FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.



CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.



The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.



INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

Sk.-Mar. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. See—Timbers. inflammations. cooling. DISTR. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Kath-bole. :—Throughout India. L. M. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. Phena. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence).—bipinnate. Charmakusha. bronchitis. hypertrophy of tonsils. :—Common throughout the Stale . " Kapha ". Kochi. Fr. relaxation of the uvula. along the coasts of Konkan and N. China. Sige-balli or kai. yellow. indigestion. Saptata. gums. G. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. linear-oblong. antidysenteric. M. ulcers. erysipelas.. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. Khair. cures itching. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . It is given in diarrhœa.-July. Khadira.-t. Dantadhavan. Himalayas up to 1700 m. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Shige. urinary and vaginal discharges. piles. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. given in elephantiasis. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Pegu. sore-throat and tooth-ache. throat diseases. " Vata ". 7. Soap-pod tree. Deccan.8 cm. Yajnika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. psoriasis. Khandesh Akrani S. anthelmintic. Sk. Dipta. Sd. astringent to bowels. heaviness.. Western Peninsula. acrid. mouth troubles. Country and Gujarat. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Tans. LOC. NS. 5-10 cm. Kanara forests.—pod. :—Rajastan. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Burma. anti-pyretic. leprosy. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. prurigo. Malay Islands. aphrodisiac.—in fascicled globose heads. long. .—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). overlapping. Fl. LOC. M. Vidula. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. K. measles and other skindiseases. Sikkim. Kanara (often on laterite). DISTR.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Lalkhair.5X2-2. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). COM. leucorrhoea. boils. Chikakai. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Saradruma. CHAR. :—E. Kushthari. :—An extensive woody climber. Bhuriphena. leaflets 10-20 pairs. tonic. strengthens teeth. fleshy when green.-6-10 . Manda-otte. In ulceration of the gums. Shikekai. Fl. H. Ritha. Dyes. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. wrinkled when dry . FAM.5-12.

LOC. ascites. leucoderma. Cassia flower. anti-diarrhoeal. eczema. COM.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Jheri baval. Stinking acacia. Gandhelo khair . Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. often cultivated. alexiteric. causes " Vata". Sk. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. prurigo. leaves and gum. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. leucoderma. cures " Kapha. tonic. purgative. not indigenous but naturalised. piles.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). erysipelas. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. blood-diseases. digestible. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. Sind. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—Moist situations. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. K. anti-dysenteric. blood diseases. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). :—E. In Philippines decoction. biliousness. caries of teeth. NS. Gums and Resins. detergent. itching. Sauna jali. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. LOC. Gandhbabul. Kari jali. stomatitis. ulcers. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. erysipelas. See—Timbers. Vilavati kikar. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. anthelmintic. Jali. burning sensation. Gum—sweetish. deobstruent. G. Girimeda. DISTR. often planted . Arimeda.pungent. Internally they are aperient. Sponge tree. cures stomatitis. Kankri. FAM. LOC. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Bark. bronchitis. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . Pissibabul. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . H. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. improves appetite.. Devababhul. . inflammations. M. buboes. expectorant and good emetic. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Marudruma. cardio-tonic. cooling.

3.5 cm. Fl. asthma. small.5 cm. erect. H. Sd. Agheda-di. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. tropical Africa. It is used in congestive headache.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. Arittamanjaria. pneumonia and rheumatism. M. Apamarga. crenate-serrate. Chirchira. Ksharamadhya. brown. Vasira. enclosed in perianth smooth. H. Fr. oblong-cylindric.—utricle. hispid.3-0. Kuppi-gida. in elongate terminal spikes. NS. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. L.. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. G. Chalmari. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. few. in lax. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. COM. Apang. stem stiff. branches terete or quadrangular striate. Fl. females. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. Philippines.8-6. K. M. Fl. Kuppi.—greenish white. L. :—E. 2. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Var. Fr. LOC. clustered near the summit of spike. perianth 4-5 segments. Sk. t. Country. LOC. Chichra. K. :—An erect herb 0. PROPERTIES AND LOC. many. FAM. softly hairy. :—Throughout India. smooth. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. long in fruit. Uttrane . Merkati. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. :—Common in the Deccan and S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. elliptic obovate. Prickly chaff-flower. :—G.—truncate at apex. Vanchhikanto.—Amarantaceæ. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. 30-75 cm. axillary spikes .— ovoid. minute. Sd.—Euphorbiaceæ. CHAR. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Kharamanjiri.—monœcious.. Aghada .57. Utranigida. FAM. high.—capsule. NS. Ceylon. about 50 cm. Khokla. somewhat 3-nerved. elongate.-Jany. erect herb. Latjira . M. males. brown. COM. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. one-seeded. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Kantarika. Khajoti. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. angular. DISTR. Sk.—June-Sept. pale-brown. high.3 X 2.—Nov. rounded at base. ascending.—opposite.5x2-4. . also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. Fl. branches long. The plant contains acalyphin. Khokali.5-4. :—Annual. scattered. CHAR.9 m. t. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases.

margins wavy. thirst. voice. :—E. leaves. green . worms in the ear (Ayurveda).—Araceæ. Baja . inflammations. kidney troubles.8 cm. carminative. Fr. Vekhand. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. useful in abdominal pains. laxative. piles. top pyramidal. improves appetite. pungent. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. prismatic. useful in general weakness. hysteria. Gandhilovaj. slightly curved. loss of memory. bitter. See—Sacred Plants. heating. Throughout Asia. diuretic. Bitter. :—An aromatic herb . heart diseases. stomachic. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. abdominal pains. L. dysentery. good for mouth diseases. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. bronchitis. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. toothache. brain-tonic. America. skin eruption etc. tumours. laxative. delirium.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Baluchistan. boils. America. Tropical Asia. Sweet flag . PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. Bhutnashini. Ceylon.. flowers and seeds.9-1. creeping and branching. expectorant. Vekhand . sepals scarious. Ugragandha. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. M. G. leucoderma (Yunani). acute. COM. anthelmintic. H. K. FAM. long. :—Throughout India. Sk. blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. liver and chest pains. epilepsy. spadix. Europe and N. PARTS USED :—Root. improves appetite. . ascites. 0. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. Gorbach . etc. Sikkim. emmenagogue . stomatitis. obtuse. carminative. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. dysentery.—turbinate. useful in vomiting. itching. fevers. flatulence. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Australia. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. heating. inflammations. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. LOC. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. Godavaj. "Vata". LOC. alexiterie. NS. bright-green. carminative. Bach. and is considered useful in dropsy. long. emetic.7-3. useful in dyspepsia. PARTS USED : —Root. spathe 15-75 cm. Jatila. Vacha. CHAR. Africa. laxative. anthers yellow. thickened in the middle. piles. rat-bite. throat.. 5-10 cm.8 X 1. bronchitis. dyspepsia. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn.

Gorakhchinch. Kanara evergreen forests. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. Brahmamlika. Pichli. bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Lauraceæ. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda).USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains.—Bombacaceæ. COM. indigenous in tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. Powder is very effective insecticide. Pisa. DISTR. Sk. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. FAM. DISTR. Monkey-bread tree. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. See—Timbers. etc. :—E. Rukhdo . The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. NS. dysentery. :—Western Peninsula. African calabash. Gorakamali. NS. HABITAT':—Cultivated. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. Gujarat. Haggodgimara. Deccan. colic. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. useful in biliousness. fevers and other maladies. LOC. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. K.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. COM. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. Bukha. anti-pyretic. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. G. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. N. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats.. LOC. PARTS USED : —Root. M. vomiting. Baobab. Tudgensu . :—Grown in many places in India . It is a good remedy in asthma. :—K. leaf and fruit. Gopali. LOC. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Panch-parnika. Gorakhaamli. M. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Goremlichora . The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . FAM. H. Gorakshi. fever.:—Konkan. in children.



inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).



Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in



ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.



FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

See—Timbers. Malaya. Gudhapatra. K. inflammations. Karnapura. Onkla. See—Timbers.) FAM. . Sirisa.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. alexipharmic . Ankola. Uddanaka. M. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. often along banks of nalas in N. LOC. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). stem. lumbago. Chinchola. Philippines. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Kalashirish. it is said to stop after-pains. Shyamala. Garso. rat-bite. Juice—emetic. Ankora. poisonous bites. :—E. alterative. blood diseases. S. hydrophobia. NS. and fruit. Ankola. Ankoli. blood diseases. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. alexiteric. K. Kullumavu. Piloshirish. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Kaloshirish. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. M. heating. dysentery. Ankoli. Shirish. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. gleet. Root-bark— used in piles. Kalosadasado. Tantia. spermatorrhoea. " Vata "-pain. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . inflammations.—Alangiaceæ. :—Throughout the State. G. expectorant. pungent. Ankola. Anedhera. aphrodisiac. Krishnashirisha. Sirsul. LOC. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. :—Throughout India. Shankiniphala. H. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Dridhakantaka. Fruit—laxative.—Leguminosæ. Shirish. Ankol. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. burning of body. Ankotha. FAM. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. acute fever. cures erysipelas. Root-bark poisonous. colic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk. wasting diseases. diarrhœa. DISTR. Sage-leaved alangium. COM. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Sirai. commonly planted along roadsides. biliousness. Seeds—cooling. fish-poison. Shirisha. :—E. China. aromatics or honey. H. tonic. Dodda-Hombage. (Mimosaceæ). lumbago (Yunani). Vamaka. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. COM. Ankota. LOO. Akoly. NS. Kalshish. Kanara. cures " Kapha". Ceylon. Asroli. anthelmintic. useful in inflammations. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). leaves (rarely). Tamraphala. useful in worms. carminative. G. indigestible. Sk. Kathora.

seeds. The plant contains vitamins A. FAM. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. leaves. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. piles. aphrodisiac. piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR.—Liliaceæ.K. Rajapriya. which acts as a diuretic. bark. diarrhœa. stomachic. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. LOC. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. prescribed in ophthalmia. Burma. ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Ulageddi. Onion. PARTS USED :—Root. emollient.. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). good in rat-bite. and chronic bronchitis . LOC. etc. paralysis. alexiteric. asthma. enriches blood. Rochaka.. vomiting. usually planted. scabies. bleeding piles. Flowers—aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. See—Vegetables. bronchitis. . It is an important garden crop. useful in malaria. Dungari. etc. Piyaz. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. scabies. maturant. Bark— anthelmintic. Bulb—tonic. useful in vomiting. NS. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. Oil is used in leprosy. Bengal. :—Native country probably Persia. used in leprosy. G. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. Sk. occasionally used in fever. Seeds—fattening. erysipelas. skin-diseases. LOC. biliousness. H. inflammations. excessive perspiration. Bark-bitter. and also in skin diseases . given in piles. itching. improves taste. leucoderma. volatile oil. DISTR. catarrh. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). their smell useful in hemicrania. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. syphilis. Ceylon. Root—astringent. deafness. relieves tooth-ache. cooling. body pains. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. cultivated everywhere. Leaves—good in night blindness. spleen diseases. Bark and seeds are astringent. tonic. weakness. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).: —Throughout India. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. boils. dropsy.:—E. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. cures "Vata". tumours. Palandu. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. flowers. COM. Seeds—tonic to brain. ear-ache. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. Kanda. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. epistaxis. strengthens gums and teeth. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). blood diseases. seeds. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. B & C. stimulant and expectorant. M. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. eruptions and swellings. anthelmintic.

Ghi-kumari. troubles of spleen. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. paralysis. Sk. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. thins the blood (Yunani). Korkand. In Cambodia. Kattali. fattening. carminative. hemiplegia.—Liliaceæ. tonic. See—Vegetables. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. FAM. It is an important garden crop. Korphad. PARTS USED :—Bulb. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. M. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. G. COM. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. chronic fevers. low fevers. H. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. ALŒ VERA Linn. body and joint pains. heating. epileptic fits. Ikshurmallika. inflammation. leucoderma. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. NS. Bellulli. Lasun. Kumari. paraplegia and convulsive affections. useful in inflammations. useful in diseases of eye and heart. Kapila. oleaginous . LOC. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. G. piles. alexipharmic. . Country. Rasonaka. The plant contains vitamin C. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature.—Liliaceæ. " Vata ". Ugragandha. sciatica. K. LOC. Sk. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. Diuretic. improves appetite. K. leucoderma. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. tumours. thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. aphrodisiac. FAM. :—E. In cases of diphtheria. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. bronchitis. H. Lashuna. clears voice. Lasan. Lahsan. digestive. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. complexion. asthma. Lasan. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. Garlic. aphrodisiac. liver and lungs . Lolisara. thirst. anthelmintic. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. voice. good for lumbago. Kumari. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Kanya. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. NS. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. lumbago. caries of teeth. Kuvarpatha. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. :—E. COM. In pulmonary phthisis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. Indian aloe. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. M. M.

Fl. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism.—Apocynaceæ. Australia. Sk. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. used in form of paste in pleurisy. Bitter . purgative. jaundice. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. methritis. spleen enlargement. :—A perennial herb . Ceylon. digestive. :—E. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. H. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. pale-green. Mediterranean. emollient and demulcent. crowded. LOC. skin diseases. K. lumbago. LOC.—sessile. Br. also cultivated. DISTR. carminative. planted in Indian gardens . tonic. Jamaica. milky juice. M. inflammations. COM. asthma. FAM. scape longer than the leaves. bark. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. lanceolate. West Indian Islands. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses.—in dense racemes . piles. LOC. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Root. Java. Africa. fleshy. bronchitis. Chatian. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. scaly. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. aphrodisiac. alexiteric. E. The plant contains aloin. Kaduhale. anthelmintic. somewhat divided. gonorrhœa. simple or branched. :—Wild along the coast in S. margins spiny. Dita bark tree. cooling. used in fevers. perianth cylindric . common in the rain-forests of N. and it is largely imported into India. Satwin. Satwin. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. HABITAT :—Moist forests. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. pendulous. biliousness (Yunani). liver troubles. ophthalmia. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. Satian. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. Barbados. Native of S. wild along the coast. Saptaparna. strangury. tumours. alterative. stem short thick. PARTS USED :— . Saptachhada. Kanara. yellow. pain in muscles. useful in splean inflammation. useful in eye-diseases. vomiting. India. liver complaints. Hale. C. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. tonic. It also acts as a mild purgative. ulcers (Ayurveda). :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. L. :—Throughout India. NS. leaves. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. Kadusale. fattening. isobarbaloin and emodin. purgative. tropical Africa.

The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. NS. hallucination. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. asthma. Mulladantu. obtuse. leucoderma. K. Kantanatia. Tandulibija. LOC. Prickly amaranth. thickened at the top. bronchitis. galactogogue. lanceolate. often reddish. Kantalo dambho. G. improves appetite. M. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). diseases of the blood. HABITAT :—In waste places. good in diseases of the heart. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. Sk. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. 30-60 cm. ovoid. Bark—acrid. digestible. See—Vegetables. . branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling.— 3. apiculate. Tandulja. Ceylon.—Amarantaceæ. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. blood diseases.. Kante math. male calyx acute. stomachic. diuretic. See—Timbers.— capsule. bitter. unisexual. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . entire. Kantanu-dant. sudorific and febrifuge. ovate. COM. numerous. rugose. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found.2—7.3—3. :—E. female calyx oblong. also useful in catarrhal fever. Pathyashaka. H. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. laxative.). useful in " Kapha ". :—Throughout India. tropical countries. high. long. rubbish heaps . antipyretic. anthelmintic. leprosy. rat-bite. heating. Mullarave-soppu. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. Cholai. L. piles. alexiteric. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. obtuse.8 cm. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). antiperiodic and febrifuge. :—An erect glabrous herb. boils and burns. rubbish heaps and fields.5 X 1. tumours. FAM. Drug Com. leucorrhoea. Fr. laxative. appetiser. also in fields.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. Root—heating expectorant. ulcers. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. burning sensation. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Apamarisha. Fl. " tridosha " pain. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. LOC. bristles pointed. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. LOC. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. oleaginous. biliousness. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. CHAR. Tandulaja. DISTR.

AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Deccan. asthma. :—Throughout India in moist places. China.:— Konkan. Vikata. stomachic. :—E. 8-65 cm. Bitter and acrid . Blistering ammania. Bharajambhul.—Araceæ. LOC. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. Afghanistan. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. tumours. appetiser. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Malaya. erect or subscandent herb. COM. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. DISTR. causes itching sensation. Fl. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains.—capsule. Tropical Africa. Gujarat and Kanara.—Lythraceæ.—opposite. much narrowed at the base. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). branches usually opposite. Kandala. G. enlargement of the spleen. removes " Kapha ". elephantiasis . Arshaghna. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Suran. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. It is also used as an emmenagogue. G. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. Konkan rivers. Grows wild on the banks of S. harmful in "Kapha". Corm is irritant and also the seeds. FAM.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. red. In the Konkan. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Dadmari. constipating. t. M. abdominal pains. Kanthalla. Fl. depressed. strangury . Sd. pungent. Sukaranda. Kandavardhan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Suran. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. useful in piles. acrid. L. laxative. vomiting. DISTR. aphrodisiac. K. Australia. sessile.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. Kuranda." blood troubles. Jalavgiyo. CHAR. LOC. H. Suran . FAM. Fr. stomachic. fevers etc. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Sk. Kuranti. globose. LOC. Ceylon. :—Cultivated widely in the State. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. increases appetite and taste. . Jangli mehandi. Kurendika. Elephant's foot. blood diseases.—Nov. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. LOC.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . :—E. :—An annual. " Vata. Suran. high. Vatari. the plant. H. NS. COM. M. corm. fresh or dried. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid.

10-12 X 7. FAM. NS. COM. many flowered. leaves. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. bark vertically furrowed . L. H. Fl. Jermic. :—E. digestible. swollen peduncle of fruit. See—Vegetables. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. Sk. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". LOC. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. skin diseases. . fever. leucoderma. Kakamari. :—A native of tropical America. Oils. Sk. K.—in panicles 25-35 cm. DISTR. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. Upapushpika. H. Kakkisoppugida . Agni-krita. & A. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Fish-Louse Berry. It is supposed to have restorative power. The plant contains Vitamins A. and trace of C. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. anthelmintic. Kakamari. K. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Gerubi. . Kakamari. PARTS USED :—Bark. ascites. Kakamari. Govamba. Kaju . The seed contains vitamin A. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakamari.—Menispermaceæ. Kempu— Turkaka geru . M. flowers.5 cm. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. dysentery. CHAR. sweet. hot. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). FAM. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. NS.— subcoriaceous. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Sophara. Cashew apple-nut. :—E. G. LOC. also cultivated. USES :—Bark is alterative. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. M. Prithagbija. Kanara. tumours. Kakaphal.—Anacardiaceæ. which is nutritious and emollient. equal to almond oil. piles. Corm is poisonous. G. COM. Kaju. cordate or truncate. Kaju. broadly ovate. See—Timbers. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. ulcers. long. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal.. B. aphrodisiac. Kakanashika. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . 5-nerved.5-12. Garalaphala. corns and obstinate ulcers. Crow-Fish Killer. Gova. ringworm. Kajutaka.

G. LOC. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. :—E. FAM. Bengal. causes cough and biliousness. NS.—Sept. Pine-apple . Kantak sanjika. Ananas hannu. H. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. K. Mahatit. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. it is useful in jaundice. K. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. H. fruits. black . removes gases from the intestines . petals absent. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. Parvati. Olikiriyat. from Orissa to Ceylon. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. Kanara. a poison to fish (Yunani). Sk. :—E. Creat. to a certain extent in Gujarat. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Ananasa. Sk. Kirata. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. DISTR. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. cultivated.) LOC. NS. Ama. native of Brazil (tropical America). E. DISTR. Fl. PARTS USED :—Roots. FAM. Olen kirayat. good expectorant.—Acanthaceæ. See—Fruit Trees. Nelabevu gida. Bhuinimba. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Ananas. LOC. N. leaves and fruits. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. also allays gastric irritability in fevers.—Bromeliaceæ. Ananas . Ananas. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . COM. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). Kiriyata. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). . LOC. :—Konkan. Assam. It acts also as diuretic. Kiryat. Ananas . M. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. dioecious. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . :—Khasia Hills. also acts as a purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Mahateet. smooth. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. M. G. COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish.-Oct. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast.

3-0. and N. upper lip 2-toothed. acute. . Sundraphul. Gojivana. tonic. distant. bracts lanceolate. rose coloured.3-10 X 2-4. thickly woolly. C—2-lipped. forming a spicate inflorescence. Sundara. rugosely pitted. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. high. Sd. Oshthaphala. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. 1. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. Chodhara. alterative. ellipsoid.8 m. stomachic. LOC. Fr. FAM. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism.-Nov. Fl. very small. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Vaikunth. :—An erect branched annual 0. :—S. Alamoda. Fl. :—An erect shrub. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. oblong-lanceolate.9 m. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. and certain forms of dyspepsia.-Oct. Karnatak. clothed with woolly hairs . lower lip very large and broad . DISTR. dysentery. Malabar Catmint. extensively used in Bengal. white below. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—many. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . NS. polished brown. pale above. Karitumbe. Ceylon. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. pale beneath.—Labiatæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. CHAR. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. C—2-lipped. :—Konkan and Kanara. G.—small. K. lower 3lobed.— capsule. sometimes cultivated. COM. M. and anthelmintic. DISTR. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children.—very thick. Br. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. t.—Dec. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. Sk.—Ghats. approximate above. 6. crenate-serrate. yellowish brown. Green leaves.5 cm. Fl.2-1. smooth. stem quadrangular. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. solitary. Fr. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. t. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers.—lanceolate. purple. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles.—in dense whorls .. Kanara. undulate.—nutlets. :—Deccan. Plant is useful in general debility. L. LOC.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Malay Peninsula. lateral lobes small. high. dyspepsia and fever from teething. linear-oblong. distant. Fl. L. acute at both ends . made into an electuary. :—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC.

Sk. increases muscular strength. Ata. LOC. See—Timbers. Ceylon. Bark is bitter. chronic diarrhœa. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Seeds—difficult to digest. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. tasty. fruit and seeds. Anan. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . useful in anaemia. FAM. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). now cultivated throughout India. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Bejjalu. M. Dindala. G. Dhavada. NS. applied to skin-diseases. Anuram. COM. DISTR. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. PARTS USED :—Root. stimulant. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. Dhava. improves taste and appetite . Dhamora. flavoury. erysipelas. Bark is a powerful astringent. Dabria. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Custard apple.—Combretaceæ. bark. Dhava. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. expectorant. Sitaphala. G. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Sugar apple. useful in liver complaints. (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. :—E. cooling. Krishnabija. sedative to heart. Sk. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. H. Fruit—sweet. enriches blood. Button Tree. Sitaphala. Root—cathartic. Sitaphal. good tonic. Dindiga. LOC. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. H. Dhavala. LOC. LOC. K. Bakla. M.—Anonaceæ. cooling . Damora. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Dhavada. FAM. Amritphala.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Dohu. :—A native of West Indies . :—E. Sharipha. leaves. Sitaphala. causes fever and furunculosis . abortifacient. DISTR. leaves and fruits. bark. Dyes. Durangi. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Sitaphala. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). produce ulcers in the eye. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Kanara border. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Shushkanga. astringent to the bowels. Sweet-sop. discharges. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. increases biliousness . Bahubijika. COM. K. enriches blood . and eyesores. Pitaphala. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda).

aphrodisiac. Kadam. " Vata". PARTS USED :—Seeds. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Malayan Peninsula. USES:—In the Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Nipa. sprouts and fruits. DISTR. Pegu.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. NS. stomachic. K. Upas Tree. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. COM NS. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. acrid. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Chandkuda. K. Fodder Plants. Sk. cooling. burning sensation. alexiteric. sap of the tree. Kanara . :—E. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. PARTS USED:—Bark. Sk. DISTR. Chandkuda. Ashokari. LOC. causes biliousness when ripe. :—W. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Niv. In eye inflammations. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. good in uterine complaints. Fruit—heating. vulnerary. Valkala. COM. Jajpugri. wild or cultivated. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. M. Kadubale. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. Surabhi. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. LOC. H. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. often cultivated. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Karnapuraka. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. :—Throughout India. Tennaserim. sweet. Kadamb. astringent to bowels. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. " Kapha". Kadamb. Sacred Plants. is a good hairwash. Ceylon. Kadamba. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Timbers. biliousness. bitter. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Malay Islands. Kadamb . blood diseases. See—Fruit Trees. H. saline. Kaduve. common near Yellapur. LOC. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Sprouts—acrid. aphrodisiac. Bairi. Chandala. Ajjanpatte. Kadamb . strangury. They are detergent and their powder.—Moraceæ. Peninsula. indigestible. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. FAM. M. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. :—G. Burma.—Rubiaceæ. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. FAM. Nadija. mixed with gram-flour. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. . Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. It is generally considered tonic. galactagogue.

Snehabijaka. Ground-Pea-nut. heart and spleen diseases. erect. DISTR. N. high.:—Foot of the N. pedicels 6-16 . Bhuimug. fever with cough. Fl. :—E. Ugragandha. apex toothed . See—Vegetables. vittae broad. chest-pains. astringent to bowels . Glucoside apiin is present. Seeds—carminative. anthelmintic. Wild celery. cure " Kapha ". Fibres. abdominal pain. and γ-antiarin. ascites. Monkey-nut. scabies. LOC. Markati.. Nelkadle. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Mungphali. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. laxative. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. segments once or twice trifid. W. G. rectal troubles. See—Timbers. tooth-ache. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. NS. Sk. CHAR. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. tonic. abortifacient.3-2. good for heart. Asia. Sk. bronchitis. M. ridges narrow. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. amenorrhœa. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. improve appetite . . vomiting. traces of B and C.5-2 mm. Shimbika. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Brahmakoshi. Karafs. Mandapi. Bori ajmud. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. good in ophthalmia. M. COM NS. The plant contains vitamins A. Bodi ajomoda. nasal catarrh (Yunani). :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. specially near large cities. Bhuimug-chana. Europe. Ajamoda. urinary discharges. Ajmud. Fr. Java and Malaya. rheumatism. Ajmoda . :—E. LOC.—1. L. useful in ophthalmia. FAM. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Abyssinia. " Vata " . COM. appetiser. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.4 m. H. 0. inflammations. W. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. :—A biennial plant. cure asthma. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). scorpion and other stings. G. Afghanistan. β-antiarin.— in umbels. hiccup. vomiting. used in anasarca and colic. Moda. Celery. branching. Chinimung.—Umbelliferæ. Africa. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. rays 5-10. K. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. cauline 3-partite. Bhuchanak. Bhuimug.— radial. H.

LOC. seeds. :—Madras. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. COM. Betta. M. M. Supari. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Chikkan. bleeding gums. leaves (rarely). Poga. Kanara. Deccan. Indo-Malaya. indigestible. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. Betel-nut palm. Areca-nut palm. H. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Mysore. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. gum. DISTR. Chhataphala. LOC. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. See—Food Plants.:—Extensively grown in N. FAM. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. removes pus (Yunani). :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Gum pungent. improves appetite and taste. Burma. Suppiyari. Chikka. useful in urinary disorders. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Areca palm. LOC. LOC. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. cardiotonic. Sopari. G. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency.—Palmæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Supari. In French Guinea. Pugiphal. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda).26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. fairly largely in the Konkan. Adki. Hopari. Assam. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. USES. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). digestive. cooling. K. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. removes foul breath. Seed cooling. Akota. laxative. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Oils. ARECA CATECHU Linn. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. giddiness. DISTR. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. Nut astringent. emmenagogue. Bengal. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. gleet. diuretic. NS.. Kaungu. . Pophal. Siam. used for eye-inflammations. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Tantusara. Malabar. Sk. Country. Gujarat and S.

. Plant enriches blood. Bila dhatura. Darudi. globose. useful is strangury. opening by 4-6 valves. nauseant. prickly. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. Fl. arecaidine. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Fr. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. LOC. Pirangi datturi. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. Srigalkanta.5-5 cm.5-18 cm.3-0. Juice—used as a collyrium. 7. high. Svarnakshiri. L. t. sedative. H. Bharbhand. See—Timbers. seeds and yellow juice. glaucous herb . K. This is said to bring the worm out at once. antidote to various poisons. Sk. Datturi. prickly. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. destroys worms . sinuately pinnatifid. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. Brahma dandi.8 cm.—all the year. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. yellow. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). Indigenous in tropical America.— terminal. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. inflammations and bilious fevers. G. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields.). ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. :—A glabrous. India. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Daruri. purgative. FAM. NS.5-3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. spinous.12 m. oblong-ovoid 2. USES :—Root is an alterative. LOC. Pita-pushpa. Seeds—purgative. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. 2. CHAR. stem 0. emetic. Ind. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. Fl. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. branching. Fruit Trees. Shialkanta. diam. veins white. cures leprosy. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.—Papaveraceæ. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. oblong. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. relieves blisters.—thistlelike. various skin-diseases.—numerous. It is also diuretic. M. :—E. DISTR. Mexican prickly poppy . PARTS USED :—Root. Balurakkisa. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. expectorant and demulcent. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. brownish black. jaundice and cutaneous affections. and in pertussis and asthma. stem clasping. and guvacine. netted. juice yellow. arecoline.—capsule. COM. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Seeds are laxative. Root anthelmintic. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections.

Samudrapatrashoh. Sk. Shyambhuna. Fr. :—Throughout India. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. See—Ornamental Plants. CHAR. long. cultivated. strangury. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. Country. long. the bands silky pubescent outside. Varghoro. COM. useful in " Vata".:—Konkan. FAM. . peduncles stout. NS.—in sub-capitate cymes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. rose purple. base subglobose. base cordate with wide sinus . Fl. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Gujarat and S.8-7. Leaves are maturative. Samardar sokh. HABITAT. Konkan. absorptive. Samudraballi. CHAR. :—A very large climber. K.5-30 x 6. tube inflated. Kitamari.—solitary. G. bracts large .28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet.3-25 cm.—Aug. 1. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. M. Kidamari. In synovitis. G. Sd.5-4. :—E. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Fl.—deltoid with cordate base .5 cm. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. tropical Africa.—Convolvulaceæ. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Ceylon. oblongellipsoid. base cordate. DISTR.— globose apiculate. Vridhadaraka. reniform or broadly ovate.-Nov. Bracteated Birth-wort. Peninsula. ovate glabrous above. :—Bengal.-Sept. Krimighni. stems. anthelmintic. stems stout. perhaps a native of Bengal. Ajantri. Dhuma-patra. " Kapha" fevers. chronic ulcers (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . aphrodisiac. LOC. striate. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. Deccan and S. white-tomentose beneath. Kiramar. K. H. painful joints. long and as broad as long. M. DISTR. Elephant Creeper. with revolute margins. t. H.—capsule. used in gleet. pedicel with a large bract at the base. long. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). diuretic . FAM. Java.. glabrous inside. perianth 2. M. NS. t. Hastivalli.— 7. W. L. Country. Fl. infundibuliform. COM. Fr.— Aug. M. 12-ribbed . C—5-6. Adumuttadagida. LOC. tip linear dark purple. Kidamar. Arabia. Ganda. prostrate. :—A slender perennial. Kitakaba.—Weed of cultivation in black soils.—Aristolochiaceæ. Fl. powdered root is given with milk. Dridhadaru. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic.3 cm.— 3. Soge. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system.3-2 cm. :—E. Gandali. Samandarka phal. white-tomentose. weak. Samudrashok. tubular. white-tomentose L.5 cm. Samudrashosh. LOC. pubescent outside. gonorrhœa. (sometimes even larger).

ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. K. winged. dry cough. Nilpushpa. entire with undulate margins. Dovana.. M. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Ceylon. Indian Birth-wort. Dhor-davana. also useful in dropsy. Arkamula.—flat. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. :—A twining shrub. Fr. biliousness. emmenagogue.5 cm. Ruhimula. Fl. Gathona. Bengal. COM.5x7. Sapsan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC.—Nov. Dona. Manjipatri. COM. perianth greenishwhite. t. :—E. useful in " Tridosha. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip.—Compositæ. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Sk. bract opposite the pedicel. :—E.5 cm. globose-oblong. Indian wormwood. Flea-bane. tonic. CHAR. Sk. Fl. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Sd. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic.3-2. leaves and seeds. 3. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Nakuli. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. :—Western Peninsula. G.—Aristolochiaceæ. Majtari. Nagduna. Mother or Mugwort. purgative (Yunani).8-10 X 1. The plant contains an alkaloid. Arkamula. reaching 4. joint-pains.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. obovate oblong 10-12. 6-valved. The plant contains an alkaloid. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. ." pains in the joints. FAM. H. PARTS USED :—Roots. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Isharmula. LOC.. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. LOC. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. long with globose inflated base. H. M. Seeds useful in inflammation. Country. base vaiable. bitter. Ishvari. alexiteric. slender. L. K. woody at the base.5 cm. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. NS. Saraparni. Stem long. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Isvara balli beru .—variable linear oblong. DISTR. grooved.:—Konkan and S. Plant is used as an abortifacient. dyspnoea of children. Nagdamani. Nepal. NS. — capsule.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Mastaru. Sugandha. M.

Jack-fruit tree. useful in biliousness. DISTR. Panesa. aphrodisiac. cures "Kapha". Java. Externally it is used in fomentations. Vanas. Fruit Trees and Dyes. :—Konkan. tonic. An infusion is given as a tonic. asthma. Phanas. although very nutritious.5-5 em. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.4 m. G. fruit and seeds. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. t. oleaginous. Sk. tonic. ovate. petioled. inner hermaphrodite. LOC. Halasina. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. L— lower leaves 5. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. " Vata". Skandaphala. involucral bracts villous. hairy.6-2. :—Widely cultivated. Kujja. constipating (Ayurveda). Kantakaphala. often planted along roadsides in N. toothed or again pinnatisect.—heads ovoid or subglobose.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. DISTR. outer flowers female. ripe fruit laxative. aromatic. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. Fl. Ceylon. Kanara. alexiteric. Phanasa. leprosy. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Jack-Orange wood. lobes entire. The unripe fruit is astringent. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C.10x2. Thailand (Siam).—Jany. Panos. . M. appetiser. solitary or 2.— achene. but rather difficult to digest. pubescent above. minute.:—A perennial shrub. oblong ellipsoid.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fl. upper leaves smaller. The plant contains an essential oil. white tomentose beneath. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. stems leafy. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. COM. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. deobstruent and antispasmodic. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. K. deeply pinnatisect. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. LOC. aphrodisiac. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. diuretic. "Vata". LOC. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. NS.—Urticaceæ. LOC. lanceolate. temperate Asia. enriches blood. 0. " Kapha". Chakki. See—Timbers. Fr. Kanthal. Seeds sweet. grown in gardens also. HABITAT. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. fertile. itching (Ayurveda). Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions.-Hilly districts. cooling. Tage. Panas. Ghats. high. H. :—E. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. asthma and brain diseases. fattening. aphrodisiac. base lobed. 3-fid or entire.

Fl. PARTS USED:—Root.000 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. Sd. leaves and flowers. Country.—opposite 7. tumours. :—E. narrowed at both ends. :—Introduced from the W. Flower is a good styptic. erect. white. 0. biliousness. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. Kuraki.— follicles. indigestible. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. stomachic. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. DISTR.5 cm. spines recurved. Kaktundi. :—G. Svetmuli. from Kashmir eastwards. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. in the Himalayas.5 cm. Satavari.—Asclepiadaceæ. valvate in bud. straight. oleaginous. CHAR. Satavari. abundant round about Poona. NS. M.3-2. inflammation. naturalised in many parts of India. Shatavari. JAVANICA Baker.-Dec. tapering at both ends. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. segments. Svadurasa. Satamulika. H. PARTS USED:—Root. and moist monsoon forests. C. useful in dysentery. Tropical Africa. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. t. oblong. M. LOC.5-5 cm. throat complaints. alterative. root-stock tuberous. Java and Australia. appetiser.—Liliaceæ. Fr.—in simple raceme. thin. Indies.—orange in axillary umbels. FAM. 2. A fibre is extracted from the plants.ovoid.-Feb. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. lanceolate. solitary. spinous. K. :—An erect undershrub. Var. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds.9-1. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. cladodes in tufts. LOC. linear. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. L. Satavari. Fl. COM. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.2 m. :—Extremely scandent. FAM. :—Deccan. Siprimuli.—June-Sept. dark brown. DISTR.—lobes reflexed in flower. undershrub. Fl. up to 1. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous.—linear with a stout spinous spur. See—Ornamental Plants. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. CHAR. . cultivated as ornamental plant. Fl. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . COM. S. fragrant.5-10 X 1.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. Fr. with coma. high. M. curved. common in the Deccan. red when ripe. galactogogue. long. t.. globose. blood and eye diseases. Sk. thorn. tonic. 7.—berry. Asual Shatavari. NS. cooling.

high.5 cm. biliousness. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds cooling. Kalavankabija.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. 4 inner small. bracts. Narayana Taila. dysentery. aphrodisiac. tonic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. HABITAT:—Swampy places. Kolavalike. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Ceylon. Gokshura. colic. stems fasciculate. C. 18 X 3-3. t. 0. :—A stout herb. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. like leaves. USES :—The root is refrigerant. The root is sweet. subquadrangular. COM. And.— Acanthaceæ. NS. Talamkhan. DISTR. Vishnu Taila. Africa. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. abruptly swollen at the top. Fr. Konkan and Deccan. . M. expectorant. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Vajrakantaka. eyediseases. scalding of urine. thirst. Fl. anuria. Gokhran.—capsule. tropical and S. Shrigalghant. improve blood (Yunani). lower deeply 3-lobed. linear oblong. hairy. gleet. (Yunani. K. aphrodisiac. and dysentery. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Vikhara. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. urinary calculi and discharges. Fl. Gokhalkanta. LOC. Talamkhana. ciliate .. Leaves good for cough. Talim-khana. hypnotic. USES. tonic. aphrodisiac. thickened at the nodes. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. Kak-Kokilaksha. 2 outer large. anæmia. constipation.6-1.—sessile. sedative to gravid uterus . galactogogue. diuretic. :—Throughout India.) LOC. abdominal troubles. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. tonic.2 cm. and alterative tonic. Seeds fattening.:—Common throughout the State. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. upper 2-fid. :—G. useful in jaundice and anasarca. Sk. Ikshura.—June-Jany. lips sub-equal. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. aphrodisiac . erect. leaves and seeds.8 cm. aphrodisiac . gonorrhoea. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. tube.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. 4-8 seeded. demulcent.— purple blue.) FAM. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. hispid with long hairs. pointed. Phalaghrita. CHAR. tonic. antispasmodic. lanceolate. inflammations. L. Used in diarrhœa. Ekharo. leprosy. 3. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. LOC. ascites. widely 2-lipped. long. H. useful in diarrhœa.

Jalneam. . DISTR. Brahmi. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. astringent to bowels . branches many ascending. perhaps a native of Malaya. pungent. sessile. Kamarakha. CHAR. Brahmi. LOC. Nirbrahmi. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. Karmare . Sd. Mudgara. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. COM. "Vata". ascites. causes biliousness (Yunani). K. H. M. anæmia. Fl. astringent to bowels. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. LOC. NS. useful in bad ulcers. pale. found wild near N. FAM. Coromandel gooseberry. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Sk. G. DISTR. fruits. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. solitary. Barambhi. L.5-10 mm. axillary. creeping herb. Carambola apple. Karmal. Ceylon and all warm countries. Soumyalata. also used in diarrhœa. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. black dotted : entire. NS. COM. LOC. oblong. Kamarakh. See—Fruit Trees. laxative. fleshy. capsule.. Kirihuli. when fresh. emetic. t.—Scrophulariaceæ. ovoid. pale blue or white. Karmar. lobes equal spangled. Fl. K. Thyme-leaved graticula . Shiral.:—E. Fruits are used in pickles. tumours. H. inflammations. 6-25 X 2. 2-lipped. dried fruit is given in fevers. HABITAT :—Damp places. leprosy. Kamrang. digestible.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn.:—Konkan and Deccan. :—E.—Oxalidaceæ. obovate-oblong or spatulate. succulent. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). M. indigestion. Brahmi. Jany-May. Manduki. causes biliousness. Fruit sour.:—Throughout India in wet places. Bama. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—A glabrous. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. Darehuli. C. tonic. acute. Safed-Kammi. rarely wild. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. enlargement of spleen. striate. with shining dots.) FAM. Tamarak. Root is given in cases of poisoning. heats the body (Ayurveda). allays thirst. sour. stems rooting at the nodes. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . Sk. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . Karuka. Kanara villages. decussate. Kamaranga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. heating. Fr. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda).

Guggul. . of three 2-valved cocci. anasarca and jaundice. the upper small. NS. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. :—E. leucoderma. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. syphilis . 0. Sk. Hakum. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. all male or with a few females below. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. epilepsy and hoarseness. enlarged spleen. purgative. Jamalgota. W. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. mottled. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Guggula. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. Sk. 2-glandular. Fl. Bengal. Rechani. Guggula. Guggula. Devdhup. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Fr. CHAR. H.. Kanara. :—Bihar. ellipsoid. L. high. leucoderma. Uddipta. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac.8 m. Peninsula. LOC. :—A stout undershrub. COM. M. itching. LOC. Danti. Malaya. sinuate. branching from the roots. obovoid. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. diseases of skin and abdomen. Mukul.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. wounds. yellowish. diuretic. They are used in dropsy. H. good in scabies.—Euphorbiaceæ. Gugul. useful in insanity. Burma. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. K. abundant on the hills of Karanja. M. anthelmintic. Chota Nagpur. Root and leaves are cathartic. smooth. FAM. alexiteric. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. LOC. the lower large. :—Dry open Deccan plains. capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. anaemia. NS. Assam. Dantika. aphrodisiac . Danti. Danti. Dantimul. G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. epilepsy and hoarseness. often palmately 3-5 lobed. :—G. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Vishodhini. useful in pains.9-1. Gum gugul. toothed. or in monsoon forests. Dec. leaves and seeds. Danti. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. DISTR. in monsoon forests of N. Sd. Kaduharalu. Seeds are poisonous. piles. conjoined with petroleum. Jatala. COM. N. Fl.—Burseraceæ. jaundice (Ayurveda). hairy. purifies blood. FAM. t. K. Leaf-juice. inflammations. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis.



HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).



LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.



FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in



biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

used as gargle in stomatitis. Shikhivardhaka. Karkutika. cures biliousness. Timisha. oil from the seeds. aphrodisiac. Kohala. :—Cultivated throughout the State. burning sensation. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. removes foul taste from mouth. China. used in strangury. cures strangury. LOC. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. dehiscent. Tallow-White gourd. ulcers. Buds—indigestible.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. H. FAM. urinary discharges and calculi. given' to corpulent persons. blood impurities. astringent. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. There are two varieties. Kushmanda. cardiac and general tonic. tonic. cough. tuberculous glands. leprosy. enriches blood. fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. blood diseases. Bhuru-koholu.-Feb. bark and flowers. leucoderma. Burma. anthelmintic. biliousness. K. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. t. HABITAT :—Cultivated. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Seeds— cooling. See—Ornamental Plants. wounds and ulcers.—Cucurbitaceæ. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Kondha. DISTR. thirst. appetising. anal troubles. red and white. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Budekumbalkai. DISTR. Root. used in piles. NS. Golkaddu. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. COM. PARTS USED :—Fruit. heart tonic (Ayurveda). all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. Bark—astringent to bowels. Fl. Fr. used in dry cough. not indigenous. Sikkim. Dorokaru. Ash pumpkin.10-15. Koholu.—pod. biliousness.5 cm. tuberculous glands. blood diseases . G. vaginal discharges. dysmenorrhoea. LOC. it is also anti-fat remedy. "Kapha". cough. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). Fruit—antiperiodic. urethral discharges. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. USES :—Root-decoction is given. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. aphrodisiac. " Tridosha". seeds. Kudimah. LOC. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. . thirst. in dyspepsia and flatulence. cures biliousness. menorrhagia. :—E. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. tonic to liver. 15-20 X 1. asthma. Kumaon. leprosy. Sd. flat. PARTS USED :—Root.8-2. asthma. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. eye diseases.-Apl. M. diuretic. Sk. tonic. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries.

NS. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Sk.—Compositæ. Kanara. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. COM.3—0. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. LOC. elliptic-oblong. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. oblong. LOC. L. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. pappus white. BLUMEA LACERA DC. Fl. 0. heart diseases. high. asthma. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. finely silky pubescent on both sides. cooling. burning sensation. LOC. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. it is given in bleeding piles. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. stem erect. Fruit is made into confections. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. cures bronchitis. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. Tropical Africa.:—In plains south of Bombay. DISTR. laxative. densely glandular. S. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. :—G. t. See—Vegetables. Malaya. pungent. Pilokapurio. . Kakaronda. Deccan. Konkan. Country. Kukurbanda. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Australia. catarrh. blood diseases. inner bracts with green midrib. phthisis. China. base tapered. pubescent. good for the brain and liver. often incised or lyrate. Kalhar. febrifuge. H. not ribbed. bitter. fevers. Mriduchhada. anti-pyretic. Ceylon. :—Annual herb.—Jany. thirst. FAM. and nutritious tonic.-Apl. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka.9 m. mixed with black pepper. Tamrachuda. haemoptysis.—the lower ones petioled. Fl. Jangali-muli. and diuretic. Kakarunda. sweetish. M. it is also useful in insanity. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. good in syphilis (Yunani). M. with a strong odour of turpentine. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. sharply serrate-dentate. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. astringent. etc. CHAR.-achene. Bhamurdi. :—Throughout plains of India.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst.—heads many. ash colored. upper subsessile. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). Fr. Kukkurdru. Oil—is soporific.

expectorant. Punarnava. Kommegida. Hogweed. Fl. LOC. Fl. 1. NS. cooling . Burma. It produces a very marked and persistent. anæmia. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. scabies. Plant contains large quantities of pot.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. t. CHAR. Lekhyapatra. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. NS. LOC. Santhikari. carminative. Seeds—tonic. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. COM. Ghetuli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Shothaghni. LOC. alexiteric. :—E.—Palmæ. Vasu. asthma. G. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints.—clavate. P. :—Tropical India. green above. margins undulate. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. India. Bitter.3—2 cm. HABITAT :—A weed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). Brab tree. It is used in jaundice. cultivated. tumours. Celyon. Leaves— appetiser. Tad. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. L. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Baluchistan. very glandular . DISTR. stem prostrate or ascending. Raktakanda. spleen enlargement. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. H. Palmyra Palm. cultivated and self-sown. whitish beneath. COM. fusiform. abdominal pains. :—A diffuse herb. DISTR. K. common in S. Tala. bluntly 5-ribbed. Talimara. root large. useful in ophthalmia. Sk.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. very small. Madhurasa. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Persian Gulf. M. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. useful in lumbago. M. Ceylon.— Nov. gonorrhœa. alterative. Varshabhu. native of tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root. and dropsy. Indian Archipelago. Fr. Fan Palm. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. FAM. Asavardu. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. G. in pain of joints. —Nyctaginaceæ. Sk. astringent to bowels . Tad. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Moto-satodo.. . (Ayurveda). Uttar Pradesh. K. :—E. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. inflammations. blood impurities. Africa and America. FAM.—in corymbose umbels. heart diseases. Kolaba and Thana districts. useful in biliousness. generally found in poorer soils. Dholia-saturdo. pinkish. H.—in unequal pairs at each node. sub-orbicular. Desert Palm. "Vata". Tad. leucorrhoea. leaves and seeds. "Kapha" heating. Dhvajadruma.

USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. thirst. vaginal discharges. Sugars. also used as antiperiodic.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. cures dysentery. dry. expectorant. scabies. also found in Belgaum District. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. diaphoresis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. fruits. G. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Bark. heals wounds . It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . Dup. M. with a little salt added. K. invigorating. Moddi. asthma. cough.—Burseraceæ. intoxicating. mouth-sores. leaves. Sk. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. COM. DISTR. Gums and Resins. intoxicating. with a good flavour. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. useful in biliousness. useful in intestinal troubles. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. expectorant. hot. LOC. diuretic . "Vata". aphrodisiac. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. " Vata". flowers. fattening. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. aphrodisiac. removes "Kapha". very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . Salphali. Salgond. alexiteric. allays asthma. NS. skin diseases. binding. astringent to bowels. Salpe. fatigue. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. Fruit—cooling. Fruit—aphrodisiac. improves taste. Salashi. blood complaints . Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. thirst and scalding of urine. convulsions. LOC. antipyretic. :—E. . slightly fermented is used in diabetes. bad throat. strengthens teeth. causes " Kapha ". juice. antiglycosuretic. Gum is of five kinds . purifies blood (Yunani). Guggali. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. laxative. Salai. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . causes headache. allays thirst. purifies blood. Loban. bronchitis. biliousness. ulcers . Kundur. Vishesha-dhupa. tonic. Guggula. Dhupam. may cause vomiting. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. fevers. Indian olibanum tree. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. Fermented juice—tonic. if taken regularly acts as laxative. allays. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). Bark-decoction. helps delivery. antibilious . flowers. cooling. burning sensation. Gum—hot. useful in skin and blood diseases. FAM. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. H. Dhup. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. used for boils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. tonic. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Sambrani.. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). fattening. Luban. antidysenteric. Mukulsalai. fruit and gum. Liquors. bitter.

Kunder or Mhashaguggula. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. good for throat complaints. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. kill external parasites. Broach. rheumatism. internal congestions. Gums and Resins. COM. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. " Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Seeds act as digestive condiment . destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). chiefly in Nasik. Sk. good in cough and for inflammations. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Seeds-laxative. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. ear. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . anthelmintic . Jwalanti. Khandesh. :—Cultivated in India. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . See—Timbers. cure enlargement of spleen. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. :—E. appetiser. increase bile. Taramira . DISTR. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Black-True mustard. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. G. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. NS. See—Condiments and Spices. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. cure nose. biles. Asuri. Rajika. Mohori. Kali-rai. spasmodic. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. Rai. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Surat. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. spleen. Sarshapa. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. cure skin-dissases. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Dharwar and Belgaum. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). cause burning . used with butter in syphilis . stomachic. Kari Sasive . M. .—Cruciferae. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. eye-troubles. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. increase appetite . dispel fever . scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. lessen oedema of body. LOC. and toothache. vermicide. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. bechic. India. Kaira. K. if swallowed whole they are laxative. H. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. LOC.

in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. M. Lingini. Australia. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Ishawara-Shivalingi. Mullu-siru Honne. . 1 . hot. smooth. Apastambhini. 3—2 . bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). corolla as in the male . :—G. 5-lobed.— Aug-Sept. COM. :—An annual scandent herb. Goge. Fl. Sk. margins sinuate denticulate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. See—Timbers. Kaj. long. tropical Africa. Tans. southward to Ceylon. deeply cordate base. paler and smooth beneath. FAM. Asana. DISTR.:—Throughout India. tendrils 2-fid : L. S. bitter. Shivavalli. Khaja. 10-15 cm. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Sk.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. diam. lumbago. Mauritius.— membranous. 5-partite. and in fevers with flatulence. hemiplegia. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. female flowers solitary. NS. Gunjan. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.. Fl. LOC. Manj. LOC. glabrous . Garige. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. Asana.—yellowish brown. LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. FAM. Chandra. Philippines. Ekadivi. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. CHAR. M. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. 5 cm. lobes oblong lanceolate.. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). green and scabrid above. stem grooved. bark. COM. useful in "Vata". :—G. Asana. pungent. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Kassi. DISTR. Country. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Ekalkanto. Lingaja. corolla companulate. Gargumaru.—baccate. alterative. or few or many.—Euphorbiaceæ. Asana. of Shivaling shape . H. Kavodi. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Malaya. streaked with broad vertical lines . M. Fr. K. It is used in bilious attacks. NS. Shivlingi.. Shivalingi. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Gauli. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. heating. :—Deccan. H. ovate-oblong. t. Patharphoda. Suviraka. subsessile. bluish green. Mahavira.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. globose.

fruit. NS. Snehabija. alexipharmic. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants .) FAM. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. Sk.—pendant. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". the older light-coloured. Cochin-China. ulcers. FAM.—variable.2 m.—small. Fr. fattening.—Anacardiaceæ. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. Char. S. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. M.. Charoli. decussate. M. Panphui.3-1. bruises. Paira. aphrodisiac. Leaf-juice digestive. Asthibhakshya. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). DISTR. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds.—swollen and octagonal at the base. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. seeds. Charpoppu. lobes triangular. boils and bites of venomous insects. burning sensation on body. Lonnahadakana gida. Stems obtusely 4-angled. high.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Pyalchar. It is a disinfectant. Kolegeru. deciduous open forests. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. leaves. :—Native of tropical Africa. Deccan. :—Konkan. Burma. "Vata" and biliousness. occasionally compound. elliptic. reddish purple. CHAR. Deccan. vomiting. Lalana. smooth. Sd. Charoli. buds with root. crenate or serrate. in large panicles. binding. COM. Panphuti. upper 3-5-7 foliate. gum (rarely). Char. laxative. HABITAT :—Dry. thirst. lower usually simple. COM. constricted in the middle. leaflets ovate. analgesic. when punctured. Parnabija. speckled with white. with opposite branches . useful in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Roots.—Jany. expectorant. Rajadana. younger reddish. H. LOC. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Thailand (Siam). t. carminative. purgative. :—G. the Dangs. allays . NS. fevers. cardio-tonic. K. purifies blood. LOC. aphrodisiac. Priyal. Fl. The bark is bitter and poisonous. inflammations. Sk. Fl. tonic. :—Konkan. astringent to bowels. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. Country. Cambodia. K. Piyal. also wild. Char. Murukali. Dhanu. Country. M. L. C. S. M. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery.—Crassulaceæ. DISTR. Zakhi-haiyat. cures blooddiseases. :—Hot and drier parts of India. :—H. Gujarat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. cooling. LOC. Tapaspriya.

dry. good in dysentery. pimples. LOC. burning sensation. Flower—aphrodisiac. purifies blood. hydrocele. colic. Khakda. good in fevers. stomatitis. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Khakera. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. seeds. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. M. cures excessive perspiration. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. cause headache (Yunani). gum. fractures. emmenagogue. dysentery. anthelmintic. gonorrhoea. Palas. H. India. flowers. Gum—acrid. in the Khandesh Akrani. piles. relieves abnormal thirst. strangury. Flowers—cure " Kapha". cold and cough. good in biliousness. anthelmintic. expectorant. Bark—appetiser. aphrodisiac. Leaf—very astringent. Fruit and seed—hot. :—E. Seeds tonic to body and brain. useful in piles. burning urine.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Muttala. See—Timbers. Khakhrao. Kakria. tonic. pterygium. worms and piles. G. thirst. used in diseases of chest and lungs. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. useful in bone fractures. lessens lumbago. COM. aphrodisiac. lessens inflammations. cough. Kinshuk. used in liver disorders. Muttuga. K. stomachic. inflammations. remove bad humours. Dyes. Gums and Resins. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Tripatrak. lessens biliousness. Bastard teak. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. useful in elephantiasis. DISTR. laxative. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. leprosy. Chichra.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). bark. biliousness. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. if chewed. Kshatadru. Yajnika. Oils. NS. diuretic . cure tumours. Fruit and seeds—oily. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). buboes.) FAM. diseases of anus. anthelmintic. Palas. aphrodisiac. aperient used in urinary discharges. useful in syphilis. piles. digestible. gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic to liver. astringent. LOC. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. leaves. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Bark—appetiser. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Sk. skindiseases. dysmenorrhoea. corneal opacities. Ceylon. ascends to 1200 m. Kuntz. LOC. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). cures ulcers and tumours. Palash. topically in piles and hydrocele. anthelmintic. carminative. eye diseases. Dhak. tonic. gout. Gum—astringent to bowels. prickly heat and itch.

pinnae 6-8 pairs. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. Sagargota. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Gajaga.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . prevents contagious diseases . oblong 5-7. fevers.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. t. anthelmintic . long. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. asthma and colic. Leaves contain a glucoside. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow.5 cm. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. petioles prickly. piles. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Deccan hills. lead-colored 1. shortly stalked. wounds.3 cm. Kuberakshi.—JulySept. H. sprouts useful in tumours. Kakechika. LOC. aphrodisiac and diuretic. malaria. flowers and fruit. Flowers are astringent. skin-diseases. act as rubefacient. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Sind. the tropics generally. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. leucorrhcea. CHAR. Fever nut. DISTR. Katkaranj. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Fl.—yellow. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. astringent to bowels. hydrocele. useful in colic.—pod. strongly mucronate. etc. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. See—Timbers. LOC.) COM. Gum solution is applied to bruises. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Dyes. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. leaves. Gums and Resins.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. long . 30-60 cm. leprosy (Yunani). The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. cures urinary discharges. . Tapasi. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. Fr. anthelmintic. antiperiodic. very common near the sea-coast. Fruit—acrid. L. NS.—1-2 oblong. Seed—styptic. :—E. They are applied to orchitis. :—An extensive climber. Karanja. elliptic-oblong. :—Throughout India. K. G. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. FAM. Sk. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles.—abruptly pinnate. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Physic nut. M. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. leaflets 6-9 pairs. 5-7. Sd. Fl. heating. aphrodisiac. Gajga. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. Gajjige. cures inflammation . Katkaleja. ringworm.5 cm.5 X 4.

Madar. Surhonne. Malaya. Purasakeshera. Undi. M.. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Br. Undi.. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. The gum from wounded branches. Oils. K. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. K. Sultanchampa.—Asclepiadaceæ. Polynesia. M. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Kshiranga. thick. :—Cultivated throughout India. also cultivated as an ornamental plant.. Ekke. Surangi. See—Timbers. :—E. Tungakeshera. sessile. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Vuma. gum. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. both surfaces tomentose. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Arka. COM. much branched. Rui. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. 10-20 X3. Surpan. astringent. . FAM. H. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Dholaakdo. COM. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Sk. Mandara. Ceylon. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. LOC. Madar.. NS.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. lessens appetite. Mandara. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet.H. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Shuka-phala. base cordate. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Alexandrian laurel. branches stout. Punnag. PARTS USED :—Bark. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". high. 2. Akand. CHAR. LOC. Kshirparni. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede).8-10 cm. Australia. Punnaga. Gigantic swallow-wort. very common in N. NS. Ark. and for its oil. covered with cottony pubescence. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. G.4-3 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. FAM.— opposite. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast.—Guttiferæ. used in chronic fevers. Ponne. Akdo. :—A large shrub. DISTR. L. elliptic or ovate oblong. sometimes amplexicaul. Ak. Kanara associated with littoral species. mixed with bark strips and leaves. often gregarious. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma.. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Sk. and oil. Arka. :—E. East African Islands.

— Feb. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . . All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. Sk. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles .4 m. NS. India. tumours. cures piles and "Kapha". young parts white. PARTS USED :—Root. cures leprosy.5-8. tumours. back much curved. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. buds ovoid. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. astringent. 9-10 cm. acrid . Malay Islands and S. Milk— heating. COM. very common is S. Sd.5 cm..:—H. tonic and stomachic in action. cures leucoderma. broad.—about 2. lobes usually erect. subglobose. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. buds globose. heal wounds. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. Safedak. Br. alterative and purgative properties.—lobes deltoid-ovate. across. Ak. comose. Fl. usually 5. diaphoretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. coughs.—follicles.2 cm. ovate oblong. eruption on body. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. purgative. spongy.— purplish in umbellate cymes. Madar. scabies. good for liver (Yunani). Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. Mandara. elephantiasis. oleaginous. Juice—anthelmintic. Root-bark is diaphoretic. DISTR. Flower—analgesic. L. ulcers. Milk— caustic. Sd:—many. piles. CHAR. bark corky. rat-bite.5-10 X 5-7. cures inflammations.—broadly ovate. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Ceylon. Flowers—digestive. China. flattened tomentose. Rajarka. asthma. ascites and anasarca. expectorant and anthelmintic. dropsy. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. ringworm of scalp. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. C. purplish or white. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). useful in leprosy. Fl. very common. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. swellings.—7. liver and spleen enlargement.—in umbellate cymes. t.8-2. painful joints . asthma. Mandara. LOC. Fr. Fr.. M. long. Flowers—stomachic. elliptic or obovate. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha.—subsessile. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. green. ascites. used in cough. C. bark. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. cottony. leaves applied to paralysed parts. apex with two auricles.7—15 X 4. depilatory. Ark. also useful in intestinal worms.—Asclepiadaceæ. cures asthma and syphilis.5 cm.. :—An erect shrub usually 1.-July. ellipsoid or ovoid. comose . high. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. LOC. corona shorter than the column. catarrh and loss of appetite. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. See—Fibres. spleen and liver diseases. laxative. leaves and flowers.

Koshaphala. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses.:—Perennial herb . veins arching. LOC. Hudingana.9-1. indigestible.5 cm. Nilashimbika.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Paraholiya. Sk. (Chopra). 3 sub-erect.2 m.. lanceolate to ovate. flowers and milky juice. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. abundant in Sind. :—E. stem 0. CANNA INDICA Linn. See—Vegetables. spatulate. they are given in cholera. green. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. DISTR. useful in burning sensations. Sabbajaya. Kardali. :—E. Fl. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. appetiser. Tamateballi. cooling. G. high . long. M. Devakeli. Kadavare. root-stock tuberous. Warm leaves used as poultice. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. DISTR. acrid. Broad—Sword bean. Iran. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. erect. Waziristan. NS. Shimbi. ulcers (Ayurveda).. M.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. NS. G. on trees and hedges . Khadsambal. See—Fibres. H. Abai. Asishimbi.3 cm. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. CHAR. LOC. L. narrow. membranous. 1 linear . CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. K. Gigantea. Indian shot. Gavara. Tarvardi. Kadsambu. Shitarambha.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. staminodial segments. Afghanistan. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. hernia and colic. tonic. biliousness. Kalehu. Akalabera. Sk.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Sarvajaya. COM. Arabia. FAM. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Kamakshi.—segments 2.—Scitaminaceae.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. H. bracts oblong. oval or orbicular.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Sema. Egypt. FAM. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. P. LOC. Gavria. but doubtfully wild. Sarvajaya. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Sambe. The pods contain vitamin A. PARTS USED :—Pods. Flowers used as detergent. tropical Africa. greenish or colored.

piles. Seeds—carminative. globose. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. Wild in the Himalayas. K. aphrodisiac. cause headache. soporific. usually 0. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). male fascicled. antidiarrhoeic. Sd.—Urticaceæ. imbricate. astringent to bowels. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Shivapriya. good for hydrocele. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. astringent. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. impotence.—more or less throughout the year. PARTS USED :—Bark. high in its feral state. useful in convulsions. sepals 5. Bark—tonic. Fr. also wild. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. flowers and seeds. Fl. excessive use causes indigestion. soporific. causes thirst. intoxicating.—small axillary. black. seeds and resin. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. stomachic. tonic. Female inflorescence is stomachic. Leaves—bitter. shining. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. G. echinulate . inflammations. Siddhapatri. (2) Bhang. causes biliousness.9-1. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani).—alternate or the lower opposite. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. causes thirst and biliousness. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases.—achene. female crowded under convolute bracts. lower 3-8 foliate. Bhang. L. leprosy. cough.—sub-globose or oblong . COM. NS. hot. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in India. DISTR. They are broken in small pieces. Harshini.5 m. serrate. water extract anthelmintic. oil-good for earache. insanity. lessen inflammation. upper 1-3. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. leaves. restlessness. intoxication (Ayurveda). DISTR. (3) Charas. Ganja. intoxication. Not indigenous. FAM.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. leaves. Hemp. Mohini. tonic. Bhang. Ganja. melancholia. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. Ganja. flowers. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . Fr. Vijaya. CHAR. heating. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. t. Sk. hallucinations. alterative . check vomiting. 3-lobed. dropsy. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations.—many. Bhangi. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. female perianth hyaline. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Roots. male flowers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. dioecious. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . :—Throughout India. abortifacient. Central Asia. :—E. useful in " Kapha". Unmattini.

Vegetables. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. dyspepsia. Raktamaricha. Mirchi. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. Marchu . loss of consciousness. useful in indigestion. diarrhœa. COM. G. FAM. NS. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). . expectorant. increases appetite. :—Cultivated all over India. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. cholera. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Mirchi. :—E. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn.—Solanaceæ. Narcotics. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. M. dysuria. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. asthma. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Cayenne-pepper. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. and is employed by Indian physicians. H. Capsaicin and Solanin. See—Gums and Resins. Tivrashakti. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. Fruit—pungent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Ujjvala. acute mania. weakness of body. also in gout. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Fibres. chronic ulcers. and dropsy. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. delirium (Ayurveda). LOC. often found as an escape. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Country in Deccan. K. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. DISTR. increases biliousness. Menshinkai. whooping cough. See—Condiments and Spices. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. M. in the form of electuary. The plant contains cannabinin. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Tikshna. LOC. Lalmirchi. useful in brain complaints. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. The fruit contains Capsisin. PARTS USED :—Fruit. muscular pains. :—Extensively cultivated in S. erysipelas. Marichiphala. It is stomachic.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. spermatorrhoea. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Lanka mirchi. Chillies. and flatulence. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). Madana modak used in cough.

Konkan and W. Kumbhi. dry. Sakralata. FAM. Ghats. epileptic fits. bladdery . Gavvahannu. :—E. :—Most warm countries. when moistened. very acute apex. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Root is considered diaphoretic. bronchitis. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. Kapalphodi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. Kalindi. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Fr. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. deltoid. Root. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. 2-ternate. Shaundi. it is mucilaginous. Girikarnika. Wild guava . Kanphuti. Karnasphota. K. and is administered in fevers. trigonous. K. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. common in S. DISTR. FAM. C. Ceylon. dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Root. bark. leaves and seeds. Fruit—acrid. piles. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. smooth. Maniju balli. hot.— alternate. . aphrodisiac. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Vakambi. HABITAT :—In hedges . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Sk. urinary discharges. M. LOC. Kumbi. Agni-erum. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. CHAR. Fibres.—globose. Balloon vine.—white. black. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. The plant contains saponin. Karolio. G. See—Timbers. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . :—E. Malay Peninsula. H.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. alexiteric. rounded at the apex.—Sapindaceæ. leucoderma. colic. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. M. Blister creeper. anthelmintic. Fl. Jyotish-mati. LOC. petals 4. COM. Deccan. Hennumatti. Sd.—Myrtaceæ. stem wiry. COM. :—Throughout India. DISTR.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Kumbhi. leaves. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. Daddala. Kumbha. G. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . flowers and fruits. Thailand (Siam). winged at the angles. inciso-serrate. diuretic and aperient.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. " Vata ". useful in tumours. subglobose. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. NS. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Kangu. skin-diseases. Sind. L. LOC. introduced. abscesses and ulcers. NS. ultimate segments lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sk. bark.

relieves obesity. Popayi. Flower—tonic to liver. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. cause biliousness. diuretic. Nalikadala. diuretic. H. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. used.—Caricaceæ. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. Karrak. Oil—indigestible. :— E. "Kapha". cure urinary discharges. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Kusumba. flowers. FAM. Kusumbha. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). Fruit—stomachic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kamalottama. See—Fruit Trees. diuretic. LOC. :—E. Leaves—hot. Guppe. Papita. appetiser. Barre. White thin latex contains Papain. Seeds—oleaginous. carminative. Chirbhita. Papaya. laxative. scabies. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Indies. . bronchitis. LOC. removes urinary concretions . wounds of urinary track. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . "Tridosh". piles. Kusumba. aphrodisiac. it is used to procure abortion. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. seeds and oil. bleeding piles. unripe fruit. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. :—Native throughout India. leprosy. Sk. appetiser . Papaw. NS. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Kusumbo. FAM. cures inflammation. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. cures insanity (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. Karada. good for eyes. Kusumba. ringworm. made into curries. cooling. Dyer's saffron. COM. Papaya. bile. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Papaya. leucoderma. hypnotic. :—Grown extensively in Poona. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. enlargement of spleen. Ahmednagar and Nasik. causes burning sensation . NS. M. heating. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. in haemoptysis. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Pangi. G. fruit and seeds. cures inflammations. LOC. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. K. cure "Vata". DISTR. depilatory. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Papayi. G. Kardai. Safflower. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. M. Sk. Chibda.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. of W. K. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. expectorant. astringent to bowels. green fruit is laxative and diuretic.—Compositæ. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. removes biliousness . strangury. Agnishikha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. digestive. Mexico and Brazil. Pappayi. COM.

The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. chest and throat pains. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. pinnate. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. aphrodisiac. good for ear boils. Dadmardan. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . anthelmintic. FAM. dyspepsia. good for old people. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. CASSIA ALATA Linn. Ajamo . They are administered in flatulence. good for heart and tooth-ache. myrabolans and rock salt. Winged senna. Owa. The seeds bitter and hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. oblique at the base. vomiting. LOC. Europe. enrich blood. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. strengthening. good in weakness of limbs. Oma. M. Oils. give lustre to eyes. inflammation (Yunani). Ajamoda. vomiting. liver. Ajwain. cure ascites. Dodda sagate. Omu . Egypt. Ringworm shrub. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Dadamardana. Tivragandha. stomachic. M. subsessile. stimulate intestines. piles. Ajowan. pungent. carminative. K. they are used in jaundice . :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. DISTR. improve speech and eyesight. oblong-obtuse. Dadrughna. Leaves contain vitamin A. cure catarrh. See—Vegetables. COM. aphrodisiac . chest pains. emmenagogue and sedative. Seeds—purgative. and even in cholera. purgative. downy beneath. COM. :—E. Afghanistan.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). spleen. long. L. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. Oil—good in all diseases. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. Sk. FAM. bitter. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). See—Condiments and Spices. NS. tonic. K. tonic and carminative properties. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. Iran. stimulant. Elgra. H. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. G. Dwipagasti. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. rachis . 30-60 cm. diuretic. abdominal pain. carminative. appetiser. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. Baluchistan. CHAR. H. enlargement of spleen. Dyes. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. kidney troubles. leaflets 10-12 pairs. Dipyaka. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Sk. carminative. NS :— E. bechic. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. LOC. atonic dyspepsia. hiccup. Datka pat. paralysis. Bishops' weed . abdominal tumours.—Umbelliferæ. and diarrhœa. laxative. mucronate. Simyatase.

USES:—Bark is considered astringent. nocturnal emissions. ringworm. stipules very large. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). obliquely septate. 10-20 X 1. rhombohedral. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . buds in yellow bracts. along the sea coast in laterite region. t. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. leprosy. Mukerji). Fl. asthma .5 X 10 cm. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. causes flatulence . leaflets 8-12 pairs. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. DISTR. Tarwad. Tarwad.3-1. vermicide (Ayurveda). C. fruits and seeds. Avarike. Sd. reddish brown. FAM. cm. Mayahari. Fr. mucronate. urinary discharges . yellow with orange veins. rotundate. :—E. slightly overlapping. 20-25. HABITAT :—Planted.—pod long. Pitakilaka. H. membranous.—7.—30-35. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. flowers. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. bark smooth. Peninsula. diabetes. LOC. cures tumours. L. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. cough.—Jany. Fr. :—Introduced into India. oblong-obovate.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Tangadi.) COM.—bright yellow with darker veins. M. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn.—large.—in spiciform. Country. 5 cm. Sk. LOC. Indies. NS. and throat troubles. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Tanner's cassia. CHAR. . Sakusina. Avartki. Burma. leaves. cure " Vata ".-July. long. K. Ahmed. Fl. straight. " In eczema. LOC. N.. The whole plant.—pod.-Oct. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. DISTR. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. skin diseases. Bark has the same properties. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. LOC.6 cm. t. Fl. useful in thirst. Madhya Pradesh and W. dull green above. very likely a native of the W. Ph. G. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan.-50 or more. Taroda. thirst. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. pedunculate racemes . itching. Fl. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. good for ulcers. anthelmintic. J. reniform. 28-4-88). useful in vomiting. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. asthma. alexipharmic . Charmaranga. skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Awal. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). rachis densely pubescent.. pale beneath. Ceylon. across. Gujarat and S..

transversely septate. distinctly torulose. K. M. Amaltas.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Chimkani. cure " Kapha ". Kakka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis.— Jany-March. yellow. DISTR. and Famine Plants. . Flowers—improve taste.—very foetid when bruised. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Sd. Kacodari. Flowers—purgative. cures burning sensation. Vyadivata. G. faintly veined with orange . Arimarda. cooling.—pods. apex acute. purgative. juice given in erysipelas. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Rechana. improve appetite. purgative. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Leaves lessen inflammation. useful in chest and liver complaints. :—E. See—Timbers. Ane sogate. C. smooth. abortifacient. Kasonda. Tans. griping. Aragina. syphilis. Bahava. (Ayurveda). Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Fl. Sk. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Kasondi. Leaves—anti-periodic . Negro coffee. Suvarnaka. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. NS. Stinking weed. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. cause flatulence. Fr. LOC.) COM. L. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. safe for children and pregnant women. ovate-lanceolate. 15-20 cm. eye-diseases. Ornamental Plants. H. flowers.) COM.—in few flowered racemes. tuberculous glands. leaves. LOC. Garmala. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Rajataru. antipyretic. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Pudding-pipe or stick. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. used in rheumatism. t. Konde. rheumatism. Fruit—digestible. hard. PARTS USED :—Root. demulcent. astringent. Sk. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. M. biliousness . also planted.—petals 5. It is a mild laxative. corymbose. Kasari. leprosy. H. 10—12. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. FAM. Kasoda. Ceylon. K. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. See—Dyes. Dodda-tagase. cooling. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. throat-troubles. often purplish. G. Kasundari. fruit and seeds. Rankasvinda. :—E. recurved.. Kasmarda. Indian laburnum. In Konkan. :—Throughout India. Bandartauri. Seeds— oily. NS.—20-30. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. heal ulcers . Fruit—antipyretic. Golden shower.5 cm. branches furrowed. Chakinda. Balla. carminative. base somewhat oblique. laxative. Burma. leaflets 3-5 pairs. shining dark olive-green. long. long. CHAR. Hema-puspha. Arogyashimbi. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. Fl.

. annual or perennial. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. LOC. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. Kasondi. :—G. leaves and seeds. See—Famine Plants. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Sk. Sd. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kasamarda. LOC. cure " Kapha". tonic and febrifuge. slightly recurved. t. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. leaflets 6-10 pairs. DISTR. alexiteric. DISTR. FAM. COM. cures ascites. Ran tankala. See—Famine Plants. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. The plant contains glucoside emodin. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. LOC. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . leaves. fevers. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. base rounded.—18-23 cm. At Kotra. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. Baskikasondi. hiccup. long . Kasamarda. stomachic. few flowered corymbose racemes. lanceolate. In many countries root is considered diuretic. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. opposite. petals 5.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). leaves and seeds. turgid. high. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. Leaves—aphrodisiac. " Vata ".—pod. K. heals wounds. septate between the seeds .—in axillary. Fr. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. Fl.Jany. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. with a solitary conical gland near the base .4-3 m.— Nov. Kasundari.—30-40 broadly ovoid. M.. C. Banar. yellow. The bark. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. PARTS USED :—Root. obtuse. LOC. . L. mixed with honey. and seeds are cathartic. cough. " tridosha " . Talapota. Seeds used in heat of the blood. H. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). USES :—The whole plant is purgative. ovate. asthma. dark brown . :—A shrub 2. are given in diabetes. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. CHAR. Fl.510 cm. elephantiasis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. in Kutch. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). rachis grooved . plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). 7. NS.

high. Taga. NS. Chakunda.—in pairs in the axils of leaves .5-20 cm. shining above. high. much curved when young.5 mm. branches rough.5 cm. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. CHAR. Malkamni. rachis grooved.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Dadamari.. Velo . C. stem upto 23 cm. Seeds—bitter. cure joint-pains. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Kangani.—pinnate. Tarota. DISTR. Climbing-staff plant. alternate. in diam. obliquely septate. M. Malhangana.— petals 5. G. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Black-oil tree. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda).3-10 X 3. H. Kangodi. NS. H. crenate. 18 m. bright yellow. Tagache. L. Dadrughna. 6. hot. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. powerful brain tonic. obovate. laxative. t. LOC.. bitter.) COM.5-10 cm. aphrodisiac. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Seeds— acrid. 7. Ceylon. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. 30-90 cm. cause burning sensation. K. Pamad. Burma. Takala. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Madras State. Foetid cassia. :—E. Sphutabandhani. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". Malkakni. Panevar. COM. upper petal 2-lobed . reddish brown. Sd. CHAR. brain and liver tonic. Intellect tree. small yellowish-green. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. pale yellow. FAM. in drooping panicles.—Celastraceæ. Jyotishmati. expectorant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. LOC. capsule. leaflets 3 pairs. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. :—An annual foetid herb. Fl. DISTR. Svarnalata. base oblique. usually unisexual. Fr.—pod. Kangli. . Chakramarda. Taragosi. Sd. :—A very common weed all over the State. Kanguni. :—E. appetiser. The plant contains glucoside emodin.. X 4. Sk. Fr. PARTS USED :— Root. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. :—Large deciduous climber. Malkangoni. 12. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds.—after the rains. long. leaves and seeds. Sk. Fl. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. fleshy arillus. globose. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. unarmed. 1-6 completely covered with red. ovate or obovate. opposite (lowest smaller). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. K. covered with lenticels.8-7. emetic. M. L. Chagoche. FAM. oblong.

COM. Brahmamanduki. and is employed for external application. . Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. pink. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). G. they are also sudorific. cauline smaller. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. K. L. NS. H. Vallari . reniform. gout. Jangli-karayatu. tonic. Mahaushadhi. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. base deeply cordate stipulate. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn.—tubular lobes 5. persistent. good for cough and asthma. Brahmi. pink. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). cloves. minute. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. C. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory.—Gentianaceæ.). It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. DISTR. t.). CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce.-Apl. Country.—capsule. Seeds are hot. :—G. t. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. CHAR. ovoid. obovate or oblong. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. stem creeping with long internodes. LOC. Mandukparni. NS. Fr. spreading star-like .—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism.—in fascicled umbels.—May-Nov. Fr. paralysis and leprosy. CHAR. Lahanchirayat. aphrodisiac and stimulant. orbicular. H. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. used in leprosy. rooting at the nodes. Fl. Ekpani. Jhinkun-kariatum. Fl. Don.—3 from each node. Brahmamanduki. FAM.—opposite.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. COM.—Feb. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. elliptic. M. M. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort.—4 mm. Oil stomachic. LOC. L. Deccan and S. :—Throughout India. Sk. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. especially in Bengal. narrowly oblong . high. :—Konkan. linear-oblong. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. :—A slender herbaceous plant.—Umbelliferæ. long. Barmi. Vondelaga. Fl. hard-rugose. FAM. :— E. radical leaves revolute.

fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. FAM. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. plaster or bath are used. abundant on the Malabar Coast. Australia Pacific Islands. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. bronchitis. tropical and subtropical regions of the world.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. clears voice and brain. " Kapha ". memory. urinary discharges. used in insanity (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND LOC. nut is narcotic and poisonous . COM. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. cooling. soporific. digestible. bronchitis. milky juice. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. water courses throughout the State. asthma. See—Timbers. Leaves are also diuretic. alterative. Tande.) DISTR. and a bitter substance odollin. scalding of urine. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. cures hiccup. sedative to nerves. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. leaves and seeds). ointment. :—South Konkan and N. blood diseases. alexiteric. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. fevers. :—Throughout India near the coast. Kanara. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. China. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. LOC. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. voice. Honde. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. LOC. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. fruit. improves appetite. thirst. bitter. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". cures leucoderma. laxative. biliousness. Malay Archipelago. USES :—Bark is purgative. Leaf-powder. asthma. DISTR. cardio-tonic. improves appetite (Yunani).—Apocynaceæ. headache . NS. :—K. nallas. LOC. . Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. Plant—bitter. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. carminative. diuretic. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. anæmia. M. For external use powder. stomachic. :—In moist situations (streams. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. Chanda. inflammations. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. bechic. tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. twigs. spleen enlargement. Sukanu. tonic. small-pox.

diuretic. Chillika. fruit and seeds. M. FAM. LOC. :— E. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. PARTS USED :—Root.. Vajibhakshya. tonic. :—Very common in the Deccan. oleaginous. The fruit is acrid and astringent. LOC. piles. COM. Country. abdominal pains.—Chenopodiaceæ. USES :— Root is purgative. vomiting. "Kapha". H. diseases of blood. Chakravarti. Chanaka. Sk. Rayara nelli. Country gooseberry. useful in biliousness. Kari-Kempukadale. H. H.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. aphrodisiac. Chakwat.) FAM. Balabhojya. Harparrevdi. Goose-foot. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. COM. biliousness. DISTR. also cultivated as a pot herb. But. FAM . The plant yields an essential oil. :—E. Chick pea. eye-diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. piles . :—E. acrid. Pandu. G. Sk. :—Widely distributed. See—Fruit Trees. "Vata". Chana. Ksharadala. Agralohita. improves appetite. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Chalmeri. DISTR. K. M. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Kanchuki. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Skandhaphala. Harbara. anthelmintic. Chakravati. Bengal—Common-gram. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. laxative. throattroubles. Tanko. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Sk. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. Chania. heart. Chandanbedu. Wild-spinach. root and the seed are cathartic. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). fragrant. sour . native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. Lavali. NS. Bathusag.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Fruit is very sour . constipation. M. Kadale. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). useful in bronchitis. tonic to liver. useful in thirst. K. urinary concretions. G. Chunna. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Laveni. Rai-avala. M. :—Cultivated in India. LOC. . Chana. LOC. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Cheel. Deccan and S. spleen (Ayurveda). NS. Harparauri K.

appetiser. headache. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. K. expectorant. heart. Leaves—purgative. PARTS USED. bronchitis. . vomiting. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. Malay Peninsula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. good for diseases of liver and spleen. pungent. anthelmintic. Valkala. throat troubles. :—W. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. headache. Ceylon. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. tonic . anthelmintic . emmenagogue. causes flatulence. thirst. blood troubles. Oil—styptic. useful in cold. cure bronchitis. Nisane. It checks nausea and vomiting. enriches blood. bronchitis (Yunani). aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels . aphrodisiac. useful in " Vata ". Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). seed and acid exudation. LOC. Duk. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. LOC. See—Food Plants. LOC. refrigerant. aphrodisiac. causes flatulence. H. biliousness. useful in bronchitis. improve taste and appetite. causes salivation. itching. Gudatwaka. piles. useful in loss of appetite. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. Kanara district. Dalchini. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. DISTR. heated brain. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. biliousness. Bark—tonic. It possesses carminative. very common in the N. Peninsula. cold in head. pains . alexiteric. See—Condiments and Spices. Oils. :—G. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. FAM. rectum and urinary diseases. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent.—Lauraceæ. foul mouth and fever. hiccup. abdominal pains. useful in hydrocele. throat troubles. parched mouth. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). Burma. liver-tonic . PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. chest complaints. strengthens liver. COM. etc. Sk. carminative. Darchini. diarrhœa and dysentery. vomiting. Oil—carminative. tonic. M. Lavange-hakke. cures thirst and burning. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. indigenous and cultivated. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. :— Bark and oil. Seed—stimulant. Dalchini. toothache. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. NS. toothache (Ayurveda). Dalchini. useful in inflammations. Dalchini. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. cures skin diseases. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. tonic. Kash. indigestion. flatulence. flatulence. carminative. tonic to hair. Seed—indigestible. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. Leaves contain vitamin A. abortifacient. leprosy.

yellow within. itching . COM. male flowers in axillary cymes.—July-Sept. warm parts of Asia. leaves. Makal. H. C. 5-nerved.—Nov. . 3. :—In hills. axillary racemes . NS. subcampanulate. flesh juicy.— usually margined. red or yellowish white. Pavamekke Kayi. piles. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". Fl. LOC. solitary.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. E.—large. young shoots woolly. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. greenish. removes pain. orbicular or reniform. Patha. solitary. asthma . FAM. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. or twin. Kaduvrindavan.-Jany. waxy coated. :—E. upto 25 cm. i. skin eruptions. long. Sd. Uthika. Fl. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. dysentery. Nirbisi. Indraphal. Kanara. Asso. red. also for prolapsus uteri. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. branches more or less pubescent. t. PARTS USED :—Root. :—An extensively climbing annual. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. diam. NS. 7. Fr. monœcious. LOC. diam. fever. R. subglobose. :—Deccan. heart troubles. Fr. Mahendravaruni. Katurasa. peltate. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. smooth. helps parturition. FAM. HABITAT. K. :— E. an alkaloid. in conjunction with aromatics. Indrayan. burning. 5-partite. uterine complaints. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Venivalli.8-10 cm. Venivel. lobes obovateoblong. compressed. The active constituent of the drug. stem thick. Indruk. CHAR.5-20 cm. Tumtikayi. 1949). somewhat hairy. Velvet-leaf. L. margins ciliate. G. tendrils bifid. Annual Report. angular . Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . Paharmul. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. M. DISTR. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). L.. greenish outside. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. cordate at the base. alleviates vomiting. hairy. Africa and America. useful in hemicrania. female flowers in elongate. (Ind. H. COM.e. minute. G. Colocynth. has been isolated. mucronate. yellowish. Bitter apple. Ghorumba. diarrhœa..—Menispermaceæ. Chitraphala. Trapusi. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. Pahadvel. F.—A climbing shrub. Sk. FL t. sub-globose. Indrayana. dropsy and cough. M. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. removes intestinal worms. Fl.—Cucurbitaceæ. CHAR. drupe. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Indrayan. which possibly has a cholinergic action.

ascites. fortifies chest. cooling. dyspepsia. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. In the Konkan fruit and root. Fruit—sour. M. relieves colds. aphrodisiac. purgative. enlargement of spleen. COM. leuco-derma. removes biliousness. throat diseases. bowel complaints. cures tumours. Root and fruit cooling. Narange. Cardiotonic. and lumbago. jaundice. sea-shores. laxative. diuretic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). anthelmintic . carminative. W. (Poona. antipyretic. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. epilepsy. tonic. aphrodisiac . removes fatigue . juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Nagaranga. :—Widely cultivated in India. Also indigenous in Arabia. asthma. Ceylon. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. LOC. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. DISTR. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. astringent. Naringi. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. with or without nux-vomica. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. " Kapha". Santra. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. relieves vomiting and retching. anæmia. pain in joints. LOC. urinary discharges. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. constipation. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. K. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Naringa. NS. LOC. Flower— stimulant. chest troubles. fever and worms. tuberculous glands of neck. Narangi. Gujarat. Deccan. Asia. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Doddile. removes " Vata ". bronchitis. ulcers. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). enlargement of spleen. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Sunthura. useful in piles. Tvakasugandha. good in vomiting and skin diseases. :—Konkan. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. useful in biliousness. elephantiasis . good in fevers. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy.—Rutaceæ. anthelmintic. Kirmirtvaka. Sk. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. N. H. :— E. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. sweet and has agreeable flavour. constipation. Sukkare-kanji. tonic. G. Narenj. Kittale. Rind— anthelmintic. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan.

USES. Sk. Thora-limbu. Limonum. Paharinimbu . asthma. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . juice refrigerant and astringent. increase appetite. Citron . thirst. Flowers—stimulant. Turanj. the pulp cold and dry.—Rutaceæ. flatulence. H. PARTS USED :—Root. gastric irritability in general and general debility. K. COM.:—Grown in gardens in the State. its preserve is used for dysentery. Mahalunga. LOC. Idalimbu. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. heating. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". CITRUS MEDICA Linn. relieves sore-throat. fruits and seeds. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Lemon . asthma. aphrodisiac. sharp. Rusaki. According to Theophrastus. Jambira. B and C. Matunga. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. :— E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. rind of the fruit is bitter. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. See—Fruit Trees.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. DoddaGaja-nimba. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Ruchaka. LOC. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. digestible. stimulant. useful in abdominal complaints. the juice allays ear-ache. cough. cough. PARTS USED. though there are no regular plantations. tonic and astringent properties. :—Roots. flowers. H. Turanj. relieve vomiting. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. with a sharp taste. K. Matulunga. Matalunga. NS. Ghats. Devamadala. oily. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. :—E. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. anasarca and chronic fever. also corrects foetid breath. jaundice. M. cures leprosy. Balank. G. anæmia. astringent to bowels . Bijaura. Mavalunga. Amlakeshara. Bera nimbu. Mahanimbu. removes colic. said to be wild in W. Seeds—indigestible. used in constipation and tumours. useful in vomiting. FAM. tonic. Mahaphala. Bijoru. dry and tonic . seeds. anthelmintic. VAR. bark and fruit. Harale. COM. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Kutla. NS. leaves and flowers hot and dry. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Fruit—sweet and sour. Mahaphala. G. The fruits contain vitamins A. intoxication. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. Sk. Bijapurna. Adam's apple. hiccup. Motalimbu . . Madala. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. :—Citron rind is hot.

whole plant tomentose. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. K. Acida. with long feathery tails . Rochana. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Fl. constipation. white. Devashreni. K. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. it helps digestion.—Sept. Fruit—sour. Limpaka. Nimbu. bronchitis . Sk. where there is dry skin and much thirst. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant.Nov. Nimbe. loss of appetite. leaves (rarely). blades 2-2. long ovate or orbicular. appetiser. hemicrania. G.—petals O. Moravel. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. Lebu. cures abodominal complaints. Amlasara. Morata. Shodhana. sharp taste. it cures and prevents scurvy. PARTS USED :—Fruit. stimulant . NS. VAR. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox.. Ranjai. Nebu. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Murva. H. Acid-Sour lime . Limbe. throat trouble. plethora. :—E. Kagadi limbu. Morhari. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth.—simple or once ternate. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. ovoid. with flavour. Lebu. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M.—in axillary corymbose panicles. also useful in rheumatism. silky villous. :—An extensive climber. COM.5 cm. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Oil from rind. but often found trailing amongst grass. Madhulika. FAM.—achenes. Churhar. lobes mucronate. relieves vomiting . brain disorders. heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. petioles twinning. measles. Dhantiate. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Limbu. relieves biliousness. vomiting. NS. stomachic. Morvel. burning in the chest. Nimbu. fatigue . :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. . not good in old age. :—G. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Fr. eyes . LOC. improves liver. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic.—Ranunculaceæ. t. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. anthelmintic. sepals 4-6. CHAR. C. Fl. hairy outside. See—Fruit Trees. Murhari. H. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Khatalimbu. M. Snuva. COM. scarletina. L. Nimbuka.

Konkan. laxative. Sd. Tinmani. Leaves—favour digestion. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. in lax racemes. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. Talvari.—capsule. high. obliquely striate. reduces tumours and inflammations .—Verbenaceæ. Gantubarangi.—Sept-June. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. :—W. blood diseases. Bharangi. Vatari. Sauri. astringent. HABIT :—A common weed. leaflets elliptic-oblong. K. stomachic. erect. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. C. NS. FAM. K. Bharang. Kiritekki. :—Annual erect herb. petioles of lower leaves longer. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. FAM. stems grooved and glandular. DISTR.—petals 4. :—G.—3-5 foliate. . diuretic. transversely striate. Tilwan. Tilparni. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. laxative. anthelmintic. H. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. Jangali-harhar. and fevers. hairy.—axillary. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Bharangi. LOC. :—G. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Kanphodi. Nayibela. Fl. mixed with oil. and dispel intestinal fermentation. Kasaghni. subglobose. stimulates secretion of bile. DISTR. removes " Kapha". cooling. hot. Bharangi. used internally in thirst. Adityabhakta. good in malaria. M. oblong-obovate. t. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Hulhul. COM. Juice— cures ear-ache. Plant has penetrating bad smell. bitter taste and a strong odour. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. Fl. terminal the largest. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). Barbara. very common in the Deccan. COM. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. veined. hairy. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the tropics of the world. :—Common in grass lands. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Harhuria. dryness and urethral discharges. LOC. Kanphutia. Sk. LOC. Sk. useful in leprosy. NS. Brahmani.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT.—Capparidaceæ. H. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. 30-90 cm. Karnasphota. yellow. externally applied to boils. bitter. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Phanjika. causes excessive biliousness. They are regarded as an efficient substitute.—brownish black. L. Ghats. stimulant. Fr. tapering towards both ends .

stomachic. asthma. Kowa. inflammations. tonic to the brain. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. fevers (Yunani). Gokarnika.9-2. COM. leucoderma.-Oct.7-6. fevers. There are two varieties :—white flowered. K. tuberculous glands. Gokarni. cures "Tridosha". headache. Girikarniballi.— drupe. 2-2.. Fl. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . Fr..—ternately whorled. ulcers of the cornea. acrid. :—G. The plant contains an alkaloid. leaves and seeds. HABITAT :—In hedges. useful in ascites (Yunani).3 cm. Koyala. FAM.. ulcers (Ayurveda). USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. DISTR. useful in bronchitis. M.—6-10 yellowish brown.5-15 X 5. Kalina. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Fl. "Vata". L. showy. anthelmintic. elephantiasis. PARTS USED :—Root. Kajli.:—More or less throughout India. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork.—Shrub. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves and seeds. LOC. Fr. tumours. DISTR. Fl. burning sensation. oblong or elliptic. hiccup. stems bluntly quadrangular. inflammations. black. wounds (Ayurveda). obovoid. elliptic oblong. diuretic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling.—pale blue. also found throughout the State. with an orange centre. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia.8-5 cm. lower one deflexed. hairy. Aparajita. and blue flowered. biliousness. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. alexiteric. good for eye-diseases. blood diseases.— Aug. Girikarnika. spreading.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). t. t— June-Jany. Sk. fleshy. C. solitary. beaked. . nearly straight. Ceylon. CHAR. L.—much exerted. Malay Peninsula. 0. consumption. sometimes opposite. in lax dichotomous cymes. 12. Vishnukranta.—many. heating.—axillary. Garani. the larger lower lobe dark purple. H. pains. Sd. high. flat. ozœna. LOC. lessens expectoration. tubercular glands.2 m. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. NS. leaflets 5-7. Aparajita. useful in inflammation.5 X 2-3. stems terete. tube hairy within. Wowatheti. laxative. epilepsy. :—A perennial twining herb. Fl. long .—imparipinnate. anthelmintic.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. standard bright blue or white. C. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. bronchitis.2 cm.. burning sensation. sharply serrate. 3. 4 lobes flat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. smooth. Root is purgative and diuretic. Root increases appetite. collectively forming a terminal panicle. pubescent. asthma. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers.

COM. Dirghvalli. M. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Ceylon. USES:—In the Konkan. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Hunder. Broom-creeper. Bimbi. dried and powdered. Fruit— indigestible. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Oshthi. & A. antipyretic . Malaya. Faridburti. cures leprosy. Seeds are purgative and aperient.:—Cultivated in gardens. burning of hands and feet. urinary losses. wild in hedges. H. G. useful in ascites and fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. Sk. See—Vegetables. Kanduri. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Tondeballi. Country. Tundi.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. leaves. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. FAM. Tana. galactagogue. Chireta. NS. and jaundice. Bimbika. Garudi. Vasanvel. Sk. K. Flowers cure itching. Tondali. flowers. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. tropical Africa. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). Konkan. Parvel.—Menispermaceæ. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor).—Cucurbitaceæ. Glum. HABITAT. Vasandi. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra.:—Root cooling. Bimb. diseases of blood. K. stops vomiting. M. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. The plant contains an enzyme. biliousness. a hormone and an alkaloid. Vevdi. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. fruit. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. . LOC. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. aphrodisiac. asthma. DISTR :—Throughout India. LOC. astringent to bowels. Galedu. Leaves—acrid. Gujarat. cause flatulence. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Vevati. Bimba. consumption. :—G.—E.) FAM. S. Ghobe. given for uterine discharges. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). M. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Jamtikibel. Root bark. Fruit is aphrodisiac. COCCINIA INDICA W. PARTS USED :—Root. Kambhoja. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. NS. allays thirst. Ink-berry. Tundika. " Vata". Vasantitikta. Deccan. COM.

alexipharmic . DISTR. S.—drupe. Sk. indigestible. oleaginous. Tengu. Konkan.. causes "Kapha". Naral. India. mixed with water. dysentery. useful in biliousness. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). male in small axillary cymose panicles.8-6. villous . Mad. Dried seed (copra) improves taste.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. :—E. and put on to sore-eyelids. biliousness. Nariyal. Common in Konkan and N. laxative. aphrodisiac. lessens thirst. smells sweetish and pungent. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. "Kapha" and "Vata". HABITAT :—In hedges. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. Jataphala. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". Nalivar. Antipyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. Fl. In the Konkan. useful in diabetes.—dioecious. Kanara. ovate-oblong. FAM. tonic. Fr.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. aphrodisiac. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. 2-8 together. fattening. it is used for coughs. Pegu. lessens bile and burning sensation. enriches blood. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). G. thirst. NS. Milk—cooling. Seed-cooling. oil. urinary discharges.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans.—Dec. USES :—A decoction of fresh root.—Palmæ.8 cm. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. S. Arabia. Gujarat. tonic. burning sensation. LOC. fattening.3 X 1. useful in leprosy. Leaf-juice. bronchitis. It is also used as a refrigerant. tropical Africa.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Fl. Tenginmara. also in many places in the interior. rugose . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. female in axillary clusters.3-3. PARTS USED :—Root. 3-5 nerved. size of a small pea. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. aphrodisiac. subdeltoid or subhastate. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. India and Ceylon. fermented juice. bark. seed. DISTR. H. M. good in fractures. LOC. young parts densely Villous. it is heating. Mahaphala. Deccan. Narikel. cardiotonic. blood diseases. LOC. tumours. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. COM. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. tuberculosis. t. Cocoanut palm. Narial. Flower-cooling . . laxative and sudorific. Toyagarbha. with a few heads of pepper. as a cure for gonorrhœa. which is taken internally with sugar. ovate. L. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). K. China. appetiser. laxative. keeled.—3. flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Mangalya. constipation.

PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. sheaths long. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Dabha.—broadly ovoid to globose. :—A tall leafy grass. increases body weight. base cordate. Oil—sweet. above the bract stout. DISTR. LOC. tonic. enriches blood. G. M. 6. :—E. t. polished. bluish grey. stout. useful in fever.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating.—10-15 x 2. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. It is also used for burns. Gavedhu. Malaya. fermented juice is intoxicating.5-5 cm. high or more. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). piles . diuretic. L. Oil—indigestible. B and C. China. Job's tears. India. S. It is refreshing and laxative. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A.—monœcious racemes 2. See—Fruit Trees. midrib stout. it also purifies blood. incipient phthisis and cachexia. Ran-jondhala. Fl. liver complaints.3 cm. lessens inflammations .) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. smooth. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. America. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. promotes hairgrowth. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. H. spinously serrate margins. piles and scabies (Yunani. useful in urinary complaints. smooth. Oils. polished. Gojivha. CHAR. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. internodes smooth. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. rachis within the bract slender. bronchitis.—Oct. Japan. LOC. Polynesia. HABITAT :—Gregarious. LOC. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. fattening. notched at the nodes . Rajputana. Kasai. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. paralysis. useful in lumbar-pain. asthma. Bengal. Madhya Pradesh. Fl. Jargadi. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. consumption. long. Assam. long. stem 90-150 cm. abundant in standing water. Gurlu ..6-10 mm. rooting at the lower nodes. Fr. Fibres. FAM. :—Himalayas. ulcers (Ayurveda).—Gramineæ COM.5-6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. Madhya Bharat. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. NS. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. it promotes growth of hair. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Sk. diuretic . Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . useful in fevers and urinary disorders. tropical Asia-Africa.

HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. In jutegrowing districts. Fl. :—An annual herb. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. t. ridged and muricated. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. NS. Patta. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . Sebesten plum. Bhukerbudara. FAM.—in short cymes. Resalla. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. M. Kalasaka. COM. Lassora. growing very tall under cultivation. also as antiperiodic. :—Konkan. Sd. 5-valved.— Sept. C. diam. cultivated in most tropical countries. yellow. serrate. histidin. G. astringent. Mannadike. CHAR. carminative. It is also used as a bitter tonic. Rayagundo. Sk. Pistan. anthelmintic. Bhokar.2 cm. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. COM. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. 12 mm. Col. LOC. FAM. lanceolate. H. and dyspepsia. . fever. K. Hadige. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. See—Fodder Plants. See—Fibres. The plant contains leucin.—few in each cell. Bhuselu. smooth. Sk. G. M. :—E. Chhunchh . arginine and coicin. not beaked. Gondan. buds obovoid. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Gujarat.— capsule. Jute . leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Fl.:—E. wedgeshaped.—7. brown. acute or acuminate. Chaunchan .5-10 X 2-3. tyrosin. stomachic. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. also efficacious in skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bargund. and intestinal antiseptic. leaves and fruit. laxative. subglobose. Fr. lysin. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Challa. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.—Boraginaceæ. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. Bhokar. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. DISTR.—Tiliaceæ.—petals 4-5. NS.

also cultivated. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Bark. bronchitis. diuretic. biliousness. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. LOC. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated throughout India. Satpudas. often planted. H. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. FAM. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. highly esteemed in coughs. tuberculous glands. Kothambri. Dhania. Konphir. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. M. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. maturant. :—Throughout India. stimulant. bleeding gums. tooth-ache. Fruits are used as spice. inflammations. COM. diseases of chest. LOC. stimulant. jaundice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. tonic to brain. LOC. See—Timbers. causes suppuration.—Umbelliferæ. G. Egypt. anthelmintic. removes bad humours. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. LOC. uterus and urethra. pains in joints. scabies. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. used in syphilis. chronic fevers. burning of throat. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). . gives appetite. Mesapotamia and Greece. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. wild and cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Allaka.:—Throughout the State in W. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. NS. Cochin-China. bechic. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. carminative and antispasmodic. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). Hivija. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Ceylon. cooling. purgative. stomachic. indigestion. DISTR. used as an expectorant and astringent. useful in hiccup. diseases of chest and urethra. Fibres. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. DISTR. Bark is used as a mild tonic. piles.:—E. antipyretic. expectorant. tropical Australia. dyspepsia. eye-pains. Vitunnaka. biliousness. K. Fruit is aromatic. The plant and fruit— acrid. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. vomiting. Dharika. Kothimbir. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. vulnerary. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). used in dry cough. analgesic.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. stomatitis. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. thirst. Sk. Kustumburi. anthelmintic. biliousness. Kanara. Leaves—hypnotic. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Ghats. laxative. Fruit—diuretic. heart and liver. gleet. Seeds—aphrodisiac. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). widely known from Palestine. Syria. Kothamir. headache. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Coriander. cures thirst.

Ceylon. FAM. t. Pakarmula. Fl.-Oct. CHAR. high. K. L. bracts ovate. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests.—capsule. fever. " Kapha". Country. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. M. :—G. Hadawarna. C. depurative.—Aug. H. nalas. subequal. inflammations. LOC. Var. Varno. subsessile. Pushkarmula. . Fr. DISTR. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. LOC. Sk. Barna. Keu.—15-30 X 5. PARTS USED:—Root. Bilpatri. India. M. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. root-stock tuberous. Sk. COM. S. NS. crisped. coughs and skin diseases. Kashmira.7-7. silky-pubescent beneath. Nervele. S. lumbago. concave. lobes ovate-oblong. It is also astringent and digestive. Var. sheaths coriaceous . FAM. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. rheumatism. China. Ajapa. LOC. H. many. Penva. Kemuka. Chikke. globosely 3-gonous. Pushkarmula. Madhya Bharat. DISTR. :—G. See—Condiments and Spices. also planted near Muslim tombs. useful in bronchitis. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. K. Leaves contain vitamins A and C .—Capparidaceæ. mucronate. Vayavarno. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos.— tube short. :—An erect plant 1. Kumaraka. By the earliest writers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Shura.2-2.— in very dense spikes.:—Konkan ghats. and " Vata". spirally arranged.— black with white aril. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Castle Rock. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. COM. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Kushtha. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. lip white with yellow centre. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Varuna.7 m. useful in catarrhal fevers. Mahakapittha. M. Vayavarna. bright red. Varuna. Biliana. Pinga. stem sub-woody at the base . NS. Karikuttu.—Scitamineæ. red. The plant yields an essential oil. Changalkashta. also in Sub-Himalayan tract).5 cm. Khandala. Kust. Fl. Sd. :—More or less throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. and aphrodisiac. Varvunna. in moist and shady places. Malay Islands. hiccup (Ayurveda). Bitusi. oblong. a tonic is prepared from it. anæmia.

. Kanwal. USES:—Root is alterative. . anuria. strangury. LOC. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. fragrant at night. expectorant. "Pitta" and "Kapha". Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. tumours. thin. vesicant. night-blindness. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. heating. diseases of vagina. Chindar. Kanda-shalini. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. with a sheathing base. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bark. perianth tube greenish-white. Nagdavana. cylindric.:—G. :—Throughout tropical India.9-1.—1 (rarely 2). linear. Wild or cultivated. also wild. urinary concretions. Nagadown. vomiting. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.5 cm. CHAR. gonorrhœa. 0. K. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. chest. laxative. good in strangury. flowers and fruits. useful in biliousness.—subglobose. flat. tuberculous glands. laxative. white. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. found wild in North and South Konkan. bechic. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. as long as the tube.. antipyretic. DISTR. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). H. Fr. removes "Vata". anthelmintic. chest and blood diseases. FAM.—15-50 in an umbel. expectorant. increases secretion of bile.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. NS. leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds—purgative. Sd. M. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet.—20-30. lobes 6. defective vision. anthelmintic.—Amaryllidaceæ. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. X 12. long. useful in bronchitis. LOC. laxative. urinary discharges. bracts 7. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . bitter. detergent. emmenagogue. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. antilithic. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. digestive. Visha-Mandalamardini. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). Ceylon. Pindar. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism.5-18 cm. bulb 5-10 cm. COM. it promotes appetite. The plant contains saponin. Nag-damani. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. lung and spleen diseases. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. Fl. linear lanceolate. stomachic. bright green. vulnerary. Tonic. beaked. aphrodisiac. carminative. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). toothache. leaves. Bark promotes appetite. Patra-pushpi. Nag-damani.5-10 cm. L. then sweet. act as rubefacient and vesicant. Kanmu. See—Timbers. scape 45-90 cm. and seeds. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. Sk. diuretic. diam. Vishamungalli.

PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Assam to Malacca. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Kanara. M. it is in great request. good in sore eyes. insanity. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. carminative. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. :—E. Jamalgota . Bhutankusam. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Jamalgota. As an application to sprains. G. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ. Western Peninsula. convulsions. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Bengal. M. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Oil from the seed is purgative. Japala. China. nauseant and diaphoretic. Seeds cause burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Root. fever. :—Naturalised in S. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Malay Islands. FAM. expectorant. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Chota-Natpur. LOC.. tonic. useful in mental troubles. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. leaves and seeds. DISTR. naturalised or cultivated. Danti. etc. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Ceylon. . Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. :—Bengal. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). :—Rare in the State. Oil cathartic. abdominal diseases. Ceylon .MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. Sk. bronchitis (Ayurveda). K. FAM. Konkan. The plant contains lycorin. Jepal. NS. bruises and rheumatic swellings. in small doses. See—Timbers. Nepala. :—Sylhet. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Burma. bark. :—H. Ganasur. Nepala . HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. Sk. excessive phlegm. Jayapala. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. Burma. COM. DISTR. Nepal. Purging croton . NS. Danti. COM. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Chucka . The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. inflammations. emetic.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ieucoderma. H. Madhya Pradesh. cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative.

Fruit—tonic. DISTR. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Lomashi. It is given internally with great caution. cures " Vata ". Sk. Sk. ascites. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. insanity. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. Said to be truly wild in India. Kalangida. ascites. brain and body. synovitis. They are edible. used in liver and kidney troubles. galactagogue. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Pathira . :—Cultivated in all parts of India. fruit and seeds. K. and lock-jaw. cures ophthalmia. diuretic. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Mutrala. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Valungi. Kakadi. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Seeds—lachrymatory. fattening. LOC. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. Tarkakadi. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Kachra. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. wholesome. G. H. biliousness. :—G. Chibuda. COM. NS. diuretic. Chibdu Shakarteti. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Melon. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. aphrodisiac. laxative. Sweet melon . Ripe fruit—sweet. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. may cause indigestion. LOC. MELO Var.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. laxative. colic. Kankadi. strengthens heart. allays fatigue. See—Timbers. Mahanaracha Rasa. Kharbuja. gives headache. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. C. convulsions. Rind—vulnerary. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kharbuja. oily. chronic fever. Shantanu. Shadrekha. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. It is useful in apoplexy. Vrittervaru. thirst (Yunani).:—E. in ascites and anasarca. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. &c. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. LOC. Valaka. M. Kakni. obstinate constipation. COM. :—In Deccan. nutritive and diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. DISTR. Karkati. H. FAM. . diaphoretic. cooling. M. urinary discharges. insanity. Kakri. Kharbuja. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Karkali. dropsy. NS.

Kakari. utilissimus (Ayurveda. cordate at the base. M. seeds. Yunani). NS. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. Karit. Trapusha. Khira. are administered in throat affections.—subglobose or ellipsoid. melo var. roasted and powdered. Kakdi. CHAR. Seeds possess cooling properties. used in thirst. Santekayi. DISTR. angled. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). Fr. purgative. LOC. Mrigadani. H. cooling. K. they are also used as diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. margined . FAM. diuretic. lobulate or dentate . NS. COM. t. Sk. indigestible. fatigue. Chitravalli. astringent. cures thirst. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). "Kapha" and flatulence. Sushitala.—Cucurbitaceæ. lobes obovate. They are nutritive. Fruit—fattening . USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. rigid. Kankdi. Cultivated in all parts of India. cures biliousness. Tansali. LOC. See-Fruit Trees. Ripe one tonic. Cucumber. Seeds—diuretic. LOC. causes "Vata". Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. dry. .:—N. :—A perennial climber. good for brain and body. fruits. Tavasa. Fl. male in clusters. strangury. stomachic. biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Leaves. fever. M. Kothiban. H. See—Vegetables. improve complexion. :—G.—white. allay thirst. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A.—June-Sept. antipyretic. stem slender. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. L. pale yellow when ripe.— suborbicular. female peduncle longer than male. enrich blood. and C. tendrils simple.:—E. FAM. Vishala. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. B. Fl. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. C. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Sk. Kumbhakshi. Sudhavsa. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb.—yellow segments elliptic. pulp bitter. Seed oil used in fever. Hislambhi. India is considered to be the original home. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Takamaki. hairy.—monœcious .—Cucurbitaceæ. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Khira. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. Sd. COM. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. G.

Pitakushmand. stomachic. indigestible. H. Dried fruit indigestible . carbuncles. FAM. NS. increases " Vata" . Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Ceylon. Dangari.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Kashiphala. M. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Sk. Kushmand. K. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). on hedges. G. B and C. Australia. LOC. DISTR. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. Sk. Kumbala. Koron. Afghanistan. Bhopala. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. DISTR. allays thirst. :—E. Kumra. HABITAT. LOC. Fruit contains vitamins A. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. cultivated in many parts of India. fruit is used to prevent insanity. M.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Karkarn. DISTR. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. astringent to bowels . PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. LOC. unhealthy ulcers. N. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Vegetables. COM.:—Considered to be a native of America. Kumbala. Red squash gourd. In Malabar. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Vegetable marrow. Kaddu. :—Throughout the greater part of India. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Pumpkin. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. FAM . Kushmand. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. . COM. LOC. K.—Cucurbitaceæ. : — E. Kadimah.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. G. fruits and seeds. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. improves taste (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mithakaddu. Punyalata. USES. Dudia. increases " Vata ". Tambda bhopala. etc. Safedkaddu . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. LOC. NS. H. Malaya. Iran. tonic. cures cough. Melon pumpkin. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils.—Cucurbitaceæ. Seeds are used as taeniacide. :—Cultivated. The plant contains glucoside saponin.

inflammations. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Sk. eye-diseases. allays thirst. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). carminative. leucoderma. Kalimusali. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Leaves—digestible. K. purifies blood (Ayurveda). H. cures haemoptysis. Cumin. FAM. Fruit—very cooling. vulnerary. antidysenteric. scabies. . alexipharmic. also a lactagogue. Mushalikand . ft contains vitamins A and C. LOC. Jire. gonorrhœa. Sk. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. tonic. and the root for making these more potent. Kapha " and " Vata ". Musali. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. LOC.—Amaryllidaceæ. Neladati. antipyretic. Talamulika. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Kalimusali. DISTR. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. Seeds anthelmintic. asthma. abortifacient. biliousness. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. astringent to bowels. M. See—Vegetables. Fruit yields an essential oil. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Seeds—diuretic. laxative. :—E. Dirghaka. stops epistaxis . PARTS USED :—Fruit. carminative. fever. Jiru. fattening. Neltati gadde. bronchitis. COM. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. belching . thirst.—Umbelliferæ. G. NS. Kalimusali. ulcers. haematinic. increases appetite . good for teeth. LOC. aphrodisiac. Fruit astringent. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. FAM. appetiser. remove biliousness. Seeds are taeniacide. relieves hiccup. astringent. H. fatigue. Jirige. cure haemoptysis. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. analgesic. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. stomachic. Gaurajerka. cures leprosy. COM. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. carminative. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. Jira. diuretic and demulcent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Girautmi. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. See—Condiments and Spices. Ajjika. uterine stimulant. throat and eyes. anthelmintic. heals corneal opacities. leprosy. fever. tonic to intestine. astringent to bowels. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). sweet. Dipaka. beneficial in consumption. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. Zira. K. M. NS. Cures " Vata " tumours. :—G. enlargment of the spleen. cooling. emmenagogue.

Assam. bitter. hiccup. Malay Archipelago. during convalescence after acute illness. lumbago. oblong lanceolate. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). scape. Kanara. Fr. aphrodisiac. diarrhœa. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. aphrodisiac.—sessile or petiolate. LOC. linear or linear-lanceolate .5 cm. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. Ambehalad. laxative. with a beak . Amragandha. ulcers on penis. tubers thick. useful in biliousness. Ambahaldi. LOC. fatigue. Bitter. oblong. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. Peninsula. t. oblong. " Vata".5-12. cooling. aphrodisiac. Kapurahaldi. vomiting. distichous.—long petioled in tufts. alterative and tonic. ophthalmia. emollient. flowering bract greenish-white.—grooved. PARTS USED :—Root.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating.5-15 X 3. Ambahaladara. FAM. yellow. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. appetiser. rhizome. Sk. clavate . Bengal. inflammations (Ayurveda). M. Mango-ginger. t. appetiser. useful in piles. W. debility and impotence. hydrophobia. colic. antipyretic. scabies. sessile. gonorrhœa. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. :—Konkan and N. NS. alterative. all skin-diseases. indigestion.:—W. 30-45x7. troubles in the mouth and ear. :—Bengal. appetising. useful in bronchitis. very short. asthma. :—Stemless herb. fattening. black. perianth segments elliptic. :—Konkan and Gujarat. :—E. pains in joints (Yunani). alexiteric. DISTR. Amhaladi. biliousness. gonorrhœa. maturant. Peninsula. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . piles. Karpuraharidra. LOC.. K. .5 cm. DISTR.—Scitamineæ. gleet. bronchitis. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . stomatitis (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. COM. cylindric or ellipsoid. lumbago. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. C—white or very pale-yellow. shining . CHAR. Fl.:—Sweet. often cultivated. useful in inflammations. expectorant. antipyretic. :—A small herb.—capsule. common at the beginning of rains.3-2. L. Fl. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. 1545 X 1. H. Root—carminative. jaundice. gleet. tips sometimes rooting. L. Sd. G.8-5 cm. antipyretic. Fl. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink.— in autumnal spikes 7. Fl. diarrhœa.— May-June. Java.-Sept.— in racemes. diuretic. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. root stock large. causes "Vata". lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. pale yellow inside . hairy on the back.

. G. LOC. C. Yellow Zedoary. in spikes 15-30 cm. LOC.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. Banharidra. t. :—Western Peninsula. variegated above. Fl. base deltoid. Fl. Turmeric. Banhaladi. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. NS. long. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. COM. Sholika. Sholi. Cochin-Wild turmeric. the dorsal longer. green. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. biennial. forming pouches for the flowers.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. M. M. sessile. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. H. :—E. Also cultivated in Konkan. DISTR. FAM.—Scitamineæ. Aranyaharidra.—Scitamineæ. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. DISTR. root-stock large. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. appetiser . Arishina. Halad. rounded at the tips. Jayanti.. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. H. FAM. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. lip yellow.-May. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Mangalya. Halad. COM. Harita. Sk. lobes pale-rose. Haridra. PARTS USED :—Tubers.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. flowering bracts cymbiform. :—E. annulate. L. Ran-halad. K. long. It is considered tonic and carminative. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell.—tube 2. Varnadatri. also stomachic. it is seldom used alone . Halada. :—Grown extensively in Deccan.— flowering stem sheathed. Kapur-kachali. used as an application for skin-diseases. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. NS. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. See—Condiments and Spices. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. upper half funnel-shaped. Sk. LOC. lateral lobes oblong. appearing before leafing stem. G. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. Vanarishta. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Vanhaldara. pale green. palmately branched. :—Stemless herb. 3lobed. Indian saffron. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. sometimes cultivated. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . CHAR. flowers fragrant. Bengal. Sometimes cultivated.

:—Cultivated in the State.—Scitamineæ. Kachari. used in prurigo. Narakachora. Sk. The plant contains curcumin. diuretic. H. Jatala. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . emollient. long. oblong-lanceolate. G. urinary discharges. fumes are used during hysteric fits . A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. deepyellow. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. tonic. bruises. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. anthelmintic. improves complexion. Hakhir. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. vulnerary. good for liver affections. antipyretic. M. destroys foulness of breath. 30-60 cm. oblong. scabies. small-pox. lip 3-lobed. Himalayas and Chittagong. NS.—funnel shaped.— flowering stem 20-25cm. alexiteric. CHAR. laxative. Kachora.:—E. Tuber is used as a stimulant. COM. useful in " Kapha". Shathi. pale-yellow inside. taste bitterish spicy. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. bruises (Yunani). Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. flowering bract green tinged with red . . Zedoary. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. LOC. heating. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. internally administered in blood disorders. "Vata ". It contains vitamin A. appetiser. Karechura. bitter. K. clothed with sheaths. In coryza. LOC. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kachora. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. asthma.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . DISTR. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. lobed . appearing before the leaves. long. maturant. 3-gonous. Bitter. See—Condiments and Spices. FAM . itches etc. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. alexiteric. cylindric. Fl. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. bruises. anthelmintic. and yields an essential oil. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. odour like camphor.—capsule. heating. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. annulate tubers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. L. boils. externally applied to leech-bites. swellings. In small-pox and chicken-pox. root-stock of palmately branched. bitter. scabies. Fr. jaundice. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. inflammations. said to be Wild in E. leucoderma. coma-bract crimson or purple . :—Stemless herb. bronchitis. blood diseases. urinary discharges. flowers yellow in spikes.—4-6 with long petioles. clouded with purple down the middle. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. C. an alkaloid. boils and urticaria. carminative. Kachuri. sprains (Ayurveda). piles. Gandhamulaka sara. fragrant. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. vulnerary. useful in leucoderma.

useful in bronchitis. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. gastric irritability. neuralgia. nodding. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). Gavati-chaha. bitter. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. LOC. laxative.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. NS. Ligule very short. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. velvety at the nodes. It is an excellent stomachic to children. midrib whitish on the upper side. tonic to brain and heart. M. emmenagogue. also used as a tonic and depurative. carminative. chronic rheumatism. Lemon grass. inflammations.—linear tapering upwards to a point. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Majjige hullu. enlargement of spleen. and is of great value in cholera. :—A tall perennial. up to over 1. probably of Indian origin. pains.:—E. COM. Externally it is rubefacient. DISTR. erect. Bitter. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. sharp. culm stout. of much use in typhoid fevers. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. Gandhatrina. . stimulant and carminative. sheaths of the culm tight. others narrow and separating. glaucous green. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. G. Putigandha. Bhustrina. Lilicha. useful in griping of children. laxative. It is also aromatic. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. aphrodisiac. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. hot. sheaths terete . upto over 90 cm. H. expectorant. appetiser. alexipharmic. applied to bruises and sprains. LOC. carminative.—Gramineæ. good odour. furunculosis. high. emetic. sprains. leprosy. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.8 m. it is also a good application for ringworm. anthelmintic. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. FAM. alexipharmic. long. Takratrina..MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. L. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. Purhati hullu. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. epileptic fits. long.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Tubers yield an essential oil. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. and other painful affections. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. sharp hot taste. K. LOC. it is stimulant. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. tuberculous glands of neck. toothache (Yunani).

5-5 cm. LOC. LOC. H. soft. FAM. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Burma. high. Mirchiagand. leafy. 12-18 mm. useful in fevers. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils.4 m. green or purplish. widely creeping.-Nov. bronchitis. long. Africa to Morocco. leprosy. See-Oils. cooling. Shyamaka. Rhusghas. wide below. Shatamula. through N.—Gramineæ. finely acute. CHAR. leprosy. Fr. hallucinations. FAM. Dhoboghas. Fl. straw coloured. Gharo.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. prostrate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. burning sensation.000 m. Dhro. Bujina. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—A perennial grass . DISTR. Sk. stem. G. S. upto 2. pains. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels.—spikes 2-nate. with erect flowering branches 7. Konkan.—flat. forming matted tufts. Durva. fatigue. Kobbar. Fl. sheaths tight. long. bitter. G. vomiting. DISTR. Saugandhika. Garikehallu. K.—Oct. in the Himalayas. Rohisha. Fl. scabies. M. Mangala. Ghats. :—Cosmopolitan . thirst. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. subcordate or rounded at the base. useful in biliousness. L.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. narrowly linear. Sk. glaucous beneath. NS. throughout India. Bahuvirya. Geramium grass. throat troubles.5-30 cm. epileptic fits. K. Afghanistan. M. Durva. NS. Roshagavat. Shatagranthi.. 1. :—Punjab. Bhutika. stem. long. bad taste in the mouth. Sind. :—Sourashtra. :—E. Baluchistan.5-2. COM. t. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. L.t. Deccan. heart diseases. Roshdo. Harali. most warm countries. usually broad. :—E. M. sweet. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. LOC. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. Fl. slender. particularly the Deccan trap areas. and Ceylon ascending to 3. high.—throughout the year. Durba. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. long. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. X 1 cm. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. skin . smooth. Country.—grain. W. margins scabrid. CHAR. H. oblique or divaricate. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Rohisha.:—Grows all over the State. carminative. 1 mm. pungent. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge.—Gramineæ. Vasanchullu.3 cm. COM. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere.—2-10 cm. Gujarat.

0. epilepsy. ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—Tubers.5 cm. expectorant. acrid.—Cyperaceæ. vulnerary. bruises. Sugandhi-granthila. stolons elongate. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles.—Sept-Nov. fever. dyspepsia. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. emmenagogue. astringent. dysentery. Bitterish. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. CHAR. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. erysipelas (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. useful in vomiting. pain. hiccup (Yunani). erysipelas. epilepsy and insanity. burning sensation. anthelmintic. Tungegaddo. Fl. Sk Bhadramusta. COM. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. narrowly linear. fevers. . useful in leprosy. Fl. :—Glabrous herb.82. biliousness. diaphoretic. dysentery.— in simple or compound umbel. Nut—broadly ovoid. Nagarmotha. anthelmintic. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Granthi. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. USES :—Roots are commonly. pruritis. Motha. epistaxis (Ayurveda). Mutha. LOC. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Mustaka. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. difficult to eradicate. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Bimbal. Kachhola. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. Motha. appetiser. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels.—shorter or longer than the stem. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. greyish black. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. :—G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. L. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. very troublesome weed. vomiting. In Ceylon. blood diseases. H. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. K. NS. Koranarigadde.. They are also diuretic and stimulant. urinary concretions (Yunani). vulnerary. LOC. fever. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. Root— diuretic. LOC.. Motha. juice is used in hysteria. blood diseases. DISTR. epistaxis. stomatitis. See—Fodder Plants. diarrhœa. useful for ulcers and sores. M. diarrhœa. t. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. FAM. spikelets 10-50 flowered. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. biliousness. Tubers yield an essential oil. trigonous. it is diuretic. cooling. stomachic. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. thirst. most hot countries.

M. corona outer and inner. FAM. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals.—thin. Kala-dhotara. Rajdhattura. and sub-involution of the uterus. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps.g.5-15 X 3. COM.. funnel-shapped. solitary. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. diam. Unmatta. across. Ns.—Aug. reflexed. ciliate. e. L.—capsule.-Jany. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. white inside. soft spiny.—many. LOC. Kaladhatura. :—Annual shrub. LOC. covered with straight sharp prickles.—follicle. Kanaka. NS. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. on curved stalk 3. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Phalakantak. nodding. CHAR. green. packed. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action.—purple outside. paralytic ileus. HABIT :—A common weed. Sk. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. inner curved high over the staminal column. greenish-yellow or dull-white. broadly ovate or suborbicular. M. somewhat zigzag. :—A perennial twining herb. CHAR. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. 30-60 cm.—Asclepiadaceæ. C.— tubular. 18 cm. Black-Purple datura. Utran.5 cm.—Sept-Dec.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. t. usually pubescent. Administered after the third stage of labour. H. velvety pubescent beneath. COM. long.2-7. . Sd. Bhranta. Fl. outer truncate. Kariyu-Um-Matta. divaricately branched. tubular.2 cm. Country. FAM. S. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. very unequal at the base. Sk. long 10-20. double. yellowish brown. t. Utarni. Fr. L. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. Gujarat. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). ovate. entire or with large teeth or lobes. Kanaka.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. M.5 cm. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Fr. Kaladhatura. PROPERTIES AND LOC.:—E. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. :—H. beak long. :—Deccan. K: Dhattura. Ceylon.—7. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Fl. a glucoside. lobes spreading. Fl. subglobose. stem hairy. glabrous above. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. G. spur acute. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . high. acute. afterwards racemose. DISTR.—Solanaceæ. Sd. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. Fl.

The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. :—E. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. bitter. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Cultivated in many parts of India. febrifuge. aphrodisiac. jaundice. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. H. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. Gajjari. HABITAT :—Cultivated. anthelminitic . Sk. heating. painful tumours. emetic. ganja. with curdled milk. DISTR. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. NS. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. Gajar. useful in leucoderma. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. chronic coughs. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Gajar. leaves and seeds. FAM. skin-diseases. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. :—Throughout the tropics. GranthiPinda-Mula. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. headache. USES :—Out of the two varieties. LOC. leaves and seeds. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. . Garjara. anthelmintic. Gajra. to increase their stupefying effect. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. Seeds—narcotic. in gonorrhœa. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. cause headache (Yunani). The whole plant is narcotic. mumps etc. nodes. G. piles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. K. PARTS USED :—Roots. black variety is considered to be more powerful. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf poultice. Carrot. Gajar. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Europe. digestive and heating.—Umbelliferæ COM. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. febrifuge. black (Kala) and white (Safed). It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. toddy. LOC. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. equal in effect to atropine. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. M. (Ayurveda). majum. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Shikkikanda. The plant as a whole has narcotic. emetic. bronchitis. nosetrouble. relieves pain.. ulcers. tonic. and antispasmodic properties. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. enlargement of testicles and boils. toxic. alexiteric. anodyne. biliousness. Leaf-juice is given internally. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. in combination with subja.

burning sensation. Murele-honne. Roots contain vitamins A. urinary complaints. CHAR. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. nausea (Yunani). USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. Salpan. Burma. throughout India. M. green and glabrous above. Root marmalade is refrigerant. fattening. vomiting. 0. cardiotonic. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. DISTR.. Ranbhal. prevents death of fœtus in womb . COM. K. cough. FAM. biliousness. hooked hairy. " Tridosha ". thirst. stems and branches angled. margins wavy. used in bronchitis. they are also diuretic. thirst. USES :—Externally. piles. :—A woody undershrub. cures biliousness. Fr. ovate-oblong. Fl. antidysenteric. " Vata". other fevers. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). bronchitis. Kitavinashini. good for inflammation. It is used in fevers. Vidarigandha. LOC. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). M. astringent to bowels. joints 6-8. hairy. Salwan. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. hiccup. piles. boiled with honey and fermented. :—Konkan and N.—onefoliate. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root. Salwan. Salwan.—pod. alexipharmic. Ceylon. chronic affections of chest and lungs. C—violet or white. Deccan and S. cures leprosy. urinary discharges. high. LOC. paler and hairy beneath. Country. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). upper edge straight. tonic.—in terminal or axillary racemes. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. good for liver. China.2 m. H. NS. vomiting and asthma. Sk.6-1. Fl. tumours. they produce a spirituous liquor. asthma. :— G. Tonic.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. vomiting. membranous. indigestible.—May-July. sub-falcate. carminative. astringent to bowels. L. removes " Kapha". Salparni. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. . abundant in Khandesh Akrani. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. inflammations. diuretic. Dirghamula. standard cuneate at the base . cures typhoid. Salpani. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. chest troubles. t. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. Darh. B and C. alterative. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). asthma. LOC. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. stomachic. Kanara . tropical Africa. dysentery . In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. See—Vegetables. Malay Peninsula and Islands . Philippines. useful in chronic fevers. Shaliparni. pains.

biliousness. :—Along the coasts of N. :—Perennial tall grass. Sacred Plants. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Sk. Sk. FAM. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. Gale. Wild mangosteen. skin eruptions. Makurkendi. in the beds of rivers and streams. astringent to bowels.—Ebenaceæ. the basal fascicled. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fruit and seeds. Kalatendu. Sphurjaka. Fruit—oleaginous. NS. Timbwini. erect pyramidal or columnar. high. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Banda. erect.:—Saurashtra.. LOC.) FAM. heating. Egypt. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. vesical calculi. Fl. Kalaskandh. branched from the base. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. tufted. creeping. -panicle 15-45 X 1. covered with shining sheaths. branches short crowded. Tendu. See—Fodder Plants. aphrodisiac. . Gujarat.—many. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Kanara and the Konkan. H. oleaginous. COM. Dab. Darbha. K. t. Tumari.8 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. interrupted. Malay Archipelago. diuretic. Fl. flowers. vomiting. margins hispid. asthma. Darbha. Flowers—aphrodisiac. :—E. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. cures ulcers and " Vata". Konkan. rootstock stout. Syria. Ceylon. M. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). DISTR. Tinduka. bark. stolon very stout. L. Dabha. diseases of blood. PARTS USED :—Wood. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. thirst. clothed with sessile spikelets.—G. :—Throughout India. stems 30-90 cm. strangury. G. COM. diseases of bladder.3-3. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. reaching 50 cm. Kusha. LOC. Temburni. useful in blood diseases. rigid. LOC. sheaths glabrous. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Pavitra. CHAR. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Nubia.—Dec. stout. vaginal discharges. Tumaki Mara. H. Riber ebony. Thailand (Siam). jaundice. cooling. Wood cures biliousness. long. good for lumbago. sedative to pregnant uterus. smooth. DISTR. Gavandu. Zeeberwo. Durva. Anilsara. Davoli. ligule a hairy line . M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf.—Gramineæ.

:—E. See-Food Plants. H. Sori two in each primary areole. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. short. fattening. inflammation. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Kalvrinta. pain in liver. ozoena. cordate. Hurali. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. Konkan— Ratnagiri. It is demulcent in calculus affection. liver troubles. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. tumours. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. enlargement of spleen. cures hiccup. CHAR. See—Timbers. emmenagogue. cures " Kapha". Basingh. Diuretic. appetiser. ovate. strangury. generally on trees and rocks. Sk. piles. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. grown to a certain extent in S. NS. abdominal complaints. Kulitha. improves complexion. Surfaces naked. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Ashvakatri. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Polypodiaceæ. bronchitis. DISTR. astringent to bowels. diseases of the brain and eyes. NS. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. dry. Kulathi. Bijapur and Dharwar. :—Tropics of the old world. COM. Grains contain vitamin A. PARTS USED :—Seeds. K. removes stone from kidney. :—M. M. fertile ones long stalked. Kulithaka. anthelmintic. hiccup. coughs etc. urinary discharges. stout. Kulit. Wandar bashing. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Kulthi. Horse-Gram. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. COM. "Vata". Country—Belgaum. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. G. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. base decurrent on the stipe. Kulthi. Sitetara. hot. Sk. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Jurali. . intestinal colic. variously lobed. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. acrid. heart-troubles. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. M. eye troubles. leucoderma. LOC. Nasik. Kulith. piles. Tans. causes biliousness (Yunani). FAM. :—Rhizome creeping. antipyretic.Gahat. LOC. Texture membranaceous to leathery. FAM.

Kantalu. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). diseases of heart. the lobes triangular and oblong. M. used in ophthalmia. Maka. sessile. hectic fever. strigose and hairy. LOC. Seeds—wholesome. pain in joints. Plant stomachic. hot. yellowish. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. Balari. Sk. S. L. spiny. Bhangro.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. Shulio. Utanti. " Vata". Sk. dyspepsia and cough. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda).— opposite. LOC. :—Konkan. useful in brain-diseases. cottony. NS. :—Kanara. tonic. long. COM. inflammations.-Jany. Kadechubak. Fl.—achene obconic. pappus short. Kadigga-garaga. FAM. Pitripriya. M. astringent to bowels . Bhangra. 0. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. NS. Utkatara. branches widely spreading from the base. Root— abortifacient. Garagadasoppu.:—Throughout India. hysteria.—sessile. spines 2. analgesic. oblong. Utkanto. gleet. Ajagara. Dadhal. H. COM. Bhringraj. improves taste.—Compositæ. deeply pinnatifid. used in strangury. t. often rooting at the nodes. Bhangra. Kalobhangro . stems and branches strigose and hairy. Mochand. high. usually oblong-lanceolate. Utkanta. C.9 m.—Compositæ. antipyretic. :—G. bitter. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). involucre. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. CHAR. :—More or less throughout India. sinuate and spinescent.— Nov. chronic fever. H. surrounded by strong white bristles. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. Keshrangana. also cultivated to a certain extent. globose. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. glabrous above. urinary discharges. LOC. Utkantaka. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. wooly beneath. biliousness. stimulates liver. Markara. :—G. Afghanistan.—heads white. dyspepsia. Konkan. Fr. densely villous. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. Kantaphala. bracts 3seriate. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. DISTR. cooling. causes " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent.5 cm. FAM. cottony pubescent. :—A much branched rigid annual. Fl. intermediate produced in sharp spine. increases appetite. thirst. Country.—limb linear.3—0. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. K. L. . CHAR. Utakatara. DISTR. Deccan. subentire.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Sunilaka. It is used in hoarse cough.

94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—E. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . :—Western valleys of N. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. ray flowers ligulate. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. asthma. There are two forms erect and prostrate. good for spleen diseases. Ceylon. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Sind. hair. hemi-crania. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. anæmia. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Burma. heart and skin diseases. axillary. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Peninsula). liver pain. W. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) .-Dec. DISTR. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. night blindness. See—Sacred Plants. Chandrabala. "Kapha". syphilis. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. disk ones tubular . solitary or 2 together. K. Bahula. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. eye diseases. cures vertigo (Yunani). a reputed and popular liver tonic. Madhya Bharat.. LOC. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. cuneate with a narrow wing.—in heads. LOC. tonic. H. G. hernia. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. stomachic. Sk. anthelmintic. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Malaya. Bitter .— Oct. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. eyes. leucoderma. Triputa. pappus 0. Yalakki. stomatitis. and for strengthening gums. Veldoda. alexipharmic. toothache. C—often 4-toothed . it is powdered and applied externally. M. cures inflammations. Ilaji.—Scitaminaceæ. FAM. Kanara (Siddapur. t. NS. teeth. fattening. "Vata". fevers. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). bronchitis. cultivated. lustre of eyes. Gandhkuti. improves colour of hair. prevents abortion and miscarriage. . It relieves headache when applied with oil. COM. alterative. Fr. Karangi. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Fl. good for complexion.—achene. involucral bracts about 8 . Gourangi.:—India (Bengal. Elachi. Panjab. Ela. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. It is given internally in scalding of urine. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. hot. Velchi. Choti-Elachi. expectorant. internal diseases.

NS. useful in biliousness. Vayuvitang. stomachic. Seed—fragrant. piles.. rich or poor. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. cooling. CUM. ear and tooth ache. LOC. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. LOC. diseases of bladder.:—G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. Bavato. abortifacient. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. cooling. pungent. lessens inflammation. bad humours of liver. stomachic. Ragi. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. Bidanga. India. K. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. Rajika. Vidariga. useful in asthma. It is stomachic. fruit and seeds. diuretic. See-Food Plants. chest and throat (Yunani). EMBELIA RIBES Burm. DISTR. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. alexiteric . consumption. cultivated. stimulant and emmenagogue. .—Myrsinaceæ. Marua. brain and mouth. PARTS USED :—Grain. FAM. Rotka. fruit is tonic. It is said to be astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. scabies. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. kidney. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. laxative. Bhasmaka. H. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). Makra. Nagali. Kanisha.:—Western and S. Grains contain vitamin B. LOC. pruritus. bitter. M. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Narttaka. :— G. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Vavading. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. M. diuretic. Jantughna. K. Pavaka. COM. Sk. tonic. Vavoding. FAM. tonic to heart. bronchitis. See—Condiments and Spices. most suitable to hard-working classes. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. strangury. Boberang. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. cause biliousness . Nachani. clear head. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. Varding. Wavrung. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. root is laxative and tonic. useful in head. Navalo-nagali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. In S. H. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Sk. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. fragrant. carminative. causes thirst.—Gramineæ.

Bitter. Daula . Deccan. LOC. Ceylon. :—A large scandent shrub. urinary discharges. hemicrania. slender. Arch. alexiteric. Ambala. dries wound discharges . Embelic myrobalan. ascites. Konkan and N. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. anæmia. poisoning. Nellika . Dadi. mental diseases. cures bronchitis . useful in burning sensation.) FAM. sweats. succulent. Malay Islands. bark. Avala. HABITAT :—Rain forests. (Dymock). USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. K. laxative. good appetiser. 42-II-1932). cures tumours. LOC. :— E. anthelmintic . Paranjpe and G. vomiting. carminative. strangury. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. urinary discharges. Sk. Anward. Adiphala. cooling.—in lax panicles. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. flowers. Fl. Ther. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. carminative. shining above. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Kanara. DISTR. dyspnoea. like a pepper corn when dried. " Kapha'. . Dhatri. internodes long. PARTS USED :—Root. Western Ghats. M. elliptic-lanceolate. erysipelas. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. with a sharp bitter taste. useful in asthma. COM. racemes minute. L. Fr. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). vulnerary. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. China. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. branches long. Gokhale. antipyretic. Dhatriphala. Bhoza . LOC. Ceylon. Amla. inflammations. leprosy. anuria. nearly globose. :—Throughout India. fruit and seeds. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. alexiteric. " Tridosha ". good for plethoric constitution. Amalaka. DISTR. H. Amlika. black when ripe. anthelminitic. paler and silvery beneath. t. dry. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.—berry. biliousness. piles. alterative. Seed— acrid. leaves. Amlika. sour. often planted in Konkan. NS.—Euphorbiaceæ. wild or planted. Malaya. greenish yellow. China. jaundice. purgative. constipation. Pharm. tonic. PARTS USED :—Fruit. et. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. coriaceous.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. bronchitis. S. Int. Triphala. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A.—Feb. :—Hilly parts of the State. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. G. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). bronchitis. smooth. diseases of heart. Anola. laxative. reddens urine.—alternate. alterative. K. analgesic. flexible. many. bark studded with lenticels . S. Fl.

ellipsoid. COM. stops nasal hæmorrhage.) FAM. eye troubles. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. lobes 5. Tanavadi. Celyon. Malaya. Fr. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). M. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Chhotakirayat. branched from the base. Unripe fruit is cooling. liver complaints. C—infundibuliform. Doddakampi. Mabhipaka. thirst. purifies body humours (Yunani). Fruit—acrid. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. piles. Tiktapatra. S. expectorant. LOC. Mackary bean. tropical Africa. COM. Garambi. West Indies. Fl.—sessile. Fruit Trees. improves appetite.—sessile. Dyes. Grey). white. FAM. in axillary clusters all along the stem. K. LOC. variable. Gujarat. Country. :—Throughout the greater part of India. diuretic and laxative. cooling. Dried fruits. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). LOC. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". Garbe. high. See—Timbers.— capsule. stems erect or procumbent. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Kadvinayi. :—G. Madvinashi. rounded apex. opposite. . R. Sk. DISTR. Tans. NS. cold in the nose. Mamejavo . bark and fruit are astringent. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. t. :—A perennial glabrous herb. M. :—E. biliousness. Ind. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. anthelmintic. :—Konkan. used as laxative and astringent. Nahu. mid-nerve strong. sour.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). USES :—Root.). Sind. sub-quadrangular or terete. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. L. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Saurashtra. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. aperient. NS. CHAR. 3-nerved. Lady nut. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea.-Nov. Nagajivha. useful in heart-diseases. H. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Hallekayiballi. 10—50 cm. vulnerary. tonic.—Aug. M. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. narrowed at the base. Giant's rattle.—Gentianaceæ.

—2pinnate. Pangara. . Hongara. Raktapushpa. COM. W. thick. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. leaflets 7-5 x 2.-May. Kantakinshuka. dark green. PARTS USED :—Seeds. stomachic. hot. Paribhadra. Leaves—bitter. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Pegu. Phandra . G. 3. diam. Halivan. Sk.3-2 cm. leaves. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. improve appetite. rigidly coriaceous. The plant is used as a fish-poison. H.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Indian coral-tree. woody. Sundribans. shining and brown. Planted as support for pepper vines. 30-90 cm. wide and 3-8 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Bangaro. Fl. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Panderavo. long. Kanara. compressed. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. 4. Fr. anthelmintic. branches terete. often along river banks. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. glabrous. cure urinary discharges. flowers. USES :—Powdered kernel. :—Konkan and N. Planted as ornament.. Fl. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Mullumurige. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Pangara. Arakan.— Mar. long. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. LOC.. K. slightly curved. stalked. Dadap. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. indented between the seeds. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats.—pod. DISTR. they are given internally as an emetic. mixed with spices. Peninsula. C. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. L. oblong or obovate. Sd. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. along sea-coast above high-water. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.—6-15. :—Coast forests of Malabar. pinnae 2—3 pairs.5-10 cm. Ceylon.7-5x7. t. LOC. Salaki.. Var. Mochi-wood.) FAM.5-5-7 cm. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". inflammations. M. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Tennaserim. ORIENTALIS Merr. DISTR. in debility and glandular swellings . N. bark. orbicular.—yellow. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam.S. Andamans and Nicobar. :—E. Panarvo. Panjira. PARTS USED :—Root. Mandara. for grapevines in Nasik district. the tropics generally. bark used in dysentery. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. smooth. Nepal. Mandara.

:—Annual herb. globose. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Achchegida. The plant contains an alkaloid. reddish brown. branches often 4-angled. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Plant is chiefly used for worms.—involucres numerous. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—ovoid-trigonous. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Indian tree spurge.—opposite. Sk. rugose. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Sahud. dark green above. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Milk bush. M. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Ceylon. G. K. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Sd. —throughout the year. Dandasruha. H.—capsule. Bahukshira. pale beneath. Dudanali.) FAM. Govardhan. Sendh. COM. K. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. L. Shirthahar. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. bowel complaints and cough in children. Duddi. Sher. Australian asthma herb. Cong. LOC. . G. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Nagpur 1931). Sk. COM. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Bottugalli. erect or ascending. Nevli. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. it is anthelmintic. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman).—Euphorbiaceæ. serrulate or dentate. high. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. CHAR. with or without a limb. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Pill-bearing spurge. NS. Kodukalli.—Euphorbiaceæ. Fl. and to relieve pain of the joints. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Dandalio thora. FAM. Dudhi. Vajradruma. :— E. t. Milk hedge. FL. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. base unequal-sided. Dudhi. Sc. 15-50 cm. Paradeshi thora . Mondukalli. obliquely oblong-lanceolate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. Pusitoa. 18th Ind. :—E. NS. appressedly hairy. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Dudhi. H. See—Timbers. Fr. M. gland minute.

asthma. enlargement of spleen. dyspepsia. elliptic-oblong. DISTR. alterative. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. terete. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage.—ovoid. cocci velvety. branchlets whorled. :—A perennial herb. t. Fr. DISTR. Konkan and Gujarat. rootstock woody . USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . colic. M. smooth. thick like quill. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. useful in bronchitis. Vishnukranta. L. branches erect. . useful in biliousness. linear. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). peduncles very long.-Aug. milk is alexiteric. useful in abdominal troubles. prostrate. spreading. axillary. usually clothed with long hairs . :—Throughout the State. solitary or sometimes 2. campanulate. Jhinkiphudardi. Kalisankhavali. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets.— capsule. LOC. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. 4valved. alexiteric. dropsy. Fr. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. carminative. The plant contains an alkaloid. Ceylon.-July-Nov. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. thin. leprosy and leucorrhoea. Fl. high. tonic. long (appearing in rainy season) . HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. :—A small tree. COM. employed to raise blisters. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. almost leafless. Sd— glabrous. Vishnukranti. K. globose. Vishnugandhi. tropical and sub-tropical countries. Vishnukranta. 6-13 mm. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—G. smooth. jaundice. FAM.—small. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. H. LOC. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Fl. more than 5 cm. and with oil to promote growth of hair. silky hairy. stone in bladder (Yunani). epilepsy. useful in gonorrhœa. carminative.—capsule. also as an alterative. Juice is purgative. naturalised in India. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. leprosy. LOC. t. tumours.-Sep. whooping cough. Shyamakranta . teething of infants . Fl. long. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. anthelmintic. biliousness. CHAR. L. LOC.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—Sind.—Convolvulaceæ. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—Native of East Africa. about 6 m. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. Nilpushpi. stems many. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia.-light blue. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Sd. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. wiry.—many. Sk. polished. mostly female. brightens intellect. leucoderma. pungent. base acute.

Dhamasa. stem. 1-seeded cocci. :— Sind. DISTR. DISTR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. arising from between the stipules . FL.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. reaching 60 cm. Mediterranean.-Dec. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. cures dysentery.2 cm. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. :—An erect annual. about 1. obliquely obovate. Fl. M. stomatitis. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. deeply 5-partite. COM. it has got cooling properties. Ustarkhar. Waziristan. lower half white. L.—capsule. Fl. :—G. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Cooling. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. Fr. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Arabia. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. COM. Hinguna. yellowish brown. alexipharmic. Deccan hills and S.-Oct. Fr. Iran. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . flattened. t. Barachirayat. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. asthma. 1-3 foliate. urinary discharges. acute.-Nov.—solitary. glandular hairy. Bark is used in scabies. smooth. NS. C—lobes 4-5.-Aug. Country. in chronic bronchitis. removes "Vata". also used in chronic fevers. of 5. ovate. purifies blood (Ayurveda). westwards to Afghanistan. Coimbatore. reduces tumours. ophthalmia.—Zygophyllaceæ. the upper blue. t. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis.— ovoid. smooth. LOC. good for liver troubles. high. petioles deeply striate. small. :— H.—opposite. Atmamuli. L. Dusparsha. M. Maval. :—Madras State. vomiting. Ghats. Ind. long. typhoid. CHAR. LOC. W. Gujarat.—very variable in size and form sessile. Rajasthan. root fibrous. Upper Gangetic plains. emmenagogue. Kashaya. scarcely branched. Prabhodhini. pyramidal to the apex. :—Konkan. removes "Vata. Sk." asthma. Baluchistan. pale rose-coloured. Sd. spitting of blood. shining. 5-nerved. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. the middle the largest. Dhanavi.—Gentianaceæ. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. NS. FAM. fever. ellipsoid. in copious terminal cymes . CHAR. sessile. . :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Circars. leaflets linear. LOC. more or less glandular. toothache. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani).). Fl. Dhamaso . Mysore. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). elliptic or lanceolate. thirst. Udichirayat.— showy. Punjab. cooling. erysipelas. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. H. M. N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. quadrangular. HABITAT :—Pasture lands.

tumours. Bargat. LOC. L. liver and lungs . about 2 cm. :—Indigenous in S. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. refrigerant . Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. aphrodisiac. country and N. Kothun. Vat. FAM. Banian tree. heart diseases. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani).—coriaceous. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Malura. strengthening to gums . good for throat. :—E. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. NS. Kotha. Ghats. refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . high.. India. Goli. LOC. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Java. Belada.5 cm. Kapitha. Kavath. leucorrhoea. Bar. consumption. difficult to digest. shining above. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. common in the Tapi Valley. often cultivated. Kait. " Vata ". S. Bhringi. Vad. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. LOC. Fruit—sour . Vata. Fr.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Byala. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Self-sown. blood impurities. :— E. tonic to heart. Kathel. K. 10-20 X 5-12. Bahupada. often planted. K. Manmadha. Kavit. G. with spreading branches. female. alexipharmic. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Kapipriya. Bargad.—Rutaceæ. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. Kathinyaphala. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Balin. fruit and seeds. asthma. H. See—Timbers. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Leaves—very astringent. Kavitha. . astringent. Alada. Jatala. removes biliousness. ophthalmia. Sk. :—Cultivated all over the State. NS. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. M. COM. hiccup. with male.—Moraceæ. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. cordate or rounded base. Fruit Trees. cures cough. diam. Grahiphala. " Tridosha". M. Elephant or wood apple. Sk. Ceylon. M. acrid. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. useful in biliousness. Kanara. H. ovate to elliptic.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. dysentery. Dadhiphala. CHAR. Vad. COM. fatigue. Nyagrodha.— globose. Ala. Monkey fruit. Vadlo . Seeds—antidote to poison. Avaroha. binding diuretic. G. vomiting . thirst.

useful in "Vata". K. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. bruises. vomiting. pain in chest cures piles. in rheumatism and lumbago. NS. COM. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Anjura. seeds and milky juice. Grown scattered elsewhere. weakness. leprosy. ulcers. dysentery. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. gonorrhœa. diseases of head and blood. :—Baluchistan. PARTS USED :—Bark. liver and spleen diseases. hill ranges of S. Asia and Mediterranean. Fig. useful in piles. inflammations. See—Famine Plants. biliousness. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Root—tonic. leaves. Bijapur. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. Anjir. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. useful in "Kapha". Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. root-fibres. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. USES :—Fruit is emollient. LOC. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. W. biliousness. alexiteric. H.—Moraceæ. laxative. lithotriptic. nutritive. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. M. Simeyatu . Fibres. Sk. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. G. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. useful in inflammation . diuretic. Aerial root is styptic. ringworm. stimulates hair-growth. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). Cultivated in N. tonic. useful in syphilis. LOC. nose-diseases. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. India. erysipelas. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). lessens inflammations. :— E. vulnerary. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. useful in leucoderma. inflammation of liver (Yunani). Leaves are applied heated as poultice. leprosy (Ayurveda). Seeds are cooling and tonic. DISTR. maturant. Afghanistan. India. Anjir. Anjir. Milky Juice—expectorant. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. Kakodumbar. FICUS CARICA Linn. fever. W. vaginal complaints. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. boils and carbuncles. Sacred Plants. thirst. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. demulcent. Anjir. paralysis. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. LOC. . Milky juice— aphrodisiac. Dharwar.

leaves. fatigue. Fruit—astringent to bowels. useful in "Kapha". :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. fruit. given in leucorrhoea. G. planted all over. Leaves—astringent to bowels . leprosy. Vriksharaj. leaves and fruits. ground with onions. K. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. (Yunani). :—Widely spread throughout India. Sacred Plants. menorrhagia. bark. See—Timbers. Rumadi. bark. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. PARTS USED :—Root. Ragi. Yajnika. :—E. M. blood diseases. Pipers. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Pipal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Atti. Jari. PARTS USED :—Root. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. uterus . Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. H. DISTR. vulnerary. Umbro. LOC. Shuchidruma. useful. H. Sk. acrid. Ashwatha mara. K. Fruit— useful in dry cough. galactagogue. tonic. HABITAT :—Planted. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Pavitraka. diseases of kidney and spleen. LOC.—Moraceæ. Gular-Country fig. Sk. NS. good for bronchitis. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Peepal tree . leucorrhoea. Bark. Umar. Bark useful in asthma and piles. good for foul taste.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. styptic. :—Throughout the State near villages. Milk—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Pipli. burning sensation. FAM. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. in diseases of blood. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Gular. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. biliousness. Pipal. Arani. FAM. Ashvatha. Pippala. Bark is cooling. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Hemadugdha. :—E. cummin. DISTR. NS.—Moraceæ. Udumbara. . Demera. M. Pippala. G. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Bodhidruma. Umbar. vagina. biliousness. allays thirst. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. loss of voice. good for gravid uterus. Lalka. burning sensation. Pimpal. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. nose bleedings. COM. COM. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. ulcers. LOC. urinary discharges. latex. Umar.

Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. FAM. Khandesh. H. Ghats. Variali. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Gajale. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. H. gum. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. common in the Peninsula. Soupa. Satpura. NS. K. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. astringent in leucorrhoea. M. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Fennel. Country and N. cleans ulcers. Sk. and produces sterility in women. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Fodder Plants. fruit. . Tapaspriya. aphrodisiac. S. checks vomiting (Yunani). appetising and digestive. Akrani. W. Kanara Jungles. promotes granulations. Badishep. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. PARTS USED :—Root. Tambat. Swadukantaka. DISTR. good for lumbago. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Kankod . Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Burma. Shalina. K. Bilangra . Potika. LOC. Katar. M. Bhuripushpa. LOC. Bhakal. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Circars. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma.—Umbelliferæ. See—Timber. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Badisoppu. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. N. Variari. COM NS. Hunmunki.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. :— G. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. COM. Handi Kandai. Bhanber. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. See—Timbers. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Sacred Plants. Paker. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink.—Flacourtiaceæ. bark. Mullutari. heart diseases. seeds. Fruits are sweet. Sk. Finkel. SAPIDA Roxb. M. Shateya. Fruit—purgative. The juice is employed in hiccup. :—E. HABITAT :—Hills. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Hettarimullu. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. G. Root good for gout. upper Gangetic plain. FAM.

stomachic.—Guttiferæ. dark green. in headache. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. dysentery. DISTR. Atyamla. aphrodisiac. eye-diseases.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Leaves—improve eyesight. LOC. amenorrhœa. HABITAT :—Cultivated. furrows vittate. L. " Vata ". Oils. Sk. Amlabija. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. Wynaad. Fr. Ghats south of Bombay. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". high. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. leprosy (Ayurveda). demulcent and emollient. PARTS USED :—Roots. Coorg. carpophore 2-partite. leaves (rarely). . lessen inflammations. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. Mulgala. alexiteric. improves appetite and allays thirst. strengthen eyes (Yunani). :—W. Murjinhalli. USES :—used as stimulant. annual. wounds etc. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. biliousness. LOC. dysentery. yellow. thirst. spleen.— decompound. PARTS USED :—Bark. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. Ratambi. useful in diseases of chest. LOC. LOC. diuretic. Kokam. :—E. 0. laxative. G. galactagogue. Tittidika . stimulant. cardiotonic. useful in bleeding piles. See—Condiments and Spices. ridges prominent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. anthelmintic. Kokam . common in S. anthelmintic. Kokam .—in large umbels . kidney. aromatic and carminative. :—A tall glabrous. FL. cures "Tridosh". GARCINIA INDICA Chois. ultimate segments linear. tumours. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. (Mhaskar and Caius). cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Kanara. appetiser. Tintidika. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda).6-0. seeds-carminative. FAM. fissures of lips. difficult to digest. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. See—Timbers. USES :—Bark is astringent. causing constipation . often cultivated. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. Konkan and N. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. :—Endemic in W. It is much used as a nutritive. COM. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. cough and asthma. :—Apparently a native of S. H. Wild mangosteen. fever. fruit and seeds. burning sensation. Ghats. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. K. wounds. DISTR. leaves and seeds. NS. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms.9 m.—ellipsoid. bracts and bracteoles absent.

5x22. CHAR. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. COM. :—India. LOC. L. astringent to bowels. Hingu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. Fr. DISTR. PARTS USED:-Gum.—Rubiaceæ. Sk. FAM. Dikamari. about 1. LOC. :—E. lucida. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. Dikamali. first white then changing to yellow.—2.-subsessile. G. :—Common from Konkan southwards. Western Peninsula. lucida (Ayurveda).—Rubiaceæ. same as for G.5-3. Dekamari. Dikkamalli. NS. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. NS. elliptic-obovate. HABITAT :—Open situations. Gums and Resins. Jantuka. unarmed. Peninsula). The plant yields a gum Dikemali. DISTR. As sold in the bazar it is hard.. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . Cambi resin tree. Dakamali. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. oblong. See—Timbers.—Feb. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. H. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards .-sessile. high. LOC.8 m. shining. Kanara. oblong or ellipsoid. Burma. LOC. relieves pain of bronchitis. :—A deciduous shrub. Dikemali. common on laterite in southern parts of N. Pinda. COM. Northern ghats of Madras State. 1-3 together. 4. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. Suvirya. Fl. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. PARTS USED :—Gum. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. not fragrant.8 cm. C. buds resinous. M.-tubular. Bikke. -June. See—Gums and Resins. Fl. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. :—India (W. opaque. all dry districts of Madras State. t. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic.5 cm. long. . FAM.

-July-Oct. Tuber— astringent. given off from young tubers . fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. axillary . perianth segments reaching 6. :—Throughout tropical India.3 cm. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. scattered or opposite. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. abdominal pains.. Malay Peninsula. leprosy. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Kulhari. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). solitary. root-stock of arched. Indai. Cochin-China.5-3. anthelmintic. :—Herbaceous. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. expectorant. branching climber . linear oblong. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. laxative.5 X 15 X 2-4. M. changing colours from greenish yellow. Akkitang hall. In case of retained placenta. stems annual. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. :—G. Tropical Africa.—sessile. margins wavy. sometimes whorled. tall. Kalikari. Agnimukhi. alexiteric. Kalihari. itching. Karianag. FL. abortifacient. Sk. Kathari. Dudhio vachhonag. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side.—large. inflammations. leaves and flowers. orange. solid. linear-lanceolate. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. COM. Garbhapatani. NS. . filaments long spreading.—Liliaceæ. FAM. H. K. used to remove placenta from uterus. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed.. thirst. Sivasaktibalb . DISTR. t. 7. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant.2 cm.—capsule. CHAR. and crimson from blooming to fading. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. In Guinea. There are two varieties of the plant. scarlet. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. useful in chronic ulcers. acrid. L. heating. Linn. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. Languli.5 cm. Fr.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. bitter. Nangulika.. ovate lanceolate. LOC. Khadyanag. Fl. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. The former is supposed to be male. Huliyuguru. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Tuber. piles.

GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. useful in indigestion. Khandesh. :— Bengal. K. Nurma . Kumbudi. anæmia. Shivani.—Malvaceæ. thirst. ulcers. Mahabhadra. Bachanige. " Tridosha ". Var. H. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Sk.:—E. useful in "Vata". K. abdominal pains. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Flowers—astringent. Tree cotton. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Ceylon. useful in hallucinations. :—Throughout the State. COM. Karibatti. Deokapas. LOC. Shiwan. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. :—Throughout India. scalds etc. In the Konkan. stomachic. LOC. Gambari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Hanji. :—Throughout the State and about temples. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. tonic. consumption. LOC. See—Fibres. M. DISTR. See—Timbers. Devakapus. anthelmintic . aphrodisiac. made into paste. root is also stomachic and laxative. flowers and fruit. FAM. useful in fevers . Sind. Rajasthan and N. Karpasam. . thirst. Shiwan. DISTR. G. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Provinces. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. NS. Cashmere tree. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. FAM. Kashmari. Gupsi. leprosy. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. anasarca. fevers. White teak. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Philippines. scattered in monsoon forests. Oils. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. PARTS USED :—Root. W. Gumbhar. improves appetite . piles. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. indigestible. Sk. Shripani. :— E. promotes hair-growth. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. strangury. COM. burning sensation. Savan. flowers and seeds. catarrh of the bladder etc. leaves. laxative. urinary discharges. Shivan . HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Root taken with liquorice. the root.—Verbenaceæ. Devkapas. leaves. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. Malaya. Madhya Bharat. common on Satpuda. H. PARTS USED :—Root. alterative. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. gleet. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Gandhari. chronic cystitis. Gambhari. M. Fruit— diuretic. Coomb teak.

Roshana. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. M. poultice applied to burns' scalds.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn.. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Sk. Afghanistan. Country. (Yunani). Egypt. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Parapera. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. COM. laxative . fevers and consumption. Jana. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . F. fruits and seeds. fruit. Dhamin. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. preventing their access to wounds etc.Phalse. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. used in orchitis. LOC. Tadasala. Buttiyu-dippa. U. cure all ear-troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. analgesic. Kupas. K. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. G. Kapas . leaves. Karihariyale. sour. tonic. Kapus. aphrodisiac. W. Ripe fruit—sweet. :—G. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. cooling. scabies . tonic. Oils. S. Sk. Anagnika. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. Tula. bark. cures inflammations. East Tropical Africa. Parusha. fomentation for burning eyes . probably in N. demulcent. Gujarat and S. Cotton . good for throat . Seeds— ' galactagogue. NS. wild in Deccan. Sutrapuspha. Iran. Hatti. increase flow of urine. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. Arabia and Asia Minor. H. extensively cultivated. extensively in Gujarat. M. Leaves remove " Vata " . enrich blood. allay thirst. acrid. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. heart and blood disorders. :—E. See—Fibres. :—Cultivated in the State. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Mesapotamia. expectorant and aphrodisiac. restore consciousness. Arali. Badari. in hills near Poona. DISTR. NS. :—Sind. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. good for all kinds of inflammations. Rui. Karpas. H. Seeds are laxative. Phalsi. :— Cultivated in N. LOC. Rui. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. FAM. DISTR. A. LOC. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections..—Tiliaceæ. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Baluchistan. digestible. removes " Vata ". In India they are used to procure abortion.—Malvaceæ. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. K. in hypochondria. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Seeds—aphrodisiac. COM. leaf-juice good in dysentery. removes " Vata" and biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. Pharuah. Syria. expectorant. Mediterranean. M. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Province (Pakistan). FAM. Phalsa. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils.

Tanmani. :— E. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). G. Karnasphota. common in hedges in Dharwar district. LOC. Kanphodi. FAM. Ceylon. Kanara coast. C. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. lanceolate. corona of 5 processes . Sati talvani. helps removal of dead fetus.-May. Vishani. asthma. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. inflammations.— with thin marginal wing. :—A large woody climber. Fruit—sour. strengthens chest and heart. alexiteric. piles. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Caravella. L. :—Western Peninsula. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. good in heart-diseases. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. DISTR. COM. Bedki. Sk. much branched.—Capparidaceæ. Br. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Sannagerse. sweet. t. FL. Fl. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). yellow . cornea. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Fr. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda).—follicle. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. S. elliptic. relieves thirst and hiccup. Ugragandha. young stems densely pubescent. Gurmar. ovate. vitreous body) burning sensation. should not be eaten raw. tonic. Sanngera. Shrikala. :E. Tilparni. COM. Pandhari tilwan. leucoderma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Meshashingi. The ease of administration. Meshavalli. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Bastagandha. SK. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.— opposite. CHAR. Tropical Africa. M. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Small Indian ipecacuanha. cooling. anthelmintic. H. base rounded or cordate . Vakundi. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. stomachic. Kavali. usually single. LOC. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. K. G. LOC. the stomachic stimulant.— Apl. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. India. :—Throughout the State. FAM. Churota. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. NS.—in cymes . PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Mardashingi. bronchitis. Hulhul. NS. — Asclepiadaceæ. Arkapuspika. Mahabaleshwar and N. K. alterative. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Periploca of the woods. Adiyakharan. Mabli. biliousness. Hulhul. Merasingi. Root and bark used in strangury. ulcers. M. Sd. . acrid. Kabari. See—Fruit Trees. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). H. Karalia .— companulate .

8-9 cm. NS.2 m. gynophore 2-2. (Kirtikar and Basu). this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. removes "Vata". Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. NS.—muricate. :—A small deciduous shrub. white or blue. producing copious exudation. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. M.—in dense bracteate racemes. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. pedicels viscid hairy. LOC. Murudseng. :—M. L. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. elliptic-lanceolate. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. LOC. Sk. opposite. Kavargi. LOC. Marosi. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . :—Deccan. FAM. Gujarat. Kanara. DISTR. Fl. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. HABITAT:—Hills.—capsule.-Feb. China. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. DISTR. viscid.—Sterculiaceæ. 5-9 cm. K. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). S. Fr.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. t. elliptic-obovate. acute. leaflets subsessile. PARTS USED :—Root.—many. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. Murdasing. M. high. good in ascites. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. CHAR. :—An annual erect herb 0. pubescent.. long . Gidesa Jitasai. COM. Country. H.. L. :—G. sessile. pink . Edamuri.6—1. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Fl. Fl. margins crenate-dentate. hairy on the nerves beneath.—capsule. hairy. tapering at both ends. t.—petals 4 with long slender claws.—Oct. long.5-20 X 3.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. COM. earache. stem and branches hairy. C. vesicant. FAM. Mrigashringa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. Katraj Ghat. . hills in Supa Taluka. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. leaves and seeds. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . tumours. Jonkaphal Maraphali. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—3-5 foliate. stomachic . Fr. ulcers. Kewan. glabrous or pubescent above.5 cm. . Murudi. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.—rather rigid. ellipsoid . hills near Nagothana. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. Avartant. dark-brown . Sinhgad hills.12. Sd.—Rubiaceæ. stipules triangular. hairy. with divaricate herbaceous branches .—June. pain.

t. C.-biferous. Root useful in hemicrania. Upalsali. FAM. angular . "Kapha". bronchitis. L. "Vata' dysentery. leucorrhoea. Stem lessens inflammation. poisoning. bilabiate.—numerous. useful in piles. Deccan and S. antidiarrhœal. They are demulcent. cough. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. Magrabu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. low appetite. Sk. Sd. uterine complaints. Upalsari.—follicle of 5-6. diaphoretic. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). India. :—Upper Gangetie plain. thirst. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). Hindisalse. Kanara ghat forests. Fl. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. ovate orbicular. joint-pains. “tridosh". dark-green. :—Throughout the State. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. stems thickened at the nodes . PARTS USED :—Root. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. Root and stem—laxative. long. NS. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. H. Malaya. :— E. diuretic.5 X 5-10 cm. Dhaval kashtha. Hamadaberu . Burma. scabrous above. and leaves. epileptic fits. eye troubles. cures all skin-diseases. useful in gleet. demulcent. often variegated with white above. Konkan. asthma. LOC. Anantmula. tapering . K. Utpalashariva. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. purplish inside. Fl. syphilis. foul body odour.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. Kapurimathuri. G. PARTS USED :—Root.— very variable. blood diseases. . CHAR.Sd. common in hedges. HABITAT :—In hedges. astringent to bowels. astringent to bowels . lessens griping.—tubular. L. Indian sarsaparilla . stem. fevers. Country. obliquely cordate. See—Fibres.512. t — Aug. diarrhœa. Anantmula. mildly astringent. COM. LOC. asthma. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs.. Ceylon. Fr. LOC. bark and fruit.—throughout the greater part of the year.—Asclepiadaceæ. M. greenish outside. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. FL. Sugandhi-balli. irregularly crowded. good for brain. paralysis. DISTR. Durivel. urinary discharges. Fl. rat-bites. root-Stock woody . beaked. alexiteric. Fr. 7.-Dec. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. Br. spirally coiled. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. :—Large shrub or small tree. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani).— with silvery white coma .—follicle cylindric. anti-galactagogue. Australia and West Indies. M.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together.— in cymes in opposite axils.3 cm. DISTR. burning sensation. 5-6. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. red at first fading to lead colour. liver and kidney diseases .

:—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. pedicel jointed above the middle. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). piles. seminal weakness. COM. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. DISTR. etc. Fl. astringent. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. Jasum. :— E. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. flowers. urinary discharges. L. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. skindiseases. LOC. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. PARTS USED :—Root.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Fl. H. Shoe flower. . Fr. M. entire near the base. Jasuva. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. yellow.. glabrous. crimson. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. red. cooling. Aruna. magenta. remove burning of body. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Root roasted in plantain leaves. Jasut. See—Ornamental Plants. Root is valuable in coughs. K.—during most of the year. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—axillary. demulcent. It is said to purify blood. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. fevers. involucral bracts 5-7. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. Rudrapushpa. t. CHAR. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. and as early as 1864. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. cm.—no fruits produced in India. It is also diuretic. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . Sk. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. :—A perennial shrub. Raktapushpi. Jasavand. bright red. solitary.—short petioled. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). LOC. Native country probably China.5. syphilis and leucorrhoea. Dasanihu. G. tubular below. uterine and vaginal discharges. bark and petals are demulcent. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. irregularly serrate towards the top.—7. NS. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). leaves. petals thrice as long as the calyx. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Dasavala. Harivallaba.—Malvaceæ. C. FAM. useful in loss of appetite. Japapushpa. and mixed with ghee. tonic. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. diam. ovate or ovate lanceolate. Kempupundrika. In the Konkan. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn.

Fr. Sk.—axillary. tropics of the old world. Lal ambadi. HABITAT. CHAR. erect. Sd.—Malpighiaceæ.5 cm. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind.—capsule. Madhavi. uppermost petal broader. glabrous. entire glabrous. Konkan. (lower leaves sometimes entire).— solitary. Chandravalli. stem and branches purple. base cuneate. Kamuka. long. globose. K. FAM.—5-7. Madhavi. CHAR. on the margins. Madhavi. clawed. Atimukta. Kempupundrike. and adding a little salt. LOC.3-7. C. Patwa.—petals 5. Ceylon.5 cm. Kanara. NS. G. Vasantduti.—large.—purple with darker centres. 3-5 lobed. serrate. :—Cultivated. Ghats. Madmalati.lobes oblong. Madhumalati. elliptic-oblong. 3-winged. Pundi-bija or soppu. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Atimukta. M. Fibres. acuminate. Fr. ovoid. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. See—Vegetables. COM. hairy. long. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. Vasantduti. Lal ambadi. sedative and refrigerant. white. C. Adimurtte Adirganti. t. black-brown. mid-lobe the longest. Fl. often blotched with purple with darker centre. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. H. :—An annual. Madhalata. Deccan. :—E. Haladvel. young parts silky. LOC. . COM.—1-3. K. 1. 10-18 X 4. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. L. H. NS. Lal ambari.. :—Throughout the State. Vasanti. fragrant. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. orbicular. purple.2-2 cm. pepper. asafoetida and molasses. much used in curries. Madhavi. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient.-Mar. beaked. Rozelle. across. Malati. fringed. L. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. fruits and seeds. Fl. Sd. Red sorrel. M. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. involucral bracts 10. calyx fleshy.-Dec. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub.—Malvaceæ. covered with minute hairs . Kampti. Fl. :—G. Grows abundantly on the W. Ragotpiti.— Jany.—Oct. petioles silky.) FAM. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. purple. flowers. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. 5th petal yellow at the base.—coriaceous.—in erect racemes.

Pandhara Kuda. diarrhœa. Sd. Kumaon. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Karnatak.— in terminal corymbose cymes . vulnerary. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. hallucinations (Ayurveda). See—Ornamental Plants. bitter. Indrayana. FL. Hale. Kutaja. Karuindrayan. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. Flowers— acrid. asthma. biliousness. " Kapha". tonic. M. burning sensation. Dudhi. leprosy. Abu. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . vulnerary. t. Karohi. appetiser cure blood diseases. boils. cool the brain. Seeds—appetiser. urinary discharges. colic. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. leprosy. Andamans. remove "Tridosh". China.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Seeds—carminative. acrid. Fl. fevers. thirst.—follicles 20-48 cm. PROPERTIES. CHAR.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. Kaling. astringent to bowels cure pains.—10-20 X 5-11. Kuda. Thailand (Siam). FAM. Fr. :—Throughout the State. Kura. Burma. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. burning sensation. good in headache. Kuda. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Veppale. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. NS. good in erysipelas. insecticidal. thirst and inflammation.. LOC. LOC. Kodasige. cooling. Leavesastringent. biliousness. inodorous. cough. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). Kaduoindrajav. lumbago. diuresis (Yunani). Circars. skin and spleen diseases. G. C—tubular. aphrodisiac. acrid. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. often dotted with white spots. LOC. K.—Feb. wounds. Siwalik. good in chronic bronchitis. L. remove muscular pains . fatigue. cylindric. heating. Ceylon. anthelmintic. smoke good for piles. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. COM. Madras State.5 cm. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. bleeding piles. leucoderma . common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. lessens inflammations. given in chest affections. strengthens gums. Mt. H.. skin diseases. excessive menstrual flow. main nerves conspicuous . throat hairy inside. flowers and seeds. Hath. ulcers.-June. cause "Vata". :—E. cures dysentery. long. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. Conessi bark tree. branchlets drooping. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Kudsalu. DISTR. Assam. Kurchi tree. tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. leaves. N. Sk. Malay Peninsula. styptic. Bark—bitter. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. white. galactagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot.—Apocynaceæ. broadly ovate or elliptic. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Nepal. piles.

—Gramineæ. especially cod-liver oil. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. kurchine. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. fevers (Yunani). In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. . The grains contain vitamin B. Jawa. demulcent and expectorant. Satu. aphrodisiac. 1928). FAM. K. sweetish. Med. Java. Knowles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. nor astringent. causes constipation. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. H. Javegodhi. diarrhœa. Shaktu. anæmia. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. M. fattening. Aug. lowers the pulse. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Jav. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in fevers. Ind. LOC. appetiser. febrifuge. bronchitis. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. Germinated barley. Barley. They are also used after delivery. Tasteless. Ymvah. asthma. and kurchicine. Divya. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). stomachic. widely cultivated in temperate regions. pains in chest. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. —Cultivated chiefly in N. :—E. acrid. Jav. allays thirst.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Hayapriya. malt sugar and diastase. NS. They are astringent. India. (R. nor styptic. burns. useful in biliousness. COM. DISTR. useful in bronchitis. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. Sk. improves voice. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. dysentery and intestinal worms. headache. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. with radicle attached to it. Suj. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Seeds. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. See—Food Plants. Gaz. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. good for ulcers. G. biliousness. LOC. inflamed gums. Yava.

Amarachala. Betaga.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Panch Mahals in Gujarat. young parts brown pubescent. Ugragandha. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. more or less coriaceous.—Jany.5 cm. Phaldu.5-23 X 3. Doti.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.—Rubiaceæ. good for the throat. L. Kastel. C. white. K. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Gandele. Kanara evergreen forests. Kshiradru. . :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. Bhoswar. CHAR. Bhringamallika.—numerous. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Sd. t. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. LOC. tomentose. Bandaru. COM. globose or ovoid. :—G. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. size of small apple. Peninsula. Sk. pungent.—Bixaceæ. common in Travancore. DISTR. :—W. high. See—Oils. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. PARTS USED :—Seeds. camphor and lime-juice. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Country and Kanara.—Apl. bitter. broadly ovate.. For scald-head. Dondru. sulphur. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. S. Dondra. Malabar. Bhorsal. NS. Kadukavata. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Bihar. M. H.—solitary or in racemes. Bharnarasalya. Madhya Pradesh. flat. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. dioecious . COM. FL. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. FAM. NS.8-7. M. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. :—K. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. increases taste and appetite. acuminate.) FAM. 12. Kowti. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhanina. Niradivittulu. LOC. Common in N. Garudphala. Ghats. Sk. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Southern and Western India. M. Bhutabi. sometimes along river banks. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Garudphala. DISTR.—berry. Bhrijatuaka. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Fl.

HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Siamalata. Kalmisag. X 4 cm. acute. cylindric . L. hollow. Kalidudhi. In Indo-China. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Kalaka. Sariva. Nalichibhaji. CHAR. Fr. Ceylon. the powdered wood is used for herpes. Fl. K. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. M. Australia. elliptic oblong. upper constricted. t. The outer layer is tasteless. Fl. H. lobes obscure . aphrodisiac.—tube with narrow portion below.—follicle. S. Sd.— Nov. trichotomous cymes. Sk. glabrous above. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . M. Karmi.-Dec. Krishnasariva. Sk.8 cm. LOC.5 cm. Kalaghantika. prostrate. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. Nalanibhaji. COM. Fl. Gopini. M. Kalambika.—Nov. . Br.—in axillary and terminal. :—A large twining shrub . throat and tube dull purple .2 -7. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. cooling. FAM. DISTR. blood diseases. cordate or hastate. fever. :—Annual or biennial herb.—5-12. thick. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. CHAR. :—Throughout the State.-Apl. Kanara. Sd. biliousness.—capsule. Pechuli. Kantebhovari.—4-5-7 X 2-3. Bhadra. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Chandangopa. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. :—H.—Apocynaceæ. straight or slightly curved.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). very common in Gujarat. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. rooting at the nodes . Potuasaga.. See—Timbers.—4 or 2. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. C. NS. stems long. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Kanara. 10-15 cm. Shradhashaka. black with white scanty coma. :—Konkan. rusty pubescent. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). greenish white.—linear. LOC. Nadika. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. NS. :—G. middle portion much inflated. :—More or less throughout India. FAM. numerous .—1-5 flowered peduncles . Java. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. COM. t. Fr. Common in the evergreen forests of N. base rounded.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. ovoid . LOC. vomiting. " Vata ". C. Country. Fodder Plants. very slender. trailing on mud or floating. FL. cures " Kapha ". L. pubescent.—Convolvulaceæ. stalks and leaves. Karihambu. Gorwiballi. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge.5x 3.

DISTR. diuretic. Africa and Australia. useful in syphilis.—capsule. See—Gums and Resins. useful in leucoderma. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . :—Perennial. Fl. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. aphrodisiac.3 cm. enclosed in fleshy sepals. galactagogue. ovate-lanceolate. ovoid.—Convolvulaceæ. anthelmintic. stomachic. Africa. leprosy. Bhunichahragadde. liver complaints. Leaves enrich blood.-July-Sept. Carminative. carminative. (Ayurveda). leaves. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. Sk. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. entire. 4-valved. :—Throughout India. Bhumikushmanda. often broader than long. debility and want of digestive power. flowers (rarely). deeply palmately divided. Fr. being regarded as tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. COM. jaundice. L. M. (Yunani). 3. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. . glabrous. NS. Bilaikand . gonorrhœa and inflammation. lessens inflammation. indigestible. Flower causes " Vata ". to children in case of emaciation. H. LOC. tropical Asia. blood diseases. Swadu Vidarikand. (Yunani). bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. :— E. near sea coast. peduncle solitary axillary. pale. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. useful in fever. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. improves voice and complexion. Ceylon. Kanara sea coast. Nila-kumbala. twining. t. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). stem long. galactagogue. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. aphrodisiac. stimulant. 4-celled. thick. Australia in moist climate. Giant potato . PARTS USED :—Root.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. lobes 5-7. purple. Sd. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. root large.8—6. FAM. vomiting.—in. Root—heating. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. useful in leprosy. alterative. " Kapha " . long.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. tonic. Fl. appetiser. anthelmintic . America. cures biliousness. K. Bhuikohala. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. also useful in liver complaints. tropical Asia. dry. burning sensation. long. In Burma. CHAR. LOC. expectorant. demulcent and lactagogue.—10-15 cm. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. alterative. biliousness and fevers. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. biliousness.

subglobose or ovoid. S. NS.5 cm.—capsule. L. filiform. creeping and rooting at the nodes. long tubular funnel-shaped.—3. M.3-2. C. M. reniform or ovate-cordate.-Oct. Ceylon. COM. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Fl. G. CHAR. NS. Krishna—Shyama-bija. :—A herb . L. :—Western Peninsula. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. 3-celled. Africa. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. lobes ovate. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mirchai. fevers. in the Himalayas. broad. dries the phlegm. DISTR. Morning glory. Ganribij. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. anthelmintic.— yellow. Kalokumpo. bracts linear. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative.:—Throughout India. abdominal diseases. :—An annual herb. believed to be of American origin. ovate-cordate.—Sept. Fl. . stems many.8-5 cm. FAM.—capsule. Shyamala-bijak. Sk. bechic. Fr. M. clothed with long hairs. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. :—E. pains in joints. E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. Nilpushpa. Undirkani. Kaladanah.— 4-6. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. subglobose. surrounded by ciliate sepals. Fr. :—G. Vrishchikparni.5 cm. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.. Purgative. K.—Convolvulaceæ. Nilvel. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. blue tinged with pink. The plant contains a glucoside. H. cures inflammations. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. sparsely hairy. Undirkani.-5-12. :—Konkan. headache. Kaladana. glabrous . HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. Deccan. petioles hairy. stems twining. scabies and biliousness. carminative. tropical Africa.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. deeply three-Iobed. LOC. t. Sd. CHAR.—1.) FAM. LOC. useful in liver and spleen diseases. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Country. crenate. K. Musekani. H. leucoderma. COM. diseases of head.—dark chestnut coloured . LOC. S. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). diam.—Convolvulaceæ. Indian jalap. axillary. Sd. DISTR.

much branched. urethral discharges. Fl. globose. pedicels thickened upwards. enclosed in enlarged sepals . rarely slightly lobed. bechic. long. laxative. sometimes cultivated. fleshy. Fr. Malay Islands. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Nandi. purgative. PARTS USED :—Root. brain diseases. muscular pains. Sk. white variety is a mild cathartic. laxative. leucoderma. . K. Nashotar. LOC. useful in diseases of kidney. fevers. 3. Nishoth. L. cooling. paralysis. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. Nahatara. Philippines. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. :—Throughout India. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. paralysis. DISTR. anæmia. Pithori. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. fistula.—Convolvulaceæ. root long. useful in bilious tremors of body. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. Root with bark should be used. Root— bitter.—Oct. Turbith root. t. expectorant. :— E. anthelmintic. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). It is also alterative. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. antipyretic. Kanaka. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. useful in spleen enlargement. Mauritius. applied in diseases of eye and gums. M. ovate or oblong. tropical Africa and America. bladder. mucronate. Nishottara. wounds. useful in bilious fevers.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. Indian rhubarb. like others of the genus . H. HABITAT :—Wild . Br. NS. Ceylon. also in the Konkan and N. bracts large. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. burning sensation and intoxication. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. pungent. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). LOC. angled and winged. twining and twisted together. pains of chest and joints. strangury.—white. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. COM. Fl. Common in southern Gujarat. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). often pinkish. False-Indian jalap. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. LOC.—5-10 X 1. removes bad humours. heart and abdomen. inflammations. bronchitis. Rechani. good in pain.—capsule.-Jany. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. Triputi.. stems very long.—in few flowered cymes. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. CHAR. useful in loss of consciousness. Kalaparni.3-7 cm. inflammations and abdominal diseases .8-5 cm. good for weakness. Trivrit. when used alone . lungs. C. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. base cordate or truncate . uterus. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). acrid. carminative. G.

Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. Priyanvada. 3.—tubular. M.9 m. :—A large subscandent shrub. :—Bombay southwards . Jajimalle. very slender . Jai. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. stipules with a long rigid point. proximal petiolulate.3 coriaceous.—Oleaceæ. Chambali. Fl. L. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. white. LOC.—globose. COM NS. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. NS. purple when ripe. C. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. CHAR. Flame of the woods . 5-12. Sk. oblong.—opposite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. very common in Konkan and N. distal pair confluent with the terminal. M. of stems and roots. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. obtuse . 5-10 X 3. size of a pea. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. L. :—E. G. :—Cultivated throughout India. DISTR.8 cm. Ajjige. Bakali. Surabhigandha. leaflets 7-11. Guddedasal. sessile. t. imparipinnate. See—Ornamental Plants. fleshy. lobes 4 (rarely).—throughout the year. oblong.—July-Sept. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State.2-6. pale when dry.—ripe carpels 2. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. Anemallige. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. FL—numerous. Fr. stipules . FAM.—3. Parali. terminal rather larger. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. smooth. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. LOC. wild. petiole and rachis margined. often tinged with pink outside. COM.— Rubiaceæ. pale when dry. FAM. sessile. Ceylon. K. Bandhuka. coriaceous.2-6. Kisukare. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. CHAR.5 cm. Raktaka. intermediate sessile . bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Chambeli. . obtuse. Fl. :—E. Pendgul.—opposite. Fr. t... Pankul. HABITAT :—Cultivated . H. across. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. Sk. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast.3 cm. Jati. DISTR. high. Fl. K. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Chambeli. :—Western Peninsula. also along river banks. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. Kepala. tube long.

Arabian Lily. paralysis. M. Mogara. entire. Plant—deobstruent. Leaves are also used in toothache. aphthae. Fl.—more or less throughout the year . t. ear. biliousness. LOC. K. black. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. aphrodisiac.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. scarcely climbing. Flowers—tonic. :—Cultivated throughout India. See—Ornamental Plants. Root—purgative. Flower has bitter taste . very fragrant. anthelmintic. diuretic. G. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. Pramodini.—ripe-carpels 1-2. it is used in cases of insanity. Fl. Mogro. caries of teeth. biliousness (Ayurveda). eyes and ear. Mogra. cures headache. COM NS.—Oleaceæ. soporific. brain tonic . expectorant. intoxicating. :—E. Iravantige. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. Banmallika. Sambac. Oil—lessens inflammations. leprosy. flowers and oil. emmenagogue. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in stomatitis. FAM. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. rheumatism. CHAR. alexiteric. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. otorrhoea. stomatitis. vulnerary. diseases of mouth. emetic. head. base rounded or subcordate. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. LOC. cures "Tridosh" biliousness.—opposite. and for scabies (Yunani). The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. Ananga-mallika. Vanchandrika. abundant in April-May. Mallige. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. . In Goa. alexiteric. variable in shape. useful in diseases of eye. Fr. Chamba. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil.—white. L. softens skin. :—A sub-erect shrub. headache and weak eyes. good in asthma. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. allays fevers . the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. given in blood diseases. suppurative. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . membranous. Motia. teeth. surrounded by calyx-teeth. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The plant contains an alkaloid. Navamallika. LOC. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. subglobose. ulcers. DISTR. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. mouth and skin. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). in the tropics of both the hemispheres. good for pains in joints and ear. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. alexiteric. heating. tonic to brain. Tuscan jasmine.

Fr. thirst. PARTS USED :—Wood. Coral plant. FAM. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo.—Euphorbiaceæ. garden shrub . LOC. COM. Sd. 1. CHAR.8 cm. LOC. 7. Fl. abdominal complaints. corolla lobes 5. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Vilayati haralu. fistula. Simeavadala. :—Native of tropical America. COM.— ovoid. CHAR:—A handsome. Fl. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. long. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. broadly ovate. heartdiseases (Ayurveda).—orbicular. Ratanjot.5 cm. and also promotes healing. L. Barbados Physic nut. :—E. long-petioled. Virechani. DISTR. cordate. fruits and seeds.— alternate. . black.—monœcious. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. biliousness. FAM.—E.5-12. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. M. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock).MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. French or Small physic nut. Jangali erandi. male flowers.—capsule. subfleshy. Seeds contain active principle curcin. anaemia. Mogali—Ran-erand. Akhuparnika. useful in chronic dysentery. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. Jangali—Pahari erand. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. have suppurative effect. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. longer than calyx. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. multifid. stipules capillary. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Sutashreni. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. 3-lobed. NS. 10-15 X 7. when applied to boils. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. Fr. across..—Euphorbiaceæ. large. The acrid. G. villous within. Bhadradanti. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. herpes.5 mm. dull brownish black. coral-red. Sk. yellow. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. Sk. 7.—in flat-topped cymes. urinary discharges. disk of female flower urceolate. Dundigu. juice sticky opalescent. NS. H. The seeds act as drastic purgative. Jyotishka. diam. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu.5-12.—ovoid oblong. leaves. Kananerand. " Tridosha". L.5 cm. K. K.

Kala adulsa. " Vata ' and "Pitta". America. wild in Tenasserim. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. often met with in Bengal. LOC.—white spotted.5 cm. DISTR. In Cambodia. LOC. wounds. Nilmanjari.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. skin-diseases. fattening tonic . HABITAT :—Shady positions. vaginal discharges. hot. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). heating. useful in bronchitis. Fr. Seed— oleaginous. fevers. in interrupted spikes. LOC. Karambal. Bakas. all over the State. dry . dyspepsia. enlarged spleen. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . COM. K. Sk. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. purgative. :—Bomb. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. LOC. branches subterete with raised lines. Kalmashi.2 m. 5-12. 7.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. long. DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. leaves. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. Fl. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. NS. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. purple within. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. clavate glabrous. . L.—Ghati pitpapda. Nilinirgandi. FAM. CHAR. aphrodisiac. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. FAM. Shindhuka. tympanitis. Leaves are used in scabies. :—H. NS. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Nachukaddi. rheumatism and dysentery. causes " Kapha ". latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm.—capsule. bitter.5 cm. Bhutakeshi. inflammations. high . In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice.6-1.—Acanthaceæ.—Acanthaceæ. pains.5-12. Karinchki. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. native of N. :—A native of China. M. M. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. COM. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. Krishna-nirgundi.

good in spleen diseases. South Konkan. removes indigestion. lower 3-lobed . Fl. M. 6. purifies blood in skin diseases. Sugandhavachai. Travancore. t. fragrant. Tubers yield an essential oil. increases " Vata ". Fl.5-9 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. :—More or less throughout India. enriches blood.—in cylindric terminal spikes.—612 from the centre of the plant. Chandramulika. upper lip notched. urinary discharges. stomachic.:—Stemless herb. diaphoretic. Chandramala.3-12. gives lustre to eyes. Kachri.—capsule. softly pubescent. aromatic. Australia. Konkan. thirst. (Yunani). pure-white. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Malaya. DISTR. :— H. root-stock tuberous. LOC. COM. Ceylon. NS. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). Western Ghats . . Cultivated in gardens. teeth.5 X 4. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. K.-Mar. deep green. Deccan. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). Plant diuretic. fever. elliptic. Fl. strengthens lungs. lying flat on the ground. tired feeling.— June-July. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. expectorant. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . burning of body. Maval in the Deccan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Konkan. spreading horizontally. :—Western Peninsula. tube funnel-shaped . constipating . It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling.—Oct. DISTR. Fl. Madras State. Malay Islands. C. wandering of mind.—2.—Scitaminaceæ. constricted between the seeds . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. PARTS USED :—Tubers. vomiting. pale violet pink.—finely tuberculate. FAM.—lobes lanceolate. biliousness. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. t. LOC. stops vomiting. Panchgani. Sd. LOC. round. oblong shortly pointed. fugacious. oval.. ovate or lanceolate. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. P. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. :—N. Kachchura . diuretic. CHAR. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. thin. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR.. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Kapurkachri.—2-lipped.—variable. intoxication. Sk. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. petioles channelled. obtuse at both ends. L.

5-10 cm. LOC. diam. Bhuchampaka. :—Stemless plant.. margins undulate. COM. Fl.—Scitaminaceæ. Lauka. furrowed. thick. :—Konkan. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. rootstock reaching 5 cm. very poisonous .—narrowly oblong. K. FAM.5 cm. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhuichampo . Tubers yield an essential oil. Cochin. Fl. remedy for itch. Bottle-gourd. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—An aquatic herb. G. Ceylon.8-5 cm. HABITAT :—Marshy places. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Alkaddu. elliptic-oblong. t. Kanara. Country. M. L. petiole as long as blade.-Apl. S.. L.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. yellow.5 X 5-12. Coorg. spathe 7.. t. Danta-bija. annulate . Dudhi. promotes suppuration.—Aroideæ. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Katutumbi. of various shades of purple and white. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. Dudio Tumbada. simple. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. Kadu bhopala.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. CHAR. . USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. K. Fr.— sweetly fragrant. Calabash. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. creeping. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. H. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . The whole plant. tubular below. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Bhuichapha. :—Mysore. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.— inflorescence. NS. LOC. CHAR. —Feb. NS. Nelasampige . DISTR. used in the form of poultice. Travancore.-Mar. :—E. H. entire. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Malay Islands. NS. Vatsanabhi. M. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. FAM. Tumbaka. COM. N.—15-37. semicylindric. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. crowded in a globose bead . M. anthers crowded. DISTR.5-23 cm. Dudhya bhopala. :—M. FAM. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. Bhuichampa . Sk.—globose 3. in many cycles. Halagumbala. Kaddu. :— G. COM. inflorescence of many ovaries.. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. midrib very stout. Labuka. coriaceous. Fl. oblong. female cylindric.—30X7. Sk..

Bark and leaves are purgative. China. Ornamental Plants. :—H. In the Andamans. vulnerary. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. cures leucorrhoea. Bandhara. earache. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. wholesome to fœtus. Arjuna. diuretic. cause haemoptysis. leaves. improves taste. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. fruits and seeds. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. flatulence. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. See—Vegetables. pains (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. refrigerant and anti-bilious. ulcers. antipyretic. bark. cures asthma. Challa. LOC. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. See—Timbers. Sk. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. Tarul. . Seeds emetic (Yunani). fever. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. lessens inflammations. DISTR. brain-tonic. earache. Taman. emetic. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. in many cases only cultivated. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. wild (rarely). aphrodisiac. laxative. Ceylon. DISTR. anti-bilious. styptic. Konkan Ghats. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. Assam. anti-periodic. increases "Vata". Malaya. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. dry cough. LOC. cures blood diseases. inflammations. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . muscular pains. NS. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. COM. LOC:—North Kanara and S. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. leaves. "Vata". flowers. Fruit good in bronchitis. seeds are narcotic. Flowers cooling. Arjuna. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. USES :— Leaves are purgative. oleaginous. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. Nirbendeka: M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. bitter. scalding of urine. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS-USED :—Root. bronchitis. fruits and seeds.) FAM. fattening. piles. There are two varieties. Seeds—good for hot constitution. cooling. causes bronchitis. LOC. sweet. cardiac and general tonic. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . bitter variety is diuretic. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. Holematti. :—Western Peninsula.—Lythraceæ. K. alexiteric.

COM. Basu). t.—opposite or scattered. Tree mignonette. :—E. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. K. :—Konkan southwards. yellow.. oblong lanceolate.—Dec-May. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. DISTR. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Henna plant. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. D. burning. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. Ragangi. :—E. DISTR. S. Country. Chickling—White vetch. Latri. FAM. but dangerous cathartic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. (Ayurveda). Kukurgal. Madaranga. FAM. common on the Supa Ghats. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. NS. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. Khesari. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. M. Fr. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Nakharanjaka. dense terminal heads 2. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Thymelaeaceæ. Belgaum hills . PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. M. Grains contain vitamin A. Mehndi.—ellipsoid-oblong. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. pain.5-3. Wooly-headed gnidia. K. Mukute. Triputi. N. pointed. cooling. Rametha. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. heart-troubles. (B. Gorantha. LOC. Sk. glabrous above. Kanara. tonic.. causes much flatulence. diam. CHAR. improves taste. enclosed in the perianth . :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. Yavaneshta. L. Rami. Medika. G.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene.—in erect. piles and wandering of the mind. lobes 4. :—A much branched large shrub. silky beneath.5 cm. Peninsula—Ceylon. 5-7. Medi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. Lang. COM. LOC. bark mottled. swellings etc. Lakh. perianth-tube densely silky villous . NS. inflammation. Fl. G. The bark is used to poison fish. . common at Mahabaleshwar. Kassar. lameness. FAM. Sandika. Fl. :—E. Deccan hills. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn.8 cm. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. Mendi. :—W. M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sk. subsessile. M. NS. oblong flat.—Lythraceæ.5 X 2-2. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. See—Food Plants.

Masur. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. The oil and essence keep the body cool. lateral branches 4-gonous. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. COM. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. expectorant. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula.—angular. HABITAT:—Cultivated. skin diseases . mucronate. Sk.—opposite. seeds. Lentil. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata".MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. globose. Belgaum and Poona districts. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. cure strangury tumours. DISTR. Masuridal. Massur. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. syphilitic sores. scabies. veined outside. Asia. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. :—Grown in Nasik. planted as hedge. Masur. Ragadali. stomatitis. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. many. cure leucoderma. L. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. Fr. fragrant. allay burning sensation. Sura. & Gib. Sd. enriches blood. DISTR. Chanangi. favours hair-growth. white or rose coloured . pyramidal and panicled cymes. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea.—Apl-July. indigenous in S. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . Fl. bronchitis. PROPERTIES. Gabholika. Gurubija. vulnerary. ophthalmia. M. :—E. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. FAM. lumbago. dysentery. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast.—capsule. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. NS. useful. useful in headache. H. supported by persistent calyx. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. See—Dyes. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. t. E. diseases of spleen. amenorrhœa. Flowers are refrigerant. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). in diseases of heart and of . boils. improve appetite. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. Europe and in temperate W. Fl. ulcers. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . diuretic. K. Leaves—bitter. Masura. flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. G.—in terminal. truncate. finger nails and hair. often ending in spinous point.). Iran and Baluchistan. cure insanity (Ayurveda). wild in Arabia. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Ceylon. diuretic.

Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. eye diseases (Ayurveda). diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Raktabija. good in inflammations. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). white. Grains contain vitamins A and B. Chavnsar. COM. cures dysentery . and muscular pains. rheumatism. the lower petiolate. . K. tonic.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. leaves and seeds. C—petals 2-4 or 0. Hot and dry. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. diuretic. very likely indigenous in W. bitter. Ashalika. upper sessile. HABITAT :—Cultivated. See-Food Plants. Chandrika. good for pain in abdomen. Hurfi. Garden cress . USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. Allibija. H. LOC. Sk. bronchitis. M. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). often with linear segments . Halim . pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. :—Cultivated throughout India. Leaves are used as pot-herb. stomatitis . NS. bronchitis. See—Vegetables. They contain vitamin B. G. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. CHAR. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac . Ahaliva. useful in diseases of chest. bechic. chest complaints. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. LOC.—Cruciferæ. LOC. Halim. Kurutige. affections of spleen.—small. FAM. :—E. Fl. tonic. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. Chandrashura. laxative. Seeds contain fatty oil. aperient. L. blood and skin diseases. Seeds—indigestible. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew).—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Suvasura. galactagogue. Asia. :—An erect glabrous annual.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). tumours and injuries. enrich blood. Asahio. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Fr. The covering is styptic and astringent. constipating.

LOC. bronchitis.—Lauraceæ. M. "Kapha".—crowded at the ends of branches. black. perianth lobes wanting. M. lead to impotency. Linseed. Medini. L. urinary discharges . Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. See—Oils. NS. Alshi. CHAR. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. cure leprosy. Country. hot. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood.— globose. LOC. 7. Alsi. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. Fl. bad for eyesight. good for cough and kidney troubles. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). glossy dark-green above. bark somewhat corky. boils. Fr. Garbijaur. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. K. Maidalakadi. aphrodisiac. branchlets densely tomentose. t. Sedhavi.—May-July. PARTS USED :—Bark. remove "Vata". causes loss of appetite. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Seeds—mucilaginous. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. yellowish. Fibres. burnt bark styptic and healing. G. Alashi. Haimwati. 8-12 together in heads. Malina. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). 10-25 X 5-10 cm. back-ache. used in consumption. dysentery. :—E. flowers. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. heal ulcers. diam. native country probably Egypt. galactagogue. usually alternate. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. Alsi. remove biliousness. NS.. Sk. Alashi. pale beneath. Fl. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India. urinary complaints. diuretic. LOC. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Common flax. The plant contains glucoside linamarin.. M. gouty and rheumatic swellings. COM. colds and throat complaints. emmenagogue. supported by the thickened pedicel. Kanara.—Linaceæ. Madagandha.:—E. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. tonic. Tisi. FAM. H. Alasi. Tailottama.:—A small evergreen tree. Seeds contain vitamin A. "Pitta". Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). FAM. Maidelakri.5 mm. H. lenticellate. base narrowed. COM. aphrodisiac . Sk. Common tallow laurel. . HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. inflammations. Jivanika. Javas . Roasted seeds are astringent. leaves. seeds and oil. hard to digest. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas.

many. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . 2.2-3 m.—Lobeliaceæ.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. K. Sd. long. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". stem stout. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. SK. lobes linear. Ridge gourd. Jhinga. fever. Ranturai. H. It acts as anodyne. Devnal. hollow. high. nearly sessile. subglobose. Wild tobacco. pains in joints. stomachic.9 cm. Divali.5-3. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. white. diuretic. Katukoshataki. Dhaval. fruits and seeds. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. bitter. heating. Mrityupushpa. light green. Malay Islands. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Kalahogesoppu. Jalini. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. burning sensation. leprosy (Ayurveda). the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts.—. bark. lower much longer. t. LOC. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. Sk. midrib white. Root—astringent.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. G. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. :—E. Nal. acrid. aphrodisiac. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Ghontali.100 m. tonic. Sthulanala.—Nov. paralysis. strangury.-Mar. diseases of blood. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. useful in inflammations. G. "vata". NS. FAM. cure cough. aphrodisiac. galactagogue. Leaves are mucilaginous. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Nali. lanceolate. Deccan and S. Country.—alternate.—Cucurbitaceæ. opening by 2 valves. heart. burning sensation. Kadudodka. Dhamana. LOC. throat troubles. Bibhishana. M. :—Konkan. 1. Kahire. overheated brains. erysipelas (Ayurveda). spleen diseases. long. CHAR. L. Narttaka. leaves. branched upwards. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. C—2-lipped. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. very small. Karvituri. Ceylon. M. 3 usually connate throughout . Fr. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. M.—capsule. bronchitis. vagina. COM. uterus. Fl. . useful in biliousness. finely serrulate. COM. consumption. AMARA Clarke. expectorant. aphrodisiac. LOC. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Kandele. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . H. biliousness. all oblong. PARTS USED :—Root. Australia. NS. Devanala. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. thirst. yellowish brown . Narsala.—numerous. DISTR. :—E. FAM. much curved.

) FAM. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). cures urinary discharges. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. Bengal to the W. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). piles. tuberculous glands. 10-ribbed. at length scabrid. 5-10 cm. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Madhusrava. tonic to intestines. DISTR. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). at first whitish and softly villous. DISTR.—small.—monœcious. :—Throughout India. H. . The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. asthma.53. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes.8 cm. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. diuretic. solitary in the same axil as males. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. tumours.. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb.:—A large climber. Butter tree. Gudapushpa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. cures "Vata". USES. leucoderma. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. K. ascites. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. Fruit cures fever. Mahua tree. cough. base cordate. palmate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. COM. Mahura. digestible. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. bitter. "Kapha". hydrogogue. Mowda. L. asthma. LOC. acrid. laxative. jaundice. t. uterine and vaginal tumours . Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Doddippa. C. liver complaints.—obovoid. stems 5-angled. Mowa. carminative. fruit and seeds.—Sept. W. bitter. Mhowra. biliousness. Root-bark is abortifacient. leaves. especially in western Peninsula. Moha. Madhya Pradesh. useful in rat-bite.—Sapotaceæ. females. 5-7 lobed. tonic and diuretic. Fl. LOC. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). :—E. Fl. tendrils usually 3-fid. Ceylon. Pokka. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. NS. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. Fr. Kanara (rare) . anæmia. PARTS USED :—Bark. thrives in Deccan trap. inflammations.—petals yellow with green veins . :—Plant is bitter. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Madhuka. Burma. Mahua. flowers and fruits. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. thick. alexiteric. obtusely conical at both ends.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Mahuda. M. Hunage. long and about 2. recommended in splenic enlargement. also in Konkan and N. pale green. Mahula. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. G. cathartic. LOC. haemorrhoids and leprosy. bronchitis. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. piles.

Karnatic. FAM. galactagogue. LOC. LOC. bronchitis. :—Western peninsula. Flowers—oleaginous. often planted. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. causes "Kapha". PARTS USED :—Bark. NS. aphrodisiac. . Oils. USES :—Astringent and emollient. Mysore. Kampillaka. and also a remedy for itch. :—E.—Euphorbiaceæ. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. carminative. anthelmintic. G. Honey tree. and appetiser (Sushruta). Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. leprosy. Kapilo. cures blood diseases.—Sapotaceæ. G. India . Oil is good for skin-diseases. cooling. NS. H. COM. tonic and nutritive. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Mohache jhad. burning sensation. Kesarimavu. Liquors. tonic. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Fruit-tonic . astringent. Huli. and Upper Burma. and Kanara. fatigue . DISTR. There is a trace of alkaloid. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect.. aphrodisiac.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Moha. Ceylon. H. See—Timbers. ulcers. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. fattening. Kamala. cures biliousness. K. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Mohwa. Famine Plants. M. flowers act as a mild purgative. Mahuda. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Movanuhjad. See—Timbers. Hullichillu. Sk. Mahuva of S. Movaro. M. :—-E. Kapila. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Mehua. heals wounds . Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). flowers and oil. Madhuka. Kapila. consumption. COM. expectorant. Oils. good in heart diseases. :—Konkan. Kambhal Raini. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Sk. Ippe. Flower—sweet.) FAM. Monkey-face tree. Shendri. thirst. K. used in fractures. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. fixed oil and a spirit. yields two important products. Oil—emollient (Yunani). Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin.

Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. Kanara. Gum . Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. sour. M. "Pitta". In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. urinary discharges. cure leucorrhoea. cultivated throughout the State. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. tonic. Am. stomachic. Bhutan. good in heart trouble. enriches blood. purgative. Ambo. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). spleen. good in cough. DISTR. dysentery. Amra. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. thirst. Rasala. fruits and seeds. Fruit—heating. beautifies complexion. tonic to body. in "Tridosh". liver. good in dysentery. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. detergent. bronchitis. Sind. astringent to bowels. wild and cultivated. dispels langour and burning of body. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. diuretic. anthelmintic. NS. cause flatulence and constipation. fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. hiccup. flowers. improves complexion. vulnerary. purgative. Dyes. :—Tropical Himalayas. chronic dysentery and gleet. carminative. Burma. :—Throughout tropical India. Bihar. "Kapha". LOC. laxative. piles. vomiting. cooling. Sk. :—-Throughout the State. Introduced. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Amri. FAM. Mavu. maturant. diseases of abdomen. Khasia Hills. clears brain. heals ulcers. :—E. ulcers. cooling. COM. lessen intestinal pains. China. LOC. Mavin-mara. aphrodisiac. stone in bladder. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. sweet. Kamarasa. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills).MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC.—Anacardiaceæ. styptic. DISTR. H. Ghats and the Satpudas. wounds. leaves. useful in skin-diseases. K. See—Timbers. leaves. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. Sikkim. alexiteric. Seeds-astringent to bowels. it exudes a pink coloured gum. Mango tree. Astringent. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. G. biliousness. anthelmintic. Ceylon. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). Sahakara. cure "Vata". improves cough. used in chronic diarrhœa. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). LOC. Australia. a good collyrium (Yunani). vaginal troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. liver pain. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. tumours. removes bad smell from mouth. useful in bronchitis. Amba. appetiser. improve taste and appetite. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Chuta. throat troubles. bad blood. Cuckoo's Joy. styptic. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. vermifuge and. Malay Islands.

burning sensation. leucoderma. NS. cooling. antipyretic. Nimba.—rotate with broad lobes. Nim or Margosa tree. Suparnika. Ambri. USES. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. 7. :—Deccan and S. COM. M. astringent to bowels. It is also anthelmintic. Assam. Ripe fruit is laxative. :—-E. useful in diseases of eye. Nimla. Khandodi. Ceylon. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Country. stops nasal bleeding. Bevu. Sk.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. DISTR.) FAM. flattened.. overlapping to the right. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. rugosely striate. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Fl. H.3-15 X 4. few glands above the petiole cordate . Fr. good for dyspepsia.—6. fleshy. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke.5-11. Limbra. pale yellowish brown.—Asclepiadaceæ. Dodi. Nim. all plains districts of Madras State. CHAR. urinary discharges. margined. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. Dugdhike . See—Timbers. piles. Juss. older branches ash coloured. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Paribhadraka. Hari. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. NS. Juice of kernel. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Nakchhikni. . cures "Vata". Hemajyoti-valli. K. Java. corona lobes large. coma copious . Kadulimb. Sk. green or yellowish green. tumours. Nimbaka. t. M. if snuffed. LOC. inflammations. C. G. LOC. COM. with lenticels and black dots. asthma. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. rat-bite (Ayurveda). MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Madhumalati. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic.5-10 cm.5 cm.) FAM. L. Sd. Kharkhodi. alexiteric. Limbada. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.—many. useful in bleeding piles. K. Balant nimba. long. biliousness. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. :—G. Harandori. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. M.—broadly ovate.—follicles. H.—Meliaceæ. :—A large twining shrub. :—Bengal.—Apl.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. Fruit Trees. broadly ovate or suborbicular. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. Fl. Nimba. Confection made from ripe mango juice. aphrodisiac.

stimulant and stomachic. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. Sk. astringent. anthelmintic. insecticidal. PARTS USED :—Root." vomiting. good for leprosy. alexiteric. boils. general debility. swollen glands. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. COM. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. bruises.. LOC. "pittadosh. fatigue. relieves "Kapha". in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. bark. flowers. M. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. fever. sprains. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. convalescence. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. cures ulcers and inflammations . The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. it is a general vermifuge. FAM. tumours. burning sensation near heart. :—E. lessens inflammation. blood complaints. maturant. piles. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . anthelmintic. toothache. asthma. LOC. Small melilot. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. skin diseases. Oils. fruits and seeds. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . H. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. cough. . antiperiodic. bad taste in the mouth. leaves. rheumatism . useful in consumption (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. tonic. valuable in consumption. urinary discharges. DISTR. Ranmethi. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. maturant. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. refrigerant. good in ophthalmia. Tonic. earache. See—Timbers. piles. stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. chronic leprosy. biliousness. expectorant. NS. and loss of appetite. thirst. The flowers are stimulant. for unhealthy ulcers. tonic and antiperiodic. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles .—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). leprosy. pectoral. Vanmethika. useful in syphilitic sores. resolvant. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. leucoderma. Banmethi. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. lumbago. carminative.

given as a gruel (Murray). glabrous or slightly hairy. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. oblong-ellipsoid. young parts white-hairy. Agamaki. LOC. FAM. S. Corn-March mint. Fr. scabrid. Country and Gujarat. It has expectorant properties to some extent. L. NS. 30-45 cm. Iran. C. oblanceolate. M. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. L. Bilari.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS. in spicate close racemes. Pudinah. tapering at both ends. deltoid-ovate entire. brown. leaflets toothed. especially in strained back. HABITAT :—In hedges. CHAR. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. :—Western Peninsula. very hispid . base cordate. LOC. females sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. truncate at the apex. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. Malaya and Africa. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. Europe. rounded.—one. Afghanistan.—small. Fr. Fl. Externally used as a fomentation. Chatinmaragu. finally red. FAM. male fascicled on short peduncles. at first green and variegated with yellow. G. slightly echinulate. "Sikkim. COM. t. glabrous. Seeds in decoction are sudorific.—monœcious .—Labiatæ. COM. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. ellipsoid. Pudina. :—H. introduced into many other regions. Fl. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). lobes dentate or serrate . PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds.—pale yellow. DISTR. M. . :—An erect annual herb. high. M. Ceylon. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Khasia..—pod. standard exceeding the wings and keel.—size of a pea.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. DISTR. Fl. poultice or plaster for swellings. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. north Bengal.— Jany. tendrils simple. of terminal rather long. leaves and seeds. stem angular.—3-foliate. Sd. :—E. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. :—India (tropical zone). Assam. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. :—Common in Deccan.—variable in size. Pudina. H. also in S. Ghugri.

and stimulant. L. Fr. Andamans. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. China.-narrowed below. K. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. hairy. stem short. . Country. :—Western Himalayas. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. FAM. USES :—Root. sweats. Bengal. Himalayas. diuretic. NS. toothed. :—A perennial erect herb . Ceylon. Carminative. dry. Assam Iron-wood. digestive. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. flowers and fruits. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. MESUA FERREA Linn. infusion is given in fevers. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Fl. The plant is used in chutneys.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. hiccup. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. good in asthma and sweats. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Europe. Sk. oblong. skin diseases. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Oils.—in axillary distant whorls. indigestion and cephalagia. Kanara. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. headache. smooth.—sub-equally 4-lobed. alexipharmic. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. Naghas. lilac. blood and heart troubles. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. expectorant. :—E. good for fevers. North and West Asia. thirst. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. Kashmir. used for cough.—nutlets dry. Nagakeshara. E. Suvarna. cough. PARTS USED :—Bark. S. the upper similar and large. C. LOC. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. DISTR. Travancore. lanceolate. M. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. COM. biliousness. Gums and Resins. Nagkinjalka. H. small tumours. Nagsampige. lined with hairs and hairy outside. In N. sorethroat. Nagkesara. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. tonic to kidneys . M. useful in liver and spleen diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. vomiting. Burma Tenasserim. cardiotonic.—Guttiferæ. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). stalked. foul breath. Nagchapha. pains in joints (Ayurveda). ovate. leaves. Assam. LOC. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. See—Timbers. Nagkesara. Ceylon Iron-wood. Konkan and N. emmenagogue. binding. LOC. DISTR. none at the top. :—E. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). asthma.

rheumatism. high. hairy beneath. digitate. 45-90 cm. petioles hairy. Nachike-gidda. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. rheumatism. India. pinnae 1-2 pairs. Burma. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). destroys poisons. :—E. Yunnan. See—Timbers. Lajari. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. L. Pilochampo. Fr. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m.—Sept. G. Sensitive plant. :—E. Flowers-stomachic. facilitates micturition. NS. K. Ghats. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. Dyes. also used as purgative. bark. M. K.—Magnoliaceæ. Risemani. gout. LOC. it is given with honey to relieve colic. H. Vanamallika. Lajalu. IndoChina. diuretic. H.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. evergreen rain-forest of N. cultivated. Sankochini. FAM. bile. Yellow champa . rachis bristly. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Sone-chapha. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. diaphoretic. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. CHAR. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. "Kapha". Lajjavati. :—Cultivated all over the State. Surabhi. FAM. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . COM. ophthalmia. Champaka. clothed with glandular hairs . Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Golden champa. Sonchampo. sensative. Hem-pushpa. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Raktamula.—4-merous. . near temples and in gardens. Sparshalajja. stems and branches sparingly prickly. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. slightly recurved. diuretic. Humble plant. acrid.-pod flat. Pivala chapha. Fruit. Muthmurika. Champaka. leaves. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . in vertigo. glabrous above. Sk. Fl. Lajalu. good in leprosy. W. pink. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. in globose heads. :—A diffuse under-shrub. Lajjika. Lajja. blood affections.5 cm. DISTR. Flowers— expectorant. Lajalu. long. aphrodisiac. removes worms. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. Sampige. t. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . remove biliousness. M. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. stimulant. G. Champaka. Fl. useful in cough. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Sk. COM.—bipin-nate. LOC. Suvarna champaka.. 57. Champa. Kanara. Assam.-Oct. "Vata".. flowers and fruits. Champo. nausea and fevers .

Bakula. :—Naturalised throughout India. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. NS. Mukul. LOC. jaundice. flowers. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Mugule. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. cure biliousness. burning sensation. vaginal and uterine complaints. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. cooling. cultivated in the tropics. Malaya. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Kalhala. COM. cures "Kapha". DISTR. fatigue. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Ranjal. Baphuli. sweet. leucoderma. oleaginous. It is also resolvent and alterative. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Ceylon. nose diseases. piles. cures biliousness. Flowers—expectorant. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. M. Fruit causes flatulence. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. cooling. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. astringent to bowels. alterative. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. :—G. liver complaints. often planted in gardens. Bark cardiotonic. in piles and fistula. alexipharmic. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. flowers and fruits acrid. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanara. dysentery.:—Western Peninsula. anthelmintic. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). good for gonorrhœa. leprosy. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. asthma. Juice is applied externally. ulcers. teeth and gum diseases. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. acrid. Mulsari. bilious fevers. cultivated in gardens in pots. See—Ornamental Plants. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. Bakul. probably a native of tropical America. vulnerary. useful in blood and bile diseases. headache. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. biliousness. bark. Root is resolvent. Anangaka. H. Bolsari. In Brazil root is used as emetic. Flowers give taste. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. cure blood diseases. smallpox (Yunani). leprosy. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Seeds fix loose teeth. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. stomachic. DISTR. Root. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . K. Sharadika. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). LOC. Bakul. fruits and seeds.—Sapotaceæ. Bakul. Vovali. inflammations. Varsuli. FAM. Kanara and Konkan. Borsalli.

Karala. Fruit Trees. FAM. DISTR. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds.—continually in bloom. Kareli. K. Chandra—Sanjimallige. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. CHAR. yellow. LOC. M. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. Karelo. Fr. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. often ribbed or rugose. Kandura. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. NS. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika.—Cucurbitaceæ. FAM. M. good for syphilitic sores. Fl.—Nyctaginaceæ. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . Karela. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. . Karela. cordate. Carella fruit. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible.—E. H. lessen inflammations (Yunani). In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Karavalli. blackish. and rather fleshy stems . Fl. 30-75 cm. Marvel of Peru. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. each one surrounded by an involucre. It is also tonic and febrifuge. :—E. See—Timbers. Gulbasa . H. L. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. high with large perennial tuberous roots.—membranous. it is applied to relieve headache. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. COM. Krishnakali. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. LOC. Oils. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. :—Grown throughout India. native of tropical America.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. :—A herbaceous plant. HABITAT -Cultivated. Leaves are maturant. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Guleaabbas . NS. Four o'clock plant. Sk. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. brightly coloured (dark crimson. t. Hagala. G. Hagalkai. K. Sk. Karli. See—Ornamental Plants. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra.—large. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. COM.

See—Vegetables. :—G. eye and heart. S. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. hot alexiteric. rheumatism. B and C. piles. cure "Vata". PARTS USED :—Root. Kantoli. Fruit is tonic. leaves and fruit. anthelmintic. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. tonic. boils. appetiser. antipyretic. rheumatism. all kinds of poisoning. Gid-hagalu. stomachic. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. :—Cultivated throughout India. cures biliousness. burns. laxative. aphrodisiac. cooling. carminative. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. hiccup. excessive salivation. stomachic. COM. urinary calculi. Karehiballi. It is useful in gout. anthelmintic. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. used in syphilis. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). leaves and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. China. etc. Sk. stomachic. diseases of spleen and liver. Vishakankini. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. LOC. hearttroubles. DISTR. Leaves—aphrodisiac. also in Malaya. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter. tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. antibilious. jaundice etc. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fruit—very bitter. H. Fruits contain vitamins A. . urinary discharges. Beksa. M. erysipelas (Ayurveda). sparingly in Konkan. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Plant cures diseases of blood. piles. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. Kartoli. "Kapha". The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. Vandhya. NS. asthma. Malaya.—Cucurbitaceæ. K. bronchitis. Nagarali. Ceylon. tumours. anæmia. laxative. Golkandra. Fruit— bitter. LOC. blood diseases. asthma. Kanta. longpepper. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases.'. cure "Tridosh". and externally in ague as an absorbent. Karkotaki. and America. :—Throughout India. Leaves act as galactagogue. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. M. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. FAM. urinary discharges. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. anthelmintic. laxative and authelmintic. bronchitis. LOC. lessens expectoration . Kantolan. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. Country and Gujarat. digestible. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. ulcers. fever consumption.

bark. Segua. alexiteric. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Indian mulberry. Sk. M. ulcers. Al. Guggala. causes burning sensation. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. NS. analgesic. improves appetite. Bartondi. Famine Plants. Shevaga. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Indian horse radish . :—E. DISTR. removes all kinds of pains. "Kapha". K. leaves and fruits. also in the Oudh forests. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. G. Nuggi. Ainshi. digestible. emmenagogue. Achi. useful in heart-complaints. FAM. Mulgule. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. China. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. H. Tagase . Mochaka. :—E. flowers. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. spleen enlargement. PROPERTIES AND LOC. astringent to bowels. Sargavo. Achchuka. Ab. Introduced var. FAM. M. "Vata". :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Tikshnamula. NS. also wild. . Mochaka. Formosa. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. Ak. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. dyspepsia. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. anthelmintic. stuttering. PARTS USED :—Root. all "tridosha" fevers. tumours. Drum-stick Tree. Saraoji. tuberculous glands in neck.—Rubiaceæ. See—Vegetables. DISTR. Ashyuka. aphrodisiac. Sajina. fruits and seeds. earache. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. K. Murangi. biliousness . Seglo. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Sk. H. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. Aal. See—Dyes. Munigha. G. COM. inflammations.—Moringaceæ. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Burma. Ugra. makes blood impure . leaves. cultivated throughout India and Burma. LOC. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. Rochana.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. LOC. Haladipavate. fattening. eye diseases.

Peninsula. Kanara. bronchitis. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. COM. diarrhœa. heart. anthelmintic. enriches blood. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. B and C. FAM. lumbago. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. salt and pepper. Fruit—tonic. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). Tut. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. aromatic and acid flavour. expectorant. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. The plant contains an alkaloid. Shetur. diuretic. White mulberry.—Moraceæ. Tutri. laxative. fattening. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. internal inflammations and calculous affections. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. Oils. G. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. M. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). lumbago. piles. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. ulcerated intestines. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. Gums and Resins. loss of appetite. Tuda. diuretic. spleen. Fruits contain vitamins A. bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. Madhu pippali. Tut. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. gout. obstinate asthma. biliousness. stomatitis. Tuta. carminative. enlarged spleen or liver. wounds. increases biliousness. cooling. MORUS INDICA Linn. K. Ambat. Karihannu. Leaf paste. NS. it is cooling laxative. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. epilepsy and hysteria. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. rheumatism. Fibres. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . sweetish. good for inflammations of throat and chest. :—E. H. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. Root is purgative. common about villages in N. burning sensation (Ayurveda). allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. cures gleet. urinary discharges. LOC. aphrodisiac. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. Sk. LOC. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. useful in small-pox. appetiser. expectorant. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. . Kambali. enriches blood. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. See—Vegetables. See—Fruit Trees. with garlic. Siahtut. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". good for brain. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. DISTR. turmeric. sour. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. leaves and fruit.

5-7. Sd. :—E. cures blood diseases. Adam's Fig. :—E. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Fl. Vanari.5x1. LOC. G. MUSA PARADISIACA L. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Kadvare. CHAR. Root useful for delirium in fevers. DISTR.3-11. They are used as anthelmintic.. Hasaguni. juice given for headache. Tikshna. FAM. cultivated. leaflets membranous.—3-foliate.. Nayi songuballi. Kivanchha. Seeds— alexipharmic. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Sk. Kunth. petioles 6. LOC. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. terminal smaller. DISTR. dark-purple. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Ceylon. lateral very unequal sided. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . PARTS USED :—Root. Strong root infusion. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Rambha. Kavatch. Kavach. M. Kela. :—Punjab plains. Goncha. SAPIENTUM O. Turashi. tonic. long. K. tonic.2 cm. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Urustambha. Dirghapatra. flowers and fruit. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. common in hedges. laxative. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. HABITAT :—In hedges. Kela.—Scitaminaceæ. Atmagupta. silky. improves blood. grey-silky beneath. Kapikachu. " Vata ". pods and seeds. Sk. :—An annual twiner. Root—emmenagogue. biliousness . :—Throughout the State from the coast inland.3 cm. leaves. 6-30 flowered.—Oct-Nov. Cowhage. HABITAT :—Humid areas .—pod. Banana. Several forms are cultivated in Western India.—5-6 small. .148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. Plantain. Kela. LOC. Bale.) FAM. H. which produce intensa irritation of skin. COM. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Fr. Maoz kela.—in drooping racemes. t. COM. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). M. Havanch. L. NS. sometimes cultivated.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). H. Fruit— aphrodisiac. NS. spermatorrhoea etc. PARTS USED :—Root. covered with tawny stinging hairs. G. Fl. Kadali. K. Kuhili. Himalaya up to 1200 m. Kivanch. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. consumption. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. turgid-shaped. with honey is given in cholera. stem. Var.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—Rubiaceæ. tonic. indigestible . Andamans. diabetes. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. NS. DISTR. tonic. tube slender. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. deep golden yellow. aphrodisiac. buds densely hairy. See—Fruit Trees. Bellotti. PARTS USES :—Root. Kanara. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. good for dry bronchitis. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. FAM. urinary discharges. linear. hairy. :—S. :—H. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Fl. appetiser..— July-Oct. Shrivalli. kidney troubles (Yunani). Sk.—opposite or 8nately whorled. anthelmintic. LOC. C. Assam. heart-burn and colic. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. :—A rambling shrub. astringent to bowels. antidysenteric. Fibres. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. increases appetite. leprosy. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. flowers and fruit. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. causes bronchitis . diseases of uterus and vagina. Root-juice. strangury. in thirst. LOC. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. M. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine .--in terminal cymes. t. Root-juice is anthelmintic. menstrual disorders. ear-pain. L. K. thickens blood. Fruit—sweet. improves complexion (Ayurveda). consumption and bronchitis. Burnt stem is vulnerary. biliousness. lobes broadly ovate. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. Tropical Himalayas. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. astringent to bowels. Fr. stipules twin. Serwadh. sore-throat. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Lawsat.—tubular. Nagavalli. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . B and C. Ipparati. :—Konkan and N. blood diseases.— berry. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. Bedina. broadly elliptic. Hastygida. CHAR. very hairy outside. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. COM. leaves. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. Fl. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. subglobose. and are used in acidity. pubescent. broad at base. Bhutakes. in " Vata". dyspepsia. . useful in "Kapha". MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn.

FAM. H. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India.— solitary. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. PROPERTIES AND LOC. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk.—small.— Myristicaceæ. COM. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Myrtle. Malati. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. allaying pain. diuretic. M. intermittent fevers and dropsy. DISTR. They are given in asthma. FAM. fruits and oil. Kamuka. :—Western Peninsula. See—Timbers. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. small. ellipsoid. used in stopping vomiting. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. promotes growth of hair. PARTS USED:—Seeds. A decoction is employed. black when ripe. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. DISTR. applied locally to relieve pain. Himalayas. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Ram-patri. LOC. all over the State. Pliny. enriches blood. common in the Kumta taluka. cures headache. Dioscorides. white. Malati. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. axillary on slender peduncles. especially epilepsy. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Fl. Kanara Ghats . It is used as a substitute for true mace. Kanage. Sk. M. :—E. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Malabar. NS. Condiments and Spices. :—Konkan and N. very sweet smelling. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. CHAR. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. LOC. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . :—A shrub. NS. W. False nutmeg.—berry. L. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. ovate to lanceolate. :— E. Galen and the Arabian writers. as . Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. Murad. emmenagogue. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. smoke beneficial to piles.—Myrtaceæ. It is credited with opposite qualities. Kaiphal. Vilayantimendhi. Fr. is regarded as. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. LOC. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. K. Habules. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. COM.

L. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Sk. Sd. G. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Fr. CHAR. 3-valved. spongy. K. DISTR. NS. with slender. DISTR.—membranous. Kamal. long. Kandalu.—July.3-0. in diam. Fl. Belakanji. FAM. bronchitis. C. Fl. orbicular. LOC. :—A small branching undershrub. M. glabrous. Pundarika. . Fl. elongate. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. Sarasija. ovoidglobose. :—W. Kanara..—pendulous. anthers with clavate appendages. cures asthma. K. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. :—A large aquatic herb. ovoid.—petals many 5-12.—white. dysentery. hæmorrhage. erect.6 m. Sk. top flat. NS. entire. Papra-vel. Kamal. Fl. Kamal. solitary or 2 together. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Padma. high. Ambuj.—capsule. free. Aravinda.5 cm. rough with distant prickles . 10-25 cm. vulnerary. torus 18 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. t. peltate. alexiteric. from Iran eastwards to Australia. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Chinese water-lily. concave or cupped. Goanese ipecacuanha. petals 5. linear spathulate. Ripe carpels. disk annular. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. white or rosy. Kapurbhendi. Padam.. COM. 3-foliate. Tavari-bija or gadde. cells 2-seeded. Indian sacred lotus. :—Konkan. COM. Pitmari. L. LOC. petioles very long. :—E. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. diam. PARTS USED :—Root.—alternate. Pankaja. Kamala. Suriyakamal. axillary.-Dec.-Nov. radiately nerved. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. 0. Timpani. :—E. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. Amlavalli. Ambuja. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. & A. petiole winged.—Nymphæaceæ. Kandabahula. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. leaves. t. fleshy.—solitary. curved. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. M.—Meliaceæ. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. muricate. biliousness. Nelanaringa . elliptic. H.) FAM. stem.

CHAR. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa.—funnel-shaped. . PARTS USED :—Root. also cholera. gives tone to breast. throat scaly. Karvira. COM.—Apocynaceæ. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . Pratihasa. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Baluchistan. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Kanher. chest-pains.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. lobes rounded. allays thirst. linear-lanceolate. honey. fever. fragrant. LOC. stem. slightly bitter. useful in piles. planted in gardens throughout the State. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. Kanagile. heart and brain tonic . Kanel. coriaceous. leaves. K. small-pox. diuretic.—red. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. Ashwa-marak. biliousness. LOC. menorrhagia. t. Kaner. Karber. long. Vishavrikshanka. FAM. ulcers and sores of mouth. at length separating. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. M. also as a hedge plant. useful in fevers . removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". Fl. G. fruit. NS. Paddali. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. 10-15 cm. astringent to taste . allays thirst. Waziristan. See—Ornamental Plants. Sind. Cool. good in throat-troubles. Sweet scented oleander. C. in fever and liverdiseases. vomiting. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. useful in burning sensation of the body. India. Sd. Fr. S. Kaner. Sk. leucoderma. In China and Malaya dried red petals. rigid. aphrodisiac. Salt Range. Cool. strangury. diseases of skin and eye . spermatorrhoea. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . :—Madhya Bharat. :—E. leaves. long. improves watery eyes (Yunani). USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Fl. rose or white. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. 15-23 cm. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers .—in threes. cures cough. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. removes worms. good in blood-complaints. inflammations and poisoning. flowers.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR.—flowers more or less throughout the year. NERIUM ODORUM Soland.—follicles. H. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. seeds. Karvira. tapering into short petiole. Upper Gangetic Plains. also recommended as cardiac tonic. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. flowers. dark green and shining above. Filaments are astringent and cooling.

good for lumbago. funnel-shaped. inflammations. Tobacco. asthma. Fl. wounds. See—Ornamental Plants. dimness of sight. :—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves. FAM. useful in bronchitis. C. Fr.—Solanaceæ. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). M. Root—aphrodisiac. caries of teeth. laxative. Sk. Poisonous to fish. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. foul nose. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. Tabak. smoke constipating. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. Tamakhu. :—Native of America. nervous depression and sleeplessness. base wedgeshaped . the surface is plain or bullate.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. useful in caries of teeth. H. DISTR. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. a mental stimulant. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. anthelmintic. The plant contains a glucoside. COM. skin diseases. Tamaku.—in open corymbose panicles . tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. An ointment made . L. bronchitis. about 1. also applied in leprosy. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. tubercular glands of neck. Flowers— aphrodisiac. emetic. Bujjarbhang. conical. Hoge soppu. CHAR.—alternate. sores.—pink or white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). Tambakhu. LOC. Kalanja. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. headache. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. Krimighni. LOC. across. Dhumrapatrika. K. very poisonous. disinfectant. USES :—All parts of plant. Tambak. are poisonous and are used externally. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. scabies. G. lobes spreading. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Tamarakuthika. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani).—capsule. carminative. scabies (Yunani). oblong or elliptic. cultivated in all tropical countries. sedative and emetic. large (especially lower ones). tonic. inflammations. water from hookha is diuretic. LOC. especially root.8 cm. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. NS.

—Oleaceæ. Nilophhal. stomachic. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Kharapatraka. rough above with bulbous hairs. Bengal. G. LOC. :—E. a decoction of root. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. southwards to the Godavari.) FAM. Aravind. Chotakanwal. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. It is used with honey in chronic fever. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. useful in bilious fevers. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. tube orange-coloured.—lobes white.5-6. COM. K. Har. Cultivated in many parts of India. Parijataka. :—E. Buds are tonic. solitary. Bark cures bronchitis. H. COM. Assam. PARTS USED :—Root. Nalkumkuma. NS. Jayaparvati. ovate acute. See—Ornamental Plants. Shonapadma. DISTR. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Har-singhar. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. Madhya Bharat. Prajakta. Kumuda. Kanval. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. FAM. peduncles 4angled. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Lotus. carminative. Parijata. Burma. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Harsing. Fr. NS. t. Fl. Sk.—Nymphæaceæ. Nyadale huvu . cures fevers. hairy. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. :—A large shrub or a small tree. tonic to hair. Parijata . HABITAT :-Cultivated. densely pubescent beneath. LOC. H.—opposite 5-10x2. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn.— fragrant. flowers and seeds. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani).. . Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Fl. 2-celled. M. lessen inflammation. Prajakta. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. leaves. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. in terminal trichotomous cymes. bark. Indian Mourner : G. C. bark. axillary. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs.— more or less throughout the year.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . L. abundant July-Sept. Alipriya. (Ayurveda).—capsule. K.3 cm. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Sephalika. Bilitavarai. young branches quadrangular. obcordate or merely orbicular. scalp affections etc. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. compressed. Lalkamal. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Sk. M. astringent-to bowels. CHAR. Sephali. Kanwal.

:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. Sajjebija.—3 cm.— ovoid. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.9 m. K. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. flowers and seeds. peduncles very long . toothed or lobed. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. Fr. Ceylon. emmenagogue. febrifuge. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. pink or purplish. Plant has a sharp. obtuse. leucoderma. cylindric. stems and branches green or purplish. purple stem. LOC. bracts stalked. diam. Surasa. 8-13 mm.—peltate. stomachic. open in the morning only. thyrsiflora. Sk. across. inflammations. root stock tuberous. Fl. causes burning sensation. See—Ornamental Plants. pubescent and prominently veined beneath .—ovate. Fr. submerged . green. bitter taste. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. roundish. irregularly sinuate-dentate. improves taste . Ramkasturi. juice gives lustre to . Fl. and nigropunctate above. " Kapha". antipyretic . Sabja.—all the year. Ajagandhika. Burma. COM. red. DISTR. long. :—E.—nutlets about 2 mm. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Rihan.. glabrous. chronic pain in joints. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. rough. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Sabja. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. :—Large aquatic herb . Damaro. Common sweet basil. C. hot taste.5-20 cm.—petals about 12. Tungi. allays thirst. bitter. C. leaves and flower. :—An erect herb 0. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. erect. petioles very long. Sabzah. useful in diseases of heart and blood. M. diameter. Sd. H. leaves. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. short. cooling . fleshy. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). CHAR. oblong. alexipharmic. enlarged spleen. :—Var. Fl. NS. globose. Hungary. Barbar. FAM. diarrhœa and piles . Java. useful in diseases of heart and brain. ripening beneath the water. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Roots. DISTR. Manjarki. deeply cordate at the base. Nasabo. G. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). "Vata". Barbar. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. itch. acute. Surabhi. L. pale rose or white. white. "Vata". lessens bile. 7. LOC. 15-25 cm. LOC. ellipsoid. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. "Kapha". entire.—solitary.6-0. black and pitted. filaments dilated at the base .— in whorled racemes .MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. biliousness.—2-lipped. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). Tukhamariya . Africa. long. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. removes impurities from blood . high. aphrodisiac . stamens about 40. glabrous or pubescent. Bahari. asthma.—Labiatæ. Var. diuretic. Philippines. t.

5 X 3.—Labiatæ. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. H. brown. It is also styptic. FAM. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. Plant has bitter. Fl. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. pubescent. Sk. Lemon—shrubby basil. t. Ajaka. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. sharp taste . alexiteric. M. useful in vomiting. diuretic and demulcent properties. young ones pubescent. gland-dotted. 1. COM.8 m. Ram Tulasi.8—5. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). M. often cultivated : Ceylon.— in simple or branched racemes. Fl. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Gujarat. strengthens gums. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. CHAR. heart. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa.3—12. Avachi-bavachi. skin diseases. aphrodisiac . LOC. lower lip longer. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. high.. " Kapha". The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. BanMal tulasi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. . diuretic and stimulant. Large basil.7 cm. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. G. :—Konkan. removes foul breath. During fever when the extremities are cold. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. inflammations. carminative. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. " Vata". strangury . stimulant. :—A perennial shrub. Sumukha. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. LOC. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. they are also aphrodisiac. useful in diseases of brain. fits. Rantulasi. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. Java. good for griping and piles (Yunani). good for toothache. heating. S. LOC.—nutlets subglobose. The flowers possess. Country. in close whorls . elliptic-lanceolate. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. pale greenish yellow.-July-Oct.2—1. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani).—6. L. Fr. branched. DISTR. C. coarsely crenate-serrate. rachis quadrangular . stems and branches subquadrangular . The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. woody below . a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. NS. Rama-Ran tulasi.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. liver and spleen. :—E. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. headache. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. :—Throughout India.—2-lipped. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. earache. rugose.

hiccup.—2. especially in children. DISTR. high. clothed with soft hairs . Vranda. . bitter. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Tulasi. K. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. and are given with honey. Parpat. Vrinda. painful eye. leaves and seeds. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Krishna tulasi. Manjari. Tropical E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. " Vata". Ceylon. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. linear or linear-lanceolate.— capsule. Damanpaper. elliptic-oblong. H. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil.—Labiatæ. Country. Kala tulasi. Suravallari.— nutlets. Australia. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). FAM. leucoderma. asthma. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). long. used in catarrh and bronchitis .—Sept-Nov. Asia to Java and the Philippines. t. PARTS USED :—Root. C.—Rubiaceæ. COM. Tulasa. LOC. Parapate. minutely gland-dotted. Vishnuvallabha. Fr. Papli.—pale brown. Pavitra. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. purplish. globose or pyriform . alexiteric. Fr. NS. lumbago pains.6— 3. long in close whorls . USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. CHAR. DISTR. stems and branches subquadrangular. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. L. CHAR. anthelmintic.5—38 cm. Fl. vomiting. See—Sacred Plants. LOC. smooth. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Arabia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stipules with bristles . angular.—2-lipped. yellow with black marking. purplish. varying from 7. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. :—Konkan. G. :—G. useful in heart and blood diseases. M. pubescent. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Phapti. obtuse or acute. high. Tulasi. entire or serrate. antipyretic.—on filiform pedicels.2 cm. M. Fl. H. West Asia. cholagogue. foul smells.:—E. Deccan and S.5-5 X 1. bronchitis. strangury. COM. stems numerous. purulent discharge of ear.. 30-60 cm. lobes acute. Sd. Sk. Sk. FAM. HABIT :—A common weed. NS. " Kapha". upper lip pubescent on the back. usually 2-3 cm. Tulasi. of children and in hepatic affections . :—Throughout India. LOC. margins recurved and scabrous. L.—subsessile. Malay Archipelago. :—An annual plant. M. :—An annual herb. heating. Fl. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots.

M. loss of consciousness. G. subulate. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints.5 mm. Nagadru. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. perianth rotate. Plant juice—heating. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Fl. flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Mullugalli. long. Sk. long. laxative. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Nagaphana. 3 m. L. antipyretic. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. or more high. Nagdali. used in ophthalmia. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. ulcers. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. cures bronchitis in children. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. " Vata". Snuka.— berry. across. leucoderma. reddish purple when ripe. largest 3. DISTR. dull bluish-green.5 cm. Slipper thorn. rusty brown. Zhoratheylo. inflammations. inner spathulate. LOC.—7. rather thin.—Cactaceæ. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. :—E. carminative. juice cures earache (Yunani). yellow at the edges. xerophyte. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. Phadyanivdung. yellow or orange. stomachic. Plant bitter. cures biliousness. Vajrakantaka. anæmia. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. recurved. Nagaphani. reddish at the tips. good for leucoderma. Prickly pear. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. Hathathoria. . Sher. pyriform. obovate or elliptic. it is also used in liver complaints. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. introduced into India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . Fr.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. ascites. cures inflammations. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. Joints variable in size. K. digestive. spleen enlargement. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. Nagaphana. diuretic. Grown as hedge. purgative. vesicular calculi. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. H. lumbago. angular or warty. FAM. spleen enlargement. liver complaints. urinary complaints. piles. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. CHAR. tumours. carminative. NS. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. alexiteric. COM. LOC.—5 cm. Chorhothalo. burning. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico.

S. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Tandula. aphrodisiac. Cochin-China. Podval. Rice. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). asthma. stomachic. Chokha. H. anal troubles. DISTR. useful in biliousness . Fruit—expectorant. Bagi. Dirghavrinta. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. LOC. G. dysentery.—Gramineæ. Tandula. Seeds are purgative. oleaginous. Tetu. LOC. useful in " Vata". Araluka. good in heart and throat diseases. :—Widely cultivated. diuretic. fevers. Tans. biliousness. sweet. improves appetite. astringent to bowels . K. Arlu. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Nivara. LOC. Bhat. LOC. Dyes. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Indian trumpet flower. improves taste. Malaya. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Shali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid.). cooling. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. K. See—Timbers. Shyonaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. H. intestinal worms. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Fruit—acrid. Sk. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. inflammations. Ullu. Kanara ghats . :—The Konkan and the N.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. M. COM. It is astringent and tonic. vomiting. NS. COM. piles. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). aphrodisiac. NS. FAM. bronchitis (Ayurveda). R. anthelmintic. G. Alangi. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Akki. Sk. Ghats. K. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Tetu. tonic. Pharri. tonic. fattening. Chaval. Rice . M. :—E.—Bignoniaceæ. M. leucoderma. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Ceylon. FAM. Ava. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Vrihi. appetiser. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Tuntaka. Mayarjangha. PARTS USED :—Grain. Mokka. Tetu. bronchitis. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. DISTR. :—E.

Indian Sorrel. COM. measles. bruised. LOC. astringent. Br. Dudhari. M. NS. boils. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. dysentery and scurvy.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Kshiravi. It is a pleasant. FAM. Changeri. Dudhialata. L. Amrul. petioles very slender. :—Throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens.—axillary. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. In dysentery. if applied to chest. pubescent. removes " Kapha ". Ceylon. ulcers. 5-angled. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. to which a little lemon juice is added. Dudhatani. diarrhœa. bowels or kidneys. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. cures dysentery. " Vata " and piles. Dudhani. brown. CHAR.2—2. FAM. The grains contain vitamin C. stems rooting. Sk.— many. DISTR. Dugdhike. Amlalonika. M. Kyirin . obcordate. Chukrita. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. NS. good appetiser . . Fl. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers .— Oct-May. COM. leaflets 1. transversely striate. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Ambastha. long. Sk. linear-oblong. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. margins ciliate. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). See—Food Plants. rounded at the apex.—Oxalidaceæ. Jaladudhi. Dugdhica. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. C. small-pox. Dugdhika. K. beaked.5 cm. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. H.—Asclepiadaceæ.— capsule. It is an excellent application to abscesses.—palmately 3-foliate. Fl. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . base cuneate subsessile. Dudhialata. used externally. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. easy to digest. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—E. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. Sd. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . LOC. Fr. buboes. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. t.—petals 5. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. sub-umbellate . OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. inflamed piles. K. yellow. :—G. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. Rice water. oblong. Shuklika. Ambuti. gives great relief. H. Marudbhava. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. ovoid. also in burns and scalds. scarlet fever. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache.

stem supported by aerial roots . M. Sk. Gogandhul. aphrodisiac. somniferous. :—E. coriaceous ensiform. L. corona staminal.5 m. alexiteric. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. FAM. L. fruit and oil from bracts. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). scabies. CHAR. Kewoda. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. COM. heat of body. Ketaka. X 3. dry. anthelmintic. Fr. S. stems many. Sundarbans. :—Konkan. Fl. gonorrhœa. high. laxative. milky juice.—deciduous. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Country— Belgaum. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. anthelmintic. Kanara. expectorant. bitter. Fl. . tonic. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice.5-9 cm. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. PARTS USED :—Plant. thin. root. Gandha-pushpa. palegreen. rarely erect.8-6. G. Screw pine. long. Fl. black. linear or linear-lanceolate. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). Chama-pushpa. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. yellow or red. Kanara. leaves. fruit.3 cm. DISTR. Fruit—tonic. Mundige.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. Giripriya.. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. LOC.—very numerous. C. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes .—Dec. DISTR. Kevada. :—A shrub up to 6 m. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Burma. PARTS USED :-Root. t. Flowers improve complexion. Java. Sd. aphrodisiac. 0. LOC. lobes ciliate.— large. HABITAT :—Usually near water.—dioecious. margins and midrib spiny. Deccan. 3. small-pox. with flavour. Ceylon. useful in strangury and tumours.—Pandanaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. anthers. K. indigestible. aphrodisiac. coma present.—oblong or globose. strikingly handsome. pale rose or white. purple veined. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. syphilis. leucoderma. cough. Dhulipushpika. Kedige. Poona Sangam. Keora. Ketgi. M. Andamans. Umbrella Tree. mouth with pubescent ring. diuretic.8 mm. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). juice is used in gleet. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice.—follicles. female flower spadix solitary. often planted. 4. Leaves are useful in leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. causes flatulence. H. LOC. long. NS. Anthers useful in pruritus. pain. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. much branched. diseases of heart and brain. Ketaki. :—Konkan and N. " Kapha ". pain in the muscles.—glaucous green.9—1.



Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.



LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as



curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.



PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

antipyretic. thirst. glabrous or hairy. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Kolaba and Kanara. Kohesaru.—in sub-capitate. eye troubles. Kharjurika. :—Largely grown in. Kherk. Kidney diseases. t. :—G. Khandesh. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. good in fevers. Trianguli. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. long. Satara. and southwards to Ceylon. nose complaints. Khaji. H. Afghanistan. cure biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Siyindu. Ahmednagar. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. FAM. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). :—E. 2. Sk. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. FAM. Sendhi. digestible.5 cm. Kallu. Deccan and Gujarat. peduncles 10-23 cm. COM.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vanmudga. petioles grooved. dysentery. LOC. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Belgaum. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Ranmath. piles. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Fl. Ichela-mara. M. Date sugar palm. Shindi. Adavada. styptic. membranous. LOC. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever.—Palmæ. bitter. mugawana. NS. long. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. " Kapha". slightly recurved. biliousness.3—2. " Tridosh". CHAR. H. LOC. throat inflammations. astringent. as a kharif crop. Sk. G. few flowered racemes. M. light and astringent. Fl. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. See—Food Plants. DISTR. broadly spathulate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Shimbiparni. astringent to bowels.— pod. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Sind. Ranmug. Konkan. Magavala. straight subcylindric. bronchitis. Khajuri. burning sensation. Fr. Kapila. The grains contain vitamins A and B. LOC. L. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. aphrodisiac. Malay Islands. Kajuri. laxative. Abyssinia. blood diseases. wiry. Ahmedabad. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. cures consumption. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. yellow. Burma. Kurangika. cough. Tadi. Kashayi. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. gout. Boichand. Adabanmagi. enrich blood. PARTS USED :—Seeds. leaflets 1. Seeds— tonic. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. prostrate.—6-12. K. Dharwar. DISTR. Sd. Kharjuri. headache. good for the eyes . inflammations. Kalli-chalu. COM. Mugani. anthelmintic. NS. long. dry. Swadi.—Oct. wild date palm. .—3-foliate.5—5 cm. :—Annual or perennial. layer. Indian wine palm. good for eyes.:—Very common throughout the State. Koshila. K.

male white. spadix 60-90 cm. oblong-ellipsoid. greyish-green.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. large and thick. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. COM.— dioecious. oblong. Mysore. Toyavallari. Ceylon. LOC. aphrodisiac.—2. :—Throughout India. flowers distant. DISTR.—Verbenaceæ. good in heart and abdominal complaints. fattening. constipating. most tropical and sub-tropical regions.5 m. wandering of mind. oblique. :—G. Okra. long. 3-4. Sd. and in beds of streams and water courses. Ratuliyo. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. CHAR.. useful in diseases of heart. Bengal. H. triangular. Langali. crown hemispherical. Fl. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. 9-15 m. See. much branched. pointed. Ratoliya.) FAM. vomiting. petioles compressed towards the apex. NS. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Fl. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. long. cooling. Famine Plants. LOC. rounded at the apex. cooling. aphrodisiac. cardiotonic. Rohilkhand.—globose.—Fibres. Agnijwala. wild or more often cultivated. long. 15-45x2-2. clothed with appressed white hairs . erect. Jalapipali. flowers very many. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. Baluchistan. spatulate.5—3. Fr. usually along banks. ensiform. pinnules many. L. Sharadi. high. Vashira.—white or pale-pink. Poona and Belgaum districts. LOC.5 m. Sholapur. M. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). lower 3-lobed. blood and eye. female spadix and spathe as in the male.—Jan-Feb. 2-lipped. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. Africa. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. sharply serrate in upper part. spinous. t. oleaginous. rigid. subsessile. Ratoliya. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Jalpippali. outer Himalayas. deeply grooved on one side. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). stems rooting at the nodes. This is called neera. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage.2 cm. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. scented. anthelmintic.—sessile. :—Tolerably common throughout India. fruit and juice of the tree. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. L. Bhuiokra. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. . densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . t. angular. densely fascicled. Siwalik.—rounded at the ends.—opposite.—pinnate. :—Found fairly in Surat. upper 2-lobed. Fr. Jalapimpli. Sk. DISTR. alexiteric. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika.—more or less all the year. Fl. roundish. Bihar. :—A tall graceful palm. spiny at the base. Coromandel Coast. C. fevers. :—A creeping perennial herb. orange-yellow. Fl.

and without salt may be applied to bruises.— numerous. angular. dry. The whole plant. globose. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda).— July-Aug. Ceylon. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). t. NS. Sukshmadala. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. axillary. annular. of female. bronchitis. biliousness. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. LOC. Vituntika. Plant—hot. anuria. DISTR. thirst. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger).—yellowish. fruit. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. FAM. anæmia. distichous. Stomachic. Bhuiavli. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . Leaves are stomachic. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. asthma. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. alexipharmic . COM.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ajata. stem branched at the base. wounds. asthma.useful in fevers.—capsule. Infusion is a good tonic. sores. leprosy. Bhumyamali. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. Sadahazurmani. maturant..168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. except Australia. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. bronchitis. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). very numerous. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. Jaramla. good for ulcers. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. burning sensation. leaves. Sk. high . Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. Bhuianvalah. diuretic. H. CHAR :—An annual herb. ringworm (Yunani). LOC. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). Amala. cooling. disk of the male of minute glands. . :—Konkan and Deccan. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. :—Throughout India. wounds. Fr. scarcely lobed. females solitary. :—G. lobed. K. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. L. 30-60 cm.—3-gonous. Fl. M. smooth. urinary discharges. It is valuable in scurvy. scabies. Bhumyamalaki. Sd. monœcious. milky-juice. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. useful in thirst. hiccup. longitudinally ribbed on the back. elliptic-oblong. Tropics generally. males 1-3. Kiranelligida. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. Bhumyamali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. LOC. very small. Fl.

—Piperaceæ. Kalimiri. Black-pepper. Bhakshyapatra. carminative. stomachic. Vata". FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. vulnerary. alexipharmic. Warm leaves. night blindness. alterative. Satara. Sholapur. satyriasis and to allay thirst. inflammations. piles. H. Pan. NS. Tambulavalli. anthelmintic. liver and muscular pains. Menasin-kallu . M. Betelleaf. COM. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. carminative and astringent. useful in "Kapha". improves appetite (Ayurveda). USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Sk. It sweetens breath. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. DISTR.—Piperaceæ. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. increases biliousness. Kalamiri. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Malimirich . :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. K. K. Nagavalli. useful in toothache. laxative. useful in "Vata". strengthens teeth . aphrodisiac. bronchitis. Saptashira. Vidyache-pan. Eleballi. hot. asthma. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. tonic and digestive. elephantiasis . LOC. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. acrid. heart and liver. leavs. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. Fresh leaves. Vileyad-ele. NS. See—Condiments and Spices. :—E. Golmirch . H. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Tikshna. carminative. Marich. :—E. PARTS USED :—Fruits. foul smell in the mouth. Pan. :—Wild in the N. ozoena. bechic. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. removes all foulness from mouth. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. G. ozœna. and fruits (rarely). heating. Panu. G. Pan. Poona. Mensinballi. Kalaka. cultivated in Konkan and N. Kanara forests. LOC. " Kapha ". :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. generally in Konkan. Sk. pains. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Betel pepper. Kalamirich. improves voice. Kaphavirodhi. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Tambola. FAM. given with milk in hysteria. LOC. urinary discharges. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Kanara. throat diseases. M. Linn. purgative. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. aphrodisiac. DISTR. . styptic (Yunani). COM. Betel leaf vine. spleen diseases. tonic to brain. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. It increases saliva. Menasu. smeared with oil. clears throat. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent.

entire or toothed. paralysis . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. variable in width. H. hills of S. COM. Konkan. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. and possesses narcotic properties . N.—capsule. Khandala (pretty common).—Plantaginaceæ. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. sciatica. COM. Greater plantain . It has specific effect on skin-diseases. long.5-12.—Pittosporaceæ. vertigo. NS. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. :—E. ovoid. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . M. Kanara in ghat forests. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. lanceolate or greenish . used as febrifuge. Fl. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. Khasia Hills. Burma. Vehkali. PROPERTIES AND LOC. sprains.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. CHAR. bruises. chronic fevers. :—K. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. Fr. petiole longer than leaf-blade. C. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Tammata. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. various forms of cutaneous diseases.—lobes 4. See—Condiments and Spices. DISTR. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. base tapering into petiole. L. W. ophthalmia and phthisis. FAM. Arcot and Salem. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. LOC. NS. Bark contains a glucoside. Externally it is rubefacient. lumbago. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Lahuriya. In physiological action. piperidine and an essential oil. dries body humours (Yunani). ovate or oblong. It yields an essential oil. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. coma. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. tonic and a local stimulant. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. chest affections. used in chronic bronchitis. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn.— alternate. LOC. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. piles and some skin-diseases . . Vikhari. the oil is alterative. It is a good expectorant. radial 2. facilitates menstruation. weakness following fevers. FAM.5 cm. Deccan.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . & A. leprosy. Bartang. See—Timbers.

DISTR. Agnishikha. :—Cultivated throughout India. LOC. HABITAT :—Along river banks.-Feb. Lalchitrak. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Mahang. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. base passing into amplexicaul. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. :— E. Lead-wort. afford relief. long in long terminal axillary. L. Nilgiris. Ratochatro. high. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin.Sept. LOC. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Rosy-coloured leadwort. Lalachitraka. striate .. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Fattening. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. FAM.—large. Burma. obtuse. COM. exauriculate petiole. Chitra.—tube slender. M. Palni hills. :—Temperate Himalayas. K. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. H. Fl. CHAR. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. G. :—Konkan : Deccan. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. leaves. t. oblong. DISTR. zeylanica. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally.—Plumbaginaceæ. Ceylon. dull-black.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. erect. alterative.Kempuchitramula. angled. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. PARTS USED :—Roots. Lalchita.—throughout the year. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. lax spikes. Fl. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. C. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Lalchitrak. PARTS USED :—Roots. limb wide. and seeds.-4-8.—3-5 cm. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Baluchistan. Malaya. Chitraka. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. W. alterative and diuretic. Sk. Assam. Sd. attenuate. LOC. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Fire plant. rosy scarlet. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. stems herbaceous. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul).. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. NS. Raktachitraka. LOC. Ghats. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . HABITAT :—Cultivated. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. t. Fl. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. top coming off as a conical lid.

It is used as a powerful sialogogue. consumption. The use of Pl. t. :—E. ring-worm. Chitraka. Chitranga. oblong. bronchitis. FAM. Medi. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies.—Plumbaginaceæ.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. woody. and in leucoderma. leucoderma. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. M. alexipharmic. it is useful in dyspepsia. K. piles. juice. tonic. Sk. striate. Malay Peninsula. Journ. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. " Vata" and " Kapha". expectorant. H.—Aug. stomachic. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. dysentery. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. itching. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). Bile-Chitra-mula. spreading. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra).—thin. Ceylon.5 m. root-bark. Agnishikha. L. Fl. Vallari. Fr. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. :—Throughout India. It is used in procuring abortion. lobes 5. carminative. Ind. pointed. G. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). DISTR. diarrhœa. laxative.—white. Fl. Root—bitter. Vahni. .—capsule. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. Chitra . petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . a paste is made with milk. cure intestinal troubles. ascites. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. astringent to bowels. Chitramula. entire. anasarca. " Tridosha" . diseases of liver. Bengal. LOC. LOC. In S. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. leprosy. Chitra . Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. NS. bechic. Jyotishka. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. stems 0. anthelmintic. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. diseases of spleen. attenuated into a short petiole. useful in laryngitis.-Sept. leaves. hot. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. appetiser. wild in Western Peninsula. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. a favourite medicine for flatulence. aborti-facient. inflammations. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Chitra. See—Ornamental Plants. ovate. Chitaro Chitrak. Tropics of the old world. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. skin disease. rachis glandular . scabies. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. vesicant. alterative . PARTS USED :—Root. stomachic. long. terete.6-1. cultivated . leaves are caustic. C. Res. leucoderma. Chitrak. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. January 1933). Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. rheumatism. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga.—in elongate spikes. piles.

very fragrant. Golainchi. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. spirally arranged. many flowered. Kanara. NS. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). shining.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. cultivated. t. S.—Apocynaceæ. H. entire. high. ascites (Ayurveda). Fl. LOC. oblong-lanceolate. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth.. rounded. C. Frangipani. See—Ornamental Plants. Champakam. 3-lobed. stems and branches quadrangular. LOC. purple. CHAR. upper lip white shot with purple.-May. Root-bark is purgative.— large. M. Fl. Pangli.2—1. COM. divaricate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir.—practically throughout the year. The plant contains a bitter glucoside.5-18x3. whorls close. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. bark. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. :—M. irregularly doubly toothed. G.8 m. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. CHAR. heating. smooth. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. LOC. Radha-champo. :—All throughout the State. Fr.—Dec. lower lip white. FAM. FAM. long. 12 cm. shining black. broadly ovate. . Belchampaka. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. DISTR. L. COM. useful in gleet. abundant. M. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion.—salver-shaped. long. Goleurchampa. :—A small shrub 1. ulcers. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. pains. NS. rarely maturing. Pagoda tree. :—Native of tropical America. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. Phangla. laxative .—Labiatæ. Fl. abundant from Mar. carminative.—2-lipped. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. Fr. 15-30 cm. Country.:—More or less throughout India. acrid. venereal sores. Khairchapha. L. inner face angular. 4-lobed. DISTR. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. Mahabaleshwar. with an intra-marginal vein.-Feb. Deccan. :—E. acute at both ends. leaves and milky juice.-nutlets ellipsoid. itching.8-9 cm. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. common. useful in leprosy. cylindrical. Rhuruchapha. pungent. Sk. :—Konkan. white with a pale yellow centre. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. C. Devagangile. 7. urinary discharges. t. Fl.—follicles.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. Kadu-sampige.

itching. :—G. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. NS. K.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). G. FAM. Arni. lumbago. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. F. Chamari. chronic fever. Gracie). juice is given in colic and fever. Pavaka. Oil—anthelmintic. Oils. M. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. NS. bark. vagina. useful in diseases of eye. also planted. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. In Satara. COM. LOC. flowers. piles. " Kapha ". :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. along Deccan rivers . Karanja. skin diseases. Kanaji. .—Verbenaceæ. head and brain diseases. Gaura. chest complaints. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Karanja. Naktamala. Karanj. Huligili. purify and enrich blood. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). M. leaves. Indian beech. chronic fever and hydrocele. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. fruits and seeds. Agnimandha. cures biliousness. Arand. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Sk. Oil—styptic. DISTR. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Ichu. Sk. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. anthelmintic. alexipharmic . Ustabunda . cures eye diseases. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. leucoderma. Karanj. " Vata ". ascites. Kanja. J. bruised. Honge. Kanika. good for tumour. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Kirmal.) FAM. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. relieves inflammation. See—Timbers. wounds (Ayurveda). ulcers. skin and in keratitis . Karanjmara. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. H. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Arni. K. Seeds—acrid . Jayanti. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Agetha. wounds. good in scabies. PARTS USED :—Root. lumbago. liver pain. piles. H. carminative. urinary discharges . Aran. :—E. Agnibijaka. cure earache. USES :—The fresh leaves. COM. rheumatic pains. LOC. leprosy.

lobes 4. Jamphal. DISTR. Fruit—tonic. Dridhabija. PARTS USED :—Leaves. bark yellowish. :—Cultivated all over the State.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). high. Fl. Peru. Safedsafari. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. FAM. LOC. blue-black. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Fr. G. dyspepsia. M. Anthers—dry wound. diabetes. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. bronchitis. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). cool heated brain. pungent. seated on the calyx .2-6. It is given in the form of decoction. broadly elliptic. Peru ."Vata".—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Sd. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). sour. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. See—Famine Plants. Kanara. Perala. It is also employed in scurvy. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. Root is laxative. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums.— June-July. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. piles. H. stomachic. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. Fl. laxative. Peruka. Jamud-rukh. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. useful in anaemia. chyluria. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast.—5-9 X 3. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. entire or upper part dentate. cooling.3 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Nicobars and Malaya. LOC.—tubular. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. used in bronchitis. NS. Guava tree. stomachic. applied to sore eyes. cooling. constipation. causes "Kapha".. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. Flowers cool body. Perala. COM. Young leaves are tonic in the . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Amrut. Andamans.— globose. cylindric. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Gova. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. greenish yellow. :—E. as an astringent to bowels. hairy in the throat. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. Vastula. for unhealthy ulcers. small. Ash—caustic (Yunani). laxative after food. good in colic and for bleeding gums. aphrodisiac . flowers. smooth.—Myrtaceæ.—hard. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. common about Karwar. DISTR. Ceylon. fever. L. good for liver complaints (Yunani). C. t. K. Jamb. Piyara. fruits and gum. . :—Throughout the Konkan and N. heating. Sk. Gum is tonic. LOC. LOC. rough-tubercled .

LOC.—simple. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Fruit—diuretic. Kalameshi. :—An erect annual. stem and branches grooved.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. vulnerary. piles.—pod. 3. aphrodisiac. Bakuchi. high. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). LOC. good for heart troubles. M. Fruits and seeds cure asthma.8 X 2. CHAR. nigro-punctate. Vanguji. Kushtaghni. Bavachi. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. M. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. :—Throughout India and Ceylon.2 m. L. cures "Vata". Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Country. good for leucoderma. FAM. bitter taste.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). leprosy. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. stomachic. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Konkan and S. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. COM. improves hair and complexion. anthelmintic. DISTR. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections.—bluish purple . See—Fruit Trees. H. rounded and mucronate at the apex. solitary. Sd. heals ulcers. improves appetite. G. vomiting. alterative. " Rakta-pitta". scabies. white hairy. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. Chandralekha. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". diuretic. studded with glands and white hairs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. inflammation.—Aug-Dec. anæmia. . cures blood diseases . smooth. black. nephrites and cachexia.6-1. 0. Bowach-chi. C. skin diseases. K. t. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Bukchi.—in dense axillary. causes biliousness. Sk.5—5 cm. clawed. antipyretic. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea.—one. mucronate. Bavachi. biliousness. 10-30 flowered racemes . raw one is used in diarrhœa. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Babachi. NS. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. HABITAT :—Waste places. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Bhavanj. closely-pitted. leaves. Fr. Fl. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). Seeds— refrigerant. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Fl. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. urinary dis charges. :—E. standard orbicular. Seed—purgative. stimulant. fruit and seeds. Babachi. ovoidoblong. bronchitis. alexiteric. laxative. difficulty in micturition.

Bibla. Bijak. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. urinary discharges. M. laxative. See—Timbers. Honi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. H. useful in eye troubles. applied to hydrocele. liver tonic. COM. gleet. anthelmintic. burning sensation. enriches blood. ulcers. Bio. LOC. also in Konkan. somewhat milder in action than catechu. called kino. Flowers— improve appetite. NS. G. G. flowers and gum. Dadima. ascends to 1100 m. colic. griping. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. COM. Dadam. erysipelas. styptic. blood diseases. LOC. cultivated in many parts of India. Dalimba. Dadimba. " Kapha ". Sk. diuretic. NS. Malabar kino-tree. biliousness. K. useful in vomiting. K. LOC. earache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Bark—astringent. leprosy. vulnerary. allays thirst. Mahakutaj. tonic. Kanara. FAM. Pitasar. Bija. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). fattening. :—Western Peninsula and S.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Anar. urinary discharges (Yunani). :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. scattered but not gregarious . Bibla. strengthens gums. Flowers—check vomiting. PARTS USED. useful in all body diseases. Sk. Gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Dhalim. Ceylon. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. PARTS USED:—Root. Bibla. ophthalmia. cures " Vata ". Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). anthelmintic. vulnerary Fruit—sweet.—Punicaceæ. tonic. FAM. sore-throat. Pomegranate tree. sore eyes brain diseases. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. :—E. antipyretic. boils. in Akrani. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Benga. Common in N. H. " Tridosh". DISTR. Kabul and Baluchistan. spleen complaints. Valka-phala. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. M. used in sore throat. flowers and fruits. elephantiasis. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. Dadima. Khandesh and Dangs. anal troubles. prolapsus ani. fever. Bia. useful in biliousness. Dharimb . cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Dalimb . :—Leaves. Indian kino-tree. thirst. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Hulidalimb . body eruptions. laxative. good for biliousness. alterative . Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Hirdokhi. scabies. India. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. Honne. chest troubles. bark. Fruit-appetiser. Raktabija-pushpa. DISTR. Sunila. :—E. :—Wild in Iran. stomatitis. used in piles. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Bigsah. leucoderma. Gums and Resins. heart-disease. . Gum—bitter.

jasmine . widely cultivated all over India. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. The rind of the fruit. NS. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Rangoonchavel. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. 7. numerous. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. elliptic. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. LOC. G. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn.— ellipsoid. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. Sk. Midhola. CHAR. :—A strong climber. :—E. Madana. COM. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. Dharaphal. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery.—Mar. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children.5 cm. See—Ornamental Plants. Rangoon creeper.—opposite. NS. K. nearly 6 cm. lanceolate .—Rubiaceæ. Karhar Mainphal. base rounded. dark green. M. Annam. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. S. It is given in the form of decoction. hairy beneath.-Aug. acutely 5-angled. Pinditak. LOC. acuminate. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. USES :—In Amboyana. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. pendant. Barmasinivel. long. M. Fl. Karigidda. FAM. FAM. Emetic nut. Chinese honeysuckle. G. Country and Kanara. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. Fr. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. DISTR.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. :—E. L. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. In China. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally.—Combretaceæ. . Rangoonkibel. at first white then deep red . Mangari-kai. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. t. H. Lalchameli. calyx tube long. Minkare. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. C—petals 5. glabrous above. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Mindhola. Gelphal.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards.—in axillary and terminal spikes. Konkan. Fruit contains vitamin C. LOC. Gela. COM. M. Fl.

emetic. inflammations. G. K. Java. amenorrhœa. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. boils. carminative. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. tumours. good for spleen and in paralysis. Sk. Muro. Bitter. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. leprosy. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. used in diseases of the brain.—Cruciferæ. :—E. sweet. NS. antipyretic. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. useful in chronic bronchitis. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. bitter. Mulak. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. leprosy. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. good in tumours. LOC. See—Timber. binding. asthma. M. eruptions. Mura. COM. S. Mula. piles. its action is very safe. carminative. inflammations. skin-diseases. leucoderma (Yunani). flowers. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. DISTR. :—Throughout India. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. hiccup. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. emetic. It is also used to poison fish. Seeds-sharp. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. piles (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. anthelmintic. cholera. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. FAM. Tropical Africa. Sumatra. H. ulcers. LOC. Ksharmula. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . emmenagogue. Ruchira. " Vata" and " Kapha". Radish. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. paralysis. tonic. muscular pains. Bili Mulangi. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. Mali. E. juice relieves earache. purgative. It also contains an essential oil. Muri. Mula. certain and regular. heating. Hastidanta. carminative. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. useful in diseases of heart. stomachic. alexiteric. it is equal to it in every respect. and all inflammations . It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . cures abscesses. Juice of . aphrodisiac. leaves. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. produce alopecia (Yunani). The plant contains glucoside saponin. bad taste. destroys "Vata". DISTR.

Chandrika. Palakjuhi. and black salt. black shining. Fl. Juipani. carminative. Fr. In the Konkan.—drupe.9 m. irregularly. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. . Sk.-May. M. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Group B — Serpentine. FAM. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. ajmalicine. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. Nai. anthelminitic . pungent. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. See—Vegetables. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. COM. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees.5-18 X 2. specific for insanity. Chandrika. K.. :—An erect perennial shrub. white.—tubular. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. COM.—Acanthaceæ. diuretic.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative.. acute. lanceolate. t. with a long. ajamalinine. Harki. laxative. Sarpakshi. L. PARTS USED :—Root. 7. NS.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. cures " Tridosha ". bright green above. acrid. sedative. Java. K. :—H.—in irregular corymbose cymes. CHAR. Gaja-karni. Harkaichand. NS. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. nodular. ginger. used in hyperpiesis . RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth.. Yuthikaparni. Chhotachand. Sivanabhi. Garudpatala. Ceylon. single or didymous. bright red . Nakulikand. B and C.) FAM.-in whorls of 3. expectorant. sharp. thin. ulcers (Ayurveda). rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. yellowish root stock. :—H. swollen a little above the middle.— Mar. seeds are considered peptic. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Mungusavel.—Apocynaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Sk. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Root contains vitamins A. Andamans. leaves (rarely). often tinged with violet. Doddapatike. DISTR. pale beneath. serpentinine. LOC. Kanara. corrective and emmenagogue. shady open places near rain-forests. heating. Fl. Sarpagandha. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. M. It is hypnotic.5-6. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. Western Peninsula.3 cm. LOC. C.

vaginal pains. black. Java. inflammations. some fevers. boils. pain in back. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. :—E. COM. ring-worm. Fruit— appetiser. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. Erand. narrow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating.—nearly sessile. rheumatism. :—Probably of African origin. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". entire. liver and spleen diseases. S. Haralu. elephantiasis.—Oct. body pains. LOC. Tirki. Country. diseases of rectum and head. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. elliptic lanceolate.—lipped. high. Chitrabija. amenorrhœa (Yunani). :—Deccan. Vardhamana. widely cultivated in tropical countries. Erand. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. tumours. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Sholapur). convulsions.-Jany. paralysis. ascites. K. Country (Dharwar. fevers. tropical Africa. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. leprosy. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. 0. Arand. typhoid.5 m. HABITAT :—Hills. Cattle are fed with leaves for . inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. pubescent: C. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. glands. Fl. LOC. FAM. lumbago. eructations. DISTR. NS. :—Throughout India. LOC. useful in pains. Very little in other districts of the State. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. H. earache. Madagascar (cultivated). Palma christi. oil—anthelmintic. flowers and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in heart diseases. alterative. bracts ovate lanceolate. G. generally cultivated. pointed. piles. leaves and seeds. purgative. good for burns. Seed and oil—cathartic. bronchitis.9—1. LOC. cultivated. Ceylon (wild) . velvety hairy Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. M.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Root-bark—purgative. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). Fr. Straits-Settlements. Sk. Triputiphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. t. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica.—Euphorbiaceæ. stems obscurely angled. useful in inflammations. asthma. piles. asthma. lumbago. leaves. Khandala. hills near Belgaum. Vardhaman. hairy outside . dropsy. M.. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. leprosy. Mahabaleshwar. Belgaum. increase biliousness. Castor oil plant. ascites. L. Fl. pains. useful in liver troubles. night-blindness. :—Undershrub.—capsule. Eranda. white. aphrodisiac. Divald. strangury. glandular. carminative . useful in skin-disease. anal troubles. increases "Kapha". Flowers useful in glandular tumours. DISTR. alterative. solitary. ascites. upper lip bifid . Leaves—galactagogue. intestinal worms. Divaligo. Erand.— tuberculate.

5 m. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. sweetish. Fr. Shatadala. dry..—Rosaceæ. sometimes striped . stomatitis. In constipation it is used as an enema. Tarana. LOC. liver.— all the year. cures leprosy. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. Punjab and U. Fl. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. aperient removing bile and cold humours. :—A perennial shrub. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. mild and safe purgative. L. biliousness. H. stems with stout and hooked prickles.— usually corymbose. :—Origin unknown. ovate oblong. inflammations. K. NS. burning sensation.—obovate . head-ache. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. laxative. P. good for eyes. adults. cooling. t. tonic. removes bad odour from mouth. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. cardiotonic. They are also applied to painful joints. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . PARTS USED :—Flowers. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. . hairy. G. Pannira. " Vata". Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . Fl. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. laxative. tooth-ache. cultivated all over India. which is a powerful poison. red. aphrodisiac. Gulab .182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. :—E. Gulab. much used in lotions and collyria . Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. double. petioles prickly. Sudburj. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). cephalic. stipules scarcely dilated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. Italy. sometimes glandular. improves appetite (Ayurveda). serrate. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . seldom griping or causing flatulency. CHAR. Greece and Germany. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. with a good odour. antipyretic. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. etc. Lakshmipushpa. Ghazipur is a chief centre. Soumyagandha. See—Oils. benefits lungs. intestinal affections. France. long.—pinnate. FAM. pink or white. astringent when dry (Yunani).3 cm. expectorant.5-6. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Gulab. excessive perspiration. Flower—bitter. kidneys. cardiotonic. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Ati-manjula. chronic fevers. acrid. 2. DISTR. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. they are cold. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. COM. used in heat of body. attaining 1.

COM. analgesic. Chuka. NS. urine and even bones red. dysentery. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. CHAR. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. Chitralata. Fl.—Polygonaceæ. 15-30 cm. PARTS USED.. Country. heating. :—Root. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation.—in terminal panicled cymes. alexiteric. high. blood. M. Leaves-sweet. orbicular . Sk. M. all scabrous with white prickles. piles.—white or pink. rheumatism. lower leaves larger. LOC. inflammations. paralysis. Japan. leaves and fruit.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . stems very long. Tamravalli. valves hyaline. Aruna. Malay Peninsula. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. Rohini. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. Chukra. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Manjit. cylindric. smooth. emmenagogue. Decoction tinges blood. branched from the root. Dock. COM. :—E. purplish black when ripe. Sk. lactagogue. DISTR. improves voice and complexion . K. Ambat Chuka. Sorrel. urinary discharges. Root—bitter. ear. Ceylon. Java.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. tropical Africa. five-nerved. inner perianth-segments membranous. petioles triangular. L. antidysenteric. Fl. analgestic. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. H. jaundice. H. . branches quadrangular . Fr. Raktasara. Majit. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. M. Gulmketu. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. liver complaints. anthelmintic. oleaginous . NS. Indian Madder. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). roots very long. increase appetite.5—7. Manjishtha. elliptic. FAM. grooved. and was much used in dropsy. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. uterine pains (Yunani). diseases of uterus. eye. t-Oct. used in eye-sores. ovate. FAM. laxative. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. prickly. the Konkan and S. :—Perennial climbing herb.5 cm. :—Annual. leucoderma. bitter. ulcers.—2. pains in joints. lethargy. with a thin red bark. acrid.—didymous or globose. leucoderma. one pair with longer petioles ovate. leucorrhoea. erysipelas. :—E. it powerfully affects the nervous system. Bladder. shining. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. Amlavetasa. paralysis. base cuneate. CHAR. jaundice. diuretic. Fr.—in whorls of 4. antipyretic. vagina. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily.-Jany. ulcers and skin-diseases. spleen-enlargement. greenish. Manjishha.—Rubiaceæ. Manjishtha. obtuse. L. erect glabrous herb. LOC. cordate or hastate. cures " Kapha ".

2-lipped. ovoid oblong. upper emarginate. also considered as a vermifuge. hiccup. tumours. roasted. Trans-Indus Hills. H.—Acanthaceæ. diseases of the spleen. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L. lower shortly 3-lobed. M. oblong lanceolate. with darker spots. dyspepsia. then erect. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—Leaves are cooling.—capsule. :—A herb . COM. . often rooting near the base. M. stems usually decumbent. ciliate. while fresh they are bruised. generally in the Deccan. DISTR. Sadabu. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. pains. :—Common throughout the State. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. useful in heart troubles. :—E. t. Parpatha. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani).— subsessile. Cooling. LOC. C. DISTR. with scarious faces and hard ridges. :—Western Punjab. bracts elliptic. Fl. G. Country. Sd. acute . toothache. flatulence. Africa. See—Vegetables. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). in dysentery. rugose with furrow. Common—Garden-rue . S. checks nausea and promotes appetite. Afghanistan. Ceylon. bronchitis. Ghati pittapapada . Satap.—Rutaceæ. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Satapa . LOC. Persia. Deccan. Nagadali. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn.—Nov. NS. Kharmor. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. The seeds have the same properties . LOC.—suborbicular. :—G. M. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. H. Sk. N. bites and stings of poisonous animals. The juice allays tooth-pain. blue or pink. they are prescribed. Fl. piles. Konkan. Satri. asthma. Fr. FAM. laxative. useful in scabies.-Jany. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. pale brown.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vishapaha. acute. Sadapaha.—white. NS. Khatselio . constipation. vomiting. tonic. FAM. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. Havananju. alcoholism. Pismarum Sadab. aperient and diuretic. stomachic. K. analgesic. COM. leucoderma. CHAR.

tonic. epilepsy. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. :—Grown everywhere in India. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Asia is very likely the original home of the species. C. . Tanigarbu . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. S. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. yellowish. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. petioled. and externally used as a rubefacient. The plant contains glucoside glutin. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. M. diuretic. NS :—E. increases mental activity. Rikhu. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties.—angled. spathulate or linear-oblong . PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. garden. See—Ornamental Plants. it may be given internally in hysteria. The oil is the best form for administration. Kabbu. cultivated throughout India.—capsule. S. abortifacient. K. G.-alternate.. M.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. colic. oleaginous. Ganna. DISTR. The plant is tonic. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). forest and mountain. There are three varieties . Kumad. Madhuyashti. :—Egypt and Algeria. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. heating to body . Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. diuretic. particularly Deccan. Satara. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . digestive. useful in fatigue. Sugarcane. etc. HABIT :—Cultivated. laxative. Gudatrina. in pots. COM. flatulence. Naisakar. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). emmenagogue. Rasala. anti-aphrodisiac . Powdered and combined with aromatics. thirst. oblong-obovate. amenorrhœa. Ukh . tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. segments cuneate.—petals 4. Fr. Ingotu. cooling. obtuse . dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. LOC. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. aphrodisiac. decompound. LOC. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. Poona. FAM. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. leprosy.—Gramineæ. all over the State. :—A strong smelling herb . Us . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. flawed. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. H. indigestible. glandulose punctate. grown in gardens. DISTR. Sk. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. heats body. Gudakastha. L. Ikshu. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. Sherdi. LOC.

leucoderma. near the coasts of Gujarat . aphrodisiac . t. red when ripe. anæmia. tonic and aperient. scabies. shining. Sugar causes " Kapha". Sind. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. often mucronate at the apex. carminative. Jal. often planted near Muslim tombs. useful in biliousness.—drupe. erysipelas. Khakan Mirjoli.-Feb. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Kanara in littoral forests. opposite. laxative. fattening. In the Punjab. oil is digestible. piles. COM. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . Fl. diuretic. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. :—E.". delirium. diuretic. Pilu. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. alexiteric.—very thin. Brihat madhu pilu. Kharijal. Tooth-brush tree. fruits seeds and oil. H. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. C. tonic to liver. LOC. carminative and diuretic. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda).. smooth. white. G. fleshy. strengthen teeth. PARTS USED :—Bark. Pilu. See—Food Plants. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. L. Pilu. K. improve diuresis (Yunani). and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. Goni. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Leaves—bitter. deobstruent. Mahaphala. inflammations. numerous.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. causes " Kapha. disorders and wind. greenish-yellow. Seeds—purgative. FAM. dry regions of W. useful in nosetroubles. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. Egypt. bile. analgesic. Fr. Pilu. leaves. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. useful in heat. Fl. Sk. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. sugar is considered heavy. Fruits are deobstruent. anthelmintic. Asia. The juice contains vitamins A and B. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. LOC. NS. 3 mm. good for lungs . cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). lessen inflammation . astringent to bowels. improves appetite. lobes much reflexed. Ceylon. It is good in calculous complaints. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. :—Dry districts of the State. sometimes it raises blisters. branches numerous. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. diam. Piludi.—Salvadoraceæ. globose. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. Cane—sweet. Abyssinia. corrective. In cases of poisoning by copper. deeply cleft. . finely striate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. M. bad for liver (Yunani). stomachic .—Nov. useful in biliousness. purifies blood . ulcers. drooping. pectoral and aphrodisiac. DISTR. :—Drier parts of India. LOC. the Konkan and N.

Arithan . :—E. Bhogivallabha. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . lumbago. Chandan. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. H. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. gleet. NS. :—E. biliousness. alexipharmic. in skin-diseases. " Kapha ". common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Kanara. DISTR. LOC. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). K. Chandan. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. LOC.—Santalaceæ. Mysore and parts of Madras State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. cold in head. useful in inflammations. COM. Aritha. burning sensation. Sandal. antipyretic. Bhadrasara. Sk. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Chandal. Soap-Nut tree. Phenilu. cholera. Ritha . bronchitis. Ritha. Burugukayi. useful in diseases of heart. strangury. Country and N. :—Indian Peninsula. Malayaja. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. Fruit—bitter. up with water into a paste. allays uterine pains. Oil.. aphrodisiac. emetic. G. Chandan. vaginal discharges. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. thirst. M. Kumblabijaka. small-pox (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Oils. . Sandal-wood Tree. astringent to bowels . Anthuvala. paralysis. Antharalo. Shrigandhalmara. to allay heat and pruritus. fruit and seed. diarrhœa. FAM. Mangalya. Sukhad . M. useful in chronic dysentery. tubercular glands. ground. cures "Tridosha". alexiteric. M. Ringni. hemicrania. Ceylon. USES :—Wood. Root—expectorant. Sk. S. DISTR. exhilarating. much cultivated. :—Western Peninsula. Agarugandha. to temples in fever. G. abortifacient. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. alexiteric.—Sapindaceæ. Suket. See—Timbers. LOC. often planted. stomachic. K. NS. head-ache (Yunani). India. epileptic fits of children. PARTS USED:—Wood. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Bhadrasri. Kugale. Arishtaka. FAM. gonorrhœa. COM. tonic. Rishta. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. H. is applied to local inflammations. Phenila. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. chiefly in S. acts as diaphoretic. laxative. Cultivated elsewhere. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests.



LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.



PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.



FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.



FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. small-pox. oil. Raysingani. gouty joints. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. pendulous. white and red. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. linear-oblong. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. strangury. :—G. COM.—pod. PARTS USED :—Root. and as an oildressing for ulcers. promote hair growth. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. opposite. They are nourishing. They are also emmenagogue. K. There are three varieties of seeds : black. 15-23 cm. L. branches striate. long. :—A soft-wooded shrub. etc. NS. galactagogue. aphrodisiac. seeds. 4-5 m. in height. Jayanti. 7. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. removes "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. H. diseases. bark. slightly torulose. seeds. few flowered axillary racemes. an emollient poultice is also made from them.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Jaya. Seed-oil—fattening. carminative. probably a native of tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root. beaked. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. lung diseases. tonic. oleaginous.. burning sensation. long. LOC. bleeding piles.— abruptly pinnate. applied to gouty joints. scabies. Jayat. Jayantika. of eye and ear. obscurely angled . M. Rasin. asthma. inflammations. urinary concretions. enrich blood. Baluchistan. inflammations.5-15 cm. tonic. Nadeyi. inflammations (Yunani). useful in dry cough. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. Waziristan. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. septate between the seeds. Sk. Sd.—standard as broad as long. :—Cultivated all over India. diuretic and lactagogue. C. anthelmintic. leaflets 914 pairs. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. cures . diuretic. indigestible . They have been used to procure abortion. such as dysentery etc. yellow. cooling.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. alterative. Jayanti. DISTR.—20-30. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. Fl. Jayanti. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. mottled with purple on the outside. Shewari. useful in sorethroat. suppurating wounds. Black variety is common. CHAR. eye diseases . cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). hair-tonic. cure menorrhagia. FAM. spleen troubles. syphilitic ulcers. LOC. Janjhan. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. Fr. strengthening. biliousness. Jinangi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets .—in lax. astringent to bowels. into claw. See—Oils. useful in diarrhœa. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. Seeds contain vitamin A. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. leaves. leaves. applied to ulcers and piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot.

flowers. bronchitis. Agathio. high. NS. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . Ornamental Plants. Agasta. long. See—Vegetables. DISTR. very showy. "Kapha" and inflammation. cures " Tridosh " pains. Leaves—purgative. The plant contains vitamin A. 15-30-cm. cure quartan fever. dysentery and paludism.5-8.— flowers at various times. 2-4 white or red. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. diarrhœa. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). astringent. improves taste. biliousness. useful in ophthalmia. Vranari.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. anthelmintic. stimulant. anthelmintic. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. 6-9 m. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache.—in racemes . Kanali.— pod. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. . leprosy. LOC. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. tumours . Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Agasti. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. Munidruma. ulcers. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. C. useful in ozœna. :—A soft wooded tree . epilepsy. rubbed into a paste with water. Fl. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Agati. gout . long. night-blindness. FAM. maturant. alexiteric. leaflets 16-30 pairs. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). is applied in rheumatism. allays thirst. useful In diseases of spleen. t. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. Bark— astringent. cure itching. anaemia. Indigenous from Malaya to N. Bark—astringent. K. Flowers—cooling. is applied in painful swellings.— pinnate. diabetes.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. Fr. Agusta. Basna. improve appetite . H. COM. 50 cm. :—G. See—Fodder Plants. L. Agase. Sk. Australia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seeds—emmenagogue. fruits. leaves. Fruit—laxative . fevers. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. LOC. Dirghashimbi. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. gout. CHAR. LOC. Kempagase. An infusion is given in small-pox. leucoderma. long. relieves throat-troubles. M. Fl. Leaves—indigestible. Bak. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. demulcent. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Hatiya .8 cm. linear oblong.—7.

petals connate at the base with staminal tube. awns 2.—Malvaceæ.—Nov.—solitary or few together. t. Country. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. Jayanti. FAM. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. sharply serrate. M. NS. Batyalaka. obtuse. C. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'.—Malvaceæ. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. PARTS USED :—Root. minutely hairy. Country Mallow. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Fl. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Bala.— yellow. Kherati. pedicel jointed about the middle. ovate-oblong. diam. aphrodisiac . emollient. linear. DISTR. upper margins ciliate. M.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.5-6. Fl.—5-6 mm. Bala. base rounded. useful in blood and throat diseases. Country. black. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils.5-5 cm. Chikna. long. COM. stomachic and tonic. Baladana. Pata. leaves and seeds. crenate. useful in fever. Kisangi. Tukti.-Oct. strongly reticulated.. t. Sd. yellow. cordate. Fr. Fl. astringent. LOC.—2. " Pitta ". awns 2. diuretic. COM. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Kumghi. removes " Vata ". Bala. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. with ginger. Sk. H.. strongly reticulated . FAM. softly hairy all over.-Nov. :—Konkan. carpels 5-9. Khareti. astringent. DISTR. " Kapha " . pedicel jointed much above the middle.—6-8 mm. G. Vatyapushpi. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. Barial..—2. :—G. carpels 7-10. bark. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. long. scabrid-hairy. NS. Prahasa. Bariara. K. L. CHAR. is given .—smooth. a weed. Kharanti. dorsal margins toothed. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Gujarat and S. Hettutti-gida. bleeding piles. dorsal scabrid. :—Konkan (common). :—A shrub. LOC. puberulous. :—Hotter parts of India. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Rajbala. K. LOC.3 cm. LOC. Pata.—1-2 in each axil. Fr. lanceolate. linear . digestive. HABITAT :—Moist places . cooling. decoction. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. :—E. Sk. M. branches slender.Dec. diam. Kareta. Chittuharatu. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). Root—cooling. M. PARTS USED :—Root. H. Samanga. Chikna. L. Fl. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. Deccan and S. glabrous.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. . stiff-neck. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Seeds are called " Bijaband ". M. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. Country. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. also in colic and tenesmus. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Katampu. involucral bracts 2 rows. Ceylon.—yellow. FAM. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. diaphoretic. deeply and irregularly toothed. cystitis. 5 inner boat-shaped. triangular-ovate. common.6—1. rhomboides Roxb. Pilibadkadi. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Linn. tinged with purple.—Nov. L. CHAR. stem stiff. Fl.—opposite. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Fr. administered in hemiplegia. NS. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. :—G. facial paralysis. LOC. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Fl. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. erect. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. noise in ears. It is also used to favour menstruation. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. t.—Compositæ. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. S. 0. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant.-Dec. pappus 0. PROPERTIES AND LOC. slightly rough. Externally. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. :—Throughout India.2 m. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn.—heads small in leafy panicles . :—A large annual herb. all running down wing-like into petiole. and head-ache. DISTR. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. black. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. Fl. M. :—Deccan. juice is used for healing wounds. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. 5 outer clavate.—achene. those of the ray red beneath. high. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. COM. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative.

Indian Nightshade. .—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. Sk. anthelmintic.5 m. 8 mm. Badanikai. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. fever. Vrittaphala. recurved. H.5—7. Baingan.-Aug. rarely wild. bronchitis.3—1. Sk. LOC. lessens inflammations. Brinjal.—Solanaceæ. loss of appetite. bad for piles if taken internally. vomiting. lobed. DISTR. leaves (rarely) and fruits. LOC. aphrodisiac. Rigana. pain. Root is applied to lessen pain. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. prickly. :—E. COM. K. China. pruritus ani. C. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. eye diseases (Ayurveda).-Oct. sharp.—Solanaceæ. NS. :—Widely cultivated in India. Vartaki. PARTS USED :—Root. Vadikadheri. causes biliousness. very. Dorli. " Kapha". removes foulness of the mouth. Fruit—cardiotonic. L. Vange.—minutely pitted: Fl. useful in leucoderma. Kadusonde. H. t.. analgesic. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). diam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating.—pale-purple. Ranringni. prickles large.. Bhantaki. Philippines. PARTS USED :—Root. covered with stellate hairs.5 cm. DISTR. subentire. stem stout. high. Barhanta. G. Ubhi-bhuringni. Habba-Kirigulla. Nilaphala. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. Kattarta. K. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. M. improves appetite. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Ceylon. :—E. Vengni. Malpya. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bhantaki. FAM. maturant. " Vata". astringent to bowels. G. Hinguli. M. LOC. FAM. Vayase. base unequal-sided. Mahotika. enriches blood. 0. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. cardiotonic.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Fl. Hinguli.— berry. clothed outside with purple hairs . Brihati. :—Throughout tropical India. globose. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Mhotiringni. Vantak. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". Sd. digestive. Bhanta. ovate. or triangular-ovate.—5—15 X 2. laxative. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. COM. dark-yellow when ripe. Fr. It is seldom used alone. NS. Egg Plant. leaves. petiole prickly. fruit and seeds. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. asthma.. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections.

Tiktika. Kakamachi. C. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. See—Vegetables. Hound's Berry. bitter. stem erect. Ceylon. smooth. COM.—Sept. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. Fruit contains vitamins A. etc. In S. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. . Kabaiya. t. asthma. 6 mm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. inflammation. Root-bark—laxative . PARTS USED :—Root. diuretic. shining. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda).— berry. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. yellow. 3-8 flowered cymes . eye-diseases hydrophobia.—many. subumbellate. useful in heart and eye-diseases. useful in diseases of eye. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Katuphala. Vayasi. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation.. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. dysentery. good for neck ulcers. entire or sinuate toothed. Piludi. leaves and fruit. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. tapering into petioles. throat burning. piles. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. vomiting. B and C. aphrodisiac. diarrhœa. chronic fever. bronchitis. laxative. cathartic and diuretic. FAM. LOC. Makoi. inflammation. Fl.—small. liver inflammation. improves appetite. leucoderma. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). M. The seeds are used as a stimulant. :—A variable annual herb . Seeds—laxative. itch. Kakamachi. in extra-axillary. favours conception and facilitates delivery . NS.-Jany. fever. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. minutely pitted . bronchitis. Sd. " Tridosha". :—Throughout India.—Solanaceæ. fever. useful in giddiness. CHAR. Fl. dysuria and asthma. Kakamunchi. much divaricately-branched . It acts as a hydrogogue. worms in ear. bark.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . LOC. improves voice . in pains. taste. L. Kamoni. :—E. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. urinary discharges. Morellel. heating. griping. Gurkamai. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. tonic. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. G. and used with success in psoriasis. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. K. not to be given to pregnant women. hiccup. H. ovatelanceolate. Sk.—discoid. alterative. DISTR. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. ear and nose . diam. Black Night-shade.

chronic bronchitis. S. Kenjal.—berry. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . M. Africa. base unequal-sided. Bhui-Kate-ringni. Leaves—good application for piles. thirst. heart disease. aphrodisiac. Fl. Seeds—anthelmintic. H. It is used in asthma. Kantakari.—Solanaceæ.3 cm. Kantakini. fruits and seeds. hairy on both sides. lobes deltoid. laxative. Jundri. Root—aphrodisiac. Chikka-sonde. FAM. Great Indian millet. CHAR. COM. often exceeding 1. piles.7 cm. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). K. prickles compressed. Basu). sinuate or subpinnatifid. good in inflammation. LOC.5-5. urinary concretions. sterility in women. Jowar. Jolah. LOC. surrounded by enlarged calyx . leaves. Ikshupatraka. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Konkan. Fr. anthelmintic .— June.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Sorgho. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. hairy outside. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. Bijapur and E. 3-2 cm. Malaya. E. Sundia . Jowari. appetiser. Yuvanala. COM. Ringni.—Gramineæ. long. Katai. :—Common in the Deccan . Sk. bright green perennial herb . C. :—Throughout India. dysuria. Kateli. ovate or elliptic. useful in bronchitis. fever. "Vata" and " Kapha". good for boils and scabies (Yunani). M. Sholapur. expectorant and febrifuge. Nirgol. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. tropical Australia. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. K. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Durrah. :—E. Jondhala. heating. L. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. HABITAT :—Cultivated.. petiole prickly. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. straight.—purple. :—G. yellow or white with green veins. Vrittatandula. they are used in the burning of feet. diam. flowers.-5-10 X 2. Dhavani..—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Sind. Ceylon. ozoena. Sk. NS. stone in bladder. LOC. Brihati. H. stomachic. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. yellow and shining. muscular pains. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. Fl. & Wendl. Bhoyaringni. Yengara . fevers. G. :—A very prickly diffuse. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. pains. D. Jonera. FAM. stem zig-zag. strangury. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . biliousness. Nele-Rama-gulla . Fruit—laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. stems. t. pruritus . lumbago. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Shalu. Nidigdhika. NS. asthma. Dirghashara. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough.

NS. hairy. DISTR. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES. G. DISTR. glandular. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Bijapur and E. . aphrodisiac. Agniruha. Sk. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Pravrajita. hence used in intermittent fevers. piles. Kumbhala. tonic and antiperiodic . H. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). M. Khandesh and S. diseases of blood. :—Seeds. See—Timbers. Rawtarohan. FAM: —Compositæ. Ceylon. Rohun. LOC. Gorakmundi. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . L. general debility. common in Gujarat. Dharwar. LOC. bladder and kidney complaints. fevers. while Belgaum. M. HABITAT :—Open situations. Grains contain vitamin B. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent.—Meliaceæ. Munditika. Rohini. useful in " Kapha". on dry stony hills. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. :—Bark-acrid. Swami-mara. indigestible. Asia and Africa. NS. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. high. K. Juss. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Gums and Resins. with toothed wings. Tans. :—The grain is cooling. biliousness. :—Bark. ulcers. ulcers. :—Dry forests of W. vaginal injections and enemas. Aruna. Rohani. laxative. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. K. Bastard Cedar.—sessile. stem and branches cylindric. COM. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Poona. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Sumbi. Bodiakalara. :—Widely cultivated in India. Ahmedabad. Some. PARTS USED. See—Food Plants. Mahamundi. :— E. :—G. Gorakhmundi. FAM. tumours (Ayurveda). refrigerant. Karanda-gida. Vritta. Indian Red-Wood. M. Ruhin. H. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. cures " Tridosha ". Fibres.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. good for sore-throat. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . leprosy and dysentery . introduced into America and Australia. anthelmintic. Rohina. constipating. improves appetite and taste. COM. Gorakhamundi. CHAR. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles.

C. LOC. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. Akarakara . irregularly crenateserrate. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. the latter when present minute. . ciliate near the ends . Ceylon. emmenagogue. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. Pappuso. stalked. biliousness. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. Akara-karava. alterative. vomiting. lessens inflammations . Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . useful in skin diseases. M. :—Common in rice-fields. glandular hairy. tuberculous glands. LOC. :—Throughout India. depurative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. scalding of urine. long. stem and branches hairy. oblong. tonic. CHAR. flowers and seeds. with honey they are given in cough. COM. good for eyesore. anæmia. compressed . cools brain. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. Celyon. alexipharmic. glaborous. epileptic convulsions. USES. elephantiasis.— achene.—in heads ovoid. HABITAT. H. They are chewed to relieve toothache. increases appetite. FAM. Pellitary . used in prolapsis ani (Yunani).—Achene. :—Deccan. spleen diseases.—purple. leaves and flower-heads. anthelmintic. Fl. involucre bracts linear. gives lustre to eyes . Plant is also used in glandular swellings.—compound heads. :—E. Fr. :—Annual herb. truncate. cooling. Akkalkara . Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. all warm countries. base usually acute. scabies. S.. ovate. Powdered root is given as tonic. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. Fr. laxative. t. ovate-oblong. Malay Islands. biliousness. rectal pain. peduncles reaching 10 cm. bronchitis. PARTS USED. Australia. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. hemicrania (Ayurveda).—Compositæ. solitary or subpanicled. HABITAT. digestible. in cases of worms and indigestion. fattening. boils. PARTS USED. gleet.—opposite. Fl. asthma. sometimes grown in gardens.—Nov-Jany. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk. DISTR. used also for local application. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. serrate or dentate. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Fl. :—Root. leucoderma. bark. dysentery. DISTR.—Nov. chest diseases. urinary discharges. ring-worm of waist. LOC. :—Root. piles. L. t. indigestion. Tonic. used in insanity. :—Wild and cultivated. peduncles with toothed wings. M. looseness of breasts. PROPERTIES AND USES. laxative. Africa. NS. and tonic (Stewart) . enriches blood . leaves. Fl. They are given in powder form. :—Common in the Konkan. :—Hot. globose ovoid. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. :—Throughout India. Country and Kanara. jaundice..200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. strangury. urethral discharges and jaundice. pain in uterus and vagina.

In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. See—Gums and Resins. burning sensation. :—E. ulcers. L. Ambodha. leaves and fruit. aphrodisiac. 3. Fruit—indigestible. Amrataka.—Anacardiaceæ. Ceylon. Hude. Kariguddada. phthisis. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching.5-18 x 3. Hongkong. Kanara. oblong.5 cm. t. NS. K. LOC. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. :—A tree 9-10. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. Bile Tree. Padiala. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. oblique. Kamduti. high. Sk. C. :—Leaves-tasty. PARTS USED. Kapichuta. Marahunise. Fr. DISTR. M.. tonic. Padal. Tungi. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. hard. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. biliousness. Fl. destroys " Vata ". astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Western Peninsula. COM. Burma. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji..—drupe. M. pinkish green. :—H. bark smooth. Gujarat. Pitana.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. astringent. HABITAT. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Hulave. Kalavrinta. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Indian Hog-Plum. Ambada. COM. Toyadhivasini. Kumbhi. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Gum is demulcent. Ran-amba . ash-coloured .-usually 1. Patala. Country. Fl. ovoid. trunk straight.5 m. Ali-vallabha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth.—Bignoniaceæ. Avatekayi. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. cures rheumatism. Konkan. long. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. NS. appetising. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Amate. :—Bark.-Apl. :—Often planted throughout the State. Amra. entire. branches nearly horizontal. round with furrows and cavities. K. Parur. PROPERTIES AND USES. yellow. Wild Mango. Sd. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. blood complaints . refrigerant. Indian Archipelago. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Sk.— petals 4-5. Patala. LOC. Dr. widely planted. stone woody. good for sore-throat. M. Pahad. Giri Hadari. It has been found useful in dysentery. FAM..8 cm. long. Padal. enriches blood . H. S. ovate oblong. Pandri.8-7. CHAR. . (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Salt Range. :—Cultivated. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Andamans. W. USES :—Bark is refrigerant.Feb.

:—Fruit-acrid. Kuchala. tonic. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. Kajra.—Loganiaceæ. aphrodisiac. ulcers. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). pungent. :—Wood (rarely). LOC. :—Root. Kupaka. Visha-druma. bitter. N. piles . loss of taste. burning sensation. Kajra. "Vata". The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites .. Laos. Kelakutaka. See—Timbers. blood diseases. cures pains in joints. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures leucoderma. Kuchla. Kuchla. flowers. eructations. DISTR. :—Very common in Konkan and N. diuretic. antipyretic. H. heating. ring-worm. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Kajavara. tonic. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Burma. Ittangi. Kanara. sub-Himalaya. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. from Kashmir to Sikkim . vomiting. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. piles. LOC. thirst. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Kangira. seeds. PARTS USED. It is regarded as cooling. FAM. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. Fruit—useful in hiccup. M. Karnatak. LOC. Kachita. emmenagogue . Indo-China. appetiser. astringent to bowels. anæmia. :—In forests south of Bombay. lumbago. :—Root-bitter. :—E. Fruit—bitter. LOC. heating. K. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). Travancore. west coast of Madras State. DISTR. Poison Nut. Hemushti. Circars. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Monsoon-forests. blood diseases. Nirmal.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. COM. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Kanara. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Flowers— acrid . fruit. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. fruit. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES. G. jaundice. tonic. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. Karaskara. Ceylon. Planted in Ceylon. :—More or less throughout tropical India. itching. Vishamushti. fevers. Sk. Crow Fig. heating. PARTS USED. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. asthma. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. Kakatinduka. Travancore . useful in bilious diarrhœa. NS. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. poisonous. "Kapha". inflammation. leaves. diuretic.

Fruit useful in eye diseases. urinary discharges. :—Deciduous dry forests. :—Western Peninsula. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. Clearing Nut Tree. (Rasendrasarasangraha). STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. DISTR. emetic. jaundice. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. diaphoretic. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Madhya Bharat. Country. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Kataka. The demand for strychnine is increasing. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. COM. cures inflammations. hallucinations. cure strangury.—Loganiaceæ. Ceylon. increases "Vata". thirst. LOC. anæmia. M. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Chittu bija. causes biliousness. See—Timbers. Shodhanatmaka. astringent to bowels. Nirmali. :—Root cures leucoderma. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. PARTS USED. diuretic. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. lithotriptic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. fruit and seeds. also in Konkan. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Seeds—bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. Kanara and Khandesh. FAM. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. alexiteric. relieve colic (Yunani). Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. good for liver. HABITAT. Seeds—acrid. H. aphrodisiac. improve eye-sight. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. :—Root (rarely). Sk. kidney complaints. :—E. head-diseases (Ayurveda). Ambuprasadini. M. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. See—Timbers. alexipharmic. . Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. NS. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. gonorrhœa.. Aduguchali-bija. Nivali. :—Sand-stone hills of S. LOC. tonic. poisoning. Burma. Nelmal.

Peninsula). CHAR. Deccan . 4-winged. C. Tillaka. stem densely leafy.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. inflammations. :—Root. emmenagogue. dysentery. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu.—capsule.. COM. LOC. alexiteric. China Nora. Chota Nagpur. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. Lodh is used in raw condition. 0. :—W. high. quadrangular. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". LOC. Torna fort. in powder or in fresh decoction. eye-diseases and ulcers .— Oct. DISTR. Burma.9 m. Kadu. K. Fr. biliousness.3-0. Lodhraka. Country. :—Bark. FAM. LOC. diseases of blood. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. . See—Timbers. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . PROPERTIES AND USES. flowers (rarely). Balaloddujinamara. vaginal discharges. Deccan. winged . digestible. astringent to bowels. Peninsula. bleeding gums . :—Konkan and N.—Symplocaceæ. etc. E. M. Sd. COM. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani).— sessile. PROPERTIES AND USES.. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . :—Western Ghats . Bark—bitter. :—Bark-acrid. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. NS. PARTS USED. FAM.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. Dyes. L. NS. Loder. t. :—India (W. Lodhra. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Lodhra . Lodh . Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Bhilli. :— E. cures cough.—many. broadly ovate. decussate. Tiritaka. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas.—Gentianaceæ.-Jany. 5-nerved . ovoid or oblong. HABITAT. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. throughout N. colloturine and loturiaine. DISTR. S. H. Bose). acrid. 2-valved. Mahabaleshwar. :—The whole plant is bitter. Californian Cinchona. leprosy. M. cooling. useful in abortions . "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Sk. Shavaraka. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. :—M. useful in eye-diseases. Broughton). aphrodisiac.— lobes 4-5. Fl. :—Hilly parts. white with blue veins. C. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. Lodh Tree. Fl. :—An erect herb. C. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. Lodh.

Pharenda. bronchitis. :—Throughout India. dry. cooling. :—Bark. also used in spongy and painful gums. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Fruit—acrid. Jamen.—Myrtaceæ. common at Mahabaleshwar. good gargle for sore-throat. Fruit Trees. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. biliousness.) FAM. dysentery. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. enriches blood. Shukapriya. Jambul. Sk. :—Throughout the State. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). Jambudi. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). asthma. K. Australia. H. Gulabjaman. thirst. common along river banks. Surabhipriya. Sk. H. Jambu. K. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. astringent. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. NS. also wild. carminative . good lotion for ring-worm in head. :—E.—Myrtaceæ. Seeds—diuretic. Ceylon. . LOC. ulcers. :—Bark-acrid. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. LOC. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. blood impurities. Neralu. etc. Jambura. carminative and diuretic. useful in spleen diseases. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. Kokileshta. Gulab-Jamb. DISTR. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. anthelmintic. M. PARTS USED. Jambu. :-Black-Java Plum. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Pannerali. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. Jamburaj. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth.) FAM. Jambu. Malay—Rose apple. sprouts. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Nerate. COM. astringent to bowels. M. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. strengthens gums and teeth. Jambu-Nayinerale. COM. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. increases "Vata". Jam. Malaya. LOC. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. astringent to bowels. Jambu. PROPERTIES AND USES. gargles and washes . NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. sweet. fruits and seeds. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Nenda. Nilphala. fruit vinegar is tonic. Shukapriya. G. very often planted. both wild and cultivated. good for sore-throat. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Jambul. Jambula. removes bad smell from mouth. digestive.

:—Bark is sweet. :—Cultivated in gardens. emmenagogue. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. Cultivated in many places.. cures epilepsy. aphrodisiac. thirst. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. CHAR." biliousness. astringent to bowels.—snow-white. astringent to bowels. used in asthma. 1-3 ribbed. alexipharmic. :—Root is acrid. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. fatigue. Bengal. PARTS USED. used in liver complaints. Ashvathabheda. Trinidad . removes bad humours. . Maddarasa gida . Garhwal. useful in paralysis. . cultivated in many parts. divaricate. indigestible. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). Chandani.—Apocynaceæ. glossy green above. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. bronchitis. Kottuhale. L. dysentery. digestible. Root—bitter . t. tonic.— opposite. across. Yunnan to Australia. heavy speech. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. tonic to brain. LOC. weakness of limbs. HABITAT. Tagara. wood and oil. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. E. fragrant at night.—follicles. G. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit—sweet and tasty. COM. :—Bark. double. with milky juice . C—lobes overlapping to the left. :—E. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). margins wavy. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. hot.5-15 X 2. See—Ornamental Plants. inodorous during the day.5-5 cm. H. Sk. Tagar . useful in "Kapha. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Khasia Hills. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. PARTS USED. Seeds are astringent to bowels. Burma. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. DISTR. astringent to bowels. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. Root chewed relieves toothache . strangury. and an essential oil. used in syphilis (Yunani). Nandi. salver-shaped. 7. heating. K.—rainy season. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. purgative. Fl. M. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. tonic to brain.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—Root. Taggar. LOC. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. lobes 5 in single. fruit and seeds. Ananta. See—Timbers. improves voice. liver and spleen . Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. Br. pale beneath. Tagar. :—Sikkim Terai. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES.5-5 cm. orange within. bitter. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. lessens pains in limbs and joints . Wax flower. Fl. indigestible. Fr. Assam.) FAM. acrid.

Sthulapushpa.—white. :—E. Genda. Gultora. Flower—bitter. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. DISTR. Amlike. LOC. Amli. DISTR.5 cm.. : K. Fr. G. muscular pains. across in pedunculate cymes . Zendu. COM. Amli. Amala. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. Nuli. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles.5 m. FAM. Sk. Pandarakuda. L. 7. carminative. belching. stomachic. CHAR. throughout the Konkan and N. internally they are said to purify blood. PARTS USED. t. lessens inflammation . Kanara. Tintrani. M. wood. bark grey. :—Same as T.5 cm. divaricata. . with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. COM.—opposite. :—Shady parts of rain-forests.—surrounded by red pulp. coriaceous. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). K. FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Amlika. yellow when ripe. See—Ornamental Plants.. grown in gardens all over India. Makhamal. common in rain-forests. Amla.. Chinch. LOC.2-7. M. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. :—Root. :—Leaves and flowers.—Apocynaceæ. Tintidika. H. French Marigold. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. Imli. acrid. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). FAM. G. NS. Chinch. Sandu. rough. useful in scabies. Maddarssa.. Makhamali. Tamarind.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. M. Nagaskuda. Fl. Teter. Zanduga. Sk. somewhat boat-shaped. H. high. oblong lanceolate . good for teeth .— Mar-Apl. Kalaga. their juice is given in ear-ache.— tube inflated near the top. 2. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . C. :—Malabar. kidney troubles. HABITAT. oil.5-20 X 3. :—E. :—Flower-pungent.4-4. PARTS USED. :—Rain-forests. Makhamala. Sd. Fl. LOC. NS. Nagakuda. Travancore up to 7. COM. astringent. :—Native of Mexico. Guljharo.000 m.—Compositæ. HABITAT. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. PROPERTIES AND USES.—follicle. Chinchika. bitter. HABITAT. Leaves—good for piles. NS. Halmeti.

astringent to bowels. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Teka.. wood. tonic. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Sag. Fruit—sour. costiveness. biliousness. leaves. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Sagun. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. :—Bark. tasty. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). LOC. bark.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. scabies. Tega. laxative. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Burma. stomatitis. NS. fruit and seeds. digestive. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. COM. Fruit-sour. Sag. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). heals wounds and fractures. carminative. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. :—E. Sumatra and Java. DISTR. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Sk. aphrodisiac. Anil. K. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. causes cough. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. heals ulcers. thirst. Bark—astringent. small-pox. G.—Verbenaceæ. tonic to heart. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". anthelmintic. FAM. Teak. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Sagach. H. Condiments and Spices. Tropics generally. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Madhya Bharat. useful in giddiness and vertigo. abundant all along the slopes of W. laxative. Mahapatra. useful in liver-complaints. and laxative. LOC. Circars. tumours. flowers and seeds. intoxication &c. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Cultivated also. Sagwan. . PARTS USED :—Root. M. Kanara. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. urinary discharges. PARTS USED. vomiting. earache. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. eye-diseases. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Sagwan. sweetish. such as body-burning. Seeds are good astringent. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. sore-throat. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. Flowers— appetising . Tegu. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Timbers. DISTR. indigestible. :—Throughout India.. Kanara. Arna. flowers. Seeds astringent. Malay Peninsula. boiled they are used as a poultice. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. and for sizing materials.

poisoning. laxative. Sarphoka. LOC. Fl. inflammations. sedative to gravid uterus. fresh root-bark.. C. asthma. Kalika. anthelmintic. long. burning pain over the region of liver.8 X 0.—5-6 . 2—2. slightly curved. long. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. leaflets 11—21. oblanceolate. standard. mucronate. Empali. LOC. cultivated lands and roadsides. along forest borders. it acts also as a vermifuge. useful in lung and chest diseases. t. alexiteric. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. :—The whole plant. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Sk. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. Bark is an astringent. silkyhairy beneath. Jhila.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). urinary discharges. mucronate. Flowers and seeds are diuretic.—petals clawed. boils and pimples. L. root. S. asthma. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. cures diarrhœa . It appears to act as tonic and laxative. useful in bronchitis. COM. cures diseases of liver.-June. Sharapunkha. M. useful in scabies. Ghodakan. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). Phanike. . bitter. allays thirst.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. :—All over India. cooling. Fr. Fl. CHAR. M. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. Sharapunkha. "Root—diuretic. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). Sarphonka. DISTR. glabrous above. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . red. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. Konkan. :—A perennial herb. Country. FAM. allays thirst. useful in bronchitis.2 cm. PARTS USED. H. Wood—acrid. Sd. :—Plant-digestible. PROPERTIES AND USES. Malay Peninsula. increase "Vata".5 cm.—Oct. tumours. pubescent on the back. good in piles. leaves and seeds. liver. linear. LOC. Wood good for head ache. ulcers. K. 30—60 cm. heart. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals.. syphilis. Unhali. spleen diseases. Kogge. anthelmintic. improve appetite. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. biliousness. Plihari. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda).—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. leprosy. antipyretic. useful in piles. :-G. Leaves—tonic to intestines . ground and made into a pill. Sarpankho. suborbicular. Udhadi. alterative.—pod 3—4. enriches Blood . Deccan. expectorant. HABITAT:—Open situations. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. spleen. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . dry. See—Timbers. Flowers—acrid. NS. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. high.8—1. biliousness. blood. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Gujarat. branches spreading.

M. Vibhitika. LOC. Bahara. Shantimara. Voting. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W.. Tari. Kahu. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). Arjun Sadada. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. G. " Kapha". Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. White Marudah. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. Buhura. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. urinary discharges. :—Bark. useful in biliousness. strangury. fruit and seed. . Koha. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Bahaza. Madhya-Pradesh. anthelmintic. Madras State. styptic. FAM.. externally in wounds and fractures. Arjan. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. in Khandesh Akrani.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. digestible. biliousness. asthma.—Combretaceæ. Ceylon. M.. :—Konkan and Deccan. PARTS USED. Sadura. Beheduk. leucoderma. Arjuna. biliousness. PARTS USED. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Belleric Myrobalan. PROPERTIES AND USES. Aksha. Behada. tonic. NS. Chota-Nagpur. Bastard Myrobalan.—Combretaceæ. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Baire. :—Bark. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. fruit (rarely). Kakubha. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. & A. NS. in the sub-Himalayan tract. Bera. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Karshaphala. anæmia. H. excessive perspiration. useful in bronchitis. Sk. Fruit-pungent. Kushika. :—Alexiteric. K. Rajastan and Sind. :—E. H. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Sagona. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. laxative. Indradruma. Arjuna. Hela. Sadado. Bibhitiki. anthelmintic . aphrodisiac. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. inflammation. tonic. heart disease. :—E. Tara. Vibhata. Bedda Nut. COM. blood-diseases. with milk. FAM. ulcers. leaves. Behedo. useful in fractures. acrid. Burma. Expectorant. intoxication. LOC. Sk. Arjun-Sadada. Dhanvi. LOC. diuretic. very common in South Konkan. Madhya-Bharat. except in dry arid regions. false presentation of fœtus. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. tumours. DISTR. :—Throughout the forests of India. Karvirak. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Kalidrum. sore-throat. K. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES. G. Arjuna. DISTR. COM.

:—Fruit-dry. strangury. LOC. thirst. good in ophthalmia. attenuant. the fully ripe or dried fruit. piles and diarrhœa. urinary discharges. Ceylon. constipation. elephantiasis. vomiting. used in paralysis (Yunani). applied to eyes. itching pain. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. useful in thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES. alterative . HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". bilious headache. vesicular calculi. nose. cold in head. Black myrobalan. PARTS USED. tonic. carminative. FAM. USES. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. brain tonic (Yunani). It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . H. Harara. expectorant. diseases of eye. Haritaki. stomachic. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. tonic. typhoid fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. NS.—Combretaceæ. Har. COM. eyes. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. intoxicating. sore-throat. M. dyspepsia. anaemia. inflammations. leucoderma. anthelmintic. Kernel has narcotic properties. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. gout. heart and bladder. Jivantika. See—Timbers. —E. Seed—acrid. heart and bladder. diseases of spleen. Burma. gums. Harade. carminative. Kanara. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. which is considered a good digestive. Hirdo . piles. G. bleeding and ulceration of gums. diarrhœa. biliousness. Fruit-astringent. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. useful in dyspepsia. antidysenteric. Haria. bleeding piles. corneal ulcers. antipyretic. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. Chebulic myrobalan. Gums and Resins. useful in caries of teeth. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Alate. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. hoarseness. Jivanti. hiccup. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). ascites. useful in asthma. K. LOC. Dyes. is used as an application in ophthalmia. enriches blood. tonic. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. :—Bark and fruit. LOC. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. DISTR. in Travancore. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Hirda. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. Abhaya. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. piles. Ripe fruit—purgative. aperient. strengthens brain. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. mixed with honey. delirium (Ayurveda). vomiting. heating. common in Khandesh Akrani. Haritaki. eye diseases etc. diseases of eye. tumours. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. Sk.

H. :—E. Sacred Plants. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Gandarati. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Jogiyarale. NS. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. Bhandi. PROPERTIES AND USES. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Bhend.. especially centipedes. Burma. Kandarala. FAM.—Malvaceæ. acrid . Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. It is also used in chronic dysentery.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. See—Timbers. . ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. burning of body . Kanara. COM. K. Paras-piper. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Mhaskar and Issac). :—Bark. Parasipu. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Parisha. Bhindi. LOC. increases " Kapha " . difficult to digest. M. :—Fruit-sour. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). See—Timbers. :—Districts of Konkan and N. PARTS USED. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Paraspiplo. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Suparshuakan. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. :—Coast forests of India. G. Arasi. DISTR. profuse discharge. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Tans. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Tulip Tree. flowers and fruit. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Gajadanta. Paraspipal. Kuberaksha. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Ranbhendi. aphrodisiac . Phalisha. Hucerasi. Bengal. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. produces worms in intestines . Fibres. LOC. Bugari. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Sk. also planted as roadside tree. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Portia Tree. leaves. Dyes.

root. 1—3. and blood vessels . elliptic. ventrally flat. across. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Amarvel. CHAR. hot. Pivali kanher. with milky juice. :—Throughout tropical India. piles. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . NS. yellow. :—Bark. endocarp corky. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic.—drupes. Pittaghni. astringent to bowels. linear. LOC. long. Sd.. Gulvel. FAM.—membranous. FAM. size of a pea . The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. Gulancha. grooved . TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. roundish cordate with a broad sinus.—Menispermaceæ. worms. lobes 5. fevers. L. Amritvalli. eye-troubles. Gulo. K. exocarp fleshy. useful in urethral discharges. CHAR. Burma. :—Stem. Jwaranashini. Gado.5—12. COM. HABIT :—In thickets. Karvira. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). PARTS USED. acrid. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. dorsally convex. NS. bronchitis . tubular. red. H. C. seeds and milky juice. G. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. Gulvel. bark corky. 7. PARTS USED.—in terminal cymes. Fl. Shatakumbha.—Apl. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. Gurch. HABITAT. Ashvaghna. pungent. very poisonous (Ayurveda). corona in the throat. 7—9 nerved.—broadly obovate. throat campanulate. Andamans and Ceylon. bladder. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. Sk. :—An extensive climber.5 cm. . G. :—E. L. :—E. Exile or yellow Oleander. LOC.. yellow. 5 cm. Zard kunel. but its use is attended with considerable danger. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. cures " Vata " . crowded . DISTR. wounds. Gulhel. leucoderma. virgin uterus. it has no action on digestive enzymes . bright green and shining above. 5—10 cm. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. H. Sk. t. LOC.. See—Ornamental Plants. Haripriya.—Apocynaceæ. M. Fl. skin diseases. Heart-leaved moonseed. :—Often planted. frequently planted.—generally 4. often planted in India. Vatsadani. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. mesocarp bony. Fl. America and W. females solitary. growing on mango and other trees. Pila kanir. Amrita-Valli. DISTR. :—Native of S. male fascicled. COM.—in axillary and terminal racemes. Fr. Pila kaner. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine.-spirally arranged. Indies . M. Uganiballi.

stimulant and anti-periodic.—Rutaceæ. :—All over the Madras State . 15 m. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. anæmia. ovary rudimentary. Ceylon. . especially acid. unisexual. diarrhœa. expectorant. Lopezroot Tree. vaginal and urethral discharges. DISTR.—Dehan. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. Gangalaki. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. M. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. diuretic. Forest Pepper. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. enriches blood. stomachic. Macimullu. Root and stem are bitter. Sk. vomiting. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. Philippines. antipyretic. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. size of a large pea. Manger.— alternate.-Jany. Limri. USES. vomiting. renews blood. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. stigma sessile. :—Stem-bitter. armed with small hooked prickles . causes constipation. 3-5 grooved.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Root. female flower buds oblong. Jangali-Mirchi. giddiness. Fl. coriaceous. COM. tonic appetiser. Java. digitately trifoliate.—Aug. good in cough. bark. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. FAM. Dahan. male flower bud globose. FT. Kumaon to Bhutan. dark shining green above. L. oblong. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. leaflets sessile. piles. crenulate. orange coloured. Konkan and Kanara. LOC.8-3.—globose. K. (Kirtikar).. Khasia Hills. t. chronic fever. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. juice useful in diabetes. LOC. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. :—E. Kaduhakukare. pitted on the rind. China. CHAR. tropical Africa.—in axillary cymes. NS. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. also in the Deccan hills. high. Mirchi. stimulates bile secretion. H. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. cures jaundice. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. jaundice. tonic. white. Sumatra. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). allays thirst. stomachic .8. Root-bark is aromatic. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. useful in skin diseases. common in S. :—Rain-forests. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. fruits. Kadu-menasu. fever. Stem-bitter. leaves. burning sensation. 5-7 lobed. 5-10 X 1.

HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. LOC. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Jalakantaka-valli. Tuni. Gandhagarige. astringent to bowels. Deodari. aphrodisiac. biliousness.—Meliaceæ. Mandurike. Garige. Trikone-phala. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. Kalingi. cooling. NS. often cultivated.—Onagraceæ. Bark—bitter. inflammation. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. H. Shingoda. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Shringa-kanda-taka. Water-chestnut. Chota-Nagpur. blood diseases. Tunika. Lud. Kuruk. :—Bark and flowers. "Tridosha". Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). :—Bark-acrid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Gums and Resins. See—Timbers.) FAM. DISTR. strangury. :—E. useful in . removes " Tridosha". Toon. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. LOC. expectorant. Singhara. :—Cooling . Tun. aphrodisiac. Nand-vriksha. Kaechaka. Kuberaka. Ceylon. itching. G. PARTS USED. Sandal Neem. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. tropical Africa. fatigue. Mahalimbu. Malaya. :—Aquatic (in tanks). PARTS USED. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES. cardio-tonic. astringent to bowels. useful in ulcers. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. causes " Vata " . NS. Singodi. digestible. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. K. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. antipyretic . Kanara. removes " Kapha ". :—Throughout the State in tanks. Assam. biliousness. burning sensation. Apina. LOC. Dyes. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. good for scabies and gleet. COM. HABIT. indigestible. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. burning sensation. FAM. :—Throughout India. H. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. aphrodisiac. headache. M. Lim. Indian Mahogany. COM. tonic. :—E.. :—Fruit. leprosy. Trikota. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Sk. cures fevers. cures leprosy. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Chittagong. astringent to bowels. Shingada. Sk. of India). Tundu. anthelmintic. fattening. Waitz). Burma.

all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Negalu .. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. M. M. mucronate. each with 2 pairs of hard. yellow. CHAR. LOC. biliousness. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Fibres. bad-teeth (Yunani). young parts silky. bile and phlegm. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. of 5 woody cocci. Sk. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. improves taste . COM. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Pindara. H. antipyretic. t. Malay Peninsula. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. DISTR. pain. Fl. lumbago. :—H. Petari . sore-throat. PROPERTIES AND USES. Shadanga. COM.:—Saurashtra. Gokhru. LOC. They are also used in the form of poultice. alexiteric. Trikantaka. base oblique. Kadu Kange Kumbala.—opposite. Fr. Gujarat. Gokshri. Kanara. Gokharu. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. The plant contains an alkaloid. FAM. DISTR. leaflets 3—6 pairs .216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). abruptly pinnate. Hussuk. FAM. hairy. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . :—A procumbent herb. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. Chhota gokhru. a common weed of the drier parts. Sd. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Sumatra. useful in chronic fevers. one pair longer than the other . Gokshura.—throughout the year. Sarata. along nalas and in swampy localities. Country. See—Timbers. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. . See—Food Plants. Ceylon. used as food.—Zygophyllaceæ. M.—several in each coccus . NS. Tumri. sharp spines. :—Plant is cooling tonic. Sk.. Aphrodisiac. Pindara. Kere Padye. stems and branches pilose. G.. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. NS. Assam. Gokhru. Seeds abound in starch. thirst. Deccan and S. K. bronchitis. PARTS USED. Karahate. oblong. Gamhar. K. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Gokhura. in Kashmir. Java. upto 3300 m. considered cool and sweet. :—The whole plant. LOC. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. :—Throughout India. LOC. L. solitary. appetiser. one of each pair smaller than the other. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Kurangaha. :—E.—globose. Calthrope. Kantaphala.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ceylon.

Aja-dandi. fruits. oblong. Mota-Motachor. enriches blood . urinary discharges. urinary disorders and impotence. . cures skin and heart diseases. CHAR. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. :—A glabrous herb. Brahmadandi. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. NS. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). tonic . Kanara. leprosy . L. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. Mt. branches angled and ribbed. alleviating burning sensation. vesicular calculi. LOC. :—The whole plant. :—Cooling . diuretic. S. emmenagogue (Yunani). pruritus ani. piles. ciliate. stem erect. Kantapatraphala. gleet. leaves. tonic. suppression of urine. yellowish brown. :—Root. LOC. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda).—heads 6—8 mm. useful in strangury. spinous toothed or serrate. "Vata".MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. —achene. : — G. S. which is taken in large quantities. faintly ribbed. :—Hot. cures "Kapha". :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. Fr. purifies blood . appetiser. USES :—Fruits are cooling. Brahmadandi. lumbago . The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). inflammations. copious. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. PROPERTIES AND USES. long. reduces inflammation. Fl. :—Wild in places. Kanara.— purple. K. Abu. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. West Rajastan. gonorrhœa. COM. the Deccan. fattening. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . Brahmadandi. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Sk. Diuretic. Country. M. cough. removes " Tridosha ". bitter.—Compositæ. LOC. linear-oblong or lanceolate. pain . t. aphrodisiac. DISTR.—sessile. tonic.— Dec. asthma. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. H. increases menstrual flow. Central India. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. reduces inflammation . seeds. HABITAT. cures strangury. slender. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. diuretic. Talakanto. Brahmadandi. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. pappus shorter than the achenes. C. M. :—Western Peninsula. Fl. Konkan. bloody urine. S. Physiaran. stomachic. alterative . improves appetite . ovoid. Brahma-dandi.

:—A scandent annual. Fr.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. H. CHAR. Indrayan. Ratan-indrayan. PROPERTIES AND USES. it is given in decoction with ginger. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. bitter. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex.5 cm. G. slender. dark-green above. scarlet when ripe.. paler beneath. base cordate . :—Root-cathartic . In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. pungent. Wild Snake-gourd. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. alterative. with a long sharp beak. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. axillary. Sd. Jyotsna. K. LOC.—July-Oct. stem robust. Fruit—hot. FAM . Australia. tendrils 3 cleft. ulcers. Sk.. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . K. Root-juice is very purgative. Panduka. base deeply cordate. deeply 5-lobed. lobes ovate-oblong. laxative.5 m. Avagude-hannu. slightly hairy. male in axillary racemes. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). anasarca and ascites. Fl. variable. leucoderma.3-12. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. distantly denticulate. Makal. Fl. long. Sk. allays thirst. headache and boils. Leaves—good for biliousness. erysipelas. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. dentate or serrate. M. COM. Katuka. CHAR. woody below. useful for boils and intestinal worms. In Bombay. eye diseases. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Jangali chichonda. —G.—Cucurbitaceæ. leaf-juice is emetic. COM. cures bronchitis. burning sensation. L. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. — surrounded with red-pulp . M. N. alexiteric. cures itching. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. furrowed. long. tendrils 3-fid.-5-12. Mahakala. blood diseases. ovoid-fusiform. Patola. stems 3. asthma. reniform or broadly ovate.5 cm. fruit. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan.—Cucurbitaceæ. orbicular. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. white. :—E. Jangli— Kadu padval. LOC. Ceylon. NS. Kaundal. Kadvi-padyal or patola . leaves. :—Root. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda).6—4. oil. long as well as broad. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb.. L. females solitary. stomachic. antipyretic.3 cm. chireta and honey. H.-male in axillary . Betlada padaval.-6. the Deccan. NS. Malay Peninsula. Lal-indrayan. Fl.—monœcious. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. PARTS USED. green with white stripes when raw. Perula. antipyretic. Mukal. HABITAT:-In hedges. DISTR. FAM. Malaya. leprosy. long. Kiripodla. palmately 3-5 lobed.5—7.—2. t. :—Throughout India.

Ekdandi. Country. high. lessens inflammations . t. ovate-elliptic. PROPERTIES AND USES. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . acute.-July.—many . Sd. peduncles very long. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. :—Fruit is useful in asthma.. Malaya. boiled with gingelly oil. China.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. C. Ceylon. which is found abundantly all over the country.. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. Juice of fruit or root-bark. LOC.—globose 3-8. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). bracts large. FAM. hairy. ligules yellow. rheumatism. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. Fr. DISTR. :— Wild in Konkan. Kirkee. NS. L. Fruit—carminative.— Apl. outer involucral bracts ovate. glandular. PARTS USED. . white. :—Wild in hilly parts. sparsely white hairy.. many years ago. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. PARTS USED. Fl. female solitary. stem and branches hairy. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. inner slightly longer than outer. diam. black. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. LOC. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. COM. :—Root and fruit. t.5 cm. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. :—Abundant in the Deccan.—Compositæ. axillary. purgative. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. densely silky hairy. bruises and wounds. cures hemicrania. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. heat of brain. Fl.—throughout the year. slender. :—A perennial straggling herb. PROPERTIES AND USES.—1. :—Throughout India. petioles densely hairy. gargle good for toothache. M. DISTR. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. :—M.—petals wedge-shaped. 30-60 cm. middle lobe smallest. Fl. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. :—Leaves. HABITAT. ophthalmia. used in epilepsy.— achene.. abortifacient. all over the State. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts.75 X .—head solitary.75-1 in. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. LOC. Fr. Deccan and S. leprosy. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. limbweakness. Australia. very hairy. CHAR. 3-partite. Japan. on the Himalayas. N. fringed. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. Ray flowers ligulate.

Methi. enlargement of spleen and liver. dropsy. FAM. Fenugreek . COM. cures leprosy. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. H. enlargement of spleen and liver. t. :—A twining perennial. HABITAT. tapering to a fine point at the apex. diuretic. roots many. piles. Fl. also in low and sandy localities. Antamul. Chandrika. S. bronchitis. long. M. tonic. Methi . vomiting. Fl. dysentery. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. M. ovate or elliptic oblong. useful in dropsy. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—E. large for the genus. tonic and carminative. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. . C. Menthe—palle. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. G. The leaves contain vitamins A and B..—in umbellate cymes . :—Punjab. 7. NS. with coma . prevent hair falling off (Yunani). Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic.-Nov. fleshy. chronic cough.—follicles. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. LOC. CHAR. greenish-yellow outside. much used in colic. diarrhœa. Methi. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). L. Hot and dry. K. aperient. emmenagogue.5-5.7 cm. and the seeds contain vitamin A. :—Hot. Jyoti. Konkan. Sk. corona gibbous below. FAM. See—Vegetables. Pitakari (Pitamari). Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. Nepala . narrowed at the apex to a free point. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. cultivated in many parts of India. base cordate. Kanara. :—South of Bombay. Janglipikvan. NS. long. suppurative. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. M. appetiser.—deeply lobed.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. LOC.—opposite. flatulence. FN. anthelmintic. LOC. removes bad taste from mouth.—Asclepiadaceæ. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. K. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Methi. :—H. they are also aphrodisiac. DISTR. Methini. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. COM. Country. astringent to bowels.. Muthi. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn.—Aug. :—Cultivated. Kashmir.— broadly ovate.5—10 cm. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. antipyretic. Pitabija Vedhini. PARTS USED. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. "Vata". purplish within. :—Leaves and seeds. 5-10 x 2.

PARTS USED. :—Konkan.9-1. tapering to both ends . scape erect 30-45 cm. stalks long. drooping. Pitavan . :—Bulb. G.— imparipinnate. linear-oblong. COM. hairy beneath. blotched with white above. t. long. Bihar. Borneo. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. Pitvan. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children.. ellipsoid. found useful in dysentery. stems downy with hooked hairs. Sk. HABITAT. Dried leaves are emetic. :—A perennial shrub. polished. :—A herb. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. L. Dabra. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman).-Sept. Malay Islands. glabrous. :—Throughout India. COM.. M. pale lead-colored. tropical Africa. DISTR. 10-20 cm. Fr. Fl. :—Throughout the plains of India. :—E. Vanapalandu. CHAR. Ranganja . catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed.—capsule. Fr. Jaglipiaz. Ceylon. 20-30 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED. :—Common on sandy shores. FAM. HABITAT. Indian Squill..8 m. Panjala.— pod.. H. W.—purple. Fl. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. long. 5-7 (rarely 9). flat.. Ceylon.— Liliaceæ. diaphoretic and expectorant. light-brown . PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. perianth campanulate. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. white. LOC. C.. :—Roots and leaves. Sd. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. Malay Islands. NS. Jangli-Ran-khanda. CHAR.5 cm. high. C. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. :—Sandy places.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR.—in racemes 15-30 cm. :—Western Himalayas. black.—Aug. USES. :—G. URARIA PICTA Desv. 0. KolaPutakand. Thailand (Siam).— flattened.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Chota-Nagpur. :—Wild. linear.3-2. . Burma. DISTR. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. 15-45 x 1. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. H. Fl. Philippines. Sk. M. L. Pithavan. FAM. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. long.— petals lanceolate. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). folded on one another. USES. joints 3-6. tropical Africa.—appearing after the flowers. Prishna-parni. Peninsula. NS. Shankaraja . Rankanda.

heating. CHAR.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. praemorse. tip. Vriksharuha. bronchitis. The bulb is stomachic. renal calculi. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. :—Konkan. HABIT. long. skin diseases. Sarpagandha. acute. :—Epiphyte. Persara. tonic to brain and liver. :—Root is bitter. alexiteric.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. diseases of the abdomen. recurved. rheumatic pains. complicate. maritima of U. laxative. obtusely keeled. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. COM. A. Bihar. Fl.. .—capsule. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant.. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. Madhya-Pradesh. Fl. diuretic. tremors (Ayurveda). and was found useful (Koman). and an acute interposed one. inflammations. stimulant and diuretic. and U. :—Bengal. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. 15-20 X 1. Atiras. dropsy. L. Rasna. PROPERTIES AND USES. rheumatism. scandent by simple or branching roots . Nakula. Gujarat and Kanara. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. scilla of Great Britain. 2-lobed. NS. FAM.3-2 cm.— July. lip bluish dotted with purple. K.—Orchidaceæ. useful in paralysis. Bandanike. Chota-Nagpur. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Gaz. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. :—G.. boils in the scalp. internal pains (Yunani). pollinia ellipsoid. Rasna. bronchitis. VANDA ROXBURGHII R.—thickly coriaceous. anthelmintic. long. lumbago. useful in dyspepsia. :—The bulb is pungent. S. M. PARTS USED. Travancore. H. column very short.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. stem 30-60 cm. :—Root and leaves. Sk. LOC. 1931. Fr. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. heals fractures (Yunani).5—9 cm. LOC. toothache. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . LOC. bronchitis. heating. alexiteric. antipyretic. Vanda. (In Med. Peninsula. t. emmenagogue. Rasna. Banda. diseases of nose. Rasno. purgative. Ceylon. hiccup. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. erect. Root is bitter. stout. asthma. lessens inflammations . DISTR. long. The plant contains an alkaloid. good for piles. cardiac. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Br. anthelmintic. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. USES :—Expectorant. :—An epiphyte. W. alexiteric.

Kanara and S. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. NS. FAM. :—Bark. Sekalyel. t. Safed-damar. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. Pitti. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Fl. COM. :—North Kanara. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. PROPERTIES AND USES.—petals 5. Malamaitra. tonic and stimulant. Sk. bechic. diarrhœa. debility and slight cases of fever. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Dhupa. expectorant. Tenasserim. Bilidhupa. Country. Sandras. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. Poppli. also in N. alexipharmic. LOC. 1-nerved wing. dysentery.-nut about 5 mm. M. CHAR. Dhupa. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. tonic. :—Bark. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . Shala. Coorg in Ghats. H. Gums and Resins.—Dipterocarpaceæ. Raktavalli. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. hemicrania. Lokhandi. LOC. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Fl. DISTR.—Rhamnaceæ. Shandike.8 cm. Fr.. acrid. carminative. abundant in S. greenish.—Dec. detergent. Sk. whitish). with an offensive odour. cures cough. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. Ceylon. itch (Ayurveda). :—Bark-hot. useful in leprosy. ulcers and wounds. :—A large much branched woody climber. eardiseases. K. anæmia. USES. tuberculous glands. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. diam. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). Kundura. piles. prolonged into a linear-oblong. . Red Creeper. rheumatism. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. C. Ragatarshado. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Khandvel. useful in atonic dyspepsia. alexipharmic. Kaharub. amenorrhœa. K. (T. FAM. Sarjaka.-Jany. Oils. :—Madras State. :—Western India. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. resin. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Kanara. PARTS USED. also planted. Travancore. Madidhupa. :—E. PARTS USED. yellowish. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. stomachic. M. urinary discharges. LOC. Mysore. skin eruptions.—in large drooping terminal panicles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. L. Kubbila. buds 5-angled.5-3. in chronic bronchitis. dark.. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. H. fruit. :—E. young branches and panicles pubescent. COM.—5-10 X 2. Haruge. entire or crenate. DISTR. globular. good for sore-throat. boils and ringworm. G. NS..

USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. L. COM. Bakchi. warted. Fl. Purple Fleabane. :—Throughout India . LOC. with purple tips . VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. LOC. :—Plant. CHAR. Fr.5—3. hairy on both sides. Vishamushti. Fl. Sundika.. Sk. high. :—Annual. Deccan . Kalijiri. high . rounded. and leaves. branched near the top. robust. M. Somaraj. 10-ribbed. used in skin-diseases. PARTS USED. Ceylon . . PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent to bowels. H. China. Somaraj. :—Konkan . Kalizhiri.9 m. Bhutakeshi. Kadvojiri. CHAR. all coarsely dentate. HABITAT:-Waste places. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. LOC. NS. Java . COM.Feb. cure ulcers. t— Jany. sub-globose. Vanajiraka.—oblong. :—Throughout India. 5—9 x 2. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. hairy. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. ofter cultivated. The juice mixed with mustard oil. hairy. innermost the longest. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. :—An annual herb.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). pappus reddish.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. compound or pinnatisect. NS. :—Seeds-acrid. DISTR. The juice of the whole plant. :—E.—capsule. Sk. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. rachis glandular pubescent.—Dec. K.2 cm. Kalhara. erect. M. t. Country. G. H.—Scrophulariaceæ. K. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. leafy herb . truncate. Seeds— anthelmintic. Agnibija. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. Kulhala. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. Afghanistan. FAM.—alternate. Kulara.. often cultivated. hairy. about 40-flowered. M. Kalejire.. yellow. Sd.-rotate. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Fl. Fr. lyrate. PARTS USED. stems 60—90 cm. "Vata" and "Kapha". in equal proportions. Ceylon. Gujarat. coarsely serrate.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. L. lobes 5. C. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Kutki. Fl. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. PROPERTIES AND USES. lanceolate. :—G.6-0.8 cm. squeezed out by pounding.—heads subcorymbose.—Compositæ.-May. involucre bracts linear.. anthelmintic. Gadar-tambaku.-achene oblong cylindric. on long petioles. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet.) FAM. DISTR. Vapehi. stem 0.

cures "Tridosha".-Feb. seeds. G. :—Annual. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. Sahadevi. M. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. M. COM. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. Panni. kidney troubles. L. :—E. They are also used as tonic. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet.—simple. tonic. with lime-juice. silky on the back. clothed with white hairs . USES :—Root is given for dropsy. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. FAM. flowers. made into a bolus with lime-juice. Fr. consumption. Ash-coloured Fleabane . The plant with quinine.. K. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). NS. awned.—achene. plant is used in fever convulsions. Fl. bronchitis . H. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. Valo . flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). LOC. applied in inflammatory swellings . Australia. FAM. Sahadevi. Osari. striate. high. Africa . CHAR. NS. Bala. Sk.—Compositæ. PARTS USED. Koosa. In Ceylon. G. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. LOC. The expressed juice is given in piles. COM. hiccup . erect herb. Devika. Sahadevi. pubescent. Fl. stomachic and diuretic. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Vala. a depilatory (Yunani). Sadori. pappus white. 15—75 cm. good for sores and itching of eyes.—Jan. :—A common weed throughout the State. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Ardhaprasadana. alternate. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). bruised seeds ground up in paste. asthma. Dandotpala. Sedardi. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. Ushira. heads small. stem stiff. astringent. Sadodi.—Gramineæ. Khas. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. used for asthma. stomachic. H. t. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. K. DISTR. LOC. Sk. Lavancha. Bena. cold. oblong. Sind. :—Plant. Mudivala. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). Cuscus grass. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. :—E.— pinkish violet. . Powdered seeds mixed with salt. remove blood from liver. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. are used in destroying pediculi. :—Throughout India. Kuruvelu. Vecrnam. tropical Asia. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil.

:—Root. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge.-leaf sheaths compressed.—panicle up to 30 cm. usually sheathed all along. thirst. foul breath. Nirgundi. DISTR. inflammations. racemes up to 5 cm. colour varying from yellowish to black. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. The otto is used as a tonic. cephalic. expectorant and diuretic. Bilenekki. The roots contain an essential oil. DISTR. slender. LOC. up to over 1. spleen enlargement. Nirgundi. lower ones keeled and fan-like. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. :—Roots. Sessile spikelets. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Culms stout. Nirgundi. long. leaves. alexiteric. long. LOC. Cooling to brain. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. Nilpushpi. Nukki. Nirgud. tonic and vermifuge. inflammations and irritability of stomach. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. head-ache. leucoderma. promotes hair-growth. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. Kanara in damp places. Indrani. useful in eye diseases.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. also cultivated. Leaves are aromatic. PROPERTIES AND USES. stomachic. erect. high. heating. rachis stout. Sk. L. Ceylon. :—G. throughout the Malayan regions. LOC. useful in spermatorrhoea. USES :—Root is tonic. H. Sind. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . asthma. pale green. astringent. Konkan and Deccan. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). bitter. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. diuretic. bitter..—Verbenaceæ. biliousness. refrigerant. :—Throughout India. Nigod. Afghanistan. bronchitis. sweats. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. anthelmintic. stomachic. West-Indies and Brazil. Fl. Nirgari. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. Lakki. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations .8 m. useful in burning sensation. febrifuge. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. Sambhalu. COM.. Philippine Islands. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. K. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. astringent. NS. margin spinously rough. :—Cooling. Sinduvara. stimulant and tonic. bitter. FAM. strangury. blood diseases (Yunani). ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. consumption. PARTS USED. PARTS USED. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. M. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. soporific. :—Throughout the State. bilious fevers.

and given in coughs. allays vomiting. LOC. aphrodisiac. Fruit is nervine. Flowers—expectorant. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. fever. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. jaundice. and traces of vitamins B and C. flowers. cures thirst. fruits. Angura. NS. heat of body. DISTR. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. Draksha. piles. :—E. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. :—A native of western Asia. Seeds—aphrodisiac. G.. Draksha. Drakh . spleen inflammation. laxative. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. cooling . In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. good in chronic bronchitis . cooling. Ahmednagar. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Madhurasa. The plant contains an alkaloid. LOC. allays vomiting. HABITAT. Darakh. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. produces constipation. :—Fruit-acrid. Fruit— digestive. :—Deccan. fever. causes gases in the stomach. COM. cough. Draksha. PARTS USED :—Stem. purifies and enriches blood . a remedy for skin diseases. appetiser. burning. K. hoarseness and consumption. fattening . extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. diarrhœa. liver and kidney. sparingly in Poona. asthma. . difficult to digest. Gujarat and S. Angur. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". See—Timbers. cooling useful in thirst. seeds. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. skin should not be eaten. diuretic. applied in scabies. W. stones in bladder. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. emmenagogue. :—Cultivated. leaves. FAM-—Vitaceæ. tonic to liver. There are numerous cultivated varieties. fattening. expectorant. Guchaphala. Sap of young branches. good for lungs. aperient. strangury. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. Draksha. laxative. Khandesh. stomachic. bad effects of drinking. H. catarrh and jaundice. astringent to bowels. diuretic . PROPERTIES AND USES. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). Country. India. syphilis. blood diseases. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. useful in old fevers. Sk. The fruits contain vitamin A. Yakshmaghni. M. emmenagogue. stops bleeding from mouth. sweet. testicle swellings and piles. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. good for eyes and throat. produces alopecia. Grape-vine.

Ghodasoda. anthelmintic. Ashvagandha. linear oblong.—petals 5. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . emmenagogue . NS.. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). Kanchuki. Asgund. Tuber—bitter. base dentate. :—Konkan jungles. inserted on the top of. Mediterranean regions.—5-10 X 2. :—Drier regions. bronchitis. Sk. FAM. :—Root and bark. aphrosidiac. armed with prickles . Sogada-beru. long. Hooliganji. red. calyx-tube. senile debility.5-12. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. Ceylon.—2-pinnate. consumption.-Feb. :—In the drier regions of India . :—A branched erect undershrub. Wakeri. branches terete. M. enclosed in inflated calyx. hoary tomentose . Wagati. Fl. Asan. :—K. . green berries. Fl. good in asthma. oblong. :—A robust woody climber. alexipharmic. marasmus of children. insomnia. PROPERTIES AND LOC. lumbago. rachis grooved with soft hairs. swollen above the seeds. heating.) DISTR. Cape of Good Hope. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. leaves. Vajini. bony Fl.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). inflammations. ulcers. favours constipation (Yunani). Deccan. seeds. minutely hairy. t. Gandhpatri. 7.. smooth. NS. "Kapha". leaflets 5-7 pairs.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. anthritis. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. Sd. constricted between them. slightly 5-angled.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. PARTS USED. branches armed with recurved prickles . CHAR. high. :—E. Balada. pinnae 4-6 pairs. chest troubles etc. asthma. acrid. alterative. 0. :—Deccan. somewhat scurfy. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases.—yellow. Gujarat. L. Kanara. 6 mm. M.—Solanaceæ.-Jany. USES. See—Fruit Trees. entire. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. COM. Hirimaddina-gadde. Amangura. Wagati. scabies. spathulate. (not common. bronchitis.—pod. dark-orange. FAM. long. H.5 cm. C. G. PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. Fl. LOC. Punir. L. Drakshasava—used as tonic. pretty common in the ghats. aphrodisiac. HABITAT. ovate.—berry. Canaries.—greenish or lurid yellow. abundant in Sind . dark-green..5-5 cm. t. long.—3-4. K. 23-30 cm. obovate. Fr.3-1. oblong. LOC. CHAR. coriaceous. leucoderma. Asoda. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. tonic. Fr. Winter-cherry. diam. DISTR. Sd. COM. Asgundh. Kamrupini. useful in "Vata".— Sept. :—Tubers-bitter. :—The roots are given in pneumonia .5 m. hard. main rachis armed with prickles. PROPERTIES AND USES. psoriasis. tonic.

haemorrhoids. Kodamurki. Japan. COM. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Hallunova. USES. :—Monsoon-forests. Are. LOC. Kanara near the sea-coast.. K.—numerous.—mostly opposite. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. diuretic and deobstruent. anthelmintic . rheumatism. irregularly dehiscent. smooth. Dhawai. Dudhi. Dhavani. The plant contains an alkaloid. NS. Sumatra. toxic. Indrajav. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. 5-9X 1.) FAM. Madhuindrayava. Madhavasini. Dhaiti. t. NS. emaciation of children. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. uterine sedative. ulcers and painful swellings . :—Bark and flowers. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. COM. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Bela. Phulsatti. debility from old age. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . and in derangement of liver . China. PARTS USED. Hale. HABITAT. H. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. ovate-lanceolate. Br. Madagascar. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. It is narcotic. Ornamental Plants. Baluchistan.—capsule. Fl. Hayamaraka.—Lythraceæ. Indrajav. Dhateki. Dhavani. velvety above. Dhawadina. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Tamrapushpi.—Apocynaceæ. used in thirst. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. alexiteric. blood diseases. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. FAM. Kuda. Dyes. Kalikari. Vanhishikha. nigro-punctate beneath. Khirni. 1 cm. leprosy. erysipelas. H. Dhaw. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). M. brown.3-2. long. common in the Konkan and N. :—Root is regarded as tonic. See—Tans. lumbar pains. simple. :—G. Dec. acrid. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. alterative. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. M. on trap in the Akrani. Swetakutaj. Sd. .5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Indrajav. tropical Africa. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Sk.-May.— numerous. LOC. Fr. L. cooling. wedge-shaped. K. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Java. Fl. DISTR. :—G. :—Throughout India. Santha. dysentery. Ceylon. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Pungent. Kalakuda. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. useful in leucorrhoea. scarlet. branches long. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. leaf-infusion is given in fever.

G. Banokra. digestive. fattening. Sankeshwar. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. ovoid in fruit. Dutundi. laxative.Feb. stem short.achene. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. with 2 erect beaks. oblong ovoid. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Gadrian. anthelmintic. tonic. axillary. Sk. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. rough with short hairs . Timor.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. FAM. :—Rajastan.-E. LOC.—Jany. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. 5-7. 3-lobed. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Clot-Cockle-bur.. voice. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . Madhya Pradesh. Itara. in W. Aristha.—many.1-6. irregularly incisoserrate . poisonous bites of insects. long. Fl. DISTR. at the top. DISTR. antidysenterica (Yunani).. In S. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). salivation. tonic. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. COM. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. L. :—The whole plant. hard and tough. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. West-Peninsula.5 cm.. LOC. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. Fr. compressed . LOC. :— Throughout India. antipyretic. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. epilepsy. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. especially root and fruit. involucre of fertile head. barren heads many. Dumundi. alexiteric. improves appetite. PARTS USED. biliousness. hairy on both sides. :—Cooling. See—Timbers. fertile heads few. 1-3 cm. stout. :—Annual herb . useful in cancer and strumous diseases. LOC. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. USES :—Root is bitter. the bark is specially useful in piles. complexion. Kambu-Vanamalini. H. Sarpakshi. long and broad. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. t. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. Fl. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Shankhahuli. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. :—Bark and seeds. PARTS USED. CHAR. memory. Bur-Weed. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. fever. Khandesh at 1050 m. cures leucoderma.—Compositæ. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. all over the State. .

:—Cultivated. Shringavera. appetiser. Ajapriya. carminative. :—E. H. pains. stomachic. tonic. loss of appetite and piles. good in piles. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Chinese Date. NS. . useful in heart and throat diseases. Alen. Bor. stomachic. LOC. Hasisunthi. rheumatism. It is stimulant. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Beri. Gulmmula. it is also given in the form of infusion. colic. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. PARTS USED. flatulence. H. NS. bronchitis. Bore. useful in elephantiasis. Sk. FAM. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. pains (Yunani). Alla Adrak. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. tongue and increases appetite. Ada. PROPERTIES AND USES. inflammations. LOC. Rhizome—pungent. heating.—Rhamnaceæ. Ber. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. Ardraka. and dry situations. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). expectorant. Kandara. Alen. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Bor. it cleans throat. vomiting. COM. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). carminative. Kuvali. alexiteric. to prevent nausea and griping. eructations. G. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. lumbago. Plum. G. aphrodisiac. Bogari. COM. aphrodisiac. laxative. head-ache. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever..—Scitaminaceæ. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. Bordi. removes pain due to cold. Anupama. Boyedi. Ipanji. Ginger. Egasi. on poor soil and in rocky places. See—Condiments and Spices. M. :—Rhizome. Adrate. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Dridhabija. K. Koli. "Vata". vomiting. Ber. :—E. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . piles. Badari. asthma. dyspepsia. DISTR. Indian Cherry. K. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. FAM. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. Sk. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. :—Rhizome-pungent. gives lustre to eye. HABITAT. M. "Kapha".

:—Root. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. Fruit Trees. burning sensation. LOC. Bark—causes boils . on the laterite near the coast in N. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. Afghanistan. laxative. Africa. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. Fruits contains vitamin A. frequently planted as a fruit tree. indigestible. tonic to heart and brain . causes diarrhœa in large doses . wounds and ulcers. Fruit— cooling. DISTR. PARTS USED. biliousness. Ceylon. good in consumption and blood-diseases. useful in fevers. thirst. . Seed—astringent. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. leaves. Burma. bark. Root and Bark tonic. :—Root-bitter. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. head-ache. cooling. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. fruit. See—Timbers. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. removes biliousness. Leaves—anthelmintic.. good in liver complaints. allays thirst (Yunani). tonic. Kanara. :—Throughout the State in dry situations .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Leaves form a plaster to boils. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. causes cough. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . reduce obesity. Leaves antipyretic. seeds. China. Fruit—sweet and sour. vomiting. abundant in the Deccan. Australia. cure asthma. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda).

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