. axillary racemes . which possibly has a cholinergic action. asthma . fever.—A climbing shrub. K. R. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. FAM. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. Ghorumba. E. Pavamekke Kayi. female flowers in elongate.—Menispermaceæ. H. useful in hemicrania. Mahendravaruni. Pahadvel. Fl. L. tendrils bifid. dysentery. Sk.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. mucronate. Africa and America. G. Kaduvrindavan. solitary. HABITAT. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. CHAR. yellowish. hairy.5-20 cm. :—In hills. i. L.8-10 cm.—large.-Jany. CHAR. 3. cordate at the base. LOC. long. Indraphal. also for prolapsus uteri. :— E. subcampanulate. has been isolated. smooth. Fl. greenish outside. DISTR. F. COM. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). 5-nerved. Chitraphala. Patha. monœcious.e. M.— usually margined. Uthika.
Deccan. Gujarat. aphrodisiac . LOC. pain in joints. M. fever and worms. Santra. anæmia. Flower— stimulant. NS. N. sea-shores. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. with or without nux-vomica. ulcers. :— E. removes fatigue . Root and fruit cooling. Sukkare-kanji. bowel complaints. Narange. and lumbago. enlargement of spleen. cooling. Sunthura. diuretic.—Rutaceæ. " Kapha". leuco-derma. Fruit—sour. Nagaranga. laxative. asthma. good in fevers. tonic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. constipation. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. aphrodisiac. jaundice. W. relieves colds. purgative. ascites. Naringa. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Rind— anthelmintic. LOC. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). urinary discharges. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Narenj. enlargement of spleen. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Tvakasugandha. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . cures tumours. (Poona. Sk. Ceylon. FAM. antipyretic. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. dyspepsia. In the Konkan fruit and root. Also indigenous in Arabia. anthelmintic . H. :—Widely cultivated in India. good in vomiting and skin diseases. throat diseases. useful in piles. relieves vomiting and retching. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Kirmirtvaka. Kittale. Doddile. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. Naringi. useful in biliousness. tuberculous glands of neck. DISTR. removes biliousness. chest troubles. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. removes " Vata ". Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. anthelmintic. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). fortifies chest. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. bronchitis. COM. carminative. Narangi. sweet and has agreeable flavour. epilepsy. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Asia. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. DISTR. elephantiasis . astringent. constipation. LOC. Cardiotonic. K. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. G. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. LOC.
oily. LOC. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Mahalunga. Rusaki. used in constipation and tumours. leaves and flowers hot and dry. :—Roots. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. its preserve is used for dysentery. FAM. The fruits contain vitamins A. . H. though there are no regular plantations. aphrodisiac. the pulp cold and dry. Adam's apple. Limonum. cures leprosy. flatulence. M. astringent to bowels . INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. Matalunga. HABITAT :—Cultivated. the juice allays ear-ache. K. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. H. fruits and seeds. dry and tonic . According to Theophrastus. also corrects foetid breath. :—Citron rind is hot. relieve vomiting. Thora-limbu. with a sharp taste. Lemon . Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. anæmia. B and C. Mahaphala. Matunga. Amlakeshara. useful in vomiting. removes colic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. jaundice. Madala. stimulant. Ghats. Mavalunga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. said to be wild in W. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Mahanimbu. intoxication. K.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Sk. hiccup. Fruit—sweet and sour. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. Matulunga. LOC. Turanj. :—E. See—Fruit Trees. Bijaura. bark and fruit. anthelmintic. anasarca and chronic fever. G. COM. Turanj. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". rind of the fruit is bitter. M. cough. flowers. COM. digestible. Balank. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Kutla. Bijoru. relieves sore-throat. Bijapurna. VAR. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. heating. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Root. Jambira. tonic. asthma. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. NS. LOC. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). increase appetite. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Mahaphala.—Rutaceæ. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Paharinimbu . Citron . juice refrigerant and astringent. Seeds—indigestible. NS. Harale. G. Devamadala. asthma. Idalimbu. sharp. cough. DoddaGaja-nimba. Bera nimbu. Motalimbu . :— E. PARTS USED.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. Sk. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. USES. useful in abdominal complaints. tonic and astringent properties. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. thirst. Ruchaka. Flowers—stimulant. seeds. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges.
K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. Ranjai. but often found trailing amongst grass. Khatalimbu. where there is dry skin and much thirst. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Moravel. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. burning in the chest. loss of appetite.—achenes. Morhari. Lebu. hairy outside. stomachic. silky villous. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. throat trouble. Snuva.. heart. also useful in rheumatism. Shodhana. NS. Churhar. stimulant . Fr. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic.—petals O. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . relieves biliousness. COM. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Fruit—sour. L. Dhantiate. not good in old age. scarletina. Amlasara. CHAR. Nimbu. H. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Nebu. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. bronchitis . Kagadi limbu. eyes . FAM. See—Fruit Trees. . measles. Morata. sepals 4-6. improves liver.—simple or once ternate. Sk. sharp taste. Murhari. Oil from rind. :—E. Acida. COM. whole plant tomentose. with long feathery tails . The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Fl. leaves (rarely). it cures and prevents scurvy. constipation.5 cm. petioles twinning. it helps digestion. C. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. blades 2-2. Madhulika. M. Nimbuka. long ovate or orbicular. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant.—in axillary corymbose panicles. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. NS. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. anthelmintic. white. cures abodominal complaints. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. fatigue . Lebu. :—An extensive climber. Devashreni. Rochana. Limbu.Nov. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Fl. G. relieves vomiting . LOC. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. PARTS USED :—Fruit. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Morvel. H. plethora. Sk. M. lobes mucronate. vomiting.—Ranunculaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. Limbe. ovoid. with flavour. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. Nimbe. Limpaka. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Murva. hemicrania. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. K. Nimbu. VAR. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. :—G. Acid-Sour lime . appetiser. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. brain disorders.—Sept.
Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. H. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. Bharangi. K. good in malaria. NS. LOC. diuretic. Bharang. K. Brahmani. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. very common in the Deccan. subglobose.—Sept-June. hairy.—capsule. :—Common in grass lands. . cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). tapering towards both ends . transversely striate. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). Hulhul. L. and dispel intestinal fermentation. laxative. C. anthelmintic. Karnasphota. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Fl.—petals 4. Nayibela. Fl. Harhuria. Talvari. reduces tumours and inflammations . :—W. Juice— cures ear-ache. dryness and urethral discharges. and fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. laxative. NS. stomachic. obliquely striate. leaflets elliptic-oblong. used internally in thirst. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Kanphodi. CHAR. t. bitter taste and a strong odour. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). FAM. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Leaves—favour digestion.—3-5 foliate. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Tinmani. veined. Kasaghni. Sk. bitter. Sk. FAM. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. useful in leprosy.—Verbenaceæ. Kiritekki. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. LOC. Sd. stems grooved and glandular. high. Vatari. Tilparni. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. COM. :—Annual erect herb. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. terminal the largest. yellow.—brownish black. Tilwan. M. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. causes excessive biliousness. Barbara. Sauri. Fr. COM.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. M. astringent. Kanphutia. Gantubarangi. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Konkan. Bharangi. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish.—Capparidaceæ. Bharangi. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting.—axillary. DISTR. LOC. H. mixed with oil. oblong-obovate. petioles of lower leaves longer. Phanjika. stimulant. DISTR. :—G. hot. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Ghats. stimulates secretion of bile. erect. removes " Kapha". blood diseases. cooling. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Adityabhakta. hairy. 30-90 cm. Jangali-harhar. gradually becoming shorter upwards. HABIT :—A common weed. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. in lax racemes. :—G. externally applied to boils.
NS. and blue flowered. pubescent. L. showy. high. Fr. Ceylon. t— June-Jany. solitary. 4 lobes flat. hairy. 12. tuberculous glands. tonic to the brain. spreading. The plant contains an alkaloid.—Shrub. Aparajita. Malay Peninsula. Vishnukranta. K. burning sensation.—much exerted. leaves and seeds. useful in bronchitis. cures "Tridosha". 3. Fl. pains. fevers (Yunani). the larger lower lobe dark purple. stems terete. burning sensation. :—A perennial twining herb. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State.—6-10 yellowish brown. tubercular glands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. diuretic.—imparipinnate. FAM. beaked.2 m. Sd.:—More or less throughout India.3 cm. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. M. Gokarni. alexiteric. tumours.. asthma. flat.-Oct. stems bluntly quadrangular. consumption. bronchitis. Sk. leucoderma. "Vata". Fl. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . H. elliptic oblong. Aparajita. DISTR. leaves and seeds. nearly straight.5-15 X 5. obovoid.2 cm. C. ozœna. ulcers (Ayurveda). sharply serrate. Fl. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations.—axillary. oblong or elliptic.—pale blue. useful in ascites (Yunani). acrid. inflammations. biliousness. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. CHAR. HABITAT :—In hedges. Fr. heating. C. anthelmintic. wounds (Ayurveda).—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm.9-2. :—G.. Root increases appetite. Girikarniballi.— Aug. PARTS USED :—Root. elephantiasis. Garani. lessens expectoration. L. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. Fl. headache. . tube hairy within. standard bright blue or white. Gokarnika. sometimes opposite. blood diseases. Root is purgative and diuretic. laxative. LOC. 2-2.. DISTR.8-5 cm.5 X 2-3. smooth. LOC. good for eye-diseases. also found throughout the State.—ternately whorled. epilepsy. 0. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. hiccup. Kalina. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful in inflammation. leaflets 5-7. long . inflammations. Kajli. lower one deflexed. Wowatheti. Kowa. Koyala. fleshy. ulcers of the cornea. t. COM. with an orange centre. black. fevers.— drupe.—many.. There are two varieties :—white flowered. in lax dichotomous cymes. Girikarnika.7-6. anthelmintic. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. collectively forming a terminal panicle. LOC.
Konkan. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Ink-berry. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. See—Vegetables. Hunder. . Vasantitikta. useful in ascites and fevers. Flowers cure itching. COM. Country. M. Glum. Parvel. aphrodisiac. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. dried and powdered. Chireta. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Kanduri. allays thirst. flowers. Vasanvel. H. diseases of blood.—Menispermaceæ. biliousness. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Faridburti. NS. Ghobe. Fruit is aphrodisiac. stops vomiting. " Vata". :—G. Tundi. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Fruit— indigestible. burning of hands and feet. COM. M. USES:—In the Konkan. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Broom-creeper. HABITAT. Deccan. M. antipyretic . Tondeballi. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". LOC. Tana. H. galactagogue. Bimb. Bimbika. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Seeds are purgative and aperient. FAM. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Ceylon. Vasandi. K. cures leprosy. fruit. a hormone and an alkaloid. Vevdi. Garudi. DISTR :—Throughout India. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Sk. S. wild in hedges. Leaves—acrid. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. cause flatulence. Root bark. Bimbi. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. astringent to bowels.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. LOC. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. and jaundice. asthma. consumption. & A. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Oshthi. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).) FAM. NS. tropical Africa. Tondali. Sk. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). G. Dirghvalli. Tundika. Bimba. Kambhoja. urinary losses. The plant contains an enzyme. :—Grown everywhere in gardens.:—Cultivated in gardens.—Cucurbitaceæ. given for uterine discharges. Vevati.:—Root cooling. Jamtikibel. leaves.—E. Galedu. COCCINIA INDICA W. Gujarat.
"Kapha" and "Vata". alexipharmic . enriches blood. Milk—cooling. causes "Kapha". Mad.3 X 1. Leaf-juice. tumours. Flower-cooling .—dioecious. H. subdeltoid or subhastate. bronchitis. tropical Africa. thirst. Tengu.:— A straggling scandent shrub.—Palmæ. also in many places in the interior. India. urinary discharges. Cocoanut palm. useful in biliousness. seed.—3. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. tonic. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. ovate-oblong. India and Ceylon. fermented juice. Nariyal. ovate. lessens bile and burning sensation. laxative and sudorific. fattening. In the Konkan. Pegu. Fl. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Mahaphala. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root. Common in Konkan and N. good in fractures. Konkan. Fl. flowers. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. which is taken internally with sugar. 2-8 together. . NS. L. with a few heads of pepper.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. cardiotonic. DISTR. burning sensation.3-3. fattening. keeled. Fr. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. Naral. DISTR. laxative. Nalivar. female in axillary clusters. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. S. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. constipation. t. male in small axillary cymose panicles. size of a small pea. Gujarat. biliousness.—Dec. Arabia. bark. useful in leprosy. mixed with water. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. smells sweetish and pungent. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. appetiser. aphrodisiac. G. oil. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. aphrodisiac. laxative. rugose . and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). China. LOC.8-6. HABITAT :—In hedges. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). lessens thirst. it is heating.. it is used for coughs. oleaginous. villous . tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. LOC. young parts densely Villous. tuberculosis. Sk. It is also used as a refrigerant.8 cm. COM. Kanara. dysentery. Deccan. Toyagarbha.—drupe. K. and put on to sore-eyelids. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Narikel. Antipyretic. useful in diabetes. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Tenginmara. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". FAM. M. Narial. Seed-cooling. as a cure for gonorrhœa. S. 3-5 nerved. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. LOC. Mangalya. Jataphala. indigestible. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance.
LOC. long.—10-15 x 2. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . abundant in standing water. It is refreshing and laxative. base cordate. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. bluish grey. asthma. LOC. DISTR. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. it promotes growth of hair. Fl. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. useful in urinary complaints. promotes hairgrowth. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. spinously serrate margins.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. :—A tall leafy grass. rooting at the lower nodes. stout. Oils. notched at the nodes .. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. consumption. M. rachis within the bract slender. piles . Malaya. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. America. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).5-6. diuretic.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Japan. enriches blood. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. diuretic . It is also used for burns.—Gramineæ COM. internodes smooth. 6. B and C.6-10 mm. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. See—Fruit Trees. Fibres. NS. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Madhya Pradesh.5-5 cm. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. smooth. S. polished. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. t. H. useful in fever. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. Oil—indigestible. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Gavedhu. useful in lumbar-pain. lessens inflammations . Fr. sheaths long. G. HABITAT :—Gregarious.3 cm. Kasai. :—Himalayas. piles and scabies (Yunani. Rajputana. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. Madhya Bharat. Fl. fattening. FAM. ulcers (Ayurveda).—monœcious racemes 2. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. CHAR. high or more. Jargadi. polished. tonic. above the bract stout. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. LOC. it also purifies blood. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). China. incipient phthisis and cachexia. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell).—Oct. Gurlu . smooth. liver complaints. Assam. stem 90-150 cm. long. increases body weight. tropical Asia-Africa. :—E. Oil—sweet. fermented juice is intoxicating. Job's tears. Bengal. Polynesia. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. bronchitis. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. Ran-jondhala. India. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Dabha. Gojivha. midrib stout. paralysis.—broadly ovoid to globose.
Pistan. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. NS. See—Fibres. Patta. also efficacious in skin-diseases. CHAR. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. histidin. t. Bhukerbudara. lysin. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Fl. Col. subglobose. COM. growing very tall under cultivation. FAM. Sk.—7. wedgeshaped. . L. arginine and coicin. Jute . M. Kalasaka.—Boraginaceæ.2 cm. fever. In jutegrowing districts. laxative. lanceolate. PARTS USED :—Root. and intestinal antiseptic. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. Gujarat.—Tiliaceæ. Bhokar. NS. H.—petals 4-5. 5-valved.— Sept. Lassora. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. M. G. Mannadike. cultivated in most tropical countries. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. astringent. Fr. Sebesten plum. Bargund. Challa. yellow. brown. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. anthelmintic. Chhunchh . DISTR.— capsule. :—Konkan. It is also used as a bitter tonic. and dyspepsia. Bhokar. not beaked. See—Fodder Plants. Sk. smooth. Resalla.5-10 X 2-3. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Fl. carminative. Sd. Bhuselu. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. PROPERTIES AND LOC. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. K. COM. serrate. Rayagundo. Hadige. C. also as antiperiodic. leaves and fruit. LOC. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. ridged and muricated. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier.—few in each cell. G. The plant contains leucin. tyrosin. stomachic. Gondan. buds obovoid. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. Chaunchan . CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. 12 mm.—in short cymes. FAM. diam. :—An annual herb.:—E. acute or acuminate.
:—Throughout India. gives appetite. Kothamir. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. diseases of chest and urethra. Satpudas. stomachic. diseases of chest. biliousness. FAM.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic.:—E. uterus and urethra. tuberculous glands. LOC. chronic fevers. . widely known from Palestine. NS. Coriander. gleet. Bark is used as a mild tonic. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. Kothambri. headache. Leaves—hypnotic. scabies. diuretic. used in dry cough. inflammations. cooling. Dhania. :—Cultivated throughout India. anthelmintic.—Umbelliferæ. causes suppuration. jaundice. biliousness. laxative. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. purgative. heart and liver. Kothimbir. tropical Australia. anthelmintic. Kustumburi. often planted. COM. piles. PARTS USED :—Bark. wild and cultivated. tooth-ache. dyspepsia. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. analgesic. Cochin-China. Ceylon. Fruit is aromatic. H. The plant and fruit— acrid. DISTR. Ghats. Sk. bronchitis. Fruits are used as spice. useful in hiccup. Egypt. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. LOC. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. maturant. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Fibres. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. G. LOC. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. used as an expectorant and astringent. cures thirst. stomatitis. Allaka. stimulant. K. stimulant. vulnerary. biliousness. Mesapotamia and Greece.:—Throughout the State in W. Fruit—diuretic. bechic. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Dharika. highly esteemed in coughs. M. See—Timbers. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). prevents coryza and bronchitis. used in syphilis. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Konphir. antipyretic. indigestion. carminative and antispasmodic. Kanara. eye-pains. also cultivated. Syria. tonic to brain. expectorant. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Vitunnaka. anthelmintic. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Hivija. removes bad humours. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). vomiting. bleeding gums. burning of throat. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. pains in joints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. thirst.
H. PARTS USED:—Root.5 cm. Kumaraka. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. By the earliest writers. DISTR. COM. See—Condiments and Spices. S. Bitusi. red.— in very dense spikes. The plant yields an essential oil. Ajapa. useful in catarrhal fevers. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Hadawarna.-Oct. nalas. Kust. LOC.—Aug. Mahakapittha. concave. t. Vayavarna.—Scitamineæ. bright red.— tube short. Fl. Madhya Bharat. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. Varuna. LOC.—Capparidaceæ. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Castle Rock. FAM. COM. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. :—An erect plant 1. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. :—More or less throughout India. useful in bronchitis. Biliana. Sk. Sk.7-7. rheumatism. Pakarmula. Varno. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. anæmia. dyspepsia. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Pinga. high. bracts ovate. root-stock tuberous. NS. :—Almost all over India (Assam. a tonic is prepared from it. globosely 3-gonous. Shura.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Chikke. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Bilpatri.2-2. subequal. mucronate. China. oblong. L. inflammations.—15-30 X 5. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. M. fever. lumbago. Nervele. " Kapha". Penva. NS. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. in moist and shady places. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Fl.:—Konkan ghats. Malay Islands. Varuna. Var. Country. FAM. It is also astringent and digestive. LOC. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Var. also planted near Muslim tombs. Kashmira. M.— black with white aril. S. hiccup (Ayurveda). Kemuka. Ceylon. Keu. India. . :—G.—capsule. Pushkarmula. CHAR. Kushtha. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. and aphrodisiac. K. coughs and skin diseases. and " Vata". Sd. stem sub-woody at the base . Varvunna.7 m. DISTR. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Vayavarno. lip white with yellow centre. depurative. sheaths coriaceous . Fr. :—G. silky-pubescent beneath. many. Karikuttu. crisped. Barna. H. M. Pushkarmula. C. subsessile. Changalkashta. Khandala. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. spirally arranged. lobes ovate-oblong.
Patra-pushpi. increases secretion of bile. with a sheathing base. useful in biliousness.9-1. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. stomachic. bechic. Pindar. X 12. toothache.5-10 cm. night-blindness. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. LOC. Nagadown. linear lanceolate. and seeds. lumbago. flowers and fruits. good in strangury. tuberculous glands. carminative. 0.—20-30. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm.. urinary concretions. Kanwal.—1 (rarely 2). Fr. scape 45-90 cm. Seeds—purgative. CHAR. found wild in North and South Konkan. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. heating. PARTS USED :—Root. chest and blood diseases. Wild or cultivated. cylindric. white. laxative.:—G. Bark promotes appetite. also wild. anthelmintic.5 cm. Nag-damani. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. as long as the tube. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. diuretic. H. USES:—Root is alterative. NS. M. lobes 6. anthelmintic. flat. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. "Pitta" and "Kapha". L. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. bitter. bulb 5-10 cm. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). lung and spleen diseases. beaked. then sweet. Kanda-shalini. diseases of vagina. fragrant at night. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. vomiting.. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. act as rubefacient and vesicant.—subglobose. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . LOC. diam. urinary discharges. laxative. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. perianth tube greenish-white. strangury. . removes "Vata".5-18 cm. COM. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). bright green. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chindar. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). leaves. useful in bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kanmu.—15-50 in an umbel. gonorrhœa. anuria. chest.—Amaryllidaceæ. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. tumours. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. it promotes appetite. linear. laxative. Nagdavana. aphrodisiac. detergent. bracts 7. Ceylon. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. expectorant. FAM. vulnerary. vesicant. Sk. emmenagogue. See—Timbers. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. :—Throughout tropical India. DISTR. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. Vishamungalli. Visha-Mandalamardini. defective vision. digestive. K. bark. thin. expectorant. antilithic. leaves. long. Tonic. Nag-damani. antipyretic. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. Sd. The plant contains saponin. Fl.
Ceylon . Chucka . See—Ornamental Plants. Madhya Pradesh. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. As an application to sprains. Burma. near Junnar (Poona Dist). LOC. cathartic. See—Timbers. Kanara. Purging croton . bruises and rheumatic swellings. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. useful in mental troubles. COM.—Euphorbiaceæ. Western Peninsula. good in sore eyes. bark. :—Sylhet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. etc. DISTR. convulsions. :—H. Danti. PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. in small doses. abdominal diseases. LOC. Jamalgota. Bhutankusam. tonic. Malay Islands. NS. excessive phlegm. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. nauseant and diaphoretic. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. NS. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). The plant contains lycorin.. G. Nepal. :—Naturalised in S. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Oil cathartic. bronchitis (Ayurveda). FAM. expectorant. insanity. naturalised or cultivated. leaves and seeds. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. :—Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Ganasur. Japala. it is in great request. Nepala . FAM. Sk. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. :—E. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Burma. M. Ceylon. :—Rare in the State. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. emetic. COM. China. Ieucoderma. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. K. Jamalgota . Oil from the seed is purgative. Jepal. Seeds cause burning sensation. Danti. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. carminative. Assam to Malacca. Konkan. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Nepala. Chota-Natpur. inflammations. . Seeds contain an alkaloid. Sk. fever. Bengal. Jayapala.—Euphorbiaceæ. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. DISTR. H.
NS. Kachra. wholesome. H. H. It is given internally with great caution. aphrodisiac. strengthens heart. See—Timbers. cooling. LOC. C. diuretic. . synovitis. and lock-jaw. M. M. dropsy. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst (Yunani). Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Kharbuja. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. nutritive and diuretic. fruit and seeds. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. ascites. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. brain and body. used in liver and kidney troubles. Kakni. Karkali. diuretic. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. allays fatigue. Shadrekha. obstinate constipation.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kakri. oily. COM. &c. cures " Vata ". Kharbuja. MELO Var. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Chibuda. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. COM. G. fattening. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Sk. Lomashi. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. DISTR. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). convulsions. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. may cause indigestion. K. bronchitis. Pathira . USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. laxative. in ascites and anasarca. gives headache. Shantanu. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Valaka. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Kankadi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. :—In Deccan. ascites. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. Fruit—tonic. Tarkakadi. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—G. Ripe fruit—sweet. Seeds—lachrymatory. cures ophthalmia. NS. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. LOC. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. chronic fever. Sweet melon . Chibdu Shakarteti. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. tonic. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. DISTR. Sk.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Said to be truly wild in India. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. Valungi. Karkati. Melon. They are edible. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. LOC. Kalangida. Mahanaracha Rasa.:—E. Vrittervaru. Kharbuja. galactagogue. Rind—vulnerary. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. biliousness. Kakadi. urinary discharges. Mutrala. diaphoretic. It is useful in apoplexy. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. insanity. colic. insanity.
with 10 green longitudinal stripes. LOC. H. Khira. pulp bitter. Ripe one tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. Sd. COM. lobes obovate. improve complexion. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Karit. and C. cordate at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. Fl. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). allay thirst. M. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). cures thirst. Trapusha. cooling. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). used in thirst. good for brain and body. LOC. Fr. melo var. Tansali. See-Fruit Trees.— suborbicular. FAM. Kakdi. DISTR. Tavasa. antipyretic.—monœcious .:—E. Kankdi. "Kapha" and flatulence.—yellow segments elliptic. Kumbhakshi. Chitravalli. . dry.:—N. Mrigadani.—subglobose or ellipsoid. purgative. Hislambhi. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. lobulate or dentate . G.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS. Seeds—diuretic. Sk. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. roasted and powdered. Khira. male in clusters. stomachic. pale yellow when ripe. fatigue. L. Sudhavsa. India is considered to be the original home. rigid. utilissimus (Ayurveda. Sushitala. causes "Vata". K. Kakari. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. margined . :—A perennial climber. hairy. Santekayi. Fruit—fattening . diuretic. Yunani). Seed oil used in fever. Kothiban. Vishala. They are nutritive. indigestible. :—G. t. FAM. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. cures biliousness. astringent. Takamaki.—Cucurbitaceæ. tendrils simple. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. are administered in throat affections. Cucumber. See—Vegetables. fever. they are also used as diuretic. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Seeds possess cooling properties. NS. biliousness.—June-Sept. female peduncle longer than male. enrich blood. M. seeds. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. COM. Fl. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. stem slender. strangury. LOC. H. fruits. B. angled. Cultivated in all parts of India. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. Sk.—white. C. PARTS USED :—Leaves. CHAR.
HABITAT :—Cultivated. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Vegetable marrow. Seeds are used as taeniacide. Kashiphala. increases " Vata ".:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. etc. :—Cultivated. fruits and seeds. Bhopala. Fruit contains vitamins A. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Pumpkin. In Malabar. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. LOC. unhealthy ulcers. on hedges. Koron. H. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. LOC. Afghanistan. Malaya. Dudia. indigestible. Karkarn. Melon pumpkin. : — E.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. allays thirst. M. N. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . LOC. COM. Kumbala. Kushmand. DISTR. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Dangari. cultivated in many parts of India. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. DISTR. Punyalata.:—Considered to be a native of America. K.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—E. Kadimah. Iran. Kumra. The plant contains glucoside saponin. . Kushmand.—Cucurbitaceæ. DISTR. Sk. Red squash gourd. Tambda bhopala. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. tonic. improves taste (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. increases " Vata" . causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). FAM. Kaddu. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. Australia. K. G. stomachic. astringent to bowels .80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. M. Dried fruit indigestible . PARTS USED :—Root. Kumbala. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. NS. H. :—Throughout the greater part of India. HABITAT. fruit is used to prevent insanity. NS. See—Vegetables. Safedkaddu . Ceylon. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. cures cough. Sk. FAM . COM. LOC. B and C. G. Pitakushmand. carbuncles. Mithakaddu. LOC. USES.
FAM. ulcers. sweet. analgesic. carminative. allays thirst. H. tonic. COM. K. NS. asthma. cooling. leprosy. antidysenteric. Sk. :—E. stomachic. leucoderma. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. DISTR. thirst. fattening. diuretic and demulcent. carminative. astringent to bowels. fruit and seeds. Leaves—digestible. cure haemoptysis. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Dipaka. H. NS. Kapha " and " Vata ". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Fruit—very cooling. Seeds—diuretic. good for teeth. Jiru. fever. vulnerary.—Umbelliferæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. . alexipharmic. fever. aphrodisiac. heals corneal opacities. Cumin. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. :—G. Seeds anthelmintic. throat and eyes. haematinic. ft contains vitamins A and C. laxative. relieves hiccup. M. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. astringent. COM. LOC. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Neltati gadde. Gaurajerka. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. Neladati. antipyretic. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. Seeds are taeniacide. emmenagogue. Fruit yields an essential oil. carminative. LOC. enlargment of the spleen. Jirige. fatigue. Jira. and the root for making these more potent. Sk. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. scabies. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. stops epistaxis . FAM. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. Dirghaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. increases appetite . Musali. cures haemoptysis. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). K. uterine stimulant. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). bronchitis. tonic to intestine. See—Condiments and Spices. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. Kalimusali. M. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. gonorrhœa. purifies blood (Ayurveda). USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Mushalikand . anthelmintic. remove biliousness. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. cures leprosy. beneficial in consumption. Jire. tonic. abortifacient. also a lactagogue. biliousness. LOC. Cures " Vata " tumours. astringent to bowels. Girautmi. appetiser. Kalimusali. G. Zira. inflammations. Fruit astringent. Talamulika. eye-diseases. See—Vegetables. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Ajjika. Kalimusali.—Amaryllidaceæ. belching .
linear or linear-lanceolate . appetising. gleet. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. diarrhœa. Fl. useful in piles. aphrodisiac. L. Ambahaladara. t. cylindric or ellipsoid. pains in joints (Yunani). yellow. Ambahaldi. Java. scabies.—long petioled in tufts. hiccup. debility and impotence. lumbago. tonic.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. Karpuraharidra. oblong. alexiteric. appetiser. tubers thick. colic. blood-diseases (Ayurveda).8-5 cm. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. asthma. FAM.5-15 X 3. black. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. CHAR. laxative. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. 30-45x7. Peninsula. oblong. :—Konkan and N. indigestion. M. LOC. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds.:—W. biliousness. sessile. COM. Kanara. Assam. PARTS USED :—Root. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. diarrhœa. causes "Vata". Fl. :—Konkan and Gujarat. :—E. ulcers on penis. gonorrhœa. t. lumbago. distichous. maturant. shining . K. fatigue. :—A small herb. Bitter. vomiting.—capsule. emollient. cooling. W. oblong lanceolate. Sd.5 cm. ophthalmia. very short. with a beak . hairy on the back. .. pale yellow inside . Root—carminative. gleet. rhizome. Ambehalad. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . hydrophobia. stomatitis (Yunani). piles. expectorant. 1545 X 1. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. G. PROPERTIES AND USES. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. Sk. flowering bract greenish-white. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. aphrodisiac. DISTR. inflammations (Ayurveda). Fl. antipyretic. Peninsula. H.—Scitamineæ. root stock large. tips sometimes rooting. Kapurahaldi. perianth segments elliptic. alterative. Malay Archipelago.3-2. useful in inflammations.— in autumnal spikes 7. LOC. during convalescence after acute illness. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. Amragandha. :—Bengal. all skin-diseases. scape. Fl. troubles in the mouth and ear. useful in biliousness. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. antipyretic. gonorrhœa. :—Stemless herb. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . Mango-ginger. jaundice. bitter. alterative and tonic. antipyretic.— May-June.-Sept. useful in bronchitis. C—white or very pale-yellow. appetiser. diuretic. fattening. Bengal. common at the beginning of rains.5 cm. LOC. L. Fr.—sessile or petiolate. DISTR. often cultivated.:—Sweet.—grooved. NS. HABITAT :—Often cultivated.5-12. clavate . " Vata". Amhaladi.— in racemes.
Varnadatri. Bengal. flowering bracts cymbiform. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers .. forming pouches for the flowers. M. 3lobed. t. It is considered tonic and carminative. sessile. Cochin-Wild turmeric. appearing before leafing stem. Arishina. also stomachic. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Sometimes cultivated. FAM.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. Haridra. appetiser .5 cm.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. used as an application for skin-diseases. in spikes 15-30 cm. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. lip yellow. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. it is seldom used alone . COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. palmately branched. long. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. FAM. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. G. Turmeric. Jayanti. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. rounded at the tips.—Scitamineæ. Fl. variegated above. :—Western Peninsula. Aranyaharidra. LOC. Halad. Halad. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. green.-May. CHAR. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. pale green. flowers fragrant. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. biennial. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. See—Condiments and Spices.— flowering stem sheathed. annulate. COM. NS. . Sholika. Halada. Harita. H. :—Stemless herb. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell.—Scitamineæ. Fl. Vanhaldara. G. Sholi. Also cultivated in Konkan. L.—tube 2. Vanarishta. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. the dorsal longer. sometimes cultivated. :—E. LOC. lateral lobes oblong. Yellow Zedoary. Banharidra. root-stock large. Ran-halad. NS. Indian saffron. upper half funnel-shaped. H. C. long. K. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. base deltoid. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. PARTS USED :—Tubers. :—E. Mangalya. Sk. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). lobes pale-rose. Kapur-kachali. Banhaladi. DISTR. M. DISTR. Sk. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. LOC.
root-stock of palmately branched. deepyellow. fumes are used during hysteric fits . vulnerary. LOC. tonic. In small-pox and chicken-pox. C. Jatala. said to be Wild in E. flowering bract green tinged with red . scabies. emollient. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. heating. Gandhamulaka sara. anthelmintic. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. externally applied to leech-bites. DISTR. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. useful in leucoderma. urinary discharges. "Vata ". urinary discharges. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. antipyretic.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. LOC. clothed with sheaths. bruises (Yunani). long. good for liver affections. fragrant. and yields an essential oil. The plant contains curcumin. alexiteric. useful in " Kapha". Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. maturant. appearing before the leaves.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. G. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. long. Fr. sprains (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. :—Cultivated in the State. flowers yellow in spikes. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. bruises. Narakachora. COM. lip 3-lobed. vulnerary. FAM . inflammations. alexiteric. blood diseases. taste bitterish spicy. appetiser. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. scabies.— flowering stem 20-25cm.—funnel shaped.:—E. K. small-pox. odour like camphor.—Scitamineæ. Kachari. Zedoary. Kachora. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. leucoderma. bitter. lobed . oblong-lanceolate. CHAR. laxative. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bitter. 3-gonous. It contains vitamin A. H. piles. improves complexion. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. swellings. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. cylindric. coma-bract crimson or purple . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. In coryza. Kachuri. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. NS. an alkaloid. L. itches etc. pale-yellow inside. heating. 30-60 cm. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. bronchitis. carminative. destroys foulness of breath. internally administered in blood disorders. bruises. oblong. Kachora. Sk. Shathi. asthma. . anthelmintic. Tuber is used as a stimulant. clouded with purple down the middle. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. boils and urticaria. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. diuretic. See—Condiments and Spices. boils. Himalayas and Chittagong. Karechura. annulate tubers. :—Stemless herb. Hakhir. Bitter. M. Fl. used in prurigo. jaundice.—4-6 with long petioles.
M. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. and is of great value in cholera. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. Majjige hullu. H. long.—Gramineæ.:—E. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. sharp. DISTR. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. gastric irritability. midrib whitish on the upper side. chronic rheumatism. others narrow and separating. G. laxative. carminative. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. probably of Indian origin. enlargement of spleen. LOC. toothache (Yunani). anthelmintic. Takratrina. long. appetiser. useful in bronchitis. inflammations. furunculosis. L. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. It is also aromatic. sheaths terete . Purhati hullu. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. good odour. epileptic fits. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. Gandhatrina. LOC. Lilicha. nodding. of much use in typhoid fevers. culm stout. velvety at the nodes. stimulant and carminative. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). pains. CHAR. it is stimulant. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. It is an excellent stomachic to children..8 m. useful in griping of children. Putigandha. hot. emmenagogue. glaucous green. tuberculous glands of neck. it is also a good application for ringworm. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. bitter. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. Externally it is rubefacient. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. high. carminative. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. Tubers yield an essential oil. leprosy. neuralgia. aphrodisiac. erect. sprains. Bitter. Ligule very short. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). and other painful affections. FAM. applied to bruises and sprains. emetic. also used as a tonic and depurative. upto over 90 cm. up to over 1. :—A tall perennial. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. Gavati-chaha. NS. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. tonic to brain and heart. alexipharmic. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. sheaths of the culm tight. Lemon grass. . USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Bhustrina. expectorant. laxative. K.—linear tapering upwards to a point. sharp hot taste. alexipharmic. Sk. COM.
5-30 cm. Bujina. :—Punjab. Shatagranthi. useful in biliousness. Bahuvirya.—Gramineæ. Rhusghas. Sk. fatigue. M. Harali. stem. Fl. :—Cosmopolitan . L. Durva. epileptic fits.—spikes 2-nate. t. Country. DISTR. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). vomiting. S. NS. CHAR. thirst. long. Fl. forming matted tufts. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. M. Deccan.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. scabies. Geramium grass. usually broad. throat troubles. COM. Sind. See-Oils.—grain. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. LOC.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. oblique or divaricate. Burma. FAM. Gujarat.—Gramineæ. Africa to Morocco. W. soft. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. LOC. skin . :—Sourashtra. straw coloured.t. Vasanchullu. leprosy. Roshdo. G.-Nov. DISTR. widely creeping. Shyamaka. sweet. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. green or purplish. Sk. Durba. long. Saugandhika. H. in the Himalayas. K.. Kobbar. bronchitis.5-5 cm. Baluchistan. heart diseases. and Ceylon ascending to 3. 1 mm. subcordate or rounded at the base.—Oct. bitter. cooling. H. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stem. LOC. Rohisha. margins scabrid. wide below. Mangala. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. Roshagavat.—flat. NS. leafy. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. CHAR.—2-10 cm. K. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. :—E. Dhoboghas. sheaths tight. Bhutika. COM. carminative. pungent.000 m. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. FAM. :—A perennial grass . X 1 cm. upto 2. Rohisha. prostrate .3 cm. G. Konkan. Durva.5-2. pains. long.:—Grows all over the State. Afghanistan. long. Fl. leprosy. useful in fevers. burning sensation. slender. hallucinations. Mirchiagand. with erect flowering branches 7.—throughout the year. :—E. finely acute. Dhro. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. 12-18 mm. smooth. most warm countries. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Gharo. glaucous beneath. Fl. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Ghats. bad taste in the mouth. Shatamula. 1.4 m. throughout India. Fr. M. L. particularly the Deccan trap areas. high. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. Garikehallu. through N. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. narrowly linear.
Granthi. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. Mustaka. diaphoretic. M. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Fl.— in simple or compound umbel. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. bruises. fevers. dysentery. anthelmintic. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. blood diseases. dyspepsia. biliousness. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. trigonous. erysipelas (Ayurveda). used as a diaphoretic and astringent. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. LOC. :—Throughout India. epilepsy and insanity. FAM. They are also diuretic and stimulant. epistaxis. useful for ulcers and sores. dysentery. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. hiccup (Yunani). appetiser. ophthalmia. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. anthelmintic. Bimbal. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. DISTR.5 cm. Mutha. stomatitis. emmenagogue. 0. Nut—broadly ovoid. H. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. thirst. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. Motha. K. NS. LOC. greyish black.—shorter or longer than the stem. CHAR. vulnerary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. stomachic. acrid. diarrhœa. Ceylon. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn.—Cyperaceæ. useful in leprosy. . rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . pruritis. epilepsy. expectorant. Root— diuretic. erysipelas. juice is used in hysteria. biliousness. :—G. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. Motha. Koranarigadde. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. See—Fodder Plants. USES :—Roots are commonly. Sugandhi-granthila. epistaxis (Ayurveda). COM. pain. useful in vomiting. blood diseases. burning sensation. Sk Bhadramusta. :—Glabrous herb. Nagarmotha. stolons elongate.82. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. difficult to eradicate.. diarrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. Tubers yield an essential oil. Bitterish. most hot countries. vomiting. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. fever. In Ceylon. vulnerary. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. fever. t. cooling. narrowly linear. Fl. spikelets 10-50 flowered. Tungegaddo. very troublesome weed.—Sept-Nov. LOC. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Kachhola. urinary concretions (Yunani). Motha. it is diuretic. astringent.. L.
solitary. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain).— tubular. Country. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. M. and sub-involution of the uterus. subglobose. COM. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. nodding. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. FAM. paralytic ileus. :—H.—Solanaceæ. acute. 30-60 cm. greenish-yellow or dull-white. Phalakantak. Black-Purple datura.. Utarni. :—Deccan. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. inner curved high over the staminal column. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. outer truncate. corona outer and inner. L. packed. velvety pubescent beneath. Kanaka. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. Fr. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. somewhat zigzag. H. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions.—Asclepiadaceæ. ciliate. entire or with large teeth or lobes. glabrous above.2 cm. Sk. CHAR. stem hairy. Kariyu-Um-Matta. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Kaladhatura. reflexed. DISTR. funnel-shapped. L.—capsule. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. Sd. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. NS. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . spur acute.—Sept-Dec.—follicle. long.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). across. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. Utran. Fr. ovate. Fl. Bhranta. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. afterwards racemose. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued.2-7. diam.—Aug. :—A perennial twining herb. . beak long. LOC. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. t. :—Annual shrub.5 cm. lobes spreading. Rajdhattura.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. Unmatta. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. Sd.—purple outside. covered with straight sharp prickles. 18 cm. M. e. Administered after the third stage of labour. on curved stalk 3.—many. yellowish brown. Sk. COM. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. LOC. M. usually pubescent. long 10-20.g. high. Ceylon. soft spiny. C. Fl. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. very unequal at the base. Fl.—7. green. tubular. Kanaka. a glucoside. G.5 cm. t. broadly ovate or suborbicular.5-15 X 3. S.-Jany. double.—thin. FAM. Fl. divaricately branched. white inside. Gujarat. Ns. Kaladhatura.:—E. K: Dhattura. HABIT :—A common weed. Kala-dhotara. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma.
:—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. piles. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. PARTS USED :—Root. Europe. anthelminitic . M. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. painful tumours. cause headache (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Roots. equal in effect to atropine. GranthiPinda-Mula. tonic. ulcers. toxic. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Gajra. Leaf poultice. bitter. Shikkikanda. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. majum. LOC. toddy. H. . Garjara. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. The whole plant is narcotic. enlargement of testicles and boils. febrifuge. Carrot. leaves and seeds. anthelmintic. digestive and heating. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. in gonorrhœa. (Ayurveda). applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. Leaf-juice is given internally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. USES :—Out of the two varieties. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna.. aphrodisiac. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. :—Throughout the tropics. mumps etc. chronic coughs. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. and antispasmodic properties. leaves and seeds. black variety is considered to be more powerful. nodes. emetic. Gajjari. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. Gajar. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk. DISTR. skin-diseases. :—E. heating. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Gajar.—Umbelliferæ COM. emetic. jaundice. NS. useful in leucoderma. K. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. nosetrouble. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. bronchitis. headache. febrifuge. ganja. FAM. biliousness. anodyne. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Cultivated in many parts of India. black (Kala) and white (Safed). Seeds—narcotic. Gajar. with curdled milk. to increase their stupefying effect. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. relieves pain. The plant as a whole has narcotic. in combination with subja. LOC. alexiteric. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.
bronchitis. Salpan. aphrodisiac.—May-July. See—Vegetables. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. used in bronchitis. B and C. they are also diuretic. Root marmalade is refrigerant. M. LOC. prevents death of fœtus in womb . asthma.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cures typhoid. throughout India. good for liver. Salwan. Salparni. China. chest troubles. anthelmintic. Dirghamula. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. CHAR. Fl. cough. cures leprosy. urinary discharges. C—violet or white. antidysenteric. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. tonic. cardiotonic. Ceylon. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). 0. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. carminative. Vidarigandha. astringent to bowels. vomiting. tropical Africa. chronic affections of chest and lungs. Country. piles.—in terminal or axillary racemes. useful in chronic fevers. piles. Malay Peninsula and Islands . burning sensation. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice.—onefoliate. good for inflammation. thirst. :—Konkan and N. Tonic. urinary complaints. " Tridosha ". Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. M. thirst. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). Kanara . indigestible. hiccup. FAM. upper edge straight. H. NS. asthma. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. tumours. margins wavy. :—A woody undershrub. fattening. stems and branches angled. L.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. Philippines. DISTR. Darh. biliousness. other fevers. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). abundant in Khandesh Akrani.—pod. . green and glabrous above. t. :— G. stomachic. Sk. biliousness. Ranbhal. USES :—Externally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. joints 6-8. sub-falcate.6-1. aphrodisiac. paler and hairy beneath. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. diuretic. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root.. nausea (Yunani).2 m. Salpani. " Vata". lessens griping and spleen inflammation. pains. Fr. high. vomiting and asthma. they produce a spirituous liquor. Kitavinashini. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. Murele-honne. COM. Shaliparni. Burma. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. alexipharmic. K. vomiting. Salwan. ovate-oblong. hairy. hooked hairy. Roots contain vitamins A. boiled with honey and fermented. It is used in fevers. standard cuneate at the base . LOC. astringent to bowels. removes " Kapha". Deccan and S. Salwan. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. expectorant. LOC. membranous. dysentery . In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. alterative. cures biliousness. inflammations.
in the beds of rivers and streams. reaching 50 cm. Banda. Davoli. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. branched from the base. bark. Syria. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places.) FAM. LOC. Gale. Flowers—aphrodisiac.—Dec.—Gramineæ. vomiting. Egypt. skin eruptions. Nubia. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land.3-3.—Ebenaceæ. COM. clothed with sessile spikelets. sheaths glabrous. diuretic. Ceylon.. heating. fruit and seeds. cures ulcers and " Vata". Gujarat. biliousness. Fl. Riber ebony. flowers. Darbha. M. vaginal discharges. Makurkendi. Temburni. oleaginous. interrupted. FAM. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Fruit—oleaginous. cooling. Anilsara. Dab. t. Kusha. vesical calculi. LOC. Tumaki Mara. tufted. Kanara and the Konkan. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. Darbha. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. rigid. Kalaskandh. Konkan. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. stolon very stout. long. :—Perennial tall grass. PARTS USED :—Wood. high. useful in blood diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. branches short crowded. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Thailand (Siam). COM. the basal fascicled. aphrodisiac. jaundice. CHAR. H. good for lumbago. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—G. :—Along the coasts of N. See—Fodder Plants. Timbwini. creeping. NS. DISTR. erect pyramidal or columnar.:—Saurashtra. Pavitra. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. thirst. smooth. Gavandu. diseases of bladder. DISTR. -panicle 15-45 X 1. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Malay Archipelago. Sacred Plants. sedative to pregnant uterus. asthma. strangury. Tumari.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. K. stout. Sk. :—Throughout India. Sphurjaka. Kalatendu. L. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. G. used in biliousness and blood diseases.—many. M. :—E. astringent to bowels. erect. covered with shining sheaths. Tendu. . margins hispid. Zeeberwo. Tinduka. H.8 cm. Sk. Dabha. Wild mangosteen. NS. Durva. LOC. stems 30-90 cm. Wood cures biliousness. rootstock stout. diseases of blood. ligule a hairy line .
K. heart-troubles. Kulitha. abdominal complaints. COM. Konkan— Ratnagiri. anthelmintic. See-Food Plants. short. leucoderma. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). Kulith. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. M. astringent to bowels. Ashvakatri. strangury. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. Kalvrinta. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. fattening. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Kulithaka. ovate. green when very young but soon turning dark brown.—Polypodiaceæ. Sk. Basingh. emmenagogue. ozoena. Surfaces naked. NS. diseases of the brain and eyes. appetiser. H. improves complexion. variously lobed. Texture membranaceous to leathery. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. Country—Belgaum. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. dry. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. inflammation. M. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. enlargement of spleen. stout. Grains contain vitamin A. :—E. Jurali. "Vata". Nasik. urinary discharges. See—Timbers. Wandar bashing. Horse-Gram. Kulathi. Kulthi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). grown to a certain extent in S. bronchitis. intestinal colic.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. piles. :—Tropics of the old world. Kulit. fertile ones long stalked. tumours.Gahat. Tans. :—Rhizome creeping. G. removes stone from kidney. Kulthi. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. piles. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. CHAR. generally on trees and rocks. pain in liver. liver troubles. cures hiccup. cures " Kapha". . USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. base decurrent on the stipe. densely clothed with red-brown scales. hot. antipyretic. FAM. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Sori two in each primary areole. Bijapur and Dharwar. LOC. coughs etc. Hurali. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. FAM. It is demulcent in calculus affection. LOC. COM. causes biliousness (Yunani). acrid. DISTR. cordate. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. eye troubles. Sitetara. asthma. :—M. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Diuretic. hiccup.
PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. Keshrangana. involucre. Fr. usually oblong-lanceolate. sessile. Root— abortifacient.—heads white. Bhangra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. Sk. NS. H. subentire. Utkanto. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. 0.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Bhangro. biliousness. Seeds—wholesome. FAM. Fl. Utkanta. t. branches widely spreading from the base. K. Afghanistan. DISTR. oblong. Kadechubak. cottony. H. Markara. COM. Maka. M. long. pain in joints. cottony pubescent. DISTR. dyspepsia and cough.-Jany. Country. :—More or less throughout India. globose. CHAR. :—A much branched rigid annual. Sunilaka. the lobes triangular and oblong. :—Kanara. spiny. thirst. It is used in hoarse cough.9 m. M. FAM. LOC. gleet. deeply pinnatifid. L. stems and branches strigose and hairy. S. L. LOC. COM.3—0. used in ophthalmia. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. sinuate and spinescent. surrounded by strong white bristles. pappus short. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani).—achene obconic. intermediate produced in sharp spine. tonic. " Vata". Dadhal. hysteria. hectic fever. Konkan. Utanti. inflammations. Utakatara. antipyretic. :—G. wooly beneath. yellowish. astringent to bowels .MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. analgesic. Deccan. Utkantaka.—Compositæ. Kantaphala. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. :—Konkan. Fl. bracts 3seriate. Kalobhangro . also cultivated to a certain extent. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Shulio. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). C.— opposite. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. Utkatara. :—G. Kantalu. Garagadasoppu. LOC. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots.—sessile.:—Throughout India.5 cm. M. Sk. . bitter.—Compositæ. useful in brain-diseases. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. spines 2. diseases of heart. hot. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. strigose and hairy. increases appetite. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Balari. Pitripriya. cooling. densely villous. often rooting at the nodes. Plant stomachic. chronic fever. glabrous above.—limb linear. NS. Ajagara. Bhringraj. causes " Kapha". used in strangury. urinary discharges. stimulates liver. dyspepsia. improves taste. Kadigga-garaga.— Nov. CHAR. high. Mochand. Bhangra. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic.
Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. Veldoda. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). syphilis. Bitter . hot. fevers. Ela. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. alexipharmic. Ceylon. toothache. cultivated.—Scitaminaceæ. night blindness. It is given internally in scalding of urine. LOC. anthelmintic. Fr. NS. involucral bracts about 8 . Chandrabala. Fl. Kanara (Siddapur. cuneate with a narrow wing. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. teeth. it is powdered and applied externally. Triputa. alterative. eye diseases. LOC. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. C—often 4-toothed . LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Ilaji. Karangi. Burma. lustre of eyes. hernia. "Vata". Bahula. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. disk ones tubular . Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis.. cures inflammations. Choti-Elachi. asthma. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. bronchitis. t. :—E. internal diseases. pappus 0. Sind. ray flowers ligulate. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. Madhya Bharat. H. G. FAM. Yalakki. See—Sacred Plants. prevents abortion and miscarriage. There are two forms erect and prostrate. "Kapha". :—Western valleys of N. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. leucoderma. . solitary or 2 together. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered.:—India (Bengal. liver pain. heart and skin diseases. improves colour of hair. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). hemi-crania. K. and for strengthening gums. good for spleen diseases. anæmia. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum.—achene. expectorant.— Oct. tonic. M. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine.—in heads. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. a reputed and popular liver tonic. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. antipyretic. stomatitis. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . Malaya. COM.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. stomachic. eyes. Elachi. Velchi. W. Gandhkuti. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . good for complexion. axillary.-Dec. hair. Sk. Panjab. Peninsula). In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. cures vertigo (Yunani). Gourangi. It relieves headache when applied with oil. fattening.
PARTS USED :—Grain. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). LOC. K. clear head. CUM. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). chest and throat (Yunani). :— G. Vidariga. Nagali. cooling. laxative. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. carminative. useful in asthma. Bavato. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. stomachic. In S. cause biliousness . abortifacient. cooling. Ragi. COM.. useful in head. Marua. piles. diseases of bladder. FAM. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. tonic to heart.:—G. It is stomachic. alexiteric . Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. Makra. H. most suitable to hard-working classes. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Bidanga. Vavoding. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. NS. pungent. brain and mouth. Seed—fragrant. rich or poor. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn.—Myrsinaceæ. Bhasmaka. It is said to be astringent. diuretic. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Rotka. Sk. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). kidney. useful in biliousness. NS.—Gramineæ. K. causes thirst. Sk. . diuretic. bitter. DISTR. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. bad humours of liver. stimulant and emmenagogue. Grains contain vitamin B. strangury. PARTS USED :—Root. Vavading. LOC.:—Western and S. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. root is laxative and tonic. scabies. fragrant. Wavrung. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. tonic. M. Pavaka. ear and tooth ache. stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Kanisha. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. Vayuvitang. Navalo-nagali. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Rajika. See—Condiments and Spices. Varding. LOC. Jantughna. fruit is tonic. See-Food Plants. consumption. Narttaka. H. bronchitis. India. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. lessens inflammation. Boberang. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. M. Nachani. FAM. pruritus. cultivated.
L. greenish yellow. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Arch. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. laxative. erysipelas. NS. Triphala. reddens urine. (Dymock). Fl. Gokhale. anæmia. Dhatri. :— E. like a pepper corn when dried. et. sour. H. Amlika. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Root. with a sharp bitter taste. Anward. strangury. :—Throughout India. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . internodes long. Adiphala. elliptic-lanceolate. carminative. Malay Islands. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. good for plethoric constitution. bark studded with lenticels . Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. " Kapha'. black when ripe.) FAM. Konkan and N. Western Ghats. Nellika . Int. LOC. Amlika. DISTR. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. China. poisoning.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Sk. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Avala. good appetiser. G. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. Malaya. Fl. COM. " Tridosha ". flexible. t. alexiteric. DISTR. jaundice. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms.—Euphorbiaceæ. flowers. Ambala. bronchitis. many. anuria. HABITAT :—Rain forests. diseases of heart. useful in burning sensation. Amalaka. anthelmintic . paler and silvery beneath. bark. Embelic myrobalan. aphrodisiac. Pharm. dry. Ceylon. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). Ceylon. vomiting. K. leprosy. . constipation. Deccan. shining above. sweats. :—Hilly parts of the State. K. laxative. :—A large scandent shrub. bronchitis. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. Bitter. thirst. cures tumours. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. nearly globose. analgesic. alterative. fruit and seeds.—alternate. Fr. S. piles. cooling. urinary discharges. LOC. ascites. dyspnoea.—in lax panicles. LOC. Seed— acrid. Paranjpe and G. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. cures bronchitis . Dhatriphala. alexiteric. branches long. Anola. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. urinary discharges. useful in asthma. often planted in Konkan. dries wound discharges . inflammations. M. slender. Bhoza . antipyretic. hemicrania. anthelminitic. purgative. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). succulent. Kanara. leaves. biliousness. racemes minute. S. smooth. Daula .—Feb. China. carminative.—berry. Dadi. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. tonic. alterative. wild or planted. Ther. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. Amla. coriaceous. mental diseases. 42-II-1932).
Saurashtra. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Mabhipaka. Gujarat. opposite. 3-nerved. variable. rounded apex. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. expectorant. LOC. bark and fruit are astringent. 10—50 cm. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Fruit Trees. See—Timbers. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. useful in heart-diseases. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. Country. M. piles. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Madvinashi. biliousness. Tans. LOC. M. cold in the nose. Dyes. :—Konkan. M. aperient. Mackary bean. S. tropical Africa. Nahu. Ind. Grey). Mamejavo . Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness.-Nov.— capsule.—sessile. USES :—Root. high. t. NS. Tanavadi. mid-nerve strong. Lady nut. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. sour. improves appetite. Garambi. CHAR. Fruit—acrid. Kadvinayi. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. eye troubles. H. Doddakampi. purifies body humours (Yunani). It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ".). West Indies. :—A perennial glabrous herb. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Dried fruits. branched from the base. K. anthelmintic. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Tiktapatra. Nagajivha. Unripe fruit is cooling.) FAM. Sind. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. narrowed at the base. Giant's rattle. Sk. FAM. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation.—sessile. astringent. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. COM. liver complaints.—Gentianaceæ. . C—infundibuliform. ellipsoid.—Aug. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Hallekayiballi. Fl. used as laxative and astringent. LOC. white. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. DISTR. Chhotakirayat. Malaya. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. stops nasal hæmorrhage. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. thirst. cooling. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. NS. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). :—E. L. vulnerary. diuretic and laxative. tonic. :—G. R. Garbe. Fr. lobes 5. stems erect or procumbent. sub-quadrangular or terete. Celyon.
pinnae 2—3 pairs. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Mochi-wood. Sundribans. hot. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.3-2 cm. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. Planted as ornament. Var. 3. Sk. Kanara. inflammations. LOC. M. Hongara. Pegu. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats.. for grapevines in Nasik district. t.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. ORIENTALIS Merr. Raktapushpa. :—Konkan and N.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).7-5x7. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. stalked.—pod. bark. Pangara. orbicular. Peninsula. indented between the seeds.. Fr. Phandra . glabrous. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). cure urinary discharges. Panderavo. woody. dark green. Mandara. stomachic.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. 30-90 cm. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. flowers. Fl. long. Leaves—bitter. LOC. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Arakan. C.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Seeds. G. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. shining and brown. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. COM. along sea-coast above high-water. mixed with spices. diam. :—Coast forests of Malabar. long. Paribhadra. K. leaflets 7-5 x 2. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Bangaro. Halivan. Mullumurige. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. they are given internally as an emetic. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery.— Mar. 4.S. Sd. wide and 3-8 cm. L. often along river banks.—2pinnate. Pangara. DISTR. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. bark used in dysentery. Andamans and Nicobar. Planted as support for pepper vines. Salaki. DISTR. Nepal.—yellow. leaves. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.-May. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. USES :—Powdered kernel. Indian coral-tree. smooth. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. the tropics generally. Mandara. slightly curved. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Dadap. :—E. improve appetite. cures " Kapha" and " Vata".. anthelmintic. . Kantakinshuka. The plant is used as a fish-poison.5-10 cm. compressed. Panarvo. branches terete. rigidly coriaceous. Panjira.5-5-7 cm. N. W. thick. in debility and glandular swellings .—6-15. oblong or obovate. Tennaserim. Fl.
Paradeshi thora . and to relieve pain of the joints. Mondukalli. Sk. NS. K. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. L. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Dandasruha. G. Dandalio thora. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Shirthahar. M. Nevli.—Euphorbiaceæ. 15-50 cm. Fr. See—Timbers. Nagpur 1931). Milk hedge. Achchegida. gland minute. Sendh. reddish brown. G. H. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Sd. FL. The plant contains an alkaloid. LOC. H. Dudhi. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Sc. Sk. it is anthelmintic. NS. Dudanali. Bottugalli. serrulate or dentate. t. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. erect or ascending. COM. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. Australian asthma herb. Milk bush. branches often 4-angled. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Duddi. :— E. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. M. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Govardhan. Ceylon. —throughout the year. Pill-bearing spurge. Dudhi. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn.) FAM. Sher. bowel complaints and cough in children. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Kodukalli. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Dudhi. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Sahud. pale beneath.—ovoid-trigonous.—Euphorbiaceæ. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. globose.—involucres numerous. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Indian tree spurge.—opposite. FAM. CHAR.—capsule. Pusitoa. Fl. Vajradruma. . K. :—Annual herb. appressedly hairy. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. base unequal-sided. COM. :—E. rugose. dark green above. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. 18th Ind. Cong. high. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. with or without a limb. Bahukshira.
FAM. Sd— glabrous. L. whooping cough. useful in biliousness. more than 5 cm. :—Sind. prostrate. Shyamakranta .—ovoid. milk is alexiteric. high. Fr. jaundice. :—A small tree. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. NS.-July-Nov. smooth. smooth. The plant contains an alkaloid. Vishnugandhi. COM. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. tonic. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. employed to raise blisters. linear. H. 4valved. DISTR. Vishnukranta. globose. biliousness.—Convolvulaceæ. M.-Aug. polished. spreading. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. Juice is purgative.— capsule. Kalisankhavali. :—G. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . base acute. tropical and sub-tropical countries.—small. asthma. :—Native of East Africa. epilepsy. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). t. Sk. axillary. Sd. CHAR. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. elliptic-oblong. dropsy. cocci velvety. solitary or sometimes 2. Fr. useful in gonorrhœa. LOC. enlargement of spleen. useful in abdominal troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. stems many. stone in bladder (Yunani). LOC. branchlets whorled. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). and with oil to promote growth of hair. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. silky hairy. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. alterative. DISTR. :—A perennial herb. :—Throughout the State. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. almost leafless. . EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. dyspepsia. Vishnukranta. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. mostly female. carminative. thick like quill. campanulate. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Vishnukranti.-light blue. carminative. usually clothed with long hairs . Fl.—capsule. terete. about 6 m. colic. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. leprosy and leucorrhoea. wiry.—many. peduncles very long. Nilpushpi. Jhinkiphudardi. L. leucoderma. long. pungent. branches erect. Ceylon. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. leprosy. also as an alterative. Fl. brightens intellect. K. useful in bronchitis.-Sep. thin. Fl. t. naturalised in India. 6-13 mm. rootstock woody . long (appearing in rainy season) . teething of infants . alexiteric. Konkan and Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. anthelmintic. LOC. tumours.
2 cm. smooth. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. also used in chronic fevers. thirst. Punjab. COM. small. cooling.). FAM. H. Waziristan. Deccan hills and S. asthma. Kashaya. pyramidal to the apex. of 5. leaflets linear. ellipsoid. Prabhodhini. LOC. :— Sind.—Zygophyllaceæ. Ghats. stomatitis. :— H. Dhamaso . it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. reduces tumours.—very variable in size and form sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . 5-nerved. Gujarat. :—An erect annual. obliquely obovate. LOC. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). L. Ind. smooth. Ustarkhar. Dusparsha. DISTR. Mediterranean. Dhanavi. acute. LOC. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. flattened. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn.—Gentianaceæ. Baluchistan. M.-Aug. t. Fr. deeply 5-partite. ovate. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. good for liver troubles. scarcely branched. long. petioles deeply striate. Maval. CHAR. NS. in copious terminal cymes . W. DISTR.-Nov. CHAR. pale rose-coloured.-Dec. vomiting. toothache. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. M. COM. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. quadrangular. FAM. Mysore. C—lobes 4-5. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. Iran. more or less glandular. purifies blood (Ayurveda). FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Bark is used in scabies. root fibrous. Circars.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. :—Madras State. glandular hairy. Rajasthan.—opposite. Cooling. spitting of blood. Upper Gangetic plains. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks." asthma. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. high. in chronic bronchitis. removes "Vata". alexipharmic.—solitary. westwards to Afghanistan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. t. Arabia. reaching 60 cm. Country. 1-3 foliate. Coimbatore. Sk. about 1. Hinguna. Fr. typhoid. Fl. yellowish brown. Atmamuli. :—G. the upper blue. . the middle the largest. Dhamasa. removes "Vata. :—Konkan. L. stem. urinary discharges. Fl. arising from between the stipules . largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. FL. it has got cooling properties. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. 1-seeded cocci. NS. emmenagogue.— ovoid. shining. Fl.— showy. Sd. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). lower half white. sessile. erysipelas. fever.-Oct. elliptic or lanceolate. Udichirayat. N.—capsule. M. ophthalmia. Barachirayat. cures dysentery.
Jatala.— globose. Goli. alexipharmic. Kathinyaphala. Kotha. ophthalmia. Vata. cures cough.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. consumption. :— E. cordate or rounded base.. FAM. Fruit Trees. tonic to heart. Avaroha. Sk. M. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Dadhiphala. common in the Tapi Valley. useful in biliousness. Ceylon. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness .102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Kavitha. :—E. :—Cultivated all over the State. Kothun. Ala. COM. removes biliousness. See—Timbers. Java. 10-20 X 5-12. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. L. Manmadha. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. often planted. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Malura. M. Ghats. CHAR. Kavit. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Leaves. with spreading branches. binding diuretic. Vadlo . good for throat. :—Indigenous in S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. LOC. aphrodisiac. Banian tree. H. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). S. NS. hiccup. Kathel. heart diseases. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. DISTR. . fatigue. refrigerant . country and N. K. Self-sown. female. fruit and seeds. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Bhringi. Vad. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. G. Vad. leucorrhoea. Bahupada. difficult to digest. Alada. Kapitha. dysentery. often cultivated. Leaves—very astringent. Balin. Sk. Bar. Elephant or wood apple. acrid. refrigerant.—coriaceous.—Rutaceæ. about 2 cm. tumours. LOC.—Moraceæ. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Kapipriya. LOC. Nyagrodha. thirst. COM. strengthening to gums . Bargat. " Vata ". diam. asthma. Grahiphala. vomiting . In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. blood impurities. H. Bargad. M. Byala. Seeds—antidote to poison. astringent. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. with male. Fr. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat.5 cm. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. high. Kavath. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. India. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Fruit—sour . Vat. Kait. " Tridosha". shining above. Monkey fruit. NS. Belada. K. liver and lungs . ovate to elliptic. G.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels.—Moraceæ. liver and spleen diseases. W. useful in syphilis. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. Anjir. vomiting. fever. root-fibres. alexiteric. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. COM. weakness. Anjura. vulnerary. bruises. erysipelas. USES :—Fruit is emollient. PARTS USED :—Bark. stimulates hair-growth. Simeyatu . India. boils and carbuncles. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. pain in chest cures piles. biliousness. Sk. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. Asia and Mediterranean. vaginal complaints. LOC. DISTR. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. maturant. useful in piles. paralysis. leprosy. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. Cultivated in N. LOC. dysentery. useful in "Vata". USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. :—Baluchistan. LOC. . nose bleeding (Ayurveda). Anjir. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Fibres. Aerial root is styptic. laxative. Anjir. lessens inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. hill ranges of S. See—Famine Plants. diseases of head and blood. NS. H. inflammation of liver (Yunani). Leaves are applied heated as poultice. G. ulcers. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. Anjir. nutritive. W. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Dharwar. diuretic. Bijapur. ringworm. Seeds are cooling and tonic. FAM. M. tonic. useful in "Kapha". Afghanistan. demulcent. useful in leucoderma. aphrodisiac. FICUS CARICA Linn. leaves. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. thirst. useful in inflammation . leprosy (Ayurveda). India. inflammations. nose-diseases. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). seeds and milky juice. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Milky Juice—expectorant. Kakodumbar. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. gonorrhœa. Fig. in rheumatism and lumbago. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Sacred Plants. lithotriptic. Root—tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Grown scattered elsewhere. :— E.
galactagogue. Umar. Umar. Rumadi. good for gravid uterus. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. diseases of kidney and spleen. K. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves—astringent to bowels . ulcers. NS. Sk. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. COM. DISTR. useful. :—Throughout the State near villages. loss of voice. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Pipal. Fruit— useful in dry cough. NS. Bodhidruma. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. uterus . Fruit—astringent to bowels. given in leucorrhoea. good for foul taste. Bark useful in asthma and piles. bark. G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Udumbara. bark. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. Atti. Pipli. Umbar. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. leucorrhoea.—Moraceæ. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. leaves. Ragi. vagina. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. useful in "Kapha". leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. LOC. planted all over. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Bark is cooling. Pippala. vulnerary.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. leaves and fruits. H. Pavitraka. Pimpal. burning sensation. Shuchidruma. See—Timbers. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. Sacred Plants.—Moraceæ. styptic. H. Pippala. Pipers. nose bleedings. LOC. Ashwatha mara. fatigue. LOC. latex. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. biliousness. Sk. G. Hemadugdha. (Yunani). is given to cattle in rinderpest. allays thirst. . menorrhagia. FAM. :—E. Arani. :—Widely spread throughout India. :—E. Lalka. M. DISTR. Demera. Umbro. cummin. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. fruit. Vriksharaj. biliousness. urinary discharges. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Milk—aphrodisiac. blood diseases. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. ground with onions. good for bronchitis. K. FAM. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. burning sensation. Ashvatha. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. Gular. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. HABITAT :—Planted. Jari. in diseases of blood. Bark.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Peepal tree . :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Gular-Country fig. acrid. M. Yajnika. Pipal.
seeds. Ghats.—Umbelliferæ. Fodder Plants. good for lumbago. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Variari. FAM. See—Timber. upper Gangetic plain. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. :—E. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. appetising and digestive. . Tapaspriya. heart diseases. Bilangra . In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. H. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Fruit—purgative. Akrani. gum. Kanara Jungles. W. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. See—Timbers. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. bark. Burma. Handi Kandai. Swadukantaka. promotes granulations. Tambat. Sk. Gajale. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Country and N. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Sacred Plants. M. COM. Fennel. Fruits are sweet. M. DISTR. Kankod . Sk. Young bark useful in bone fractures. M. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. The juice is employed in hiccup. H.—Flacourtiaceæ. G. K. Bhanber. checks vomiting (Yunani). Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. and produces sterility in women. LOC. Bhuripushpa. Katar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Satpura. S. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. PARTS USED :—Root. COM NS. Shalina. aphrodisiac. Mullutari. Soupa. Root good for gout. HABITAT :—Hills. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). N. Shateya. NS. Variali. Bhakal. :— G. K. cleans ulcers. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND LOC. Circars. LOC. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Hunmunki. Potika. Khandesh. SAPIDA Roxb. Badishep. Paker. astringent in leucorrhoea. common in the Peninsula. FAM. Finkel. fruit. Badisoppu. Hettarimullu. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink.
leaves and seeds. 0. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". aromatic and carminative. leprosy (Ayurveda). strengthen eyes (Yunani). anthelmintic. USES :—Bark is astringent.— decompound. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. DISTR. useful in bleeding piles. improves appetite and allays thirst. :—Apparently a native of S. common in S. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. in headache. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". Atyamla. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Tintidika. Ghats south of Bombay. thirst. yellow. LOC. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). cures "Tridosh". Oils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. Ghats. carpophore 2-partite. It is much used as a nutritive. COM. Murjinhalli. USES :—used as stimulant. wounds. seeds-carminative. Konkan and N. wounds etc. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. LOC. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. burning sensation. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. LOC. . high. often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Roots. kidney. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. cardiotonic. furrows vittate. Wild mangosteen. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. PARTS USED :—Bark.—in large umbels .—Guttiferæ. Leaves—improve eyesight. fruit and seeds. appetiser. dysentery. amenorrhœa. H. lessen inflammations. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. Ratambi. Kokam . Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fr. causing constipation . difficult to digest. M. Kokam. FL. Amlabija. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. cough and asthma. See—Condiments and Spices. :—A tall glabrous. Mulgala. (Mhaskar and Caius). biliousness. ridges prominent. galactagogue. laxative. DISTR. spleen. dark green. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children.—ellipsoid. bracts and bracteoles absent. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. " Vata ". stomachic. LOC. fissures of lips. stimulant. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. aphrodisiac. G. FAM. L. diuretic. annual. demulcent and emollient. ultimate segments linear. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. :—W. :—Endemic in W. Coorg. Sk. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. fever. Wynaad. alexiteric. K. eye-diseases.9 m. Tittidika . dysentery. tumours. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. it relieves griping of bowels in infants.6-0. Kokam . HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. Kanara. useful in diseases of chest. :—E.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. leaves (rarely). NS.
-tubular. :—A deciduous shrub. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda).. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. Western Peninsula. shining. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence.-subsessile. :—Common from Konkan southwards. K. Fr. CHAR. same as for G. astringent to bowels. Dikamari. See—Gums and Resins. about 1. oblong or ellipsoid.—Rubiaceæ. Burma. NS. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. unarmed. NS. COM. DISTR.—Rubiaceæ. Pinda. LOC. Hingu.5 cm. Sk. Peninsula).MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. Gums and Resins. H. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. common on laterite in southern parts of N. As sold in the bazar it is hard. 1-3 together. HABITAT :—Open situations. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms.-sessile. G. Kanara. relieves pain of bronchitis. Bikke. Northern ghats of Madras State. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. FAM. Fl. high. Dikamali. LOC. not fragrant. 4. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. buds resinous. lucida (Ayurveda). It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores.8 cm. . PARTS USED :—Gum. opaque. M. long. Suvirya. t. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite.8 m. :—India. all dry districts of Madras State. LOC. :—E.5-3. lucida.5x22. first white then changing to yellow. LOC.—Feb. Dekamari. COM. Cambi resin tree.—2. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. Jantuka. Dakamali. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. -June. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . PARTS USED:-Gum. C. Dikemali. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. FAM. oblong. Dikkamalli. :—India (W. L. elliptic-obovate. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . See—Timbers.
108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani).2 cm. K. Garbhapatani. 7. Huliyuguru.5 cm. Khadyanag. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. bitter. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. solitary. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). linear oblong. useful in chronic ulcers. branching climber . LOC. solid. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Fl.. Akkitang hall. Sk. L. root-stock of arched. Ceylon.-July-Oct. scattered or opposite. thirst. NS. Karianag. :—Herbaceous. laxative. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. Cochin-China. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. M. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. sometimes whorled. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent.5-3. filaments long spreading. LOC. :—Throughout tropical India. changing colours from greenish yellow. expectorant.—capsule. Kalihari. PARTS USED :—Tuber. axillary . Dudhio vachhonag. leprosy. abdominal pains. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. margins wavy. Indai. inflammations. anthelmintic. t. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. . Kathari. There are two varieties of the plant. Nangulika. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour.3 cm. alexiteric. orange. FL. FAM. tall. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2.5 X 15 X 2-4. CHAR. scarlet. Languli. acrid. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. Sivasaktibalb . USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. In Guinea. Fr. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. In case of retained placenta. Tuber— astringent. given off from young tubers . leaves and flowers. COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. and crimson from blooming to fading. abortifacient. H. itching. :—G. Tropical Africa. piles. linear-lanceolate. The former is supposed to be male. heating.. Malay Peninsula.—Liliaceæ. perianth segments reaching 6. Kalikari. Linn. used to remove placenta from uterus. Kulhari. Agnimukhi.—large.. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral.—sessile. DISTR. ovate lanceolate. stems annual.
Cashmere tree. aphrodisiac. strangury. Rajasthan and N. :— E.—Malvaceæ. catarrh of the bladder etc. Provinces. :—Throughout India. leprosy. Shiwan. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. burning sensation. common on Satpuda. Malaya. scalds etc. Philippines. Mahabhadra. Devkapas. Deokapas. K. abdominal pains. thirst. improves appetite . PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout the State. :— Bengal. White teak. H. See—Fibres. stomachic. Madhya Bharat.—Verbenaceæ. leaves. Gandhari. chronic cystitis. Gumbhar. FAM. COM. Savan. Fruit— diuretic. Shivani. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). In the Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Shripani. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. gleet. M. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Nurma . Sind. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra.:—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. useful in fevers . Tree cotton. anasarca. leaves. . G. PARTS USED :—Root. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. G. Kashmari. made into paste. thirst. Root taken with liquorice. indigestible. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Hanji. tonic. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. ulcers. Sk. Khandesh. See—Timbers. Var. FAM. the root. consumption. useful in indigestion. Karpasam. Oils. H. Flowers—astringent. flowers and fruit. " Tridosha ". LOC. laxative. W. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Shiwan. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Karibatti. NS. piles. COM. flowers and seeds. Devakapus. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. useful in "Vata". Sk. urinary discharges. Gupsi. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. root is also stomachic and laxative. NS. DISTR. fevers. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. anthelmintic . Kumbudi. LOC. Gambhari.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Shivan . Gambari. M. Ceylon. anæmia. Coomb teak. LOC. :—Throughout the State and about temples. useful in hallucinations. Bachanige. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. promotes hair-growth. DISTR. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Root extract is bitter and tonic. K. alterative. scattered in monsoon forests.
aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. in hills near Poona. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Syria. Baluchistan. Egypt. In India they are used to procure abortion. good for all kinds of inflammations. aphrodisiac. Sk. Seeds— ' galactagogue. Sk. Badari. Mediterranean. Mesapotamia. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. East Tropical Africa. LOC. Dhamin. F. DISTR.—Malvaceæ. Seeds—aphrodisiac. COM. Pharuah. H. M. Jana. poultice applied to burns' scalds. scabies . Roshana. Anagnika. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. removes " Vata" and biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. expectorant and aphrodisiac. in hypochondria. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Arali. Country. Tula. fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. restore consciousness. A. bark. :—E. Leaves remove " Vata " . NS. fomentation for burning eyes . extensively in Gujarat. expectorant. leaf-juice good in dysentery. tonic. Kupas. Rui. Karpas. :—Sind. Karihariyale. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. wild in Deccan. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. LOC. Iran. M. Arabia and Asia Minor. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :— Cultivated in N. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Ripe fruit—sweet. Province (Pakistan). Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. preventing their access to wounds etc. Kapus. probably in N. U. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. Oils. :—G. W. demulcent. digestible. Phalsi. leaves. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . acrid. H. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. cooling. Hatti. cures inflammations. laxative . See—Fibres. (Yunani). Sutrapuspha. heart and blood disorders. Buttiyu-dippa. cure all ear-troubles. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. fevers and consumption..—Tiliaceæ. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. increase flow of urine. Gujarat and S. G. Tadasala. extensively cultivated.. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. K. allay thirst.Phalse. FAM. K. Phalsa. Seeds are laxative. :—Cultivated in the State. sour.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. enrich blood. Parusha. used in orchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated. removes " Vata ". analgesic. Cotton . Parapera. COM. LOC. Kapas . NS. Afghanistan. DISTR. good for throat . FAM. S. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Rui.
G. Bedki. Mahabaleshwar and N. Sati talvani. M. G. K. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Root and bark used in strangury. Sanngera. Meshavalli. Hulhul. Mabli. stomachic. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. SK.— Apl. Kanphodi. Fruit—sour. S. India. elliptic. leucoderma. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. tonic. Churota. base rounded or cordate . cornea. corona of 5 processes . NS. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). bronchitis. FL. yellow . Kavali. Shrikala. alterative. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Bastagandha. alexiteric. :—A large woody climber. Caravella. common in hedges in Dharwar district. COM. lanceolate. :—Throughout the State. COM. Merasingi. t. Sd. the stomachic stimulant. Ceylon. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. :—Western Peninsula. anthelmintic. Vakundi. Meshashingi. Vishani. Mardashingi. :E. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Adiyakharan. Tropical Africa. Tilparni. biliousness. ovate. H. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). asthma.— opposite. Kabari. vitreous body) burning sensation. Kanara coast. Fl. Fr. Karalia .—follicle. Pandhari tilwan. sweet. L. young stems densely pubescent. FAM. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). relieves thirst and hiccup. FAM. good in heart-diseases. H.— with thin marginal wing. K. LOC. Ugragandha. Sannagerse. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. usually single.—Capparidaceæ. See—Fruit Trees. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. ulcers. C. inflammations. CHAR. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Br. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. helps removal of dead fetus. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). :— E.-May. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Tanmani. The ease of administration. NS. strengthens chest and heart. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. . a sherbat is prepared from the fruit.—in cymes . Gurmar.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. acrid. Sk.— companulate . M. Arkapuspika. Periploca of the woods. cooling. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. LOC. much branched. should not be eaten raw. LOC. piles. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Hulhul. Karnasphota. — Asclepiadaceæ.
HABITAT:—Hills. Gujarat. LOC. Sk. Fr.12. acute. Sd. long. Murudi. hills in Supa Taluka. . opposite.5-20 X 3. white or blue. Fl.—Oct. Kewan. DISTR. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. PARTS USED :—Root. good in ascites. Kavargi.—many. LOC.—capsule. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. elliptic-obovate. Katraj Ghat. Murdasing.-Feb. DISTR. producing copious exudation.. Fl. Avartant. hills near Nagothana. H. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. removes "Vata". Gidesa Jitasai. Murudseng. NS. hairy on the nerves beneath. earache. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. China.5 cm. M. M. COM. pain. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. glabrous or pubescent above. margins crenate-dentate. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. leaves and seeds. L. :—An annual erect herb 0. (Kirtikar and Basu).—petals 4 with long slender claws. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. tapering at both ends. viscid. stipules triangular. Kanara. Sd..—Sterculiaceæ. :—A small deciduous shrub. long . COM. ellipsoid . C. gynophore 2-2. pubescent. :—G. Country. pedicels viscid hairy. pink . . 5-9 cm. leaflets subsessile. Sinhgad hills. Marosi. stem and branches hairy. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . :—Deccan. t. Edamuri.—rather rigid. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . tumours. FAM. with divaricate herbaceous branches . S.8-9 cm. sessile. Jonkaphal Maraphali. ulcers.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fr. hairy. LOC.—muricate. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. vesicant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. Fl. Fl.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas.—in dense bracteate racemes. K. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant.—3-5 foliate. high.—June. t.2 m. NS.—capsule. stomachic .6—1. L. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. FAM. dark-brown . elliptic-lanceolate. hairy.—Rubiaceæ. Mrigashringa. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. :—M.
FL. burning sensation. H. fevers. C.—tubular. syphilis. thirst. LOC.—follicle of 5-6. dark-green. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. demulcent. See—Fibres. poisoning. Kapurimathuri. epileptic fits. rat-bites.—follicle cylindric. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). mildly astringent. Utpalashariva. stems thickened at the nodes . paralysis. alexiteric. bark and fruit.-Dec. greenish outside. Malaya. . :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). Kanara ghat forests. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. liver and kidney diseases . Sk. COM.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. L.Sd. diarrhœa. Hindisalse. asthma. NS. G.— in cymes in opposite axils. Sugandhi-balli. They are demulcent. cough. joint-pains. Anantmula. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections.-biferous. Sd. Upalsali. cures all skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.— with silvery white coma . astringent to bowels. low appetite. Root and stem—laxative. Br. stem. beaked. root-Stock woody . Hamadaberu . Root useful in hemicrania. “tridosh". lessens griping. 5-6. ovate orbicular. Country. and leaves. HABITAT :—In hedges. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Durivel. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. K. t. Anantmula. t — Aug. India. asthma. angular . Australia and West Indies. leucorrhoea. LOC. Ceylon. obliquely cordate. antidiarrhœal. 7. useful in piles. :—Upper Gangetie plain. eye troubles. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. Upalsari. anti-galactagogue. :—Throughout the State. FAM.—throughout the greater part of the year. common in hedges. Fl. often variegated with white above. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. Fr. bronchitis. Burma. irregularly crowded. CHAR. Magrabu. spirally coiled. :—Large shrub or small tree. urinary discharges. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic.. M. Konkan. Stem lessens inflammation. long. :— E. bilabiate.—Asclepiadaceæ. purplish inside.3 cm. diaphoretic. uterine complaints. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. foul body odour. blood diseases. M. tapering . Indian sarsaparilla . good for brain. scabrous above. L. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S.—numerous. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. Dhaval kashtha.5 X 5-10 cm.— very variable. useful in gleet. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. Fr. astringent to bowels . useful in syphilis and leucoderma. Fl. Deccan and S. DISTR.512. red at first fading to lead colour. "Kapha". gargle good for toothache (Yunani). LOC. "Vata' dysentery. diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. DISTR.
and the powdered root for menorrhagia. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. solitary. Aruna. entire near the base. Rudrapushpa. red. Root roasted in plantain leaves.5. etc. flowers. FAM. Dasavala.. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. involucral bracts 5-7. yellow. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup.—axillary.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. diam.—no fruits produced in India. useful in loss of appetite. K. . it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. :— E. remove burning of body. bark and petals are demulcent.—during most of the year. It is said to purify blood. Raktapushpi. and as early as 1864. Fr. glabrous. t. Shoe flower. LOC. Fl. Fl. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). See—Ornamental Plants. leaves. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. cooling. Japapushpa. Jasut. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. M. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. syphilis and leucorrhoea. fevers. It is also diuretic. seminal weakness. LOC. magenta. piles. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. COM. cm. Kempupundrika. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root. demulcent. Root is valuable in coughs. uterine and vaginal discharges. DISTR. ovate or ovate lanceolate. tubular below. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. skindiseases. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). In the Konkan. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. C. tonic. crimson. H. CHAR. Jasavand. Sk. bright red. NS. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Jasum. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra).—Malvaceæ. G.—short petioled. urinary discharges. pedicel jointed above the middle. petals thrice as long as the calyx. :—A perennial shrub.—7. Jasuva. L. Harivallaba. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. irregularly serrate towards the top. Native country probably China. and mixed with ghee. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Dasanihu.
—Malpighiaceæ. 10-18 X 4. Fl. and adding a little salt. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Madhumalati. FAM. young parts silky. Fl. Lal ambadi. Kamuka. sedative and refrigerant.—Malvaceæ. asafoetida and molasses.—capsule. purple. Madhavi. serrate. 1. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. Vasanti. M. 3-winged. calyx fleshy.. C. Adimurtte Adirganti. COM. COM. :—An annual. K. globose. :—Throughout the State. NS. much used in curries. on the margins. :—G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. petioles silky. entire glabrous. 3-5 lobed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ghats. Vasantduti. often blotched with purple with darker centre. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Sd. Rozelle. Malati. clawed. L. Atimukta. white.-Mar. elliptic-oblong. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Lal ambari. t. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. :—Cultivated. Haladvel. Madmalati. long. Fl. tropics of the old world.—purple with darker centres.3-7.— Jany.—Oct. fragrant. 5th petal yellow at the base. Konkan.—in erect racemes. across. hairy. stem and branches purple. H. NS. pepper. flowers. HABITAT. Patwa.—5-7. L. fringed. Deccan. G. Madhavi. acuminate. :—E. Madhalata. Sd. Madhavi. C. erect.) FAM. fruits and seeds.5 cm. Grows abundantly on the W. . CHAR. Ceylon. involucral bracts 10. covered with minute hairs .—petals 5. black-brown. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. orbicular. glabrous. base cuneate. long. M.—large. Lal ambadi.lobes oblong. Fl. Vasantduti. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. H. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. mid-lobe the longest. Pundi-bija or soppu. purple. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Ragotpiti. Fr. Fibres. Sk.— solitary. t. uppermost petal broader.—axillary. Madhavi.—1-3. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places.2-2 cm. LOC. beaked. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.—coriaceous. Atimukta. ovoid. Fr.5 cm.-Dec. LOC. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. Kanara. Kampti. Red sorrel. Kempupundrike. See—Vegetables. Chandravalli. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. CHAR.
throat hairy inside. Kaling. leprosy. Kudsalu. Bark—bitter. H. Abu. Karnatak. Sk. thirst and inflammation. Fl. N. appetiser cure blood diseases. L. :—Throughout hotter parts of India.. burning sensation. Malay Peninsula. Kuda. Andamans. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Hath. Karohi. cause "Vata". acrid. G. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. COM. often dotted with white spots. cough. given in chest affections. ulcers. CHAR. Burma. fatigue.—Apocynaceæ. :—Throughout the State. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards.— in terminal corymbose cymes . cures dysentery. Thailand (Siam). acrid. lessens inflammations. anthelmintic. insecticidal. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. leucoderma .116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. PARTS USED :—Bark. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. hallucinations (Ayurveda). See—Ornamental Plants. leaves. Kodasige. tonic. Fr. Mt. LOC. diuresis (Yunani). FL. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. leprosy. remove "Tridosh". combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. NS. LOC. Assam. smoke good for piles. cylindric. strengthens gums. Flowers— acrid. remove muscular pains . Sd. bleeding piles. C—tubular. M. skin and spleen diseases. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. wounds. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot.5 cm. Kumaon.—10-20 X 5-11. main nerves conspicuous .—with deciduous coma of brown hairs ..—follicles 20-48 cm. white. :—E. K. Nepal. vulnerary. urinary discharges. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). " Kapha". skin diseases. burning sensation. fevers. broadly ovate or elliptic. good in chronic bronchitis. Kutaja. aphrodisiac. biliousness. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. asthma. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. Ceylon. flowers and seeds. Dudhi. Madras State. galactagogue. DISTR. Kura. good in erysipelas. Seeds—carminative. boils. excessive menstrual flow. cooling. good in headache. Seeds—appetiser. Veppale. styptic. lumbago. branchlets drooping. FAM. long. colic. heating. Circars. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Kaduoindrajav. PROPERTIES. China. diarrhœa. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Conessi bark tree. vulnerary. Siwalik. astringent to bowels cure pains.-June. Kuda.—Feb. LOC. Pandhara Kuda. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). biliousness. bitter. Indrayana. Kurchi tree. Karuindrayan. Hale. cool the brain. tonic. Leavesastringent. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. t. inodorous. thirst.
NS. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. with radicle attached to it. See—Food Plants. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Germinated barley. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. nor astringent. PARTS USED :—Seeds. fattening. pains in chest. aphrodisiac. widely cultivated in temperate regions. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. good for ulcers. and kurchicine. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. COM. stomachic. Knowles. DISTR. They are also used after delivery. Yava. demulcent and expectorant. acrid. bronchitis. appetiser. diarrhœa. lowers the pulse. headache. inflamed gums. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. Gaz. Med. burns. improves voice. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. M. Javegodhi. Tasteless. fevers (Yunani). The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. kurchine. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). 1928). useful in biliousness. asthma. malt sugar and diastase.—Gramineæ. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. K. . Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. The grains contain vitamin B. H. India. Suj.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Ind. Shaktu. useful in fevers. Jav. Sk. causes constipation. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. febrifuge. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. allays thirst. especially cod-liver oil. LOC. useful in bronchitis. Aug. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. anæmia. dysentery and intestinal worms. Hayapriya. LOC. FAM. —Cultivated chiefly in N. Barley. nor styptic. (R. Divya. Jawa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Ymvah. G. They are astringent. biliousness. Jav. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Java. Satu. sweetish.
Niradivittulu. dioecious . L. Madhya Pradesh. Dondra. NS. K. DISTR. DISTR. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . FL. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. Malabar.5 cm. sometimes along river banks. Common in N. Sd. Amarachala. :—W. Bandaru. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Kastel. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. flat.—Apl. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Kshiradru. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. . t. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Bhanina. Bhorsal. Sk. Ghats. :—K. COM. common in Travancore. Dondru. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. PROPERTIES AND LOC. sulphur.—solitary or in racemes. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. See—Oils. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Garudphala. globose or ovoid. Fl. young parts brown pubescent. 12. Bhringamallika.—berry. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. white. PARTS USED :—Seeds.) FAM. Bihar. pungent. LOC. Southern and Western India. FAM. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Sk.. H.5-23 X 3. C. Doti.—Jany. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. camphor and lime-juice. Peninsula. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Bhutabi. M. acuminate. Bhoswar.—Rubiaceæ. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. size of small apple.—Bixaceæ.8-7. high. more or less coriaceous. M. Kanara evergreen forests. increases taste and appetite. Fr.—numerous. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. :—G.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. CHAR. Kowti.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . bitter. good for the throat. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Kadukavata. Country and Kanara. Garudphala. Betaga. broadly ovate. COM. Gandele. For scald-head. Ugragandha. NS. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. tomentose. LOC. Phaldu. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. Bharnarasalya. S. Bhrijatuaka.
rusty pubescent. M. Australia. Kantebhovari. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. C. t. fever. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Timbers. Common in the evergreen forests of N. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. CHAR. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid.—Apocynaceæ. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. :—Throughout the State. FAM. :—More or less throughout India. Sariva. M. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. pubescent. ovoid . L. Potuasaga. elliptic oblong. t.—follicle. cordate or hastate. Nalichibhaji. very slender.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. L. FL. K. Country. H. straight or slightly curved. Sd.—Nov. stalks and leaves. FAM.-Dec. M. Krishnasariva. 10-15 cm. Fl. Fl. vomiting.—Convolvulaceæ. the powdered wood is used for herpes. . USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). COM. :—H. Fr. The outer layer is tasteless.—4-5-7 X 2-3. very common in Gujarat. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. Kanara.—1-5 flowered peduncles .—capsule.—in axillary and terminal. Kalaka. C. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Siamalata. Kalambika.5 cm. " Vata ". rooting at the nodes . COM. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Gopini. numerous .—5-12. Fodder Plants. Kalidudhi. LOC. Nadika. :—G. Kalmisag. Chandangopa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Kanara.—4 or 2. middle portion much inflated. greenish white. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . CHAR. LOC. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. upper constricted. cylindric . DISTR. Java. :—Annual or biennial herb. NS. prostrate. trichotomous cymes. thick.2 -7. Sk. Br. Kalaghantika. acute. NS.5x 3. Shradhashaka. biliousness.—linear. Nalanibhaji. :—A large twining shrub . S. aphrodisiac. stems long. hollow..8 cm. Fr. Pechuli. Bhadra. X 4 cm.—tube with narrow portion below. :—Konkan. throat and tube dull purple . cooling. lobes obscure . Sd. Gorwiballi. blood diseases. LOC. Karihambu. Sk. In Indo-China. Karmi. cures " Kapha ". Ceylon. thirst.-Apl. glabrous above. Fl.— Nov. trailing on mud or floating. black with white scanty coma. base rounded.
Fl. H. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. tonic. FAM. Kanara sea coast. 4-celled. lessens inflammation. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. K. useful in syphilis. Swadu Vidarikand. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. useful in leucoderma. Australia in moist climate. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. :—Perennial. thick. dry. " Kapha " . entire. debility and want of digestive power. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.8—6.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. deeply palmately divided. Africa and Australia. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. Giant potato . :—Throughout the Konkan and N. long. pale. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. (Yunani). Carminative. vomiting. Flower causes " Vata ". also useful in liver complaints. :—Throughout India. gonorrhœa and inflammation. Bhumikushmanda. LOC. tropical Asia. anthelmintic. demulcent and lactagogue.—capsule. jaundice. COM. NS. appetiser. stimulant. improves voice and complexion. often broader than long. leaves. flowers (rarely). to children in case of emaciation. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. CHAR. being regarded as tonic. useful in fever. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. aphrodisiac. Fl.3 cm. diuretic. cures biliousness. indigestible. anthelmintic . galactagogue. In Burma. burning sensation. Ceylon. America. 3. Bhuikohala. Sd. twining. Bhunichahragadde. aphrodisiac. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . carminative. alterative. Fr. L. purple. Root—heating. liver complaints. near sea coast. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Leaves enrich blood. root large. blood diseases. Bilaikand . tropical Asia. useful in leprosy. t.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. (Yunani). bronchitis. LOC. Sk. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia.—Convolvulaceæ.—10-15 cm. peduncle solitary axillary. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. ovoid. ovate-lanceolate. glabrous. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. stomachic. biliousness and fevers. galactagogue. leprosy. alterative. (Ayurveda). long. expectorant. lobes 5-7. Nila-kumbala. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Gums and Resins. stem long. Africa. . 4-valved. :— E. M. DISTR.-July-Sept.—in. enclosed in fleshy sepals.
carminative. FAM. :—Konkan.8-5 cm. S. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. anthelmintic.—Convolvulaceæ. bechic. Undirkani. M.—Convolvulaceæ. Shyamala-bijak. Kaladanah. M. deeply three-Iobed. broad. cures inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. diam. E. t.-5-12.:—Throughout India. Fl. crenate. dries the phlegm. . H. :—An annual herb. fevers. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. Nilpushpa. DISTR. long tubular funnel-shaped. Mirchai. abdominal diseases. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m.—1. :—G.—3. Kalokumpo. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. :—A herb . Undirkani. diseases of head. Sd. PARTS USED :—Seeds. scabies and biliousness. removes bad humours from body (Yunani).3-2. :—E. believed to be of American origin. Fl. Sk. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). Vrishchikparni. K. CHAR. LOC. clothed with long hairs.) FAM. CHAR.—capsule. Krishna—Shyama-bija. NS. subglobose. LOC. subglobose or ovoid. blue tinged with pink. creeping and rooting at the nodes. COM. G. leucoderma. Kaladana. C. S. axillary.. Indian jalap. tropical Africa. Purgative. The plant contains a glucoside.5 cm. surrounded by ciliate sepals. Country.-Oct. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. Nilvel.—capsule. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). Sk. L. Musekani. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. Ceylon. lobes ovate. sparsely hairy.— yellow. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. 3-celled. ovate-cordate. bracts linear. glabrous . Fr.—dark chestnut coloured . stems many. M. Deccan. Morning glory. Fr. Sd. L. H. stems twining. pains in joints. LOC. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. filiform. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Ganribij. Fl. bronchitis (Ayurveda). solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. COM. headache.5 cm. :—Western Peninsula.—Sept. Africa. HABITAT :—Water-logged places.— 4-6. K. petioles hairy. reniform or ovate-cordate. in the Himalayas. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes .
fleshy. tropical Africa and America. M. useful in loss of consciousness. useful in bilious tremors of body. removes bad humours. good for weakness. fistula. inflammations. white variety is a mild cathartic. paralysis..122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. when used alone . Fl. It is also alterative. paralysis. Rechani. Kalaparni. ovate or oblong.-Jany. good in pain. Fr. Turbith root. G. LOC. twining and twisted together. pains of chest and joints. useful in spleen enlargement. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. Triputi. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Kanaka. NS.—white.3-7 cm. Pithori.—capsule. like others of the genus . acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Nandi. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. sometimes cultivated. uterus. Trivrit. useful in bilious fevers. mucronate. bronchitis. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. False-Indian jalap. . fevers. HABITAT :—Wild . Black variety should not be used (Yunani). brain diseases. Indian rhubarb. Sk. bracts large. Mauritius. 3. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). angled and winged. Ceylon.8-5 cm.—in few flowered cymes. leucoderma.—5-10 X 1. Root with bark should be used. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. applied in diseases of eye and gums. Nashotar. inflammations and abdominal diseases . Malay Islands. reduces tumours (Ayurveda).—Oct. FAM. DISTR. H. LOC. laxative. purgative. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. base cordate or truncate . carminative. expectorant. anthelmintic. t. laxative. Philippines. stems very long. L. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. Nishoth. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. COM. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. LOC. urethral discharges. heart and abdomen. K. cooling. also in the Konkan and N. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. muscular pains. anæmia. pedicels thickened upwards. root long. :—Throughout India. Nahatara. C. Br. Common in southern Gujarat. bladder. bechic.—Convolvulaceæ. useful in diseases of kidney. antipyretic. often pinkish. long. pungent. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). CHAR. Nishottara. Root— bitter. burning sensation and intoxication. globose. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. rarely slightly lobed. :— E. PARTS USED :—Root. wounds. Fl. enclosed in enlarged sepals . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. strangury. lungs. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. much branched.
Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Priyanvada. oblong. very common in Konkan and N. L. :—Cultivated throughout India. intermediate sessile . Jati. Bandhuka. Jajimalle.—ripe carpels 2. high. M. purple when ripe. Chambeli. :—A large subscandent shrub.9 m.—throughout the year. obtuse.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. :—E. Pankul. imparipinnate.2-6. sessile. sessile. distal pair confluent with the terminal. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. See—Ornamental Plants.3 coriaceous. Flame of the woods . PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. stipules . terminal rather larger. Chambali. Bakali. white. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Fl. often tinged with pink outside. K. 3.—globose. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea.. FAM. Fr. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. leaflets 7-11. Kepala. .—opposite. Pendgul.8 cm.3 cm. FL—numerous. M. FAM.—opposite. 5-10 X 3. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. 5-12. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. stipules with a long rigid point. G. :—E. CHAR. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. CHAR. coriaceous. Raktaka. t. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery.— Rubiaceæ. DISTR. L.5 cm. :—Western Peninsula. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub.—3. t. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Jai. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. wild. Guddedasal. pale when dry. very slender . lobes 4 (rarely). Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. NS. Parali. proximal petiolulate.2-6. size of a pea. Ajjige. smooth. Anemallige. K. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Surabhigandha. C. oblong. LOC. also along river banks. across. Sk. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. fleshy.. DISTR. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated . pale when dry. obtuse . petiole and rachis margined. :—Bombay southwards . Chambeli.—tubular. Sk. Fl. COM. LOC. Fr. of stems and roots. Ceylon. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. Kisukare.—July-Sept. tube long. COM NS.—Oleaceæ.
mouth and skin. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. G. useful in diseases of eye. stomatitis. In Goa. CHAR. head. Sk. FAM. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. softens skin. ulcers. entire. K. emmenagogue. DISTR.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Plant—deobstruent. suppurative. heating. t. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. scarcely climbing. membranous. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. alexiteric. Sambac. good for pains in joints and ear. LOC. given in blood diseases. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . Fl. aphrodisiac. Mallige. Mogara. abundant in April-May. Motia. it is used in cases of insanity. paralysis. good in asthma. M. black. Tuscan jasmine. flowers and oil. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). . LOC. Vanchandrika. Chamba. otorrhoea. expectorant. brain tonic . allays fevers . Pramodini. vulnerary.—white.—Oleaceæ. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. very fragrant. COM NS. base rounded or subcordate. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. useful in stomatitis. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. Mogra. Banmallika. caries of teeth. diuretic. soporific. Flower has bitter taste . intoxicating. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.—ripe-carpels 1-2. biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. alexiteric. headache and weak eyes. alexiteric. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. H. Arabian Lily. subglobose.—opposite. anthelmintic. See—Ornamental Plants. Mogro. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. Ananga-mallika. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. aphthae. variable in shape. :—Cultivated throughout India. emetic. leprosy. Navamallika. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Iravantige. Oil—lessens inflammations. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. ear. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). cures "Tridosh" biliousness. :—E. tonic to brain. teeth. L. Root—purgative. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. Fr. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. surrounded by calyx-teeth. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases.—more or less throughout the year . Leaves are also used in toothache. See—Ornamental Plants. and for scabies (Yunani). rheumatism. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. The plant contains an alkaloid. eyes and ear. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Flowers—tonic. cures headache. :—A sub-erect shrub. diseases of mouth.
Fl. K. NS.— alternate.—in flat-topped cymes. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. DISTR. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Ratanjot. L. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Jangali erandi. across. L. 10-15 X 7. COM. 7.—capsule. :—E. villous within. useful in chronic dysentery.—Euphorbiaceæ. M. herpes. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. Fr. leaves. coral-red. The acrid.5-12. long-petioled. Fl. Sk. The seeds act as drastic purgative. :—Native of tropical America. 1. Kananerand. corolla lobes 5. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. FAM. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). K. broadly ovate. CHAR:—A handsome. Jangali—Pahari erand. cordate. thirst. H. NS. diam. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. and also promotes healing. male flowers.—Euphorbiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Wood. Sk. yellow. COM. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. " Tridosha". Bhadradanti. longer than calyx. Dundigu. 7. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State.5 cm. CHAR. LOC. Virechani. have suppurative effect.5-12. Barbados Physic nut.. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. garden shrub .—E. . subfleshy.—orbicular. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. multifid. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. long.— ovoid. Akhuparnika. abdominal complaints. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. stipules capillary. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch.—ovoid oblong.5 mm.—monœcious. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). LOC. urinary discharges. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Sutashreni. 3-lobed. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Coral plant. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. black.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. when applied to boils. disk of female flower urceolate. Fr. Simeavadala. large. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence.5 cm. Sd. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. FAM. fistula. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. anaemia. fruits and seeds. Mogali—Ran-erand. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . juice sticky opalescent. French or Small physic nut. Seeds contain active principle curcin. G. dull brownish black.8 cm. biliousness. Vilayati haralu. Jyotishka. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx.
pains. COM. useful in piles.2 m. Fr. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. Leaves are used in scabies. purple within. COM.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. " Vata ' and "Pitta". native of N. clavate glabrous. causes " Kapha ".—capsule. 5-12.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. M. DISTR. Nilmanjari. L.—Acanthaceæ. Seed— oleaginous. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. dry . In Cambodia.—Ghati pitpapda. enlarged spleen. DISTR. NS. Sk. leaves. wild in Tenasserim.—white spotted. high . JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. all over the State. Krishna-nirgundi. Karambal. purgative. vaginal discharges. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . dyspepsia. NS. LOC. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. eye diseases (Ayurveda).5 cm. tympanitis. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. :—Bomb.5-12. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Bhutakeshi. . in interrupted spikes. branches subterete with raised lines. fevers. Shindhuka. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. heating. LOC. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. FAM. inflammations. bitter. long. LOC. Nachukaddi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. fattening tonic . FAM. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia.6-1. Nilinirgandi. :—A native of China.5 cm. Kalmashi. hot. :—H. useful in bronchitis. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. aphrodisiac. Bakas. K. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. often met with in Bengal. HABITAT :—Shady positions. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). skin-diseases. America. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. Kala adulsa. 7. LOC. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. wounds.—Acanthaceæ. Karinchki. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. rheumatism and dysentery. CHAR. M. Fl.
petioles channelled. urinary discharges. thin. obtuse at both ends. wandering of mind. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. stomachic. t.—Oct. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. elliptic. Panchgani. DISTR.. diaphoretic. L. Sd. strengthens lungs. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. intoxication. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. LOC. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). Fl. COM. Australia. C. Fl. good in spleen diseases. lower 3-lobed . . good in leprosy (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. pure-white. lying flat on the ground. ovate or lanceolate. Malay Islands. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—2-lipped. Kachchura .5-9 cm. expectorant.—finely tuberculate. Chandramulika. Kapurkachri. t. oval. biliousness. pale violet pink.-Mar. LOC. Malaya. Sk.5 X 4. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base.—Scitaminaceæ. Maval in the Deccan. removes indigestion. Fl. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . fragrant.—lobes lanceolate.:—Stemless herb. oblong shortly pointed. thirst. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). fever. Fr. purifies blood in skin diseases. Plant diuretic. Chandramala. Madras State. spreading horizontally. enriches blood. DISTR. aromatic. M. FAM. (Yunani). increases " Vata ". vomiting. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—variable. :—Konkan. PARTS USED :—Tubers.— June-July. P. tired feeling. stops vomiting. root-stock tuberous. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. round. fugacious. 6.. NS. Cultivated in gardens. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. Fl. deep green. Deccan. CHAR. teeth. diuretic. Ceylon. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. :— H. Sugandhavachai. :—More or less throughout India. Kachri.—612 from the centre of the plant. softly pubescent. Konkan. Travancore. constipating . HABITAT :—In hilly parts. gives lustre to eyes. L. K. :—Western Peninsula. burning of body.3-12. South Konkan. :—N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Western Ghats .—2.—capsule. Tubers yield an essential oil. tube funnel-shaped . constricted between the seeds .—in cylindric terminal spikes. upper lip notched.
only 1 or 2 opening at a time . Kaddu. Bhuichampa . :— G.5-10 cm. :—Konkan.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. FAM. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Calabash. Coorg. petiole as long as blade. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. crowded in a globose bead . LOC. rootstock reaching 5 cm. Ceylon. creeping. Katutumbi. COM. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers.— inflorescence. remedy for itch.-Apl. Labuka. FAM. inflorescence of many ovaries. G. . t.. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Scitaminaceæ. CHAR. :—M. promotes suppuration. thick. Fr. Sk. :—E. in many cycles. N. K. :—Mysore. Sk. HABITAT :—Marshy places. DISTR. CHAR. diam. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. M. Fl. margins undulate. COM. Halagumbala. Bhuchampaka. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. very poisonous . H. S..—30X7. :—Stemless plant.5-23 cm. The whole plant. Kadu bhopala. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. yellow. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. midrib very stout. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Lauka. H. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.8-5 cm. Cochin. spathe 7. L. tubular below.—15-37. M. Dudio Tumbada. Dudhya bhopala. t. long.. Fl. annulate . DISTR. entire. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . Tubers yield an essential oil. Tumbaka. Bhuichampo . —Feb. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bottle-gourd. Alkaddu. oblong. NS. NS. K. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Malay Islands.— sweetly fragrant. used in the form of poultice. Danta-bija. NS. semicylindric..5 X 5-12. Dudhi.—Aroideæ.—narrowly oblong.—Cucurbitaceæ. Vatsanabhi. Fl. coriaceous. of various shades of purple and white. anthers crowded. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. L. Nelasampige . :—An aquatic herb.—globose 3. female cylindric.. LOC. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties.5 cm. Kanara. M. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Bhuichapha. furrowed. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. Travancore. COM. FAM. elliptic-oblong. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant.-Mar. simple. Country. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated.
cures leucorrhoea. Seeds emetic (Yunani). . inflammations. Taman. LOC. :—Western Peninsula. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. See—Timbers. styptic. Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. cooling. anti-periodic. cures asthma. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. Assam. aphrodisiac. :—H. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. PARTS-USED :—Root. China. flowers. Flowers cooling. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. vulnerary. cause haemoptysis. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. LOC. Arjuna. ulcers. refrigerant and anti-bilious. dry cough. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. Challa. DISTR. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. diuretic. seeds are narcotic. LOC:—North Kanara and S. alexiteric. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. leaves. piles. oleaginous. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. cardiac and general tonic. flatulence. bitter. brain-tonic. cures blood diseases. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . muscular pains. sweet. earache. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. Arjuna. in many cases only cultivated. antipyretic. In the Andamans. emetic. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. USES :— Leaves are purgative. Ornamental Plants. laxative. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. lessens inflammations. causes bronchitis. fruits and seeds. pains (Ayurveda). improves taste.—Lythraceæ. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . NS. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds—good for hot constitution. fattening. See—Vegetables. bronchitis. K. fruits and seeds. Tarul. DISTR. wild (rarely). it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. increases "Vata". In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. bark. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. wholesome to fœtus. Bark and leaves are purgative.) FAM. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. Konkan Ghats. Holematti. anti-bilious. "Vata". Nirbendeka: M. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. Ceylon. fever. There are two varieties. COM. earache. Sk. Fruit good in bronchitis. Bandhara. bitter variety is diuretic. leaves. scalding of urine. LOC. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan.
Yavaneshta. Deccan hills. :—E. t. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India.—ellipsoid-oblong. enclosed in the perianth . tonic.—Dec-May. Wooly-headed gnidia. Kanara. Basu).5 cm. common at Mahabaleshwar. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. COM. lobes 4. LOC. Rametha. COM. Lang. oblong lanceolate. (B. (Ayurveda). LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Fl. subsessile. :—E. M. M. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Latri. M. L. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. inflammation. Peninsula—Ceylon. pointed. Mendi. DISTR. Belgaum hills . causes much flatulence. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. H. FAM. Sandika. Lakh.5-3.—Thymelaeaceæ. . Kukurgal. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kassar. Gorantha. oblong flat. The bark is used to poison fish. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Medika. heart-troubles. but dangerous cathartic.—in erect. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. S. cooling. NS. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Country.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. diam. silky beneath. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Sk. CHAR. Nakharanjaka. N. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. lameness. 5-7. Fl. :—E. swellings etc. Sk. common on the Supa Ghats. Henna plant. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. Grains contain vitamin A. G. G. yellow. dense terminal heads 2. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. improves taste. DISTR. piles and wandering of the mind. Ragangi.—opposite or scattered.8 cm. Madaranga. pain. :—Konkan southwards. Mehndi. NS. LOC. Rami. M. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. bark mottled. Medi. :—W. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. glabrous above. Leaves are acrid and poisonous.5 X 2-2. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . See—Food Plants.—Lythraceæ. FAM. Khesari. Mukute. Triputi. NS.. burning. K. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. :—A much branched large shrub. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. Fr. D. Chickling—White vetch. perianth-tube densely silky villous . Tree mignonette..
skin diseases . LOC. Fr. H. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Masur.—in terminal. & Gib. enriches blood. Gurubija. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic.—opposite. Chanangi. bronchitis.—capsule. diseases of spleen. planted as hedge. finger nails and hair. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. Lentil. seeds. in diseases of heart and of . Leaves are valuable external application In headache. boils. scabies. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. Masura. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat.—Apl-July. lateral branches 4-gonous. Flowers are refrigerant. indigenous in S. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. DISTR. NS. LOC. favours hair-growth. diuretic.). PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. pyramidal and panicled cymes. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. Gabholika. flowers. cure strangury tumours. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. often ending in spinous point. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. Belgaum and Poona districts. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. DISTR. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cure insanity (Ayurveda). useful. LOC. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". mucronate. FAM. stomatitis. white or rose coloured . E. truncate. Leaves—bitter. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. Sk. t. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. Sd. Europe and in temperate W. vulnerary. amenorrhœa. ulcers. lumbago. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. Fl. allay burning sensation. Asia. COM. The oil and essence keep the body cool. dysentery. syphilitic sores. useful in headache. ophthalmia. elliptic or broadly lanceolate.—angular. M. The plant contains a glucoside. veined outside. Massur. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. HABITAT:—Cultivated. cure leucoderma. wild in Arabia. See—Dyes. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. L. Masuridal. PROPERTIES. diuretic. :—Grown in Nasik. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. Ceylon. :—E. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Fl. Sura. improve appetite. supported by persistent calyx. G. many. fragrant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Iran and Baluchistan. Masur. expectorant. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. Ragadali. globose. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth.
galactagogue. Sk. bronchitis. enrich blood. bechic. Halim. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). bitter. LOC. tumours and injuries. HABITAT :—Cultivated. often with linear segments . Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). G. See-Food Plants. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). The covering is styptic and astringent. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. aperient. LOC. Chandrika. Hurfi. K.—small. They contain vitamin B. diuretic. Garden cress . destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . COM. constipating. tonic. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Hot and dry.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). the lower petiolate. cures dysentery . CHAR. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Fl. tonic. aphrodisiac. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Suvasura. Asia. :—E. DISTR. L. aphrodisiac . Asahio. Chavnsar. :—An erect glabrous annual. Halim . Leaves are used as pot-herb. Ahaliva. upper sessile. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. good for pain in abdomen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. H. :—Cultivated throughout India. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup.—Cruciferæ. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Seeds contain fatty oil. bronchitis. . rheumatism. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. Allibija. LOC. laxative. Fr. stomatitis . C—petals 2-4 or 0. Ashalika. blood and skin diseases. M. Kurutige. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. eye diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. Seeds—indigestible. See—Vegetables. chest complaints. very likely indigenous in W. Chandrashura. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Raktabija. and muscular pains. white. Grains contain vitamins A and B. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. good in inflammations. affections of spleen. NS. leaves and seeds. useful in diseases of chest.
usually alternate. t. branchlets densely tomentose. See—Oils. colds and throat complaints. Alsi. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic.:—E. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. Fl. Sk.. Fl. Alashi.5 mm. Sk. remove "Vata". Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood.:—A small evergreen tree. gouty and rheumatic swellings. bark somewhat corky. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils.—May-July. Fr. aphrodisiac . linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Garbijaur. NS. Common tallow laurel. CHAR. LOC. 7. Fibres. Maidalakadi. Kanara. Roasted seeds are astringent. pale beneath.— globose. Alshi. Malina. LOC. Alsi. G. "Kapha". dysentery. . M. H. COM. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. flowers. tonic. yellowish. emmenagogue. Sedhavi. base narrowed. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Tailottama. glossy dark-green above. bad for eyesight. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). M. aphrodisiac. Alashi. M. diuretic. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Seeds—mucilaginous. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. DISTR. perianth lobes wanting.:—Throughout the Konkan and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). FAM. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Medini. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. good for cough and kidney troubles. heal ulcers. Linseed. bronchitis.—Lauraceæ.—Linaceæ. :—E. "Pitta". urinary complaints. inflammations.. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. K. hard to digest. urinary discharges . Haimwati. Alasi. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. black. supported by the thickened pedicel. seeds and oil. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. leaves. lead to impotency. boils. lenticellate. PARTS USED :—Bark. burnt bark styptic and healing. causes loss of appetite. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. COM. Seeds contain vitamin A. used in consumption. back-ache. L. NS. remove biliousness. Tisi. Javas . FAM.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. Country. diam.—crowded at the ends of branches. native country probably Egypt. Maidelakri. Jivanika. galactagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. H. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout India. 8-12 together in heads. hot. Common flax. Madagandha. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. cure leprosy.
3 usually connate throughout . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. stem stout. Devanala. cure cough.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. spleen diseases. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. leprosy (Ayurveda). Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. LOC. Devnal. "vata". Bibhishana. burning sensation. white. useful in inflammations. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Sd. COM. K. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. H. midrib white. finely serrulate. Jalini. thirst. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Root—astringent. Fl. acrid. stomachic.—. It acts as anodyne. Kadudodka. Dhaval. lower much longer. galactagogue.5-3. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . much curved. Ceylon.100 m. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts .2-3 m. aphrodisiac. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.—alternate. PARTS USED :—Root. Nali. Divali. Australia. throat troubles. aphrodisiac. paralysis. NS. lanceolate. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. Ranturai. heart. fever. diseases of blood. Malay Islands. hollow. C—2-lipped. useful in biliousness. :—Konkan. :—E. . FAM. expectorant. Karvituri. branched upwards. Narsala.—Nov. fruits and seeds. AMARA Clarke. SK. Nal. Jhinga. pains in joints. Wild tobacco. Kahire. Country. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. lobes linear. erysipelas (Ayurveda).9 cm. biliousness. 2. Fr. LOC. M. Leaves are mucilaginous. aphrodisiac. very small. :—E. CHAR. heating. Dhamana.-Mar. high. G. LOC. K. t. DISTR. Ridge gourd. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". burning sensation. H. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. FAM. Deccan and S. Ghontali. consumption. Katukoshataki. diuretic. many.—capsule. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. bronchitis. all oblong. COM. Mrityupushpa.—Lobeliaceæ. L. bark. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. overheated brains. nearly sessile. G. M. uterus. tonic. long. subglobose. Sthulanala. bitter.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Kalahogesoppu. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. strangury. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). opening by 2 valves. Sk. long. 1. Kandele. Fl. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. vagina. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. yellowish brown . NS. Narttaka. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. M. light green.—Cucurbitaceæ.—numerous.
10-ribbed. Madhuka. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). especially in western Peninsula. Fruit cures fever. cathartic. Mahua. Pokka. pale green. Kanara (rare) .MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR.) FAM. W. :—E. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. tumours. DISTR.—small. obtusely conical at both ends. alexiteric. Moha. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. Fl. females. tendrils usually 3-fid. jaundice. Mahula. asthma. "Kapha". L.8 cm.—Sept. biliousness. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. piles. C. haemorrhoids and leprosy. at first whitish and softly villous. PARTS USED :—Bark. Hunage. liver complaints. t. tonic to intestines. cough. 5-7 lobed.:—A large climber. palmate. also in Konkan and N. leucoderma. stems 5-angled. cures urinary discharges.—Sapotaceæ. useful in rat-bite. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. carminative. ascites. PARTS USED :—Leaves. G.—monœcious. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Root-bark is abortifacient. LOC. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. M. uterine and vaginal tumours .—obovoid. Burma. solitary in the same axil as males. asthma. acrid. Mahura. hydrogogue. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache.53. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. tonic and diuretic.. thick. bronchitis. LOC. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. DISTR. Madhya Pradesh. at length scabrid. Butter tree. bitter. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. base cordate. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Mahua tree. Mahuda. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. Sk. diuretic. H. :—Plant is bitter. Madhusrava. Fr. . Gudapushpa. flowers and fruits. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. inflammations. thrives in Deccan trap. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Bengal to the W. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). Mhowra. leaves. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. COM. Mowda. cures "Vata". Doddippa. bitter.—petals yellow with green veins . K. Mowa. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). NS. 5-10 cm. digestible. LOC. anæmia. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. recommended in splenic enlargement. :—Throughout India. piles. USES.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Fl. long and about 2. Ceylon. tuberculous glands. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). fruit and seeds.
cures biliousness. COM. Mohache jhad. fattening. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Movanuhjad. ulcers. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. tonic. astringent. causes "Kapha". See—Timbers. often planted. Karnatic. Kapila. good in heart diseases. heals wounds . . Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Oil—emollient (Yunani).136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Kesarimavu. K. Madhuka. Flowers—oleaginous. consumption. LOC. Kapilo. cures blood diseases. expectorant. aphrodisiac. FAM. flowers and oil. Flowers are regarded as cooling. :—Western peninsula. M. G. Flower—sweet. Huli. Monkey-face tree. Sk. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Ceylon. flowers act as a mild purgative. G. anthelmintic. burning sensation. tonic and nutritive. USES :—Astringent and emollient. There is a trace of alkaloid. NS. H. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. and appetiser (Sushruta). Mahuva of S. Fruit-tonic . Oil is good for skin-diseases. Famine Plants. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Hullichillu. Kamala. Kambhal Raini. fatigue . thirst. Oils. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Movaro.—Sapotaceæ. Moha. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Mysore. India . Shendri. See—Timbers. and Upper Burma. Honey tree..—Euphorbiaceæ. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). carminative. Mehua. cooling. used in fractures. M. Liquors. Sk. leprosy. NS. DISTR.) FAM. COM. bronchitis. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. galactagogue. PROPERTIES AND LOC. aphrodisiac. and Kanara. :—-E. fixed oil and a spirit. K. :—E. H. LOC. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Kapila. Ippe. :—Konkan. PARTS USED :—Bark. Oils. yields two important products. and also a remedy for itch. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. Kampillaka. Mahuda. Mohwa. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn.
also in the Deccan and Gujarat. diseases of abdomen. NS. heals ulcers. diuretic. vomiting. improves cough. anthelmintic. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. cooling. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. Khasia Hills. Seeds-astringent to bowels. fruits and seeds. cause flatulence and constipation. good in cough. Amra. good in dysentery. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). styptic. liver. piles. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. H. clears brain. chronic dysentery and gleet. "Pitta". carminative. cultivated throughout the State. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. useful in skin-diseases. leaves. Kanara. sour. :—Tropical Himalayas. K. sweet. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. See—Timbers. purgative. spleen. lessen intestinal pains. Ambo. Bhutan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter.—Anacardiaceæ. Cuckoo's Joy. Bihar. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. astringent to bowels. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. China. a good collyrium (Yunani). stomachic. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. FAM. good in heart trouble. DISTR. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. throat troubles. aphrodisiac. M. hiccup. improve taste and appetite. cure "Vata". bronchitis. liver pain. cooling. it exudes a pink coloured gum. Mavu. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. ulcers. stone in bladder. Amba. beautifies complexion. styptic. urinary discharges. detergent. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. useful in bronchitis. Am. Australia. COM. Rasala. Sikkim. Introduced. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Chuta. vermifuge and. Kamarasa. flowers. Gum . Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). anthelmintic. :—Throughout tropical India. :—-Throughout the State. vaginal troubles. :—E. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. G. wild and cultivated. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Malay Islands. Burma. biliousness. Mavin-mara. tumours. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). dispels langour and burning of body. appetiser. in "Tridosh". Fruit—heating. vulnerary. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. "Kapha". Dyes. Ghats and the Satpudas. DISTR. enriches blood. Ceylon. removes bad smell from mouth. LOC. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Mango tree. aphrodisiac. tonic. Sahakara. leaves. laxative. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. alexiteric. used in chronic diarrhœa. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. cure leucorrhoea. purgative. improves complexion. Sind. wounds. Amri. dysentery. tonic to body. maturant. Sk. bad blood. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). Astringent.
Juss. It is also anthelmintic. rat-bite (Ayurveda). few glands above the petiole cordate . slightly tapering to a very blunt point. green or yellowish green. Balant nimba. flattened. Sk.. Kharkhodi. Nimla. L.—many. K. Ripe fruit is laxative. corona lobes large.—Asclepiadaceæ. COM. long. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. NS. leucoderma. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. G. M. NS. urinary discharges. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Kadulimb. Nimba. cures "Vata". cooling. coma copious . Ambri. aphrodisiac. K. Fl. :—Deccan and S. asthma. M. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. t. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. :—A large twining shrub. Paribhadraka. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Nim. older branches ash coloured. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—rotate with broad lobes. Confection made from ripe mango juice. inflammations. Hemajyoti-valli. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. COM. See—Timbers. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. 7. pale yellowish brown. Sd.—Meliaceæ. burning sensation. astringent to bowels. Khandodi.3-15 X 4. Dodi.) FAM. fleshy. Nimbaka. DISTR. rugosely striate. with lenticels and black dots.5-10 cm. :—G. H. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic.5-11. LOC. if snuffed. Hari. Limbada. tumours.—6. Juice of kernel. H. Country. Madhumalati. Sk. USES. all plains districts of Madras State.) FAM. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. M. CHAR.—follicles. Limbra. Ceylon.5 cm. LOC.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. biliousness.—broadly ovate. useful in bleeding piles. :—Bengal. piles.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. alexiteric. Assam. Harandori. Fl. Dugdhike .—Apl. good for dyspepsia.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. overlapping to the right. C. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. stops nasal bleeding. Fr. Bevu. Nakchhikni. . Suparnika. useful in diseases of eye. :—-E. Java. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. margined. Fruit Trees. Nimba. Nim or Margosa tree.
It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. boils. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). useful in syphilitic sores. "pittadosh. sprains. The flowers are stimulant. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. maturant. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . . cures ulcers and inflammations . carminative. NS. toothache. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. asthma. leaves. aphrodisiac. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. M. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. LOC. urinary discharges. pectoral. for unhealthy ulcers. anthelmintic. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. lessens inflammation. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. rheumatism . valuable in consumption. expectorant. See—Timbers. biliousness. Small melilot. swollen glands. FAM. flowers. stimulant and stomachic. earache. skin diseases.. astringent. insecticidal. refrigerant. Burma. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. leucoderma. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. bad taste in the mouth. piles. Tonic. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. thirst. fatigue. and loss of appetite. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . COM. anthelmintic. stomachic. LOC. chronic leprosy. piles. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. blood complaints. fever. Ranmethi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). maturant. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. Oils. H. :—E. resolvant. tonic and antiperiodic. cough. tumours. Banmethi. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. antiperiodic. it is a general vermifuge. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. fruits and seeds. leprosy. tonic. lumbago. convalescence. DISTR. bark. general debility. burning sensation near heart. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. Vanmethika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions." vomiting. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. good for leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. bruises. good in ophthalmia. relieves "Kapha". The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. alexiteric. Sk.
ellipsoid.—monœcious . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn.—Cucurbitaceæ. glabrous or slightly hairy. DISTR. Pudina. leaflets toothed. COM. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. given as a gruel (Murray). G. of terminal rather long. stem angular. scabrid. truncate at the apex. high. introduced into many other regions. .—one. in spicate close racemes. deltoid-ovate entire. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Fl. brown. Fl. rounded. Europe.—small. Pudina. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. male fascicled on short peduncles. :—An erect annual herb. NS. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Ceylon. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . :—India (tropical zone).— Jany. oblanceolate. 30-45 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Chatinmaragu. FAM. Agamaki. K. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. :—H. :—E. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Bilari. leaves and seeds. oblong-ellipsoid. standard exceeding the wings and keel.—Labiatæ. Malaya and Africa. DISTR. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient.. t. Ghugri. finally red. S. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. slightly echinulate. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. lobes dentate or serrate . very hispid . L. NS.—variable in size. "Sikkim. CHAR. Assam. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. especially in strained back. at first green and variegated with yellow. Pudinah. COM. LOC.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fr. tapering at both ends. M. Fl. base cordate. glabrous. young parts white-hairy. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. Fr. :—Common in Deccan. H.—size of a pea. tendrils simple. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. M. FAM. HABITAT :—In hedges. M. also in S. Sd. Country and Gujarat. Externally used as a fomentation. females sessile. poultice or plaster for swellings. Afghanistan. LOC. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Khasia. L. :—Western Peninsula. Corn-March mint. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda).—pale yellow.—3-foliate. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn.—pod. north Bengal. C. Iran.
MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. dry. LOC. C. LOC. ovate. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. lilac.—in axillary distant whorls. pains in joints (Ayurveda). Oils. cough. tonic to kidneys . USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. LOC. Kashmir. Country. Konkan and N. Nagkesara. Andamans. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. headache. thirst. binding. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. foul breath. stem short. digestive. Travancore.-narrowed below. Nagkesara. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. COM. sorethroat. hiccup. alexipharmic. Ceylon. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. blood and heart troubles. Himalayas. toothed. oblong. Ceylon Iron-wood. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples.—nutlets dry. Fl. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. infusion is given in fevers. none at the top. Burma Tenasserim. used for cough. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. asthma. M. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. Sk. emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Bark. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. Bengal. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. H. the upper similar and large. Europe. MESUA FERREA Linn. L. Nagchapha. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Nagkinjalka. diuretic. indigestion and cephalagia. skin diseases. flowers and fruits. Carminative. E. good in asthma and sweats. . bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. and stimulant. Suvarna. :—E. Assam Iron-wood. hairy. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. North and West Asia. stalked. Gums and Resins. cardiotonic. FAM. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). Kanara. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. USES :—Root. vomiting. Assam. Nagsampige.—Guttiferæ. leaves. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Fr. lanceolate. NS. small tumours. Nagakeshara. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. The plant is used in chutneys. :—Western Himalayas. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Naghas.—sub-equally 4-lobed. biliousness. S. :—E. K. smooth. DISTR. :—A perennial erect herb . expectorant. sweats. See—Timbers. good for fevers. In N. China. lined with hairs and hairy outside.
and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Sensitive plant. rheumatism. near temples and in gardens. LOC. Lajjika. IndoChina. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). leaves. glabrous above. stems and branches sparingly prickly. . Lajalu. diaphoretic. Nachike-gidda.—Magnoliaceæ. :—E. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda).-pod flat. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. aphrodisiac. cultivated. Sampige. Sonchampo. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . K. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. bark. high.—Sept. COM. "Vata". diuretic. 45-90 cm.. Sparshalajja. Champa. FAM. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Champaka. Lajari. Sone-chapha. nausea and fevers . pinnae 1-2 pairs. COM. M. Yunnan. H. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence.—4-merous. :—Cultivated all over the State. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Burma. H. remove biliousness. Sk. FAM. flowers and fruits.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Golden champa. Flowers— expectorant. acrid. 57. destroys poisons.-Oct. useful in cough.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). S. Pivala chapha. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Ghats. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Kanara. Assam. rheumatism. hairy beneath. bile. Champaka. Lajalu. Fruit. Risemani. Dyes. Suvarna champaka. Sankochini. Lajja. blood affections. See—Timbers. leaflets 15-20 pairs. W. Hem-pushpa. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Fl. Flowers-stomachic. sensative. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. t. Muthmurika. K. :—E. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. long. Vanamallika. Champo. India. also used as purgative. rachis bristly. Lajjavati. ophthalmia. petioles hairy. Humble plant. diuretic. CHAR. NS. good in leprosy. L. removes worms. DISTR. Champaka. :—A diffuse under-shrub. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. clothed with glandular hairs . G. Pilochampo.. M. digitate. PARTS USED :—Root. slightly recurved. Fr. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Lajalu. LOC.5 cm.—bipin-nate. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Yellow champa . Raktamula. stimulant. Sk. it is given with honey to relieve colic. pink. gout. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Fl. in globose heads. Surabhi. "Kapha". NS. evergreen rain-forest of N. in vertigo. facilitates micturition. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. G.
Kalhala. Vovali. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. sweet. Ceylon. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. flowers. anthelmintic. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. Bakul. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. COM. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). See—Ornamental Plants. bark. :—G. biliousness. LOC. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. inflammations. K. Borsalli. cultivated in gardens in pots. cures "Kapha". Bakul. stomachic. Seeds fix loose teeth. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. fruits and seeds. Bakula. often planted in gardens. Anangaka. probably a native of tropical America. useful in blood and bile diseases. Ranjal. jaundice. Bakul. oleaginous. smallpox (Yunani). cooling. DISTR. Flowers give taste. Sharadika. Bark cardiotonic. Sk. bilious fevers. nose diseases. Mukul. Kanara. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Mulsari. flowers and fruits acrid. Bolsari.:—Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. dysentery. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Root is resolvent. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). M. liver complaints. headache. astringent to bowels. :—Naturalised throughout India. vaginal and uterine complaints. It is also resolvent and alterative. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Varsuli. Mugule. alexipharmic. good for gonorrhœa. vulnerary. cures biliousness. Kanara and Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. in piles and fistula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. ulcers. Root. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. leprosy. asthma. leucoderma. Malaya. cooling. burning sensation. fatigue. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Baphuli. H. Juice is applied externally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. piles. cultivated in the tropics. Flowers—expectorant. alterative. cure blood diseases. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). LOC. alexipharmic. NS. teeth and gum diseases. cure biliousness. acrid. leprosy. In Brazil root is used as emetic.—Sapotaceæ. Fruit causes flatulence. LOC. DISTR.
H. K. COM. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. L.—membranous. Karavalli. Hagala. LOC. HABITAT -Cultivated. Karelo. it is applied to relieve headache. Krishnakali. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. It is also tonic and febrifuge. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. blackish. Kareli. yellow.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Fr. native of tropical America. Hagalkai. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. cordate. Kandura. Marvel of Peru. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. brightly coloured (dark crimson. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Fl. M. Fl. COM. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. See—Timbers. often ribbed or rugose. FAM.—Nyctaginaceæ. M. Fruit Trees. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. FAM. :—E. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. :—A herbaceous plant.—E. Four o'clock plant. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. . G.—large. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Leaves are maturant. Guleaabbas . and rather fleshy stems . DISTR. Sandhya-kali or Raga. good for syphilitic sores. Sk. H. t. Carella fruit. each one surrounded by an involucre. NS. lessen inflammations (Yunani). Chandra—Sanjimallige. CHAR. 30-75 cm. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Karli. K. Karela. Gulbasa . Karala. Sk. Oils.—Cucurbitaceæ. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. white or crimson striped with white yellow) .—continually in bloom. Karela. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Grown throughout India.
LOC. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. M. eye and heart. Kanta. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. COM. NS. also in Malaya. Fruit is tonic. fever consumption. urinary calculi. appetiser. Country and Gujarat. cure "Tridosh". Sk. boils. cures biliousness. Karkotaki. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. used in syphilis. cure "Vata". HABITAT :—Cultivated. urinary discharges. Kantolan. and America. anthelmintic. LOC. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. Fruits contain vitamins A. anthelmintic. antibilious. blood diseases. Leaves act as galactagogue. aphrodisiac. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. B and C. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. hearttroubles. Malaya. anæmia. Kartoli. Ceylon. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. leprosy. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. S. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . leaves and fruit. Vandhya. leaves and fruit. Fruit—bitter. laxative and authelmintic. Fruit— bitter. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. Vishakankini. piles. anthelmintic. tropical Africa. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. laxative. rheumatism. "Kapha".—Cucurbitaceæ. diseases of spleen and liver. China. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. burns. erysipelas (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. . stomachic. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. rheumatism. and externally in ague as an absorbent. LOC. hot alexiteric. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). tonic. :—G. Kantoli.'. :—Cultivated throughout India. urinary discharges. asthma. all kinds of poisoning. Golkandra. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. tumours. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Plant cures diseases of blood. etc. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. Leaves—aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. Beksa. bronchitis. See—Vegetables. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. H. antipyretic. Gid-hagalu. laxative. digestible. stomachic. Karehiballi. sparingly in Konkan. excessive salivation. longpepper. piles. M. carminative. It is useful in gout. Fruit—very bitter. hiccup. lessens expectoration . It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. ulcers. DISTR. DISTR. asthma. Nagarali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. jaundice etc. FAM.
NS. :—E. FAM. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. Achchuka. eye diseases. Drum-stick Tree. COM. also in the Oudh forests. H. digestible. cultivated throughout India and Burma. Root-tonic to body and lungs. tuberculous glands in neck. HABITAT :—Cultivated . HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Mulgule. leaves and fruits. DISTR. See—Vegetables. Seglo. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Shevaga. also wild. astringent to bowels. Formosa. H. Guggala. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. inflammations. bark. PARTS USED :—Root. M. . Sajina. fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. G. DISTR. :—E. Ugra. LOC. all "tridosha" fevers. improves appetite. Saraoji. Aal. Sk. causes burning sensation. Haladipavate. M. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa.—Moringaceæ. alexiteric. earache. Introduced var. Mochaka. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. "Kapha". leaves. analgesic. Segua. Sk. Achi. tumours. Bartondi. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. China. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. Ainshi. See—Dyes. flowers. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. ulcers. spleen enlargement. K. Nuggi. NS. LOC. Burma. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. "Vata". A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. useful in heart-complaints. Murangi. Ashyuka. biliousness . stuttering. emmenagogue. removes all kinds of pains. Munigha. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. makes blood impure . fattening. Indian mulberry. G. Tagase . quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. Ab. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. COM. Rochana. Sargavo. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . PROPERTIES AND LOC. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. K. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam.—Rubiaceæ. Mochaka. Ak. Indian horse radish . Famine Plants. Al. Tikshnamula.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit.
leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. diuretic. diuretic. leaves and fruit. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains.—Moraceæ. appetiser. Tutri. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. Tuda. aromatic and acid flavour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. carminative. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. PARTS USED :—Root. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. internal inflammations and calculous affections. gout. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. M. salt and pepper. anthelmintic. K. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. fattening. common about villages in N. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. FAM. loss of appetite. biliousness. Siahtut. cures gleet. increases biliousness. bronchitis. heart. Kanara. wounds. Tut. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Root is purgative. bark. lumbago. :—E. lumbago. enriches blood. MORUS INDICA Linn. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. Sk. good for brain. Shetur. Fruit—tonic. Ambat. obstinate asthma. enriches blood. Tut. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). it is cooling laxative. aphrodisiac. Gums and Resins. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . epilepsy and hysteria. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. piles. Seeds yield a fixed oil. spleen. expectorant. Leaf paste. diarrhœa. LOC. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Karihannu. stomatitis. urinary discharges. . allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. See—Fruit Trees. White mulberry. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. Fibres. Tuta. ulcerated intestines. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. expectorant. sour. laxative. enlarged spleen or liver. H. useful in small-pox. Peninsula. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. See—Vegetables. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. burning sensation (Ayurveda). outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Kambali. cooling. good for inflammations of throat and chest. G. sweetish. Madhu pippali. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Oils. B and C. turmeric. with garlic. NS. rheumatism. LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. COM. Fruits contain vitamins A. DISTR. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant.
Root useful for delirium in fevers. pods and seeds.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook.—pod.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sk. Fl.—3-foliate. Plantain. t. Kavatch. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. H. Turashi. LOC. NS. flowers and fruit. Cowhage. leaflets membranous. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. Kunth. DISTR. terminal smaller. improves blood.3 cm. Bale. Kela. CHAR. biliousness . Kadali. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. petioles 6. Kela. covered with tawny stinging hairs. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. SAPIENTUM O. Goncha. Strong root infusion. Seeds— alexipharmic. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia.) FAM. Kela. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Kuhili. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . K.—5-6 small. Dirghapatra. with honey is given in cholera. G. K. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Var. dark-purple. Tikshna. LOC. grey-silky beneath. Rambha. common in hedges.—Scitaminaceæ. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. M. L.—in drooping racemes. cures blood diseases.5x1. They are used as anthelmintic. lateral very unequal sided. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. :—An annual twiner. M. long. Sd. which produce intensa irritation of skin. HABITAT :—In hedges. Fr. spermatorrhoea etc. Sk. juice given for headache. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root. 5-7. cultivated. COM. NS. consumption..3-11. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Nayi songuballi. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. laxative. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Fl. Kavach.. Fruit— aphrodisiac. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . tonic. Kapikachu. Ceylon. Root—emmenagogue. " Vata ". Kivanch. Adam's Fig. FAM. Atmagupta. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Maoz kela. Hasaguni. 6-30 flowered. Havanch. :—Punjab plains. . :—E. leaves. HABITAT :—Humid areas . MUSA PARADISIACA L. COM. tonic. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. Banana.—Oct-Nov. H. turgid-shaped. :—E. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E.2 cm. silky. stem. G. Vanari. Himalaya up to 1200 m. Kivanchha. sometimes cultivated. Urustambha. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Kadvare.
improves complexion (Ayurveda). in thirst. deep golden yellow. M. FAM. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. stipules twin. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. Kanara. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. useful in "Kapha". Nagavalli. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. broad at base. tube slender. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. strangury. pubescent. Fr. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . very hairy outside. anthelmintic. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. CHAR.. Tropical Himalayas. Ipparati. Sk. Lawsat. buds densely hairy. See—Fruit Trees. Root-juice is anthelmintic. ear-pain. NS. K. LOC.— berry. tonic. and are used in acidity. C. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. astringent to bowels. lobes broadly ovate. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . subglobose. B and C. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. Bedina. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. :—H. Andamans.—opposite or 8nately whorled. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. PARTS USES :—Root. astringent to bowels. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. diabetes. leprosy. Serwadh. Fibres. diseases of uterus and vagina. Bhutakes. heart-burn and colic. Fruit—sweet. Bellotti. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. indigestible . dyspepsia. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. :—S. Fl. leaves. increases appetite. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. consumption and bronchitis. Fl. flowers and fruit. tonic. thickens blood. antidysenteric. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. broadly elliptic. Assam. appetiser. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. blood diseases. hairy. :—Konkan and N. . kidney troubles (Yunani). sore-throat.--in terminal cymes. Burnt stem is vulnerary. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. LOC. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. menstrual disorders.—tubular. t. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. L. DISTR. urinary discharges.— July-Oct. Shrivalli. good for dry bronchitis. in " Vata". causes bronchitis . climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Root-juice.—Rubiaceæ. linear. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—A rambling shrub. Hastygida. COM. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. aphrodisiac.
Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. NS. allaying pain. Myrtle. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. NS.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. emmenagogue. Kamuka. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). enriches blood. See—Timbers. It is credited with opposite qualities. H. smoke beneficial to piles. Malati. LOC. all over the State. common in the Kumta taluka. :—E. L. Vilayantimendhi. COM. used in stopping vomiting. cures headache. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. small. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. DISTR. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates.—berry. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. black when ripe. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. is regarded as. FAM. applied locally to relieve pain. Pliny. intermittent fevers and dropsy. M.—Myrtaceæ. Dioscorides. especially epilepsy. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. very sweet smelling. Murad.— solitary. ellipsoid. ovate to lanceolate. COM. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. Kanara Ghats . Kaiphal. PROPERTIES AND LOC. They are given in asthma. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. False nutmeg. Malabar. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. axillary on slender peduncles. :— E. Fl. Habules. PARTS USED:—Seeds. A decoction is employed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. :—Western Peninsula. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. as . Malati. DISTR. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. promotes growth of hair. LOC. It is used as a substitute for true mace. :—Konkan and N. Sk. Condiments and Spices. Galen and the Arabian writers. white. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. Kanage. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. K. Fr. LOC. M. FAM. :—A shrub. diuretic. Ram-patri. fruits and oil.—small.— Myristicaceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves. W. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. CHAR. Himalayas.
t. ulcers (Ayurveda). COM. biliousness. glabrous. dysentery. Ripe carpels. Ambuja.—Nymphæaceæ..3-0. Padma. diam. entire. Fl. Suriyakamal. :—W. radiately nerved. & A. Tavari-bija or gadde. bronchitis. elliptic. Pundarika. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Kanara. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. CHAR.5 cm. axillary. cells 2-seeded. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. COM. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. stem. top flat. rough with distant prickles . t. 3-valved. ovoid. petiole winged. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. K. :—E. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Kandalu. Indian sacred lotus.6 m. free. H. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin.. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants.-Nov. ovoidglobose. NS. 10-25 cm. Pankaja. hæmorrhage.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. fleshy.—alternate.-Dec. Fr.—pendulous. 3-foliate. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. leaves. NS.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State.—solitary. Belakanji. 0. Sk. Chinese water-lily. spongy. Fl.—white. Timpani. peltate. Kamal. G. Sarasija. Kapurbhendi. cures asthma. Amlavalli. . :—E.—July. high. in diam. solitary or 2 together. muricate. Nelanaringa . HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Fl. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. erect. :—Konkan. curved. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. L. concave or cupped. vulnerary. internal ulcerations and rheumatism.—Meliaceæ. Goanese ipecacuanha. K. linear spathulate. M. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. :—A large aquatic herb. L. Kandabahula. Aravinda. torus 18 mm.) FAM. LOC. anthers with clavate appendages. M. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Sk. Fl. Papra-vel. Pitmari. :—A small branching undershrub. disk annular. from Iran eastwards to Australia. Kamal. DISTR. petals 5. white or rosy. alexiteric. Kamal. C. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. orbicular. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. with slender. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. Ambuj.—membranous. Sd. petioles very long. Padam. Kamala. elongate. long. CHAR. FAM. DISTR.—petals many 5-12.
A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. allays thirst.—Apocynaceæ. Kaner. leaves. ulcers and sores of mouth. Baluchistan.—follicles. throat scaly. in fever and liverdiseases. strangury. fragrant. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. Sd. S. chest-pains. menorrhagia. . leaves. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . biliousness. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). CHAR. small-pox. inflammations and poisoning. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . DISTR.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. also cholera. 15-23 cm. gives tone to breast. :—E. also as a hedge plant. Sweet scented oleander. PARTS USED :—Root. honey. dark green and shining above. Paddali. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. useful in burning sensation of the body. tapering into short petiole. Cool. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. heart and brain tonic . fruit. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. useful in piles. Kanel. COM. astringent to taste . removes worms. 10-15 cm. fever. Upper Gangetic Plains. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. flowers. NS. Sk. also recommended as cardiac tonic. :—Madhya Bharat. long. G. lobes rounded. planted in gardens throughout the State. Pratihasa. Kanher. t. flowers. Sind. FAM. spermatorrhoea. L. Kaner. cures cough. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. Filaments are astringent and cooling. Karber. Karvira. K.—flowers more or less throughout the year. Salt Range. Ashwa-marak. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . LOC.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.—funnel-shaped. H. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. long. rose or white. stem. diuretic. M. aphrodisiac. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . Kanagile. C. rigid. leucoderma. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa.—in threes. vomiting. good in blood-complaints. coriaceous. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . useful in fevers . improves watery eyes (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. good in throat-troubles. India. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. Cool. slightly bitter. diseases of skin and eye . at length separating. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. LOC. In China and Malaya dried red petals.—red. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. Waziristan. linear-lanceolate. Fl. seeds. allays thirst. Vishavrikshanka. Karvira. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Fr.
Tambak. C.—capsule. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Root—aphrodisiac. carminative. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. Poisonous to fish. cultivated in all tropical countries. inflammations. CHAR.—in open corymbose panicles . base wedgeshaped .MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). useful in bronchitis. Tabak. An ointment made . disinfectant. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases.—Solanaceæ. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. See—Ornamental Plants. COM. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). G. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. a mental stimulant. Tamakhu. good for lumbago. bronchitis.—pink or white. FAM. Kalanja. sores. sedative and emetic. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). useful in caries of teeth. very poisonous. Tobacco. dimness of sight. LOC. M. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. oblong or elliptic. K. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. LOC. anthelmintic. Dhumrapatrika. funnel-shaped. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. about 1. also applied in leprosy. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). emetic. tonic. smoke constipating.—alternate. asthma. Bujjarbhang. :—Native of America. inflammations. nervous depression and sleeplessness. Krimighni. scabies. the surface is plain or bullate. DISTR. especially root. L. Sk. Hoge soppu. Flowers— aphrodisiac. wounds. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. :—E. Tambakhu. The plant contains a glucoside. large (especially lower ones). Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. water from hookha is diuretic. NS. conical. tonic. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. laxative. scabies (Yunani). across. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. Tamaku. lobes spreading. foul nose. LOC. M. skin diseases. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases.8 cm. headache. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Tamarakuthika. H. are poisonous and are used externally. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. caries of teeth. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—All parts of plant. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Fr. tubercular glands of neck.
) FAM. scalp affections etc. Indian Mourner : G.—capsule. a decoction of root.. NS. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. HABITAT :-Cultivated. It is used with honey in chronic fever. L. densely pubescent beneath. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia.—Nymphæaceæ. southwards to the Godavari. LOC. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. Shonapadma. Nyadale huvu . H. :—E. Harsing. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Kanval.— more or less throughout the year. tonic to hair. :—E. Har. leaves.—Oleaceæ.— fragrant. abundant July-Sept. C. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Sk.—opposite 5-10x2. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Assam. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. solitary. obcordate or merely orbicular. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. COM. K. Bilitavarai. :—A large shrub or a small tree. Kharapatraka. Sk. Cultivated in many parts of India. Buds are tonic. hairy. young branches quadrangular. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Burma. NS. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. (Ayurveda). M. . lessen inflammation. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. stomachic. Kumuda. Fl. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. CHAR.3 cm. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Fr. rough above with bulbous hairs. Fl. astringent-to bowels. Kanwal. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers and seeds. 2-celled. Nalkumkuma. axillary. K. Prajakta. Lotus. Jayaparvati. peduncles 4angled. H. compressed. Sephalika. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. bark. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Bengal. G. Prajakta. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine.5-6. cures fevers.—lobes white. See—Ornamental Plants. Sephali. Aravind. tube orange-coloured. t. Parijata . Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Chotakanwal. Lalkamal. LOC. Parijataka. useful in bilious fevers. bark. carminative. ovate acute. Parijata. DISTR. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Alipriya. Har-singhar. Bark cures bronchitis. Nilophhal. COM. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. FAM. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. Madhya Bharat.
15-25 cm. cooling . removes impurities from blood . pink or purplish. across. leaves. red. enlarged spleen. diarrhœa and piles . " Kapha". pale rose or white. Rihan. G. thyrsiflora. lessens bile. filaments dilated at the base . Bahari. Fr. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. short. peduncles very long . terminal raceme longer than the lateral. :—Var. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. emmenagogue. :—Large aquatic herb . ripening beneath the water. Tungi. juice gives lustre to . C. Philippines. NS. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. ellipsoid. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. leaves and flower. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). black and pitted. bitter. and nigropunctate above. L. PARTS USED :—Roots. Fl. Tukhamariya . Ajagandhika. Sabja. useful in diseases of heart and blood. stamens about 40. Common sweet basil. Africa. submerged . See—Ornamental Plants. Var.—Labiatæ. acute. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. useful in diseases of heart and brain. toothed or lobed. rough. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. anthelmintic.—petals about 12. aphrodisiac . Sd. Sabja. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. diameter. flowers and seeds. alexipharmic. Barbar. deeply cordate at the base. COM. Burma. Hungary. glabrous or pubescent. allays thirst. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. green. diuretic. Ramkasturi. Plant has a sharp. Fr. high. C. bitter taste. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia.—solitary. glabrous. LOC. chronic pain in joints. diam. :—An erect herb 0. Sajjebija. LOC.—all the year.. Manjarki. t.—nutlets about 2 mm. hot taste. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. root stock tuberous. Fl. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. DISTR. stems and branches green or purplish. cylindric. M. improves taste . bracts stalked.—3 cm. Sabzah.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. antipyretic . causes burning sensation.— ovoid. oblong. "Kapha".6-0. obtuse. entire. asthma. Nasabo. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). erect. 7. roundish. CHAR. L. Damaro. long. Ceylon. itch. leucoderma. petioles very long. DISTR. Barbar.5-20 cm. fleshy. febrifuge.—2-lipped. long. H. stomachic. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn.9 m. :—E. K. irregularly sinuate-dentate. globose.— in whorled racemes . pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. pubescent and prominently veined beneath .:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. Sk. Surabhi. biliousness. purple stem. white. "Vata". inflammations. Surasa.—peltate. open in the morning only. Java. Fl.—ovate. 8-13 mm. LOC. "Vata".
Rantulasi. C. LOC. M. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. Lemon—shrubby basil. L. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. alexiteric. diuretic and stimulant. sharp taste . BanMal tulasi.2—1. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. M. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. aphrodisiac . Java. LOC. Sumukha. earache. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). strengthens gums. strangury . fits. Large basil. they are also aphrodisiac. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. Avachi-bavachi. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. Plant has bitter. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. skin diseases. NS. CHAR. S. gland-dotted. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. high. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. coarsely crenate-serrate. Rama-Ran tulasi. stems and branches subquadrangular . " Vata". useful in vomiting.5 X 3. . :—A perennial shrub. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. t. LOC. rugose.8—5. DISTR. Deccan. Gujarat. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. inflammations. H. FAM.8 m.3—12. The flowers possess. liver and spleen. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.7 cm. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. branched. good for toothache.—nutlets subglobose. removes foul breath. Ajaka.—Labiatæ. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective.— in simple or branched racemes. Country. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. rachis quadrangular . 1. useful in diseases of brain. headache. elliptic-lanceolate. Fl. brown. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. G. Fr. During fever when the extremities are cold. good for griping and piles (Yunani). diuretic and demulcent properties. :—E.. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. Sk. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. carminative. heating.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. pale greenish yellow. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. often cultivated : Ceylon. woody below . Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. lower lip longer. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. Ram Tulasi. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). " Kapha". stimulant. young ones pubescent. :—Konkan.—6. COM. in close whorls . Fl.—2-lipped.-July-Oct. pubescent. heart. :—Throughout India. It is also styptic.
cholagogue. . painful eye. NS. :—An annual herb. G. Deccan and S. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Suravallari.:—E. DISTR. Australia. lobes acute. globose or pyriform . usually 2-3 cm.— nutlets.—Labiatæ.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Tulasi. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). M.—2-lipped. Sk.—pale brown. Arabia. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. especially in children. K. minutely gland-dotted. hiccup.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. anthelmintic. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. purulent discharge of ear. Fl. Pavitra. 30-60 cm. leaves and seeds. Tulasi. CHAR. varying from 7. LOC. margins recurved and scabrous. vomiting. C. leucoderma. Papli. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. HABIT :—A common weed. useful in heart and blood diseases. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Parpat. pubescent. stems and branches subquadrangular. L. Krishna tulasi. entire or serrate. yellow with black marking. Kala tulasi. and are given with honey. Tulasa. Malay Archipelago. used in catarrh and bronchitis . Country. alexiteric. t. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases .—Sept-Nov. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. long in close whorls . CHAR. H.5—38 cm. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. Sk. L. FAM. strangury. :—G. Fl. West Asia. LOC. heating. Ceylon. " Vata". stomachic. bronchitis. COM. Damanpaper. asthma.6— 3. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Sd. long. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. Tropical E. lumbago pains. Vranda. elliptic-oblong. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent.—subsessile. Tulasi. Manjari. Vishnuvallabha. stems numerous. M. :—An annual plant.— capsule. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Parapate. Asia to Java and the Philippines. high. of children and in hepatic affections . obtuse or acute. DISTR.. " Kapha".—on filiform pedicels. stipules with bristles . Fr. :—Konkan. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Fr. Phapti. COM.—Rubiaceæ. bitter. smooth. purplish. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. See—Sacred Plants. foul smells.5-5 X 1. Vrinda. clothed with soft hairs . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. FAM. purplish. antipyretic. linear or linear-lanceolate. M. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers.2 cm. :—Throughout India. Fl. high. angular.—2. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. upper lip pubescent on the back. H.
cures biliousness. diuretic. anæmia. Plant bitter.— berry. M. Plant juice—heating. CHAR. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. K. L. FAM. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. dull bluish-green. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. piles. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. rusty brown. carminative. long. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. Nagdali. perianth rotate. . or more high. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. Fr. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Nagaphana. Chorhothalo. ulcers. across. carminative. " Vata". inner spathulate. Phadyanivdung. Grown as hedge. yellow or orange. leucoderma. it is also used in liver complaints. ascites. NS. tumours. burning. digestive. introduced into India. LOC. cures bronchitis in children. long. Mullugalli. good for leucoderma. stomachic. reddish at the tips. Prickly pear. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. flowers and fruits. pyriform. H. largest 3. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. Nagaphani. loss of consciousness.—7. laxative. Joints variable in size.5 mm. 3 m. Snuka. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. DISTR.5 cm. Sk. xerophyte. G. Sher. used in ophthalmia. subulate. COM. yellow at the edges. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. inflammations. vesicular calculi. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). obovate or elliptic. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. LOC. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. spleen enlargement. Fl. angular or warty. reddish purple when ripe. outer segments ovate red in the centre. :—E. urinary complaints. purgative.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. cures inflammations.—5 cm. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . Nagaphana. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. Vajrakantaka. liver complaints. antipyretic. Zhoratheylo. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. alexiteric.—Cactaceæ. rather thin. juice cures earache (Yunani). Hathathoria. spleen enlargement. Nagadru. recurved. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . Slipper thorn. lumbago.
ORYZA SATIVA Linn. :—Widely cultivated. Rice . Tandula. Fruit—acrid. Tetu. Fruit—expectorant. Arlu. DISTR. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). K. intestinal worms. Kanara ghats . Tans. Cochin-China. inflammations. dysentery. diuretic. Podval. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. useful in biliousness . tonic. R. HABITAT :—Aquatic. M. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Akki. M.—Gramineæ. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Seeds are purgative. improves appetite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. asthma. DISTR. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. Indian trumpet flower. Malaya. anal troubles. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet.—Bignoniaceæ. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. Sk. tonic. stomachic. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. oleaginous. Alangi. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). leucoderma. Tandula. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. M. appetiser. FAM. Chokha. Ullu. K. bronchitis (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Grain. LOC. COM. :—E. Araluka. useful in " Vata". See—Timbers. Bagi. Mayarjangha.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Pharri. G. sweet. Shali. Dirghavrinta. Tuntaka. bronchitis. NS. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. K. Ghats. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. LOC. COM. piles.). Tetu. Sk. NS. LOC. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. good in heart and throat diseases. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. biliousness. Mokka. fevers.S. improves taste. Bhat. Dyes. Shyonaka. H. It is astringent and tonic. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. G. Nivara. vomiting. Tetu. :—E. Rice. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. cooling. astringent to bowels . aphrodisiac. fattening. FAM. LOC. Ava. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Vrihi. :—The Konkan and the N. Chaval. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin.
rounded at the apex. leaflets 1. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . bruised. oblong.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. measles. Sd.— many. See—Food Plants.—axillary. Marudbhava. to which a little lemon juice is added. small-pox. Amrul. K.—palmately 3-foliate. buboes. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. good appetiser . H. stems rooting. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. Dugdhica. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. diarrhœa. used externally. removes " Kapha ". Dudhari. FAM. beaked. :—Throughout the State.— capsule. base cuneate subsessile. 5-angled. It is a pleasant. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. obcordate.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Fr. dysentery and scurvy. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Kyirin . margins ciliate. Rice water. Ceylon. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India.—Oxalidaceæ. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. linear-oblong. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. petioles very slender. boils. . LOC. Ambastha. ovoid. transversely striate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . In dysentery. if applied to chest. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. sub-umbellate . Sk. Fl. Sk. Dudhialata. COM.2—2. Dudhani. also in burns and scalds. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. Dugdhika.—Asclepiadaceæ. Fl. Indian Sorrel. L. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. pubescent. brown. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea.— Oct-May. :—G. It is an excellent application to abscesses. easy to digest. Shuklika. bowels or kidneys. astringent. Chukrita. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. LOC. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. ulcers. t. cures dysentery. Jaladudhi. scarlet fever. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. inflamed piles. Dudhatani. " Vata " and piles. gives great relief. Ambuti. yellow. COM.—petals 5. The grains contain vitamin C. NS. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Amlalonika. Dudhialata. H. Kshiravi. Changeri. K. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. Dugdhike. :—E. NS. C. FAM. Br. M. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). long. CHAR. M. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful.
:—Konkan. Gandha-pushpa. Fl. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. scabies. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. :—Konkan and N. tonic. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . Fr. lobes ciliate. Poona Sangam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. M. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. LOC. fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. :—E. S. . laxative. H. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. HABITAT :—Usually near water. rarely erect. much branched. Kanara. dry.—Dec. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Dhulipushpika. Sk. t. coriaceous ensiform. DISTR. K. NS. Fr. DISTR. Chama-pushpa.5 m. Kevada.—oblong or globose. " Kapha ". roots fibrous from the lower nodes. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. Country— Belgaum.. often planted. aphrodisiac. Sundarbans. long. linear or linear-lanceolate. with flavour.— large. gonorrhœa. L. M. leaves. pain. Screw pine. Andamans.8 mm. long. alexiteric. useful in strangury and tumours. FAM. somniferous.3 cm. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. LOC.9—1. purple veined. pain in the muscles.8-6. 0. Ketgi. Gogandhul. indigestible.—very numerous. 4. anthelmintic. margins and midrib spiny. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. pale rose or white. Burma. high. Sd. syphilis. LOC. corona staminal. mouth with pubescent ring. Kewoda. Ketaki. cough. G. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. Leaves are useful in leprosy. Keora.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. CHAR.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. juice is used in gleet. :—A shrub up to 6 m. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. bitter. X 3. stems many. palegreen. root. 3.—glaucous green. Ceylon. milky juice. Fruit—tonic. PARTS USED :-Root. Kedige. coma present. black. Giripriya. strikingly handsome. Flowers improve complexion. anthelmintic. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. leucoderma. aphrodisiac.5-9 cm. Anthers useful in pruritus. diseases of heart and brain. diuretic.—dioecious. Umbrella Tree. PARTS USED :—Plant. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). female flower spadix solitary. small-pox. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. Kanara. COM.—follicles. Java. thin. expectorant. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. aphrodisiac. Fl. Fl. yellow or red.—Pandanaceæ. Ketaka. causes flatulence. C. fruit and oil from bracts. Mundige. Deccan. anthers. heat of body. stem supported by aerial roots . L.—deciduous. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
burning sensation. G.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. inflammations. Kolaba and Kanara.:—Very common throughout the State. yellow. antipyretic. Kharjuri. Trianguli. NS. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. peduncles 10-23 cm. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. leaflets 1. Dharwar. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Kharjurika. t.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Date sugar palm. throat inflammations. membranous. H. astringent to bowels. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. mugawana. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. enrich blood. DISTR. Sind.—Oct. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. petioles grooved. cures consumption. :—Annual or perennial. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Sd. Seeds— tonic. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).5 cm. layer. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Kalli-chalu. blood diseases. Afghanistan. light and astringent. prostrate. LOC. Vanmudga. straight subcylindric. headache. Boichand.—in sub-capitate. Khandesh. . Shindi. LOC. cough. digestible. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. wild date palm. gout. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Ahmednagar. dysentery. few flowered racemes. Indian wine palm. COM. Belgaum. Fr. :—E. Burma. CHAR. L. Fl. DISTR. " Tridosh". Kallu. Shimbiparni. slightly recurved. LOC.— pod. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. bitter.3—2. Ichela-mara. good for eyes. LOC. K. Kohesaru. laxative. Adavada. See—Food Plants. Khaji. eye troubles. as a kharif crop. cure biliousness. Abyssinia. nose complaints. astringent. Swadi. biliousness. Tadi. " Kapha". Sk. thirst. Sk. broadly spathulate. :—G. H. Satara. dry. NS. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. M. Fl. 2. Sendhi. M. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). Kidney diseases. Konkan. long. Kajuri. long. Khajuri. bronchitis. Malay Islands. anthelmintic. Kurangika. Koshila. Siyindu. Ahmedabad. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields.—Palmæ. COM. K. PARTS USED :—Seeds. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. :—Largely grown in. Ranmug. Adabanmagi. Deccan and Gujarat. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m.—6-12. Kashayi.—3-foliate. good in fevers. styptic.5—5 cm. Kapila. and southwards to Ceylon. good for the eyes . wiry. glabrous or hairy. Magavala. piles. Mugani. The grains contain vitamins A and B. long. Ranmath. Kherk. FAM. FAM. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration.
15-45x2-2. C. long. ensiform.—globose. wandering of mind. lower 3-lobed. usually along banks. :—Found fairly in Surat. oblique. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. petioles compressed towards the apex. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Baluchistan. triangular. Okra. wild or more often cultivated.— dioecious. cooling. crown hemispherical. Africa. LOC.5 m. roundish. pinnules many. Langali. rounded at the apex. Toyavallari. Vashira. Jalpippali. Fl. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. Sharadi. erect. Agnijwala. :—Tolerably common throughout India. Sholapur. Mysore. 3-4. Ratoliya. DISTR. male white. flowers very many.. :—G. Sd.—sessile. H. Bengal. fattening. L.—Jan-Feb. greyish-green. DISTR. stems rooting at the nodes.—pinnate. good in heart and abdominal complaints. subsessile. This is called neera. aphrodisiac. useful in diseases of heart. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. Jalapimpli. . Ratuliyo. clothed with appressed white hairs . spatulate. NS. anthelmintic. scented. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. upper 2-lobed. oblong. rigid. spadix 60-90 cm. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. large and thick. oblong-ellipsoid. fevers. angular. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. Bhuiokra. :—A creeping perennial herb. pointed. fruit and juice of the tree. Rohilkhand. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. constipating. Ceylon. female spadix and spathe as in the male. Sk. alexiteric. blood and eye. orange-yellow. Bihar.—opposite. Fl. outer Himalayas. deeply grooved on one side. :—Throughout India. Poona and Belgaum districts. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . LOC. t. and in beds of streams and water courses. flowers distant. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. oleaginous. L. long.—2. cooling. spiny at the base. 2-lipped. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars.—Fibres. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. densely fascicled.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. sharply serrate in upper part.) FAM.—more or less all the year. See. Jalapipali. much branched. cardiotonic.2 cm. Siwalik.—Verbenaceæ. Fr.5 m. t. Fl. Famine Plants. Fl. COM. Ratoliya. 9-15 m. Fr. M. high. aphrodisiac. CHAR. vomiting. Coromandel Coast. long. :—A tall graceful palm. spinous.5—3. LOC.—white or pale-pink. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet.—rounded at the ends.
colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). diuretic. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. LOC. maturant. Infusion is a good tonic. stem branched at the base. males 1-3. Sk. anæmia.—Euphorbiaceæ. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. Ajata.—3-gonous. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. and without salt may be applied to bruises. NS. thirst. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). Tropics generally. scabies. axillary. dry. Vituntika. Bhumyamalaki. elliptic-oblong. Bhumyamali. wounds. asthma. leaves. fruit. good for ulcers. Fl. . PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. cooling. :—G. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). very numerous. Ceylon. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Plant—hot. Bhuiavli. alexipharmic . In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. Bhuianvalah. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. H. anuria. :—Konkan and Deccan. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. burning sensation. Kiranelligida.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. Fl. K. distichous. bronchitis. urinary discharges. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. CHAR :—An annual herb. t. Bhumyamali.— numerous. lobed. smooth. longitudinally ribbed on the back. Sukshmadala. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. scarcely lobed. disk of the male of minute glands.— July-Aug. The whole plant. Amala. very small. angular. milky-juice. It is valuable in scurvy. Fr.—capsule. Sadahazurmani. sores. 30-60 cm. useful in thirst. biliousness. monœcious. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. except Australia. LOC. Stomachic. FAM. females solitary. COM. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. asthma. of female. Sd. Leaves are stomachic. bronchitis. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. M. LOC.. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). globose. annular.useful in fevers. Jaramla. L. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. hiccup. 6-13 X 3-6 mm .—yellowish. leprosy. ringworm (Yunani). DISTR. high . wounds. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers.
Poona. useful in "Kapha". H. Kanara. elephantiasis . throat diseases. LOC. satyriasis and to allay thirst. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Linn. Eleballi. NS. COM. useful in "Vata". LOC. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Vata". improves appetite (Ayurveda). Sk. purgative. smeared with oil.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. bronchitis. improves voice. M. Golmirch . USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. useful in toothache. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. K. Sk. Malimirich . spleen diseases. FAM. Kalamirich. bechic. Nagavalli. Kalimiri. Satara. night blindness. leavs. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. generally in Konkan. " Kapha ". and fruits (rarely). asthma. It increases saliva. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). . laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. given with milk in hysteria. tonic to brain. Mensinballi. carminative. Kaphavirodhi. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. G. carminative and astringent. alterative. foul smell in the mouth. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. It contains an aromatic essential oil. tonic and digestive. Menasu. heating. DISTR. Betelleaf. Pan. It sweetens breath. Tambulavalli. :—E. Vidyache-pan. Sholapur. alexipharmic. increases biliousness. clears throat. G. NS. carminative. Betel pepper. strengthens teeth . PARTS USED :—Fruits. Kalamiri. aphrodisiac. See—Condiments and Spices. FAM. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Kalaka. ozoena. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. aphrodisiac. Tambola. COM. Pan. :—E. Panu. liver and muscular pains. Pan. hot. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. vulnerary. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. heart and liver. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. :—Wild in the N. Warm leaves. stomachic. Saptashira. anthelmintic.—Piperaceæ. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. H. M. acrid. K. Menasin-kallu . styptic (Yunani). Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Fresh leaves. Bhakshyapatra. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. ozœna. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. DISTR. Vileyad-ele. Marich. cultivated in Konkan and N. tonic. piles. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. LOC. removes all foulness from mouth. Tikshna. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Kanara forests. inflammations. Betel leaf vine. Black-pepper. pains.—Piperaceæ. urinary discharges.
Fl. Konkan. DISTR. Externally it is rubefacient. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Lahuriya.—Pittosporaceæ. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. Khandala (pretty common). Vehkali. M. used as febrifuge.—lobes 4. chronic fevers. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. . L. Khasia Hills. & A. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . sprains. Greater plantain . COM. N. lanceolate or greenish .5 cm. hills of S. the oil is alterative. FAM. :—E.— alternate. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tammata. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. :—K. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. ovate or oblong. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. Vikhari. See—Condiments and Spices. used in chronic bronchitis. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. sciatica. variable in width.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. piperidine and an essential oil.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . FAM. leprosy. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. vertigo. various forms of cutaneous diseases. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. Burma. It is a good expectorant. coma. CHAR. tonic and a local stimulant. W. NS. C. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. radial 2. bruises. LOC. COM. dries body humours (Yunani). :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. petiole longer than leaf-blade. lumbago. Deccan. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. Fr. paralysis . base tapering into petiole.—capsule. LOC. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. Kanara in ghat forests. ovoid. In physiological action. Bartang.—Plantaginaceæ. facilitates menstruation. long. Bark contains a glucoside. weakness following fevers. entire or toothed. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. piles and some skin-diseases . HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. NS. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Arcot and Salem. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. chest affections. and possesses narcotic properties . ophthalmia and phthisis. It yields an essential oil.5-12.
Lalchita. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . LOC. COM. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. LOC. afford relief. LOC. Mahang. W. Fl. Lalachitraka. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. rosy scarlet. dull-black. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). Lalchitrak. PARTS USED :—Roots. limb wide. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Fl. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic.—large. Raktachitraka. angled. t. Fattening.-4-8. Fire plant. striate . Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Nilgiris. Lalchitrak. t. Rosy-coloured leadwort.. Lead-wort.Kempuchitramula. C. :— E. Baluchistan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Palni hills. G. Fl.—3-5 cm. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. DISTR. H. The plant contains glucoside aucubin.. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. K. lax spikes. DISTR. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Agnishikha. obtuse. M. Ceylon. stems herbaceous. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. LOC. and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. high. Sd. HABITAT :—Along river banks. :—Konkan : Deccan. :—Cultivated throughout India. PARTS USED :—Roots. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. long in long terminal axillary. top coming off as a conical lid. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Ghats.—tube slender. attenuate. alterative and diuretic. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. Ratochatro. Chitraka.-Feb. leaves. Malaya. Assam. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. zeylanica. Burma.—Plumbaginaceæ. CHAR. Sk. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. :—Temperate Himalayas. L. Chitra. base passing into amplexicaul. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State.Sept. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. exauriculate petiole.—throughout the year. erect. oblong.
Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. astringent to bowels. Fr. It is used in procuring abortion. DISTR. L. In S. rheumatism. it may be used in chronic skin diseases.—thin. " Vata" and " Kapha". " Tridosha" . scabies. piles. terete. oblong. C.—Plumbaginaceæ. :—Throughout India. vesicant. diseases of liver. rachis glandular . diseases of spleen. Journ. Ind. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. G. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. striate. inflammations.—Aug. Fl. pointed. Chitranga. it is useful in dyspepsia. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. K. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). piles. long. Fl. Chitra . useful in laryngitis. Tropics of the old world. lobes 5. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. Sk. cultivated . diarrhœa. leucoderma. Agnishikha.6-1. See—Ornamental Plants. Ceylon. cure intestinal troubles. Bile-Chitra-mula. expectorant. Chitra. stomachic. leaves are caustic. Bengal. ascites. Chitraka. wild in Western Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. Jyotishka. :—E. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. January 1933). bronchitis. itching. entire. juice. stems 0. spreading. Chitra . :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. leaves. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. attenuated into a short petiole. a paste is made with milk. COM. appetiser. bechic.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. Res. Malay Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. dysentery.—white. woody. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. leprosy. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. t. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. Vahni. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. aborti-facient. Root—bitter. NS. . carminative. anthelmintic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. root-bark. skin disease. a favourite medicine for flatulence. hot. ring-worm. FAM. alterative . anasarca. laxative. Chitramula. Vallari. It is used as a powerful sialogogue.—capsule.—in elongate spikes. and in leucoderma. stomachic. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. See—Ornamental Plants. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. M.-Sept. The use of Pl. Chitaro Chitrak. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles .5 m. leucoderma. consumption. ovate. alexipharmic. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Medi. Chitrak. tonic. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). H. LOC.
G. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. :—A small shrub 1. divaricate.—follicles. Root-bark is purgative. laxative . PARTS USED :—Root. Champakam. NS. purple.. many flowered. Radha-champo. useful in leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.5-18x3. Deccan. CHAR.:—More or less throughout India. smooth. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. FAM. carminative. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. Fr. lower lip white.— large. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. Pagoda tree. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. broadly ovate. shining black. DISTR. leaves and milky juice.—Apocynaceæ. heating. long. L. t. H. ulcers. white with a pale yellow centre. M. DISTR.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. M.-nutlets ellipsoid. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. upper lip white shot with purple. Sk. stems and branches quadrangular. spirally arranged. Fl.2—1. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. high. ascites (Ayurveda). The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. Golainchi.—Labiatæ. abundant from Mar. Kanara. NS. useful in gleet. pains. Phangla. cultivated. acute at both ends. rounded. LOC.—Dec. inner face angular. Belchampaka. whorls close. LOC. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative.-Feb. acrid. COM. 7. L. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. See—Ornamental Plants.8-9 cm. C. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). irregularly doubly toothed. long. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. 4-lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. S. Fl. itching. 12 cm.-May. abundant. Fl. Fr. common. Fl. K. 15-30 cm. Mahabaleshwar. . :—Konkan. rarely maturing. t. :—E. urinary discharges. Khairchapha. Goleurchampa.8 m. venereal sores. FAM. with an intra-marginal vein. pungent. very fragrant. bark. Frangipani. Pangli. 3-lobed. LOC.—practically throughout the year. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth.—salver-shaped. Country. cylindrical. COM. :—Native of tropical America. Rhuruchapha.—2-lipped. Kadu-sampige. shining. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. oblong-lanceolate. Devagangile. CHAR. entire. :—All throughout the State. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. :—M.
a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. anthelmintic. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. Sk. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. NS. Pavaka. Indian beech. LOC. Chamari. COM. M. Kanika. wounds (Ayurveda). Aran. Karanja. chronic fever and hydrocele. :—G. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). cures eye diseases. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). head and brain diseases. bark. useful in diseases of eye. Sk. Oil—styptic. H. DISTR. Agnibijaka. Huligili. NS. piles. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Arni. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. chronic fever. Seeds—acrid . good in scabies. Naktamala. Karanjmara. K. relieves inflammation. ascites. Karanja. along Deccan rivers . PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. itching. alexipharmic . Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. H. In Satara. rheumatic pains. leprosy. Agetha. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. G. Honge. " Vata ". Kanja. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. cure earache. juice is given in colic and fever.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). flowers. lumbago. urinary discharges . Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. Gracie). also planted. :—E. Arni. wounds.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Kanaji. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Karanj. carminative. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. ulcers.—Verbenaceæ. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Oil—anthelmintic. " Kapha ". good for tumour. skin and in keratitis . The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. liver pain. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. See—Timbers. cures biliousness. K. skin diseases. lumbago. bruised. FAM. fruits and seeds. M. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Agnimandha. J. PARTS USED :—Root. Kirmal. Gaura. leucoderma. Jayanti. Ichu. F. Karanj. piles. purify and enrich blood. Arand. USES :—The fresh leaves. chest complaints. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. vagina. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms.) FAM. . leaves. Ustabunda . Oils. COM.
preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. bark yellowish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. common about Karwar.—hard. C. good in colic and for bleeding gums. dyspepsia. NS. blue-black.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. flowers."Vata". USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. seated on the calyx . Gova. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. Jamud-rukh. Fl. Flowers cool body. cooling. Peruka. high.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. It is also employed in scurvy. piles. lobes 4. Root is laxative.— globose. It is given in the form of decoction. Andamans. Fr. rough-tubercled . See—Famine Plants. LOC. aphrodisiac . L. Dridhabija. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). diabetes. stomachic. Ceylon. Young leaves are tonic in the . :—E. inflammations. :—Cultivated all over the State. chyluria. FAM. cool heated brain.. cooling. Piyara. Sd. greenish yellow. Jamb. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). Nicobars and Malaya. as an astringent to bowels. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. broadly elliptic. t. M. Kanara. laxative after food. constipation. DISTR. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. Peru . Anthers—dry wound. COM. good for liver complaints (Yunani). K. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa.—tubular. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. entire or upper part dentate. pungent. Fruit—tonic. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. applied to sore eyes. Sk. LOC. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. useful in anaemia. smooth. for unhealthy ulcers. stomachic. Guava tree. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. heating.—5-9 X 3. small. sour. Perala. G. laxative. cylindric. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums.2-6. Gum is tonic. used in bronchitis. Perala. fever. fruits and gum. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. bronchitis.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca).—Myrtaceæ. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers.— June-July. Jamphal. Fl. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Vastula. causes "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Peru. Ash—caustic (Yunani). DISTR.3 cm. hairy in the throat. . Safedsafari. LOC. Amrut. trunk and branches sometimes thorny.
rounded and mucronate at the apex.—one. Bhavanj. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. NS. 10-30 flowered racemes . Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time.—pod. alexiteric. anthelmintic. M. nigro-punctate. causes biliousness. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. leaves. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. vomiting. Babachi. urinary dis charges. alterative. high. FAM. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". biliousness. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Bakuchi. t. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. mucronate. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. skin diseases. leprosy. Fr. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. Kushtaghni. vulnerary. stem and branches grooved.—in dense axillary. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). stimulant. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. Konkan and S. inflammation. LOC.—simple. Bavachi. aphrodisiac. Bowach-chi. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. raw one is used in diarrhœa. Vanguji.8 X 2. good for heart troubles. bronchitis. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. :—E. " Rakta-pitta". heals ulcers. smooth. difficulty in micturition.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. Sk. stomachic. improves hair and complexion. antipyretic. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Fruit—diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. improves appetite. C. Bukchi. HABITAT :—Waste places.—bluish purple . Sd.—Aug-Dec. L. See—Fruit Trees. diuretic. Country. ovoidoblong.2 m. anthelmintic. studded with glands and white hairs. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Bavachi. . 0. K. Seed—purgative.6-1. nephrites and cachexia. anæmia. M. cures blood diseases . clawed. standard orbicular. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. black. Fl.5—5 cm. Seeds— refrigerant. COM. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. LOC. Babachi. good for leucoderma. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. closely-pitted. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. 3. Chandralekha. laxative. scabies. DISTR. bitter taste. :—An erect annual. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). cures "Vata". piles. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Fl. CHAR. solitary. Kalameshi. G. white hairy. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. H.
:—Western Peninsula and S. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). fattening. :—E. good for biliousness. applied to hydrocele. Bibla. ophthalmia. DISTR. FAM. spleen complaints. H. griping. :—Leaves. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Fruit-appetiser. Bijak. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. :—Wild in Iran. called kino. anal troubles. . sore-throat. Pitasar. Pomegranate tree. chest troubles. flowers and gum. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). Honi.—Punicaceæ. Malabar kino-tree. useful in vomiting. scattered but not gregarious . Bibla. Sk. Sk. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. H. earache. blood diseases. gleet. styptic. Raktabija-pushpa. used in piles. Gum. NS. " Tridosh". urinary discharges. Benga. Dadam. Honne. Dadimba. PARTS USED:—Root. sore eyes brain diseases. G. Khandesh and Dangs. PARTS USED. Dalimb . antipyretic. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. leprosy. Common in N. alterative . Bija. " Kapha ". It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. useful in biliousness. prolapsus ani. M. Valka-phala. FAM. laxative. elephantiasis. tonic. enriches blood. Hulidalimb . allays thirst. Kabul and Baluchistan. Gums and Resins. Bigsah. used in sore throat. NS. Dharimb . cures " Vata ". K. M. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Dadima. diuretic. Kanara. biliousness. Flowers— improve appetite. See—Timbers. boils. DISTR. Anar. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). colic. body eruptions. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Gum—bitter. Bibla. also in Konkan. Dhalim. stomatitis. in Akrani. ascends to 1100 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. urinary discharges (Yunani). Hirdokhi. vulnerary. COM. Bark—astringent. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. somewhat milder in action than catechu. flowers and fruits. liver tonic. tonic. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Bia. burning sensation. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Indian kino-tree. G. useful in eye troubles. LOC. :—E. Ceylon. strengthens gums. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Sunila. Bio. thirst. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. bark. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Dalimba. leucoderma. anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). from the Balkans to the Himalayas. erysipelas. India. fever. Dadima. Flowers—check vomiting. LOC. LOC. COM. cultivated in many parts of India. useful in all body diseases. scabies. laxative. heart-disease. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Mahakutaj.
Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. The rind of the fruit. Gela. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. 7. Fruit contains vitamin C. NS. LOC. H. FAM. t. Country and Kanara. Mindhola. Dharaphal. widely cultivated all over India. NS. :—A strong climber. Mangari-kai. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. It is given in the form of decoction. H. Karigidda. jasmine . dark green. acutely 5-angled. LOC.—in axillary and terminal spikes. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine.—Rubiaceæ. glabrous above. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. K. COM. pendant. Pinditak. Sk.—opposite. elliptic. FAM. .:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Chinese honeysuckle. G. Lalchameli. hairy beneath. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. calyx tube long. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. base rounded. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LOC. M. numerous. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Barmasinivel. See—Ornamental Plants. M. CHAR. Rangoonchavel. nearly 6 cm.— ellipsoid. COM. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Karhar Mainphal. Fr. acuminate. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. at first white then deep red . DISTR. Minkare. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5 cm. Emetic nut. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Fl. Annam. :—E. Malaya. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children.—Combretaceæ. lanceolate . Midhola. Madana. Konkan. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. Rangoonkibel. G. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. S. USES :—In Amboyana. In China. M. long.-Aug.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. Rangoon creeper.—Mar. L. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. C—petals 5. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Gelphal.
eruptions.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. sweet. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. It is also used to poison fish. fruit and seeds. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Mula. DISTR. certain and regular. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. cures abscesses. Ceylon. " Vata" and " Kapha". E. alexiteric. NS. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. antipyretic. flowers. Seeds-sharp. G. Sk. Tropical Africa. muscular pains. COM. DISTR. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. used in diseases of the brain. boils. binding. carminative. it is equal to it in every respect. It also contains an essential oil. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. H. paralysis. cholera. leucoderma (Yunani). Sumatra. produce alopecia (Yunani). good for spleen and in paralysis. heating. PARTS USED :—Root. Ruchira. :—Throughout India. skin-diseases. useful in diseases of heart. amenorrhœa. K. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). good in tumours. anthelmintic. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. tumours. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. See—Timber. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. juice relieves earache.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. useful in chronic bronchitis. leprosy. leprosy. Radish. Mali. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. Mulak. inflammations. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. FAM. Java. The plant contains glucoside saponin. emmenagogue. purgative. laxative. Hastidanta. Ksharmula. LOC. Muro. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. hiccup. China. Juice of . stomachic. Muri. and all inflammations . M. Bitter. its action is very safe. piles. ulcers. :—E. carminative. carminative. emetic. Mura. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . Mula. destroys "Vata". S. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. inflammations. bad taste. piles (Ayurveda). LOC. emetic. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. asthma. leaves.—Cruciferæ. Bili Mulangi. tonic. aphrodisiac.
ulcers (Ayurveda). acrid. seeds are considered peptic.—Acanthaceæ.-May. :—H. Sk. nodular. specific for insanity. Group B — Serpentine. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. Kanara. Root contains vitamins A. K. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. FAM. black shining. CHAR. L. M. Sk. Sarpakshi. Ceylon. COM.—tubular. Gaja-karni.5-18 X 2. 7..) FAM. ajamalinine. M.—Apocynaceæ. Western Peninsula. Juipani. corrective and emmenagogue. Harki. ajmalicine. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. . LOC. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. and black salt. often tinged with violet. Mungusavel. Nai. COM.5-6. leaves (rarely). :—An erect perennial shrub.—drupe. Fl. thin. NS. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. expectorant.. Andamans. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth.-in whorls of 3. Nakulikand. LOC. HABITAT :—Moist forests. NS. Fl. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Harkaichand. It is hypnotic. pungent. serpentinine. acute. Chandrika. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis.— Mar. In the Konkan. Sivanabhi. t. Chhotachand. bright red . diuretic. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. white.. Fr. cures " Tridosha ". PARTS USED :—Root. yellowish root stock. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. single or didymous. See—Vegetables. Yuthikaparni. pale beneath. Java. sharp. Doddapatike. laxative. irregularly. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica.—in irregular corymbose cymes. Chandrika. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. ginger. Palakjuhi. :—H. swollen a little above the middle. Garudpatala. lanceolate. shady open places near rain-forests. with a long. DISTR. heating. K. sedative.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma.3 cm. anthelminitic . Sarpagandha. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea.9 m. B and C. used in hyperpiesis . C. bright green above.
—Euphorbiaceæ. Madagascar (cultivated). PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Belgaum. :—Deccan. bronchitis. useful in liver troubles. increases "Kapha". leprosy. ring-worm. :—Undershrub. Castor oil plant. L. hairy outside . NS. pains. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. piles. increase biliousness. upper lip bifid . Country. ascites. DISTR. fevers. Erand.— tuberculate. oil—anthelmintic. Vardhamana. amenorrhœa (Yunani). pubescent: C. M. Palma christi.—nearly sessile. tropical Africa. Erand. Sholapur). DISTR. ascites. inflammations. diseases of rectum and head. glandular. Straits-Settlements. Cattle are fed with leaves for .-Jany. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). pointed. S. G. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. Fr. LOC. intestinal worms. Tirki. K. Khandala. Arand. Divaligo. Fl. Root-bark—purgative. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula.5 m. FAM. Divald. vaginal pains. black. night-blindness. useful in heart diseases. liver and spleen diseases. Seed and oil—cathartic. some fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. ascites. pain in back. asthma.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Ceylon (wild) . Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Vardhaman.. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. rheumatism. eructations. tumours.9—1. boils. alterative. earache. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". Sk. :—Probably of African origin. elephantiasis. leaves. elliptic lanceolate. Haralu. stems obscurely angled. Very little in other districts of the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. convulsions. hills near Belgaum. Chitrabija. H. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. body pains. Erand. typhoid. 0. Fruit— appetiser. Country (Dharwar. asthma.—lipped. velvety hairy Sd. strangury. Eranda. narrow. lumbago. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. LOC. Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT :—Hills. M. dropsy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Triputiphala. useful in skin-disease.—capsule. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. inflammations. piles. carminative . cultivated. :—E. Leaves—galactagogue. :—Throughout India. white. generally cultivated. glands. bracts ovate lanceolate.—Oct. flowers and seeds. COM. lumbago. useful in pains. widely cultivated in tropical countries. high. anal troubles. purgative. leaves and seeds. solitary. Java. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). t. leprosy. Fl. LOC. paralysis. entire. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. useful in inflammations. M. alterative. good for burns.
red. ovate oblong. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). excessive perspiration. G. burning sensation. . CHAR. Oil from seed is a non-irritant.5 m. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . cooling. laxative. K. much used in lotions and collyria . from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. Gulab . expectorant. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. H. Punjab and U. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. good for eyes. biliousness. benefits lungs. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. sometimes striped .—pinnate.. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain.—Rosaceæ. removes bad odour from mouth. head-ache. COM. Ghazipur is a chief centre. Pannira. In constipation it is used as an enema. :—Origin unknown. improves appetite (Ayurveda). hairy. intestinal affections.5-6. See—Ornamental Plants. seldom griping or causing flatulency. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Soumyagandha. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Tarana. pink or white. They are also applied to painful joints. France. astringent when dry (Yunani). Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. Fr. LOC. Fl. :—E. inflammations. cardiotonic. antipyretic. Sk. mild and safe purgative. attaining 1. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye.3 cm. kidneys. which is a powerful poison. DISTR. Sudburj. sometimes glandular. tonic. Lakshmipushpa. Gulab. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. dry. NS. sweetish. cephalic.—obovate . pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . stems with stout and hooked prickles. :—A perennial shrub. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. Greece and Germany. PARTS USED :—Flowers. " Vata". adults.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. cures leprosy. Ati-manjula. L. Fl. stomatitis. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. 2. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. aphrodisiac. used in heat of body. petioles prickly. etc. chronic fevers. stipules scarcely dilated. t. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. liver. double. P. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. FAM. M. long. laxative.— usually corymbose.— all the year. they are cold. Italy. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . serrate. with a good odour. LOC. cultivated all over India. See—Oils. Shatadala. acrid. cardiotonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. Flower—bitter. Gulab. tooth-ache.
used in eye-sores. high. pains in joints. :—Perennial climbing herb. improves voice and complexion . Manjishtha. Ceylon. Sk. COM.—Rubiaceæ. cordate or hastate. :—E. spleen-enlargement. branches quadrangular . Amlavetasa. Bladder. FAM. Sk. vagina. urinary discharges. Chitralata. antipyretic. Manjishha. Fl. CHAR.—white or pink. orbicular . elliptic. leucoderma.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . the Konkan and S. Japan. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. Fr. diseases of uterus. smooth. shining. :—Root. K. increase appetite. valves hyaline. roots very long.—in terminal panicled cymes. purplish black when ripe. emmenagogue. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). FAM. cures " Kapha ". paralysis.. grooved. lactagogue. one pair with longer petioles ovate. NS. five-nerved. cylindric. rheumatism. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. eye. and was much used in dropsy. Rohini. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. prickly. urine and even bones red. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. jaundice. Manjit.—Polygonaceæ. Sorrel. erect glabrous herb. 15-30 cm. uterine pains (Yunani).-Jany. LOC. dysentery. lower leaves larger. branched from the root. petioles triangular. Leaves-sweet. Java. stems very long. :—Annual. COM. Fl. blood. Gulmketu. base cuneate. ulcers and skin-diseases. Decoction tinges blood. Aruna. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. all scabrous with white prickles. L. Majit.—didymous or globose. CHAR. ovate. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. Raktasara. erysipelas. oleaginous . acrid. antidysenteric. . Tamravalli. tropical Africa. Ambat Chuka. t-Oct. PARTS USED. Country. with a thin red bark. Chuka. greenish. inflammations. M. H. ear. ulcers. Dock. piles. alexiteric. Chukra. leucorrhoea. bitter. diuretic. L. analgestic. laxative. Indian Madder. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. obtuse. Root—bitter. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. heating. leaves and fruit. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. M. jaundice. Fl. NS. analgesic.5—7. anthelmintic. leucoderma. inner perianth-segments membranous. lethargy. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. Fr. Manjishtha. :—Throughout India in hilly districts.—in whorls of 4.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn.—2. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. Malay Peninsula. LOC. liver complaints. M. it powerfully affects the nervous system. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. paralysis. DISTR. H.
with scarious faces and hard ridges. Fr. pale brown. LOC.-Jany. G. COM. Africa. Kanara. C. Sadabu. checks nausea and promotes appetite. Parpatha. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs.—Acanthaceæ. Sadapaha. Konkan. Country. N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. analgesic. Deccan. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. tumours. tonic. bracts elliptic.— subsessile. See—Vegetables. Cooling. M. generally in the Deccan. Pismarum Sadab. L. The juice allays tooth-pain. diseases of the spleen. hiccup. t. HABITAT :—Common everywhere.—suborbicular. S. Khatselio . Satri. Trans-Indus Hills. bronchitis. DISTR. oblong lanceolate. piles. Kharmor.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. often rooting near the base. acute . :—Common throughout the State. USES :—Leaves are cooling. while fresh they are bruised. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. with darker spots. dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. Nagadali.—Nov. lower shortly 3-lobed. Ceylon. Common—Garden-rue . H. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. ciliate. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). then erect.—capsule. Sd. CHAR. laxative. asthma. flatulence.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. Vishapaha. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. also considered as a vermifuge. rugose with furrow. useful in heart troubles. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. leucoderma. :—A herb . ovoid oblong. 2-lipped. bites and stings of poisonous animals. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Sk. acute. vomiting. :—E. stems usually decumbent. NS. roasted. M. :—Western Punjab. upper emarginate. Sk.—Rutaceæ. FAM. pains. useful in scabies. K. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. alcoholism. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. . Satapa . LOC. DISTR. Afghanistan. The seeds have the same properties .—white. constipation. Ghati pittapapada . aperient and diuretic. toothache. Satap. Fl. they are prescribed. COM. in dysentery. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Havananju. :—G. blue or pink. stomachic. LOC. Persia. M. Fl.
LOC. Gudatrina. COM. useful in fatigue. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. laxative. :—Egypt and Algeria. Us . The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Rasala. cultivated throughout India. aphrodisiac. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. oleaginous. K. diuretic.—petals 4. flawed. flatulence. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Madhuyashti. Rikhu. :—A strong smelling herb . heating to body . grown in gardens. decompound. amenorrhœa. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison .—in divaricately spreading corymbs. indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet.. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. DISTR. leprosy. increases mental activity. H. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. diuretic. Satara. :—Grown everywhere in India.—angled. petioled. . Tanigarbu . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter.—capsule. emmenagogue. M. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). heats body. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. G. Kumad. L. There are three varieties . glandulose punctate. HABIT :—Cultivated. Naisakar. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. and externally used as a rubefacient. particularly Deccan. Poona. Fr. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. thirst. etc.-alternate. it may be given internally in hysteria. segments cuneate. S. digestive. abortifacient. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh.—Gramineæ. colic. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Sugarcane. in pots. Fl. C. forest and mountain. S. The oil is the best form for administration. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. NS :—E. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. tonic. LOC. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. oblong-obovate. Sd. anti-aphrodisiac . Gudakastha. Kabbu. all over the State. The plant is tonic. Ukh . yellowish. DISTR. spathulate or linear-oblong . Powdered and combined with aromatics. Sherdi. FAM. Ganna. garden. Ingotu. The plant contains glucoside glutin. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. Ikshu. obtuse . epilepsy. cooling. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan.
—drupe. Tooth-brush tree. H. bad for liver (Yunani). fattening.". deobstruent. numerous. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. tonic and aperient. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. tonic to liver. anæmia. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). Asia. M. analgesic.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. C. G. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Kharijal. Pilu. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). It is good in calculous complaints. :—Dry districts of the State. red when ripe. near the coasts of Gujarat . useful in biliousness. improves appetite. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. In the Punjab. fruits seeds and oil. leaves. K. alexiteric. Khakan Mirjoli. strengthen teeth. drooping. Jal. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Pilu. . Abyssinia. Pilu. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. Mahaphala. Sind. shining. deeply cleft. anthelmintic. useful in nosetroubles. disorders and wind. purifies blood . NS. LOC.-Feb.—very thin. LOC. improve diuresis (Yunani). Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. FAM. laxative. See—Food Plants. Sk. often mucronate at the apex. greenish-yellow. Cane—sweet. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. stomachic . scabies. LOC. fleshy. Seeds—purgative. Kanara in littoral forests.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. diuretic. useful in heat. carminative. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. piles. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. oil is digestible. Piludi. ulcers. Fruits are deobstruent. DISTR. Fl. opposite. delirium. Leaves—bitter. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. lobes much reflexed. Fl. useful in biliousness. inflammations. bile. branches numerous. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. 3 mm. corrective. Fr. finely striate. diam. smooth. Egypt. Brihat madhu pilu. astringent to bowels. often planted near Muslim tombs. In cases of poisoning by copper. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. :—Drier parts of India. L. erysipelas. aphrodisiac .—Salvadoraceæ. globose. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. the Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Bark. dry regions of W. sugar is considered heavy. sometimes it raises blisters. The juice contains vitamins A and B. white. good for lungs . Fruit—aphrodisiac. carminative and diuretic. :—E. Goni. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests.. causes " Kapha. leucoderma. Ceylon. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. COM. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree .—Nov. t. Pilu. pectoral and aphrodisiac. Sugar causes " Kapha". lessen inflammation .
Sandal-wood Tree. NS. LOC. useful in diseases of heart. allays uterine pains. Mangalya. epileptic fits of children. thirst. Ritha . to temples in fever. Aritha. Country and N. M. abortifacient. :—Indian Peninsula. Chandan. alexiteric. Shrigandhalmara. aphrodisiac. up with water into a paste. Sk. G. Kumblabijaka. " Kapha ". hemicrania. Fruit—bitter. diarrhœa. Ceylon. Kugale. Sandal. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Root—expectorant. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . cholera. LOC. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. India. Bhogivallabha. Kanara. DISTR. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Oils. is applied to local inflammations. Sk. Anthuvala. Bhadrasara. antipyretic. small-pox (Ayurveda). head-ache (Yunani). laxative. in skin-diseases. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. . COM. emetic. USES :—Wood. FAM. G. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . FAM. S. Malayaja. useful in inflammations. paralysis. cold in head. aphrodisiac. acts as diaphoretic. tubercular glands. Arithan . gonorrhœa. Chandan. Oil. Sukhad . :—E. exhilarating. M. :—Western Peninsula. Soap-Nut tree. often planted. :—E. H. Burugukayi. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Arishtaka. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. Ritha. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. vaginal discharges. Agarugandha. K. Suket. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. much cultivated. H.—Sapindaceæ. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Phenila. Cultivated elsewhere. cures "Tridosha". ground. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. fruit and seed. Rishta. alexipharmic. chiefly in S. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. gleet. NS. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. useful in chronic dysentery. stomachic. Antharalo. lumbago. bronchitis. Chandal. tonic. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Ringni. K. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. M. strangury. astringent to bowels . PARTS USED:—Wood. burning sensation. See—Timbers. Mysore and parts of Madras State. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). LOC. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N.—Santalaceæ. DISTR. Chandan.. Phenilu. to allay heat and pruritus. COM. Bhadrasri.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
gouty joints. Shewari. diuretic and lactagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. and as an oildressing for ulcers. burning sensation. inflammations. obscurely angled . 7. scabies. branches striate. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. white and red. astringent to bowels. such as dysentery etc. Jayanti. C.5-15 cm. K. Fr. of eye and ear. 4-5 m. biliousness.—standard as broad as long. oleaginous. leaflets 914 pairs. seeds. seeds. inflammations. Black variety is common. Seed-oil—fattening. enrich blood. bark. linear-oblong.—20-30. Waziristan. urinary concretions. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. asthma. FAM. applied to gouty joints. There are three varieties of seeds : black. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. Jayanti. bleeding piles. leaves. probably a native of tropical Africa. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. Nadeyi. spleen troubles. inflammations (Yunani).— abruptly pinnate. useful in dry cough. cure menorrhagia. H. etc. Jayantika. L. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . M. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. CHAR. Baluchistan. mottled with purple on the outside. opposite. long. few flowered axillary racemes. alterative.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. See—Oils. Janjhan.—in lax. Jayat. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. Jaya. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). strangury. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. beaked. eye diseases .. long.—pod. useful in diarrhœa. oil. strengthening. useful in sorethroat. :—G. They are nourishing. :—Cultivated all over India. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. LOC. NS. They have been used to procure abortion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. indigestible . aphrodisiac. Sd. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures . slightly torulose. yellow. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. COM. Fl. suppurating wounds. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. applied to ulcers and piles. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. carminative. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. Seeds contain vitamin A. leaves. removes "Kapha". pendulous. syphilitic ulcers. small-pox. LOC. Sk. They are also emmenagogue. diseases. promote hair growth. galactagogue. hair-tonic. lung diseases. tonic. in height. :—A soft-wooded shrub. diuretic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Rasin. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. 15-23 cm. tonic. septate between the seeds. an emollient poultice is also made from them. Jayanti. into claw. cooling. Raysingani. Jinangi. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea.
LOC. LOC. astringent. anaemia. Bark— astringent. gout . brightens intellect (Ayurveda). night-blindness. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". is applied in painful swellings. biliousness. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. M. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. cure quartan fever. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). improve appetite . Sk. Agasti. is applied in rheumatism. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. gout. fevers. fruits. Agase. Fl. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. COM.5-8. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Agati. Leaves—purgative. C. flowers. bronchitis. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. rubbed into a paste with water. leprosy. Fr. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. See—Fodder Plants. :—G. The plant contains vitamin A. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. demulcent. cure itching. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. high. alexiteric.8 cm. long. Seeds—emmenagogue.—in racemes . Indigenous from Malaya to N. K. Agathio. See—Vegetables. anthelmintic. An infusion is given in small-pox. LOC. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). leaflets 16-30 pairs.— pinnate. maturant. tumours . Dirghashimbi. Kempagase. Bark—astringent. dysentery and paludism. :—A soft wooded tree . Leaves—indigestible. Ornamental Plants. Fruit—laxative . Bak. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. ulcers. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. epilepsy. relieves throat-troubles. 50 cm. long. Australia. 6-9 m. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . CHAR. stimulant. allays thirst. leaves. useful In diseases of spleen. "Kapha" and inflammation. Agusta. PARTS USED :—Root. L. diarrhœa. very showy. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh.— flowers at various times. Agasta. H. t. NS. . Vranari. Flowers—cooling. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. 15-30-cm. long. Basna. Munidruma. diabetes.— pod. linear oblong. cures " Tridosh " pains.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands.—7. Kanali. Hatiya . useful in ophthalmia. DISTR. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. 2-4 white or red. improves taste. leucoderma. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. useful in ozœna.
Country Mallow.—Nov. digestive. sharply serrate. :—G. Kherati. Baladana. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). M. diam.Dec. ovate-oblong. Batyalaka. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Bala. C. removes " Vata ". pedicel jointed about the middle. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms.—2. awns 2. DISTR. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. FAM. Samanga. LOC. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. astringent. :—E.—Malvaceæ. Jayanti. bark.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. CHAR. Tukti. linear. Pata. Rajbala. Gujarat and S.— yellow. is given . yellow. PARTS USED :—Root.—solitary or few together. astringent. Deccan and S. L. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. DISTR.—smooth. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Chikna. Barial. Bala. linear .—1-2 in each axil.-Oct. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. Root—cooling. NS. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. a weed. COM. :—Konkan (common).—Malvaceæ. diuretic..—2. crenate. t. G. branches slender. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. dorsal margins toothed.—6-8 mm. Kareta. M. useful in fever. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. strongly reticulated. Chikna. Kisangi. aphrodisiac .5-6. Kharanti. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. :—A shrub. dorsal scabrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. Fr. with ginger. HABITAT :—Moist places . phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). emollient.. lanceolate. useful in blood and throat diseases. Hettutti-gida. Vatyapushpi. L. Country. :—Konkan. Country. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. H. cordate. strongly reticulated . Sk. long. " Kapha " . LOC. awns 2. Fl. " Pitta ". M. scabrid-hairy. upper margins ciliate. Bala. K. black. t. LOC. Chittuharatu. long.—5-6 mm. Khareti. puberulous. glabrous. bleeding piles.5-5 cm. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. LOC. diam. NS. K. minutely hairy. H. Pata. Fl. Kumghi. Sd. softly hairy all over.. Fl. carpels 5-9. M. obtuse. pedicel jointed much above the middle. :—Hotter parts of India. carpels 7-10. leaves and seeds. Fl. FAM. stomachic and tonic. cooling.3 cm. base rounded. decoction.-Nov. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Sk. COM. Prahasa. Bariara.
most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. :—Throughout India. tinged with purple. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Externally. rhomboides Roxb. :—G. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. diaphoretic. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Linn. COM. slightly rough. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. pappus 0. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. Pilibadkadi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. facial paralysis. erect.2 m. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. :—Deccan. cystitis. M. . Fl. Fl. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn.—Compositæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stem stiff. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. high. and head-ache. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. juice is used for healing wounds. Fl. M. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. those of the ray red beneath. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. CHAR. stiff-neck. L. involucral bracts 2 rows. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. t. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Katampu. all running down wing-like into petiole. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. noise in ears. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. FAM. triangular-ovate. administered in hemiplegia.—heads small in leafy panicles . common. Fr. Ceylon.—yellow. also in colic and tenesmus. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. :—A large annual herb.—opposite. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea.-Dec. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. 5 outer clavate.6—1. 0. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. S. NS.—Nov. LOC. It is also used to favour menstruation. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. DISTR. Country. 5 inner boat-shaped. deeply and irregularly toothed. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. black.—achene. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance.
— berry.-Oct. stem stout. C. or triangular-ovate. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn.—Solanaceæ. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. M. Vengni. asthma. :—E. bad for piles if taken internally. Bhantaki. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. FAM. Bhanta. Badanikai. covered with stellate hairs. Vantak. enriches blood. Vayase. sharp. Fl. LOC.—pale-purple. bronchitis. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. DISTR. prickly. China.3—1. Vadikadheri. astringent to bowels. NS. Sk. 0.5 m. Indian Nightshade. Egg Plant. Bhantaki. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides.-Aug. vomiting.. high. leaves (rarely) and fruits. PARTS USED :—Root. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). FAM. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. . loss of appetite. Root is applied to lessen pain. prickles large. anthelmintic. G. maturant. Ubhi-bhuringni. beneficial in cardiac troubles . " Kapha". Fr. Malpya. Philippines. Hinguli. 8 mm. L. Mahotika. Kadusonde. globose.5 cm. Kattarta. digestive. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. lessens inflammations. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Vartaki. leaves. M. Ceylon. :—E. useful in leucoderma. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. t. K.. G. Vrittaphala. removes foulness of the mouth. " Vata". lobed. H. recurved. laxative. Vange. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. H. fruit and seeds. Dorli. very. ovate.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. diam.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. Nilaphala. K. Ranringni. dark-yellow when ripe. COM. Baingan. LOC. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. PARTS USED :—Root. base unequal-sided. Habba-Kirigulla. improves appetite. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub.—5—15 X 2. Hinguli. eye diseases (Ayurveda). It is seldom used alone. :—Throughout tropical India.—Solanaceæ. fever. Rigana. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Widely cultivated in India.—minutely pitted: Fl.. Brinjal. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. rarely wild. Mhotiringni. clothed outside with purple hairs . analgesic. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. aphrodisiac. cardiotonic. Sk. subentire. LOC. Barhanta. Sd.5—7. Fruit—cardiotonic. Brihati. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. pain. pruritus ani. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. petiole prickly. causes biliousness.
LOC. Piludi. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. Ceylon. ear and nose . useful in heart and eye-diseases. chronic fever. Kabaiya. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative.. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. Makoi. dysentery. improves appetite. bark. much divaricately-branched . 6 mm. diuretic. asthma. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). favours conception and facilitates delivery . In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. shining. G. laxative. Root-bark—laxative . minutely pitted . Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. :—Throughout India. K. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. all temperate and tropical regions of the world.-Jany. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . tonic. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. stem erect.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. In S. and used with success in psoriasis. FAM. Kakamachi. gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. :—A variable annual herb . . heating. yellow.—Sept.—discoid. taste. inflammation. entire or sinuate toothed. C. H. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. useful in diseases of eye. leaves and fruit. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. alterative. bitter. in pains. 3-8 flowered cymes . Morellel. throat burning. Kakamunchi. Tiktika. vomiting. useful in giddiness. Fl. worms in ear. t. diam. It acts as a hydrogogue. M. fever. bronchitis. inflammation. dysuria and asthma. Gurkamai. COM. " Tridosha". Fruit contains vitamins A.— berry. Kakamachi. The seeds are used as a stimulant. L.—Solanaceæ. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Black Night-shade. urinary discharges. DISTR. eye-diseases hydrophobia. tapering into petioles. fever. CHAR. itch. subumbellate. not to be given to pregnant women. Sk. Seeds—laxative. smooth.—many. bronchitis. Sd. Katuphala. diarrhœa. improves voice . etc. leucoderma. aphrodisiac. cathartic and diuretic.—small. B and C. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. piles. Vayasi. in extra-axillary. Fl. NS. good for neck ulcers. liver inflammation. Fr. hiccup. :—E. Hound's Berry. PARTS USED :—Root. griping. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. ovatelanceolate. Kamoni. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. See—Vegetables.
& Wendl. COM. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Durrah. Ringni. It is used in asthma. chronic bronchitis. 3-2 cm. sterility in women. D. Seeds—anthelmintic. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic . yellow and shining. Malaya. Nele-Rama-gulla . Nidigdhika. "Vata" and " Kapha". stone in bladder. heart disease. asthma. dysuria. LOC. fever.—purple. Great Indian millet. stems. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Ceylon. C. G. pruritus . In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B.3 cm.—berry. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). expectorant and febrifuge. Vrittatandula. CHAR. fruits and seeds. DISTR. Kantakari. sinuate or subpinnatifid. Jondhala. Bhui-Kate-ringni. heating. M. E. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. Jundri. base unequal-sided. PARTS USED :—Root. hairy on both sides. Sundia . Root—aphrodisiac. pains. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Jowar. ozoena. they are used in the burning of feet. ovate or elliptic. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. :—E. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Kateli. K. Yuvanala. LOC. laxative. Sholapur. HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. diam. H. COM.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . prickles compressed. leaves. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough.—Solanaceæ. L. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. Shalu. thirst. stomachic. Jowari. straight. Sorgho. petiole prickly. Nirgol. Fl. biliousness. Fl. FAM. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. tropical Australia. Leaves—good application for piles. H. aphrodisiac. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache.-5-10 X 2. asthma. hairy outside. Ikshupatraka. :—A very prickly diffuse. yellow or white with green veins. muscular pains. Brihati.—Gramineæ. stem zig-zag. Yengara . t. Bhoyaringni. Africa. flowers. Dirghashara. Chikka-sonde. lobes deltoid. lumbago. Sk. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Jonera. Dhavani. :—Common in the Deccan . Katai.— June. fevers. Fruit—laxative. good in inflammation. K. :—G.7 cm. Sind. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Basu). catarrhal fever and chest pain. NS. S.. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. FAM. long. Konkan. Sk. urinary concretions. NS. Kenjal. Kantakini.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. often exceeding 1. useful in bronchitis. surrounded by enlarged calyx . Bijapur and E. strangury. LOC. bright green perennial herb . piles.. M. Fr. Jolah.5-5.
cough and asthma (Ayurveda). high. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Ceylon. diseases of blood. H. Munditika. NS. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. bladder and kidney complaints. LOC. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. Rohina. :—Bark. aphrodisiac. Bijapur and E. Juss. :—The grain is cooling. DISTR. refrigerant. FAM. Bodiakalara. while Belgaum. fevers. K. Bastard Cedar. COM. L. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. G. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. M. HABITAT :—Open situations. Some. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Ahmedabad. stem and branches cylindric. Gorakhmundi. with toothed wings. CHAR. ulcers. piles. indigestible. Asia and Africa. hence used in intermittent fevers. biliousness. Agniruha. See—Food Plants. Mahamundi. ulcers. good for sore-throat. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. PROPERTIES AND USES. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. Swami-mara. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. common in Gujarat. Gorakmundi. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . constipating.—Meliaceæ. Dharwar. cures " Tridosha ". Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Aruna. vaginal injections and enemas. on dry stony hills. Vritta. PARTS USED. Sk. Tans. introduced into America and Australia. LOC. Grains contain vitamin B. Country. M. Poona. COM. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. PARTS USED. useful in " Kapha". :— E. Rohun. M. glandular. Gorakhamundi. Karanda-gida. Rohini. Ruhin. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. K. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. tonic and antiperiodic . Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. :—Bark-acrid. See—Timbers. Sk.—sessile. laxative. hairy. leprosy and dysentery . . :—Seeds. improves appetite and taste. Rawtarohan. H. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Rohani. Gums and Resins. general debility. Khandesh and S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. :—Dry forests of W. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Kumbhala. tumours (Ayurveda). NS. Fibres. FAM: —Compositæ. Indian Red-Wood. :—G. :—Widely cultivated in India. Pravrajita. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Sumbi.
dysentery. the latter when present minute. PARTS USED. H. jaundice. biliousness. It is also used as fish and crab poison. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. bark. ovate-oblong. rectal pain. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . :—Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES. base usually acute. L.—Compositæ. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. gives lustre to eyes . Pellitary . solitary or subpanicled. urinary discharges.—Achene. biliousness. anthelmintic. stalked. Fr. t. leaves and flower-heads. C. sometimes grown in gardens. Malay Islands. Akkalkara . vomiting. used also for local application. :—Wild and cultivated. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. Fl. CHAR. :—Root. M. LOC. enriches blood . laxative.— achene. Fl. hemicrania (Ayurveda).—purple. laxative. serrate or dentate. :—Hot. emmenagogue. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic..—Nov-Jany. cools brain. tuberculous glands. Country and Kanara. ovate. fattening. ring-worm of waist. Fl. depurative. LOC. indigestion. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. digestible. irregularly crenateserrate. useful in skin diseases. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. with honey they are given in cough. PARTS USED. cooling. spleen diseases. Fl. M. epileptic convulsions. t. Tonic. FAM. :—Root. looseness of breasts.—Nov. HABITAT. all warm countries.—opposite. leucoderma. asthma. Ceylon. COM.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. anæmia. They are chewed to relieve toothache. flowers and seeds.—in heads ovoid. They are given in powder form. LOC. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. boils. S. piles. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. used in insanity. DISTR. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. pain in uterus and vagina. elephantiasis. ciliate near the ends . :—Annual herb. peduncles reaching 10 cm. globose ovoid. :—Common in the Konkan. compressed . Fr. . peduncles with toothed wings. Sk. increases appetite. urethral discharges and jaundice. truncate. NS. Celyon. glandular hairy. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. good for eyesore. involucre bracts linear. alexipharmic. Akara-karava. DISTR. HABITAT. Africa. Pappuso. :—E. strangury. :—Throughout India. gleet. in cases of worms and indigestion. Akarakara . tonic. :—Throughout India.—compound heads. Australia. alterative. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. Powdered root is given as tonic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Common in rice-fields. leaves.. chest diseases. and tonic (Stewart) . glaborous. lessens inflammations . oblong. scabies. bronchitis. scalding of urine. long. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. USES. PROPERTIES AND LOC. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). stem and branches hairy.
refrigerant. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. blood complaints . leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7.8 cm. FAM. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Patala.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Salt Range. Wild Mango. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. good for sore-throat. Ceylon. ash-coloured . t. DISTR. bark smooth. Kalavrinta. widely planted. Kapichuta. enriches blood . Pitana. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM.. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. M. Kumbhi. Padal. stone woody. H. Konkan.-usually 1. It has been found useful in dysentery. HABITAT. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis.—Anacardiaceæ. cures rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES. Pahad. Fl. K. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Kanara. astringent. Padiala. :—Bark.—drupe.Feb. . —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. yellow. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. Western Peninsula. Marahunise. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Sk. entire. CHAR. oblique. COM. branches nearly horizontal.5 m. W. trunk straight. :—H. Toyadhivasini. Sk. Fr. destroys " Vata ". Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. Padal. Kamduti. Pandri. ulcers. Tungi. round with furrows and cavities. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. burning sensation. Ambada. phthisis. Sd. Avatekayi. PARTS USED. C. Hude. Fl. 3. leaves and fruit. COM. pinkish green. hard. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). M. Amrataka.8-7. Giri Hadari. K. Fruit—indigestible. :—Leaves-tasty. Indian Archipelago. Dr. :—Often planted throughout the State. Amate. Hongkong. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Ambodha. Ali-vallabha.5-18 x 3. Gum is demulcent. Gujarat. Hulave. M. L. ovoid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Burma. NS. Kariguddada. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Country.. long. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. LOC. biliousness. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. tonic. See—Gums and Resins. :—A tree 9-10. Bile Tree. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. high.-Apl. LOC. Andamans.— petals 4-5. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. S. appetising. Indian Hog-Plum. ovate oblong. NS. :—Cultivated.5 cm. aphrodisiac. Parur. :—E. Amra. long.. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. oblong. Patala. Ran-amba .—Bignoniaceæ.
Crow Fig. Kelakutaka. LOC. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Kajavara. tonic. Kanara. Kachita. Kuchla. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Karaskara. aphrodisiac. Kuchala. :—Root-bitter. tonic. asthma. Flowers— acrid . heating. Ittangi. sub-Himalaya. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Nirmal. Visha-druma. PROPERTIES AND USES. blood diseases. seeds. FAM. Sk. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. piles. fevers. anæmia. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Loganiaceæ. Kajra. N. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. cures leucoderma. useful in bilious diarrhœa. jaundice. flowers. diuretic. antipyretic. Burma. NS.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . west coast of Madras State. Vishamushti. diuretic. LOC. heating. poisonous. :—Fruit-acrid. Kakatinduka. cures pains in joints. lumbago. Kangira. Kanara. ulcers. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). appetiser. :—In forests south of Bombay. piles . In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . :—E. Kupaka. "Kapha". Travancore . Laos. Hemushti. Circars. PARTS USED. Fruit—bitter. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . abundant on laterite along sea-coast. tonic. LOC. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. :—Monsoon-forests. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Poison Nut. pungent. Karnatak. K. Ceylon. :—Root. Kajra. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Travancore. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. :—More or less throughout tropical India. from Kashmir to Sikkim . G. itching. See—Timbers. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. H. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Indo-China. blood diseases. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. eructations. LOC. inflammation. Planted in Ceylon. heating. vomiting. M. astringent to bowels. emmenagogue . loss of taste. :—Wood (rarely). bitter. fruit. It is regarded as cooling. fruit. "Vata". burning sensation. DISTR. thirst. DISTR. leaves. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. PARTS USED. ring-worm.. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. COM. Kuchla.
causes biliousness.. Seeds—acrid. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. tonic. Burma. Nirmali. The demand for strychnine is increasing. :—E. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. jaundice. :—Root (rarely). good for liver. :—Deciduous dry forests. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Clearing Nut Tree. HABITAT. fruit and seeds. Kataka. emetic. Chittu bija. cure strangury.—Loganiaceæ. COM. alexiteric. Nivali. NS. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Fruit useful in eye diseases. improve eye-sight. H. hallucinations. relieve colic (Yunani). lithotriptic. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. PARTS USED. Aduguchali-bija. :—Root cures leucoderma. gonorrhœa. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. DISTR. FAM. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. astringent to bowels. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. . diuretic. Nelmal. M. (Rasendrasarasangraha). :—Western Peninsula. poisoning. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Kanara and Khandesh. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. :—Sand-stone hills of S. aphrodisiac. Seeds—bitter. Ceylon. M. Shodhanatmaka. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. anæmia. K. thirst. head-diseases (Ayurveda). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. also in Konkan. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. increases "Vata". cures inflammations. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Country. kidney complaints.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. See—Timbers. Madhya Bharat. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. diaphoretic. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. urinary discharges. LOC. See—Timbers. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ambuprasadini.
bleeding gums . "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Lodhra. throughout N. FAM. M. vaginal discharges. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. ovoid or oblong. Burma. C. Country. COM. . M. Shavaraka. digestible. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . E. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums.—Gentianaceæ. Bose). dysentery. C. broadly ovate.— Oct. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. :—M. Bark—bitter. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . PROPERTIES AND USES. acrid. decussate. Peninsula. diseases of blood. C. astringent to bowels. Bhilli. aphrodisiac. Chota Nagpur. biliousness. Fr.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. emmenagogue. Loder. :—Root. useful in eye-diseases. K. DISTR.9 m. in powder or in fresh decoction. Lodhra . China Nora. Lodh. Balaloddujinamara. quadrangular.— sessile. LOC. cures cough. :—An erect herb. L. COM. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . t. Fl. Sk. Lodh . Tiritaka. :—Hilly parts. :—W. LOC. Dyes.—many.-Jany.3-0. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Timbers. 5-nerved . Lodh Tree. stem densely leafy. NS. white with blue veins. high. :— E. leprosy. Deccan . USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. DISTR. :—Bark. 2-valved. :—Western Ghats . HABITAT. winged . PARTS USED.. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. inflammations. Tillaka. Fl. Broughton). Torna fort. alexiteric. :—India (W. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. :—Bark-acrid. eye-diseases and ulcers . 0.—Symplocaceæ. Lodh is used in raw condition. S. NS.— lobes 4-5. Kadu. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Californian Cinchona. LOC. Peninsula).—capsule. FAM.. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). Deccan. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. PARTS USED. :—Konkan and N. Lodhraka.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . colloturine and loturiaine. CHAR. H. etc. cooling. Sd. :—The whole plant is bitter. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. 4-winged. Mahabaleshwar. useful in abortions . flowers (rarely).
G. :—E.) FAM. M. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. increases "Vata". LOC. K. both wild and cultivated. Seeds—diuretic. Jambudi. very often planted. dry. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Jambu. Jambu-Nayinerale. astringent to bowels. common at Mahabaleshwar. COM. Jambul. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Sk. LOC. carminative . strengthens gums and teeth. See—Timbers. Jambu. etc. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Shukapriya. H. Fruit Trees. also wild. Nenda. PARTS USED. carminative and diuretic. :—Throughout the State. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Jam. Nerate. Jamen. dysentery. common along river banks. asthma. Malaya. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Malay—Rose apple. fruit vinegar is tonic. Fruit—acrid. Neralu. Surabhipriya. Jambu.—Myrtaceæ. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. ulcers. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. bronchitis.) FAM. Jambul. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Jamburaj. Jambula. PROPERTIES AND USES. blood impurities. Shukapriya. :—Throughout India. DISTR. useful in spleen diseases. :-Black-Java Plum. sweet. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. Kokileshta. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. good for sore-throat. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. digestive. good gargle for sore-throat. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. Australia. enriches blood. removes bad smell from mouth. NS. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. :—Bark. cooling. astringent. NS. . used in diarrhœa and dysentery. also used in spongy and painful gums. K. Jambura. thirst.—Myrtaceæ. H. Nilphala. astringent to bowels. Sk. COM. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. gargles and washes . Pharenda. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). Jambu. fruits and seeds. Pannerali. :—Bark-acrid. LOC. M. Gulabjaman. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. sprouts. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. Ceylon. biliousness. Gulab-Jamb. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery.
Seeds are astringent to bowels. Trinidad . Burma. DISTR. across. strangury. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kottuhale. See—Timbers. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. t. :—Bark. purgative. Ananta.. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. Tagar.5-5 cm. glossy green above. acrid. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). double. Tagar . used in liver complaints. aphrodisiac. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. Fruit—sweet and tasty. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. useful in paralysis. thirst. tonic. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. with milky juice . rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. See—Ornamental Plants. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. :—Root is acrid. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. tonic to brain. :—Bark is sweet. Cultivated in many places. G. M.— opposite. LOC. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. alexipharmic. bitter. Root chewed relieves toothache . astringent to bowels. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. Assam. cultivated in many parts.—follicles. COM. NS. used in asthma. Fl. pale beneath. orange within. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. tonic to brain.—rainy season. :—Cultivated in gardens. fatigue. indigestible. Br. Taggar. Root—bitter . Khasia Hills. Fl. wood and oil. astringent to bowels. Hills of Visakhapatanam.5-5 cm. Maddarasa gida . HABITAT. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. Chandani. The plant contains an alkaloid. PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. Nandi. . PROPERTIES AND USES. fruit and seeds. digestible. emmenagogue. Yunnan to Australia. improves voice. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate." biliousness. fragrant at night. K. Ashvathabheda. :—Sikkim Terai. cures epilepsy. heavy speech. Bengal.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. useful in "Kapha. 1-3 ribbed. L. hot. lobes 5 in single. :—Root.) FAM. dysentery. H. PARTS USED.5-15 X 2. CHAR. heating. and an essential oil. Garhwal. Sk. 7. inodorous during the day. indigestible. salver-shaped. :—E.—Apocynaceæ. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. C—lobes overlapping to the left. Wax flower. E. divaricate. Tagara. liver and spleen . removes bad humours. lessens pains in limbs and joints . . bronchitis. LOC.—snow-white. weakness of limbs. used in syphilis (Yunani). margins wavy.
K. yellow when ripe. NS. rough. across in pedunculate cymes . oblong lanceolate . kidney troubles. Fr. Kalaga. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. G. :—E. high. LOC. HABITAT. L. :—Root. Tintrani.000 m. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). FAM. astringent. COM. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. : K. PARTS USED.2-7.. carminative. :—Leaves and flowers. Sandu. Gultora. DISTR.5 cm.. Flower—bitter. COM.—white.5 m. Nagaskuda. LOC. useful in scabies. Guljharo. PROPERTIES AND USES. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. G. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. FAM. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State.5-20 X 3. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. PARTS USED. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards .— Mar-Apl. coriaceous. CHAR. bitter. . Tamarind. good for teeth . wood. somewhat boat-shaped.—follicle. M. oil. H. COM.5 cm..MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. Amlika.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Maddarssa. 2. Kanara. Chinchika. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. LOC. their juice is given in ear-ache. Chinch. t. bark grey. PROPERTIES AND USES. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). Nagakuda. Chinch. NS. Makhamal. Leaves—good for piles. Sk. Zendu. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. H. :—E. M. :—Same as T. :—Cultivated. Makhamala. C. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . See—Ornamental Plants. :—Flower-pungent. Makhamali. Sk. French Marigold. stomachic. common in rain-forests. Sd.—Compositæ.—Apocynaceæ. HABITAT.4-4. Tintidika. Sthulapushpa. FAM. Amlike. Fl. DISTR. Pandarakuda. Imli. Zanduga. :—Malabar. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. internally they are said to purify blood. throughout the Konkan and N. 7. Teter. belching.—surrounded by red pulp. acrid. M. :—Rain-forests. Fl. divaricata. lessens inflammation . Nuli. Amli. muscular pains.. NS.— tube inflated near the top. grown in gardens all over India. :—Native of Mexico. Halmeti. Amli. Travancore up to 7. Amala. Genda.—opposite. Amla. HABITAT.
Kanara. flowers and seeds. biliousness. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. earache. aphrodisiac. LOC. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. vomiting. . :—Western Ghats of Madras State. NS. useful in giddiness and vertigo. heating. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". See—Timbers. intoxication &c. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. DISTR. useful in liver-complaints. PARTS USED. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. astringent to bowels. Condiments and Spices. urinary discharges. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Tropics generally. :—E. :—Throughout India.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. anthelmintic. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. sweetish. such as body-burning. G. Fruit-sour. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. thirst. and for sizing materials. Malay Peninsula. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. laxative. K. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Arna. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. COM. tasty. Kanara. indigestible. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sagwan. Sag. Sagach. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Flowers— appetising .—Verbenaceæ. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. DISTR.. costiveness. Bark—astringent. laxative. bark. Sk. stomatitis. heals ulcers. flowers. Sumatra and Java. carminative. Cultivated also. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Circars. sore-throat. Fruit—sour. small-pox. Teak. tonic to heart. digestive. Seeds are good astringent. M. :—Bark. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. tonic. H. Tega. abundant all along the slopes of W. eye-diseases. Sag. Mahapatra. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Anil. FAM. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Seeds astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. and laxative. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. fruit and seeds. causes cough.. Sagun. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Teka. Sagwan. scabies. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Burma. boiled they are used as a poultice. wood. Madhya Bharat. LOC. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. tumours. heals wounds and fractures. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. Tegu.
S. good in piles.-June. fresh root-bark. leaves and seeds. Kogge. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. red. Sk..—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). enriches Blood . leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). Flowers and seeds are diuretic. 2—2. asthma. Deccan. syphilis. See—Timbers. slightly curved. L. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. useful in bronchitis. Wood—acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES. standard. sedative to gravid uterus. PARTS USED. Empali. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. boils and pimples.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. dry. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. M. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. Wood good for head ache. leprosy. alexiteric. Gujarat. urinary discharges. root. Fl. Unhali. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. Jhila. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. CHAR. bitter. leaflets 11—21. 30—60 cm. M. LOC. mucronate. heart. Konkan. K.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. t.2 cm. cures diseases of liver. cures diarrhœa . poisoning. improve appetite. glabrous above.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. mucronate. Sarpankho. "Root—diuretic. allays thirst. liver. Phanike. biliousness. alterative. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. :—The whole plant. useful in scabies.—pod 3—4. it acts also as a vermifuge. Bark is an astringent. tumours. burning pain over the region of liver. spleen diseases. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . Country. FAM.. inflammations. useful in piles. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). Sharapunkha. useful in lung and chest diseases. :-G. Fr.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes.8—1. expectorant. anthelmintic. LOC. Ghodakan. asthma. high. Plihari. useful in bronchitis. . It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Sd. branches spreading. Leaves—tonic to intestines . long. along forest borders. silkyhairy beneath. Sarphoka. :—Plant-digestible. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. cooling. cultivated lands and roadsides. Fl. HABITAT:—Open situations. Sharapunkha. pubescent on the back. increase "Vata".—petals clawed. NS. Flowers—acrid. anthelmintic.—5-6 . C. Sarphonka. biliousness. oblanceolate. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). H. blood. antipyretic. gonorrhœa (Yunani). long. spleen.5 cm.—Oct.8 X 0. COM. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. ulcers. laxative. DISTR. ground and made into a pill. LOC. Kalika. :—A perennial herb. Malay Peninsula. suborbicular. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. linear. allays thirst. Udhadi. :—All over India.
laxative. :—Konkan and Deccan. tumours. COM. Burma. sore-throat. Kalidrum. Kushika. Arjuna. useful in bronchitis. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. leucoderma. LOC. White Marudah. useful in biliousness. Karvirak. externally in wounds and fractures. K.. ulcers. Sk.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Bahara. blood-diseases. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. Behada. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Bastard Myrobalan. Beheduk. heart disease. Madras State. DISTR. aphrodisiac. Indradruma. Bedda Nut. Bibhitiki. anæmia. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Voting. Arjun Sadada. Behedo. H. Hela. Expectorant. Karshaphala. digestible. Kakubha. M. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. acrid. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. styptic.—Combretaceæ. Sagona. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). G. NS. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Sk. useful in fractures. FAM. Sadado. See—Timbers. in Khandesh Akrani. Shantimara. Belleric Myrobalan. Koha. :—Bark. " Kapha". inflammation. Arjan.—Combretaceæ. Madhya-Bharat. :—Alexiteric. fruit and seed. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. very common in South Konkan. :—Throughout the forests of India. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Rajastan and Sind. Chota-Nagpur.. Tari. Fruit-pungent. anthelmintic. H. false presentation of fœtus. anthelmintic . :—Bark. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. G. Bera. Madhya-Pradesh. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Arjun-Sadada. Arjuna. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Vibhitika. Arjuna. diuretic. LOC. Ceylon. Kahu. biliousness. Buhura. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tara. leaves. M. urinary discharges. . Sadura. excessive perspiration. :—E. NS. Dhanvi. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. COM. & A. fruit (rarely). Baire. biliousness. PARTS USED. in the sub-Himalayan tract.. Bahaza. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. tonic. :—E. FAM. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. strangury. with milk. asthma. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Aksha. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. except in dry arid regions. intoxication. PARTS USED. K. Vibhata. DISTR. tonic.
See—Timbers. Jivanti. vomiting. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. Alate. anthelmintic. —E. tumours. NS. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). Black myrobalan. delirium (Ayurveda). carminative. carminative. good in ophthalmia. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . cold in head. PARTS USED. the fully ripe or dried fruit. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. USES. Ceylon. constipation. Burma. applied to eyes. diseases of eye. K. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. tonic. vesicular calculi. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. Ripe fruit—purgative. brain tonic (Yunani). Kanara. sore-throat. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. useful in asthma. itching pain. bleeding piles. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. piles. hoarseness. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. dyspepsia. Har. biliousness. alterative . DISTR. tonic. strangury. urinary discharges. mixed with honey. Seed—acrid. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. Gums and Resins. piles. Abhaya. aperient. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. H. tonic. intoxicating. G. common in Khandesh Akrani. :—Fruit-dry. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Harara. stomachic. Jivantika. LOC. heart and bladder. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. useful in thirst. Haria. gout. bilious headache. useful in dyspepsia. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". heart and bladder. piles and diarrhœa. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. is used as an application in ophthalmia. nose. typhoid fever. in Travancore. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. leucoderma. thirst. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. Hirda. useful in caries of teeth. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Hirdo . A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. attenuant. eye diseases etc. diarrhœa. :—Bark and fruit. M. used in paralysis (Yunani). Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. antipyretic. vomiting. inflammations. Chebulic myrobalan. diseases of spleen. LOC. Harade. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. eyes. diseases of eye. enriches blood. heating. elephantiasis. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. antidysenteric. anaemia. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. Haritaki. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. expectorant. Haritaki. which is considered a good digestive. hiccup. LOC. COM. Fruit-astringent. bleeding and ulceration of gums. ascites. FAM. strengthens brain. Kernel has narcotic properties. corneal ulcers.—Combretaceæ. gums. Sk. Dyes.
—Malvaceæ. COM. Gajadanta. aphrodisiac . Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Tans. :—Coast forests of India. Sk. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Bugari. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Bhend. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Parisha. LOC. FAM. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Jogiyarale. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Suparshuakan. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Bengal. See—Timbers. difficult to digest. Parasipu. Bhandi. Gandarati. Hucerasi. Phalisha. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. M. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. produces worms in intestines . Mhaskar and Issac). flowers and fruit. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. :—E. Eastern and Western Peninsula. acrid . Sacred Plants.. profuse discharge. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Portia Tree. Paras-piper. Arasi. Kandarala. especially centipedes. :—Districts of Konkan and N. :—Bark. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Paraspiplo. Tulip Tree. PROPERTIES AND USES. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Dyes. Kuberaksha. Fibres. NS. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. :—Fruit-sour. Bhindi. PARTS USED. H. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). leaves. . THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). DISTR. See—Timbers. burning of body . increases " Kapha " . Burma. also planted as roadside tree. Paraspipal. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. LOC. K. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Kanara. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Ranbhendi. G.
Fl. CHAR. HABITAT.. K.. C. yellow. Gulo. G.—generally 4. 7. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. long. fevers. Amarvel. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. bladder. t. Fl. H. Burma.—broadly obovate. Pila kaner. NS. tubular. FAM. Fr.—in terminal cymes.. Indies .—drupes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss.—membranous. bright green and shining above.—Apocynaceæ. leucoderma. with milky juice. it has no action on digestive enzymes . acrid. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). pungent. NS. COM.-spirally arranged. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. DISTR. Uganiballi. :—An extensive climber. bark corky. across. Fr. eye-troubles. See—Ornamental Plants. Heart-leaved moonseed. M. grooved . :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. HABIT :—In thickets. Vatsadani. worms. lobes 5. Gulancha. G. male fascicled. dorsally convex. PARTS USED. COM. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. corona in the throat. CHAR. Pittaghni. skin diseases. virgin uterus. Haripriya. L. piles. :—E. Andamans and Ceylon. :—Native of S. America and W.5 cm. useful in urethral discharges. Sk. LOC. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. M. red. throat campanulate. mesocarp bony. FAM. H. :—Throughout tropical India. Amrita-Valli. seeds and milky juice.—Menispermaceæ. females solitary. astringent to bowels. but its use is attended with considerable danger. root. frequently planted. . Shatakumbha. linear. wounds. Exile or yellow Oleander. LOC. bronchitis . Karvira. DISTR. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Often planted. Pila kanir. :—E. Gurch. yellow. Amritvalli. Gulvel. LOC. Gulvel. elliptic. Gulhel. growing on mango and other trees. Jwaranashini. and blood vessels .5—12. Sk. 7—9 nerved. L. 5 cm. often planted in India. 5—10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. exocarp fleshy. :—Stem. Sd. Zard kunel. cures " Vata " . crowded . said to be antiperiodic in small doses . it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. endocarp corky.—Apl.—in axillary and terminal racemes. 1—3. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. :—Bark. Pivali kanher. Ashvaghna. Gado. PARTS USED. ventrally flat. hot. Fl. size of a pea . very poisonous (Ayurveda).
3-5 grooved.— alternate. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. chronic fever. vomiting. Kumaon to Bhutan. Macimullu. Stem-bitter. stigma sessile. crenulate. :—E. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. leaflets sessile. Root and stem are bitter. diarrhœa.—Aug. :—Rain-forests. good in cough. leaves. stimulant and anti-periodic. FAM. stomachic. piles. stomachic . useful in skin diseases. antipyretic.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. armed with small hooked prickles . female flower buds oblong. Mirchi. diuretic. size of a large pea. HABITAT. digitately trifoliate. anæmia. fruits. ovary rudimentary. common in S. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases.—Dehan. unisexual. K. allays thirst. oblong. giddiness. male flower bud globose. (Kirtikar). t. :—Root.—in axillary cymes. 15 m. H. stimulates bile secretion. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. coriaceous. :—All over the Madras State . Dahan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES.8-3. renews blood. 5-10 X 1. Gangalaki. 5-7 lobed. . It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. LOC. orange coloured. Forest Pepper. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. vaginal and urethral discharges. tonic. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. Ceylon.—Rutaceæ. DISTR. Root-bark is aromatic. Jangali-Mirchi. Kaduhakukare. LOC. Fl. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. juice useful in diabetes. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. L. Khasia Hills. jaundice. pitted on the rind. COM. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. white. enriches blood. CHAR. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. expectorant. high. Philippines. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani).. fever. tropical Africa. Lopezroot Tree. Manger.—globose. Konkan and Kanara. :—Stem-bitter. Kadu-menasu. tonic appetiser. Limri. Sk. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. FT. cures jaundice. burning sensation. bark. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. also in the Deccan hills. causes constipation.8. M. NS. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. Java. Fl. PARTS USED. Sumatra. China. especially acid. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. vomiting. dark shining green above. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda).-Jany.
aphrodisiac. Kalingi. cooling. burning sensation. Singodi. Ceylon. Sk. FAM. useful in . Trikone-phala. Kuruk. Kanara. :—Fruit. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. LOC. biliousness. Burma. Singhara. leprosy. Gums and Resins. indigestible. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. good for scabies and gleet. itching. cures fevers. tonic. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. PARTS USED. Kaechaka. Tundu. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Water-chestnut. H. Tunika. antipyretic . Sk. digestible. Shingada. Dyes. Chota-Nagpur. :—Bark and flowers. H. anthelmintic. Shringa-kanda-taka. Gandhagarige. Mandurike. astringent to bowels. Kuberaka. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures leprosy. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. :—Throughout India. Indian Mahogany. useful in ulcers. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Chittagong. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. aphrodisiac. causes " Vata " . :—Cooling .MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem.) FAM. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Lim. :—E. tropical Africa. "Tridosha".—Meliaceæ. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. NS. fattening. Garige. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. K. expectorant.—Onagraceæ. M. Sandal Neem. removes " Kapha ". :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Apina. urinary discharges. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. removes " Tridosha". Mahalimbu. often cultivated. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). :—Bark-acrid. :—E. astringent to bowels. NS. DISTR. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. blood diseases. LOC. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. M. DISTR. fatigue. PROPERTIES AND USES. burning sensation. Lud. headache. strangury.. Assam. Malaya. Toon. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. inflammation. PARTS USED. Shingoda. LOC. Deodari. Tun. COM. cardio-tonic. G. Bark—bitter. HABIT. Tuni. biliousness. Waitz). Trikota. COM. Nand-vriksha. Jalakantaka-valli. of India). :—Aquatic (in tanks).
Kere Padye. Karahate. Gokhru. Sd. Negalu . Malay Peninsula. upto 3300 m. Sarata. alexiteric. abruptly pinnate. Gokhura.—throughout the year. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gokshri. t. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. Kurangaha. . :—E. Assam. DISTR. of 5 woody cocci. Gokharu. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. leaflets 3—6 pairs . M. stems and branches pilose. COM. Gamhar.—Euphorbiaceæ. sharp spines. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts .—opposite. Calthrope. mucronate. M. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. LOC. yellow. in Kashmir. Sk. :—A procumbent herb. antipyretic. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Gokshura. H. solitary. L. Country. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. one pair longer than the other . Sumatra.—globose. useful in chronic fevers. Pindara. Shadanga. K. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. The plant contains an alkaloid. Pindara. LOC. appetiser. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. hairy. See—Food Plants. Trikantaka. NS. each with 2 pairs of hard.—Zygophyllaceæ. They are also used in the form of poultice. Fr. young parts silky. a common weed of the drier parts. Petari . LOC. FAM. Gokhru. considered cool and sweet. PARTS USED. See—Timbers.. bronchitis. base oblique. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. K. Seeds abound in starch. Ceylon. :—The whole plant. Java. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. one of each pair smaller than the other. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. FAM. improves taste . used as food. Fl. CHAR. DISTR. Sk. along nalas and in swampy localities. Hussuk.:—Saurashtra. NS. Chhota gokhru.—several in each coccus .. Ceylon. COM. Fibres. oblong. bad-teeth (Yunani). pain. lumbago. bile and phlegm. Kantaphala. Gujarat. Tumri. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. removes biliousness (Ayurveda).. Kanara.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). G. LOC. sore-throat. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. biliousness. Aphrodisiac. Deccan and S. :—Plant is cooling tonic. thirst. M. :—H. :—Throughout India.
M. Brahma-dandi. pappus shorter than the achenes. stomachic. Mota-Motachor. :—A glabrous herb. spinous toothed or serrate. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. Brahmadandi. :—Wild in places. emmenagogue (Yunani). C.—sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures skin and heart diseases. faintly ribbed. alleviating burning sensation. urinary discharges. cough. S. Konkan. stem erect. pain . gonorrhœa. PARTS USED. suppression of urine. LOC. Country. Physiaran. urinary disorders and impotence. :—Root. M. leprosy . improves appetite . . S. NS.— purple. fruits. Kanara. oblong. leaves. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. Sk. CHAR. vesicular calculi. which is taken in large quantities. useful in strangury. LOC. gleet. LOC. yellowish brown. Aja-dandi. —achene. Kantapatraphala. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. USES :—Fruits are cooling. fattening. Brahmadandi. t. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. bloody urine. seeds. Mt. alterative . piles. slender. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). enriches blood . Diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. reduces inflammation . The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). cures "Kapha". pruritus ani. long. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. Brahmadandi. Talakanto. Abu. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. :—Hot. purifies blood . :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. the Deccan. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . H. FAM. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). increases menstrual flow. asthma. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). :—The whole plant. ciliate. West Rajastan. bitter. branches angled and ribbed. tonic. K. removes " Tridosha ". copious. tonic. COM. HABITAT. Fr. Fl. diuretic. DISTR. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). reduces inflammation. "Vata". linear-oblong or lanceolate. Kanara. L. :—Western Peninsula. Central India. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. cures strangury. Brahmadandi. diuretic. S. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. inflammations.—Compositæ. : — G. tonic . aphrodisiac.— Dec.—heads 6—8 mm. ovoid. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . appetiser. :—Cooling . lumbago .
chireta and honey. Ceylon. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. Kadvi-padyal or patola . Jyotsna. axillary. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.-6. PARTS USED. ovoid-fusiform. FAM. Lal-indrayan. L. antipyretic. Sd. headache and boils. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. COM. Betlada padaval. :—Throughout India. furrowed. Kiripodla. M. dentate or serrate. paler beneath.. cures bronchitis. G. Perula. eye diseases. :—Root-cathartic .5 cm. — surrounded with red-pulp . asthma. alterative. fruit. CHAR..—July-Oct. bitter. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. reniform or broadly ovate.—2. anasarca and ascites. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic.3-12. Fruit—hot. laxative. Fr. Kaundal. it is given in decoction with ginger.—Cucurbitaceæ. lobes ovate-oblong. Malaya. tendrils 3-fid. Makal. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. Ratan-indrayan. —G. CHAR. leaf-juice is emetic. orbicular. pungent. male in axillary racemes. H. M. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta).. alexiteric. stems 3. LOC. Fl. tendrils 3 cleft. :—Root.3 cm. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. palmately 3-5 lobed. allays thirst.6—4. long. Root-juice is very purgative. Patola. blood diseases. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. :—A scandent annual. Fl. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . cures itching. variable. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—E. Sk. stomachic. L.5 m.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. Indrayan. N. NS. long. LOC. slender. In Bombay. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. Panduka. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. leprosy. the Deccan. DISTR. NS. COM. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Sk. K. Avagude-hannu. deeply 5-lobed. Mukal. Malay Peninsula. leucoderma. long as well as broad. leaves. erysipelas. base cordate . antipyretic. Leaves—good for biliousness. base deeply cordate. Mahakala. Wild Snake-gourd. distantly denticulate.-5-12. Jangali chichonda. scarlet when ripe. slightly hairy. stem robust.-male in axillary . ulcers. oil. with a long sharp beak. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. white. dark-green above. woody below. females solitary. long. useful for boils and intestinal worms. Jangli— Kadu padval. burning sensation. HABITAT:-In hedges. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. green with white stripes when raw.5—7. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m.—monœcious. H. Katuka. Australia. FAM .5 cm. t.
. t. COM. many years ago. LOC. Ray flowers ligulate.—1. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places.-July. :—Abundant in the Deccan. black. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. lessens inflammations . the smoke causes hæmatemesis.—many . PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES.. Country. which is found abundantly all over the country. heat of brain. boiled with gingelly oil. Ceylon. Sd. purgative. L. 3-partite. FAM. petioles densely hairy. ophthalmia. M. DISTR. sparsely white hairy. C. Fr. glandular. China. :—Root and fruit. gargle good for toothache. bracts large. used in epilepsy. PARTS USED. all over the State. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. Ekdandi.5 cm.—petals wedge-shaped. acute. white. ligules yellow. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). female solitary. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. limbweakness. high. Australia.. Fruit—carminative. Fl. Juice of fruit or root-bark. t.—throughout the year. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm.—Compositæ. :— Wild in Konkan. bruises and wounds. :—Throughout India. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil.—globose 3-8. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. Japan. very hairy. :—Wild in hilly parts. axillary. N. DISTR. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. densely silky hairy. inner slightly longer than outer.. diam.. rheumatism. Deccan and S. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. NS. ovate-elliptic. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. HABITAT. Fl.— Apl. LOC. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. Fr. on the Himalayas. peduncles very long. :—M. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. :—A perennial straggling herb. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. Kirkee. fringed. cures hemicrania. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. LOC. abortifacient. CHAR. hairy. :—Leaves. outer involucral bracts ovate. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). Fl. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. stem and branches hairy. 30-60 cm.—head solitary.75 X . Malaya. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . leprosy.75-1 in. middle lobe smallest.— achene. slender. PROPERTIES AND USES.
narrowed at the apex to a free point. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. dysentery.—follicles. tapering to a fine point at the apex. Sd. COM. fleshy. COM. antipyretic. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. LOC. See—Vegetables. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. Hot and dry. LOC.—Asclepiadaceæ. large for the genus. DISTR. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Country. astringent to bowels. Pitakari (Pitamari). extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. :—A twining perennial. long. Methi . ovate or elliptic oblong. M. FAM. purplish within. Kanara.—Aug. aperient. NS. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. L. PARTS USED. .—deeply lobed.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. chronic cough. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). Fl. enlargement of spleen and liver. "Vata". Antamul. bronchitis. vomiting. cultivated in many parts of India. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). tonic and carminative.-Nov. M. with coma .— broadly ovate. greenish-yellow outside. LOC. suppurative. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice.—opposite. they are also aphrodisiac.—in umbellate cymes . much used in colic. Methi. Kashmir. Fenugreek . :—South of Bombay. t. Nepala . Fl. Muthi. Methi. 7. :—E. :—Leaves and seeds. Konkan. enlargement of spleen and liver. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. K. useful in dropsy. H. Methini.7 cm. Jyoti. S. piles. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Sk. :—Punjab. G. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. cures leprosy. corona gibbous below.. FAM. long. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. flatulence.5—10 cm. NS. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. :—Hot. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. Menthe—palle. tonic. and the seeds contain vitamin A. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. emmenagogue. C. HABITAT. base cordate. removes bad taste from mouth. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. K. Chandrika.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Janglipikvan. also in low and sandy localities. diarrhœa. diuretic. CHAR. Methi. FN.5-5. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Pitabija Vedhini.. dropsy. roots many. 5-10 x 2. :—H. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. appetiser. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A.
PROPERTIES AND LOC. tropical Africa. Pithavan. Malay Islands. 5-7 (rarely 9). :—Common on sandy shores. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). C. scape erect 30-45 cm. glabrous. H. M.. high. FAM.—Aug.—purple. Burma. Sd. USES.8 m. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. Dried leaves are emetic.—appearing after the flowers.— imparipinnate. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. HABITAT. Chota-Nagpur. stalks long. stems downy with hooked hairs. light-brown . C. PARTS USED. Malay Islands. Fr.— pod. white. Sk. pale lead-colored. Sk. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). 10-20 cm. KolaPutakand... DISTR. H. :—Konkan.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. DISTR. :—Bulb. drooping. tropical Africa. L. HABITAT. linear. Rankanda. linear-oblong. :—A perennial shrub. :—Wild. tapering to both ends . :—E. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. CHAR. Fl. FAM. 15-45 x 1. long. Borneo.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Jangli-Ran-khanda. 20-30 cm.—in racemes 15-30 cm. :—G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L.— Liliaceæ. joints 3-6. LOC. :—Roots and leaves. Shankaraja . NS. ellipsoid. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Ceylon. W. long. Peninsula. perianth campanulate. Indian Squill. LOC. Jaglipiaz. COM..5 cm.-Sept. diaphoretic and expectorant. hairy beneath.— petals lanceolate. Vanapalandu. Dabra. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. Prishna-parni. COM. Ceylon. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. 0. Fl. Ranganja .3-2. polished.. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. :—Sandy places. PARTS USED. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery.9-1.. long. flat. M. Panjala. Fr. USES. CHAR. Pitavan . catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. found useful in dysentery. Thailand (Siam). black. t.— flattened. folded on one another. :—Throughout the plains of India.—capsule. Fl. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. NS. :—Throughout India. Bihar. blotched with white above. URARIA PICTA Desv. G. Pitvan. :—Western Himalayas. Philippines. :—A herb.
:—Konkan.3-2 cm. complicate. heating. heating.—thickly coriaceous. Gaz. toothache. anthelmintic. long. stem 30-60 cm. M. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. acute. Fl. Bandanike. antipyretic. :—Bengal. useful in dyspepsia. (In Med. K. heals fractures (Yunani). Persara. Root is bitter. tonic to brain and liver. maritima of U. internal pains (Yunani). Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. The bulb is stomachic. Banda. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. Atiras. Br. Fr. skin diseases. recurved. emmenagogue. alexiteric. laxative. hiccup. long. :—An epiphyte. column very short. and an acute interposed one. Sarpagandha. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. DISTR. Travancore. diseases of the abdomen. and U. bronchitis. scandent by simple or branching roots .5—9 cm. cardiac. USES :—Expectorant. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. good for piles. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. :—G. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. Peninsula. :—The bulb is pungent. :—Root and leaves. purgative. indica is in no way inferior to the official U.— July. NS. HABIT. and was found useful (Koman). Bihar. t. Rasna. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Ceylon. diseases of nose. diuretic.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. bronchitis. tremors (Ayurveda). erect. lip bluish dotted with purple. W.—capsule. 2-lobed. 15-20 X 1. alexiteric. The plant contains an alkaloid. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . scilla of Great Britain. rheumatism. LOC. stimulant and diuretic. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. PARTS USED. LOC. stout. CHAR. Nakula.—Orchidaceæ. :—Epiphyte. anthelmintic. Rasna. lumbago. tip. . :—Root is bitter. Vriksharuha. H.. Madhya-Pradesh. PROPERTIES AND USES. asthma. L. A.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. LOC. lessens inflammations . COM. FAM. rheumatic pains. alexiteric. boils in the scalp. Fl. Gujarat and Kanara.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. Rasna. inflammations. Sk. long. obtusely keeled. renal calculi. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. pollinia ellipsoid. bronchitis. useful in paralysis. Rasno. dropsy. S. Chota-Nagpur. Vanda. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. praemorse.. 1931..
hemicrania. :—Western India. eardiseases. LOC. t. cures cough. PARTS USED. Dhupa. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). :—Madras State. M.-Jany. Kanara.—Rhamnaceæ. (T. stomachic. 1-nerved wing. alexipharmic. Haruge. USES. debility and slight cases of fever. Kaharub. :—Bark. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. tonic and stimulant. useful in leprosy. tonic. Kanara and S. Mysore. PROPERTIES AND USES. skin eruptions. in chronic bronchitis. Sk. :—North Kanara.-nut about 5 mm. PARTS USED. ulcers and wounds. buds 5-angled. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. :—E. Fr. M. G. :—E. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Country. globular. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. young branches and panicles pubescent. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. L.5-3. Sk. H.. Red Creeper. acrid. diarrhœa. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. detergent. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . entire or crenate. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. See—Timbers. good for sore-throat. greenish.—Dipterocarpaceæ. rheumatism. Travancore. FAM. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Kubbila. abundant in S. Shandike. C. dark. Tenasserim. Ragatarshado. whitish). :—Bark-hot. anæmia.. Fl. piles. Sandras. :—Bark. Malamaitra. with an offensive odour. DISTR.—petals 5. yellowish. Gums and Resins. Oils.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. carminative.. K. Shala. LOC.—Dec. urinary discharges. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). CHAR. diam. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. H. Bilidhupa.8 cm.—5-10 X 2. LOC. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. Kundura. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. Sekalyel. bechic. dysentery. Pitti. Sarjaka. also planted. COM. NS. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. NS. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. Khandvel. itch (Ayurveda). FAM. amenorrhœa. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Raktavalli. also in N. alexipharmic. resin. Lokhandi. fruit. :—A large much branched woody climber. Poppli. expectorant. Ceylon. Madidhupa. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. . useful in atonic dyspepsia. COM. Fl. Dhupa.—in large drooping terminal panicles. boils and ringworm. tuberculous glands. Coorg in Ghats. Safed-damar. M. K.
warted. Gadar-tambaku. high. China. Fl... Kadu-Kala Jiriga. NS. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. Fl. truncate. hairy. 5—9 x 2. Kalejire. Kalizhiri. Java . Vanajiraka.—alternate. astringent to bowels.-May. Kulhala. Kalijiri. :—Annual. Sk. Afghanistan. Ceylon . with purple tips . Kadvojiri. involucre bracts linear. t.—Compositæ. H.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Kulara. Fl. squeezed out by pounding. Deccan . coarsely serrate. G.—capsule. PARTS USED.) FAM.—oblong. Fr. CHAR. :—Konkan . t— Jany. high .Feb. hairy.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Seeds— anthelmintic. pappus reddish. in equal proportions. sub-globose. about 40-flowered.6-0. Vishamushti. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. M. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. Agnibija. C. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle.. M. CHAR. yellow. used in skin-diseases. hairy on both sides. lobes 5. The juice mixed with mustard oil. 10-ribbed. :—Plant. leafy herb .5—3. Bhutakeshi. Sk. LOC. on long petioles. PROPERTIES AND USES. rachis glandular pubescent. PROPERTIES AND USES. rounded. stems 60—90 cm. :—E.—in simple or branched terminal racemes.-rotate. all coarsely dentate. L. Somaraj. NS. COM. branched near the top. Kalhara. K.-achene oblong cylindric. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. lanceolate. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. ofter cultivated. K. erect. and leaves. :—An annual herb. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. Vapehi. Bakchi. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. FAM. Fr. COM. Country. H. :—Seeds-acrid. Sd.2 cm. "Vata" and "Kapha". with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. DISTR. :—Throughout India.—Dec. . Ceylon. Kutki. Fl. cure ulcers. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. :—G. Gujarat.8 cm. L. PARTS USED. hairy. Purple Fleabane. Somaraj. LOC. compound or pinnatisect. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda).—heads subcorymbose. robust. lyrate. innermost the longest. The juice of the whole plant. stem 0. LOC. :—Throughout India . anthelmintic. often cultivated.—Scrophulariaceæ. DISTR.9 m. M. HABITAT:-Waste places. Sundika.
Sadodi. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils.. Sind. FAM. G. remove blood from liver. Dandotpala. They are also used as tonic. 15—75 cm. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). with lime-juice. Valo . involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. tropical Asia. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. Panni. high. Sadori.—simple. NS. COM. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. stem stiff. oblong. K. . :—Throughout India. Sk. NS. bronchitis . Australia. LOC. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. cures "Tridosha". :—A common weed throughout the State. The expressed juice is given in piles. G. t. Sedardi. Koosa. Bena. :—Annual. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Sahadevi. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. The plant with quinine. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. cold. seeds. striate. Mudivala.—Jan. Sahadevi. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. LOC. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. L. Fr. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate.—achene. kidney troubles. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. pubescent. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). FAM. stomachic and diuretic. Devika. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. tonic. Ardhaprasadana. awned. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). a depilatory (Yunani). The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. M. H. COM. Sahadevi. Africa . Fl. are used in destroying pediculi. asthma. heads small.— pinkish violet. Fl. erect herb. flowers. :—E. good for sores and itching of eyes. Bala. pappus white. used for asthma. clothed with white hairs .MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Sk. Khas. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. K. H. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. Osari. bruised seeds ground up in paste. :—Plant. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). consumption. CHAR. hiccup . and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. silky on the back. M. applied in inflammatory swellings . LOC. DISTR. astringent. stomachic. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Kuruvelu. :—E. Vala. Vecrnam.-Feb. In Ceylon. Ushira.—Gramineæ. made into a bolus with lime-juice. plant is used in fever convulsions. PARTS USED. Cuscus grass. Ash-coloured Fleabane . alternate. Lavancha.—Compositæ.
DISTR. stimulant and tonic. M. anthelmintic. Nirgud. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. refrigerant. febrifuge. colour varying from yellowish to black. blood diseases (Yunani). Sinduvara. erect. leaves. Nigod. PARTS USED. LOC. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. bitter. DISTR. West-Indies and Brazil. :—Cooling. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. alexiteric. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. tonic and vermifuge. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). bronchitis. Sind. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. throughout the Malayan regions. slender. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. diuretic. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. Ceylon. promotes hair-growth. FAM. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . sweats. high. cephalic. inflammations. Sessile spikelets. useful in spermatorrhoea. Lakki. heating. LOC. USES :—Root is tonic. margin spinously rough. spleen enlargement. Leaves are aromatic. :—Throughout the State. Afghanistan. Sk. long. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . painful teething of children (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. biliousness. foul breath. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. LOC. up to over 1. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. Cooling to brain. Nukki. NS. strangury.—panicle up to 30 cm. thirst. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. :—Root. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Kanara in damp places. Sambhalu. lower ones keeled and fan-like. Indrani.. Konkan and Deccan.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. bitter. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. pale green. leucoderma.. consumption. useful in eye diseases. Bilenekki. soporific. useful in burning sensation. inflammations and irritability of stomach. rachis stout. Nirgundi. asthma. Nirgundi. Philippine Islands. also cultivated. K. Fl. astringent. Culms stout. stomachic. L. stomachic. :—Common in Gujarat and N. bitter. head-ache. :—Throughout India.8 m. long. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. PROPERTIES AND USES. bilious fevers. expectorant and diuretic. Nilpushpi. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Nirgundi.-leaf sheaths compressed.—Verbenaceæ. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. The roots contain an essential oil. racemes up to 5 cm. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. H. astringent. :—G. The otto is used as a tonic. usually sheathed all along. :—Roots. Nirgari. COM.
PARTS USED :—Stem. produces constipation. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. good in chronic bronchitis . stomachic. DISTR. applied in scabies. Fruit is nervine. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. cooling useful in thirst. fruits. diuretic . juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. aphrodisiac. purifies and enriches blood . "Kapha" (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid. Flowers—expectorant. useful in old fevers. laxative. and given in coughs. HABITAT. jaundice. Drakh . Angura. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. difficult to digest. testicle swellings and piles. bad effects of drinking. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. Sap of young branches. Stem-ashes good for joint pains.. fever. laxative. hoarseness and consumption. See—Timbers. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. Draksha. W. produces alopecia. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Angur. G. liver and kidney. Sk. Country. seeds. leaves. asthma. Darakh. :—A native of western Asia. . cooling. Draksha. The fruits contain vitamin A. :—Fruit-acrid. fever. stones in bladder. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. spleen inflammation. and traces of vitamins B and C. cough. :—E. :—Cultivated. allays vomiting. strangury. There are numerous cultivated varieties. COM. :—Deccan. diarrhœa. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. fattening . emmenagogue. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. heat of body. India. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. allays vomiting. Gujarat and S. appetiser. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). burning. K. Draksha. Madhurasa. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. fattening. Fruit— digestive. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. good for lungs. catarrh and jaundice. Grape-vine. syphilis. NS. Ahmednagar. tonic to liver. LOC. Draksha. M. Guchaphala. FAM-—Vitaceæ. aperient. piles. stops bleeding from mouth. Khandesh. blood diseases. astringent to bowels. cooling . a remedy for skin diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. skin should not be eaten. causes gases in the stomach. expectorant. Yakshmaghni. emmenagogue. sparingly in Poona. diuretic. M. sweet. flowers. good for eyes and throat. cures thirst. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. H.
inflammations. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests.. Sd. Wakeri.. bony Fl. Punir. Wagati. abundant in Sind . 0.3-1.) DISTR. Vajini.-Jany. NS. Mediterranean regions. tonic. HABITAT. constricted between them. branches armed with recurved prickles . t. dark-orange. hoary tomentose . smooth. anthritis. linear oblong. scabies. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . PROPERTIES AND USES. Amangura. chest troubles etc. L. Hooliganji. USES. senile debility.—2-pinnate. consumption. heating. :—A robust woody climber. emmenagogue . FAM. :—Drier regions. Tuber—bitter. inflammations. L. lumbago.. LOC. Fl. ovate. bronchitis. dark-green. Sd. long. Gandhpatri. main rachis armed with prickles. useful in "Vata". Fr. Fl. armed with prickles . :—Root and bark. aphrosidiac. minutely hairy. :—A branched erect undershrub. insomnia. green berries. K. :—Tubers-bitter. DISTR. leucoderma. Ashvagandha. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. :—K. bronchitis. :—In the drier regions of India . . C. diam.5-5 cm. Gujarat. marasmus of children. NS. COM.—petals 5. alexipharmic.—Solanaceæ. swollen above the seeds. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. rachis grooved with soft hairs. oblong. aphrodisiac. long.— Sept. CHAR. Kamrupini.5 cm.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). PROPERTIES AND LOC. ulcers. Fr.—greenish or lurid yellow. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). Winter-cherry. leaflets 5-7 pairs. base dentate. Balada. hard. long. calyx-tube. See—Fruit Trees. M. spathulate. Asgundh.—yellow. Ghodasoda. Asoda. high. Wagati. Ceylon. 23-30 cm. :—Konkan jungles.-Feb. CHAR. oblong. :—Deccan. psoriasis. alterative. good in asthma.—berry. pretty common in the ghats. Cape of Good Hope. Fl. slightly 5-angled. Deccan.5 m. "Kapha". red. somewhat scurfy. Asgund. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. LOC. asthma. coriaceous. leaves. entire.5-12. Asan. Kanara.—3-4. Canaries. pinnae 4-6 pairs. enclosed in inflated calyx. Sogada-beru. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . Kanchuki. Hirimaddina-gadde. COM. G. acrid. M. FAM. anthelmintic.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal.—pod. favours constipation (Yunani).—5-10 X 2. t. Drakshasava—used as tonic. H. branches terete.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. inserted on the top of. seeds. :—E. 6 mm. 7. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED. (not common. Sk. obovate. tonic.
WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Ceylon. on trap in the Akrani. Dhaw. Vanhishikha. leaf-infusion is given in fever. Hallunova. wedge-shaped. M. Japan. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. Kodamurki. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). common in the Konkan and N. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. and in derangement of liver . COM. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. lumbar pains. Tamrapushpi. uterine sedative.. Kalakuda. K. erysipelas. blood diseases. long. brown. LOC. Bela. Madhuindrayava. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . FAM. tropical Africa. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Indrajav. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. used in thirst. M. Dudhi. alexiteric. scarlet. China. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying.—mostly opposite.-May. Dhawai. Baluchistan. irregularly dehiscent. Sd.—capsule. Indrajav. t. COM. Madhavasini. LOC. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. rheumatism. NS.) FAM. Are. Dec. HABITAT. diuretic and deobstruent. useful in leucorrhoea. acrid. See—Tans. Br. :—G.3-2. Kalikari. dysentery.—numerous. Swetakutaj. 1 cm. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. NS. Phulsatti. . Hayamaraka.—Apocynaceæ. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Sk. DISTR.— numerous. Dhavani. PARTS USED. Khirni. USES. nigro-punctate beneath. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. Ornamental Plants. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. leprosy. :—Root is regarded as tonic. H. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. 5-9X 1. Sumatra. alterative. in 2-15 flowered cymes. simple. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Dhavani. :—Bark and flowers. Santha. toxic. haemorrhoids. emaciation of children. velvety above. L. Fr. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . anthelmintic . ovate-lanceolate. :—G. Indrajav. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Dyes. Sk. :—Throughout India. The plant contains an alkaloid. H. :—Pungent.—Lythraceæ. Dhateki. Java. Dhawadina. K. Hale. Kanara near the sea-coast. branches long. It is narcotic. Dhaiti.5 cm. Fl. Kuda. ulcers and painful swellings . :—Monsoon-forests. smooth. debility from old age. Madagascar. cooling.
fertile heads few. PROPERTIES AND USES. In S.Feb. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. voice.. improves appetite.-E. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. long. poisonous bites of insects. Fl. 1-3 cm. compressed . H. Dumundi. DISTR. Banokra. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox.—many. M. hard and tough. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . . 3-lobed. LOC. Bur-Weed..5 cm. stem short. West-Peninsula. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . Khandesh at 1050 m. at the top. PARTS USED.. FAM. tonic. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. Shankhahuli. :— Throughout India. Gadrian. PROPERTIES AND USES. Madhya Pradesh. NS. LOC. :—Annual herb . memory. cures leucoderma. Itara. Sk. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn.1-6. ovoid in fruit. Ceylon. salivation. Kambu-Vanamalini. Fl. Sarpakshi. Sankeshwar. CHAR. digestive. tonic. COM. LOC. hairy on both sides. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. irregularly incisoserrate .—Compositæ. long and broad. the bark is specially useful in piles. with 2 erect beaks. antidysenterica (Yunani). Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac.achene. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. laxative. Clot-Cockle-bur. all over the State. involucre of fertile head. LOC. :—Cooling. See—Timbers. :—The whole plant. in W. G. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). antipyretic. epilepsy. L. complexion. t. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. Fr. rough with short hairs . especially root and fruit. barren heads many.—Jany. fever. Timor. biliousness. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. fattening. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. axillary. alexiteric. :—Rajastan. oblong ovoid. :—Bark and seeds. DISTR. USES :—Root is bitter. PARTS USED. 5-7. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. Aristha. anthelmintic. stout.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. Dutundi. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests.
carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. stomachic. FAM. Kuvali. appetiser. Ber. vomiting. "Vata". Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Ajapriya.. dyspepsia. good in piles. G. it cleans throat. aphrodisiac. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. . bronchitis. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ber. COM. Indian Cherry. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. tongue and increases appetite. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. useful in heart and throat diseases. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. tonic. flatulence. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . Bordi. rheumatism. Chinese Date. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. NS. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). :—Rhizome-pungent. useful in elephantiasis. to prevent nausea and griping. DISTR. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Ginger. M. eructations. Bor. it is also given in the form of infusion. FAM. Bore. Ardraka. COM. pains. carminative. HABITAT. Bor. Beri. H. stomachic. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. gives lustre to eye. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). K. Anupama. G. on poor soil and in rocky places. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). :—Cultivated. expectorant. :—Rhizome. Koli. H. M. Egasi. "Kapha". ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. LOC. Sk. Alen. LOC. Hasisunthi. head-ache. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. vomiting. K. Bogari. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. NS. and dry situations. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. anthelmintic. Badari. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Gulmmula. aphrodisiac. :—E. asthma. laxative. It is stimulant. See—Condiments and Spices. carminative. Dridhabija. loss of appetite and piles. Rhizome—pungent. Alla Adrak.—Rhamnaceæ. Adrate. :—E. colic. PROPERTIES AND USES. pains (Yunani). Boyedi. Sk. removes pain due to cold. Plum. Ada. Kandara. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. piles. alexiteric.—Scitaminaceæ. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Shringavera. inflammations. Ipanji. PARTS USED. Alen. lumbago. heating. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc.
Burma. wounds and ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. on the laterite near the coast in N. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. good in liver complaints. . LOC. :—Root-bitter. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . good in dysentery and diarrhœa. indigestible. leaves. Bark—causes boils . seeds. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). removes biliousness. laxative. :—Root. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. Fruit Trees. China. abundant in the Deccan. Africa. Leaves—anthelmintic..232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Ceylon. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. PARTS USED. cure asthma. Fruits contains vitamin A. causes cough. Fruit— cooling. reduce obesity. Afghanistan. useful in fevers. Leaves antipyretic. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . good in consumption and blood-diseases. cooling. biliousness. fruit. allays thirst (Yunani). Kanara. vomiting. burning sensation. causes diarrhœa in large doses . Leaves form a plaster to boils. Fruit—sweet and sour. DISTR. tonic to heart and brain . Seeds—cure eye-diseases. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. Root and Bark tonic. thirst. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Australia. See—Timbers. Seed—astringent. head-ache. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. aphrodisiac. bark. tonic.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.