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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
G. FAM. hypertrophy of tonsils. M. bronchitis. Sd. Vidula. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. 7. K.5-12. LOC. Dantadhavan. " Vata ". DISTR. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. In ulceration of the gums. Pegu. acrid. Kochi. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Burma. yellow.-Mar. prurigo. Himalayas up to 1700 m. piles. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Kushthari. LOC.8 cm. heaviness.—pod. Shikekai. erysipelas. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Phena. throat diseases. Dyes. Tans. anti-pyretic. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. NS. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. tonic. ulcers.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). :—E.—bipinnate. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. It is given in diarrhœa. mouth troubles. cooling. L. gums. linear-oblong. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. wrinkled when dry . Khair. Sikkim. Country and Gujarat. Kath-bole. Fl. anthelmintic.. :—An extensive woody climber. Western Peninsula. Kanara forests.. Ritha. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Khadira. M. inflammations. relaxation of the uvula. leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. given in elephantiasis. Malay Islands. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles .-July. boils.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Charmakusha. Deccan. along the coasts of Konkan and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Sige-balli or kai. 5-10 cm. :—Throughout India. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. aphrodisiac.-6-10 . (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. M. Sk. China. astringent to bowels. . Bhuriphena. Saradruma.—in fascicled globose heads. measles and other skindiseases. CHAR. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. cures itching. overlapping. psoriasis. Dipta. fleshy when green. Shige. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Kanara (often on laterite). :—Rajastan. antidysenteric. " Kapha ". See—Timbers. Chikakai. strengthens teeth. LOC. Saptata. Sk. Khandesh Akrani S. Yajnika. :—Common throughout the Stale . leprosy. Fr.5X2-2. DISTR. COM. sore-throat and tooth-ache. H. long. Lalkhair. indigestion. urinary and vaginal discharges. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Manda-otte. Fl. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth.-t. Soap-pod tree.
:—E. Girimeda. deobstruent.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). buboes.pungent. Vilavati kikar. bronchitis. causes " Vata". biliousness. See—Timbers. Devababhul. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. caries of teeth. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Gum—sweetish.. Jheri baval. tonic. ulcers. Sauna jali. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. LOC. Kankri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. purgative. . Gandhbabul. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Gandhelo khair . NS. leucoderma.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Jali. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Sk. itching. burning sensation. DISTR. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. cures " Kapha. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Stinking acacia. anti-diarrhoeal. blood-diseases. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . expectorant and good emetic. anthelmintic. Gums and Resins. cardio-tonic. HABITAT :—Moist situations. leaves and gum. anti-dysenteric. In Philippines decoction. Arimeda. K. Marudruma. not indigenous but naturalised. leucoderma. inflammations. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. LOC. often planted . digestible. Pissibabul. G. Cassia flower. COM. FAM. M. piles. Sind. cures stomatitis. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Sponge tree. erysipelas. Internally they are aperient. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. improves appetite. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. eczema. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. ascites. Kari jali. erysipelas. blood diseases. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. stomatitis. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . H. anthelmintic. cooling. PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. often cultivated. alexiteric. detergent. LOC. prurigo.
enclosed in perianth smooth.9 m. brown. LOC. M.—Amarantaceæ. Kuppi-gida. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places.—monœcious. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative.5 cm.5x2-4. Khokali. about 50 cm. Ksharamadhya. DISTR. :—Annual. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. PROPERTIES AND LOC. softly hairy. Ceylon. asthma. long in fruit. FAM.—capsule. 2. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.-Jany. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. 30-75 cm. The plant contains acalyphin. Fr. pale-brown. Vasira. :—An erect herb 0. Sk. Uttrane . scattered. CHAR. :—Throughout India. Fr. small. t.—June-Sept. Latjira . oblong-cylindric. females. elongate.—opposite. H. Kuppi. Khokla. G.3 X 2. Kharamanjiri. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. pneumonia and rheumatism. Fl. M. Merkati. NS. elliptic obovate. :—G. many. CHAR. branches terete or quadrangular striate. L. LOC. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation.. brown. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. FAM. Khajoti. COM. minute. K. Agheda-di.8-6. Fl. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. :—Common in the Deccan and S. Aghada . high. Kantarika. Country.5 cm. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. smooth. Prickly chaff-flower. NS.57. COM. H. clustered near the summit of spike. few. Chichra.—truncate at apex. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. somewhat 3-nerved. . Vanchhikanto. tropical Africa. erect herb. K. Fl. L. crenate-serrate.—Euphorbiaceæ.—greenish white. hispid. t. Sk. males. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. Chirchira. rounded at base. Var. one-seeded. Apang. stem stiff. Apamarga. Sd. Arittamanjaria.5-4. Chalmari.—utricle. axillary spikes . Philippines. Utranigida. high. ascending. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. Fl. in elongate terminal spikes. in lax. It is used in congestive headache. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic.—Nov. perianth 4-5 segments.— ovoid. Sd. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. ovate or rhomboid-ovate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. :—E.3-0.. erect. angular. branches long. 3. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. M.
heart diseases. laxative. improves appetite. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. margins wavy. L. brain-tonic. Sk. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. :—An aromatic herb . good for mouth diseases. slightly curved. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes.—Araceæ. prismatic. skin eruption etc. heating. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. bitter. Vacha. dysentery. Bitter. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. Bhutnashini. Baja . K. 5-10 cm. H. kidney troubles. flowers and seeds. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. COM. Ugragandha. useful in vomiting. top pyramidal. bright-green. PARTS USED : —Root. "Vata". Sikkim. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. liver and chest pains. Tropical Asia. acute. Jatila. emetic. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. HABITAT :—Marshy places.7-3. ascites. rat-bite. Africa. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. abdominal pains. useful in dyspepsia. boils. Fr. itching. anthers yellow. leaves. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache.8 cm. FAM. blood diseases (Ayurveda). it is used in cases of cough and asthma. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. G. bronchitis. anthelmintic. tumours. long. bronchitis. Europe and N. 0. delirium. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. carminative. heating. Baluchistan. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. LOC. NS. dysentery. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers.—turbinate. sepals scarious. See—Sacred Plants. inflammations. DISTR. improves appetite. throat. obtuse. Ceylon. expectorant. inflammations. fevers. dyspepsia. Godavaj. M. long. Gorbach . emmenagogue . alexiterie. carminative. useful in abdominal pains. America. green . spadix.8 X 1. Bach. Australia. leucoderma (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. stomatitis. creeping and branching. Vekhand .. pungent. useful in general weakness. and is considered useful in dropsy. Sweet flag . Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. loss of memory.. flatulence. stomachic. :—Throughout India. thickened in the middle. Vekhand. voice. Gandhilovaj. hysteria. thirst. . worms in the ear (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—E. LOC. toothache.9-1. CHAR. laxative. America. etc. epilepsy. spathe 15-75 cm. diuretic. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. laxative. piles. Throughout Asia. carminative.
Brahmamlika. M. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. useful in biliousness. See—Timbers. K. LOC. DISTR. :—Grown in many places in India . in children. Gujarat. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. :—Western Peninsula. dysentery. H. NS. :—E. colic. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Tudgensu . Gorakamali. G. fever.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Gorakshi. Gorakhchinch. HABITAT':—Cultivated. LOC. bark. DISTR. It is a good remedy in asthma. Goremlichora . Deccan. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. COM.—Lauraceæ. Powder is very effective insecticide. Pichli. Panch-parnika. Kanara evergreen forests.:—Konkan.. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). COM. Gorakhaamli. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. indigenous in tropical Africa. anti-pyretic. M. vomiting. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Baobab. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. PROPERTIES AND LOC. fevers and other maladies. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. Bukha. Sk. PARTS USED : —Root.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. Rukhdo . used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. African calabash. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Monkey-bread tree. Haggodgimara. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. Pisa. LOC. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Gopali. FAM. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. :—K. etc. N. FAM.—Bombacaceæ. NS. leaf and fruit.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Ankoli. Shirisha. Root-bark— used in piles. blood diseases. Sirsul. inflammations. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Kaloshirish. Anedhera. M. aphrodisiac. stem. pungent. Sirisa. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. often along banks of nalas in N. aromatics or honey. Karnapura. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Ankola. Malaya. H. :—E. Dodda-Hombage. hydrophobia. spermatorrhoea. Ankora. and fruit. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Ankota. diarrhœa. DISTR. Garso. Kalshish. G. Asroli. Ankola. blood diseases. alexiteric. wasting diseases. S.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. COM. tonic.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. :—E. LOC. LOC. Fruit—laxative. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). biliousness. Sirai. Ankoli. heating. carminative. Tamraphala. lumbago. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. useful in worms. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Ankol. NS. lumbago (Yunani). Shyamala. Root-bark poisonous. Sk. cures erysipelas. Ankola. Shirish. gleet. burning of body. K. fish-poison. Krishnashirisha. useful in inflammations. anthelmintic. poisonous bites. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. expectorant. anthelmintic. . Akoly. Ankotha. cures " Kapha". Tantia. NS. Kanara. colic. Ceylon. Seeds—cooling. inflammations. indigestible. alexipharmic . Vamaka. Shankiniphala. Philippines. G. Piloshirish. H. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. leaves (rarely). Kathora. (Mimosaceæ).) FAM. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . alterative. dysentery.—Alangiaceæ. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. Gudhapatra. FAM. See—Timbers. Onkla. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. rat-bite. M. COM. Sage-leaved alangium. " Vata "-pain. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Throughout India. acute fever. Uddanaka. China. Shirish. it is said to stop after-pains. Chinchola. Dridhakantaka. Juice—emetic. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Kullumavu.—Leguminosæ. LOO. Kalashirish. commonly planted along roadsides. Kalosadasado. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. Sk. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the State.
Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. stimulant and expectorant. vomiting. piles. Flowers—aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. given in piles. which acts as a diuretic. :—Native country probably Persia. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy.: —Throughout India. spleen diseases. LOC. DISTR. Oil is used in leprosy. ophthalmia. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop.K. Bulb—tonic. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Seeds—fattening. useful in malaria. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. their smell useful in hemicrania. Bengal. See—Vegetables. used in leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. anthelmintic. Dungari. M. Palandu. B & C. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. useful in vomiting. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. Leaves—good in night blindness. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). catarrh. alexiteric. volatile oil. aphrodisiac. itching. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. boils. Bark-bitter. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. good in rat-bite. paralysis. cultivated everywhere. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. ear-ache. asthma. inflammations. Ceylon. etc.—Liliaceæ. Onion. scabies. deafness. Bark and seeds are astringent. erysipelas. tumours. Burma. and chronic bronchitis . bronchitis. etc. appetiser. skin-diseases. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. LOC. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. occasionally used in fever. LOC. diarrhœa. bark. It is an important garden crop. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. G. dropsy. Seeds—tonic to brain. See—Timbers. Bark— anthelmintic. weakness. Sk. seeds. blood diseases. Root—astringent. leucoderma. COM. Rajapriya. Kanda. seeds. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. Rochaka. leaves. H. and also in skin diseases . Ulageddi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. FAM. body pains. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. usually planted. scabies. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. biliousness. bleeding piles. flowers. epistaxis. Piyaz. enriches blood. cures "Vata". cooling. maturant. improves taste. strengthens gums and teeth. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. prescribed in ophthalmia. NS. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums.:—E. The plant contains vitamins A.. stomachic. excessive perspiration. piles. tonic. emollient. eruptions and swellings.. relieves tooth-ache. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. syphilis. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits.
NS. Kanya. Diuretic. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. M. Kuvarpatha. piles. Indian aloe. heating. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Korkand. In Cambodia. Kumari. clears voice. caries of teeth. fattening. Lahsan. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. COM. Sk. :—E. thins the blood (Yunani). Garlic. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Lasun. Ghi-kumari. low fevers. " Vata ". NS. PARTS USED :—Bulb. In cases of diphtheria. H. improves appetite. It is an important garden crop. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. tumours. ear-ache (Ayurveda). thirst. M. G. Bellulli. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. Lasan. K. Lolisara. epileptic fits.—Liliaceæ. FAM. aphrodisiac. Country. H. The plant contains vitamin C. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. Lashuna. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. inflammation. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. useful in diseases of eye and heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. . LOC. good for lumbago. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. LOC. Lasan. Ugragandha. troubles of spleen. Korphad. carminative. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. aphrodisiac. leucoderma. G. chronic fevers. lumbago. hemiplegia. bronchitis. oleaginous . complexion. See—Vegetables. digestive. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. Kumari. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Kapila. In pulmonary phthisis. voice. Sk. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. anthelmintic. body and joint pains. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. paraplegia and convulsive affections. sciatica. COM. K. alexipharmic. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle.—Liliaceæ. :—E. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. ALŒ VERA Linn. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. liver and lungs . paralysis. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. thirst. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Rasonaka.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. FAM. leucoderma. asthma. Ikshurmallika. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. tonic. useful in inflammations. Kattali.
DISTR. bark. PARTS USED :—Leaves. alterative. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. Africa. NS. scape longer than the leaves.—sessile. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. stem short thick. common in the rain-forests of N. carminative. jaundice. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. Kadusale. Saptachhada. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Br. yellow. ulcers (Ayurveda). Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. Dita bark tree. margins spiny. COM. H. perianth cylindric . used in fevers. The plant contains aloin. also cultivated. spleen enlargement. :—E. Fl. PARTS USED :— .MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. simple or branched. DISTR. It also acts as a mild purgative. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. India. methritis. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. :—Wild along the coast in S. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. ophthalmia. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. fleshy. gonorrhœa. Chatian. inflammations. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. pale-green. planted in Indian gardens . Australia. bronchitis. Kaduhale. C. :—A perennial herb . tonic. purgative. strangury. emollient and demulcent. useful in splean inflammation. Satwin. Jamaica. pendulous. biliousness. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. milky juice. FAM. Java. K. Satwin. biliousness (Yunani). West Indian Islands. tumours. lumbago. fattening. alexiteric. LOC. piles. isobarbaloin and emodin. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. E. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek.—Apocynaceæ. and it is largely imported into India. somewhat divided. cooling. Saptaparna. tonic. vomiting. Mediterranean. anthelmintic. useful in eye-diseases. Satian.—in dense racemes . tropical Africa. wild along the coast. pain in muscles. Sk. Kanara. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. scaly. asthma. liver troubles. leaves. purgative. used in form of paste in pleurisy. digestive. Hale. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. HABITAT :—Moist forests. LOC. L. liver complaints. Root. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. Native of S. LOC. skin diseases. lanceolate. M. Bitter . with a small quantity of sugar-candy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. :—Throughout India. Barbados. crowded.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling.). HABITAT :—In waste places. Kantanatia. Kantalo dambho. Ceylon. antiperiodic and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Mulladantu.5 X 1. Apamarisha. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. good in diseases of the heart. appetiser. thickened at the top. numerous. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. H. diseases of the blood. :—An erect glabrous herb. rat-bite. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. Tandulja. LOC. obtuse. bristles pointed. See—Vegetables. leucoderma. Pathyashaka.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. high. rubbish heaps . . Drug Com.. tumours. useful in " Kapha ". hallucination. diuretic. entire.—Amarantaceæ. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. Kantanu-dant. " tridosha " pain. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. ovoid. digestible. leprosy. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. Tandulibija. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. LOC. 30-60 cm. rugose. anthelmintic. male calyx acute. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. G. Mullarave-soppu. Cholai. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. :—Throughout India. COM. improves appetite.8 cm.3—3. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema.— capsule. LOC. L. unisexual. biliousness. :—E. K. Fr. rubbish heaps and fields. antipyretic. often reddish. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. Tandulaja. Root—heating expectorant. leucorrhoea. ovate. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. piles. long. obtuse. FAM. M. also useful in catarrhal fever. blood diseases. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). female calyx oblong. alexiteric. boils and burns. asthma. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Fl. DISTR. Prickly amaranth. Bark—acrid. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. See—Timbers. Kante math.— 3. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. lanceolate.2—7. heating. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. Sk. apiculate. galactogogue. also in fields. tropical countries. ulcers. oleaginous. NS. laxative. stomachic. bronchitis. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. burning sensation. sudorific and febrifuge. CHAR. bitter. laxative.
COM. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions.:— Konkan. FAM. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . NS. constipating.—capsule. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. vomiting. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Kandala. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). COM. Sk. FAM. Malaya. enlargement of the spleen. :—Throughout India in moist places. appetiser. M. Suran . Fl. Suran. Jalavgiyo. DISTR. Ceylon. Grows wild on the banks of S. Sukaranda. LOC. globose. erect or subscandent herb.—Nov.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. high.—Araceæ." blood troubles. pungent. blood diseases. Sk. H. L. branches usually opposite. G. harmful in "Kapha". Tropical Africa. :—E. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Konkan rivers. G. tumours. Dadmari. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. corm. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Suran. " Vata. red. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. aphrodisiac. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. In the Konkan. removes " Kapha ". Afghanistan. Fl. Bharajambhul. Fr. asthma. t. acrid. . strangury . stomachic. Kandavardhan. H. Gujarat and Kanara. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Blistering ammania. Vikata. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Deccan. Arshaghna. It is also used as an emmenagogue. fevers etc. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. bronchitis. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. :—An annual. abdominal pains. Kuranti. CHAR. fresh or dried. elephantiasis . Kurendika. :—Cultivated widely in the State. Elephant's foot. PARTS USED :—Leaves. China.—opposite. laxative. LOC. M. much narrowed at the base. Sd. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Jangli mehandi. LOC. K. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. increases appetite and taste. causes itching sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Kanthalla. depressed. DISTR. useful in piles.—Lythraceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. Bitter and acrid . Suran. 8-65 cm. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). stomachic. the plant. sessile. NS. Kuranda. Vatari. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. LOC. Australia.
Sk. many flowered. Fl. Kakkisoppugida . Jermic. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). NS. LOC. Corm is poisonous. See—Vegetables. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. L. Fish-Louse Berry. dysentery. swollen peduncle of fruit. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. G.— subcoriaceous. Sk. Kempu— Turkaka geru . long. USES :—Bark is alterative. cordate or truncate. H. Crow-Fish Killer. fever. hot. COM. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. ascites. tumours.. Prithagbija. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. which is nutritious and emollient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. Kakamari. ringworm. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. anthelmintic. CHAR. aphrodisiac.—Menispermaceæ. ulcers. broadly ovate. . Kakamari. The seed contains vitamin A. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. B. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . flowers. and trace of C. Sophara.5-12. H. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. piles. Kakamari. leaves. :—E. FAM. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. 5-nerved. leucoderma. FAM. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. corns and obstinate ulcers. sweet.5 cm. LOC. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. The plant contains Vitamins A. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Kakaphal. Kakamari. K. Kaju. Agni-krita. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. Cashew apple-nut. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Kaju. Kanara. COM. Kakanashika. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. DISTR. Oils. G. skin diseases. . It is supposed to have restorative power. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—A native of tropical America. Garalaphala. Gerubi. Kakamari. K.—Anacardiaceæ. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. NS. Kaju . equal to almond oil. also cultivated. Gova. 10-12 X 7. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kajutaka. & A. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. Govamba. M. bark vertically furrowed . Upapushpika.—in panicles 25-35 cm. See—Timbers. digestible.
causes cough and biliousness. H. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. a poison to fish (Yunani). ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees.-Oct. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). Olikiriyat. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague.—Bromeliaceæ. diaphoretic and refrigerant. Mahateet. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. H.—Acanthaceæ. Pine-apple . given with sugar it relieves hiccup. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. removes gases from the intestines . LOC. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests.—Sept. smooth. NS. See—Fruit Trees. LOC. DISTR. dioecious. fruits. K. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). black . good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. :—E. native of Brazil (tropical America). The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic.) LOC. to a certain extent in Gujarat. Kirata. M. Ananas hannu. PARTS USED :—Roots. G. Fl. Nelabevu gida. Olen kirayat. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. LOC. Kiryat. Ananasa. from Orissa to Ceylon. Ama. . Mahatit. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). :—E. petals absent. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. it is useful in jaundice. :—Khasia Hills. FAM. NS. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. It acts also as diuretic. cultivated. :—Konkan. N. Creat. FAM. Kanara. Kiriyata. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Ananas . useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. Ananas . leaves and fruits. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. K. Parvati. t. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . COM. COM. Ananas. good expectorant. M. Bengal. also acts as a purgative. Bhuinimba. Sk. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. E. G. Ananas. Kantak sanjika.
pale above. 1. Fl.2-1. LOC. solitary.— capsule.—in dense whorls . L.—small. LOC. Ceylon.5 cm. Gojivana. alterative. Sd.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Malabar Catmint. Chodhara. Fl. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Kanara. upper lip 2-toothed. very small. . PROPERTIES AND LOC. lower lip very large and broad .—many. DISTR. bracts lanceolate. dyspepsia and fever from teething.8 m.. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. lateral lobes small. extensively used in Bengal. purple. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . rose coloured. L. HABITAT. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla.-Oct. Oshthaphala. Karitumbe. G. thickly woolly. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin.—Labiatæ. :—Throughout India.9 m. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. forming a spicate inflorescence. C—2-lipped. dysentery. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. yellowish brown. NS. :—Deccan. Fr. Plant is useful in general debility. Vaikunth. high. white below. ellipsoid. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. polished brown.—very thick. Sk. t. Karnatak.-Nov. crenate-serrate. and certain forms of dyspepsia. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. stem quadrangular. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. Fl. FAM. linear-oblong. distant. sometimes cultivated. lower 3lobed. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Green leaves. Alamoda. and anthelmintic. CHAR. distant. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. :—E. Br. tonic. smooth. made into an electuary. M. oblong-lanceolate.3-10 X 2-4.—nutlets. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. :—S. clothed with woolly hairs . 6. and N. DISTR. COM. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. Sundraphul. Fr. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. :—An erect branched annual 0. high. approximate above. stomachic. :—Konkan and Kanara. Fl. C—2-lipped.—lanceolate. acute at both ends .—Dec. :—An erect shrub. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. t. pale beneath. acute. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Sundara.3-0. Malay Peninsula. undulate. rugosely pitted.—Ghats.
Bark is bitter. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Bakla. Bark is a powerful astringent. LOC. K. (Yunani).—Combretaceæ. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). NS. Pitaphala. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . improves taste and appetite . bark. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". flavoury. abortifacient. Sk. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Dhavada. increases muscular strength. Kanara border. DISTR.—Anonaceæ. good tonic. NS. Dyes. Dindala. applied to skin-diseases. increases biliousness . :—Throughout the greater part of India. useful in liver complaints. Bahubijika. H. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. stimulant. produce ulcers in the eye. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness .:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Sitaphal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Sugar apple. H. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. Sitaphala. :—A native of West Indies . Sitaphala. LOC. Fruit—sweet. Dhava. and eyesores. Button Tree. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Dohu. Bejjalu. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Dhamora. See—Timbers. Dhava. Sk. chronic diarrhœa. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. K. now cultivated throughout India. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). cooling . DISTR. Dindiga. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. FAM. Sitaphala. COM. Shushkanga. leaves and fruits. LOC. cooling. Ceylon. Anuram. sedative to heart. Ata. Dabria. :—E. discharges. causes fever and furunculosis . G. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Krishnabija. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. astringent to the bowels. Amritphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. expectorant. LOC. tasty. Sharipha. fruit and seeds. erysipelas. enriches blood. M. Root—cathartic. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Dhavala. Anan. bark. FAM. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Durangi. G. Custard apple. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. M. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. useful in anaemia. PARTS USED :—Root. Sweet-sop. Damora. Dhavada. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Sitaphala. enriches blood . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. leaves. Seeds—difficult to digest. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda).
Ashokari. astringent to bowels. bitter. DISTR. biliousness. " Kapha".—Rubiaceæ. sweet. acrid. wild or cultivated. Sacred Plants. Bairi. M. Kadamba. Pegu. LOC. NS. burning sensation. Kadubale. common near Yellapur. Jajpugri. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. alexiteric. Kadamb . They are detergent and their powder. Ceylon. galactagogue. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Seeds.—Moraceæ. vulnerary. See—Timbers. H. It is generally considered tonic. In eye inflammations. Kadamb . Nadija. Kadam. indigestible. FAM. COM. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Sk. Nipa. " Vata". Fodder Plants. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Kadamb. See—Fruit Trees. LOC. Niv. cooling. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. :—G. :—E. FAM. M. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. Sk. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. Chandkuda. sprouts and fruits. COM NS. . strangury. K. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. often cultivated. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Kadamb. Chandala. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. good in uterine complaints. :—Throughout India. causes biliousness when ripe. sap of the tree. aphrodisiac. saline. Malayan Peninsula. aphrodisiac. Chandkuda. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. :—W. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. Peninsula. LOC. Ajjanpatte. blood diseases. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Karnapuraka. Kaduve. PARTS USED:—Bark. Seeds yield an oil and resin. K.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. is a good hairwash. Burma. Fruit—heating. Sprouts—acrid. H. USES:—In the Konkan. Kanara . :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. mixed with gram-flour. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Malay Islands. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Valkala. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Tennaserim. Surabhi. Upas Tree.
See—Vegetables. Mungphali. The plant contains vitamins A. Snehabijaka. abortifacient. Sk. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. 0. Ajmoda . G.— radial. anthelmintic. vittae broad. bronchitis. Europe. Abyssinia. Bodi ajomoda. Java and Malaya. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ugragandha. cure " Kapha ". Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. abdominal pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. and γ-antiarin. :—A biennial plant. Nelkadle. COM NS. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Chinimung. improve appetite . hiccup. appetiser. Fr. Bhuchanak. Fibres. erect. cauline 3-partite. segments once or twice trifid. Moda. aphrodisiac. specially near large cities. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. nasal catarrh (Yunani). Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. DISTR. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. LOC. Karafs. Glucoside apiin is present. Fl. cure asthma. tonic. Bhuimug-chana. high. used in anasarca and colic. NS. vomiting. FAM. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Monkey-nut.3-2. Asia. Markati. scorpion and other stings. L. Seeds—carminative. W. :—E. ascites. Celery. traces of B and C. chest-pains. Mandapi. Shimbika. M. Bhuimug.—1. apex toothed .— in umbels. scabies. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis.4 m. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. laxative.:—Foot of the N. Wild celery.5-2 mm. COM. pedicels 6-16 . H. See—Timbers. Africa. useful in ophthalmia. Brahmakoshi. Sk. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. fever with cough. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. rheumatism. K. . ridges narrow. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. H. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ).—Umbelliferæ. tooth-ache. Ground-Pea-nut. W. Ajamoda. inflammations. vomiting. amenorrhœa. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Bhuimug. rays 5-10. N. Ajmud. Bori ajmud. good for heart. heart and spleen diseases. CHAR. branching. astringent to bowels . USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. LOC. M.. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). β-antiarin. G. :—E. " Vata " .MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. good in ophthalmia. rectal troubles. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. urinary discharges. Afghanistan.
Burma. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Sopari. LOC. gum. K. Supari. Assam. Seed cooling. Bengal. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). improves appetite and taste. Chhataphala. digestive. cooling. giddiness. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. See—Food Plants.. Indo-Malaya. Tantusara. Sk. In French Guinea. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. useful in urinary disorders.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. Deccan. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Kanara. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. DISTR. LOC. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Chikkan. PARTS USED :—Root. cardiotonic. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Kaungu. Chikka. Supari. Suppiyari. Hopari. Betta. Mysore. NS. removes foul breath. Poga. Betel-nut palm. . fairly largely in the Konkan. Pophal. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. Areca palm. seeds. :—Madras. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. used for eye-inflammations. indigestible. gleet. emmenagogue. FAM. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. bleeding gums. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. COM. H. diuretic. Areca-nut palm. laxative. Adki. Gum pungent. Country. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. LOC. LOC. removes pus (Yunani).—Palmæ. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. USES. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. M. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Gujarat and S. Malabar.:—Extensively grown in N. leaves (rarely). Akota. DISTR. Oils. Siam. M. Pugiphal. Nut astringent. :—E. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. ARECA CATECHU Linn.
Fl. 2. arecaidine. This is said to bring the worm out at once. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn.—Papaveraceæ. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). Fr. prickly. and in pertussis and asthma. Mexican prickly poppy . Daruri.— terminal. LOC. Darudi. :—E. Bila dhatura.). LOC. prickly. L.5-18 cm. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. M. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . FAM. oblong. Srigalkanta. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. . sinuately pinnatifid. emetic. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. Seeds—purgative. brownish black. netted.3-0. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy.5-5 cm. glaucous herb .—thistlelike.—numerous. various skin-diseases. useful is strangury.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Plant enriches blood. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap.—all the year. antidote to various poisons. stem clasping. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Seeds are laxative. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. CHAR. nauseant. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Sd. Ind. destroys worms . expectorant and demulcent. Balurakkisa. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. opening by 4-6 valves. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. high. PARTS USED :—Root.12 m. branching. arecoline. Sk. H. 7. G. and guvacine. COM. veins white. diam. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. relieves blisters. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. Indigenous in tropical America. Shialkanta.—capsule. Brahma dandi. cures leprosy. purgative. USES :—Root is an alterative. Bharbhand. Juice—used as a collyrium. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. inflammations and bilious fevers. Fl. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. juice yellow. oblong-ovoid 2. See—Timbers.8 cm. seeds and yellow juice. India. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Fruit Trees.5-3. Pita-pushpa. Datturi. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. spinous. stem 0. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). It is also diuretic. NS. yellow. K. sedative. Pirangi datturi. Svarnakshiri. Root anthelmintic. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. :—A glabrous. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. globose. t.
H. anthelmintic. CHAR. powdered root is given with milk. Samudraballi. white-tomentose L. Deccan and S. DISTR. oblongellipsoid. Java. striate.—Aug. Soge. In synovitis. Kiramar. long. Country. K. Samudrashosh. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. base cordate with wide sinus . t.. Elephant Creeper. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. LOC. 12-ribbed . Kitakaba. gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Samardar sokh. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Hastivalli.3-25 cm. H.-Sept. COM. M. L. peduncles stout. .:—Konkan. Gujarat and S. painful joints. CHAR. Konkan. pubescent outside. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases.-Nov. prostrate. Peninsula. G. used in gleet. tip linear dark purple. Bracteated Birth-wort. long. Fl. NS. G. with revolute margins. Shyambhuna. cultivated. :—E. Samudrapatrashoh. :—E. Fr. pedicel with a large bract at the base. :—A slender perennial. K.3-2 cm. t. Ajantri. Varghoro.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). (sometimes even larger). chronic ulcers (Yunani).—Convolvulaceæ. Ceylon. Kidamar. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. LOC. M. reniform or broadly ovate. tubular.—solitary.5 cm. ovate glabrous above. glabrous inside. bracts large . aphrodisiac. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. Sk. Fl. Ganda. Arabia. :—A very large climber. M. useful in " Vata". Sd. Dridhadaru. 1. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic.3 cm. tube inflated. Krimighni. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. :—Bengal. strangury. Samudrashok.— Aug. Gandali. the bands silky pubescent outside. Dhuma-patra. Fl. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. Samandarka phal.8-7. W. Vridhadaraka. DISTR. white-tomentose.— 3. white-tomentose beneath. tropical Africa.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. infundibuliform. Country. :—Throughout India.—deltoid with cordate base .—capsule.—in sub-capitate cymes. Kitamari. COM. perianth 2. " Kapha" fevers. stems stout. C—5-6. base cordate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . stems. NS. Fl. LOC.5-30 x 6. diuretic .— globose apiculate. Adumuttadagida. long and as broad as long. HABITAT. FAM.5-4. base subglobose. perhaps a native of Bengal. absorptive. rose purple.— 7. long. Sk.—Aristolochiaceæ. Kidamari. M. See—Ornamental Plants. Fr. Leaves are maturative. weak. FAM.5 cm.
dry cough. L. Sugandha. M. Sk. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. 6-valved. Stem long. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Saraparni. biliousness.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Isvara balli beru . Sk. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Seeds useful in inflammation. leaves and seeds.5 cm. also useful in dropsy.—flat.. obovate oblong 10-12. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn.5x7. Ruhimula. CHAR. Arkamula. H. Indian Birth-wort. NS. DISTR. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Nagdamani. Gathona.) FAM. Ishvari. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. perianth greenishwhite. bitter.8-10 X 1. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. woody at the base. The plant contains an alkaloid. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. LOC. Dhor-davana. Dovana. purgative (Yunani). useful in " Tridosha. COM.—Aristolochiaceæ. dyspnoea of children.—variable linear oblong. Country. M. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. t. Dona. M. 3.3-2. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). :—E. Fr. NS. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. :—A twining shrub. Flea-bane. Nakuli.5 cm. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. Ceylon. Majtari.. bract opposite the pedicel.5 cm. . The plant contains an alkaloid. Fl. Mastaru. Manjipatri. PARTS USED :—Roots.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Isharmula. :—Western Peninsula. G. Bengal. Arkamula. Mother or Mugwort. joint-pains. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. H." pains in the joints. — capsule. base vaiable.—Nov. alexiteric. entire with undulate margins. Nilpushpa. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. FAM. COM. Indian wormwood.:—Konkan and S. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. slender. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. globose-oblong. long with globose inflated base.—Compositæ. Nagduna. K. grooved. :—E. winged. tonic. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Plant is used as an abortifacient. K. Nepal. Sd. reaching 4. Sapsan. LOC. emmenagogue.
HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. LOC. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. lanceolate. aphrodisiac. An infusion is given as a tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. base lobed. oblong ellipsoid. FAM. oleaginous. inner hermaphrodite. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. deeply pinnatisect. Panesa. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Panos. Phanas. LOC. enriches blood. itching (Ayurveda). Fr. Java. aphrodisiac. :—E. tonic. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. Ceylon. Seeds sweet. Tage. Vanas.:—A perennial shrub. Kantakaphala.4 m. minute. t. toothed or again pinnatisect. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. pubescent above. leprosy.6-2. but rather difficult to digest. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). cures "Kapha". " Kapha". Halasina. useful in biliousness. Phanasa. outer flowers female. Fruit Trees and Dyes. Jack-fruit tree. lobes entire.10x2. The plant contains an essential oil. Ghats.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. often planted along roadsides in N.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. LOC. hairy. aphrodisiac. Fl.—Urticaceæ.— achene. diuretic. " Vata". COM. grown in gardens also. Skandaphala. solitary or 2. Kanthal. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Externally it is used in fomentations. aromatic. cooling. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. asthma and brain diseases. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. ovate. DISTR. tonic. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. white tomentose beneath. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. "Vata".—heads ovoid or subglobose. G. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. . ulcers. K. petioled. Panas. The unripe fruit is astringent. ripe fruit laxative. L— lower leaves 5. fattening. See—Timbers. 0. Kujja. DISTR. 3-fid or entire. LOC. high. HABITAT. Fl. fertile. M. Chakki. H. upper leaves smaller. NS.5-5 em. fruit and seeds. Thailand (Siam). stems leafy. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. involucral bracts villous. alexiteric. constipating (Ayurveda). Jack-Orange wood. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. :—Konkan. deobstruent and antispasmodic. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State.—Jany. appetiser. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. asthma. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. :—Widely cultivated. although very nutritious. temperate Asia.-Hilly districts.
Sk. straight. M. Asual Shatavari. root-stock tuberous. Siprimuli. cladodes in tufts. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. cultivated as ornamental plant. stomachic. solitary.—in simple raceme.9-1. astringent to bowels. C. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. NS. up to 1. DISTR. with coma.2 m. and moist monsoon forests. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. biliousness. Fl. H. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. aphrodisiac. common in the Deccan. Shatavari. JAVANICA Baker. valvate in bud. Satavari. :—Introduced from the W. Flower is a good styptic.—linear with a stout spinous spur. Tropical Africa. . PARTS USED:—Root. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.—berry.000 m. dark brown. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. throat complaints. Fr. Country. Satamulika. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. lanceolate. See—Ornamental Plants. Java and Australia. fragrant. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State.-Dec. blood and eye diseases. Fr. tonic. 2. K. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Fl. tumours. undershrub. long. oblong.5-5 cm.5 cm. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa.5-10 X 1. Var. tapering at both ends. Kaktundi. high. A fibre is extracted from the plants. :—An erect undershrub. :—Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. L. 7.—June-Sept. galactogogue. erect. thin.-Feb. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. FAM. spines recurved.—Asclepiadaceæ. oleaginous. t. linear. :—G. thorn. abundant round about Poona. t. FAM.5 cm.ovoid. red when ripe. Indies. cooling. leaves and flowers. appetiser. white.—lobes reflexed in flower. from Kashmir eastwards..—opposite 7. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. useful in dysentery. CHAR. Fl. spinous. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon.—orange in axillary umbels. Satavari. Sd. in the Himalayas. Fl. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. COM. L. S. inflammation. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . Kuraki. Svadurasa. PARTS USED:—Root. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. LOC. LOC.—Liliaceæ. DISTR. alterative. globose.— follicles. Svetmuli. naturalised in many parts of India.3-2. COM. indigestible. 0. :—E. Satavari. M. curved. :—Extremely scandent. narrowed at both ends. CHAR. segments.
— Acanthaceæ. constipation. LOC. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. urinary calculi and discharges. demulcent. widely 2-lipped. Gokhran. Ekharo. M. improve blood (Yunani). Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. Kak-Kokilaksha. CHAR. Kolavalike. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. 4 inner small. bracts. Ceylon. tonic.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. Vikhara. antispasmodic. NS. Vajrakantaka. anæmia. And. hairy. 3. . erect. aphrodisiac. The root is sweet. inflammations. 0. and dysentery. hispid with long hairs. Gokshura. USES :—The root is refrigerant. HABITAT:—Swampy places. stems fasciculate. upper 2-fid. Sk.—sessile. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Vishnu Taila. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. :—A stout herb. gonorrhoea.— purple blue. :—Throughout India. thickened at the nodes. galactogogue. dysentery. aphrodisiac. and alterative tonic. Talamkhana. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. tropical and S. useful in jaundice and anasarca.) FAM. Used in diarrhœa. tonic. Fl. L. long. Shrigalghant.) LOC. ascites. abruptly swollen at the top. eyediseases. K. gleet. C. (Yunani. :—G. Talim-khana. aphrodisiac . 18 X 3-3. useful in diarrhœa. 4-8 seeded.:—Common throughout the State. subquadrangular.6-1. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Fl. LOC. expectorant.2 cm. Seeds fattening. biliousness. aphrodisiac . tonic. pointed. PARTS USED :—Root. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Ikshura. Africa. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. abdominal troubles. Phalaghrita. Talamkhan. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. DISTR. ciliate . lanceolate. colic. lower deeply 3-lobed. diuretic. 2 outer large. anuria.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . high. thirst. USES.. Leaves good for cough. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Konkan and Deccan.8 cm. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda).—June-Jany. like leaves. sedative to gravid uterus .5 cm. tonic.—capsule. Kalavankabija. leprosy. lips sub-equal. H. Narayana Taila. tube. Fr. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. COM. hypnotic. laxative. Seeds cooling. linear oblong. Gokhalkanta. scalding of urine. leaves and seeds. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. aphrodisiac.
heating. Ceylon and all warm countries. ascites. :—A glabrous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. Kamaranga. G. Carambola apple. M.—Oxalidaceæ. causes biliousness (Yunani). LOC. fruits.5-10 mm. M. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. K. inflammations. astringent to bowels. Sk. pale blue or white. capsule. Barambhi. Nirbrahmi. DISTR. Sd. laxative. Safed-Kammi. anæmia. Thyme-leaved graticula . branches many ascending. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. :—E. leprosy. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. CHAR. Tamarak. Jalneam. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. 6-25 X 2. LOC. Brahmi. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . tonic. LOC. tumours. Kanara villages. astringent to bowels . 2-lipped. creeping herb. L. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. NS. pale.:—E. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. allays thirst. Karmar. "Vata". heats the body (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. Kamrang.:—Throughout India in wet places. digestible. striate. Brahmi. decussate. Shiral. Kamarakh. succulent. Fruits are used in pickles. also used in diarrhœa.) FAM. HABITAT :—Damp places. acute. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. sour. Fl. black dotted : entire. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Karmal. K. sessile. Darehuli. emetic. stems rooting at the nodes. Mudgara. Karmare . NS. Fr. Sk. DISTR. when fresh.—Scrophulariaceæ. enlargement of spleen. Soumyalata. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). H. t. ovoid. causes biliousness. Bama. solitary. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . Kirihuli. COM. Fl.:—Konkan and Deccan. useful in bad ulcers. with shining dots. FAM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. . Root is given in cases of poisoning. HABITAT :—Cultivated.. dried fruit is given in fevers. axillary. found wild near N. perhaps a native of Malaya. Brahmi. rarely wild. obovate-oblong or spatulate. lobes equal spangled. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. Fruit sour. See—Fruit Trees. COM. H. Karuka. indigestion. oblong. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Manduki. fleshy. pungent. Coromandel gooseberry. Kamarakha. C. Jany-May.
See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Leaf-juice. Sd. Guggul. NS. M. often palmately 3-5 lobed. K. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. of three 2-valved cocci. LOC. inflammations. HABITAT :—Dry open plains..—Euphorbiaceæ. diuretic. syphilis . Rechani. purgative. Sk. LOC. abundant on the hills of Karanja. t. diseases of skin and abdomen. Dantimul. LOC. in monsoon forests of N. Uddipta.8 m. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. useful in pains. Root and leaves are cathartic. is used as a local application in rheumatism. all male or with a few females below. leaves and seeds. anasarca and jaundice. Malaya. leucoderma. or in monsoon forests. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. conjoined with petroleum. epilepsy and hoarseness. smooth. Dantika. aphrodisiac . . :—G. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. yellowish. Jamalgota. :—E. Chota Nagpur. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). epilepsy and hoarseness. ellipsoid. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. Fl. W. high. Assam. Dec. FAM. hairy. Seeds are poisonous. Vishodhini. Burma. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. L. Guggula. Danti. useful in insanity. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. capsule. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Danti. Danti. the upper small. K. PARTS USED :—Root.9-1. anthelmintic. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. enlarged spleen. branching from the roots. They are used in dropsy. 0. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. Danti. Kanara. :—Bihar. anaemia. purifies blood. piles. DISTR. CHAR. Guggula. Mukul. Fr. jaundice (Ayurveda). N. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. mottled. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. :—Dry open Deccan plains. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. 2-glandular. Guggula. Bengal. obovoid. toothed. alexiteric. Peninsula. Kaduharalu. Jatala. It is a direct cardiac tonic. the lower large. wounds. sinuate. Gum gugul. H. Hakum. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. leucoderma. good in scabies.—Burseraceæ. FAM. Sk. :—A stout undershrub. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. itching. Fl. COM. Devdhup. G. Gugul. NS. COM. M.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
cures strangury. dehiscent. cough. M. vaginal discharges. given' to corpulent persons. Root. cardiac and general tonic. leprosy. Sk. urethral discharges. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav.10-15. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. bark and flowers. used in strangury. enriches blood. burning sensation. :—Cultivated throughout the State. used in dry cough. anthelmintic. NS. Fr. urinary discharges and calculi. China. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. it is also anti-fat remedy. flat. eye diseases. K. USES :—Root-decoction is given. biliousness. cures biliousness. seeds. diuretic.—pod. 15-20 X 1. asthma. Bark—astringent to bowels. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. appetising. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. Fruit—antiperiodic.5 cm. fever. tuberculous glands. FAM. thirst. blood diseases. H. thirst. Kumaon. oil from the seeds. Buds—indigestible. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. G. Seeds— cooling. . asthma. red and white. Kohala. used in piles. Ash pumpkin. tonic. tonic. Koholu. t. cures biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws.—Cucurbitaceæ. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). ulcers. Kondha. Kudimah. Fl. menorrhagia. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). COM. LOC. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. LOC. astringent. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. :—E. DISTR. Sd. "Kapha". Shikhivardhaka. in dyspepsia and flatulence. blood impurities. Bhuru-koholu. There are two varieties. wounds and ulcers. DISTR. tuberculous glands. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. not indigenous. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Sikkim.-Feb.-Apl.8-2. Karkutika. Kushmanda. PARTS USED :—Root. dysmenorrhoea. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. heart tonic (Ayurveda). Burma. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. cough. biliousness. Timisha. Budekumbalkai. tonic to liver. used as gargle in stomatitis. blood diseases . they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Dorokaru. aphrodisiac. Tallow-White gourd. anal troubles. leucoderma. removes foul taste from mouth. " Tridosha". leprosy. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. LOC. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Golkaddu.
-achene. :—G.—the lower ones petioled. t. catarrh. Malaya. Pilokapurio.3—0. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. ash colored. mixed with black pepper.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst.—Compositæ. cooling. Fl. China. thirst. Oil—is soporific. blood diseases. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Jangali-muli. fevers. burning sensation. etc. BLUMEA LACERA DC. L. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial.-Apl. stem erect. :—Annual herb. good for the brain and liver. Kakarunda. laxative. LOC. inner bracts with green midrib. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.—Jany. Australia. S. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). Kukkurdru. Kukurbanda. it is also useful in insanity.:—In plains south of Bombay. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. it is given in bleeding piles. Kalhar. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. Kanara. bitter. with a strong odour of turpentine. upper subsessile. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. asthma. Sk. CHAR. pungent. LOC. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. pappus white. Fl. oblong. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. not ribbed. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. Deccan. DISTR. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. LOC. Fruit is made into confections. and diuretic. Bhamurdi. pubescent. finely silky pubescent on both sides. elliptic-oblong. haemoptysis. :—Throughout plains of India. Konkan. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. Mriduchhada. sharply serrate-dentate. See—Vegetables. NS. . Tropical Africa. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. FAM. high. densely glandular. febrifuge. M. astringent.9 m. often incised or lyrate. H. and nutritious tonic. Kakaronda. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). anti-pyretic. M. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative.—heads many. Fr. phthisis. heart diseases. 0. good in syphilis (Yunani). sweetish. cures bronchitis. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. base tapered. Country. Tamrachuda. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. COM. Ceylon.
K. green above. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. whitish beneath. Sk. LOC. . leaves and seeds. useful in lumbago.—in corymbose umbels. cooling . cultivated. Tad. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. Burma. Plant contains large quantities of pot. M. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. Tala.—in unequal pairs at each node. leucorrhoea. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). alexiteric. sub-orbicular. margins undulate. Ghetuli. spleen enlargement. Celyon. COM. carminative. and dropsy. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. common in S. :—A diffuse herb. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. blood impurities. :—E. :—E. FAM. Persian Gulf. Bitter. very small. Sk. "Vata". :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ceylon. Uttar Pradesh. CHAR. astringent to bowels . useful in ophthalmia. stem prostrate or ascending. It is used in jaundice. Madhurasa. Fr. scabies. Talimara. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. (Ayurveda). Africa and America. fusiform. DISTR. FAM. G. Vasu. Santhikari. t. H. Hogweed. Kolaba and Thana districts. Dholia-saturdo. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. NS. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). Tad.—Palmæ. LOC. Baluchistan. Shothaghni. Desert Palm. 1. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. heart diseases. bluntly 5-ribbed. Fl. Kommegida. HABITAT :—A weed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Palmyra Palm. Punarnava. tumours. Dhvajadruma. in pain of joints. H. abdominal pains. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Indian Archipelago. asthma. Raktakanda. cultivated and self-sown. Moto-satodo. Brab tree. G. "Kapha" heating. Tad. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. root large. very glandular . Asavardu. Fan Palm. :—Tropical India.3—2 cm.—clavate.— Nov.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. native of tropical Africa. Seeds—tonic. M. inflammations. K. generally found in poorer soils. —Nyctaginaceæ. DISTR.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Fl. NS. LOC. P. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. alterative. Leaves— appetiser. Varshabhu. India. L. gonorrhœa. pinkish. It produces a very marked and persistent.. useful in biliousness. expectorant. anæmia. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Lekhyapatra.
fatigue. tonic. Salai. intoxicating. Salashi. flowers. helps delivery. tonic. Gums and Resins. Salphali. Sk. diuretic . "Vata".USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Dhup. Kundur. vaginal discharges. . also used as antiperiodic. blood complaints . Fruit—aphrodisiac. skin diseases. :—E. used for boils. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. fattening. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. causes headache. Indian olibanum tree. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. laxative. LOC. purifies blood. aphrodisiac. expectorant. H. purifies blood (Yunani). Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. NS. Loban. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. antibilious . allays thirst. ulcers . Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Guggula. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . allays asthma. with a little salt added. Sugars. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. bitter. Liquors. convulsions. K. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Vishesha-dhupa. dry. leaves. intoxicating. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. if taken regularly acts as laxative. thirst. fattening. biliousness. invigorating. Luban. COM. Fermented juice—tonic. antipyretic. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. " Vata". Fruit—cooling. strengthens teeth. flowers. may cause vomiting. FAM. mouth-sores. Bark-decoction. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. thirst and scalding of urine. expectorant. bad throat. Mukulsalai. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani)..—Burseraceæ. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. cough. burning sensation. fruits. hot. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. diaphoresis. PARTS USED :—Bark. antiglycosuretic. Gum is of five kinds . Sambrani. improves taste. useful in biliousness. juice. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. asthma. Salpe. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. M. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Dup. DISTR. See—Timbers. Gum—hot. also found in Belgaum District.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Guggali. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . heals wounds . cures dysentery. G. LOC. alexiteric. cooling. useful in intestinal troubles. causes " Kapha ". scabies. useful in skin and blood diseases. fevers. binding. aphrodisiac. antidysenteric. Salgond. removes "Kapha". fruit and gum. with a good flavour. bronchitis. allays. astringent to bowels. Moddi. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Dhupam.
rheumatism. :—Cultivated in India. . :—E. good for throat complaints. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. internal congestions. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. cause burning . See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. chiefly in Nasik. biles. dispel fever . Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Seeds— remove cough tumours. increase appetite . neuralgic and rheumatic affections . spleen. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. used with butter in syphilis . if swallowed whole they are laxative. bechic. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. H. Taramira . Broach. Kari Sasive . Sarshapa. lessen oedema of body. Sk. Rajika. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. spasmodic. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Dharwar and Belgaum. Jwalanti.—Cruciferae. Gums and Resins. Kaira. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. NS. DISTR. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. eye-troubles. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Asuri. G. Kali-rai. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. appetiser. Seeds act as digestive condiment . Seeds-laxative. kill external parasites. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Mohori. Black-True mustard. K. and toothache. ear. M. Khandesh. Surat. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. COM. FAM. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. Rai. cure enlargement of spleen. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. vermicide. See—Condiments and Spices. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. good in cough and for inflammations. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. " Vata". LOC. anthelmintic . The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). LOC. cure nose. increase bile. cure skin-dissases. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. India.
female flowers solitary. Country.—Cucurbitaceæ. COM. Philippines. Apastambhini. streaked with broad vertical lines . deeply cordate base. bluish green. alterative. :—G. Lingaja. NS. tropical Africa. stem grooved. t. S.. M. DISTR. 3—2 . bitter. long. Chandra. ovate-oblong. Shivlingi. Fr. smooth. Lingini. corolla companulate. It is used in bilious attacks. Gauli. of Shivaling shape . Sk. Malaya.—baccate. 10-15 cm. M. FAM. LOC.:—Throughout India. useful in "Vata". margins sinuate denticulate. 5-lobed. hot. Suviraka.— membranous. corolla as in the male . M. Garige. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. diam.—Euphorbiaceæ. Goge. globose. pungent. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. PARTS USED :—Root. Kassi. lumbago. Mauritius. Asana. Gunjan. paler and smooth beneath. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). LOC.. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Kavodi. lobes oblong lanceolate. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda).—yellowish brown. Patharphoda. FAM. :—An annual scandent herb. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.. Mahavira. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. Asana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. Tans. Gargumaru. LOC. H. Mullu-siru Honne. See—Timbers. bark. Khaja.— Aug-Sept. :—Deccan. COM. Fl. southward to Ceylon. 5-partite. Ekalkanto. Sk. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. K.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Asana. hemiplegia.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. H. CHAR. or few or many. Sd. and in fevers with flatulence. NS. 1 . Ishawara-Shivalingi. glabrous . Asana. heating. tendrils 2-fid : L. Shivavalli. 5 cm. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Fl. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Australia. subsessile. . The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Ekadivi. Kaj. :—G. Shivalingi. green and scabrid above. Manj. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin.
See—Ornamental Plants. NS. Fr. purgative. Tapaspriya. Dhanu. cooling. K. elliptic. Panphuti. allays . Asthibhakshya. younger reddish. COM. LOC. Kolegeru. ulcers. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Deccan. decussate. gum (rarely). Gujarat. Murukali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). Char. Cochin-China. Sk. :—H. Leaf-juice digestive. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. "Vata" and biliousness.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Lalana. fevers. lobes triangular. Rajadana. Zakhi-haiyat. aphrodisiac. Pyalchar. aphrodisiac.—small. Deccan. when punctured. M. leaves. purifies blood.) FAM. Stems obtusely 4-angled. Char. tonic. bruises. Charpoppu. laxative.2 m. It is a disinfectant. Burma. reddish purple. LOC. NS. speckled with white. :—Konkan. thirst. leaflets ovate. Paira. C. Country.3-1. cures blooddiseases. The bark is bitter and poisonous. DISTR. fruit. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. vomiting. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. buds with root. the older light-coloured. analgesic. CHAR. binding. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. Cambodia. Fl. Parnabija. :—Native of tropical Africa. Lonnahadakana gida. occasionally compound. burning sensation on body. HABITAT :—Dry. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. astringent to bowels. also wild.—variable. :—G. M. :—Hot and drier parts of India. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . boils and bites of venomous insects. PARTS USED :—Roots.—pendant. LOC. S. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Country. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. t. upper 3-5-7 foliate. inflammations. M. Piyal. K. constricted in the middle. high. Sk. Snehabija. the Dangs. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings.—Crassulaceæ. FAM. Sd. deciduous open forests. Panphui. DISTR. Thailand (Siam). carminative. Priyal. M. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). S. crenate or serrate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha".—Anacardiaceæ. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant.. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. seeds. lower usually simple. L. useful in diarrhœa. in large panicles. expectorant. alexipharmic. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Charoli. COM. Char. Charoli. with opposite branches . :—Konkan.—Jany. H. smooth. cardio-tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz.—swollen and octagonal at the base. fattening. Fl.
leprosy. aphrodisiac. astringent. Flower—aphrodisiac. expectorant. burning sensation. dysentery. lessens lumbago. NS. tumours. Gum—acrid. Ceylon. stomatitis. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Palas. strangury. worms and piles. Fruit and seeds—oily. Kuntz. laxative. Yajnika. Palas. :—E. Muttuga. Leaves—good for eye diseases. remove bad humours. Khakera. pterygium. K. useful in piles. Dyes. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. thirst. diuretic . skindiseases. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). biliousness. aphrodisiac. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. cause headache (Yunani). aphrodisiac. purifies blood. G. LOC. prickly heat and itch. anthelmintic. in the Khandesh Akrani. anthelmintic. cures ulcers and tumours. gonorrhoea. lessens inflammations. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. inflammations. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. anthelmintic. cold and cough. tonic to liver. Dhak. COM. colic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. cures excessive perspiration. Fruit and seed—hot. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. Seeds tonic to body and brain. good in dysentery. dysmenorrhoea. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Palash. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. buboes. Gum—astringent to bowels. Muttala. M. See—Timbers. Chichra. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. H. used in liver disorders. Bark—appetiser. stomachic. India. useful in bone fractures. Kakria. aperient used in urinary discharges. corneal opacities. hydrocele. LOC. pimples. Flowers—cure " Kapha". useful in elephantiasis. Kinshuk. gout. DISTR. Bark—appetiser. topically in piles and hydrocele. Oils. tonic. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. Leaf—very astringent. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. ascends to 1200 m. digestible. burning urine. lessens biliousness. piles. dry. cure tumours. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. gonorrhœa. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. good in fevers.) FAM. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. diseases of anus. leaves. if chewed. flowers. Khakhrao. Kshatadru. anthelmintic. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). eye diseases. fractures. gum. good in biliousness. tonic. piles. cough. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. LOC. seeds. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. useful in syphilis. emmenagogue. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Khakda. relieves abnormal thirst.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Bastard teak. carminative. Tripatrak. PARTS USED :—Root. Gums and Resins. bark. Sk.
very common near the sea-coast. When made into paste they are used for ringworm.3 cm. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. :—E. the tropics generally. wounds. fevers. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Fruit—acrid.—pod. shortly stalked. FAM. L. Gajga. lead-colored 1. Kuberakshi. 30-60 cm.—1-2 oblong. K. Flowers are astringent. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. pinnae 6-8 pairs. piles. strongly mucronate. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Gums and Resins. t. Fl. Fl. sprouts useful in tumours. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Karanja. LOC. NS. aphrodisiac and diuretic. prevents contagious diseases . . Tapasi. Dyes. leaves. asthma and colic. flowers and fruit. anthelmintic .5 X 4. elliptic-oblong. Gajaga. Kakechika. Physic nut. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Katkaranj. leaflets 6-9 pairs. G. Gum solution is applied to bruises. etc.5 cm. ringworm. Seed—styptic. cures urinary discharges. oblong 5-7. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. M. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Sd. anthelmintic. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. hydrocele. Sind. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Leaves contain a glucoside. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. malaria. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. Sk.—abruptly pinnate. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. cures inflammation .—yellow. H. CHAR. Katkaleja. Fr. They are applied to orchitis. Deccan hills. skin-diseases. Gajjige. DISTR. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. astringent to bowels. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic .—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. 5-7. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. leprosy (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. antiperiodic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . LOC. long . PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic.) COM. :—Throughout India.5 cm. long. leucorrhcea.—JulySept. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). :—An extensive climber. Fever nut. heating. act as rubefacient. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. petioles prickly. useful in colic. Sagargota.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C.
LOC.4-3 m. H. FAM. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Australia.. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Mandara. branches stout. CHAR.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. :—E. COM. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Br. Tungakeshera. lessens appetite. Surangi. COM. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". base cordate. Punnaga. :—E. Surpan. Akdo. DISTR. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout.8-10 cm. East African Islands. Ark. used in chronic fevers. Madar. M. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). 2. K. Surhonne. Vuma. Ak.— opposite. Malaya. The gum from wounded branches. and oil. high. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Oils. mixed with bark strips and leaves. :—A large shrub. sometimes amplexicaul. Mandara. Ponne. L. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Kshiranga. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Undi. FAM. Madar. Undi. covered with cottony pubescence. G.—Asclepiadaceæ. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Alexandrian laurel. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. . Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. elliptic or ovate oblong. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Sultanchampa. Polynesia. improves complexion (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Bark.—Guttiferæ. Akand. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Arka. Kshirparni.. K. and for its oil. :—Cultivated throughout India. Ekke. gum. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Rui. Punnag.. Gigantic swallow-wort. Purasakeshera. very common in N. much branched. astringent. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Kanara associated with littoral species. NS. often gregarious. LOC. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. See—Timbers. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Ceylon. Shuka-phala. thick. NS.H.. sessile. Dholaakdo. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Sk. both surfaces tomentose. 10-20 X3. Sk. Arka.. M. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies.
elephantiasis. Ceylon. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. Br. Juice—anthelmintic. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. Flower—analgesic. See—Fibres. comose. very common is S. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . green.— purplish in umbellate cymes. Flowers—stomachic. catarrh and loss of appetite. Milk— caustic. 9-10 cm.—about 2. ascites and anasarca. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. tumours.. buds globose. expectorant and anthelmintic. Malay Islands and S. M.—7. subglobose. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. painful joints . also useful in intestinal worms. ellipsoid or ovoid. young parts white. buds ovoid. eruption on body.8-2. comose . L. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. t. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. scabies.-July. tumours. LOC. cures piles and "Kapha".— Feb. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. COM. spongy. Mandara. ringworm of scalp. back much curved. Sd:—many. cottony. depilatory. useful in leprosy. Sk. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. C.4 m. Root-bark is diaphoretic. astringent. Flowers—digestive. Milk— heating. oleaginous. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . DISTR. Sd. long. CHAR. spleen and liver diseases. ascites. Fr. cures leucoderma. tonic and stomachic in action. high. laxative.5 cm. acrid . apex with two auricles.. Ak. C. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. asthma. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. heal wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.—subsessile.—lobes deltoid-ovate. bark. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action.5-8. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. asthma.—in umbellate cymes. PARTS USED :—Root. China. piles. purgative.—Asclepiadaceæ. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl.7—15 X 4. purplish or white. Ark. ovate oblong. good for liver (Yunani). cures inflammations. liver and spleen enlargement.5-10 X 5-7.—broadly ovate. FAM. very common. ulcers. broad. elliptic or obovate. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). flattened tomentose. Madar. swellings.. cures leprosy. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.2 cm. Fr. rat-bite. alterative and purgative properties. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. India. coughs. across. Fl. bark corky. Rajarka. cures asthma and syphilis. Safedak. diaphoretic. leaves and flowers. Mandara. :—An erect shrub usually 1.5 cm. lobes usually erect.:—H. corona shorter than the column. leaves applied to paralysed parts. used in cough. Fl. usually 5.—follicles. dropsy. LOC. . also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m.
2 m. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Arabia. Kadavare. useful in burning sensations. K. Sarvajaya. tonic. Iran. tropical Africa.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Fl.:—Perennial herb . acrid. hernia and colic. Asishimbi. Sabbajaya. membranous. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. G. Devakeli. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. CHAR. Hudingana.:—Common in the dry parts of the State.9-1. See—Vegetables. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. CANNA INDICA Linn. 3 sub-erect. NS. Sema. Gavara. cooling. staminodial segments. Egypt. Flowers used as detergent. K. Akalabera. oval or orbicular. Broad—Sword bean. erect. green. but doubtfully wild. Shimbi. Sk. long. lanceolate to ovate. spatulate. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. :—E.. Indian shot. they are given in cholera. Warm leaves used as poultice. H. Gigantea.3 cm. indigestible. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Pods. Waziristan. Afghanistan. H. See—Fibres. Gavria. Shitarambha. Tamateballi.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. (Chopra). DISTR. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. biliousness.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. root-stock tuberous. PARTS USED :—Leaves. COM. Paraholiya. FAM. P. Tarvardi. Koshaphala. on trees and hedges .50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions.—segments 2. LOC. high . Abai. Sambe. :—E. appetiser. Kadsambu. The pods contain vitamin A. FAM. stem 0. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Kardali. veins arching. M. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Sk. Kamakshi. bracts oblong. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Nilashimbika. M.—Scitaminaceae. L. G. narrow. Khadsambal. Sarvajaya. flowers and milky juice. abundant in Sind. 1 linear ..—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. greenish or colored. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. LOC. Kalehu.5 cm. COM.
—small axillary. All these are intoxicating in different degrees.—Urticaceæ. causes thirst and biliousness. piles. M. LOC. COM. flowers. usually 0. echinulate . Leaves—bitter. NS. dioecious. aphrodisiac. causes biliousness.—achene. serrate. Female inflorescence is stomachic. (2) Bhang. hallucinations. Sk. inflammations. Harshini. tonic.—alternate or the lower opposite. LOC. heating. DISTR. melancholia. stomachic. excessive use causes indigestion. Siddhapatri. abortifacient. Unmattini. sepals 5. Bhang. dropsy. cough. insanity. Mohini. oil-good for earache. intoxicating. tonic.—sub-globose or oblong . :—E. cause headache. also wild. antidiarrhoeic. Fr. K. lessen inflammation. soporific. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. male fascicled. PARTS USED :—Bark. female perianth hyaline. black. Sd. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. Wild in the Himalayas. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. FAM. female crowded under convolute bracts. seeds and resin. Fl. H. Fl. G. causes thirst. Bhang. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). restlessness. shining.9-1. t. Central Asia. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. check vomiting. See—Ornamental Plants. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Hemp. globose. Not indigenous. impotence. LOC. upper 1-3. Bhangi. lower 3-8 foliate. imbricate.5 m. intoxication. good for hydrocele. alterative . aphrodisiac. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. :—Widely cultivated in India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. (3) Charas.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . They are broken in small pieces. water extract anthelmintic. CHAR. male flowers. hot. leprosy. useful in " Kapha". Fr.—many. intoxication (Ayurveda). 3-lobed. Ganja. :—Throughout India. DISTR. Ganja. PARTS USED :—Roots. Vijaya. leaves. Shivapriya. Ganja. astringent. leaves. Bark—tonic. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. soporific. flowers and seeds. Seeds—carminative. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . PROPERTIES AND LOC. astringent to bowels. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. useful in convulsions. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations.—more or less throughout the year. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). high in its feral state. L.
Tikshna. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. and dropsy. See—Gums and Resins. Lanka mirchi.—Solanaceæ. Tivrashakti. Mirchi. erysipelas. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. COM. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. and is employed by Indian physicians. whooping cough. G. cholera. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Marchu . Fruit—pungent. dyspepsia. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. The fruit contains Capsisin. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. also in gout. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. Country in Deccan. often found as an escape. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Narcotics. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. FAM. in the form of electuary. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. increases appetite. chronic ulcers. Cayenne-pepper. M. Marichiphala. Fibres. Capsaicin and Solanin. LOC. . NS. Vegetables. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Menshinkai. spermatorrhoea. Ujjvala. K. muscular pains. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). :—E. delirium (Ayurveda). It is stomachic. asthma. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. The plant contains cannabinin. useful in indigestion. Sk. DISTR. loss of consciousness. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. and flatulence. diarrhœa. Lalmirchi. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. See—Condiments and Spices. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Madana modak used in cough. Raktamaricha. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. H. dysuria. expectorant. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. acute mania. :—Extensively cultivated in S. useful in brain complaints. weakness of body. M. Chillies. increases biliousness. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Mirchi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash).52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. :—Cultivated all over India.
Fr. Karolio. rounded at the apex. black. Fl. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. LOC. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Sind. :—Throughout India. dyspepsia. abscesses and ulcers. Root is considered diaphoretic. Ghats. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sakralata.— alternate. Balloon vine.—Sapindaceæ. Gavvahannu. epileptic fits. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. common in S. PARTS USED :—Root. Konkan and W. 2-ternate. K. Karnasphota. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Root. trigonous. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . Kapalphodi. flowers and fruits. Sd. Fruit—acrid. ultimate segments lanceolate. . C. diuretic and aperient. FAM. colic.—globose.—capsule. COM. Fibres. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. bark. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. Sk. G. Ceylon. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. LOC. winged at the angles. See—Timbers. petals 4. FAM. Blister creeper. K. when moistened. Kumbi. Hennumatti. leaves and seeds. Kumbha. skin-diseases. DISTR. and is administered in fevers. leucoderma. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. leaves. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. NS. Kanphuti. Vakambi. Daddala. PARTS USED :—Root. Kumbhi. Jyotish-mati. Agni-erum. introduced. anthelmintic. Kangu. COM. M. :—Most warm countries. useful in tumours.—Myrtaceæ. Wild guava . Kumbhi. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. G. inciso-serrate. Malay Peninsula. Sk. DISTR.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. CHAR.—white. subglobose. H. Maniju balli. deltoid. dry. stem wiry. :—E. LOC. L. Girikarnika. piles. Deccan. :—E. bronchitis. urinary discharges. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. smooth. hot. bark. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. M. Shaundi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. it is mucilaginous. very acute apex. Thailand (Siam).:—Common in hedges throughout the State. " Vata ". Kalindi. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. bladdery . The plant contains saponin. HABITAT :—In hedges .
White thin latex contains Papain. cooling. Guppe. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. M. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. seeds and oil. aphrodisiac. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. unripe fruit. hypnotic. Pappayi. COM. causes burning sensation . Seeds—oleaginous. bronchitis. Kusumbo. scabies. See—Fruit Trees. Mexico and Brazil. H. Kusumba. used. Karada. it is used to procure abortion. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Chirbhita. Dyer's saffron. laxative. bleeding piles. heating. FAM. Kardai. Papaya. M. relieves obesity. ringworm. Kusumba. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). appetiser . HABITAT :—Cultivated. expectorant.—Caricaceæ. strangury. Papaw. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Safflower. K. FAM.—Compositæ. :—E. cure urinary discharges. K. Sk. diuretic. LOC. Kamalottama. diuretic. Papaya. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. Nalikadala. in haemoptysis. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. carminative. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . cure "Vata". cause biliousness. Papayi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. digestive. Kusumbha. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Agnishikha. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. leprosy. Karrak. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. good for eyes. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. :— E. "Kapha". Papita. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. . Ahmednagar and Nasik. diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Papaya. DISTR. Leaves—hot. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. of W. flowers. made into curries. cures inflammations. LOC. H.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. :—Native throughout India. cures inflammation. leucoderma. astringent to bowels. :—Grown extensively in Poona. Chibda. removes urinary concretions . Flower—tonic to liver. Popayi. depilatory. DISTR. Fruit—stomachic. COM. fruit and seeds. G. NS. wounds of urinary track. appetiser. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. bile. Indies. Kusumba. "Tridosh". Oil—indigestible. LOC. Barre. cures insanity (Ayurveda). removes biliousness . enlargement of spleen. NS. piles. G. Pangi.
tonic and carminative properties. Sk. chest and throat pains. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. Datka pat. abdominal pain. Ajamoda. and diarrhœa. subsessile. diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion.—Umbelliferæ. Winged senna. tonic. long. they are used in jaundice . Dadmardan. good for old people. FAM. Oils. NS :— E. Dadrughna. enrich blood. Dyes. rachis . Tivragandha. carminative. dyspepsia. K. FAM. good in weakness of limbs. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. inflammation (Yunani). good for heart and tooth-ache. :—Cultivated extensively in India. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. 30-60 cm. purgative. Baluchistan. vomiting. laxative. carminative. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. Seeds—purgative. Simyatase. atonic dyspepsia. chest pains. and even in cholera. aphrodisiac . Europe. vomiting. Bishops' weed . CASSIA ALATA Linn. Dodda sagate. Ajwain. stimulate intestines. Dipyaka. See—Condiments and Spices. Iran. Sk. pinnate. carminative. oblong-obtuse. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. piles. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. NS. They are administered in flatulence. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. spleen. CHAR. LOC. Oma. kidney troubles. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). hiccup. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. :—E. K. Oil—good in all diseases. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Dadamardana. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. COM. Leaves contain vitamin A. bitter. emmenagogue and sedative. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. good for ear boils. mucronate. oblique at the base. paralysis. anthelmintic. Ajamo . improve speech and eyesight. G. give lustre to eyes. Ajowan. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). M. Omu . L. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. myrabolans and rock salt. strengthening. bechic.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). cure catarrh. H. stimulant. Owa. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. stomachic. COM. M. appetiser. Dwipagasti. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . cure ascites. liver. enlargement of spleen. Elgra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. downy beneath. Afghanistan. See—Vegetables. pungent. LOC. leaflets 10-12 pairs. H. Ringworm shrub. Egypt. The seeds bitter and hot. abdominal tumours.
Ceylon. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.-July. reddish brown. DISTR. skin diseases. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. mucronate.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. Fl. G. Fl. :—Introduced into India.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Ph. Taroda. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). Tarwad. vermicide (Ayurveda). :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. " In eczema. Mayahari. Tangadi.—bright yellow with darker veins.6 cm. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. causes flatulence . t.—Jany.—pod. very likely a native of the W. cm. LOC. DISTR. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . Fl.—pod long.5 X 10 cm.—in spiciform. Gujarat and S. cure " Vata ". slightly overlapping.) COM. thirst. leaves. 5 cm. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. cures tumours. nocturnal emissions. M. flowers. t. The whole plant. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. Sk. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. FAM.—30-35. J. and throat troubles. HABITAT :—Planted. itching. Peninsula. membranous. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. stipules very large. along the sea coast in laterite region.3-1. cough. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. useful in thirst. Avartki. N. ringworm. Avarike. rhombohedral. rachis densely pubescent. .—7. LOC. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. long. skin-diseases. straight.—large. fruits and seeds. Awal. oblong-obovate. 28-4-88). urinary discharges . Indies. Sd. Tanner's cassia.. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. Fr. leprosy. Country.. anthelmintic. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. buds in yellow bracts. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. H. K. reniform. asthma. alexipharmic . :—E. useful in vomiting. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). asthma . pale beneath. leaflets 8-12 pairs. Pitakilaka. Mukerji). Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. 20-25. Fr. good for ulcers. obliquely septate. CHAR. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). Ahmed. dull green above. diabetes. Bark has the same properties. Madhya Pradesh and W. pedunculate racemes . LOC. M. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Fl. rotundate. C. Tarwad. Sakusina.-50 or more. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). 10-20 X 1.. bark smooth. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. across. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. L. NS. Burma.-Oct. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. Charmaranga. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. yellow with orange veins.
Kasundari. distinctly torulose.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. LOC. Kasondi. Chakinda. corymbose. shining dark olive-green. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. abortifacient. It is a mild laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. antipyretic. Fl. H. (Ayurveda). Fruit—antipyretic.—pods. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Kacodari. Dodda-tagase. also planted. leprosy. NS. safe for children and pregnant women. Suvarnaka. often purplish. Leaves lessen inflammation. Fl. L. purgative. Vyadivata. H. tuberculous glands. . CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. 10—12. transversely septate. Fruit—digestible. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Burma.—very foetid when bruised. :—E. Flowers—improve taste. long. apex acute. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. K. Flowers—purgative. Rechana. Rajataru. Indian laburnum. Seeds— oily.. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. base somewhat oblique. Sd. :—E. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Kasoda.) COM. recurved. Leaves—anti-periodic . Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Kakka. Garmala. Pudding-pipe or stick. ovate-lanceolate. CHAR. cure " Kapha ". improve appetite. faintly veined with orange . Golden shower. griping. DISTR. C. Bahava. cures burning sensation. In Konkan. Tans.—20-30. K. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Rankasvinda. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). leaves. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. eye-diseases. Arogyashimbi. demulcent. Amaltas. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. syphilis. FAM. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. yellow.5 cm. Stinking weed. branches furrowed.—petals 5. See—Dyes. Balla.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. used in rheumatism. Hema-puspha. Negro coffee. 15-20 cm. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. :—Throughout India. G. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. t. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Fr. and Famine Plants. fruit and seeds. Kasonda. Sk. throat-troubles. laxative. rheumatism. Ornamental Plants. See—Timbers. LOC. smooth. Ane sogate. Chimkani. G.) COM. purgative. Konde. Bandartauri. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. M. M. Kasari. cause flatulence. Kasmarda. NS.— Jany-March. flowers. cooling. FAM. Aragina. carminative. juice given in erysipelas. heal ulcers . It has been found to act as a strong purgative. long. Arimarda. Ceylon. biliousness . hard.—in few flowered racemes. useful in chest and liver complaints. cooling.
Sd.— Nov. The bark. C. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. H. septate between the seeds . See—Famine Plants. turgid. PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. Fl. The plant contains glucoside emodin. LOC. with a solitary conical gland near the base . CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. yellow.Jany. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds.4-3 m. NS.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. fevers. obtuse. Kasamarda. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. 7. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. cough. few flowered corymbose racemes. asthma. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. heals wounds. Kasamarda. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Ran tankala. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. " Vata ". rachis grooved . cure " Kapha". Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee .—pod. mixed with honey. hiccup. cures ascites. ovate. tonic and febrifuge. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. leaves and seeds. LOC. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Sk.. leaves and seeds. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. are given in diabetes. long .—30-40 broadly ovoid. Fl. lanceolate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—18-23 cm. K. CHAR. FAM. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. and seeds are cathartic.—in axillary.510 cm. " tridosha " . root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. M. slightly recurved. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. annual or perennial. dark brown . At Kotra. See—Famine Plants. elephantiasis. Kasondi. petals 5. leaflets 6-10 pairs. COM. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. :—G. Leaves—aphrodisiac. stomachic. leaves. Baskikasondi. in Kutch. Banar. In many countries root is considered diuretic. L.. Seeds used in heat of the blood. :—A shrub 2. high. t. Talapota. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. opposite. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. alexiteric. DISTR. DISTR. Fr. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. base rounded. . Kasundari.
COM. cause burning sensation. unarmed. Climbing-staff plant.5 cm. upper petal 2-lobed . Jyotishmati. Malhangana. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. Sk. PARTS USED :— Root. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. 18 m. Fr.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . DISTR.— petals 5. bitter. . Seeds— acrid. pale yellow. aphrodisiac. leaves and seeds. Pamad.. Fl. Chakramarda. G. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. K. Ceylon. high.5-10 cm. CHAR. Fr.) COM. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Chagoche.—after the rains.. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. :—Large deciduous climber.. 12. :—E. reddish brown. 6. L. M. high. alternate. Malkakni. appetiser. H. Velo . brain and liver tonic. 30-90 cm. obovate.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. leaflets 3 pairs. long. oblong. Chakunda. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Sd. crenate. base oblique.—pinnate. hot. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Tarota. Taragosi. Svarnalata.—Celastraceæ. opposite (lowest smaller). Takala. globose. X 4.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. CHAR. :—E. bright yellow. covered with lenticels. Burma. Tagache. capsule.8-7. Foetid cassia. FAM. NS. M. usually unisexual. emetic. Dadamari. C.—pod. obliquely septate. Malkangoni. ovate or obovate. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. fleshy arillus. shining above. Kangli. in diam. Dadrughna. K. powerful brain tonic. :—A very common weed all over the State. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. in drooping panicles. LOC. Panevar.3-10 X 3. H. L. NS. Sd. :—An annual foetid herb. expectorant. Madras State. Taga. Sphutabandhani. stem upto 23 cm. Seeds—bitter. t. small yellowish-green. Kanguni. Malkamni. much curved when young. Fl. Kangani. laxative. Intellect tree. LOC. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Sk. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. 1-6 completely covered with red.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn.5 mm. Kangodi. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. branches rough. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. rachis grooved. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). cure joint-pains.5-20 cm. Black-oil tree. DISTR. 7. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue.
Barmi.—in fascicled umbels.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. :— E. pink. gout. Seeds are hot. :—Konkan. t.—4 mm. minute. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. narrowly oblong .—opposite. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Fr. :—A slender herbaceous plant. paralysis and leprosy. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Don. they are also sudorific. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. :—Throughout India. Fl. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. FAM. linear-oblong. M. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani).—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. COM. :—G. cloves. stem creeping with long internodes. reniform. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. C.-Apl. H. K. obovate or oblong. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce.). L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. Mahaushadhi. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort.—capsule. especially in Bengal. Ekpani. NS. Vallari . Country. Brahmamanduki. CHAR. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Mandukparni. Brahmamanduki.—May-Nov. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. and is employed for external application. . Fl. LOC. NS. Sk. ovoid. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. M. orbicular. Vondelaga. t. Brahmi. L. long. hard-rugose. H. used in leprosy.—Feb. Lahanchirayat. base deeply cordate stipulate.—tubular lobes 5. persistent. spreading star-like . rooting at the nodes.—Gentianaceæ. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. FAM. Jhinkun-kariatum. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. LOC.—3 from each node. DISTR.). elliptic. Oil stomachic. G. Fr. high. aphrodisiac and stimulant. COM. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Deccan and S. Fl. pink. radical leaves revolute. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. good for cough and asthma. M.—Umbelliferæ. cauline smaller. tonic. CHAR. Jangli-karayatu. Fl. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers.
clears voice and brain. Australia Pacific Islands. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. Malay Archipelago. tonic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant.—Apocynaceæ. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". :—In moist situations (streams. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. and a bitter substance odollin. digestible. spleen enlargement. Leaves are also diuretic. twigs. nut is narcotic and poisonous . Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. NS. Leaf-powder. Kanara. Sukanu. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. :—South Konkan and N. Tande. For external use powder. abundant on the Malabar Coast. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. carminative. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. cures hiccup. See—Timbers. leaves and seeds). scalding of urine. M. milky juice. inflammations. improves appetite (Yunani). the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. Plant—bitter. improves appetite. tonic. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration.) DISTR. cooling. alexiteric. water courses throughout the State. :—K. memory. Honde. fevers. FAM. soporific. alterative. voice. . bechic. cures leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. urinary discharges. China. bronchitis. fruit. DISTR. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. biliousness. bitter. bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . :—Throughout India near the coast. USES :—Bark is purgative. plaster or bath are used. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. LOC. sedative to nerves. laxative. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. anæmia. stomachic. diuretic. small-pox. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. antipyretic. asthma. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. asthma. LOC. blood diseases. nallas. headache . thirst. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. cardio-tonic. " Kapha ". ointment. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. Chanda. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost.
Chakwat. :—Cultivated in India. H. FAM . Fruit is very sour . Chandanbedu. Cheel. Laveni. piles . :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Wild-spinach. oleaginous. urinary concretions. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. "Kapha". Tanko. heart. NS. fruit and seeds. M. H. DISTR. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. LOC. acrid. H. vomiting. :—Widely distributed. Kanchuki. DISTR. See—Fruit Trees. Vajibhakshya. Kari-Kempukadale. CICCA ACIDA Merr. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Chalmeri. LOC. G. . Sk. Skandhaphala. G. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. But. LOC. Country. :—Very common in the Deccan. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). K. also cultivated as a pot herb. diseases of blood. Rai-avala. useful in biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. abdominal pains. Chick pea. useful in bronchitis.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Bathusag. Chillika. The plant yields an essential oil. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic.) FAM. COM. Balabhojya. The fruit is acrid and astringent. aphrodisiac. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. diuretic. Chakravarti. PARTS USED :—Root. eye-diseases. M. :—E. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. root and the seed are cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bengal—Common-gram. USES :— Root is purgative. biliousness. FAM. biliousness. Harparrevdi. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Agralohita. Country gooseberry. Goose-foot. Rayara nelli. LOC. Chunna. Sk.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. M. :— E. throattroubles. anthelmintic. Deccan and S. Ksharadala. fragrant. "Vata".. Chania. Chanaka. :—E. Chana. M. Kadale. Lavali. laxative. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. improves appetite. K. spleen (Ayurveda). Chana.—Chenopodiaceæ. Sk. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. COM. Pandu. useful in thirst. HABITAT :—Cultivated. piles. NS. tonic to liver. NS. Harbara. constipation. Harparauri K. Chakravati. sour . LOC.
Oil—carminative. chest complaints. astringent to bowels . aphrodisiac. heated brain. tonic to hair. FAM. Darchini. It checks nausea and vomiting. Kanara district. Peninsula. Lavange-hakke. expectorant. LOC. heart. refrigerant. Malay Peninsula. Oils. anthelmintic. tonic. diarrhœa and dysentery. Kash. liver-tonic . enriches blood. See—Food Plants. biliousness. indigestion. throat troubles. M. cures thirst and burning. toothache (Ayurveda). carminative. :— Bark and oil. Dalchini. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). alexiteric. LOC. NS. It possesses carminative. appetiser. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. PARTS USED :—Leaves. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. very common in the N. vomiting. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). anthelmintic . Dalchini. useful in " Vata ". pungent. headache. useful in loss of appetite. useful in bronchitis. Seed—stimulant. Gudatwaka. indigenous and cultivated. good for diseases of liver and spleen. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. abdominal pains. bronchitis. Dalchini. Nisane. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. Burma. thirst. piles. flatulence. causes flatulence. emmenagogue. throat troubles. vomiting. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. See—Condiments and Spices. H. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. causes salivation. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. foul mouth and fever. hiccup. tonic. Bark—tonic. etc. aphrodisiac. leprosy. bronchitis (Yunani). flatulence. tonic . LOC. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. anthelmintic. improve taste and appetite. cold in head. :—G. :—W.—Lauraceæ. toothache. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. Valkala. useful in inflammations. K. aphrodisiac. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Leaves contain vitamin A. strengthens liver. . DISTR. diarrhœa. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. Leaves—purgative. Dalchini. rectum and urinary diseases. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. cure bronchitis. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. itching. seed and acid exudation. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. biliousness. Duk. cures skin diseases. useful in hydrocele. Seed—indigestible. abortifacient. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. parched mouth. useful in cold. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Oil—styptic. causes flatulence. headache. pains . blood troubles. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. Ceylon.
64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. yellow within. skin eruptions. Annual Report. Africa and America. F. C. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. Katurasa. Indrayan. asthma . L. subcampanulate. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain.—Menispermaceæ. diam. Ghorumba. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. FL t. an alkaloid.5-20 cm. Indruk.—Nov. removes intestinal worms. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . red. CHAR. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". heart troubles. Uthika. peltate. fever.8-10 cm. H. yellowish. :—E. :—Deccan. Fr. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. in conjunction with aromatics. upto 25 cm. diarrhœa. 1949). greenish outside. CHAR. Pahadvel. L. Makal. tendrils bifid.—large. . K. Fr. or twin. branches more or less pubescent.—July-Sept. petals combined into cupshaped corolla.—A climbing shrub. Sk. lobes obovateoblong. LOC. Sk. M. smooth. 5-partite. itching . deeply divided or but moderately lobed. leaves. Velvet-leaf. minute. Indrayan. Nirbisi. waxy coated. PARTS USED :—Root. also for prolapsus uteri. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. Chitraphala. long. Indraphal.. Mahendravaruni. H. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. :—An extensively climbing annual. flesh juicy. :—In hills. dysentery. stem thick. :— E. Fl. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. Fl. Patha. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). Paharmul. G. sub-globose. FAM. Fl. Pavamekke Kayi. NS.e. axillary racemes . Venivalli. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. (Ind. greenish. Kanara. DISTR. 5-nerved. uterine complaints. The active constituent of the drug. solitary. Kaduvrindavan. Colocynth. which possibly has a cholinergic action. NS. useful in hemicrania. COM. Venivel. 7. orbicular or reniform. burning. somewhat hairy. HABITAT. compressed. mucronate.— usually margined. monœcious. angular . young shoots woolly. alleviates vomiting. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. COM. dropsy and cough.-Jany. G. piles. i.. Asso. subglobose. male flowers in axillary cymes. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. hairy. diam. Indrayana. has been isolated.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. warm parts of Asia. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. 3. Bitter apple. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. R. t. Tumtikayi. Sd. drupe. red or yellowish white. margins ciliate. removes pain. solitary. cordate at the base. helps parturition. female flowers in elongate. M. E. Trapusi.
fortifies chest. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). Doddile. Tvakasugandha. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Kittale. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. carminative. enlargement of spleen. sea-shores. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. (Poona. purgative. Fruit—sour. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. Nagaranga. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. relieves colds. Sunthura. ulcers. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. DISTR. elephantiasis . DISTR. jaundice. tonic. :—Widely cultivated in India. LOC. asthma. COM. anæmia. Naringa. Ceylon. Sk. Asia. astringent. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Kirmirtvaka. good in vomiting and skin diseases. LOC. urinary discharges. laxative. :— E. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). and lumbago. Flower— stimulant. chest troubles. removes fatigue . K. Root and fruit cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. N. throat diseases. Santra. H. Narange. " Kapha". Also indigenous in Arabia. G. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Narenj. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. constipation. epilepsy. In the Konkan fruit and root. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. useful in biliousness. useful in piles. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. bronchitis.—Rutaceæ. W. Naringi. LOC. aphrodisiac . sweet and has agreeable flavour. FAM. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. enlargement of spleen. NS. relieves vomiting and retching. cooling. Narangi. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). bowel complaints. with or without nux-vomica. Rind— anthelmintic. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Cardiotonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. LOC. Sukkare-kanji. anthelmintic. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. cures tumours. tuberculous glands of neck. dyspepsia. diuretic. removes " Vata ". Ahmednagar and Khandesh). tonic. :—Konkan. M. Deccan. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. ascites. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. fever and worms. Gujarat. anthelmintic . removes biliousness. leuco-derma. pain in joints. constipation. good in fevers. antipyretic. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. aphrodisiac.
relieve vomiting. gastric irritability in general and general debility. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Ghats. USES. sharp. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers. used in constipation and tumours. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . NS. Motalimbu . Kutla. Bijaura. Limonum. dry and tonic . Mahaphala. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Matulunga. COM. Jambira. its preserve is used for dysentery. removes colic. said to be wild in W. Ruchaka. Fruit—sweet and sour. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Amlakeshara. COM. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Mahaphala. digestible. HABITAT :—Cultivated. B and C. increase appetite. stimulant. G. M. Thora-limbu. though there are no regular plantations. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Balank. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. relieves sore-throat. :—Roots. LOC. useful in vomiting. juice refrigerant and astringent. Mahanimbu. . Lemon . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. aphrodisiac. intoxication. astringent to bowels . Matalunga. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. seeds. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. K. Idalimbu. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Devamadala. Turanj. bark and fruit.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Paharinimbu . CITRUS MEDICA Linn. VAR. :— E. PARTS USED. Mahalunga. rind of the fruit is bitter. Mavalunga. See—Fruit Trees. also corrects foetid breath. leaves and flowers hot and dry. DoddaGaja-nimba. fruits and seeds. :—Citron rind is hot. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. thirst. Bijapurna. Rusaki. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Madala. Seeds—indigestible. Turanj. NS. K. H. anthelmintic. Flowers—stimulant.—Rutaceæ. cough. the juice allays ear-ache. tonic. The fruits contain vitamins A. anæmia. M. Sk. heating. tonic and astringent properties. with a sharp taste. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. cures leprosy.:—Grown in gardens in the State. :—E. the pulp cold and dry. useful in abdominal complaints. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. cough. Citron . Harale. Bera nimbu. hiccup. flatulence. According to Theophrastus. FAM. Matunga. oily. asthma. asthma. jaundice. Adam's apple. anasarca and chronic fever. G. H. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Bijoru. LOC. LOC. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic.
5 cm. Rochana. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". brain disorders. COM. Morhari. Ranjai. burning in the chest. lobes mucronate. long ovate or orbicular. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. relieves biliousness. measles. Murva. appetiser. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. constipation. :—An extensive climber.—petals O. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. Nimbuka. Morata. Acida. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Sk.—achenes. stimulant . sepals 4-6. hemicrania. G. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. sharp taste. vomiting. NS. not good in old age. FAM. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant.—simple or once ternate. Limbe. See—Fruit Trees. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Amlasara. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. cures abodominal complaints. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . C. LOC. Lebu. silky villous. white. leaves (rarely). Lebu. Churhar. Devashreni. Madhulika. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. hairy outside. Morvel. Limbu. t. Fl. Shodhana. ovoid. Fl. fatigue . Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Nimbu. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Khatalimbu. Nimbu. K. Sk. :—G. it helps digestion. Limpaka. Nebu. whole plant tomentose. it cures and prevents scurvy. Nimbe. Oil from rind.—in axillary corymbose panicles. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. both as a prophylactic and as a curative.—Ranunculaceæ.—Sept. L. COM. eyes .. also useful in rheumatism. throat trouble. but often found trailing amongst grass. bronchitis . H. VAR. M. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. anthelmintic. Murhari. CHAR. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Snuva. M. scarletina. Fr. with long feathery tails . petioles twinning.Nov. relieves vomiting . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. :—E. . K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. heart. Fruit—sour. blades 2-2. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. where there is dry skin and much thirst. loss of appetite. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. with flavour. plethora. stomachic. Acid-Sour lime . improves liver. Dhantiate. Moravel. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Kagadi limbu. H. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief.
DISTR. :—G. CHAR. :—Annual erect herb. high. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. Hulhul. NS. Sk. Jangali-harhar.—Capparidaceæ. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Leaves—favour digestion. Adityabhakta. Phanjika. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Fr. . t. laxative. Vatari. M. COM. L. LOC. hairy. Bharangi. Brahmani. leaflets elliptic-oblong. petioles of lower leaves longer. LOC. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). NS. stimulant. subglobose. cooling. Tinmani. and dispel intestinal fermentation. Plant has penetrating bad smell. Kanphodi. useful in leprosy. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. reduces tumours and inflammations .—axillary. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Tilparni. gradually becoming shorter upwards. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. Bharangi. terminal the largest. :—G. laxative. Sd. C. erect. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan.—Sept-June. K. LOC.—3-5 foliate. Konkan.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. hot. yellow. H. bitter taste and a strong odour.—capsule. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). HABIT :—A common weed. :—Common in grass lands. oblong-obovate. Sk. FAM. stomachic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stems grooved and glandular. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. mixed with oil. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. K. Kanphutia. Harhuria. Barbara.—Verbenaceæ. Sauri. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. M. Nayibela. veined. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. blood diseases. Bharang. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. COM. dryness and urethral discharges. Bharangi. DISTR. removes " Kapha". 30-90 cm. astringent. H. :—W. transversely striate. Juice— cures ear-ache. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Fl. hairy. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. causes excessive biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. bitter.—brownish black. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. They are regarded as an efficient substitute.—petals 4. diuretic. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. used internally in thirst. Gantubarangi. externally applied to boils. Tilwan. anthelmintic. Kiritekki. Ghats. Fl. good in malaria. Kasaghni. tapering towards both ends . useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. stimulates secretion of bile. Karnasphota. obliquely striate. and fevers. very common in the Deccan. in lax racemes. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). Talvari.
PARTS USED :—Root. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . C. Kowa. acrid.. stems terete. leaves and seeds. headache. L. DISTR. elliptic oblong. L. in lax dichotomous cymes. showy. tubercular glands. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. LOC. cures "Tridosha". Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. leaflets 5-7.—pale blue. and blue flowered. alexiteric. Fl. blood diseases.— drupe. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. Garani. the larger lower lobe dark purple. Gokarnika. good for eye-diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers (Ayurveda). Kajli. long . In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. NS. :—A perennial twining herb. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. elephantiasis. hiccup. asthma. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. H.5 X 2-3. . also found throughout the State..—axillary. laxative. leucoderma. heating.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. lower one deflexed.—Shrub. Fl. hairy. CHAR. sometimes opposite. Koyala. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. Ceylon. LOC. pains. tumours. There are two varieties :—white flowered. 4 lobes flat. asthma. tube hairy within. lessens expectoration. ulcers of the cornea. "Vata". diuretic. 2-2.— Aug. solitary. fevers. flat. burning sensation. 12. Wowatheti.2 cm. Fr.5-15 X 5. stomachic. useful in bronchitis. bronchitis. beaked. oblong or elliptic.. standard bright blue or white. consumption. obovoid. C.7-6. sharply serrate. LOC. Malay Peninsula. collectively forming a terminal panicle. Sk. Kalina. The plant contains an alkaloid. COM. spreading.3 cm. Gokarni.. with an orange centre. Fl. stems bluntly quadrangular. wounds (Ayurveda).—ternately whorled.8-5 cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). anthelmintic. inflammations. fevers (Yunani). FAM. high.—many. pubescent. Root increases appetite. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. biliousness. Girikarnika.—much exerted. tonic to the brain. HABITAT :—In hedges. t. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. nearly straight.—6-10 yellowish brown. K.2 m. useful in ascites (Yunani). Fr. smooth. epilepsy. useful in inflammation. DISTR.-Oct. anthelmintic. Sd.9-2. M. leaves and seeds. tuberculous glands. ozœna.:—More or less throughout India. :—G. Aparajita. 0. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. Root is purgative and diuretic. Girikarniballi. 3. t— June-Jany. burning sensation.—imparipinnate. fleshy. inflammations. Aparajita. black. Vishnukranta.
Vevati. allays thirst. Sk. Ceylon. astringent to bowels. The plant contains an enzyme. Garudi. Kanduri. K. Broom-creeper. COM. Dirghvalli. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Tundika. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Bimb. H. Vasandi. galactagogue. fruit. Chireta. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Vasantitikta. cures leprosy.—Menispermaceæ. urinary losses. Oshthi. S. Sk. Konkan. NS. leaves. H. Ghobe. Glum. Bimbika. DISTR :—Throughout India. COM. Deccan. Hunder. useful in ascites and fevers. M. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Root bark. " Vata".—E. Leaves—acrid. Ink-berry. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Tana. a hormone and an alkaloid. Gujarat. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Flowers cure itching. burning of hands and feet.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Kambhoja. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Vevdi. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). asthma. HABITAT. Malaya. cause flatulence. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. G. Country. Tondali. flowers. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. wild in hedges. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. FAM. . None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. M. diseases of blood. Faridburti. LOC. biliousness. stops vomiting. & A. given for uterine discharges. K. Bimba. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. LOC. Seeds are purgative and aperient. See—Vegetables. PARTS USED :—Root. Vasanvel. and jaundice. Galedu. Bimbi. Jamtikibel. COCCINIA INDICA W. tropical Africa. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Fruit is aphrodisiac. consumption. USES:—In the Konkan. Tondeballi. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. antipyretic . Tundi. M. Parvel.:—Cultivated in gardens. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Fruit— indigestible. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis.:—Root cooling.) FAM. aphrodisiac.—Cucurbitaceæ. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. dried and powdered. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra.
It is also used as a refrigerant. indigestible. useful in biliousness. fattening. fermented juice. Jataphala. Sk. G. seed. keeled. it is used for coughs. laxative and sudorific. aphrodisiac. Narial.8 cm. t.8-6. Flower-cooling . tonic. Narikel. oil.. cardiotonic. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. S. burning sensation. DISTR. biliousness. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. In the Konkan. K. Deccan. villous . PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Antipyretic. useful in leprosy. Milk—cooling. oleaginous. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. Naral. Tengu. Gujarat. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. useful in diabetes. Nariyal. Konkan.—Palmæ.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. subdeltoid or subhastate. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". DISTR. Fr. Fl. ovate-oblong. China. good in fractures.—3. COM. Toyagarbha. urinary discharges. Seed-cooling. Nalivar. with a few heads of pepper. Cocoanut palm. causes "Kapha". mixed with water. Arabia.3-3. lessens thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. smells sweetish and pungent. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). Fl. thirst. appetiser. M. L. LOC. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Common in Konkan and N. NS. 2-8 together. laxative. and put on to sore-eyelids. rugose . size of a small pea. flowers. "Kapha" and "Vata". which is taken internally with sugar.—Dec. alexipharmic . Leaf-juice. Mad. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Mangalya. Mahaphala. :—E. tuberculosis. LOC. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains .:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. ovate.3 X 1. 3-5 nerved. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). Kanara. Tenginmara.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. young parts densely Villous. laxative. dysentery. lessens bile and burning sensation.—dioecious.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Pegu. tumours. H. tonic. fattening. blood diseases. . and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). female in axillary clusters. tropical Africa. it is heating. enriches blood. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. India and Ceylon. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. HABITAT :—In hedges. aphrodisiac. constipation. LOC. also in many places in the interior. aphrodisiac. as a cure for gonorrhœa. bronchitis. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. bark.—drupe. PARTS USED :—Root. S. India.
H. lessens inflammations . promotes hairgrowth. Kasai. liver complaints. notched at the nodes . asthma. it promotes growth of hair. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. FAM. stem 90-150 cm. abundant in standing water. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. CHAR. :—A tall leafy grass. useful in fever. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Job's tears. G. sheaths long. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. See—Fruit Trees. polished. :—E. Fl. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Sk. diuretic. base cordate. Oil—sweet. useful in urinary complaints. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). It is refreshing and laxative. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams.—broadly ovoid to globose. Jargadi. midrib stout. Gurlu . internodes smooth. spinously serrate margins. stout. Ran-jondhala. Polynesia. India. ulcers (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Gregarious. LOC.—monœcious racemes 2.5-6. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Dabha.—Oct. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. Oils. bluish grey. increases body weight. Fibres. rachis within the bract slender. smooth. piles and scabies (Yunani. tropical Asia-Africa. t.5-5 cm. paralysis. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. 6. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. it also purifies blood. S. B and C. Malaya. Gavedhu.. Madhya Bharat. polished. China. incipient phthisis and cachexia. LOC. long. Fr.6-10 mm. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. Gojivha.—Gramineæ COM. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. fermented juice is intoxicating. It is also used for burns. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. Rajputana. diuretic . useful in fevers and urinary disorders. Madhya Pradesh. useful in lumbar-pain. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. bronchitis. smooth. enriches blood. America. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Oil—indigestible. Assam. Japan. fattening. Fl.3 cm. tonic. rooting at the lower nodes. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). consumption. high or more. M. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . piles . Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. long. :—Himalayas.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. above the bract stout. Bengal.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. DISTR.—10-15 x 2. NS.
laxative. Bhokar. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. serrate. astringent. also as antiperiodic.5-10 X 2-3. Kalasaka. growing very tall under cultivation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. 12 mm. It is also used as a bitter tonic. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. brown. carminative.— Sept. FAM. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. cultivated in most tropical countries. lysin. Sk. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Bhokar. H. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. COM. Rayagundo. DISTR. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. Resalla. acute or acuminate.2 cm. diam. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. :—Konkan. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. tyrosin. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. also efficacious in skin-diseases.—Boraginaceæ. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties.:—E. M. :—An annual herb. subglobose. Gondan. smooth. NS. Pistan. Sebesten plum. K. C. stomachic.—few in each cell. Fl. Col. Fl. wedgeshaped. Chhunchh . :—E.—7. L.— capsule. Sk. not beaked. In jutegrowing districts. t. lanceolate. ridged and muricated.—petals 4-5. Patta. CHAR. buds obovoid. Mannadike. The plant contains leucin. Jute .—Tiliaceæ. fever. anthelmintic. leaves and fruit. histidin. . LOC. Bhukerbudara. M. and intestinal antiseptic. Challa. NS. arginine and coicin. Gujarat. Lassora. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Hadige. See—Fibres. 5-valved. Bhuselu.—in short cymes. Sd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . G. Chaunchan . USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. and dyspepsia. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. See—Fodder Plants. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. Fr. yellow. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. FAM. G. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Bargund.
stomatitis. LOC. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Fruit is aromatic. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Fruit—diuretic. diseases of chest and urethra. stomachic. anthelmintic. gives appetite. piles. Kothamir. diseases of chest. gleet. burning of throat. used in syphilis. bechic. Syria. Fibres. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. used as an expectorant and astringent. DISTR. Seeds—aphrodisiac. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). Dharika. bronchitis. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Ceylon. Leaves—hypnotic. leaves (rarely) and fruit. DISTR. Kothimbir. The plant and fruit— acrid. LOC. widely known from Palestine. carminative and antispasmodic. Dhania. NS. anthelmintic. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. vulnerary. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. FAM. Satpudas. biliousness. pains in joints. tropical Australia. Fruits are used as spice. biliousness. See—Timbers. inflammations. heart and liver. Kustumburi. Hivija. COM. scabies. PARTS USED :—Bark. cooling. highly esteemed in coughs. tonic to brain. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). lessens thirst and scalding of urine. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. HABITAT :—Cultivated. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. Allaka. stimulant. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. also cultivated.:—E. Sk. Bark is used as a mild tonic.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). K. Mesapotamia and Greece. H. aphrodisiac. dyspepsia. stimulant. causes suppuration. analgesic. tooth-ache. cures thirst. purgative. vomiting and other intestinal disorders.:—Throughout the State in W. useful in hiccup. maturant. Vitunnaka. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. uterus and urethra. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. LOC. headache. Konphir. often planted. :—Throughout India. Ghats. biliousness. antipyretic. M. used in dry cough. expectorant. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. Cochin-China. thirst. Kothambri. Kanara. anthelmintic. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. :—Cultivated throughout India. . laxative. removes bad humours. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut.—Umbelliferæ. diuretic. jaundice. indigestion. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. prevents coryza and bronchitis. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). Coriander. bleeding gums. wild and cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. G. LOC. tuberculous glands. Egypt. chronic fevers. eye-pains.
HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. a tonic is prepared from it. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. COM. t.— in very dense spikes.— tube short. and " Vata". in moist and shady places. Kumaraka. concave. India. PARTS USED:—Root. Var. useful in bronchitis. Keu. . S.—15-30 X 5. anæmia. inflammations. H. subequal. dyspepsia. Bilpatri. The plant yields an essential oil. NS. :—More or less throughout India. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Pakarmula. Biliana. Changalkashta. Hadawarna. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Pushkarmula. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. globosely 3-gonous. crisped. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Madhya Bharat. DISTR. useful in catarrhal fevers. S. Fl. nalas. :—An erect plant 1. Sk.5 cm. :—G. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. subsessile. sheaths coriaceous . Kemuka. Barna. C. Vayavarna. lip white with yellow centre. also planted near Muslim tombs. fever. mucronate. hiccup (Ayurveda).2-2. Chikke. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C.:—Konkan ghats. Malay Islands. silky-pubescent beneath. Nervele. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Pushkarmula. DISTR.—Capparidaceæ. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Castle Rock. :—Almost all over India (Assam. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. Khandala. Sk. Bitusi. CHAR.7-7. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. coughs and skin diseases. Var. LOC. depurative. See—Condiments and Spices. Mahakapittha. Kushtha. Country. also in Sub-Himalayan tract).—Aug. root-stock tuberous. Kashmira. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. lumbago. :—G. FAM. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Sd. Varuna. spirally arranged.—Scitamineæ. Varvunna.-Oct. K. K. It is also astringent and digestive. Penva. Ajapa. many. L. bright red. oblong. and aphrodisiac. stem sub-woody at the base . LOC. China.—capsule. Ceylon. H. Varuna. LOC. M. By the earliest writers. Karikuttu. Pinga. lobes ovate-oblong. bracts ovate.— black with white aril. Shura. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . M. Fl. Fr. FAM. Varno. M. high. Kust. rheumatism. Vayavarno.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. " Kapha".7 m. red. NS.
laxative. laxative. anthelmintic. perianth tube greenish-white. The plant contains saponin.—20-30. leaves. Kanmu. bulb 5-10 cm. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seeds—purgative. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. Ceylon. bright green. removes "Vata". FAM. 0. heating. LOC. urinary concretions. as long as the tube. fragrant at night. strangury. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. also wild. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda).76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn.5-10 cm. linear. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. thin. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. stomachic. carminative. Wild or cultivated. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite.. NS. it promotes appetite. L. beaked. Visha-Mandalamardini. expectorant. with a sheathing base. expectorant. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). tuberculous glands. increases secretion of bile.—15-50 in an umbel. vulnerary. digestive. found wild in North and South Konkan. diseases of vagina. chest and blood diseases. scape 45-90 cm. DISTR. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Chindar.—Amaryllidaceæ. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. COM.5 cm. Tonic. bitter. white. emmenagogue. and seeds. cylindric. K. Sk. chest. See—Timbers. useful in bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. urinary discharges. lobes 6. laxative.9-1. LOC. . Patra-pushpi. vesicant. Fr. lung and spleen diseases. "Pitta" and "Kapha". linear lanceolate. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. bark. diuretic. then sweet. M. Nag-damani. Vishamungalli. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. Kanda-shalini. tumours. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. flowers and fruits. good in strangury. X 12. Nagadown. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. Pindar. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). useful in biliousness. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. night-blindness. antilithic. Kanwal. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). bracts 7. flat. USES:—Root is alterative. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin.5-18 cm. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. Nagdavana. anthelmintic. Nag-damani. Bark promotes appetite. leaves. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . bechic. vomiting. diam.. Fl.:—G. act as rubefacient and vesicant. lumbago.—subglobose. antipyretic. gonorrhœa. :—Throughout tropical India. anuria. aphrodisiac. defective vision. toothache. detergent.—1 (rarely 2).
COM. LOC. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. :—Sylhet. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Nepala . cathartic. Chucka . FAM. Jamalgota . Jayapala. Assam to Malacca. tonic. it is in great request. NS. Seeds cause burning sensation. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. :—E. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Oil cathartic. Seeds contain an alkaloid. useful in mental troubles. Jepal. :—H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Madhya Pradesh. Japala. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. abdominal diseases. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhutankusam. Nepal. DISTR.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ceylon . emetic. Western Peninsula. etc. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). Danti. M. Kanara. China. :—Bengal. See—Ornamental Plants. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. Konkan. K. H. COM. Sk. :—Rare in the State. fever. Purging croton . excessive phlegm. Nepala. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes.. nauseant and diaphoretic. Ceylon. convulsions. LOC. Sk. G. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. in small doses. Burma. Oil from the seed is purgative. M. As an application to sprains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. :—Naturalised in S. Malay Islands. bronchitis (Ayurveda). DISTR. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Chota-Natpur. Jamalgota. inflammations. carminative. bark. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. The plant contains lycorin. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. naturalised or cultivated. Ganasur. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. expectorant. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Ieucoderma. good in sore eyes. leaves and seeds. FAM. insanity. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Bengal. bruises and rheumatic swellings. . Burma. See—Timbers. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb.—Euphorbiaceæ. Danti.
Valaka. :—In Deccan. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. biliousness. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Kachra. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Rind—vulnerary. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Tarkakadi. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. synovitis. Melon. DISTR. Mahanaracha Rasa. &c. H. cures ophthalmia. Sk. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. strengthens heart. It is given internally with great caution. Mutrala. LOC. urinary discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. and lock-jaw. G. Karkali. DISTR. . laxative. diuretic. fruit and seeds. Shantanu. Kharbuja.:—E. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Kalangida. MELO Var. may cause indigestion. laxative. wholesome. Kharbuja. Pathira . Baluchistan and tropical Africa. Shadrekha. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. chronic fever.—Cucurbitaceæ. brain and body. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. oily. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. Kharbuja. LOC. gives headache. nutritive and diuretic. cooling. COM. Kakni. LOC. cures " Vata ". Kankadi. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. convulsions. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Karkati. diuretic. K. ascites. Sweet melon . USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. aphrodisiac. NS. Vrittervaru. Seeds—lachrymatory. colic. galactagogue. insanity. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. NS. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. They are edible. obstinate constipation. Chibdu Shakarteti. It is useful in apoplexy. allays fatigue. thirst (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Kakadi. See—Timbers. FAM. insanity. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. C. Kakri. used in liver and kidney troubles. Fruit—tonic. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Lomashi. in ascites and anasarca. Ripe fruit—sweet. fattening. diaphoretic. M. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Sk.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. M. ascites. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Said to be truly wild in India. dropsy. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. tonic. bronchitis. Chibuda. COM. Valungi. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. H.
tendrils simple. Ripe one tonic. Seeds possess cooling properties. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Kankdi. used in thirst. FAM. Sk. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Khira.:—N.— suborbicular. Tavasa.—Cucurbitaceæ. Trapusha. cooling. purgative. cordate at the base. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. melo var. Hislambhi.—white. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. Mrigadani. They are nutritive. NS. Kakdi. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda).—yellow segments elliptic. K. fatigue. margined . Sd. H. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Chitravalli. roasted and powdered. stem slender. astringent. good for brain and body. C. fruits. HABITAT :—Cultivated. causes "Vata". Vishala. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. biliousness. "Kapha" and flatulence.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. LOC. Fl. dry. cures biliousness. LOC. Seed oil used in fever. Sushitala. improve complexion. lobes obovate. angled. M. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. Fr. Cultivated in all parts of India. pale yellow when ripe. B. fever. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. H. FAM. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Sudhavsa. Cucumber. Santekayi. See—Vegetables. stomachic. cures thirst. M. Kothiban. utilissimus (Ayurveda. Khira. India is considered to be the original home. are administered in throat affections. t. Yunani). deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. :—G.—monœcious .—June-Sept. CHAR. seeds. Tansali. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. DISTR. See-Fruit Trees. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. hairy. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C.:—E. Kakari. antipyretic. male in clusters. NS. Takamaki. :—A perennial climber. enrich blood. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). Sk. allay thirst. G. strangury. pulp bitter. lobulate or dentate . diuretic. they are also used as diuretic. female peduncle longer than male. Kumbhakshi. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. COM.—subglobose or ellipsoid. and C. Seeds—diuretic. Fl. rigid. Fruit—fattening . indigestible. Karit. .
LOC. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). improves taste (Ayurveda). increases " Vata ". Dried fruit indigestible . N. Karkarn. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. K. Kumbala. LOC. Safedkaddu . DISTR. Ceylon. FAM . Kashiphala. M. In Malabar.:—Considered to be a native of America. Melon pumpkin. LOC. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. unhealthy ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. cures cough. DISTR. LOC. NS. Mithakaddu. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . COM. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Bhopala. :—Cultivated. COM. stomachic. etc. USES. Australia. Punyalata. NS. :—Throughout the greater part of India. H. carbuncles. M. Kushmand. Koron. Iran. Malaya. . :—E. Kumra.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. cultivated in many parts of India. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic.—Cucurbitaceæ. : — E. on hedges. allays thirst. FAM. H. DISTR. Dangari. Sk. LOC. Pumpkin.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. fruit is used to prevent insanity. Afghanistan. Pitakushmand. increases " Vata" . Fruit contains vitamins A. G. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. Vegetable marrow. The plant contains glucoside saponin. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Kaddu. tonic.—Cucurbitaceæ. fruits and seeds. K. PARTS USED :—Root. G. B and C. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Kushmand. Tambda bhopala. Dudia. astringent to bowels . HABITAT. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Seeds are used as taeniacide.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. See—Vegetables. Kadimah. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. indigestible. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Red squash gourd. Sk. Kumbala.
sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. leprosy. ft contains vitamins A and C. Fruit astringent. carminative. Kapha " and " Vata ". fever. Jiru. haematinic. cures haemoptysis. Dipaka. belching . COM. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. See—Vegetables. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Gaurajerka.—Umbelliferæ. M. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. . enlargment of the spleen. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. alexipharmic. Talamulika. tonic. allays thirst. Kalimusali. Girautmi. antidysenteric. M. abortifacient. gonorrhœa. NS. astringent to bowels. remove biliousness. analgesic. Mushalikand . DISTR. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). stomachic. also a lactagogue. Seeds are taeniacide. anthelmintic. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). carminative. antipyretic. FAM. ulcers. emmenagogue. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. astringent. fruit and seeds. Neltati gadde. relieves hiccup. aphrodisiac. cure haemoptysis. Sk. laxative. eye-diseases. tonic. K. Ajjika. carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Fruit yields an essential oil. purifies blood (Ayurveda). leucoderma. throat and eyes. inflammations. scabies. heals corneal opacities. fattening. Jira. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. Seeds anthelmintic. Sk. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. beneficial in consumption. Neladati. good for teeth. :—G. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. tonic to intestine. cures leprosy. and the root for making these more potent. asthma. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. Musali. NS. Dirghaka. COM. bronchitis. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. increases appetite . astringent to bowels. biliousness. thirst. LOC. Kalimusali. diuretic and demulcent. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. stops epistaxis . Jirige. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. H. cooling. G. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Zira. Seeds—diuretic. Cumin. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Kalimusali. Cures " Vata " tumours. FAM. fatigue. Fruit—very cooling. Leaves—digestible. :—E. uterine stimulant. fever. K. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. H.—Amaryllidaceæ. LOC. Jire. appetiser.
gonorrhœa. L. Sk. diarrhœa. fatigue. causes "Vata". inflammations (Ayurveda). appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED :—Root. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. CHAR. linear or linear-lanceolate .—Scitamineæ. all skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . cylindric or ellipsoid. alterative. :—Stemless herb.— May-June. yellow. Ambahaladara. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. hydrophobia. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. bitter. aphrodisiac. ophthalmia.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. useful in inflammations. t.:—W.5 cm. stomatitis (Yunani). The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. K. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink.—long petioled in tufts. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. during convalescence after acute illness. Fr. pale yellow inside . LOC.3-2.—sessile or petiolate. Fl. troubles in the mouth and ear. clavate . Mango-ginger. C—white or very pale-yellow. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. " Vata". oblong lanceolate. Malay Archipelago. common at the beginning of rains. vomiting. maturant. perianth segments elliptic. DISTR. :—E. antipyretic. pains in joints (Yunani). scape. asthma. black. :—Bengal. very short. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). :—Konkan and Gujarat. Assam. LOC. Bengal. G. gleet.5 cm. indigestion. expectorant. rhizome. hiccup. with a beak . NS. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . M. Bitter. Karpuraharidra. aphrodisiac. W.— in racemes. Ambehalad. DISTR. Fl. Peninsula.— in autumnal spikes 7.5-12. appetiser. cooling. bronchitis. biliousness. useful in bronchitis. laxative. shining . Fl.:—Sweet. Fl. H. tubers thick. Peninsula. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. hairy on the back. LOC. t. diuretic. lumbago. piles. Java. tonic. ulcers on penis. . COM. Amhaladi. diarrhœa. root stock large. alterative and tonic. 30-45x7. lumbago. Ambahaldi. colic. appetising. gonorrhœa. gleet. oblong.—capsule. alexiteric.-Sept. distichous. sessile. often cultivated. antipyretic. :—A small herb.8-5 cm. useful in piles. Kanara. emollient. Amragandha. scabies.5-15 X 3. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. Root—carminative. flowering bract greenish-white. L. FAM. useful in biliousness. 1545 X 1. HABITAT :—Often cultivated.. debility and impotence. :—Konkan and N. tips sometimes rooting. jaundice. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. fattening. Kapurahaldi. Sd. antipyretic. oblong.—grooved.
Halada. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. t. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. lobes pale-rose. rounded at the tips. green.—Scitamineæ. long. lip yellow. lateral lobes oblong.—Scitamineæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. G. It is considered tonic and carminative. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Vanhaldara. LOC. Also cultivated in Konkan.— flowering stem sheathed. M. See—Condiments and Spices. base deltoid. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Indian saffron. Kapur-kachali. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. it is seldom used alone . appearing before leafing stem. also stomachic. :—Western Peninsula.-May. Sk. Turmeric. :—E. forming pouches for the flowers. flowers fragrant. used as an application for skin-diseases. Halad. Aranyaharidra. Bengal. Banharidra. Arishina. Sholi. 3lobed. :—E. :—Stemless herb.—tube 2. Haridra. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Harita. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. Sk. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . the dorsal longer.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. sometimes cultivated. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. M. flowering bracts cymbiform. Fl. K. palmately branched. biennial. FAM. G. C. upper half funnel-shaped.5 cm. long. Ran-halad. annulate. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. Yellow Zedoary. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. DISTR. LOC. Mangalya. COM. CHAR. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. in spikes 15-30 cm. Sholika.. Cochin-Wild turmeric. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. FAM. sessile.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. root-stock large. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. H. Jayanti. NS. pale green. DISTR. Fl. Varnadatri. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. L. . PARTS USED :—Tubers. variegated above. Halad. LOC. Banhaladi. COM. Vanarishta. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. Sometimes cultivated. H. appetiser . NS. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox.
lobed . FAM . root-stock of palmately branched. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. maturant. bruises (Yunani). Shathi. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. improves complexion. Tuber is used as a stimulant. LOC. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. M. jaundice. scabies. heating. Karechura. coma-bract crimson or purple . urinary discharges. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the State. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. anthelmintic. lip 3-lobed. bruises. antipyretic. cylindric. Kachari. See—Condiments and Spices. clothed with sheaths. useful in " Kapha". heating. The plant contains curcumin. . long. G. Kachora. boils. destroys foulness of breath. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. oblong. fragrant. itches etc. appearing before the leaves. CHAR. internally administered in blood disorders.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. 30-60 cm. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. useful in leucoderma. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. Sk. deepyellow. fumes are used during hysteric fits . K. Bitter.—capsule.—Scitamineæ. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. diuretic. vulnerary. COM.:—E. Narakachora. asthma. 3-gonous. said to be Wild in E. bitter. :—Stemless herb. In small-pox and chicken-pox. flowering bract green tinged with red . an alkaloid. externally applied to leech-bites. inflammations. L. good for liver affections. leucoderma. flowers yellow in spikes. carminative. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. Fr. odour like camphor. Fl. sprains (Ayurveda). small-pox. alexiteric. appetiser. alexiteric. long. swellings. Kachora. bruises. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. pale-yellow inside. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. vulnerary. clouded with purple down the middle. blood diseases. Himalayas and Chittagong. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. "Vata ". C. oblong-lanceolate. scabies. tonic. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. anthelmintic. bronchitis. LOC. Kachuri. boils and urticaria.— flowering stem 20-25cm. Gandhamulaka sara. Hakhir. H. taste bitterish spicy. laxative. urinary discharges. NS. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. HABITAT :—Cultivated. and yields an essential oil. piles. used in prurigo. and inflammatory troubles of the joints .—4-6 with long petioles. It contains vitamin A. bitter. annulate tubers. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis .—funnel shaped. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. Jatala. emollient. Zedoary. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. In coryza.
good odour. applied to bruises and sprains. upto over 90 cm. midrib whitish on the upper side. culm stout. M. K. useful in griping of children.—linear tapering upwards to a point. leprosy. aphrodisiac. It is also aromatic. it is stimulant. also used as a tonic and depurative. Ligule very short. alexipharmic. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. Sk. laxative. and is of great value in cholera. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. Bitter. others narrow and separating. useful in bronchitis. glaucous green. sprains. long.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. probably of Indian origin. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf.. It is an excellent stomachic to children. . CHAR. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. emmenagogue. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. DISTR. toothache (Yunani). LOC. Gandhatrina. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. appetiser. sheaths of the culm tight. nodding.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. enlargement of spleen. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. emetic. hot. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. velvety at the nodes. PARTS USED :—Leaves. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. stimulant and carminative. furunculosis. Gavati-chaha. Majjige hullu. sheaths terete . Lemon grass. carminative. it is also a good application for ringworm. carminative. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. up to over 1. G. NS. sharp hot taste. LOC. long. Purhati hullu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. gastric irritability. Putigandha. LOC. :—A tall perennial. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). neuralgia. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. pains. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion.:—E. and other painful affections. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. Lilicha. tonic to brain and heart.8 m. Bhustrina. chronic rheumatism. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. erect. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). bitter. epileptic fits. of much use in typhoid fevers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Tubers yield an essential oil. expectorant. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. anthelmintic. laxative. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. sharp. COM. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. H. inflammations.—Gramineæ. tuberculous glands of neck. Takratrina. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. high. Externally it is rubefacient. L. FAM.
000 m. Fl. skin . NS. CHAR. Rhusghas. :—E.4 m. hallucinations. NS. :—E. G.—Oct. Fl. Shatagranthi. Ghats. CHAR. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. Sk. Mirchiagand. usually broad. pains. long. green or purplish. fatigue. finely acute. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Saugandhika. useful in biliousness. :—Cosmopolitan .—Gramineæ. smooth.5-2. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). Bahuvirya. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. :—A perennial grass . through N. vomiting.—spikes 2-nate.. t. Roshdo. leprosy. Mangala. LOC. Rohisha. Durva. Durba. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. L. Dhro. M. widely creeping. narrowly linear. LOC. H. Fl. useful in fevers. Gharo. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass.—Gramineæ. thirst. sweet.-Nov. K.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. Afghanistan. 1 mm. DISTR. Vasanchullu. sheaths tight. high. heart diseases. Shatamula. K. :—Sourashtra. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. most warm countries. Sk. H. oblique or divaricate. bitter.—throughout the year. See-Oils. LOC. Bujina. pungent. :—Punjab. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Garikehallu. W. M. bronchitis. in the Himalayas.—flat. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Harali. Baluchistan. stem.—2-10 cm. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge.—grain. FAM. prostrate . leprosy. burning sensation. Durva. long. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Gujarat. Dhoboghas. Fl. glaucous beneath. particularly the Deccan trap areas. 12-18 mm. forming matted tufts. epileptic fits. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Burma. upto 2. DISTR. Geramium grass. Shyamaka. scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Sind. long. Country. long. FAM. bad taste in the mouth. carminative. slender.:—Grows all over the State. with erect flowering branches 7. high. margins scabrid. L. Rohisha. throughout India. S. wide below. subcordate or rounded at the base. stem. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. and Ceylon ascending to 3.5-5 cm.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. COM.3 cm. soft. cooling. Kobbar.t. Deccan. M. leafy. X 1 cm. G. Bhutika. COM. straw coloured. Roshagavat. 1.5-30 cm. Africa to Morocco. throat troubles. Fr. Konkan.
epistaxis. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. anthelmintic. expectorant.—Cyperaceæ. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Mutha. burning sensation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases.. erysipelas (Ayurveda). used as a diaphoretic and astringent. blood diseases. stomatitis. Sugandhi-granthila. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. greyish black. M. fever. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. K. Tungegaddo. dysentery. urinary concretions (Yunani). HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. stolons elongate. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. trigonous. COM. very troublesome weed. Mustaka. . Granthi. useful in vomiting.82. t. Tubers yield an essential oil. blood diseases. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. USES :—Roots are commonly. stomachic. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. dysentery. useful for ulcers and sores. L. dyspepsia. acrid. Fl. biliousness. LOC. 0. pain. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. Sk Bhadramusta. most hot countries. PARTS USED :—Tubers. CHAR. Fl. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. epistaxis (Ayurveda). diaphoretic. emmenagogue. Motha. LOC. vulnerary. spikelets 10-50 flowered. FAM. Bitterish. fevers. appetiser. epilepsy. narrowly linear. hiccup (Yunani).— in simple or compound umbel. :—Glabrous herb.—shorter or longer than the stem. diarrhœa. vulnerary. fever. astringent. vomiting. pruritis. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. juice is used in hysteria. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. In Ceylon. NS. LOC. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. Ceylon. epilepsy and insanity. erysipelas. diarrhœa. :—G. useful in leprosy. biliousness. cooling. They are also diuretic and stimulant. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. it is diuretic. See—Fodder Plants. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. thirst.. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. difficult to eradicate. :—Throughout India. Koranarigadde. bruises. ophthalmia. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. Root— diuretic. H. Motha. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. Nagarmotha. Bimbal. Nut—broadly ovoid. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever.—Sept-Nov. Kachhola. DISTR. anthelmintic.5 cm. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Motha.
FAM. diam. packed. L.—thin. divaricately branched. broadly ovate or suborbicular.— tubular. CHAR. DISTR.. stem hairy. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. Gujarat. .2 cm. subglobose. M.-Jany. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). LOC. green. Fl. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. glabrous above. NS. yellowish brown. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. on curved stalk 3. corona outer and inner. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. Kaladhatura. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. entire or with large teeth or lobes. covered with straight sharp prickles. M. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. ovate. K: Dhattura. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action.5 cm. white inside.5 cm. velvety pubescent beneath. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr.—Aug.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. t. Unmatta. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. C.—purple outside. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. e.—capsule. acute.—Asclepiadaceæ. COM. Kanaka. L. Utran. a glucoside. Administered after the third stage of labour. Fl. greenish-yellow or dull-white. Kala-dhotara. Fl. FAM. 30-60 cm. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. outer truncate. and sub-involution of the uterus. very unequal at the base. Kanaka. COM.—many.—follicle. double. 18 cm. Utarni.2-7. funnel-shapped. Ns. H. afterwards racemose. :—Deccan.5-15 X 3.:—E. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. Sk. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. long. Country. :—A perennial twining herb. high. Sk. :—Annual shrub. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). Sd. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. LOC.—Sept-Dec. Phalakantak. soft spiny. nodding. Kaladhatura. long 10-20. Fl.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Sd. solitary. Rajdhattura. S.—Solanaceæ.g. tubular. CHAR. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". Bhranta. Kariyu-Um-Matta. usually pubescent. M. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. inner curved high over the staminal column. somewhat zigzag. :—H. t. Ceylon. G. spur acute. lobes spreading.—7. Black-Purple datura. beak long. reflexed. across. ciliate. paralytic ileus. Fr. HABIT :—A common weed.
LOC. anodyne. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. jaundice. ulcers. Gajra. USES :—Out of the two varieties. K. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Leaf poultice. emetic. . Sk. febrifuge. bitter. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Europe. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. LOC. Cultivated in many parts of India. tonic. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. :—E. majum. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. toxic. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. in combination with subja. anthelminitic . digestive and heating. :—Throughout the tropics. with curdled milk. equal in effect to atropine. useful in leucoderma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Carrot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. biliousness. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. leaves and seeds. alexiteric. NS. FAM. chronic coughs. nosetrouble. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. black variety is considered to be more powerful.. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. bronchitis. piles. febrifuge. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. heating. Seeds—narcotic. DISTR. nodes. G. Shikkikanda. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. in gonorrhœa. headache. Gajjari. PARTS USED :—Roots. ganja. M. leaves and seeds. Gajar. toddy. GranthiPinda-Mula. cause headache (Yunani). and antispasmodic properties. to increase their stupefying effect. The whole plant is narcotic. relieves pain. Gajar. black (Kala) and white (Safed). The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. anthelmintic. mumps etc. Leaf-juice is given internally. PARTS USED :—Root. skin-diseases.—Umbelliferæ COM. aphrodisiac. Garjara. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. painful tumours. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Gajar. emetic. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. The plant as a whole has narcotic. enlargement of testicles and boils. (Ayurveda). applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. H. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak.
biliousness. " Tridosha ". astringent to bowels. Kitavinashini.6-1. astringent to bowels. pains. urinary complaints. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. thirst. LOC. Tonic. . vomiting. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. joints 6-8. B and C. used in bronchitis. biliousness. asthma. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. Vidarigandha. asthma. COM. alexipharmic. " Vata". nausea (Yunani). Root— astringent in diarrhœa. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. Sk. H. antidysenteric. Salwan. M.—in terminal or axillary racemes. expectorant. chest troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanara . C—violet or white. LOC. See—Vegetables. M. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). Country. Dirghamula. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. cough. aphrodisiac. cures biliousness.—onefoliate. ovate-oblong. Burma. they produce a spirituous liquor. upper edge straight. Fl. hooked hairy. margins wavy. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. cardiotonic. Salpani. t.2 m. Salwan. alterative. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. FAM. :—A woody undershrub. green and glabrous above. anthelmintic. cures leprosy. Fr. Deccan and S. It is used in fevers.—pod. removes " Kapha". Root marmalade is refrigerant. indigestible.—May-July. carminative. good for inflammation. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. tonic. Ranbhal. stomachic. throughout India. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). diuretic. Roots contain vitamins A. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Malay Peninsula and Islands .90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. Fl. piles. China. L. inflammations. hiccup. CHAR. other fevers. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). prevents death of fœtus in womb . LOC. dysentery . urinary discharges. thirst. Darh. Salwan.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). K. sub-falcate. boiled with honey and fermented. USES :—Externally. hairy. aphrodisiac. DISTR. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. :— G. Ceylon. they are also diuretic. 0. :—Konkan and N. NS. vomiting. Salparni. Philippines. membranous. Shaliparni. fattening. standard cuneate at the base . bronchitis. Murele-honne. vomiting and asthma. stems and branches angled.. cures typhoid. high. Salpan. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. piles. tumours. tropical Africa. paler and hairy beneath. burning sensation. good for liver. chronic affections of chest and lungs. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. useful in chronic fevers.
covered with shining sheaths. NS. See—Fodder Plants. rigid. bark. Tendu. :—Along the coasts of N.—G. :—Perennial tall grass. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Fl. branched from the base. Kalaskandh.—Gramineæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. Thailand (Siam). Malay Archipelago. cooling. Sk. Darbha. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. CHAR. M. skin eruptions. Banda. thirst. fruit and seeds. erect pyramidal or columnar. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. :—Throughout India. Kusha. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. diseases of blood. LOC. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. Nubia.3-3.—Dec. t. Kanara and the Konkan. PARTS USED :—Wood. Dab. reaching 50 cm. creeping.8 cm.) FAM. Fl. Sphurjaka. DISTR. Riber ebony. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Fruit—oleaginous. Wood cures biliousness. erect. smooth. -panicle 15-45 X 1.:—Saurashtra. branches short crowded. the basal fascicled. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. asthma. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. in the beds of rivers and streams. Temburni. Gale. Syria. stout. COM. long. vaginal discharges. stolon very stout. sedative to pregnant uterus. Ceylon. flowers. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). margins hispid. Flowers—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. heating. ligule a hairy line . Davoli. diuretic. H.—Ebenaceæ. aphrodisiac. strangury. Pavitra. Gujarat. rootstock stout. NS. Wild mangosteen. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. vesical calculi. Anilsara. vomiting. LOC. . tufted. Sk. Darbha. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. LOC. Tumari. Konkan. Zeeberwo. Gavandu. Sacred Plants. interrupted. oleaginous. L. Tumaki Mara. M. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. stems 30-90 cm. Makurkendi. useful in blood diseases. clothed with sessile spikelets. COM. Dabha. astringent to bowels. G. biliousness. Egypt. Tinduka.—many. used in biliousness and blood diseases. FAM. jaundice. sheaths glabrous. :—E. diseases of bladder. K. cures ulcers and " Vata". DISTR. Timbwini. high. Kalatendu.. Durva. good for lumbago.
removes stone from kidney. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. M. inflammation. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. K. hot. PARTS USED :—Seeds. DISTR. Sori two in each primary areole. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. Kulthi. H. dry. Wandar bashing. G. Bijapur and Dharwar. cures " Kapha". DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. piles. appetiser. improves complexion. HABITAT :—Cultivated. diseases of the brain and eyes. pain in liver. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). Surfaces naked. causes biliousness (Yunani). Horse-Gram. :—E. eye troubles. heart-troubles. Kalvrinta. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. acrid. Konkan— Ratnagiri. piles. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. COM. ovate. FAM. urinary discharges.Gahat. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. coughs etc. short. astringent to bowels. hiccup. :—Tropics of the old world. Grains contain vitamin A. Country—Belgaum. Sitetara. FAM. Kulathi. variously lobed. bronchitis. NS. Tans. strangury. LOC. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. base decurrent on the stipe. . fertile ones long stalked. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. stout. See-Food Plants. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. It is demulcent in calculus affection. :—M. intestinal colic. fattening. Kulitha. Kulith. Kulit. grown to a certain extent in S. enlargement of spleen. Kulthi. liver troubles.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. emmenagogue. Texture membranaceous to leathery. NS. Sk. cordate. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. CHAR. Jurali. Nasik. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Diuretic. Kulithaka. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. asthma. ozoena. cures hiccup. LOC. generally on trees and rocks. Ashvakatri. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. Hurali. abdominal complaints. leucoderma. densely clothed with red-brown scales. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. M. antipyretic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). "Vata". Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. COM. Basingh. :—Rhizome creeping.—Polypodiaceæ. tumours.
Keshrangana. Ajagara. antipyretic. hysteria.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Utakatara. chronic fever. M. Konkan. strigose and hairy. Fl. CHAR. L. cottony. L. Afghanistan. improves taste. urinary discharges. cooling. Bhangra. branches widely spreading from the base. glabrous above. Utkantaka. sessile. FAM. Mochand. inflammations. Balari. yellowish. tonic. used in ophthalmia. Sk. useful in brain-diseases. spiny.5 cm. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. :—Konkan.— opposite. :—More or less throughout India. DISTR.—Compositæ.—sessile. used in strangury.:—Throughout India. diseases of heart.— Nov. CHAR. t. COM. Garagadasoppu. pappus short. often rooting at the nodes. stimulates liver. Seeds—wholesome.3—0.-Jany. Fr. Country. 0. deeply pinnatifid. Kadechubak. biliousness. LOC. Bhangra. M. :—A much branched rigid annual.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. :—Kanara. Bhringraj. Plant stomachic. Maka. K. pain in joints. Pitripriya. LOC. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. oblong. Dadhal.9 m. thirst. DISTR. . PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. Bhangro. hectic fever. Utkanta. cottony pubescent. dyspepsia. Sk. " Vata". :—G.—heads white. wooly beneath. Kantalu. analgesic. hot. subentire. densely villous. dyspepsia and cough. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. the lobes triangular and oblong. Shulio. :—G. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. increases appetite. H. Utkatara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. COM.—limb linear. sinuate and spinescent. spines 2. NS.—achene obconic. H. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. Kalobhangro . high. bracts 3seriate. usually oblong-lanceolate. long. gleet. globose. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. It is used in hoarse cough. surrounded by strong white bristles. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. intermediate produced in sharp spine. bitter. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. also cultivated to a certain extent. Utanti. Kantaphala. S. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. Sunilaka. Markara. Utkanto. M. causes " Kapha". astringent to bowels . involucre. Kadigga-garaga. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). NS. C. Deccan. Fl.—Compositæ. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. stems and branches strigose and hairy. Root— abortifacient.
See—Sacred Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. cures inflammations.—achene. liver pain. "Vata". Ilaji. stomatitis. a reputed and popular liver tonic. Choti-Elachi. toothache. Yalakki. K. t. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. Lesser—Malabar cardamom.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. Elachi.—Scitaminaceæ. hemi-crania. lustre of eyes. Gandhkuti. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Burma. syphilis. and for strengthening gums. stomachic.-Dec. pappus 0. LOC.:—India (Bengal. It is given internally in scalding of urine. improves colour of hair. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle.. Ceylon. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. heart and skin diseases. :—E. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. bronchitis. Peninsula). Sind. leucoderma. fevers. Fr. asthma. cuneate with a narrow wing. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fattening. hot. disk ones tubular . C—often 4-toothed . It is also used as an emetic and purgative. . involucral bracts about 8 . There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. DISTR. Malaya. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. COM. cures vertigo (Yunani). The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. alexipharmic. Veldoda. Kanara (Siddapur. internal diseases. Bitter . cultivated. It relieves headache when applied with oil. H. ray flowers ligulate. prevents abortion and miscarriage. solitary or 2 together. good for complexion. tonic. alterative. "Kapha". eye diseases. anæmia. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. teeth. NS. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Chandrabala. good for spleen diseases. Bahula. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. LOC. W. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. Fl. Velchi. Madhya Bharat. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . hernia. Gourangi. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. :—Western valleys of N. Karangi. expectorant. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Panjab. axillary. Sk.—in heads. anthelmintic. antipyretic. M. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Triputa. There are two forms erect and prostrate.— Oct. hair. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. eyes. night blindness. FAM. Ela. it is powdered and applied externally. G.
See—Condiments and Spices. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. stomachic. See-Food Plants. FAM. kidney. In S. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Marua. Bavato. Nagali. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Sk. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. diuretic. M. ear and tooth ache. Navalo-nagali. stimulant and emmenagogue. bad humours of liver. lessens inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root. India. clear head. CUM. fragrant. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. H. useful in biliousness.:—G. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. M. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Grain. Vidariga. Seed—fragrant. NS. Wavrung.:—Western and S. Bidanga. consumption. Jantughna. LOC. It is said to be astringent. alexiteric . bronchitis. Makra. Rotka. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. root is laxative and tonic. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. LOC. most suitable to hard-working classes. fruit and seeds. laxative. Sk. stomachic. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. K. diuretic. Vayuvitang. Varding. causes thirst. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. :— G. FAM. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. tonic to heart. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. Pavaka. chest and throat (Yunani). DISTR. scabies. It is stomachic. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. carminative. diseases of bladder. cause biliousness . Vavoding. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Rajika.—Myrsinaceæ. Ragi. piles. K. cooling. tonic. useful in head. H.—Gramineæ. fruit is tonic. Kanisha. rich or poor. pruritus. abortifacient. cooling. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. cultivated. Vavading. COM. NS. Grains contain vitamin B. bitter. pungent. Boberang. useful in asthma. strangury. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus.. Nachani. Bhasmaka. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. brain and mouth. Narttaka.
Paranjpe and G. Avala. sour. often planted in Konkan. :— E. H. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. :—A large scandent shrub. smooth. dyspnoea. with a sharp bitter taste. vomiting. alexiteric. Pharm. LOC. coriaceous. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. biliousness. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. flowers. :—Hilly parts of the State. cooling. thirst. carminative. Bhoza . purgative. hemicrania. Ther. Gokhale. flexible. jaundice. Ceylon. Ambala. shining above. Western Ghats. Amlika. poisoning. Fl. China. S. Fl. cures tumours. L. Arch. wild or planted. diseases of heart.—in lax panicles. K. Malaya. ascites. " Tridosha ". Dhatriphala. racemes minute. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Anward. anæmia. bark studded with lenticels . laxative. Bitter. Amalaka.—Feb. DISTR. Dhatri. K. slender. t. urinary discharges. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. NS. dry. branches long. leaves. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. erysipelas. alterative. COM.—alternate. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. analgesic. like a pepper corn when dried. constipation. Amla. succulent. leprosy. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). Anola. Malay Islands. good appetiser.—Euphorbiaceæ. paler and silvery beneath. M. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Daula . laxative. tonic.—berry. alexiteric. Int. Sk. greenish yellow. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. Triphala.) FAM. mental diseases. . DISTR. Fr. Embelic myrobalan. S. Adiphala.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. bronchitis. vulnerary. Konkan and N. G. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). strangury. Ceylon. elliptic-lanceolate. antipyretic. many. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. useful in burning sensation. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. piles. " Kapha'. LOC. Nellika . bark. reddens urine. anthelminitic. Dadi. Deccan. nearly globose. HABITAT :—Rain forests. alterative. et. black when ripe. :—Throughout India. urinary discharges. (Dymock). bronchitis. good for plethoric constitution. anuria. Kanara. aphrodisiac. internodes long. dries wound discharges . Amlika. fruit and seeds. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. sweats. Seed— acrid. cures bronchitis . inflammations. useful in asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic . China. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. 42-II-1932). carminative. PARTS USED :—Fruit. LOC.
—sessile. eye troubles. H. COM. See—Timbers. Fruit—acrid. L. bark and fruit are astringent. 3-nerved. stems erect or procumbent. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa.—Gentianaceæ. Sk. biliousness. M. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. piles. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Mackary bean. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. 10—50 cm. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. t. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. M. LOC. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. Doddakampi. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. useful in heart-diseases. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. ellipsoid. Chhotakirayat. Dried fruits. expectorant. C—infundibuliform. NS. lobes 5. Garambi. Saurashtra. Sind. :—Throughout the greater part of India. West Indies. Unripe fruit is cooling. Garbe. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. K. Giant's rattle. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. CHAR. USES :—Root. purifies body humours (Yunani). LOC. tropical Africa. :—Konkan. improves appetite. thirst. Hallekayiballi. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Mabhipaka.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Malaya. FAM. Madvinashi. aperient. diuretic and laxative. :—E. DISTR. high. rounded apex. mid-nerve strong. Lady nut. Tans. cold in the nose. anthelmintic. Ind. cooling. R. Grey). sour. stops nasal hæmorrhage. COM. Fl. sub-quadrangular or terete. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume.). vulnerary. opposite.— capsule.—sessile. Tanavadi.) FAM. Dyes. Nahu. Kadvinayi. tonic. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). . Celyon. :—G. M. narrowed at the base. Fruit Trees. Gujarat. used as laxative and astringent. Nagajivha. :—A perennial glabrous herb. white. Fr. Fl. liver complaints. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. NS. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Mamejavo .—Aug.-Nov. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. Tiktapatra. astringent. Country. variable. S. branched from the base. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter.
PROPERTIES AND LOC.—pod. improve appetite. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Dadap. in debility and glandular swellings . HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara.3-2 cm. Indian coral-tree. oblong or obovate.—yellow. woody. orbicular. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. anthelmintic.5-5-7 cm. Panarvo.. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—Konkan and N.S. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". DISTR. Fr. 4. Fl. leaflets 7-5 x 2. Mandara. Nepal. Seeds are used in pains of the loins.. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. indented between the seeds. Leaves—bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Pangara. Planted as support for pepper vines. C. :—Coast forests of Malabar. the tropics generally.) FAM. G. slightly curved. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. for grapevines in Nasik district. Panjira. t. Sundribans. stomachic. branches terete. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Mochi-wood. Tennaserim. Sk. smooth. . Halivan. diam. flowers. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. dark green. COM. along sea-coast above high-water. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Salaki. PARTS USED :—Root.— Mar. DISTR. Paribhadra. Planted as ornament. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. L.—6-15. LOC.5-10 cm. Ceylon. Sd. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Raktapushpa. glabrous.7-5x7.. K. Kantakinshuka. Mandara. wide and 3-8 cm. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. long. H. W. Arakan. rigidly coriaceous. bark used in dysentery. Panderavo. USES :—Powdered kernel. compressed. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. 30-90 cm. Bangaro. Phandra . stalked.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. cure urinary discharges. Hongara. pinnae 2—3 pairs. inflammations. LOC. M. Var. shining and brown. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Kanara.—2pinnate. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PARTS USED :—Seeds.-May. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Andamans and Nicobar. ORIENTALIS Merr. Pangara. hot. N. Peninsula. :—E. often along river banks. long. Pegu. mixed with spices. leaves. Fl. 3. bark.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). they are given internally as an emetic. thick. Mullumurige.
Dudhi. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. NS. :—Annual herb. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. FL. FAM. NS.—opposite. Sk. Milk hedge. base unequal-sided. rugose. Dandalio thora. Australian asthma herb. M. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. L. Plant is chiefly used for worms. with or without a limb. Sc.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. H. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Sendh. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Dudanali. CHAR. K. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. serrulate or dentate. Duddi. 18th Ind.—involucres numerous. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. Dudhi. branches often 4-angled. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Shirthahar. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Paradeshi thora . Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. COM. Sd. Milk bush. erect or ascending. Nagpur 1931). reddish brown.) FAM. t. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. appressedly hairy. Sher. The plant contains an alkaloid. Fl.—ovoid-trigonous. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Nevli. Kodukalli. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. and to relieve pain of the joints. Mondukalli.—Euphorbiaceæ. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Sahud. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. 15-50 cm. LOC. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Cong. :—E. :— E. M. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Bottugalli. Fr. . EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn.—capsule. Achchegida. gland minute. Ceylon. G. globose. —throughout the year. pale beneath. Indian tree spurge. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. G. COM.—Euphorbiaceæ. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. it is anthelmintic. H. Dandasruha. Sk. Pill-bearing spurge. Govardhan. Vajradruma. See—Timbers. high. dark green above. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Bahukshira. Pusitoa. Dudhi. bowel complaints and cough in children. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia.
colic. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). . almost leafless. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. epilepsy. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. peduncles very long. mostly female. :—Native of East Africa. Shyamakranta . teething of infants . Sd— glabrous. pungent. leprosy and leucorrhoea. dyspepsia. Fl. base acute. COM.—small. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. Nilpushpi. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia.-Sep. high. M. FAM. Ceylon. K. LOC. rootstock woody . solitary or sometimes 2. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Konkan and Gujarat. H.— capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. milk is alexiteric. :—Throughout the State. usually clothed with long hairs . Sk. spreading. useful in gonorrhœa.-light blue. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. t. Fr. 6-13 mm. enlargement of spleen. stems many. Vishnukranta. campanulate. jaundice. wiry. anthelmintic. about 6 m. brightens intellect. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. alexiteric.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—many. Fr. useful in bronchitis. useful in abdominal troubles. Juice is purgative. :—A small tree. long. globose. DISTR. 4valved. elliptic-oblong. Sd. prostrate. t. Vishnugandhi.—capsule. Fl. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Vishnukranta. tropical and sub-tropical countries. NS. cocci velvety. :—A perennial herb. smooth. dropsy. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. naturalised in India. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. useful in biliousness. alterative. terete. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. The plant contains an alkaloid. linear. LOC. stone in bladder (Yunani). :—Sind. employed to raise blisters. LOC. DISTR.—ovoid. L.—Convolvulaceæ. biliousness. long (appearing in rainy season) . The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. branches erect. polished. thick like quill. thin.-July-Nov. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. Jhinkiphudardi. Kalisankhavali. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). carminative. leucoderma. branchlets whorled. axillary. LOC. whooping cough. Vishnukranti. and with oil to promote growth of hair. :—G. L. silky hairy. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. more than 5 cm. also as an alterative. CHAR. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. carminative. Fl. asthma.-Aug. tumours. smooth.
:—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. COM. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers." asthma. Country.-Dec. Sd. . lower half white. CHAR. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. Dhamaso . emmenagogue. L. obliquely obovate. in copious terminal cymes . C—lobes 4-5. Hinguna. Cooling.—opposite. cures dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. N. Fr. t. Iran. typhoid. Arabia. Ghats. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). Rajasthan.—Gentianaceæ. root fibrous.-Nov. CHAR. :—G. of 5. Fl. elliptic or lanceolate. in chronic bronchitis. 5-nerved. M. the middle the largest. t.—capsule. erysipelas. arising from between the stipules . long. quadrangular. NS.— ovoid. Fl. :—Madras State. Waziristan. Fl. DISTR. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). removes "Vata". yellowish brown. glandular hairy. good for liver troubles. cooling. Deccan hills and S. Udichirayat. LOC. removes "Vata. 1-seeded cocci.—solitary. FAM. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. Mysore. shining. deeply 5-partite. L.— showy. :—Konkan. Sk. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. spitting of blood. ovate. Dhamasa. scarcely branched. smooth. smooth. COM. acute. it has got cooling properties. FL.—Zygophyllaceæ. small. alexipharmic. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. DISTR. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. H. LOC. flattened. thirst. 1-3 foliate. the upper blue.—very variable in size and form sessile. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. reduces tumours. Fr. urinary discharges. toothache. about 1. Baluchistan. ophthalmia. Punjab. leaflets linear. more or less glandular. sessile. stem. :— Sind. ellipsoid. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. stomatitis. purifies blood (Ayurveda). :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Barachirayat. also used in chronic fevers. high. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. westwards to Afghanistan. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . Dhanavi. M. Bark is used in scabies. Prabhodhini. :—An erect annual. pale rose-coloured. fever. pyramidal to the apex. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Gujarat. Circars.-Aug. :— H. Dusparsha. Mediterranean. W. Maval. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. NS. Upper Gangetic plains. petioles deeply striate. Ustarkhar. FAM. Coimbatore. LOC.-Oct. reaching 60 cm. vomiting.2 cm. Atmamuli. Kashaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. Ind. asthma.).
sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Ala. L. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. ovate to elliptic. Kapitha. leucorrhoea. Fruit Trees. COM.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. " Vata ". cordate or rounded base.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. strengthening to gums . relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Kothun. shining above. astringent. Nyagrodha.—coriaceous. Kanara. Self-sown. consumption. with male. Grahiphala. PARTS USED :—Leaves. CHAR. refrigerant . acrid.—Rutaceæ. Seeds—antidote to poison. refrigerant. :— E.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Elephant or wood apple. Kathel. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. LOC. Avaroha. good for throat. Goli. Bhringi. diam. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. useful in biliousness. Kapipriya. . Sk. Java. M. dysentery. H. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . which afterwards develop into separate trunks. about 2 cm. H. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. common in the Tapi Valley. G. Banian tree.5 cm. Kathinyaphala. Dadhiphala. Belada. 10-20 X 5-12.—Moraceæ. Jatala. vomiting . K. often planted. Byala. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Vad. Leaves—very astringent. NS. " Tridosha". See—Timbers. Kavit. Vat. ophthalmia. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. tumours. Kavath. Fr. Vad. Bar. cures cough. Ghats. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. LOC. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Balin.— globose. asthma. country and N. fatigue. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . alexipharmic. removes biliousness. India. K.. Malura. aphrodisiac. blood impurities. :—Cultivated all over the State. Fruit—sour . hiccup. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. M. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Bahupada. difficult to digest. :—Indigenous in S. Alada. tonic to heart. M. COM. binding diuretic. Bargad. G. Ceylon. Vadlo . LOC. Bargat. thirst. liver and lungs . Vata. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. with spreading branches. Kotha. :—E. Manmadha. Monkey fruit. heart diseases. Sk. S. often cultivated. high. fruit and seeds. Kavitha. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. NS. Kait. DISTR. female.
—Moraceæ. vulnerary. nose-diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. :—Baluchistan. bruises. Afghanistan. . DISTR. biliousness. Milky Juice—expectorant. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Anjir. boils and carbuncles. India. vaginal complaints. Bijapur. Kakodumbar. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. pain in chest cures piles. diuretic. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Root—tonic. H. leprosy. weakness. erysipelas. FAM. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Seeds are cooling and tonic. lithotriptic. W. COM. leaves. Sk. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. USES :—Fruit is emollient. leprosy (Ayurveda). useful in leucoderma. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. paralysis. useful in piles. hill ranges of S. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. M. Anjir. FICUS CARICA Linn. India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. LOC. liver and spleen diseases. aphrodisiac. Sacred Plants. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. ringworm. dysentery. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. root-fibres. laxative. Fig. Fibres. Grown scattered elsewhere. alexiteric. Anjir. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. in rheumatism and lumbago. ulcers. Anjura. vomiting. useful in "Vata". Cultivated in N. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. Aerial root is styptic. fever. inflammations. G. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. lessens inflammations. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. useful in "Kapha". inflammation of liver (Yunani). A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. K. nutritive. useful in syphilis. Simeyatu . thirst. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Asia and Mediterranean. :— E. stimulates hair-growth. gonorrhœa. See—Famine Plants. PARTS USED :—Bark. Dharwar. seeds and milky juice. tonic. Anjir. LOC. LOC. useful in inflammation . NS. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). diseases of head and blood. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. maturant. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. demulcent. W.
ground with onions. Pipers. bark. (Yunani). Umar. nose bleedings. FAM. Ashwatha mara. galactagogue. urinary discharges. :—Widely spread throughout India. diseases of kidney and spleen. Umar. Vriksharaj. Bark. Rumadi. LOC. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. loss of voice. Udumbara. NS. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. Bodhidruma. fruit. Atti. Lalka. Leaves—astringent to bowels . leaves and fruits. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. styptic. Hemadugdha. . biliousness. DISTR. COM. acrid.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. Sacred Plants. Bark is cooling. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Jari. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. uterus . :—E. blood diseases. cummin. Arani. menorrhagia. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. :—Throughout the State near villages. PARTS USED :—Root. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. in diseases of blood. useful in "Kapha". leucorrhoea. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Demera. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. K. burning sensation. tonic. Ashvatha. NS. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. G. LOC. Pipal. :—E. good for foul taste. leaves. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Pavitraka. COM. See—Timbers. Pippala. FAM. Pipal. Pipli. vagina. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. PARTS USED :—Root. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. given in leucorrhoea. biliousness. allays thirst. burning sensation. fatigue. vulnerary. Gular-Country fig. H. M. Milk—aphrodisiac. Bark useful in asthma and piles. Peepal tree . Gular. Pimpal. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Ragi. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. good for gravid uterus. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. ulcers. latex. Sk. Fruit—astringent to bowels. K. Umbro. M. good for bronchitis. HABITAT :—Planted. useful. Pippala. Shuchidruma. leprosy. Sk. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. DISTR.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. H.—Moraceæ. Umbar. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. planted all over.—Moraceæ. Yajnika. LOC. G. bark.
Khandesh. Badisoppu. Tapaspriya. N. Burma. See—Timbers. good for lumbago. seeds. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Mullutari. Bilangra . H. Bhuripushpa. Sk. Hettarimullu. astringent in leucorrhoea. Root good for gout. and produces sterility in women. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. See—Timber. Kankod . upper Gangetic plain. Swadukantaka. Potika. K. aphrodisiac. G. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. DISTR. LOC. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Ghats. Akrani. Shalina. LOC. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. S. . Satpura. Tambat. cleans ulcers. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Sacred Plants. Fruits are sweet. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. M. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums.—Umbelliferæ. W. heart diseases. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Bhanber. Shateya. HABITAT :—Hills. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. M. promotes granulations.—Flacourtiaceæ. FAM. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Kanara Jungles. Variari. bark. appetising and digestive. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Handi Kandai. :—E. The juice is employed in hiccup. Sk. Fennel. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. COM NS. K. gum. Badishep. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Finkel. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Fruit—purgative. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. common in the Peninsula. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Hunmunki. :— G. Country and N. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. SAPIDA Roxb. Soupa. Fodder Plants. fruit. Paker. Variali. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Circars. Katar. H. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Gajale. M. checks vomiting (Yunani). Bhakal. NS. COM.
aphrodisiac. Fr. wounds etc. DISTR. Kokam . leprosy (Ayurveda). it relieves griping of bowels in infants.—ellipsoid. M. laxative. Tittidika . improves appetite and allays thirst. LOC. fissures of lips. :—W. H. strengthen eyes (Yunani). USES :—Bark is astringent. G. Leaves—improve eyesight. Coorg. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. :—A tall glabrous. ultimate segments linear. ridges prominent. " Vata ". :—Endemic in W. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. annual. FAM. Ratambi. anthelmintic. lessen inflammations. Ghats. 0. Kokam . suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. burning sensation. difficult to digest. useful in diseases of chest. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". stimulant. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. anthelmintic. high. USES :—used as stimulant. cures "Tridosh". :—Apparently a native of S. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. LOC. appetiser. leaves (rarely). Atyamla. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. common in S. Murjinhalli. useful in bleeding piles. Wynaad. See—Timbers.— decompound. Konkan and N. Ghats south of Bombay. thirst. :—E. furrows vittate. Amlabija. causing constipation . eye-diseases. . DISTR. in headache. L. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". dysentery. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. PARTS USED :—Roots. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. amenorrhœa. (Mhaskar and Caius). dark green. Tintidika. NS.9 m. aromatic and carminative. galactagogue. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. Kanara. wounds.—Guttiferæ. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. PARTS USED :—Bark. tumours. Kokam. cough and asthma. diuretic. demulcent and emollient. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. Oils. yellow. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. dysentery. spleen. bracts and bracteoles absent. Mulgala.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. cardiotonic. LOC. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world.6-0. kidney. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. See—Condiments and Spices. often cultivated. alexiteric. LOC. biliousness. Sk. It is used as a local application to ulcerations.—in large umbels . COM. fruit and seeds. leaves and seeds. fever. seeds-carminative. FL. stomachic. Wild mangosteen. carpophore 2-partite. It is much used as a nutritive.
PARTS USED:-Gum. COM. Peninsula). . Hingu. Dikamari. Gums and Resins. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. not fragrant. HABITAT :—Open situations. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. 4. FAM. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. oblong. G. Cambi resin tree. :—E. Jantuka.5-3.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. oblong or ellipsoid. LOC. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . Suvirya. :—A deciduous shrub. LOC. Kanara. all dry districts of Madras State. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. 1-3 together. Dikemali. Fl. Pinda. See—Gums and Resins. Dikamali. buds resinous. FAM. about 1. NS. L. first white then changing to yellow. Sk. opaque. LOC. DISTR. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. lucida (Ayurveda). :—India. Burma. H. common on laterite in southern parts of N.. Northern ghats of Madras State.5x22. long.-subsessile. lucida. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. NS. COM. Dekamari. high. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. unarmed. astringent to bowels. Dakamali. :—Common from Konkan southwards.—Rubiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. See—Timbers. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition.8 m. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). elliptic-obovate. Fl. shining.-tubular. same as for G. -June. Dikkamalli. Bikke.5 cm. CHAR.8 cm. As sold in the bazar it is hard. K. relieves pain of bronchitis. C.-sessile. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. M.—Rubiaceæ. DISTR. Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Gum.—2. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Fr. t. :—India (W.—Feb.
There are two varieties of the plant. t. Kalikari. Sivasaktibalb . solid. NS.2 cm. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. In case of retained placenta. abdominal pains.5 X 15 X 2-4. itching. Kulhari. root-stock of arched. Fl. piles. Sk. Kathari. branching climber . Kalihari. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. Ceylon. scarlet. inflammations.. perianth segments reaching 6.—Liliaceæ. abortifacient. Karianag. :—Herbaceous.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. M. acrid. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. FAM. margins wavy. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Indai. . useful in chronic ulcers. Languli. orange. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2.3 cm. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. Linn. Tropical Africa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. heating. ovate lanceolate. The former is supposed to be male. leprosy. leaves and flowers. bitter. K. solitary.—capsule.5 cm. Agnimukhi.5-3. Dudhio vachhonag. Garbhapatani. LOC. given off from young tubers . used to remove placenta from uterus. H. :—G. Nangulika. thirst. laxative. axillary . Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant.. PARTS USED :—Tuber. linear oblong. Cochin-China.—sessile. tall. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. LOC. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. and crimson from blooming to fading. Khadyanag. :—Throughout tropical India. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. DISTR. expectorant. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. filaments long spreading. Akkitang hall. CHAR. Tuber— astringent. scattered or opposite. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. sometimes whorled.-July-Oct. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).. Fr.—large. 7. changing colours from greenish yellow. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. anthelmintic. linear-lanceolate. L. In Guinea. COM. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. Huliyuguru. FL. stems annual. alexiteric. Malay Peninsula. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst.
PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. strangury. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. indigestible. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. useful in fevers . W. Provinces. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. piles. tonic. Malaya.:—E. Gumbhar. catarrh of the bladder etc. abdominal pains. Sk. the root. alterative. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. useful in hallucinations. :—Throughout the State. See—Timbers. In the Konkan. thirst. Cashmere tree. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. leprosy. K. Bachanige. DISTR. leaves. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers and seeds. :— Bengal. :— E. PARTS USED :—Root. Root extract is bitter and tonic. Gandhari. Kumbudi. G. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. LOC. consumption and some catarrhal affections .—Malvaceæ. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Shiwan. LOC. Deokapas. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. H. anæmia. NS. Gupsi. flowers and fruit. Kashmari. Shripani. LOC. Root taken with liquorice. anasarca. Savan. Mahabhadra. White teak. Devakapus. useful in indigestion. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. See—Fibres. COM. Sind. K. Rajasthan and N. anthelmintic . ulcers. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. improves appetite . M. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Coomb teak. fevers. Flowers—astringent. " Tridosha ". Gambari. . gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. made into paste. leaves. stomachic. Nurma . chronic cystitis. Shiwan. FAM. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. :—Throughout the State and about temples. consumption. :—Throughout India. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. G. DISTR. Tree cotton. scattered in monsoon forests. Hanji. M. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Var. Shivani. Philippines. Karibatti. promotes hair-growth. NS. Sk. scalds etc. Devkapas. useful in "Vata". Ceylon. Fruit— diuretic. Karpasam. urinary discharges. laxative. burning sensation. Shivan . FAM. Gambhari. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. aphrodisiac. root is also stomachic and laxative. thirst. Oils. Madhya Bharat. common on Satpuda.—Verbenaceæ. Khandesh.
Seeds—aphrodisiac. fomentation for burning eyes . tonic. Afghanistan. Rui. Iran. Sutrapuspha. in hills near Poona. Egypt. cure all ear-troubles. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Arabia and Asia Minor. leaves. Buttiyu-dippa. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . Seeds are used as a galactagogue. :—Sind. U. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . M. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. Oils. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. A. H. heart and blood disorders. demulcent. removes " Vata ". M. :—Cultivated in the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. poultice applied to burns' scalds. wild in Deccan. DISTR. Pharuah.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn.—Tiliaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds are laxative. Country. cures inflammations. Phalsa. Phalsi. fevers and consumption. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Province (Pakistan). See—Fibres. East Tropical Africa. laxative . Parapera. Rui. Baluchistan. Karihariyale. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. expectorant. aphrodisiac. Leaves remove " Vata " . Karpas. Seeds— ' galactagogue. :—G. F. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Mesapotamia. LOC. Gujarat and S. Jana. good for all kinds of inflammations. removes " Vata" and biliousness. NS. Cotton . used in orchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. leaf-juice good in dysentery. NS. allay thirst. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. fruit. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. M. Arali. increase flow of urine. :— Cultivated in N. Sk. expectorant and aphrodisiac. In India they are used to procure abortion. COM. digestible. fruits and seeds. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. Badari. FAM. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. W. H. enrich blood. FAM. in hypochondria. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. LOC.. Sk. preventing their access to wounds etc. Parusha. COM. :—E. scabies . PARTS USED :—Root. Dhamin. Kupas. Ripe fruit—sweet. analgesic. Syria. bark. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Tula. K. Tadasala. Anagnika. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. extensively cultivated. acrid. (Yunani). tonic. Kapus. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. DISTR. good for throat . G.—Malvaceæ. LOC. extensively in Gujarat. Kapas . Mediterranean. probably in N. cooling. S. restore consciousness. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Hatti.. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Roshana.Phalse. sour. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra.
Root and bark used in strangury. Vishani. acrid. yellow . base rounded or cordate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. good in heart-diseases. usually single. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Sanngera. biliousness. Ugragandha. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. :—Throughout the State. bronchitis. Adiyakharan. FAM. K. DISTR.—in cymes . Fl. Bedki. Hulhul. SK. elliptic. tonic. M. much branched. Churota. Kavali. leucoderma.-May. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. Periploca of the woods. inflammations. alterative. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. corona of 5 processes . — Asclepiadaceæ. Br. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. C. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. G. Sk. Tanmani. :—A large woody climber. LOC. Karalia . gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). vitreous body) burning sensation. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Meshashingi. Shrikala. Hulhul. Ceylon. young stems densely pubescent.—follicle. ulcers. H. Caravella. Kabari. LOC. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). Small Indian ipecacuanha. Sati talvani. Sannagerse. M. anthelmintic. strengthens chest and heart. S. cornea. Sd. Bastagandha.— Apl. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. :—Western Peninsula.— opposite. relieves thirst and hiccup. The ease of administration. should not be eaten raw. NS. See—Fruit Trees.— with thin marginal wing. Meshavalli. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. asthma. FAM. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. sweet. LOC. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Arkapuspika. ovate. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. H. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Kanara coast. :E. Mahabaleshwar and N. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. t. Karnasphota. India. NS. Pandhari tilwan. L. G. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. lanceolate. :— E. COM. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.— companulate . stomachic. Mabli. FL. COM. Tilparni. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). alexiteric. helps removal of dead fetus. the stomachic stimulant. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). Mardashingi. piles.—Capparidaceæ. K. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Tropical Africa. Merasingi. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Vakundi. Kanphodi. common in hedges in Dharwar district. cooling. Fruit—sour. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. CHAR. Fr. Gurmar.
. stomachic . vesicant. Sd. FAM. S. :—A common weed in all tropical countries.2 m. pink . removes "Vata". pubescent. M. L. C.5 cm. high. margins crenate-dentate. Fl. sessile. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. Sd.—petals 4 with long slender claws. LOC. Kewan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.—capsule. Fl. Country. Kavargi. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. LOC. FAM.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus.—rather rigid. :—A small deciduous shrub. DISTR. Fl. hairy.—muricate. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . DISTR. hills in Supa Taluka. hills near Nagothana.—Oct. (Kirtikar and Basu). elliptic-obovate. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. t. :—Deccan. Murudseng.8-9 cm.—many. Mrigashringa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. Edamuri. earache. t. opposite. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—M. M. acute. COM. Murudi. Avartant. with divaricate herbaceous branches . HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. China.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. LOC. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. good in ascites. hairy. long . Katraj Ghat.-Feb. Fr. white or blue. tapering at both ends. H. . long. ulcers.—3-5 foliate. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. Kanara. :—G. glabrous or pubescent above. L. Gidesa Jitasai. Murdasing. tumours.—Rubiaceæ. viscid. producing copious exudation. Fr. NS. pedicels viscid hairy. hairy on the nerves beneath. ellipsoid .. PARTS USED :—Root. leaflets subsessile. Jonkaphal Maraphali. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. CHAR. Marosi. COM.—capsule.6—1. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda).—June. Sinhgad hills. . HABITAT:—Hills. dark-brown . 5-9 cm. PARTS USED :—Root.12. pain. Sk.5-20 X 3. Fl. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. NS.—Sterculiaceæ. gynophore 2-2. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. :—An annual erect herb 0.—in dense bracteate racemes. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. elliptic-lanceolate. K. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. leaves and seeds. stem and branches hairy. Gujarat. stipules triangular.
The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery.. anti-galactagogue. bilabiate. "Kapha". FL. HABITAT :—In hedges. thirst. LOC. poisoning.—throughout the greater part of the year. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). C. eye troubles. long.3 cm. Upalsali. diaphoretic. Root and stem—laxative. foul body odour. Hindisalse. Utpalashariva. LOC. often variegated with white above. Australia and West Indies. lessens griping. They are demulcent. urinary discharges. M. beaked. spirally coiled. M. Hamadaberu . Country. t. FAM. cough. 7.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. DISTR. H. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon.-Dec. astringent to bowels. Burma.—follicle of 5-6. t — Aug. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. Fr. joint-pains. purplish inside. :— E. irregularly crowded. good for brain. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. diarrhœa. Kanara ghat forests.5 X 5-10 cm. fevers. scabrous above. K. Kapurimathuri. astringent to bowels . mildly astringent. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. Sd. Fl. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. greenish outside. red at first fading to lead colour. Durivel. and leaves. common in hedges. Sk. Stem lessens inflammation.—follicle cylindric. obliquely cordate. root-Stock woody . :—Upper Gangetie plain. leucorrhoea. dark-green. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). demulcent.—tubular. uterine complaints. Indian sarsaparilla . NS.—numerous. bark and fruit. . PARTS USED :—Root. liver and kidney diseases . Anantmula. Fl. angular . useful in syphilis and leucoderma.-biferous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. burning sensation. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). CHAR. Ceylon. rat-bites. “tridosh". ovate orbicular.512.—Asclepiadaceæ. COM. See—Fibres. Fl. Deccan and S.— very variable. paralysis. Sugandhi-balli. "Vata' dysentery. Root useful in hemicrania. DISTR. antidiarrhœal. cures all skin-diseases. Upalsari. LOC. :—Throughout the State. diuretic. epileptic fits.— with silvery white coma . asthma. Fr. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. 5-6. alexiteric. Br. asthma. India. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. G. useful in gleet. L. Magrabu. blood diseases. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. stems thickened at the nodes . and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. L. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. stem. Anantmula. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. :—Large shrub or small tree. Dhaval kashtha. tapering .Sd. low appetite.— in cymes in opposite axils. useful in piles. syphilis. bronchitis. Konkan.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . In the Konkan. syphilis and leucorrhoea. :— E. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. yellow. Root roasted in plantain leaves.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. and as early as 1864. C.—axillary. and mixed with ghee. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. astringent. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange.. FAM. skindiseases. COM.—short petioled. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Ornamental Plants. involucral bracts 5-7. urinary discharges. Kempupundrika.—no fruits produced in India. uterine and vaginal discharges. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. K. remove burning of body. ovate or ovate lanceolate. H. Raktapushpi. Jasum. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Native country probably China. :—A perennial shrub. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. magenta. . piles.—during most of the year. t. pedicel jointed above the middle. LOC. seminal weakness. petals thrice as long as the calyx. Aruna.5. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). cooling. flowers.—Malvaceæ. G. irregularly serrate towards the top. Japapushpa. diam. Fl. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. etc. solitary. bark and petals are demulcent. L. demulcent. It is said to purify blood. Dasanihu. Jasuva. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). Harivallaba. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. DISTR. crimson. tonic. useful in loss of appetite. glabrous. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Fl. Jasut. LOC. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Sk. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. red. cm. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. tubular below. fevers. entire near the base. Jasavand. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. Fr. Dasavala. It is also diuretic. leaves. Rudrapushpa. Root is valuable in coughs. CHAR. NS.—7. bright red. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). Shoe flower.
on the margins. 3-5 lobed. K. fringed. Sk. 10-18 X 4. M. :—Throughout the State. Kampti. Vasantduti. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. orbicular. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. :—An annual.—purple with darker centres. stem and branches purple. fruits and seeds. serrate. base cuneate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. Madmalati. entire glabrous. Atimukta.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn.lobes oblong.—petals 5. Haladvel. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.2-2 cm. t. Fibres. pepper. petioles silky. K. t. covered with minute hairs .— solitary. Ceylon.5 cm. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. and adding a little salt.—in erect racemes.—coriaceous. Vasantduti. purple. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn.. across.—axillary.—Malvaceæ. L. H. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Ghats.— Jany. :—Cultivated.—Malpighiaceæ.—large. calyx fleshy. Deccan. Vasanti. Sd. Madhalata. FAM. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. NS. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. LOC. Red sorrel. Adimurtte Adirganti. CHAR. L.) FAM. Madhavi. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility.3-7. G. 5th petal yellow at the base. beaked. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Rozelle. COM. Madhavi. :—E. much used in curries. elliptic-oblong. white. Patwa. DISTR. NS. See—Vegetables. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Madhavi. :—G. Madhumalati.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Leaves. uppermost petal broader.-Dec. Konkan. Malati. long. Fr. often blotched with purple with darker centre. ovoid. Fl. COM. mid-lobe the longest. . flowers. Madhavi. H. acuminate. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. erect. Sd. Kanara. Fl. Kempupundrike. Kamuka. HABITAT. fragrant. long. Lal ambadi. Atimukta. 3-winged. glabrous.—1-3. hairy. black-brown. Grows abundantly on the W.-Mar. young parts silky. Lal ambadi. LOC. 1. clawed. asafoetida and molasses. C. sedative and refrigerant. M. Fl. involucral bracts 10. Pundi-bija or soppu. Fr. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Lal ambari. tropics of the old world. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. CHAR.—Oct. purple.5 cm. globose. C.—5-7. Ragotpiti. Chandravalli.
DISTR. Kudsalu. Circars. Hale. Pandhara Kuda. C—tubular. acrid. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Kurchi tree. Abu. heating. tonic. Karohi. broadly ovate or elliptic. N. remove "Tridosh". cause "Vata". throat hairy inside. Fr. FAM. burning sensation. Kuda. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. excessive menstrual flow. leaves.— in terminal corymbose cymes . piles. given in chest affections. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Andamans. :—Throughout the State.—Apocynaceæ.—Feb. remove muscular pains . :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. Indrayana. Fl. Madras State.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Kodasige. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. cures dysentery. acrid. Conessi bark tree. K. vulnerary. fatigue. Ceylon. Kaling. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. bleeding piles. cooling. :—Throughout hotter parts of India.—follicles 20-48 cm. Sd. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. China. main nerves conspicuous . :—E. lessens inflammations. Flowers— acrid.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. cough. astringent to bowels cure pains. smoke good for piles. Kaduoindrajav. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies.—10-20 X 5-11. LOC.-June. PROPERTIES. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. branchlets drooping. LOC. flowers and seeds. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. leprosy. skin diseases. t. FL. anthelmintic. Nepal. L. M. asthma. NS.. PARTS USED :—Bark. Hath. boils. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. See—Ornamental Plants. strengthens gums. colic. CHAR. bitter. Kura. thirst. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. Mt. Malay Peninsula. thirst and inflammation. Kutaja. hallucinations (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. Karnatak. " Kapha". :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. G. galactagogue. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. leprosy. styptic. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. LOC. biliousness. vulnerary. biliousness.. Burma. Kumaon. Seeds—carminative. tonic. cool the brain. skin and spleen diseases. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Bark—bitter. Leavesastringent. Kuda. Siwalik. good in chronic bronchitis. Sk.5 cm. Assam. leucoderma . diarrhœa. fevers. wounds. appetiser cure blood diseases. good in headache. insecticidal. lumbago. long. aphrodisiac. white. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). burning sensation. ulcers. Karuindrayan. inodorous. COM. Veppale. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Thailand (Siam). good in erysipelas. H. often dotted with white spots. cylindric. Seeds—appetiser. Dudhi. diuresis (Yunani).
asthma. The grains contain vitamin B. K. COM. Barley. useful in biliousness. Suj. especially cod-liver oil. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. malt sugar and diastase. anæmia. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. demulcent and expectorant. See—Food Plants. Sk. Shaktu. Med. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. useful in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. with radicle attached to it. appetiser. nor styptic. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Java. Ind. M. Hayapriya. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. They are also used after delivery. PARTS USED :—Seeds. febrifuge. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). dysentery and intestinal worms. Gaz. fattening. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. G. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. stomachic. :—E. FAM. Jav. causes constipation.—Gramineæ. widely cultivated in temperate regions. nor astringent. Yava. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. diarrhœa. (R. burns. Knowles. sweetish. Jawa. Divya. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. bronchitis. lowers the pulse. improves voice. Tasteless. Javegodhi. headache. acrid. Satu. biliousness. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. good for ulcers. Jav. They are astringent. —Cultivated chiefly in N. NS. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. allays thirst. H. and kurchicine. kurchine. pains in chest. Germinated barley. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. India. useful in bronchitis. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). fevers (Yunani). Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. LOC. Ymvah. Aug. inflamed gums. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. 1928). DISTR.
white. PARTS USED :—Seeds. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. Kastel. Amarachala. :—W. Doti. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. For scald-head. Sd. Fr. :—G.) FAM.—berry. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. Kshiradru. high. . Ghats. Kanara evergreen forests.—Apl. Kadukavata. H. t. acuminate. pungent. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Betaga. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Bhutabi. sometimes along river banks. Common in N. Malabar. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Dondra. COM. Ugragandha. flat. broadly ovate.—Rubiaceæ. Garudphala. young parts brown pubescent.—Jany.5 cm. Bihar.. LOC. K. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. See—Oils. good for the throat.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Bandaru.5-23 X 3. LOC. Sk. Bhoswar. Peninsula. more or less coriaceous. Bhrijatuaka. globose or ovoid.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn.—Bixaceæ. Niradivittulu. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. Phaldu. DISTR. Fl. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. size of small apple. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. tomentose. Madhya Pradesh. COM. NS. :—K. DISTR.—numerous. M. Kowti. bitter. 12. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhanina. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Garudphala. Country and Kanara. Sk.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. NS. S. Bhringamallika. FL. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). M. Dondru. sulphur. M.8-7. increases taste and appetite. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. Gandele.—solitary or in racemes. common in Travancore. FAM. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. dioecious . Bharnarasalya. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. C. CHAR. Bhorsal. camphor and lime-juice. Southern and Western India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. L.
H. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.8 cm. aphrodisiac. stems long. Shradhashaka.—Apocynaceæ. prostrate. M. Siamalata. :—A large twining shrub .. straight or slightly curved. t. stalks and leaves. cooling. Kalambika. FAM.—4 or 2.—1-5 flowered peduncles . FL. Fl. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. fever. Sd.-Apl. black with white scanty coma. Fr. Kalaka. FAM. In Indo-China. S. glabrous above. " Vata ". ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. M.—follicle. the powdered wood is used for herpes. COM. The outer layer is tasteless. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. L. Sd.—linear.-Dec. throat and tube dull purple . :—Throughout the State.5 cm. NS. Karmi. upper constricted.—tube with narrow portion below. :—Konkan. rooting at the nodes . Sk. X 4 cm. L. M.5x 3. Karihambu. Kalmisag. Fodder Plants. thirst. Pechuli. :—More or less throughout India. LOC. Kanara. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. DISTR.—5-12. K. elliptic oblong. Kalidudhi. Fr. Nadika. Potuasaga. Country. Kanara. rusty pubescent. 10-15 cm. NS. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. base rounded.—in axillary and terminal. numerous .—Convolvulaceæ. middle portion much inflated. C. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. Fl. hollow. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . Gorwiballi.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Chandangopa.—Nov. acute. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Krishnasariva.—capsule. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. Kantebhovari. Sk. greenish white. C. cures " Kapha ". Ceylon.—4-5-7 X 2-3. Fl. :—H. cylindric . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. ovoid . t. Nalichibhaji.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. Bhadra. blood diseases. See—Timbers.— Nov. . CHAR. Br. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. pubescent. Australia. CHAR. trailing on mud or floating. Gopini. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. :—G. Kalaghantika. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). very slender. vomiting. Sariva. :—Annual or biennial herb. Common in the evergreen forests of N. biliousness. LOC. COM. trichotomous cymes. Nalanibhaji. very common in Gujarat. Java. thick. LOC. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places.2 -7. cordate or hastate. lobes obscure .
burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. 3. Africa and Australia. useful in syphilis.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. M. long. America. (Yunani). Ceylon. tonic. enclosed in fleshy sepals. improves voice and complexion. Bhunichahragadde. anthelmintic . many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. .—clothed with brown cottony hairs. expectorant. Nila-kumbala. appetiser. glabrous. Leaves enrich blood. demulcent and lactagogue. In Burma. cures biliousness. Swadu Vidarikand. alterative. peduncle solitary axillary. long. useful in fever. diuretic. deeply palmately divided. lobes 5-7. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bhumikushmanda. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. :—Perennial. being regarded as tonic.—10-15 cm. twining. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. Root—heating. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. indigestible. aphrodisiac. jaundice.—Convolvulaceæ. Flower causes " Vata ". biliousness and fevers. gonorrhœa and inflammation. root large.—in. liver complaints. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. NS. See—Gums and Resins. Africa. :—Throughout India. also useful in liver complaints. K. thick. vomiting. bronchitis. ovoid. carminative. DISTR. lessens inflammation. leprosy. Sd. CHAR. flowers (rarely). purple.—capsule. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. stimulant. t. tropical Asia. useful in leucoderma. alterative. COM. (Ayurveda). pale. galactagogue. entire. PARTS USED :—Root.8—6. blood diseases. aphrodisiac. :— E. (Yunani). galactagogue. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. stomachic. " Kapha " . LOC. Sk. 4-valved. FAM. Carminative. anthelmintic. Bilaikand . :—Throughout the Konkan and N.-July-Sept. Fl. Kanara sea coast. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. dry. 4-celled. Bhuikohala. near sea coast. LOC. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. to children in case of emaciation. leaves. H. L. tropical Asia. Australia in moist climate. ovate-lanceolate. useful in leprosy. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. Fl. Giant potato . often broader than long. Fr. debility and want of digestive power.3 cm. stem long.
and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). M.:—Throughout India. leucoderma. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. believed to be of American origin. Sd. abdominal diseases. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. bronchitis (Ayurveda). LOC. DISTR.) FAM. creeping and rooting at the nodes.-Oct.-5-12. long tubular funnel-shaped. Shyamala-bijak. clothed with long hairs. stems twining. C. S. Fl. L. Deccan. stems many. FAM. Sk. M.8-5 cm. Vrishchikparni. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Nilvel. L. Indian jalap. :—Western Peninsula. :—Konkan. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth.5 cm. glabrous . Fl. 3-celled. Morning glory. K. S.—dark chestnut coloured . NS. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Fr. subglobose or ovoid. fevers. useful in liver and spleen diseases.—Sept. Ceylon. :—A herb . H. reniform or ovate-cordate. Africa. See—Ornamental Plants. Mirchai. Undirkani. diam. crenate. NS. bracts linear. DISTR. diseases of head. bechic. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). in the Himalayas. Fl. anthelmintic. Undirkani. E. sparsely hairy. broad. ovate-cordate. M. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. carminative. axillary.3-2. Purgative. :—E. Sk. LOC. dries the phlegm. :—G. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. Sd.—1. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. cures inflammations. COM. filiform. subglobose. deeply three-Iobed. pains in joints. LOC. K. Kaladana. lobes ovate. headache. Bhumichari Mushakaparni.. blue tinged with pink. Country. :—An annual herb.—3. petioles hairy. The plant contains a glucoside.—Convolvulaceæ. HABITAT :—Water-logged places.—capsule. Kalokumpo. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. CHAR. Fr. scabies and biliousness. Musekani. Kaladanah. :—Grown in gardens all over the State.5 cm. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . tropical Africa. G. CHAR.— yellow. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Nilpushpa. surrounded by ciliate sepals. t.—capsule. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative.— 4-6.—Convolvulaceæ. Ganribij. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. H.
good in pain. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). muscular pains. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. removes bad humours. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. globose. Kalaparni. M. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). also in the Konkan and N. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. cooling. Kanaka. Turbith root. PARTS USED :—Root. carminative.—white. Nahatara. lungs. good for weakness. L. heart and abdomen. pains of chest and joints. G. strangury. HABITAT :—Wild . USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. stems very long. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. Trivrit. laxative. Malay Islands. useful in diseases of kidney. purgative.—5-10 X 1. urethral discharges. long. bronchitis. like others of the genus . t. COM. tropical Africa and America. Sk. Nashotar. sometimes cultivated. :—Throughout India. useful in loss of consciousness. Br. Common in southern Gujarat.3-7 cm. Root— bitter. enclosed in enlarged sepals . Rechani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. bracts large. inflammations. angled and winged. much branched. NS. fleshy.—in few flowered cymes. Fr. pedicels thickened upwards.. . Fl. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Triputi. useful in spleen enlargement. acrid. twining and twisted together. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative.—capsule. paralysis. leucoderma. DISTR. when used alone . fevers. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. expectorant. laxative. ovate or oblong. Philippines. useful in bilious tremors of body. often pinkish. LOC. mucronate. fistula.8-5 cm. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. Pithori. white variety is a mild cathartic. Mauritius. 3. LOC. base cordate or truncate . CHAR. pungent. antipyretic. wounds.—Oct. C. Black variety should not be used (Yunani).122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Nandi. useful in bilious fevers. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. H. bechic. applied in diseases of eye and gums. K. inflammations and abdominal diseases . Fl. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). LOC. brain diseases. root long. Nishoth. FAM.—Convolvulaceæ. Indian rhubarb. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. It is also alterative. paralysis. Root with bark should be used. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. False-Indian jalap.-Jany. burning sensation and intoxication. :— E. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. Nishottara. rarely slightly lobed. anæmia. uterus. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Ceylon. bladder.
K. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Priyanvada. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. Pendgul. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. Chambali. COM. Bandhuka. M. Guddedasal. :—Cultivated throughout India. also along river banks. obtuse. LOC.—opposite. 5-12. Fl..—tubular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. FAM. DISTR. oblong.— Rubiaceæ.5 cm. stipules . oblong. white. COM NS. fleshy. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. LOC. FL—numerous. Chambeli. purple when ripe.—opposite. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub.—ripe carpels 2. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant.—3. intermediate sessile . K. :—Bombay southwards . CHAR. petiole and rachis margined. Jati. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Sk. Sk. G. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. Parali. smooth. NS. . Kepala. Fr. FAM. Kisukare. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. :—A large subscandent shrub..9 m. t. leaflets 7-11.—Oleaceæ. often tinged with pink outside. coriaceous. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. stipules with a long rigid point. M. pale when dry. sessile. Pankul. pale when dry. Surabhigandha. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. size of a pea.2-6.3 cm. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. tube long. Fr.—July-Sept. sessile. very slender . very common in Konkan and N. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. See—Ornamental Plants. imparipinnate. Raktaka. t. Anemallige.2-6. Jajimalle. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. Bakali. wild. :—E. 5-10 X 3. L. Flame of the woods . Ajjige. :—Western Peninsula. obtuse . Ceylon. Chambeli. of stems and roots.3 coriaceous. across.8 cm. DISTR. Jai. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. H.—throughout the year. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated . high. 3. lobes 4 (rarely). Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. terminal rather larger. C. CHAR.—globose. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. proximal petiolulate. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. :—E. L.
Mogra. mouth and skin. :—E. Root—purgative. COM NS. paralysis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases.—more or less throughout the year . PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. aphrodisiac. t. ear. Iravantige. Navamallika. Mogara. alexiteric. Ananga-mallika. Sambac. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. :—A sub-erect shrub. biliousness (Ayurveda). expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Tuscan jasmine. :—Cultivated throughout India. CHAR. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. K. base rounded or subcordate. leprosy. stomatitis. biliousness. heating. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. intoxicating. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. vulnerary. variable in shape. M. Fl. Mallige. Fr. alexiteric. Plant—deobstruent. eyes and ear. abundant in April-May. L. The plant contains an alkaloid. H.—Oleaceæ. good for pains in joints and ear. and for scabies (Yunani). rheumatism. membranous.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. allays fevers . Vanchandrika. cures headache. Flower has bitter taste . G. DISTR. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. good in asthma. soporific. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. scarcely climbing. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. Arabian Lily. See—Ornamental Plants. anthelmintic. Motia. suppurative. emmenagogue. caries of teeth. teeth. it is used in cases of insanity. Fl. . FAM. entire. surrounded by calyx-teeth. diseases of mouth. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. softens skin. black. In Goa. See—Ornamental Plants. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. subglobose. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . flowers and oil. Chamba. tonic to brain. ulcers. otorrhoea. headache and weak eyes. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. useful in diseases of eye. brain tonic . HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in stomatitis. head. Sk. LOC. Pramodini. aphthae. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. LOC. Flowers—tonic. emetic.—ripe-carpels 1-2. diuretic. alexiteric. Banmallika. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). Oil—lessens inflammations. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. very fragrant.—opposite. given in blood diseases. LOC. Mogro.—white. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Leaves are also used in toothache.
yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Mogali—Ran-erand.—in flat-topped cymes. PARTS USED :—Wood. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. 3-lobed. Vilayati haralu. useful in chronic dysentery. :—E. 7. fruits and seeds. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. fistula. Jangali—Pahari erand. leaves. Sd. coral-red. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Sk. COM. Fl. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree.5-12. Virechani. 1. long-petioled. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. subfleshy. Fl.8 cm. CHAR. Bhadradanti. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums .—E. corolla lobes 5. :—Native of tropical America. male flowers. L. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). villous within. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn.5 mm. Akhuparnika. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. The seeds act as drastic purgative. black.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. FAM. Barbados Physic nut. LOC. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. Ratanjot. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx.—Euphorbiaceæ. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.5 cm. NS. Sk.5-12. Coral plant.—capsule. COM. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. long. Simeavadala. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. garden shrub . urinary discharges. NS. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. stipules capillary. FAM. and also promotes healing. Sutashreni. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. thirst. 7. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). Jyotishka. large. abdominal complaints.— ovoid. multifid. longer than calyx. K. when applied to boils.—Euphorbiaceæ. disk of female flower urceolate. French or Small physic nut. anaemia. diam. K. biliousness. Jangali erandi. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. G. cordate. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. 10-15 X 7. herpes. Kananerand.—ovoid oblong. M. CHAR:—A handsome. .. L.—orbicular. broadly ovate. LOC. dull brownish black.— alternate. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. have suppurative effect. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fr. across. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. Fr. juice sticky opalescent. yellow. Seeds contain active principle curcin. DISTR. " Tridosha". The acrid.5 cm. Dundigu. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. H.—monœcious.
:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Bhutakeshi.—Acanthaceæ. native of N. Seed— oleaginous. useful in bronchitis.5 cm. .5-12. aphrodisiac. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. clavate glabrous. M.—Ghati pitpapda. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . enlarged spleen. Karinchki. heating. vaginal discharges.—Acanthaceæ. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. useful in piles. bitter. America. Fr. long. tympanitis. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. :—A native of China. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India.—white spotted. " Vata ' and "Pitta". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. hot. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Kalmashi. K. branches subterete with raised lines. LOC. DISTR. Nilinirgandi. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. Karambal. dry . LOC. Shindhuka. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. 5-12. Sk.2 m. FAM. rheumatism and dysentery. dyspepsia. Nachukaddi. Krishna-nirgundi.—capsule. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. inflammations. causes " Kapha ". Nilmanjari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. skin-diseases. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. Bakas. purple within. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. leaves. pains. NS. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. CHAR. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. in interrupted spikes. eye diseases (Ayurveda). fattening tonic . Kala adulsa. wounds. FAM. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places.5 cm. COM. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm.6-1. COM. all over the State. In Cambodia.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Leaves are used in scabies. purgative. LOC. M. fevers. 7. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). often met with in Bengal. L. LOC. NS. :—Bomb. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. HABITAT :—Shady positions. high . Fl. :—H. wild in Tenasserim.
USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). Ceylon. round. upper lip notched. lower 3-lobed . CHAR. teeth. good in spleen diseases. Panchgani. LOC. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. strengthens lungs. pale violet pink. obtuse at both ends.—Scitaminaceæ. petioles channelled.—2. wandering of mind. pure-white. oval.3-12. :— H. fugacious. Malay Islands. Sugandhavachai. Konkan. Maval in the Deccan. fever.—capsule. Cultivated in gardens. enriches blood.—Oct.-Mar. Sk. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. root-stock tuberous. Western Ghats . :—Konkan. P. intoxication. diuretic. deep green.— June-July. Travancore. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). L. elliptic. LOC. gives lustre to eyes. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. Tubers yield an essential oil. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . FAM. expectorant. (Yunani).—2-lipped. PROPERTIES AND LOC.5 X 4. Fl. Chandramala. C. LOC. constipating . oblong shortly pointed. purifies blood in skin diseases. tube funnel-shaped . diaphoretic. Madras State.—variable. Malaya. COM. Chandramulika. t. South Konkan. Australia.—finely tuberculate. Fl. NS. spreading horizontally. vomiting. Plant diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated.. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. :—Western Peninsula. aromatic. burning of body. biliousness. Deccan. t. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. softly pubescent. stomachic. stops vomiting. tired feeling.—in cylindric terminal spikes. Fr.5-9 cm. Sd. DISTR. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. thirst. K. constricted between the seeds . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. increases " Vata ".. fragrant. removes indigestion. DISTR. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. Kapurkachri.:—Stemless herb. L. Kachchura .—lobes lanceolate. lying flat on the ground. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage.—612 from the centre of the plant. 6. :—More or less throughout India. ovate or lanceolate. :—N. Fl. Fl. M. Kachri. thin.
inflorescence of many ovaries. elliptic-oblong. L. Fl. spathe 7. H. Dudio Tumbada.— inflorescence.. . USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. oblong. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. K. creeping. NS. Fl. CHAR.—Cucurbitaceæ. promotes suppuration. Ceylon. Fl. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Labuka. S. simple. tubular below. Calabash.—30X7. NS. Sk. Sk. t. FAM. Bhuichampo . Travancore. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . petiole as long as blade. Coorg. Danta-bija. FAM. :—E..—narrowly oblong. crowded in a globose bead . LOC. rootstock reaching 5 cm. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. remedy for itch. coriaceous. Lauka. Kaddu. Fr. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. entire. FAM.—Scitaminaceæ. NS. annulate . CHAR. COM. Malay Islands.5 X 5-12. used in the form of poultice.— sweetly fragrant. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. G. M.. diam. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. Fl. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser.-Mar. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Bhuichapha. N.5-23 cm.—globose 3. :—M. t. M.—Aroideæ.-Apl. anthers crowded. Tubers yield an essential oil. :—Mysore.5-10 cm. Katutumbi. Cochin. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . LOC. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Bottle-gourd. of various shades of purple and white. H.—15-37. :—Stemless plant. Bhuchampaka. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. semicylindric. :—Konkan. M. DISTR. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Bhuichampa . HABITAT :—Marshy places. thick. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. very poisonous .5 cm.. midrib very stout. Dudhi. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. DISTR. female cylindric. COM. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. in many cycles. Tumbaka. Country.8-5 cm. The whole plant. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. margins undulate. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. long.. :—An aquatic herb. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. —Feb. HABITAT :—Cultivated. yellow. Dudhya bhopala. Nelasampige . :— G.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Kadu bhopala. Kanara. furrowed. Alkaddu. Vatsanabhi. Halagumbala. L. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.
ulcers. Arjuna. emetic. Ornamental Plants. "Vata". inflammations. brain-tonic. oleaginous. bitter variety is diuretic. See—Vegetables. PARTS-USED :—Root. Tarul. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. China. There are two varieties. fruits and seeds. leaves. anti-bilious. Seeds—good for hot constitution. cures blood diseases. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. laxative. Fruit good in bronchitis. increases "Vata". piles. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. fever. See—Timbers. bark. wild (rarely). causes bronchitis. earache. diuretic. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. in many cases only cultivated. bitter. Challa. cooling. Bark and leaves are purgative. LOC. Ceylon. refrigerant and anti-bilious. :—Western Peninsula.) FAM. alexiteric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. Seeds emetic (Yunani). In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. leaves. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. cures asthma. flatulence. cause haemoptysis. scalding of urine. fruits and seeds. Sk. K. LOC. :—H. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. NS. Nirbendeka: M. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. cures leucorrhoea. improves taste. DISTR. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . PARTS USED :—Root. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . fattening. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. anti-periodic. muscular pains. Arjuna. Flowers cooling. flowers. bronchitis. Taman. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. COM. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. Malaya. wholesome to fœtus. USES :— Leaves are purgative. pains (Ayurveda). LOC:—North Kanara and S. dry cough. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. aphrodisiac. earache. seeds are narcotic. cardiac and general tonic. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. lessens inflammations. vulnerary. LOC.—Lythraceæ. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. Konkan Ghats. Assam. sweet. Holematti. . styptic. In the Andamans. antipyretic. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. Bandhara. DISTR.
130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. common at Mahabaleshwar. Kassar. S. Mehndi. See—Food Plants. silky beneath. Tree mignonette. Gorantha. The bark is used to poison fish. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. DISTR. NS.—opposite or scattered. K. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. pain. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. Sandika. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Yavaneshta. cooling. L. :—E. Latri. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. FAM. DISTR. :—E.5-3. diam. Wooly-headed gnidia. Sk. COM. burning. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflammation.5 X 2-2. Kukurgal. H. M. causes much flatulence. Triputi. oblong flat. CHAR. glabrous above. Fl. FAM. swellings etc. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. G. (Ayurveda). Sk. common on the Supa Ghats. Medi. K. :—W.. tonic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. M. Grains contain vitamin A.. Madaranga. :—A much branched large shrub.—ellipsoid-oblong. LOC.5 cm. dense terminal heads 2. lobes 4. Medika.8 cm. enclosed in the perianth . heart-troubles. Mukute. . M. Belgaum hills . Country. bark mottled. Henna plant. Kanara. pointed. Rametha. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. N. 5-7. Rami. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. lameness. COM. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Peninsula—Ceylon.—Lythraceæ. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Mendi. Khesari. Deccan hills.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). M. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. subsessile.—Dec-May. yellow. Fl. Lang. piles and wandering of the mind. perianth-tube densely silky villous . (B. D. t. Lakh. FAM. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Nakharanjaka.—in erect. Basu). LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. but dangerous cathartic. :—E. improves taste. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. :—Konkan southwards.—Thymelaeaceæ. oblong lanceolate. COM. Ragangi. Chickling—White vetch. Fr.
:—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). & Gib. Asia. FAM. Massur. veined outside. Flowers are refrigerant. Fl. Fl. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. diseases of spleen. ophthalmia. Sk. supported by persistent calyx.). Sd. Leaves—bitter. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. DISTR. diuretic. Masur. in diseases of heart and of . M. expectorant. fragrant. vulnerary. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. Ragadali. G. :—E. syphilitic sores. diuretic. cure insanity (Ayurveda). enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. NS. Gurubija. K. Europe and in temperate W. LOC. planted as hedge. t. ulcers. LOC. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. Masura. E. :—Grown in Nasik. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. indigenous in S. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. seeds. COM.—angular. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. L. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. bronchitis. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. amenorrhœa. often ending in spinous point. The oil and essence keep the body cool. PROPERTIES.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Gabholika. See—Dyes. LOC.—capsule. stomatitis. H. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. Chanangi. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). allay burning sensation. dysentery. globose. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. The plant contains a glucoside. boils. Masuridal. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. useful. wild in Arabia. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. many. cure strangury tumours. Belgaum and Poona districts. useful in headache. Masur. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea.—opposite. pyramidal and panicled cymes. skin diseases . Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. finger nails and hair. Fr. DISTR. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Ceylon. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. cure leucoderma. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. enriches blood. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast.—Apl-July. flowers.—in terminal. lateral branches 4-gonous. Sura. Lentil. favours hair-growth. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Iran and Baluchistan. white or rose coloured . cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. scabies. truncate. mucronate. improve appetite. HABITAT:—Cultivated. lumbago.
NS. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. tonic. LOC.—Cruciferæ. K. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. Fr. Sk. CHAR. aphrodisiac . See—Vegetables.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. They contain vitamin B. cures dysentery . bechic. affections of spleen. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. Asia. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. very likely indigenous in W. Raktabija. bronchitis. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Seeds contain fatty oil. Asahio. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Chandrika. :—Cultivated throughout India. tumours and injuries. LOC. often with linear segments . Chandrashura. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. Hurfi. They are mucilaginous and laxative. blood and skin diseases. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. leaves and seeds. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . diuretic. chest complaints. bronchitis. :—E. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.—small. COM. See-Food Plants. Ashalika. PARTS USED :—Root. Garden cress . and muscular pains. FAM. Kurutige. L. Fl. the lower petiolate. Suvasura. Ahaliva. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. good for pain in abdomen. . eye diseases (Ayurveda). bitter. upper sessile. tonic. rheumatism. Leaves are used as pot-herb. stomatitis . Grains contain vitamins A and B. Hot and dry. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. M. Allibija. useful in diseases of chest. Seeds—indigestible. galactagogue. The covering is styptic and astringent.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. enrich blood. aphrodisiac. aperient. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. white. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Halim . Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Halim. DISTR. H. good in inflammations. G. constipating. C—petals 2-4 or 0. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Chavnsar. :—An erect glabrous annual.
M. Alshi. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. colds and throat complaints. Alsi. used in consumption.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. tonic. "Kapha". Kanara. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. DISTR. remove biliousness. NS. H. NS. galactagogue. See—Oils. Sedhavi. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. :—E. Alasi. good for cough and kidney troubles. native country probably Egypt. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. usually alternate. Tisi. :—Cultivated throughout India. Sk.. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. "Pitta". HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. diam. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. L. 7. hot. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. M.—Lauraceæ. boils.—crowded at the ends of branches. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Tailottama. LOC. gouty and rheumatic swellings. heal ulcers. back-ache. Seeds contain vitamin A. Common tallow laurel. Alsi. bark somewhat corky. H. burnt bark styptic and healing. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. LOC. Linseed. yellowish. Country. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). bad for eyesight. CHAR. Sk.— globose.:—A small evergreen tree.—Linaceæ.—May-July. Madagandha. t. Garbijaur. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate..MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Alashi. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. black. COM. flowers. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. inflammations. Roasted seeds are astringent. PARTS USED :—Bark. Fr. FAM. . Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. diuretic. aphrodisiac . Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). M. hard to digest. Fl. urinary discharges . G. seeds and oil. LOC.5 mm. Maidelakri. K. glossy dark-green above. emmenagogue. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. supported by the thickened pedicel. FAM. Javas . lenticellate. Fibres. Haimwati. Medini. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. Seeds—mucilaginous. Maidalakadi. dysentery. leaves.:—E. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. pale beneath. causes loss of appetite. lead to impotency. Fl. Common flax. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. Alashi. base narrowed. Jivanika. urinary complaints. remove "Vata". COM. cure leprosy. perianth lobes wanting. Malina. branchlets densely tomentose. 8-12 together in heads.
Karvituri. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. subglobose. diseases of blood. PARTS USED :—Root.-Mar. Australia.—. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . stem stout. NS. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. COM. midrib white. acrid. white. Country.—Lobeliaceæ. bitter. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. bronchitis. :—E. burning sensation. stomachic. 2. leprosy (Ayurveda). The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. heart. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. spleen diseases. Narsala. Devanala.—numerous. M.—alternate. branched upwards. Kandele. Ghontali. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Mrityupushpa. Kadudodka. Fl. Malay Islands. :—Konkan. long. FAM. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". yellowish brown .100 m. DISTR. H. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. SK. L. K. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Katukoshataki. H. paralysis. Kahire. Ranturai. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). 3 usually connate throughout . Ridge gourd. diuretic. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. CHAR. Kalahogesoppu. COM. fruits and seeds. Fl. strangury. leaves. Nal. high. opening by 2 valves. Narttaka. pains in joints. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. cure cough. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.9 cm. LOC. Jhinga. hollow.2-3 m. Jalini. aphrodisiac. bark.5-3. many. Deccan and S. LOC. very small.—Nov. Divali. FAM. much curved. aphrodisiac. :—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. It acts as anodyne. light green. throat troubles. Root—astringent. LOC.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. biliousness. expectorant. all oblong. lobes linear. aphrodisiac. . erysipelas (Ayurveda). finely serrulate. thirst. burning sensation. Fr. Bibhishana. Wild tobacco. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. vagina. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. consumption. Sthulanala. G. overheated brains. useful in inflammations. Dhamana. AMARA Clarke. useful in biliousness. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Sd. Nali. M. uterus. M. long. Dhaval. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. K. G. 1. heating. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. Devnal. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. lower much longer. Sk. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. t.—Cucurbitaceæ. Ceylon. NS. nearly sessile. C—2-lipped. galactagogue. lanceolate. Leaves are mucilaginous. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . "vata".134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—capsule. fever. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs.
tendrils usually 3-fid. PARTS USED :—Bark. stems 5-angled. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. Burma. PARTS USED :—Leaves. bitter. piles. flowers and fruits. Bengal to the W. H. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. LOC. asthma. biliousness. Root-bark is abortifacient. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. cures "Vata". Hunage. DISTR. leaves. laxative. LOC. Fruit cures fever. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. obtusely conical at both ends. carminative. at length scabrid. fruit and seeds. hydrogogue. jaundice. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Gudapushpa. 5-7 lobed. Mahuda. . acrid. L.—Sept. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. palmate. thick. cures urinary discharges. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. at first whitish and softly villous. Doddippa. base cordate. females.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. liver complaints. Fr. tonic to intestines. anæmia. ascites. pale green. W. uterine and vaginal tumours . alexiteric. Madhuka. Madhusrava. Mahura.:—A large climber. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. leucoderma. Pokka. recommended in splenic enlargement. Moha. :—Throughout India. tonic and diuretic. 10-ribbed. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). t. long and about 2. 5-10 cm. Butter tree. solitary in the same axil as males. K. "Kapha".53. DISTR. digestible. :—E. diuretic. NS. C. tumours. Sk. thrives in Deccan trap. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. cough. Ceylon. inflammations. bitter. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. tuberculous glands. Fl.) FAM. Madhya Pradesh. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache.—Sapotaceæ.. Mahua. G. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. useful in rat-bite. :—Plant is bitter.—monœcious. Mahula. asthma.8 cm. bronchitis. Fl. haemorrhoids and leprosy. USES.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. M. COM. also in Konkan and N. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). Mahua tree. cathartic. piles. Kanara (rare) .—small. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb.—obovoid. LOC. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). Mowda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent.—petals yellow with green veins . Mhowra. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. especially in western Peninsula. Mowa.
Mohache jhad. LOC. Famine Plants. Kambhal Raini. Kamala. astringent. cooling. Oil—emollient (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Bark. tonic and nutritive. expectorant.—Sapotaceæ. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. COM. G. cures biliousness. :—Western peninsula. thirst. See—Timbers. fattening. flowers and oil. Karnatic. carminative. Kesarimavu. Ippe. heals wounds . Flowers are regarded as cooling. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. Flower—sweet. :—-E. Kapila. Movanuhjad. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. LOC. Oils. tonic. and Kanara. good in heart diseases. NS. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats.) FAM. Monkey-face tree. Mehua. FAM. galactagogue. Fruit-tonic . cures blood diseases. Flowers—oleaginous. fatigue . and also a remedy for itch. aphrodisiac. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. used in fractures. G. yields two important products. Mahuva of S. Mohwa. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Astringent and emollient. Honey tree. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. ulcers. causes "Kapha". H. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Mysore. Sk. . K. Huli. often planted. bronchitis. leprosy. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. consumption. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Kampillaka. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Moha. K. Kapilo. flowers act as a mild purgative. :—Konkan. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Movaro. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Shendri. India . and Upper Burma. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin.—Euphorbiaceæ. Mahuda. Oils. M. :—E. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. fixed oil and a spirit. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. DISTR. Liquors.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. See—Timbers. Hullichillu. burning sensation. COM. anthelmintic. Sk. Ceylon.. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. and appetiser (Sushruta). Kapila. There is a trace of alkaloid. H. Madhuka. NS. M.
:—E. "Kapha". Dyes. urinary discharges. FAM. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. K. clears brain. G. Kanara. Ambo. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. dysentery. Ghats and the Satpudas. lessen intestinal pains. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Chuta. biliousness. :—Tropical Himalayas. Am. Mango tree. vomiting. cure "Vata". good in cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. wild and cultivated. diseases of abdomen. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. NS. Sikkim. COM. DISTR. Seeds-astringent to bowels. purgative. carminative. Khasia Hills. anthelmintic. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. vaginal troubles. LOC. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. it exudes a pink coloured gum. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. useful in skin-diseases. Sahakara. cause flatulence and constipation. tonic to body. cooling. astringent to bowels. sweet. :—-Throughout the State. Cuckoo's Joy. Amra. Sind. leaves. wounds. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. throat troubles. bronchitis. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). Ceylon. Introduced. improves cough. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). stone in bladder. Kamarasa. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. good in heart trouble. styptic. spleen. alexiteric. heals ulcers. styptic. stomachic. sour. bad blood. tonic. M. purgative. diuretic. aphrodisiac. vermifuge and. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. H. Burma. Mavin-mara. a good collyrium (Yunani). cooling. LOC. Gum . Fruit—heating. in "Tridosh". Australia. improves complexion. enriches blood. improve taste and appetite. LOC. removes bad smell from mouth. Astringent. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. liver pain. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. liver. cure leucorrhoea. laxative.—Anacardiaceæ. Malay Islands. detergent. Sk. tumours. flowers. dispels langour and burning of body. :—Throughout tropical India. China. See—Timbers. Bihar. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. appetiser. cultivated throughout the State. maturant. beautifies complexion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Bhutan. Amba. fruits and seeds. ulcers. useful in bronchitis. thirst. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. good in dysentery. leaves. anthelmintic. DISTR. fruits and seeds. Rasala. PARTS USED :—Root. used in chronic diarrhœa. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). chronic dysentery and gleet. "Pitta". vulnerary. Mavu. Amri. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. hiccup. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. piles.
alexiteric. Juice of kernel. Fl. Nimla. M. good for dyspepsia. stops nasal bleeding. 7. piles. G. M. Juss. Nimba. Nimba. older branches ash coloured.—Meliaceæ. H. Assam. Nim or Margosa tree.) FAM. with lenticels and black dots. NS. tumours.—Apl. burning sensation. Nim. USES. LOC. Sk.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. biliousness.5-10 cm. COM.—rotate with broad lobes. :—Bengal. astringent to bowels. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. inflammations. margined. It is also anthelmintic. overlapping to the right. Ceylon. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Madhumalati. K.5 cm. Balant nimba. Harandori. if snuffed. cooling. NS. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Nakchhikni. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Kharkhodi. Country. CHAR. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. useful in bleeding piles. Kadulimb. antipyretic.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. DISTR. Bevu. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. M. useful in diseases of eye. K. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. leucoderma. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. COM. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Ambri. pale yellowish brown. Dodi. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. L. corona lobes large. :—Deccan and S. .. cures "Vata". Ripe fruit is laxative. LOC. Nimbaka. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. green or yellowish green.3-15 X 4. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. rat-bite (Ayurveda). :—-E. broadly ovate or suborbicular.—follicles. C. Khandodi. Fr. Limbada.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. :—G.—broadly ovate.—Asclepiadaceæ. flattened. :—A large twining shrub. rugosely striate. Paribhadraka. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. H. urinary discharges. t.—6. long. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. asthma. coma copious . (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth.5-11. Hemajyoti-valli. Fruit Trees. Fl. Java. fleshy.—many. Suparnika. Sd. Dugdhike . few glands above the petiole cordate . Limbra. all plains districts of Madras State. Hari.) FAM.
Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . The flowers are stimulant. cough. :—E. expectorant. maturant. tumours. valuable in consumption. stomachic. anthelmintic. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). piles. . used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. LOC. asthma. antiperiodic. resolvant. insecticidal. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). COM. general debility.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Small melilot. leucoderma. fever. fatigue. good in ophthalmia. anthelmintic.. leprosy. chronic leprosy. M. "pittadosh. astringent. urinary discharges. Oils. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . bruises. and loss of appetite. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. refrigerant. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. Burma. See—Timbers. Ranmethi. stimulant and stomachic. leaves. relieves "Kapha". The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. LOC. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. DISTR. fruits and seeds. skin diseases. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. toothache. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. maturant. Vanmethika. FAM. earache. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. tonic and antiperiodic. Tonic. cures ulcers and inflammations . blood complaints. PARTS USED :—Root." vomiting. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. burning sensation near heart. Sk. boils. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. for unhealthy ulcers. bark. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. H. good for leprosy. lessens inflammation. rheumatism . alexiteric. bad taste in the mouth. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. carminative. useful in syphilitic sores. lumbago. sprains. convalescence. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. swollen glands. NS. biliousness. pectoral. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. thirst.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. piles. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. Banmethi. tonic. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. it is a general vermifuge. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. flowers. aphrodisiac.
young parts white-hairy. DISTR. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. CHAR. :—An erect annual herb. very hispid .— Jany.—size of a pea. Afghanistan. leaflets toothed. standard exceeding the wings and keel. Ghugri. HABITAT :—In hedges. COM. females sessile. glabrous. M. It has expectorant properties to some extent. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. tendrils simple.—monœcious . :—Common in Deccan.—Labiatæ.—one. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. poultice or plaster for swellings. finally red. lobes dentate or serrate . Bilari. high. M.—3-foliate. Fl. Fr. Malaya and Africa. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. oblong-ellipsoid. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. at first green and variegated with yellow. oblanceolate. stem angular. LOC. Corn-March mint. Fl. given as a gruel (Murray). FAM. 30-45 cm. Chatinmaragu. truncate at the apex. Agamaki. C. Pudina. K. deltoid-ovate entire. tapering at both ends. Assam. S. NS. ellipsoid. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . L. Pudinah.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). Pudina. glabrous or slightly hairy. north Bengal. leaves and seeds. base cordate. Europe. LOC.—small. :—Western Peninsula.—variable in size. :—E. Sd. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. Iran. DISTR. scabrid. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. Externally used as a fomentation.—Cucurbitaceæ. COM. rounded. male fascicled on short peduncles. in spicate close racemes. G.—pod. L. "Sikkim. brown. slightly echinulate. FAM. introduced into many other regions. also in S. t. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. NS. Ceylon. :—India (tropical zone). :—H. Khasia. of terminal rather long. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Fl. especially in strained back. . M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. Country and Gujarat. Fr. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. H..—pale yellow.
headache. lanceolate. pains in joints (Ayurveda).—in axillary distant whorls. lined with hairs and hairy outside. toothed. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. good in asthma and sweats. C. none at the top. infusion is given in fevers. USES :—Root. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. Nagkesara. Ceylon. Assam Iron-wood. Travancore. DISTR. Assam. digestive. vomiting. MESUA FERREA Linn. COM. cardiotonic. Europe. M. oblong. Bengal. diuretic. Ceylon Iron-wood. :—A perennial erect herb . Fr. and stimulant. cough. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. LOC. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. dry.-narrowed below. DISTR. Naghas. smooth. sweats. Kashmir. :—Western Himalayas. the upper similar and large. S. useful in liver and spleen diseases. blood and heart troubles. flowers and fruits. Nagchapha. Nagkesara. foul breath. LOC. asthma. expectorant. Oils. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Guttiferæ. Konkan and N. L. small tumours. Nagsampige. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. hairy. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. hiccup. Fl. emmenagogue. Andamans. biliousness. Suvarna. LOC. :—E.—nutlets dry. FAM. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). lilac. Himalayas. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. NS. stalked. Carminative. :—E. tonic to kidneys .—sub-equally 4-lobed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. Gums and Resins. M. North and West Asia. leaves. Nagkinjalka. The plant is used in chutneys. See—Timbers. E. skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Bark. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). ovate. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. indigestion and cephalagia. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. Country. binding. good for fevers. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. Burma Tenasserim. Nagakeshara. In N. sorethroat. alexipharmic. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. K. China. Sk. Kanara. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. . used for cough. thirst. stem short. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties.
ophthalmia. slightly recurved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Golden champa. Fruit. COM. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Assam. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Lajjika. K. :—E. t. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma.-Oct. Lajalu. Pilochampo. diaphoretic. NS. Lajalu. . Flowers— expectorant. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Timbers. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Fl. Champa.. stimulant. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. blood affections.—Magnoliaceæ. :—A diffuse under-shrub. Sonchampo. Risemani. removes worms. bile. bark. 57. H. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. L.—Sept. rachis bristly. Sparshalajja. :—Cultivated all over the State. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. it is given with honey to relieve colic. LOC. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Suvarna champaka. Yellow champa . Flowers-stomachic. S. Yunnan. Champaka. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . cultivated. good in leprosy. Dyes. pink. leaves. Raktamula. Surabhi. useful in cough. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. Pivala chapha. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). petioles hairy. COM. LOC. Sk. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. Sone-chapha. stems and branches sparingly prickly. Lajjavati. Humble plant. high. Sampige. IndoChina. long. CHAR. DISTR.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Kanara. clothed with glandular hairs . "Vata". Fl. M. FAM. K. Ghats. also used as purgative. G.. Muthmurika. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Hem-pushpa. Fr. sensative. :—E. Champo. India. rheumatism. facilitates micturition. in vertigo. flowers and fruits. remove biliousness. diuretic. G. "Kapha". Champaka. Sankochini. Lajari. diuretic.—bipin-nate. Vanamallika. FAM. glabrous above. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. H. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Sensitive plant. gout. in globose heads. hairy beneath. Lajalu. pinnae 1-2 pairs. 45-90 cm. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. M. Lajja.-pod flat. rheumatism. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. near temples and in gardens. Champaka. Burma. evergreen rain-forest of N. aphrodisiac.5 cm. nausea and fevers . destroys poisons. acrid.—4-merous. Nachike-gidda. NS. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Sk. digitate. W. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses .
Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Mugule. Anangaka. H. In Brazil root is used as emetic. dysentery. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. DISTR. DISTR. Sharadika. often planted in gardens. cultivated in gardens in pots. stomachic. teeth and gum diseases. probably a native of tropical America. blood diseases (Ayurveda). USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. nose diseases. Bakul. FAM. piles. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . useful in blood and bile diseases. Baphuli. PARTS USED :—Root. headache. cooling. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. cultivated in the tropics. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. ulcers. bilious fevers. :—G. K. Seeds fix loose teeth. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Root. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. LOC. cooling. inflammations. Bakula. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. asthma.:—Western Peninsula. Borsalli. Kalhala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC.—Sapotaceæ. good for gonorrhœa. Sk. flowers. biliousness. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Ceylon. smallpox (Yunani). vulnerary. LOC. Kanara and Konkan. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). NS. Malaya. leucoderma. leprosy. M. COM. alexipharmic. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. Vovali. vaginal and uterine complaints. Varsuli. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Kanara. in piles and fistula. cures biliousness. liver complaints. Flowers give taste. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Flowers—expectorant. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. fatigue. alexipharmic. jaundice. alterative. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. Bark cardiotonic. acrid. LOC. Fruit causes flatulence. bark. Bolsari. Root is resolvent. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Bakul. :—Naturalised throughout India. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. oleaginous. sweet. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. leprosy. Ranjal. Mulsari. burning sensation. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Bakul. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). cure biliousness. fruits and seeds. Juice is applied externally. Mukul. cures "Kapha". It is also resolvent and alterative. cure blood diseases. flowers and fruits acrid. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm.
t.—Nyctaginaceæ. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Karli. Karavalli.—large. K. H. COM.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. Kareli. FAM. See—Timbers. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Kandura. lessen inflammations (Yunani). Sandhya-kali or Raga. M. Leaves are maturant. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. DISTR. Fruit Trees. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Karelo. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. L. H. native of tropical America. . HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. LOC. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Hagala. Hagalkai. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. M. Krishnakali. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities.—membranous. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. NS. and rather fleshy stems . Marvel of Peru. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Guleaabbas . Fl. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Karala. CHAR. each one surrounded by an involucre. Karela. Karela. LOC. Gulbasa . Carella fruit. Chandra—Sanjimallige. NS. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . COM. blackish. Oils.—E. :—Grown throughout India. Four o'clock plant. brightly coloured (dark crimson. :—A herbaceous plant. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. it is applied to relieve headache. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. :—E. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. good for syphilitic sores. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. HABITAT -Cultivated. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. 30-75 cm. often ribbed or rugose. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. FAM. yellow. Fl. cordate. Sk. Fr. G. K.—continually in bloom.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is also tonic and febrifuge.
LOC. lessens expectoration . urinary calculi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit— bitter. Fruit—bitter. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. B and C. and externally in ague as an absorbent. cure "Tridosh". urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. Beksa. etc. See—Vegetables. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. cure "Vata". tumours. COM. Fruits contain vitamins A. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. asthma. longpepper. Vandhya. Sk. Vishakankini. . urinary discharges. anæmia. Gid-hagalu. antibilious. used in syphilis. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. :—G. NS. FAM. K. :—Cultivated throughout India. piles. M. all kinds of poisoning. aphrodisiac. laxative and authelmintic.—Cucurbitaceæ. rheumatism. laxative. China. anthelmintic. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. cooling. "Kapha". :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. leaves and fruit. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). DISTR. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. Nagarali. diseases of spleen and liver. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. stomachic. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Ceylon. LOC. tropical Africa. Leaves act as galactagogue. excessive salivation. bronchitis. H. Kanta. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). It is useful in gout. stomachic. also in Malaya. DISTR. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. rheumatism. boils. digestible. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. asthma. S. ulcers. Fruit—very bitter. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. burns. Karehiballi. laxative. LOC. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Kantoli. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. Malaya. Golkandra. :—Throughout India. blood diseases. tonic. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. hiccup. Leaves—aphrodisiac. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. fever consumption. leaves and fruit. Country and Gujarat. sparingly in Konkan. anthelmintic. Fruit is tonic. antipyretic. Kantolan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kartoli. piles. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. carminative. hot alexiteric.'. bronchitis. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. M. hearttroubles. Plant cures diseases of blood. leprosy. eye and heart. and America. cures biliousness. jaundice etc. Karkotaki.
Saraoji. tumours. Al. fattening. improves appetite. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. digestible. earache.—Rubiaceæ. G. COM. H. causes burning sensation. Murangi. leaves. Mochaka. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Haladipavate. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. eye diseases. M. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. stuttering. DISTR. . Drum-stick Tree. LOC. emmenagogue.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . NS. Seglo. Ugra. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. Ainshi. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. astringent to bowels. also wild. Famine Plants. Sajina.—Moringaceæ. :—E. K. makes blood impure . dyspepsia. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Tagase . cultivated throughout India and Burma. Burma. Sk. Tikshnamula. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. See—Vegetables. NS. Indian horse radish . leaves and fruits. removes all kinds of pains. alexiteric. flowers. ulcers. Munigha. H. Shevaga. Achchuka. FAM. Ashyuka. PARTS USED :—Root. analgesic. K. tuberculous glands in neck. Aal. Ak. also in the Oudh forests. COM. aphrodisiac. Indian mulberry. anthelmintic. Mulgule. Segua. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. China. bark. all "tridosha" fevers. Sk. G. fruits and seeds. Nuggi. biliousness . spleen enlargement. "Vata". Formosa. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. FAM. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Bartondi. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. "Kapha". DISTR. See—Dyes. Ab. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Introduced var. Sargavo. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. :—E. Achi. inflammations. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. useful in heart-complaints. Mochaka. Rochana. Root-tonic to body and lungs. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Guggala. M. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark.
burning sensation (Ayurveda). turmeric. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. Gums and Resins. gout. cooling. H. lumbago. urinary discharges. biliousness. expectorant. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. sour. B and C. Kambali. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. epilepsy and hysteria. aphrodisiac. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). NS. K. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. See—Fruit Trees. it is cooling laxative. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. FAM. bark. leaves and fruit. expectorant. Peninsula. Shetur. Sk. obstinate asthma. enriches blood. appetiser. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Madhu pippali. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. sweetish. Siahtut. with garlic. The plant contains an alkaloid. anthelmintic. Fruits contain vitamins A. Root is purgative. piles. diuretic. COM. good for brain. Karihannu. Fibres. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Oils. cures gleet. G. Leaf paste. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Fruit—tonic. DISTR. laxative. M. White mulberry. good for inflammations of throat and chest. Ambat. internal inflammations and calculous affections. rheumatism. salt and pepper. fattening. lumbago. Seeds yield a fixed oil. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. aromatic and acid flavour. Tuda. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). Tutri. Kanara. enriches blood. spleen. wounds. useful in small-pox. MORUS INDICA Linn. LOC. LOC. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. diarrhœa. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic.—Moraceæ. common about villages in N. diuretic. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Tut. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. stomatitis. enlarged spleen or liver. bronchitis. loss of appetite. Tut. Tuta. ulcerated intestines. carminative. increases biliousness. heart. See—Vegetables.
:—E. Adam's Fig. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. juice given for headache. tonic. turgid-shaped. silky. used in powder form in leucorrhcea.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). L. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Nayi songuballi. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. Kela. Kavatch. MUSA PARADISIACA L. laxative. M. " Vata ". HABITAT :—Humid areas . Root—emmenagogue. lateral very unequal sided. 5-7. Kivanch. improves blood. DISTR. Kela.—5-6 small. Sk. flowers and fruit. Bale. H. Banana. G. Sd. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Kadali. They are used as anthelmintic.2 cm.—Scitaminaceæ. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. Kunth. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Hasaguni.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. which produce intensa irritation of skin.) FAM.—pod. Var. . LOC. Sk. stem. tonic. Kuhili. Goncha. Kivanchha. common in hedges. LOC. Kela. consumption. FAM. Atmagupta. M. K. pods and seeds. DISTR. Root useful for delirium in fevers. t. :—E. terminal smaller.—in drooping racemes. grey-silky beneath. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. LOC. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. dark-purple.. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Turashi. Urustambha. SAPIENTUM O.3-11. Kavach. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . Seeds— alexipharmic. Kapikachu. Cowhage. petioles 6. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma .5x1. biliousness . Plantain. sometimes cultivated. Himalaya up to 1200 m. covered with tawny stinging hairs. with honey is given in cholera. G. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Fr. K. long. COM. CHAR. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Kadvare. Havanch. HABITAT :—In hedges. leaves. NS. Rambha. Ceylon. spermatorrhoea etc. Fruit— aphrodisiac. leaflets membranous. NS. 6-30 flowered. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda).. Pods are covered with stiff hairs.—3-foliate. Fl. Vanari. Dirghapatra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. :—Punjab plains. PARTS USED :—Root.3 cm. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). :—An annual twiner. Fl. Maoz kela. H. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. cures blood diseases. Tikshna. cultivated. Several forms are cultivated in Western India.—Oct-Nov. Strong root infusion.
Kanara. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . very hairy outside. stipules twin. indigestible . NS. Sk. tube slender. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. heart-burn and colic. good for dry bronchitis.—tubular. astringent to bowels. B and C. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . Lawsat. deep golden yellow. DISTR. Nagavalli. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. linear. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes.— berry. and are used in acidity. CHAR. ear-pain. :—Konkan and N. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. See—Fruit Trees. LOC. broadly elliptic. Bhutakes. Ipparati. aphrodisiac.—opposite or 8nately whorled. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Bellotti. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. blood diseases. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. dyspepsia. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Hastygida. diabetes. improves complexion (Ayurveda). leprosy. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. Fruit—sweet. Fibres. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. L. Assam.—Rubiaceæ. increases appetite. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. appetiser. urinary discharges. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. M. antidysenteric.. t. tonic. leaves. Tropical Himalayas. Fr. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. anthelmintic. in thirst. Root-juice is anthelmintic. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. diseases of uterus and vagina. Andamans. causes bronchitis . menstrual disorders. flowers and fruit. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. pubescent. :—S. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. in " Vata". tonic. PARTS USES :—Root. sore-throat.--in terminal cymes. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. astringent to bowels. Burnt stem is vulnerary. broad at base. strangury. . Root-juice. COM. aphrodisiac. :—H. Fl. K. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. C. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. hairy. thickens blood. LOC. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. :—A rambling shrub.— July-Oct. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. subglobose. lobes broadly ovate. Serwadh. consumption and bronchitis. buds densely hairy. biliousness. Shrivalli. useful in "Kapha". Bedina. kidney troubles (Yunani).
Kaiphal. Sk. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Fr. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. cures headache. PARTS USED :—Leaves. allaying pain. COM. white. all over the State. M. DISTR. Condiments and Spices. is regarded as. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. It is used as a substitute for true mace. Pliny. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. Malati.—Myrtaceæ. Galen and the Arabian writers. H. applied locally to relieve pain. NS. PARTS USED:—Seeds. black when ripe.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. Himalayas. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). A decoction is employed. :—E. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Dioscorides. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. especially epilepsy. intermittent fevers and dropsy. DISTR. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. axillary on slender peduncles. W. Vilayantimendhi. K. :—A shrub. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. :—Western Peninsula. L. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates.—small. promotes growth of hair. smoke beneficial to piles. diuretic. Habules. very sweet smelling. Myrtle. PROPERTIES AND LOC. common in the Kumta taluka. FAM. enriches blood. LOC. COM. :— E. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. LOC. False nutmeg. Murad. Fl. Malati. fruits and oil. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. Kanara Ghats . Malabar.— solitary. used in stopping vomiting. HABITAT :—Rain-forests.—berry. Kamuka. See—Timbers. CHAR. :—Konkan and N. LOC. as .— Myristicaceæ. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. Ram-patri. It is credited with opposite qualities. ellipsoid. FAM. ovate to lanceolate. small. They are given in asthma. Kanage. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. NS. emmenagogue. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N.
Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. stem. 0. Sd. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Goanese ipecacuanha.—membranous. NS. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Pitmari. :—E. free. 3-foliate. rough with distant prickles . Tavari-bija or gadde. Padma. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts.6 m. top flat. LOC. DISTR. Kapurbhendi. torus 18 mm. concave or cupped. hæmorrhage. COM..—Nymphæaceæ. glabrous. Indian sacred lotus. bronchitis. :—Konkan. Papra-vel. 3-valved. M. orbicular. L. ulcers (Ayurveda). NAREGAMIA ALATA W.-Dec.—Meliaceæ. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. biliousness. high. entire.) FAM.—capsule.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. Fl. cures asthma. K. K. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. erect. disk annular. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn.—alternate. L. Belakanji. Fr. white or rosy. Fl. Kamal.—pendulous.3-0. diam. in diam. petiole winged. anthers with clavate appendages. Fl. Aravinda. Padam. C. Kamala. spongy. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. fleshy. Chinese water-lily. 10-25 cm. Kandabahula.. long. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. Ambuja. H. alexiteric.—solitary. :—E. DISTR. Kamal. Nelanaringa . Fl.—July.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. solitary or 2 together. Pundarika. Kamal. :—A large aquatic herb. from Iran eastwards to Australia. t. Timpani. linear spathulate.-Nov. Sk. vulnerary. ovoidglobose. Kanara. ovoid. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin.—white. :—A small branching undershrub. LOC. peltate. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Sarasija. CHAR. FAM. & A. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. Ambuj.5 cm. Pankaja. G. muricate. curved. elliptic. M. Sk. CHAR. Ripe carpels. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Kandalu. petioles very long. COM.—petals many 5-12. axillary. petals 5. . leaves. elongate. radiately nerved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. t. Amlavalli. NS. dysentery. Suriyakamal. cells 2-seeded. :—W. with slender.
FAM. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. strangury. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Sd. also as a hedge plant. Sind. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . fragrant. cures cough.—follicles. CHAR. Kaner. long. removes worms. DISTR. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. honey. aphrodisiac. t. gives tone to breast. astringent to taste . removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". in fever and liverdiseases. also recommended as cardiac tonic. Pratihasa. useful in piles. vomiting. See—Ornamental Plants. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. In China and Malaya dried red petals. dark green and shining above. Karvira. Fl. planted in gardens throughout the State. fruit. useful in burning sensation of the body. 10-15 cm. small-pox. fever. Waziristan. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. H. Filaments are astringent and cooling. ulcers and sores of mouth.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Salt Range. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. LOC. Ashwa-marak. long. heart and brain tonic . throat scaly. COM. diseases of skin and eye . good in blood-complaints. seeds. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. Cool. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . improves watery eyes (Yunani).—red. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. flowers. M. Kanher. biliousness. rose or white. Paddali. Kanagile. stem.—funnel-shaped.—in threes. Fl. :—E. leaves. L. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Sk. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. allays thirst. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). K. Vishavrikshanka. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. LOC. Kanel. PARTS USED :—Root. spermatorrhoea.—flowers more or less throughout the year. good in throat-troubles. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. slightly bitter. Cool. India. C. Kaner. 15-23 cm. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . NS. G. menorrhagia. at length separating. linear-lanceolate. Karvira. diuretic. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. Sweet scented oleander. flowers. Karber. chest-pains. Fr. Upper Gangetic Plains. :—Madhya Bharat. lobes rounded. inflammations and poisoning. rigid. useful in fevers . leaves. leucoderma. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . Baluchistan. S.—Apocynaceæ. also cholera. . coriaceous. allays thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. tapering into short petiole.
bronchitis.—in open corymbose panicles . base wedgeshaped . Flowers— aphrodisiac. skin diseases. Tamaku. are poisonous and are used externally. Tambakhu. a mental stimulant.—alternate. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. M. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. nervous depression and sleeplessness. Tamakhu. COM. very poisonous. Tobacco. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. useful in bronchitis. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. also applied in leprosy. dimness of sight.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. :—Native of America. funnel-shaped. Tamarakuthika. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. wounds. Tabak. G. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. inflammations. Bujjarbhang. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Tambak. C. cultivated in all tropical countries. An ointment made . tonic. Root—aphrodisiac. See—Ornamental Plants. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Dhumrapatrika. lobes spreading. PARTS USED :—Leaves. headache. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). Sk. sedative and emetic. NS. water from hookha is diuretic. smoke constipating. :—E.—pink or white. LOC. asthma. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. anthelmintic. foul nose. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Poisonous to fish. especially root. K. H. Hoge soppu. good for lumbago. USES :—All parts of plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). the surface is plain or bullate. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). sores. about 1. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Krimighni. tonic. disinfectant. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. laxative.—capsule. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. across. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally.8 cm.—Solanaceæ. CHAR. Kalanja. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). LOC. large (especially lower ones). emetic. inflammations. scabies. conical. FAM. carminative. Fr. Fl. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. L. oblong or elliptic. tubercular glands of neck. useful in caries of teeth. DISTR. caries of teeth. M. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The plant contains a glucoside. scabies (Yunani). good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints.
NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. in terminal trichotomous cymes. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. hairy. Chotakanwal. astringent-to bowels. It is used with honey in chronic fever. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Bark cures bronchitis. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica.3 cm. Parijata . Sk. Indian Mourner : G. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. FAM. southwards to the Godavari. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Nilophhal.—capsule. Bengal. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. :—A large shrub or a small tree.5-6. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. C. Parijata. NS. Cultivated in many parts of India. LOC.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. Nyadale huvu . (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Fl. Sephali. Burma. Nalkumkuma. Lalkamal. stomachic. tube orange-coloured. Sephalika. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . t. Alipriya. bark. ovate acute. Harsing. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). Flowers have a bitter bad taste.—Oleaceæ. K. Aravind. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. flowers and seeds. peduncles 4angled. Shonapadma. :—E. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Madhya Bharat. Jayaparvati.— fragrant. Fr. Lotus.. Kumuda. leaves. scalp affections etc. Kharapatraka. Assam. . HABITAT :-Cultivated.—lobes white. Har-singhar. Prajakta. densely pubescent beneath. M. carminative. Parijataka. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. lessen inflammation. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. useful in bilious fevers. abundant July-Sept. CHAR. 2-celled. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. cures fevers.) FAM.— more or less throughout the year. bark. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Kanval. axillary. compressed.—opposite 5-10x2. Prajakta. K. solitary. rough above with bulbous hairs. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma.—Nymphæaceæ. Bilitavarai. Buds are tonic. Har. COM. tonic to hair. G. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. H. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. obcordate or merely orbicular. L. a decoction of root. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. young branches quadrangular. (Ayurveda). Fl. DISTR. :—E. M. NS. H. Kanwal.
glabrous.—ovate. purple stem. Fl. flowers and seeds. across. itch. M. stems and branches green or purplish. Burma. :—Large aquatic herb . PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Hungary. 7. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. lessens bile. high. :—Var.. filaments dilated at the base . t. H. petioles very long. thyrsiflora. biliousness. "Vata". oblong. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. LOC. causes burning sensation. Rihan. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. acute.—nutlets about 2 mm.— in whorled racemes . :—An erect herb 0. removes impurities from blood . diarrhœa and piles . fleshy. PARTS USED :—Roots. "Kapha". long. ripening beneath the water. emmenagogue. pale rose or white. irregularly sinuate-dentate. Ceylon. Philippines. bracts stalked. Sk. entire. " Kapha". pubescent and prominently veined beneath .—peltate. Damaro. Ajagandhika. Sd. juice gives lustre to . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. Fl. toothed or lobed. enlarged spleen. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Tungi. allays thirst. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). :—E. Surabhi. Fl. obtuse. black and pitted. COM. Common sweet basil. febrifuge. LOC. 8-13 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. pink or purplish. Sabja. erect. aphrodisiac . deeply cordate at the base. hot taste.6-0. K. bitter taste. C. useful in diseases of heart and brain. improves taste .—solitary. DISTR.—3 cm. glabrous or pubescent. Plant has a sharp. white. G. Bahari. Sabja. 15-25 cm. FAM. DISTR. diam. globose. C. anthelmintic. Nasabo. Sajjebija. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. open in the morning only. cooling .5-20 cm. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. NS. cylindric.9 m.—petals about 12. Fr. root stock tuberous. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. and nigropunctate above. Barbar. red. bitter. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. peduncles very long . USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. alexipharmic. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). inflammations. short. ellipsoid. Sabzah. L. Java. CHAR. diuretic. asthma. leaves. leucoderma. diameter. Africa. stamens about 40. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. Var. See—Ornamental Plants. antipyretic . leaves and flower. Tukhamariya . a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. :—Cultivated in many places in the State.—Labiatæ. rough. L. useful in diseases of heart and blood. long. chronic pain in joints.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR.—all the year. Barbar. "Vata".—2-lipped.— ovoid. submerged . LOC. Fr. Manjarki. green. Surasa. Ramkasturi. roundish. stomachic.
strengthens gums. given in infusion in gonorrhœa.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. Rama-Ran tulasi. COM. BanMal tulasi. liver and spleen. lower lip longer. Plant has bitter. FAM. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani).. in close whorls . good for toothache. useful in diseases of brain. LOC. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. LOC.3—12.8—5.7 cm. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. Java. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. :—E. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. " Vata". PARTS USED :—The whole plant.8 m. 1. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. aphrodisiac . brown. Sumukha.— in simple or branched racemes. :—Konkan. removes foul breath. fits. headache.—2-lipped. woody below . Fr. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. stimulant. rachis quadrangular . often cultivated : Ceylon. skin diseases. Ram Tulasi. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. earache. M.-July-Oct. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. gland-dotted. sharp taste . USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. " Kapha". M. . coarsely crenate-serrate. C. t. rugose. It is also styptic. Ajaka. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. heating. Rantulasi. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery.—nutlets subglobose. Country. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. inflammations. strangury . they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve.2—1. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. good for griping and piles (Yunani). Gujarat. Deccan. Fl. L. DISTR. S. diuretic and demulcent properties. CHAR.—Labiatæ. :—A perennial shrub. carminative. heart. diuretic and stimulant. LOC. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. H. G. young ones pubescent. Fl. :—Throughout India. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. branched. they are also aphrodisiac. Avachi-bavachi. NS. pale greenish yellow. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. useful in vomiting. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor.—6. Large basil.5 X 3. The flowers possess. high. During fever when the extremities are cold. alexiteric. elliptic-lanceolate. Lemon—shrubby basil. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). Sk. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. pubescent. stems and branches subquadrangular .
Sk. long. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Krishna tulasi. stipules with bristles . Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. leaves and seeds.—Rubiaceæ. used in catarrh and bronchitis . Vrinda. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . LOC.. :—G. Damanpaper. Fl. bronchitis. NS. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Asia to Java and the Philippines.—2. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Fl. West Asia. See—Sacred Plants. Fr. asthma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. high. long in close whorls . useful in heart and blood diseases. leucoderma. NS. margins recurved and scabrous. Sk. Tulasa. LOC. lumbago pains.—on filiform pedicels. C. anthelmintic. globose or pyriform .5—38 cm. smooth. foul smells. angular. cholagogue. purplish. LOC. t. alexiteric. strangury. Deccan and S. especially in children. hiccup. linear or linear-lanceolate. M. antipyretic. H. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . vomiting. Phapti. stems and branches subquadrangular.—subsessile. COM. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. FAM. Malay Archipelago. Tulasi.:—E. H. HABIT :—A common weed. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. CHAR. :—An annual plant. Manjari. G. entire or serrate.2 cm. usually 2-3 cm. " Vata". Australia. obtuse or acute. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. yellow with black marking. pubescent. and are given with honey.—Labiatæ. Tulasi. Kala tulasi. lobes acute. Ceylon. 30-60 cm.—2-lipped. Parapate. Pavitra. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. :—Konkan.—pale brown. CHAR. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system.— nutlets. FAM. K. Suravallari. heating. upper lip pubescent on the back. Tulasi. Country. stems numerous. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. Parpat. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. painful eye. bitter. :—An annual herb.5-5 X 1. clothed with soft hairs .—Sept-Nov. Arabia. " Kapha". Fl. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. purplish. Fr. COM. Tropical E. purulent discharge of ear. L. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. of children and in hepatic affections . Vishnuvallabha. Papli. varying from 7.— capsule. stomachic. Vranda. elliptic-oblong. DISTR. DISTR.6— 3. high. minutely gland-dotted. L. Sd. .
Snuka. CHAR. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. Fl.—Cactaceæ. good for leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. diuretic. Phadyanivdung. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. Sher. DISTR. digestive. Nagadru. 3 m. Chorhothalo. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. COM. introduced into India. Prickly pear. LOC. spleen enlargement. cures bronchitis in children. burning.—7. alexiteric. piles. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. :—E. obovate or elliptic. cures biliousness. Zhoratheylo. inflammations. yellow at the edges. Nagdali. Grown as hedge. Hathathoria. " Vata". Plant juice—heating. or more high. tumours. spleen enlargement. juice cures earache (Yunani). urinary complaints. Mullugalli. H. loss of consciousness. across. ascites.5 mm. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. it is also used in liver complaints. perianth rotate. stomachic. Fr. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. xerophyte. yellow or orange. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. Nagaphana. G. K. recurved. Sk. purgative. inner spathulate. long. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints.—5 cm. Nagaphana. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. FAM. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. reddish at the tips. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia.— berry. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. subulate. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). Slipper thorn. milky juice given with sugar is purgative.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. reddish purple when ripe. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. lumbago. flowers and fruits. Nagaphani. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. anæmia. Plant bitter. angular or warty. long. antipyretic. LOC. largest 3. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places).5 cm. M. Vajrakantaka. vesicular calculi. . carminative. rather thin. ulcers. cures inflammations. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. rusty brown. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. pyriform. carminative. used in ophthalmia. dull bluish-green. leucoderma. L. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Joints variable in size. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. laxative. liver complaints. NS.
LOC. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). See—Timbers.—Bignoniaceæ. Shyonaka. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. improves taste. :—The Konkan and the N. sweet. Mokka. G.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Tetu.S. LOC. Tans. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). :—E. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. tonic. :—E. Ullu. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. aphrodisiac. Rice . Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. Tandula. vomiting. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. DISTR. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Nivara. improves appetite. R. Fruit—acrid. M. Araluka. Pharri. Ceylon. LOC. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Sk. fevers. K. Alangi. biliousness. H. Fruit—expectorant. useful in biliousness . anal troubles. Chokha. Mayarjangha. M. M. Bhat. asthma. COM. cooling. Tandula. Rice. piles. Arlu. good in heart and throat diseases. FAM. diuretic. H. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea.—Gramineæ. LOC. inflammations. Indian trumpet flower. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. astringent to bowels . G. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. COM. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. tonic. PARTS USED :—Grain. Shali. useful in " Vata". DISTR. NS. Kanara ghats . Cochin-China. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Sk.). aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Seeds are purgative. intestinal worms. stomachic. Akki. Tuntaka. Tetu. Malaya. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Dyes. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. NS. oleaginous. fattening. leucoderma. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Dirghavrinta. K. Vrihi. Chaval. Tetu. bronchitis. Ava. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Ghats. It is astringent and tonic. Bagi. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. FAM. anthelmintic. K. :—Widely cultivated. Podval. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. dysentery. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit.
— capsule. bruised. Fr. petioles very slender. Fl. C. . See—Food Plants. K. obcordate. removes " Kapha ". in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. sub-umbellate . demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. COM. Dudhani.—Oxalidaceæ. DISTR. good appetiser . Dudhari. brown. L. COM. Marudbhava. base cuneate subsessile. inflamed piles. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. ovoid. PARTS USED :—Leaves. " Vata " and piles. Dudhialata. oblong. Chukrita. M. Amrul. Kshiravi. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers.2—2. 5-angled. FAM. buboes. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. beaked. :—Throughout the State. Kyirin . Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Dudhatani. Dugdhica. leaflets 1. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. gives great relief. Dugdhika. boils. transversely striate. The grains contain vitamin C. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . It is an excellent application to abscesses. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn.— Oct-May. rounded at the apex. Ambuti. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. cures dysentery. H. linear-oblong. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. margins ciliate. Ambastha. diarrhœa. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda).5 cm. Dudhialata. NS. LOC. Changeri. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. In dysentery. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . :—G. ulcers. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Amlalonika. pubescent. CHAR.—axillary. used externally. bowels or kidneys. Ceylon. measles. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . scarlet fever. Dugdhike. yellow. It is a pleasant. t. also in burns and scalds. Fl. FAM. stems rooting. H. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Jaladudhi. long. Rice water. astringent. to which a little lemon juice is added. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Shuklika. NS. M.—palmately 3-foliate. small-pox. if applied to chest. :—E. Sk. dysentery and scurvy. Indian Sorrel.—petals 5. easy to digest.—Asclepiadaceæ. LOC. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water.— many. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Sd. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Sk. K. Br.
Fl. Kedige. pale rose or white.—Pandanaceæ. Ceylon. NS. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Andamans. Flowers improve complexion. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. fruit. Keora. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. stems many. Screw pine. pain in the muscles. much branched. mouth with pubescent ring. dry. CHAR. M. somniferous. Kanara.—oblong or globose. causes flatulence. DISTR. stem supported by aerial roots . Ketaki. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice.—very numerous. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes .5-9 cm. 4. K. Kewoda. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. t. tonic.8-6. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Deccan. :—A shrub up to 6 m. Dhulipushpika. indigestible. FAM. useful in strangury and tumours. long. rarely erect. fruit and oil from bracts. Sundarbans.—dioecious. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Sd. M. strikingly handsome.8 mm. anthers. with flavour. 0. Java. scabies. Ketgi. Giripriya. long. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. S. Sk.3 cm. yellow or red. anthelmintic. H. 3. Anthers useful in pruritus. L. milky juice. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". Kanara. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. . Poona Sangam. female flower spadix solitary. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. pain. HABITAT :—Usually near water. alexiteric. heat of body. coriaceous ensiform. margins and midrib spiny. bitter. LOC. Umbrella Tree. Chama-pushpa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. linear or linear-lanceolate.—glaucous green. anthelmintic.—Dec. small-pox. :—E. palegreen. LOC. given to children as an astringent (Yunani).—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. L. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. gonorrhœa. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac.—follicles. diuretic.9—1. Gogandhul. aphrodisiac. syphilis. LOC. C. purple veined. PARTS USED :-Root. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. Leaves are useful in leprosy. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. coma present. :—Konkan and N.— large. Fl. high. " Kapha ". thin. COM. X 3.5 m. Fruit—tonic. cough. Kevada. laxative. expectorant. lobes ciliate. Country— Belgaum. Gandha-pushpa.. juice is used in gleet.—deciduous. black. corona staminal. :—Konkan. leucoderma. G. Burma. Fr. root. DISTR. Ketaka. leaves. often planted. Mundige. diseases of heart and brain. PARTS USED :—Plant. Fl. aphrodisiac.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
cure biliousness. Khandesh. aphrodisiac.3—2.—Oct. Kherk. G. good for eyes. Kajuri. Ahmedabad. long. Kidney diseases. Satara. straight subcylindric. Sk. Sd. LOC. Swadi. NS.—6-12. good in fevers. 2.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. L.5—5 cm.—3-foliate. LOC. Burma. Date sugar palm. Shindi. long. thirst. Sind. Afghanistan. Kharjuri. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling.— pod. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Ranmug.—Palmæ. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Abyssinia. Konkan.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). eye troubles. cures consumption. Adavada. " Tridosh". CHAR. Kurangika. styptic. membranous. mugawana. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Kalli-chalu. Shimbiparni. Kolaba and Kanara. Mugani. Sk. as a kharif crop. bronchitis. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. K. M. yellow. DISTR. Kallu. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Fl. Trianguli. headache. burning sensation. Adabanmagi. Tadi. gout. Fr. Dharwar. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. Ahmednagar. Kapila. Vanmudga. Seeds— tonic. Indian wine palm. leaflets 1. Belgaum. throat inflammations. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. FAM. See—Food Plants. Kashayi. Fl.5 cm. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. :—Annual or perennial. COM. antipyretic. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. :—Largely grown in. The grains contain vitamins A and B. biliousness. Kharjurika. NS. slightly recurved. Malay Islands. Koshila. inflammations. t. astringent to bowels. LOC. COM. petioles grooved. laxative. Khajuri. :—E. Deccan and Gujarat. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. long. nose complaints. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). . H. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. digestible. broadly spathulate. Ichela-mara. enrich blood. " Kapha". bitter. anthelmintic. :—G.—in sub-capitate. and southwards to Ceylon. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. H. FAM. Siyindu. LOC.:—Very common throughout the State. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. M. prostrate. glabrous or hairy. piles. Boichand. wild date palm. light and astringent. Khaji. dysentery. good for the eyes . blood diseases. astringent. few flowered racemes. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. wiry. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Ranmath. cough. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). peduncles 10-23 cm. Magavala. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). K. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. layer. dry. DISTR. Kohesaru. Sendhi.
. cooling. flowers distant. Fl. 15-45x2-2. rigid. Sk. Poona and Belgaum districts. pinnules many. oblong. spiny at the base. Sholapur. upper 2-lobed. t. long. angular. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. spatulate. female spadix and spathe as in the male.—rounded at the ends.—Fibres. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. triangular.—Verbenaceæ. L. sharply serrate in upper part. clothed with appressed white hairs . Bhuiokra. oleaginous. outer Himalayas. ensiform.) FAM. NS. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. :—A tall graceful palm. roundish. petioles compressed towards the apex. 2-lipped. Jalpippali. useful in diseases of heart.5 m. t. Coromandel Coast. Baluchistan. This is called neera. M. Fr.—Jan-Feb. Fl. stems rooting at the nodes. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions.2 cm. high. much branched. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). flowers very many.—pinnate. subsessile. deeply grooved on one side. scented. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. H. C. fevers. Ratoliya. long. 9-15 m. :—Tolerably common throughout India. male white. usually along banks. greyish-green. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility.— dioecious. Agnijwala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. rounded at the apex. :—G. Vashira. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. LOC. fruit and juice of the tree. Sd. oblong-ellipsoid. large and thick.5 m. alexiteric. Jalapipali.—sessile. LOC. Jalapimpli. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. cooling. wild or more often cultivated. pointed. :—Throughout India. Bengal.5—3. See. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. orange-yellow. Famine Plants. crown hemispherical. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Ceylon.—more or less all the year. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. Ratoliya. long. :—A creeping perennial herb. constipating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. LOC. spadix 60-90 cm. good in heart and abdominal complaints. blood and eye. oblique. Okra. Fl.—opposite. Mysore. DISTR. wandering of mind. Rohilkhand. anthelmintic. :—Found fairly in Surat. Toyavallari.—globose. Bihar.—white or pale-pink. vomiting. CHAR. fattening. Siwalik. Fl. aphrodisiac. Fr. and in beds of streams and water courses. COM. Ratuliyo. erect. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. spinous. L. DISTR. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. cardiotonic. Sharadi. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). lower 3-lobed. densely fascicled. Langali. aphrodisiac.—2. 3-4. . Africa.
urinary discharges. Bhuianvalah. asthma. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. Vituntika. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. :—G. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery.— numerous.— July-Aug. wounds. annular. milky-juice. t. Fl. females solitary. Bhumyamali. except Australia. globose. The whole plant. Plant—hot.—yellowish. dry. maturant.—capsule. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). wounds. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). Amala. L. fruit. Bhumyamalaki. very numerous. Fr. DISTR. very small. high . alexipharmic . elliptic-oblong. Sadahazurmani. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. . Jaramla. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). scarcely lobed. distichous. leprosy. CHAR :—An annual herb. bronchitis. males 1-3. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. longitudinally ribbed on the back. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Stomachic. Ajata.—Euphorbiaceæ. scabies. :—Konkan and Deccan. monœcious. LOC. anuria. Sd. Bhuiavli. FAM. LOC. bronchitis. biliousness. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. lobed. and without salt may be applied to bruises. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). Tropics generally.. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. angular. stem branched at the base. cooling. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract.useful in fevers. sores. anæmia. K. PARTS USED :—Root. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. Sukshmadala. Kiranelligida. axillary. of female. Fl. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. LOC. disk of the male of minute glands. H. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. M.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. asthma. Bhumyamali. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. thirst. Infusion is a good tonic. useful in thirst. It is valuable in scurvy. COM. ringworm (Yunani). NS.—3-gonous. burning sensation. smooth. :—Throughout India. Leaves are stomachic. diuretic. leaves. good for ulcers. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). hiccup. 30-60 cm. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Ceylon.
:—E. DISTR. H. Eleballi. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. bechic. smeared with oil. liver and muscular pains. Sk. FAM. :—E. aphrodisiac. Kanara forests. Marich. Kalamiri. given with milk in hysteria. Tambulavalli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. removes all foulness from mouth. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Vidyache-pan. Linn. H. NS. Sk. heating. clears throat. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. LOC. :—Wild in the N. vulnerary. K. piles. alterative. Menasu. inflammations. Black-pepper. useful in "Vata". Saptashira. Kalaka. satyriasis and to allay thirst. It increases saliva. DISTR. Vileyad-ele. Warm leaves. Nagavalli. Vata". See—Condiments and Spices. Mensinballi. urinary discharges. Poona. strengthens teeth . " Kapha ". :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Betel leaf vine. COM. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. improves voice. generally in Konkan. tonic and digestive. stomachic. ozœna. Tikshna. spleen diseases. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Golmirch .—Piperaceæ. LOC. tonic. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Pan. Kaphavirodhi. . useful in "Kapha". carminative. ozoena. Fresh leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. pains. alexipharmic. tonic to brain. and fruits (rarely). PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Kanara. Malimirich . heart and liver. elephantiasis . LOC. bronchitis.—Piperaceæ. cultivated in Konkan and N. Bhakshyapatra. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. anthelmintic. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. It contains an aromatic essential oil. FAM. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. PARTS USED :—Fruits. G. G. foul smell in the mouth. improves appetite (Ayurveda). styptic (Yunani). Betel pepper. increases biliousness. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. night blindness. Kalamirich. Tambola. Pan. Panu. Pan. M. Menasin-kallu . carminative and astringent. asthma. purgative. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. Betelleaf. Kalimiri. hot. COM. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. It sweetens breath. useful in toothache. laxative. leavs. K. Sholapur. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. NS. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Satara. throat diseases. carminative. M. aphrodisiac.
—lobes 4. Vikhari. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. various forms of cutaneous diseases. chronic fevers. M. and possesses narcotic properties . Vehkali. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. COM. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. C. Deccan. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim.— alternate. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. used in chronic bronchitis. W. variable in width. Fl. paralysis . PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. Fr. lumbago. H. radial 2. FAM. Kanara in ghat forests. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Externally it is rubefacient. vertigo. CHAR. DISTR. ovate or oblong. base tapering into petiole. sprains. piperidine and an essential oil. Burma. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. Bartang. :—K. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. leprosy. hills of S. piles and some skin-diseases . See—Condiments and Spices. coma.5 cm. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. NS. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. bruises. Bark contains a glucoside. & A. Khasia Hills. facilitates menstruation. ophthalmia and phthisis. In physiological action. LOC. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . NS. Tammata. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . sciatica. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. Khandala (pretty common). HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. weakness following fevers.5-12.—Plantaginaceæ. :—E.—capsule. Lahuriya. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. Greater plantain . used as febrifuge. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. . chest affections. N.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . petiole longer than leaf-blade. tonic and a local stimulant. LOC. the oil is alterative. It yields an essential oil. entire or toothed. lanceolate or greenish . Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. Konkan. dries body humours (Yunani). It is a good expectorant. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. See—Timbers. Arcot and Salem. L. long.—Pittosporaceæ. ovoid. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids.
dull-black. lax spikes. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Raktachitraka.-Feb. Lalchitrak. Lalchitrak. Lalachitraka.—tube slender. long in long terminal axillary. L. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery.. Malaya. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. :—Temperate Himalayas. :—Konkan : Deccan.—3-5 cm. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India. Sk. Fl. LOC. exauriculate petiole. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. alterative. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant.. attenuate. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. erect. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . PARTS USED :—Roots. Lalchita.—throughout the year. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. top coming off as a conical lid.-4-8. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. Agnishikha. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. LOC. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Ceylon. Ratochatro. Mahang. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). PARTS USED :—Roots. Lead-wort. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. leaves. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. HABITAT :—Along river banks. LOC. Chitra. striate .—Plumbaginaceæ. DISTR. LOC. W. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Sd. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. FAM. Fl. afford relief. :— E. M. high. and seeds. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. alterative and diuretic. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. t. Fl. Baluchistan. G. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Rosy-coloured leadwort.Kempuchitramula. base passing into amplexicaul.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. obtuse. Ghats. limb wide. angled. oblong. Palni hills. zeylanica.—large. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Fattening. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Burma. rosy scarlet. C. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. K. CHAR. NS. t. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts.Sept. Fire plant. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). Nilgiris. stems herbaceous. Chitraka. Assam.
:—E. cultivated . G. cure intestinal troubles. Chitranga. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). Fl. Fr. aborti-facient. Chitrak. The use of Pl. alterative . t. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Malay Peninsula. K. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. bronchitis. It is used in procuring abortion. wild in Western Peninsula. Chitra . juice. woody. diarrhœa. leaves are caustic. Bile-Chitra-mula. Res. a favourite medicine for flatulence. hot.—Plumbaginaceæ. Jyotishka. skin disease. consumption.—Aug. ovate. striate. tonic. expectorant. entire. leaves. carminative. Journ. astringent to bowels.—white. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. terete. Chitra . rheumatism. dysentery. Chitra. LOC. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). Ind. useful in laryngitis. laxative. it is useful in dyspepsia. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. attenuated into a short petiole. See—Ornamental Plants. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. alexipharmic. LOC. Vahni. stems 0. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. oblong. vesicant. inflammations. DISTR. Vallari. piles. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). rachis glandular . appetiser. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. diseases of spleen. NS. and in leucoderma. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. H. long. root-bark. leucoderma. Fl. " Tridosha" . itching. Chitramula.—in elongate spikes. stomachic. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Root—bitter. Agnishikha. In S. ascites. .—thin. anthelmintic. :—Throughout India. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. it may be used in chronic skin diseases.5 m. FAM. leucoderma. COM. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. Ceylon. M.-Sept. C. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. lobes 5. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. L. Tropics of the old world. Chitraka. stomachic. Chitaro Chitrak. Sk. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. January 1933). diseases of liver. Bengal. ring-worm. a paste is made with milk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. pointed. scabies. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places.6-1. piles. See—Ornamental Plants. spreading. Medi.—capsule. bechic. PARTS USED :—Root. " Vata" and " Kapha". leprosy. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. anasarca.
. irregularly doubly toothed. Kanara. rounded. Country.8-9 cm. LOC. Fl. Champakam. shining black.-Feb. many flowered. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. :—M. inner face angular. laxative .5-18x3. upper lip white shot with purple. pains. 7. Fl.—2-lipped. oblong-lanceolate. leaves and milky juice. abundant.8 m.—Apocynaceæ. L. itching.— large. COM. Fl. cylindrical.—Labiatæ. entire. stems and branches quadrangular. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. shining. very fragrant. useful in leprosy. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. Pagoda tree. C. DISTR. Belchampaka. . with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. Kadu-sampige. rarely maturing. with an intra-marginal vein. long. :—E. Sk. :—A small shrub 1. S.—salver-shaped. venereal sores. LOC.-nutlets ellipsoid. :—Konkan. broadly ovate. CHAR. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. COM. Khairchapha. Pangli. 4-lobed. Goleurchampa. LOC.2—1. Devagangile. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. Golainchi. NS. Radha-champo. Rhuruchapha. bark. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. useful in gleet. :—All throughout the State. high. Fr. 12 cm. white with a pale yellow centre. carminative. NS. Fr. lower lip white. Fl. FAM. Frangipani. urinary discharges. 3-lobed. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. purple.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. 15-30 cm. ascites (Ayurveda). t. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. pungent. DISTR. acute at both ends.:—More or less throughout India. :—Native of tropical America. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. spirally arranged. Deccan.—Dec. Root-bark is purgative. G. ulcers. H. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. t. M. divaricate.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. heating. abundant from Mar. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. L. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. M. whorls close. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. CHAR. Phangla. FAM. K. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani).—follicles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir.—practically throughout the year. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. See—Ornamental Plants. acrid. smooth. cultivated.-May. C. common. Mahabaleshwar. PARTS USED :—Root. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough.
Oils. Kanika. bark. Huligili. also planted. Kanja. :—G. NS. Sk. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Honge. LOC. Indian beech. Pavaka.—Verbenaceæ. Jayanti. Oil—styptic. Kirmal. Karanj. useful in diseases of eye. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Seeds—acrid . cures eye diseases. Naktamala. leucoderma. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). purify and enrich blood. Karanja. liver pain. H. COM. K. cure earache. carminative. Agnibijaka. leaves. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. See—Timbers. Karanja. Ustabunda . bruised. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. M. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. ulcers. itching. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Kanaji. LOC. chest complaints. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Arni.) FAM. Ichu. chronic fever. head and brain diseases. Karanj. Gracie). :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. relieves inflammation. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. wounds (Ayurveda). piles. Karanjmara.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Chamari. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Arand. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Gaura. Agnimandha. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Oil—anthelmintic. Aran. flowers. skin diseases. G. piles. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sk. alexipharmic . fruits and seeds. wounds. juice is given in colic and fever. COM. J. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. . " Kapha ". FAM. K. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. along Deccan rivers . :—E. lumbago. rheumatic pains. F. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Arni. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. ascites. skin and in keratitis . " Vata ". leprosy. Agetha. good in scabies. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. chronic fever and hydrocele. good for tumour. cures biliousness. vagina. H. USES :—The fresh leaves. lumbago. urinary discharges . M. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. In Satara. anthelmintic.
small. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. Amrut. Jamb. laxative. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.. LOC. fruits and gum.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Sd.3 cm. bark yellowish. for unhealthy ulcers. Fl. hairy in the throat. blue-black. Peru. PARTS USED :—Leaves. K. Flowers cool body.— June-July. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children.—Myrtaceæ. useful in anaemia. cylindric. Dridhabija.—5-9 X 3. LOC. DISTR. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. Nicobars and Malaya. diabetes. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. greenish yellow. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. cool heated brain. smooth. FAM. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda).—tubular. entire or upper part dentate. Root is laxative. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. Jamphal. broadly elliptic. Fr. LOC. causes "Kapha". stomachic. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. cooling. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. common about Karwar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. piles. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. Fruit—tonic. Young leaves are tonic in the . Gova. Sk. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Safedsafari. Perala. Perala. constipation. Peruka. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Piyara. G. NS. It is also employed in scurvy. good in colic and for bleeding gums. aphrodisiac . Jamud-rukh. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. DISTR. bronchitis. heating. COM. . Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Kanara. cooling."Vata". t. Peru . dyspepsia. laxative after food.— globose. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Ash—caustic (Yunani). pungent. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. It is given in the form of decoction. chyluria. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. flowers. as an astringent to bowels. M. Fl. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). inflammations. Anthers—dry wound. H.2-6. good for liver complaints (Yunani). L. rough-tubercled . :—A small tree reaching 9 m. LOC. lobes 4. Vastula. Guava tree. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.—hard. C. See—Famine Plants. used in bronchitis. fever. Gum is tonic. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. stomachic. high. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. seated on the calyx . Andamans. sour. applied to sore eyes.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). :—Cultivated all over the State.
The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". Babachi. C. inflammation. piles. white hairy. anæmia. anthelmintic. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. closely-pitted. skin diseases. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. improves hair and complexion. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. t. . Vanguji.—pod. Babachi. Fr. :—E. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. smooth.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. 10-30 flowered racemes . nigro-punctate. nephrites and cachexia. See—Fruit Trees. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Bavachi. Konkan and S.8 X 2.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. mucronate. ovoidoblong. aphrodisiac. M. LOC. Bhavanj. L. Bavachi. HABITAT :—Waste places. high. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Fl. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). " Rakta-pitta". improves appetite.—in dense axillary. Sd. antipyretic. studded with glands and white hairs. Seeds— refrigerant. Sk. scabies. difficulty in micturition. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Fl. Kushtaghni. rounded and mucronate at the apex. vomiting. good for leucoderma. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. :—An erect annual. Country. black. Bukchi. raw one is used in diarrhœa. 0. stem and branches grooved. LOC. Kalameshi. G. K. standard orbicular. M. causes biliousness.6-1. bitter taste. cures "Vata". stimulant. NS.—Aug-Dec. biliousness.5—5 cm. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Seed—purgative. stomachic. 3. clawed. good for heart troubles. H. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. urinary dis charges. Bakuchi. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. laxative. Chandralekha. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. alterative. Fruit—diuretic. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. fruit and seeds. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. cures blood diseases . leaves. diuretic.2 m. COM. Bowach-chi.—one. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. leprosy.—simple. vulnerary. heals ulcers. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). solitary. CHAR. DISTR. alexiteric. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). FAM. PARTS USED :—Root.—bluish purple .
PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). alterative . Gums and Resins. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. tonic. Bark—astringent. leprosy. Common in N. laxative. Sk. leucoderma. fever. Bigsah. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. useful in biliousness. Dalimb . applied to hydrocele. See—Timbers. erysipelas. :—Leaves.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). spleen complaints. biliousness. DISTR. COM. sore-throat. " Tridosh". Sunila. Dalimba. Bia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Gum—bitter. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). burning sensation. Flowers— improve appetite. LOC. strengthens gums. NS. :—Wild in Iran. blood diseases. H. Malabar kino-tree. Bibla. Dadam. . Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Dharimb . It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. COM. Bijak. Bija. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). called kino. Raktabija-pushpa. cultivated in many parts of India. thirst. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Sk. vulnerary. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. :—E. India. H. Fruit-appetiser. somewhat milder in action than catechu. PARTS USED. colic. gleet. cures " Vata ". Khandesh and Dangs. Mahakutaj. :—E. Pitasar. chest troubles. Kabul and Baluchistan. styptic. PARTS USED:—Root. diuretic. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. Benga. stomatitis. " Kapha ". DISTR. fattening. FAM. Hirdokhi.—Punicaceæ. sore eyes brain diseases. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. Kanara. laxative. body eruptions. heart-disease. ophthalmia. Valka-phala. useful in eye troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Bio. Dadima. also in Konkan. G. scattered but not gregarious . cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Dadimba. K. ulcers. G. Flowers—check vomiting. M. ascends to 1100 m. Bibla. NS. M. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. bark. urinary discharges. useful in vomiting. scabies. Hulidalimb . anal troubles. allays thirst. tonic. Honi. LOC. FAM. anthelmintic. flowers and gum. anthelmintic. Honne. urinary discharges (Yunani). Flowers—useful in epistaxis. earache. useful in all body diseases. Anar. in Akrani. Gum. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. used in sore throat. used in piles. enriches blood. griping. boils. Pomegranate tree. antipyretic. Ceylon. flowers and fruits. Bibla. prolapsus ani. Dadima. good for biliousness. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Dhalim. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. :—Western Peninsula and S. K. elephantiasis. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Indian kino-tree. liver tonic.
nearly 6 cm. :—E. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. G. acuminate. 7. Chinese honeysuckle. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. long. Country and Kanara. Pinditak. LOC. jasmine . NS. Rangoon creeper. Gela. Fl. Fl.—Combretaceæ. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. elliptic. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. Lalchameli.—in axillary and terminal spikes. Mangari-kai. K.—opposite. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. FAM. G. LOC. :—A strong climber. Fruit contains vitamin C. L. pendant. COM. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. USES :—In Amboyana. dark green. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. Barmasinivel. H. C—petals 5. Annam. NS. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. :—E. Gelphal. Midhola. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking.-Aug. Rangoonkibel. t. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. acutely 5-angled. The rind of the fruit. Dharaphal. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . It is given in the form of decoction. S. Emetic nut.5 cm. Fr. numerous. Rangoonchavel. H. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. glabrous above. CHAR. Sk. Konkan. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . M. Malaya. at first white then deep red . It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. M. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Madana. Minkare. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Karhar Mainphal.—Mar. Karigidda. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. . Mindhola. See—Ornamental Plants.— ellipsoid. calyx tube long. In China. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. base rounded. lanceolate . RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. hairy beneath. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. DISTR. widely cultivated all over India.—Rubiaceæ. FAM.
carminative. S. leucoderma (Yunani). emmenagogue. K. LOC. purgative. cholera. Juice of . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Ksharmula. bitter. muscular pains. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . laxative. piles (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. Mulak. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic.—Cruciferæ. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. FAM. The plant contains glucoside saponin. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . emetic. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. COM. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. alexiteric. flowers. hiccup. Mali. cures abscesses. :—Throughout India. DISTR. asthma. antipyretic. Mula. PARTS USED :—Root. eruptions. Bili Mulangi. piles. Muri. paralysis. anthelmintic. M. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. tonic. juice relieves earache. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. DISTR. carminative. used in diseases of the brain. useful in chronic bronchitis. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Radish. carminative. inflammations. useful in diseases of heart. Tropical Africa. skin-diseases. good in tumours. destroys "Vata". given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. leprosy. amenorrhœa. It also contains an essential oil. sweet. Java. heating. Ceylon. :—E. tumours. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. bad taste. good for spleen and in paralysis. China. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. E. inflammations. NS. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. emetic. Hastidanta. Mura. See—Timber. G. Seeds-sharp. fruit and seeds. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. and all inflammations . Muro. its action is very safe. Sumatra. aphrodisiac. certain and regular.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. Mula. It is also used to poison fish. it is equal to it in every respect. Ruchira. LOC. " Vata" and " Kapha". Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. produce alopecia (Yunani). Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). H. binding. leprosy. ulcers. Bitter. stomachic. boils. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains.
. t.—drupe. single or didymous. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. K. Ceylon. often tinged with violet. sharp. diuretic. Java.) FAM. HABITAT :—Moist forests.. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. LOC. FAM. In the Konkan. 7. Kanara. yellowish root stock. with a long. M. nodular. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. Doddapatike. laxative. COM.5-18 X 2.—in irregular corymbose cymes. CHAR. leaves (rarely). It is hypnotic. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels.— Mar. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Mungusavel. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. specific for insanity. seeds are considered peptic. ajamalinine. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Sarpakshi. irregularly. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. Yuthikaparni.3 cm.-in whorls of 3. black shining. serpentinine. :—H. swollen a little above the middle. M. Fr. Chandrika. pungent. Harki.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. Chhotachand. Sk. pale beneath. heating. shady open places near rain-forests. thin. ulcers (Ayurveda). ajmalicine. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Garudpatala.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. Nai. Root contains vitamins A. ginger. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N.9 m. and black salt. NS.—Apocynaceæ. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. Juipani. :—H. Fl. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. DISTR. K.. lanceolate. Sarpagandha. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. acute. corrective and emmenagogue. bright red . Sk. used in hyperpiesis . L. B and C. Chandrika. anthelminitic . Group B — Serpentine. cures " Tridosha ". Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. Andamans. Nakulikand. C.-May. white. LOC. NS. Gaja-karni. .—tubular. Harkaichand. :—An erect perennial shrub. Western Peninsula. See—Vegetables.—Acanthaceæ. Sivanabhi. Palakjuhi. bright green above. expectorant. COM. sedative. Fl.5-6. carminative. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. acrid.
USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Eranda. alterative. leprosy. upper lip bifid .—lipped. :—Deccan. M. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Root-bark—purgative. hairy outside . Tirki. HABITAT :—Hills. piles. Erand. anal troubles. intestinal worms. Country (Dharwar. lumbago. LOC. M. :—E. H. LOC. Mahabaleshwar. amenorrhœa (Yunani). inflammations. some fevers. eructations. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. ring-worm. ascites. asthma. LOC. useful in liver troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. tumours. aphrodisiac. useful in skin-disease. strangury. pains. useful in heart diseases.5 m. liver and spleen diseases. increases "Kapha". S. flowers and seeds. earache. asthma. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. PARTS USED :—Root.—Oct. K. convulsions. M. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles.. night-blindness. Vardhaman. leaves. boils. good for burns. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. narrow. piles.—Euphorbiaceæ. Haralu. Cattle are fed with leaves for .—5-10 X2-5 cm. Java. increase biliousness. stems obscurely angled. pain in back. rheumatism. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). Sk. FAM. oil—anthelmintic. typhoid. Madagascar (cultivated). Triputiphala. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. entire. elephantiasis. pointed.— tuberculate. Erand. L. Fl. bracts ovate lanceolate. DISTR. Fruit— appetiser.—capsule. Seed and oil—cathartic. useful in pains. diseases of rectum and head. glandular. lumbago. ascites. hills near Belgaum. leprosy. G. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". alterative. widely cultivated in tropical countries.—nearly sessile. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. Leaves—galactagogue. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. Arand. useful in inflammations. fevers. Country. :—Throughout India. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. white. carminative .-Jany. solitary. LOC. paralysis. Fl. Chitrabija. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Belgaum. generally cultivated. purgative. Vardhamana. Straits-Settlements. :—Undershrub. glands. Ceylon (wild) . :—Probably of African origin. COM. velvety hairy Sd. Very little in other districts of the State. cultivated. Divald. vaginal pains. pubescent: C. body pains. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. ascites. 0. Erand. high. tropical Africa. Sholapur). Castor oil plant. Fr. black. DISTR. Divaligo. bronchitis. inflammations. Khandala. Palma christi. dropsy. leaves and seeds. elliptic lanceolate. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. NS. t.9—1.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR.
M. attaining 1. cardiotonic. They are also applied to painful joints. Lakshmipushpa. CHAR. FAM. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. cardiotonic. Fr. red. stipules scarcely dilated. antipyretic. France. H. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. tooth-ache. adults. DISTR. . Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children.—Rosaceæ. COM. good for eyes. excessive perspiration. In constipation it is used as an enema. long. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Flower—bitter. sometimes striped . benefits lungs. much used in lotions and collyria . a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. sometimes glandular. with a good odour. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. serrate. astringent when dry (Yunani). LOC. :—A perennial shrub.3 cm. Tarana. Ghazipur is a chief centre. seldom griping or causing flatulency. P. mild and safe purgative. burning sensation.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. double. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Shatadala. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. tonic. stems with stout and hooked prickles. biliousness. removes bad odour from mouth. Pannira. Punjab and U. etc. Soumyagandha. sweetish. Gulab. Ati-manjula. cultivated all over India. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. hairy. L. dry. laxative. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. stomatitis. chronic fevers. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle.5-6. used in heat of body. K.—obovate . :—E. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . liver.—pinnate. petioles prickly. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. inflammations.5 m. " Vata". LOC. Sk. Gulab . cooling. :—Origin unknown. NS. aphrodisiac. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . Fl. expectorant. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. Sudburj.— usually corymbose. See—Oils. Greece and Germany. 2. cures leprosy. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . head-ache.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. cephalic. Fl. which is a powerful poison. PARTS USED :—Flowers. intestinal affections. laxative. G. kidneys. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. t. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. ovate oblong. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). pink or white. aperient removing bile and cold humours. they are cold. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Italy.— all the year. acrid. Gulab.
vagina. Manjishtha. COM.—in terminal panicled cymes. grooved. obtuse. Bladder. dysentery. :—E. Amlavetasa. H.—didymous or globose. Root—bitter. Sorrel. inflammations. Leaves-sweet. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. Indian Madder. leucoderma. lower leaves larger. K.5 cm. erect glabrous herb. .—Rubiaceæ. Sk. used in eye-sores. diuretic. L. ulcers and skin-diseases. Manjit. pains in joints. LOC. :—Annual. eye. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. :—Root. ear. ovate. alexiteric. all scabrous with white prickles. prickly. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. leaves and fruit. 15-30 cm. acrid. inner perianth-segments membranous. and was much used in dropsy. emmenagogue. M. leucorrhoea. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. Aruna. blood. Tamravalli. Chukra.—2. cures " Kapha ". orbicular . CHAR. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. laxative. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. improves voice and complexion . roots very long. M. high.—in whorls of 4. Dock. NS. :—Perennial climbing herb.—white or pink. smooth. petioles triangular. Rohini.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . Majit. PARTS USED. branches quadrangular . jaundice. greenish. paralysis. Raktasara. bitter. anthelmintic. Chitralata. COM. erysipelas. diseases of uterus. Manjishha. it powerfully affects the nervous system. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. uterine pains (Yunani). tropical Africa. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions.5—7. piles. Sk. Chuka. FAM. liver complaints. spleen-enlargement. Fr. Fr. paralysis.-Jany. Fl. :—E. leucoderma. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. branched from the root. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. oleaginous . base cuneate. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. cordate or hastate. antidysenteric. elliptic. urinary discharges. t-Oct. antipyretic. Japan. with a thin red bark. ulcers. Fl. shining.—Polygonaceæ. jaundice. LOC. stems very long. CHAR. FAM. purplish black when ripe. H. one pair with longer petioles ovate. Malay Peninsula. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. lactagogue. heating. lethargy. five-nerved. Decoction tinges blood. Manjishtha. Ambat Chuka. M. analgestic. Gulmketu. valves hyaline. Java. the Konkan and S. NS. Country. cylindric. analgesic. rheumatism.. increase appetite. urine and even bones red. L. DISTR. Fl.
Fl. FAM. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. M. hiccup.-Jany. See—Vegetables. toothache. Satap. flatulence. Vishapaha. LOC. bronchitis. Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. Kharmor. Trans-Indus Hills. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. bites and stings of poisonous animals. leucoderma. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. Afghanistan. bracts elliptic. rugose with furrow. checks nausea and promotes appetite. useful in heart troubles. Havananju. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. oblong lanceolate. . HABITAT :—Common everywhere. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Acanthaceæ. asthma. N. NS. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). t.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Sadapaha. L. M. LOC. Pismarum Sadab. COM. Khatselio . The juice allays tooth-pain. stomachic. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. :—G. tonic. alcoholism. The seeds have the same properties . S. stems usually decumbent. with darker spots. Country. DISTR. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. generally in the Deccan. Deccan. with scarious faces and hard ridges.—white. acute. aperient and diuretic.—Rutaceæ. :—E. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme.— subsessile. Fr. pale brown. K. acute . M. while fresh they are bruised. Nagadali. COM. often rooting near the base. DISTR. in dysentery. useful in scabies. :—Common throughout the State. Common—Garden-rue . analgesic. blue or pink. 2-lipped. Africa. :—A herb . they are prescribed. G. Sk. pains. Ceylon.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. piles. H. USES :—Leaves are cooling. then erect. ciliate. Cooling.—Nov. Persia. LOC.—suborbicular. ovoid oblong. upper emarginate. diseases of the spleen. Sd. Satapa . checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). roasted. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Satri. Sadabu. laxative. tumours. Ghati pittapapada . Sk. NS. constipation. also considered as a vermifuge. lower shortly 3-lobed. C. Kanara. FAM. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. :—Western Punjab. vomiting. CHAR. Parpatha. H.—capsule.
particularly Deccan.—capsule. etc. yellowish. indigestible. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. :—Grown everywhere in India. segments cuneate. Ganna. decompound. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman).—petals 4. amenorrhœa. Gudatrina. Sherdi. C. M.-alternate. glandulose punctate.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. diuretic. Rasala. it may be given internally in hysteria. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. tonic. forest and mountain. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. Satara. Poona. abortifacient. DISTR. LOC. There are three varieties . in pots. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Ukh . DISTR. epilepsy. anti-aphrodisiac . COM. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. Sugarcane. cooling. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. K. FAM. flawed. leprosy. HABIT :—Cultivated. petioled. G. Kabbu. Ingotu. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. oleaginous. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). S. digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. Gudakastha. Rikhu. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. The oil is the best form for administration. thirst. Madhuyashti. heating to body . cultivated throughout India. Ikshu. obtuse . grown in gardens. :—Egypt and Algeria. :—A strong smelling herb . :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. emmenagogue. Naisakar. Fr. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn.—angled. LOC. The plant contains glucoside glutin. S. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. heats body. Powdered and combined with aromatics. and externally used as a rubefacient. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. M. NS :—E. Kumad. . aphrodisiac. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly.—Gramineæ. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. increases mental activity. Sd. The plant is tonic. See—Ornamental Plants. all over the State. Sk. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. useful in fatigue. oblong-obovate. laxative.. spathulate or linear-oblong . Asia is very likely the original home of the species. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. Us . flatulence. Tanigarbu . garden. H. diuretic. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. L. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). colic.
M. :—Drier parts of India. causes " Kapha. It is good in calculous complaints. aphrodisiac . inflammations. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. fleshy. LOC. diuretic. Sugar causes " Kapha". The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. shining. H. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. tonic and aperient.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. anæmia. fattening. C. bad for liver (Yunani). :—E.". bile. anthelmintic. often planted near Muslim tombs. stomachic . Jal.—Salvadoraceæ. sugar is considered heavy. Fruit—aphrodisiac. branches numerous. In cases of poisoning by copper. Ceylon. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. deobstruent. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . NS. sometimes it raises blisters. astringent to bowels. useful in nosetroubles. oil is digestible. corrective. Pilu. :—Dry districts of the State. near the coasts of Gujarat . Pilu. 3 mm. PARTS USED :—Bark. Leaves—bitter.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. carminative and diuretic. K. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. purifies blood . Kanara in littoral forests. diuretic. finely striate. Pilu. often mucronate at the apex. delirium. Abyssinia. scabies. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. leucoderma. Mahaphala. Fruits are deobstruent. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. Asia. Sk.-Feb. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. Piludi. carminative. analgesic. L. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). globose.—very thin. fruits seeds and oil. drooping. lessen inflammation . diam. useful in biliousness. useful in biliousness. deeply cleft. Kharijal. Sind.—drupe. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. lobes much reflexed. alexiteric. strengthen teeth. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Goni.—Nov. Khakan Mirjoli. LOC. numerous. See—Food Plants. opposite. improves appetite. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). In the Punjab. good for lungs . DISTR.. red when ripe. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. disorders and wind. Cane—sweet. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. . Brihat madhu pilu. pectoral and aphrodisiac. Pilu. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. Fl. laxative. Fl. white. erysipelas. Fr. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. useful in heat. the Konkan and N. Seeds—purgative. ulcers. G. improve diuresis (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. FAM. greenish-yellow. LOC. Tooth-brush tree. COM. piles. leaves. tonic to liver. smooth. t. Egypt. dry regions of W.
Chandal. Oil. bronchitis. Kanara. USES :—Wood. DISTR. Ritha . Mangalya. FAM. Sukhad .MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Root—expectorant. gleet. antipyretic. gonorrhœa. Malayaja. allays uterine pains. PARTS USED:—Wood. Soap-Nut tree. G. Sandal. hemicrania. Kumblabijaka. Sk. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Cultivated elsewhere. Fruit—bitter. Aritha. Rishta. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . paralysis. Antharalo. K. G. useful in diseases of heart. Sk. Chandan. much cultivated. is applied to local inflammations. in skin-diseases. cures "Tridosha". Sandal-wood Tree. Chandan. aphrodisiac. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Ritha. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. alexipharmic. :—E. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. LOC. up with water into a paste. NS. diarrhœa. Bhadrasri. LOC. astringent to bowels . Arithan . often planted. S. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. chiefly in S. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. H.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. alexiteric. ground.—Sapindaceæ. useful in inflammations. useful in chronic dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. " Kapha ". See—Timbers. vaginal discharges. cholera. H. Agarugandha. strangury. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). abortifacient. exhilarating. small-pox (Ayurveda). biliousness. Ringni. Oils. M. aphrodisiac. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . COM. to temples in fever. Phenilu. epileptic fits of children. thirst. Country and N. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. LOC. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. stomachic. Arishtaka. Shrigandhalmara. FAM. tonic. Burugukayi. fruit and seed. M. alexiteric. DISTR. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. K. PARTS USED :—Root. acts as diaphoretic.—Santalaceæ. Phenila. NS. India. :—E. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. :—Western Peninsula. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. burning sensation. Chandan. Bhogivallabha. Anthuvala. head-ache (Yunani). emetic. laxative. Mysore and parts of Madras State. Bhadrasara. :—Indian Peninsula. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. lumbago. to allay heat and pruritus. Ceylon. COM. tubercular glands. cold in head. Suket. M. . Kugale.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
scabies. K..—standard as broad as long. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. useful in dry cough.—20-30. 15-23 cm. COM. See—Oils. leaves. beaked. into claw. NS. spleen troubles. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. Black variety is common. suppurating wounds. eye diseases . and as an oildressing for ulcers. leaves. syphilitic ulcers. Jayanti. seeds. cures . rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . gouty joints. lung diseases. H. in height. enrich blood.—in lax.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. alterative. Fr. They are nourishing. mottled with purple on the outside. cooling. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. Nadeyi. galactagogue. bleeding piles. useful in diarrhœa. 4-5 m. HABITAT :—Cultivated. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. removes "Kapha". tonic. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike.—pod. Jayanti. CHAR. septate between the seeds. LOC. Waziristan. LOC. :—A soft-wooded shrub. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. astringent to bowels. carminative. Janjhan. Jayat. oil. DISTR. Rasin. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. anthelmintic. slightly torulose. 7. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. inflammations. There are three varieties of seeds : black. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. diuretic. Jinangi. cure menorrhagia. an emollient poultice is also made from them. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. useful in sorethroat. C. branches striate. applied to ulcers and piles. indigestible . small-pox.5-15 cm. They have been used to procure abortion. tonic. :—Cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root. of eye and ear. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. Jaya. linear-oblong. Jayantika. Jayanti. etc. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. such as dysentery etc. FAM. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. probably a native of tropical Africa. long. seeds. opposite. Fl. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. Sd. yellow. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers.— abruptly pinnate. diseases. applied to gouty joints. Baluchistan. Seed-oil—fattening. burning sensation. :—G. asthma. diuretic and lactagogue.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). urinary concretions. bark. M. aphrodisiac. inflammations. long. inflammations (Yunani). :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. Sk. few flowered axillary racemes. They are also emmenagogue. Raysingani. strengthening. leaflets 914 pairs. biliousness. obscurely angled . Seeds contain vitamin A. strangury. oleaginous. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. promote hair growth. white and red. pendulous. Shewari. L. hair-tonic.
Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Agasti. anthelmintic. anthelmintic. Bark— astringent. Agati. LOC. gout. is applied in rheumatism. linear oblong. improves taste. alexiteric. Fr. anaemia. 15-30-cm. PARTS USED :—Root. Vranari. . "Kapha" and inflammation. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kanali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Australia. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).5-8. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). 50 cm.— pod. Bak. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). useful In diseases of spleen. rubbed into a paste with water. Sk. Fl. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. COM. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic.— flowers at various times. long. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. long. astringent.—7. Ornamental Plants. useful in ozœna. ulcers. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. :—G. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . Agusta. Bark—astringent. tumours . improve appetite . stimulant. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Leaves—indigestible. Hatiya . See—Fodder Plants. Fruit—laxative . In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. LOC. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. cure itching. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. H. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. Kempagase. t. night-blindness. K. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. C. Agasta. diabetes. Fl. useful in ophthalmia. leprosy.8 cm. DISTR. 2-4 white or red. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. relieves throat-troubles. Dirghashimbi. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. Basna. flowers. Agathio. LOC. cures " Tridosh " pains. dysentery and paludism. is applied in painful swellings. M. An infusion is given in small-pox. maturant. diarrhœa. leucoderma. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. Agase. Indigenous from Malaya to N. leaves. Leaves—purgative. 6-9 m. demulcent. L. fruits. See—Vegetables. gout . Seeds—emmenagogue. :—A soft wooded tree . allays thirst. very showy. cure quartan fever. NS. The plant contains vitamin A. bronchitis. CHAR. FAM. epilepsy. fevers.—in racemes . Munidruma. Flowers—cooling. high. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh.— pinnate. long.
Dec. NS. minutely hairy. LOC. K. black. carpels 7-10. G. M. glabrous. Bala. CHAR. Fl. COM. H. aphrodisiac . Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. t. digestive. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). bark.—Malvaceæ.. Kharanti. useful in blood and throat diseases.5-6. :—E. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. LOC. Barial. K. crenate. obtuse.—solitary or few together.—2. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. :—Konkan.—1-2 in each axil. t. Rajbala. " Kapha " . Sk. pedicel jointed about the middle. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. Kisangi. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. DISTR. astringent. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . sharply serrate. Chittuharatu. branches slender. Pata.-Oct. long.5-5 cm. C.. Country Mallow. emollient. softly hairy all over. dorsal scabrid. Kumghi. scabrid-hairy. Fl. removes " Vata ".—smooth. H. is given . LOC.—2. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. Country. astringent. Bala. bleeding piles. Fr. Vatyapushpi. FAM.3 cm. Jayanti. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Chikna. CHAR. Prahasa. cordate.—6-8 mm. Hettutti-gida. long. Country. with ginger. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. awns 2. Samanga. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. HABITAT :—Moist places . leaves and seeds. upper margins ciliate.. puberulous. pedicel jointed much above the middle. M. strongly reticulated . :—Hotter parts of India. L. Bariara. diam. COM. Bala. carpels 5-9. awns 2. diam. strongly reticulated.— yellow. lanceolate. base rounded. stomachic and tonic. dorsal margins toothed. ovate-oblong. a weed. Kareta. :—A shrub. cooling. yellow. :—G. decoction. Sd. Baladana.—Nov. linear. Batyalaka. Deccan and S. Sk. NS. useful in fever. Root—cooling. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms.—5-6 mm. Khareti. Chikna.—Malvaceæ. M. diuretic. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). linear .-Nov.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Pata. Gujarat and S. Tukti. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. Kherati. FAM. :—Konkan (common). " Pitta ". Fl. L. DISTR. Fl.
involucral bracts 2 rows. diaphoretic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. :—Deccan. Pilibadkadi. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. deeply and irregularly toothed. black. It is also used to favour menstruation. M.—Nov. Externally. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. M. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. cystitis. administered in hemiplegia. S.—opposite. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. CHAR. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea.6—1. facial paralysis. tinged with purple. Linn. :—A large annual herb. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. :—Throughout India. Fl. high. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". COM. 0. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. triangular-ovate. rhomboides Roxb. stiff-neck. Ceylon. NS. stem stiff. L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant.—Compositæ. also in colic and tenesmus. 5 outer clavate.2 m. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. Fr. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c.—yellow. . DISTR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. erect. LOC. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Country. those of the ray red beneath. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. all running down wing-like into petiole. noise in ears.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. common. juice is used for healing wounds. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. :—G. FAM.—heads small in leafy panicles . t. and head-ache. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections.-Dec. 5 inner boat-shaped.—achene. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. slightly rough. Fl. Katampu. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Fl. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. pappus 0.
rarely wild.— berry. Sd. Dorli. LOC. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Brihati. stem stout.. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. M.-Oct. FAM. covered with stellate hairs.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. clothed outside with purple hairs . dark-yellow when ripe. Sk. Badanikai.—pale-purple. Ubhi-bhuringni. Bhantaki. Vange. Mahotika.. C. COM. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. Bhantaki. :—Throughout tropical India. eye diseases (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. Fruit—cardiotonic. Vengni. ovate. Egg Plant.. Vrittaphala. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". prickly. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. laxative. " Kapha". bronchitis. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine.5 cm. :—Widely cultivated in India. Rigana. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). Vartaki. FAM. Barhanta. beneficial in cardiac troubles . digestive. LOC. :—E. Vadikadheri. or triangular-ovate. removes foulness of the mouth. DISTR. pain. DISTR. G. Kattarta. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. M. 0. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. H. Sk. :—E. prickles large. lobed. K. fever. PARTS USED :—Root. base unequal-sided. Vayase. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. China. Malpya.—Solanaceæ.—Solanaceæ. H. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. loss of appetite. t. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. Philippines. very. L.5 m. Mhotiringni. recurved. Indian Nightshade. sharp. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves (rarely) and fruits. NS. Ranringni. Fr. 8 mm.5—7. globose.—5—15 X 2. lessens inflammations. . subentire. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cardiotonic. COM.-Aug. analgesic. LOC. Nilaphala. Fl. leaves. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. maturant. NS. causes biliousness.—minutely pitted: Fl.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. Brinjal. improves appetite. Hinguli. It is seldom used alone. Kadusonde. K. Root is applied to lessen pain. diam. bad for piles if taken internally. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. Bhanta. petiole prickly. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. pruritus ani.3—1. " Vata". high. G. Baingan. fruit and seeds. Vantak. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. Habba-Kirigulla. useful in leucoderma. vomiting. enriches blood. Hinguli. anthelmintic.
COM. In S.— berry. much divaricately-branched . Seeds—laxative. G. entire or sinuate toothed. H. asthma. 3-8 flowered cymes . FAM. The seeds are used as a stimulant. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. B and C. Kakamunchi. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. Gurkamai. Fr. diuretic. inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. throat burning. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation.—Solanaceæ. aphrodisiac. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. Hound's Berry. and used with success in psoriasis. bronchitis. Kabaiya. :—A variable annual herb . useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). laxative. liver inflammation. griping.—many. heating.—small. t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). worms in ear. stem erect. bark. subumbellate. LOC. DISTR. It acts as a hydrogogue. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. useful in diseases of eye. good for neck ulcers. ear and nose . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. etc. :—Throughout India.—discoid. See—Vegetables. eye-diseases hydrophobia. dysuria and asthma. chronic fever. tonic. yellow. shining. hiccup. Tiktika. Black Night-shade. in pains. Morellel. bitter. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. Ceylon. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. urinary discharges. Fruit contains vitamins A. improves appetite. CHAR. . improves voice . Kakamachi. Sk. bronchitis.. Katuphala.—Sept. 6 mm. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. L. ovatelanceolate. Kakamachi. inflammation. Piludi. M. smooth. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. " Tridosha". minutely pitted . In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. taste. C. NS.-Jany. useful in giddiness. Fl. :—E. Sd. Kamoni. favours conception and facilitates delivery . itch. LOC. not to be given to pregnant women. useful in heart and eye-diseases. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. Root-bark—laxative . gonorrhœa (Yunani). leaves and fruit.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. alterative. in extra-axillary. fever. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. Vayasi. cathartic and diuretic. diam. Makoi. leucoderma. Fl. diarrhœa. piles. dysentery. vomiting. fever. tapering into petioles. K.
long.-5-10 X 2..—purple. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. Sk. sterility in women. Durrah. G. Kateli. Malaya. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nele-Rama-gulla . Jolah. laxative. K. stems. lobes deltoid. Kantakari. Great Indian millet. Bhui-Kate-ringni.—Solanaceæ. :—G. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. appetiser. LOC. Dhavani. useful in bronchitis. 3-2 cm. petiole prickly.5-5. dysuria. C. Jowar. LOC. FAM. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. NS. Kantakini. stone in bladder. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Yengara .— June.—Gramineæ. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Sind. Jonera. M. aphrodisiac. :—A very prickly diffuse. FAM. Bijapur and E. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. prickles compressed. LOC. Kenjal. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . asthma. Fl. Vrittatandula. K. tropical Australia. E. fevers. hairy on both sides. L. biliousness. Ceylon. Jowari. Fl. Fruit—laxative. sinuate or subpinnatifid. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. "Vata" and " Kapha". :—E. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. piles. flowers. diam. NS. Shalu. It is used in asthma. Yuvanala. Leaves—good application for piles. ovate or elliptic.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes .—berry. muscular pains. urinary concretions. fruits and seeds. Jundri. Seeds—anthelmintic. fever. Fr. Basu).198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Africa. stem zig-zag. bright green perennial herb . Sundia . Sorgho. Sholapur. Konkan. t. Brihati. strangury. Nirgol. pruritus . Sk. M. leaves. straight. Chikka-sonde. D. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). DISTR. COM. good in inflammation. yellow and shining. Katai. heart disease. lumbago. H. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . PARTS USED :—Root.7 cm. Dirghashara. pains. expectorant and febrifuge. heating. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. chronic bronchitis. Jondhala. :—Common in the Deccan . S. COM. :—Throughout India. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B.3 cm. yellow or white with green veins. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Bhoyaringni. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. often exceeding 1. ozoena. surrounded by enlarged calyx . Ringni. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). & Wendl. anthelmintic . asthma. H.. hairy outside. Root—aphrodisiac. stomachic. base unequal-sided. Nidigdhika. they are used in the burning of feet. Ikshupatraka. thirst.
indigestible. PARTS USED. biliousness. M.—Meliaceæ. bladder and kidney complaints. hairy. Country. COM. Pravrajita. ulcers. . piles. Sk. Bastard Cedar. Juss. Gorakmundi. Sk. fevers. Sumbi. constipating. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. introduced into America and Australia. Aruna. :—The grain is cooling. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. useful in " Kapha". vaginal injections and enemas. Fibres. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . Agniruha. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. good for sore-throat. Munditika. high. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. L. K. general debility.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. :—Bark-acrid. tonic and antiperiodic . laxative. :—Dry forests of W. LOC. Ceylon. Khandesh and S. leprosy and dysentery . :—Widely cultivated in India. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Gorakhamundi. Dharwar. hence used in intermittent fevers. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. H. with toothed wings. Rohani. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Rohun. Bijapur and E. COM. Tans. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. aphrodisiac. Karanda-gida. Bodiakalara. Asia and Africa. HABITAT :—Open situations. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). DISTR. M. tumours (Ayurveda). stem and branches cylindric.—sessile. FAM: —Compositæ. See—Timbers. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Rohini. :— E. PROPERTIES AND USES. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. DISTR. Mahamundi. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Poona. while Belgaum. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. glandular. H. Ruhin. aphrodisiac. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. Rohina. NS. Gorakhmundi. Indian Red-Wood. refrigerant. Grains contain vitamin B. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rawtarohan. anthelmintic. Vritta. PARTS USED. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Kumbhala. G. Swami-mara. Some. :—Bark. LOC. Ahmedabad. NS. common in Gujarat. on dry stony hills. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. improves appetite and taste. ulcers. diseases of blood. cures " Tridosha ". CHAR. Gums and Resins. See—Food Plants. :—Seeds. K. FAM. M. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. :—G.
SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). digestible. PROPERTIES AND LOC. laxative. :—Throughout India. Akara-karava. scalding of urine. elephantiasis.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. anæmia.. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . :—Throughout India. vomiting. Ceylon. ovate-oblong. flowers and seeds.—Compositæ. truncate. depurative. It is also used as fish and crab poison. fattening. solitary or subpanicled. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. chest diseases. Akarakara . involucre bracts linear.. USES. used in insanity. Fl. tonic. used also for local application.—compound heads. :—Hot. :—Deccan. M. Akkalkara . Fr. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. long. bronchitis.—opposite. all warm countries. rectal pain. gleet.—Nov. Pappuso. looseness of breasts. Australia. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. good for eyesore. alterative. increases appetite. cools brain.— achene. t. HABITAT. biliousness. peduncles reaching 10 cm. anthelmintic. t. scabies. S. PARTS USED. asthma. FAM. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. Pellitary . Tonic. C. serrate or dentate. Africa. indigestion. Fl. the latter when present minute. :—Root. :—Annual herb. strangury. Fr. irregularly crenateserrate. ring-worm of waist. LOC. laxative. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. peduncles with toothed wings. glaborous. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. alexipharmic. LOC. base usually acute. Fl. and tonic (Stewart) . jaundice. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. enriches blood . stem and branches hairy. ovate. useful in skin diseases. compressed . hemicrania (Ayurveda).—Achene. epileptic convulsions. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. biliousness. spleen diseases. with honey they are given in cough. leaves. Malay Islands. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative.—Nov-Jany. lessens inflammations . PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves and flower-heads. pain in uterus and vagina. PARTS USED. H. DISTR. M. in cases of worms and indigestion. piles. bark. cooling. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk. Fl. globose ovoid. urinary discharges. gives lustre to eyes . Celyon. :—Common in the Konkan. dysentery. boils. LOC. Powdered root is given as tonic. :—Root. ciliate near the ends . :—E. glandular hairy. L. oblong. NS. They are chewed to relieve toothache. :—Common in rice-fields. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. HABITAT. DISTR.—in heads ovoid. emmenagogue. leucoderma. CHAR. :—Wild and cultivated. They are given in powder form. . sometimes grown in gardens. COM. Country and Kanara.—purple. stalked. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. urethral discharges and jaundice. tuberculous glands.
— petals 4-5. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. COM.—Bignoniaceæ. Bile Tree. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Padiala. Kapichuta. Fl. Gum is demulcent. Country. leaves and fruit. S. DISTR. :—E. Pahad. tonic.—Anacardiaceæ. blood complaints . high. Toyadhivasini. :—H. Gujarat. good for sore-throat. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. :—A tree 9-10. Andamans. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Ran-amba . Konkan. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM.Feb. HABITAT. Parur.8-7. Hongkong.—drupe. long. See—Gums and Resins.. Burma. L. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. COM. Padal. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative.5 m. hard. Ambodha. H. Sk. W. Giri Hadari. Patala. astringent.-Apl.. Tungi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Indian Hog-Plum. . Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. round with furrows and cavities. Ambada. burning sensation. cures rheumatism. ovate oblong. phthisis. oblique. destroys " Vata ". :—Leaves-tasty. yellow. Amate. Fl.-usually 1. Amra. biliousness. pinkish green. C. entire. Dr. M. Marahunise. NS. Pitana. Western Peninsula. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. oblong. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Amrataka. refrigerant. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Patala. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. bark smooth. Ali-vallabha. ovoid. K. trunk straight. LOC. Salt Range. :—Bark. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. ash-coloured . K. NS. Padal. Kumbhi. long. :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves.5-18 x 3. Kalavrinta. Kamduti. LOC. Hulave. M. t. Wild Mango.5 cm.. stone woody. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Avatekayi. widely planted. It has been found useful in dysentery. 3. appetising. Kanara. Fr. Hude. PARTS USED. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Pandri. CHAR. enriches blood . FAM. Kariguddada. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. branches nearly horizontal. M. Sd.8 cm. ulcers. Indian Archipelago.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Sk. Fruit—indigestible. :—Often planted throughout the State. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd.
Planted in Ceylon. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). west coast of Madras State. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. FAM. H. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. COM. piles . leaves. PARTS USED. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Kupaka. antipyretic. heating. Kajavara. DISTR. Fruit—useful in hiccup. asthma. Nirmal. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. Laos. K. Kanara. itching. Karnatak. Kajra. :—Fruit-acrid. :—Root-bitter. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. Circars. Travancore. Kuchala. LOC. Kuchla. LOC. Kachita. diuretic. poisonous. NS. Indo-China. tonic. Kuchla. heating. Hemushti. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Kakatinduka. aphrodisiac.. loss of taste. "Kapha". ulcers. emmenagogue . PARTS USED. See—Timbers. blood diseases. Karaskara. cures leucoderma. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). LOC. Flowers— acrid . blood diseases. :—Wood (rarely). heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. fruit. Kajra. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Fruit—bitter. DISTR.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. :—Root. tonic. Burma. Vishamushti. Visha-druma. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. G. piles. ring-worm. Travancore . Kanara. :—More or less throughout tropical India. vomiting. :—E. M. "Vata". from Kashmir to Sikkim . Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. sub-Himalaya. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . tonic. Kangira. Ceylon. Poison Nut. thirst. Kelakutaka. cures pains in joints. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. bitter. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. It is regarded as cooling. :—Very common in Konkan and N. jaundice. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. lumbago. diuretic. pungent. useful in bilious diarrhœa. N. Crow Fig. :—Monsoon-forests. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Sk. fevers. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . eructations. flowers. burning sensation.—Loganiaceæ. inflammation. :—In forests south of Bombay. seeds. fruit. LOC. appetiser. Ittangi. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES.
M. :—Sand-stone hills of S. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. diaphoretic. kidney complaints. alexiteric. H. Fruit useful in eye diseases. tonic. :—Root (rarely). fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Western Peninsula. PARTS USED. See—Timbers. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. lithotriptic. increases "Vata". Shodhanatmaka. hallucinations. anæmia. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. also in Konkan. astringent to bowels. Kanara and Khandesh. causes biliousness. See—Timbers. relieve colic (Yunani). M. poisoning. good for liver. Madhya Bharat. COM. Chittu bija. Nivali. thirst. aphrodisiac. Country. . alexipharmic. emetic. Sk. The demand for strychnine is increasing. gonorrhœa. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Burma. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. HABITAT. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. LOC. Nelmal.. :—Root cures leucoderma. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. :—Deciduous dry forests. K. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. Seeds—acrid. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Aduguchali-bija. Ceylon. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. :—E. improve eye-sight. LOC. DISTR. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. Ambuprasadini. head-diseases (Ayurveda). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Kataka. urinary discharges. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Nirmali. Seeds—bitter. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system.—Loganiaceæ. cures inflammations. Clearing Nut Tree. cure strangury. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. jaundice. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. diuretic.
LOC.. decussate. Broughton).-Jany. :—Bark. S. astringent to bowels. :—Root. K. throughout N. broadly ovate.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. NS. FAM. useful in eye-diseases. in powder or in fresh decoction. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. L. DISTR. H. E. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . :—M. Peninsula. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . DISTR.— lobes 4-5. t. C. Shavaraka. ovoid or oblong. LOC. Chota Nagpur. M. dysentery. diseases of blood. China Nora. cures cough. :—The whole plant is bitter. cooling. PARTS USED. :—India (W. C. etc. Lodhra. :—W. . stem densely leafy. 4-winged..—very many in dense corymbose cymes . :—Konkan and N. Fl. white with blue veins. bleeding gums . See—Timbers. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. quadrangular. CHAR. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. FAM.3-0.9 m. NS. Fr.—Gentianaceæ. colloturine and loturiaine. Lodhra . Tiritaka. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . emmenagogue. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. Lodh Tree. Country.—Symplocaceæ. leprosy. winged . Kadu. 0. Bark—bitter. Tillaka. Lodh. Loder. Sd. C. :—Hilly parts.— sessile. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). 2-valved. :—Western Ghats . COM. eye-diseases and ulcers . The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. LOC.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. PARTS USED.—many. Burma. Deccan . a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. HABITAT. Lodh . digestible. useful in abortions . :— E. Fl. vaginal discharges. COM. Mahabaleshwar. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. M. biliousness. Torna fort. Dyes. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. alexiteric. 5-nerved . Peninsula). flowers (rarely). "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Bose). Lodhraka. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb.— Oct. Bhilli. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES. Deccan. Lodh is used in raw condition. acrid. Sk. :—Bark-acrid. inflammations. Balaloddujinamara. high. :—An erect herb. Californian Cinchona.
PROPERTIES AND USES. Malaya. H. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Malay—Rose apple. sprouts. Jambula. NS. Jambura. LOC. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. Shukapriya. NS. Jamen. H. M. increases "Vata". HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Gulab-Jamb. Surabhipriya. :—Bark. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. :—Throughout the State. Gulabjaman. COM. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. etc.) FAM. COM. DISTR. Ceylon. removes bad smell from mouth. astringent. very often planted. Australia. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. K. Kokileshta. G. biliousness. astringent to bowels. common at Mahabaleshwar. LOC. Fruit Trees. :—Bark-acrid. carminative . Fruit—acrid. Jambu. thirst. good lotion for ring-worm in head. LOC. Nilphala. Pharenda. Pannerali. carminative and diuretic. astringent to bowels. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). enriches blood. also wild. Jambu. Sk. Jambu-Nayinerale. fruit vinegar is tonic. useful in spleen diseases. ulcers. asthma. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic.—Myrtaceæ. common along river banks. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). blood impurities. :—Throughout India. Jambu. sweet. fruits and seeds. Jamburaj. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. dry. Nenda. good for sore-throat. PARTS USED. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Jambul. Jambul. also used in spongy and painful gums. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. dysentery. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. bronchitis. anthelmintic. gargles and washes . Nerate. Sk. M. :-Black-Java Plum. See—Timbers. K. strengthens gums and teeth. Shukapriya. Neralu.) FAM. :—E. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State.—Myrtaceæ. Seeds—diuretic. digestive. good gargle for sore-throat. Jambudi. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. both wild and cultivated. Jambu. . Jam. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. cooling. used in diarrhœa and dysentery.
digestible. used in liver complaints." biliousness. indigestible. Khasia Hills. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2.—rainy season. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. used in asthma. See—Timbers. lobes 5 in single. :—Root is acrid. :—Cultivated in gardens. inodorous during the day. Yunnan to Australia. tonic to brain. CHAR. 7. Fl. useful in paralysis. pale beneath. Tagar.— opposite. . PROPERTIES AND USES. Ashvathabheda.—Apocynaceæ. alexipharmic. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Tagara.5-5 cm. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Bark is sweet. Bengal. liver and spleen . elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. dysentery. bitter. Chandani. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. astringent to bowels. Fr. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. . (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. astringent to bowels. C—lobes overlapping to the left. L. COM. LOC. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. heating. Hills of Visakhapatanam. divaricate. Maddarasa gida . 1-3 ribbed. NS. Garhwal. Nandi. See—Ornamental Plants. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. E. bronchitis. PARTS USED. weakness of limbs. margins wavy. Cultivated in many places. Seeds are astringent to bowels. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. tonic.. improves voice. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. LOC. Kottuhale. HABITAT. removes bad humours.) FAM. Assam. The fruit is sweet with a flavour.—snow-white. Taggar. fruit and seeds. glossy green above. :—Root. astringent to bowels. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. Ananta. heavy speech. t. cultivated in many parts. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. K.5-15 X 2. acrid. used in syphilis (Yunani). indigestible. H. Wax flower. M. Sk. Trinidad . orange within. cures epilepsy. Tagar . useful in "Kapha. Burma. and an essential oil. Fl. purgative. G.5-5 cm. thirst. salver-shaped. wood and oil. fragrant at night. Root—bitter . strangury.—follicles. hot. :—Sikkim Terai. Br. Root chewed relieves toothache . tonic to brain. :—E. :—Bark. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. with milky juice . The plant contains an alkaloid. DISTR. LOC. Fruit—sweet and tasty. fatigue. emmenagogue. PARTS USED. across. lessens pains in limbs and joints . double.
Genda. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Pandarakuda. Zendu. Halmeti. belching. Fl. HABITAT. Zanduga.—follicle. Sd. t. Guljharo. Sandu. : K. See—Ornamental Plants. yellow when ripe.5 cm. coriaceous. M. NS. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. LOC. bark grey. Makhamal. K. Leaves—good for piles. Tamarind. Sthulapushpa. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). across in pedunculate cymes . divaricata. Fr. French Marigold. wood. astringent. bitter. Amla. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Sk. Amli. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. Travancore up to 7. COM..—Compositæ. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . PROPERTIES AND USES. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. DISTR. somewhat boat-shaped. Flower—bitter. Amala. Fl. Kanara. grown in gardens all over India. M. :—E. FAM. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. good for teeth . Chinch. PARTS USED. CHAR. high. useful in scabies. Amlike. common in rain-forests. Makhamala. lessens inflammation . :—Cultivated. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Tintidika.—white. :—Flower-pungent. Amli. Nagakuda.5 m. :—Root. HABITAT.. Amlika. Makhamali. Sk. stomachic. oil.. Tintrani. :—Native of Mexico. :—Leaves and flowers. Nagaskuda. their juice is given in ear-ache. muscular pains. 2. Gultora.—Apocynaceæ. Chinchika. COM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). acrid. H. COM.4-4. :—Malabar. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. FAM.2-7.5-20 X 3.—opposite. 7. carminative. rough. L. Kalaga. NS. kidney troubles. HABITAT.. :—E. PARTS USED. :—Rain-forests. M.— Mar-Apl. G.— tube inflated near the top. DISTR. :—Same as T. C.—surrounded by red pulp. Chinch. Nuli. Maddarssa.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall.000 m. Teter. Imli. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. LOC. H. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). oblong lanceolate . NS. throughout the Konkan and N. . G. internally they are said to purify blood.
. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. flowers and seeds. H. carminative. costiveness. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Sag. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Arna. Fruit—sour. tumours. digestive. causes cough. FAM. and laxative. bark. small-pox. stomatitis. anthelmintic. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. such as body-burning. wood. boiled they are used as a poultice. abundant all along the slopes of W. intoxication &c. astringent to bowels. Mahapatra. Seeds astringent. PARTS USED. indigestible. Sag. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). earache. Fruit-sour. NS. Teka. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. flowers. laxative. Condiments and Spices. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. tonic. DISTR. scabies. DISTR. thirst. Seeds are good astringent. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. Madhya Bharat. Sagach. tasty. vomiting. heals wounds and fractures. Sagwan. Sk. Tega. Kanara. Flowers— appetising . Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root. sore-throat. :—E. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Malay Peninsula. Teak. COM. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Sagun. biliousness. Cultivated also. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. LOC. Leaves applied to reduce swellings.. heating. . applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. G. aphrodisiac. Burma. Anil. and for sizing materials. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. Tropics generally. M. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat.—Verbenaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. Tegu. Sagwan. LOC. eye-diseases. :—Throughout India. Circars. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. tonic to heart. fruit and seeds. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. K. :—Bark. leaves. Sumatra and Java. urinary discharges. sweetish. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Bark—astringent. heals ulcers. useful in liver-complaints. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. laxative. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". See—Timbers. :—Western Ghats of Madras State.
—petals clawed. Sharapunkha. anthelmintic. alexiteric. Empali. useful in scabies.2 cm. useful in bronchitis. liver. enriches Blood . :-G. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. M. cures diarrhœa . cures diseases of liver. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). mucronate. Bark is an astringent. allays thirst. NS.—pod 3—4. Fl. Sarphoka. it acts also as a vermifuge. See—Timbers. PARTS USED. leaves and seeds. suborbicular. increase "Vata". slightly curved. Konkan. useful in lung and chest diseases. DISTR. bitter. K. silkyhairy beneath. Jhila. anthelmintic. boils and pimples. dry. cultivated lands and roadsides. :—Plant-digestible. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. Plihari. useful in bronchitis.—Oct. asthma. Sarphonka. COM.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. expectorant. Wood good for head ache. Sarpankho.8—1. Wood—acrid. blood. burning pain over the region of liver. ulcers. Sharapunkha. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. asthma. C. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. M. long. mucronate. laxative.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. improve appetite. :—All over India. LOC. Udhadi. allays thirst. Malay Peninsula. Phanike. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . inflammations. Country. poisoning. L. root. gonorrhœa (Yunani).8 X 0. pubescent on the back. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). alterative. standard. Kogge. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gujarat. HABITAT:—Open situations. branches spreading.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—The whole plant. along forest borders.—5-6 . FAM. . useful in piles. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals..MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. S. Unhali. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. spleen. Leaves—tonic to intestines . Ghodakan. 2—2. Flowers—acrid. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. good in piles. biliousness. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. LOC. Fl. spleen diseases. linear. Sk. "Root—diuretic. H. 30—60 cm. ground and made into a pill.5 cm.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. high.-June. red. glabrous above. CHAR. leprosy. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). LOC. fresh root-bark. Sd. tumours. urinary discharges. cooling. antipyretic. long. biliousness.. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Kalika. sedative to gravid uterus. heart. Fr. t. Deccan. oblanceolate. syphilis. :—A perennial herb. leaflets 11—21.
USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). tonic. Sk. Fruit-pungent. " Kapha". Ceylon. ulcers. except in dry arid regions. inflammation. Voting. anthelmintic . false presentation of fœtus. digestible.. Vibhata. leaves. Sagona. Bera. Indradruma. Arjun-Sadada. Kakubha. Karshaphala. with milk. anthelmintic. externally in wounds and fractures. M..—Combretaceæ. K. fruit (rarely). urinary discharges. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. H. Belleric Myrobalan. Behedo. Bahara. aphrodisiac. & A. in Khandesh Akrani. NS. G. tonic. :—Bark. FAM. acrid. useful in bronchitis. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). Tari. heart disease. useful in fractures. COM. Kushika. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. biliousness. G. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Behada. PROPERTIES AND USES. Beheduk. LOC. in the sub-Himalayan tract. White Marudah. anæmia. NS. Karvirak. Bahaza. Aksha. Arjun Sadada. Baire. Arjuna. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. Arjuna. See—Timbers. H. styptic. Rajastan and Sind. Sadura. fruit and seed. useful in biliousness. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Arjan. Kahu. very common in South Konkan. biliousness. LOC. Buhura.—Combretaceæ. PARTS USED. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. :—E. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. blood-diseases. Sk. :—Alexiteric. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Madhya-Bharat. Bedda Nut. Sadado. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. asthma. sore-throat. :—E. . COM. :—Konkan and Deccan. tumours. Bastard Myrobalan. excessive perspiration. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Arjuna. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Kalidrum. Tara.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. intoxication. strangury. PARTS USED. Dhanvi. Bibhitiki. Burma. Madras State. :—Throughout the forests of India. Hela. DISTR. leucoderma. Koha. DISTR. laxative. strangury.. :—Bark. K. Madhya-Pradesh. Chota-Nagpur. diuretic. LOC. Vibhitika. Shantimara. FAM. Expectorant. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m.
gout. LOC. Gums and Resins. tonic. heart and bladder. antipyretic. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. dyspepsia. Ripe fruit—purgative. heart and bladder. bleeding and ulceration of gums. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. antidysenteric. stomachic. Harade. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. :—Fruit-dry. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES. urinary discharges. COM. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. K. strangury. common in Khandesh Akrani. useful in dyspepsia. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. —E. typhoid fever. anthelmintic. Ceylon. Seed—acrid. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. Jivantika. piles. LOC. hoarseness. useful in caries of teeth. Dyes. piles. vomiting. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. the fully ripe or dried fruit. H. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. eyes. sore-throat. applied to eyes. Kernel has narcotic properties. Jivanti. diarrhœa. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. elephantiasis. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. nose. is used as an application in ophthalmia. Abhaya. tonic. M. gums. good in ophthalmia. carminative. FAM. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. Alate. diseases of spleen. useful in asthma. NS. delirium (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. DISTR. used in paralysis (Yunani). diseases of eye. Harara. Chebulic myrobalan. USES. PARTS USED. Haritaki. Sk. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. bleeding piles. in Travancore. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. heating. itching pain. anaemia. constipation. enriches blood. thirst. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. eye diseases etc. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . expectorant. piles and diarrhœa.—Combretaceæ. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. :—Bark and fruit. corneal ulcers. cold in head. Fruit-astringent. inflammations. Kanara. diseases of eye. tonic. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". which is considered a good digestive. brain tonic (Yunani). Black myrobalan. alterative . Burma. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. ascites. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. Har. G. hiccup. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. tumours. biliousness. attenuant. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Hirdo . Haritaki. Hirda. aperient. Haria. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. intoxicating. vomiting. mixed with honey. bilious headache. vesicular calculi. strengthens brain. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). leucoderma. useful in thirst.
Mhaskar and Issac). DISTR. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. PARTS USED. Bhend. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. H. flowers and fruit. Gandarati. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. profuse discharge. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. Jogiyarale. NS. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Gajadanta. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Paraspipal. :—Fruit-sour. leaves. Tans. difficult to digest. Ranbhendi. Arasi. Dyes. Bhandi. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. . Sk. Paras-piper. It is also used in chronic dysentery. :—Bark. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. produces worms in intestines . burning of body .. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Bengal. Hucerasi. also planted as roadside tree. Paraspiplo. :—E. Eastern and Western Peninsula.—Malvaceæ. Burma. Suparshuakan. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac . Phalisha. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Parasipu. Fibres. See—Timbers. LOC. G. COM. Bhindi.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. acrid . especially centipedes. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). :—Coast forests of India. increases " Kapha " . Kanara. Parisha. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. Bugari. K. M. Kuberaksha. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). FAM. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Sacred Plants. Kandarala. Tulip Tree. Portia Tree. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores.
male fascicled.—drupes.-spirally arranged. Gulvel.—in terminal cymes. :—Stem. dorsally convex. Gulo.—generally 4. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. bronchitis . useful in urethral discharges. NS. L. Vatsadani. 7—9 nerved. 1—3. HABIT :—In thickets. skin diseases. DISTR.. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. bladder. worms.. bark corky. corona in the throat. cures " Vata " . M. CHAR. FAM. Fl. PARTS USED. L. wounds. across. crowded . Gulvel. Amritvalli. throat campanulate.—Menispermaceæ. :—E. Pittaghni. endocarp corky. Uganiballi. M. Pila kaner. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. . Haripriya. LOC. bright green and shining above. Indies . :—Bark. HABITAT. often planted in India. Andamans and Ceylon. DISTR. linear. frequently planted. Amarvel. :—Native of S. pungent. Gulancha. elliptic. Fr. LOC. Burma. 5—10 cm. Fl. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. seeds and milky juice. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. Gurch. Gulhel.5 cm.—Apocynaceæ. Pila kanir. Sd. COM. America and W. red. piles. Ashvaghna. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. yellow. Heart-leaved moonseed. with milky juice. growing on mango and other trees. virgin uterus. FAM. :—Throughout tropical India. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub.—broadly obovate.—in axillary and terminal racemes. fevers. lobes 5. Sk. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison.5—12. 5 cm. exocarp fleshy. H. root. size of a pea . astringent to bowels. ventrally flat. :—E. females solitary. Fr. Karvira. G. very poisonous (Ayurveda). CHAR. H. Pivali kanher. K. Shatakumbha. G. long. and blood vessels . acrid. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . yellow. COM. but its use is attended with considerable danger. Zard kunel. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). t. grooved . mesocarp bony. LOC. Exile or yellow Oleander. roundish cordate with a broad sinus.. C. Amrita-Valli. Gado. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. eye-troubles. Jwaranashini.—membranous. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. Fl. leucoderma. it has no action on digestive enzymes . :—Often planted. :—An extensive climber. PARTS USED. hot.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. 7. Sk. tubular.—Apl.
allays thirst. :—Rain-forests. stomachic. ovary rudimentary. diarrhœa. tonic appetiser.8-3. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. vomiting. oblong. armed with small hooked prickles . bark.—in axillary cymes. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. (Kirtikar). Philippines. high. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. Jangali-Mirchi.—Rutaceæ. Kumaon to Bhutan. Fl. size of a large pea. especially acid. COM. causes constipation. 5-10 X 1. good in cough. pitted on the rind. leaves. male flower bud globose. common in S. Java. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. crenulate. Sumatra. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. white. . tropical Africa. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Stem-bitter. :—Root. Kadu-menasu. expectorant. jaundice. LOC. stimulates bile secretion. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. Sk.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. :—An evergreen scandent shrub.—globose. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. enriches blood. stigma sessile. Lopezroot Tree. anæmia. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. HABITAT. dark shining green above. Khasia Hills. fruits. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). t. coriaceous. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. L. Konkan and Kanara. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. M.—Dehan. also in the Deccan hills. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. chronic fever. :—All over the Madras State . Kaduhakukare. piles. antipyretic. 3-5 grooved. PARTS USED. cures jaundice. Ceylon. China. H. Root-bark is aromatic. Forest Pepper. stimulant and anti-periodic. FT. Limri. PROPERTIES AND LOC. vomiting.-Jany. 15 m. Manger.—Aug. female flower buds oblong. fever. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Macimullu. vaginal and urethral discharges. FAM. Fl. Mirchi. Root and stem are bitter. :—Stem-bitter. diuretic. giddiness. DISTR. burning sensation. useful in skin diseases. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. NS.8. juice useful in diabetes. :—E. USES. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. tonic. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. leaflets sessile. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. renews blood. orange coloured. Dahan. stomachic .. K. 5-7 lobed. unisexual. Gangalaki.— alternate. digitately trifoliate. LOC. CHAR.
DISTR. cardio-tonic. Mandurike. tropical Africa. leprosy. Malaya. Lud. indigestible. PROPERTIES AND USES. Water-chestnut. digestible. itching. FAM. Trikota. COM. Jalakantaka-valli. Kanara. anthelmintic. Kuruk. astringent to bowels. burning sensation. NS. aphrodisiac. :—E. M. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. headache. Gums and Resins. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. See—Timbers. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Kaechaka. Tuni. G. causes " Vata " . Indian Mahogany. PARTS USED. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Toon. :—Bark and flowers.—Onagraceæ. astringent to bowels. Kalingi. NS. good for scabies and gleet. blood diseases. Chota-Nagpur. inflammation. :—E. Garige. cooling. Sandal Neem. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Nand-vriksha. biliousness. Sk. cures fevers. "Tridosha". Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. removes " Kapha ". Ceylon. Singhara. :—Throughout the State in tanks. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Lim. Waitz). Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Singodi. DISTR. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. :—Fruit. LOC. H. Apina. PROPERTIES AND USES. Shingoda. LOC. :—Throughout India. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Assam. Shringa-kanda-taka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. urinary discharges. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. Trikone-phala. COM. strangury. useful in . and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Mahalimbu. fatigue. M. Tunika. Tundu. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. :—Bark-acrid. expectorant. astringent to bowels. antipyretic . Gandhagarige. aphrodisiac. :—Aquatic (in tanks). Sk. HABIT. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Burma. often cultivated. Kuberaka. Tun. Deodari. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. biliousness. K. of India). H. :—Cooling . PARTS USED. LOC. useful in ulcers.—Meliaceæ. fattening. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Shingada. burning sensation.. Chittagong. removes " Tridosha". Dyes. Bark—bitter. cures leprosy.) FAM. aphrodisiac. tonic. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N.
DISTR. :—Plant is cooling tonic. one pair longer than the other . Gujarat. each with 2 pairs of hard. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. Karahate.. Chhota gokhru. Fibres. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Gamhar. alexiteric. useful in chronic fevers. :—E. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. young parts silky. Calthrope. PROPERTIES AND USES. considered cool and sweet. stems and branches pilose. improves taste .—Zygophyllaceæ. used as food. LOC. Pindara. lumbago. Shadanga. LOC. thirst. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Sarata. Trikantaka. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Sd. Kurangaha. . of 5 woody cocci. Fr. Aphrodisiac. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Sk. NS. Malay Peninsula. :—A procumbent herb. Fl. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. :—Throughout India. Ceylon. The plant contains an alkaloid.. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. Gokhru. along nalas and in swampy localities. Kantaphala. Tumri. See—Timbers. Seeds abound in starch. mucronate. a common weed of the drier parts. bile and phlegm. Deccan and S. Java. sore-throat. base oblique.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). yellow. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. antipyretic. Sk. See—Food Plants. abruptly pinnate. Country. sharp spines.—Euphorbiaceæ. Assam. K. M.:—Saurashtra. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Pindara. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. FAM.—globose. Gokharu. Gokhru. appetiser. M. FAM. Kadu Kange Kumbala. L. upto 3300 m. oblong. solitary. hairy. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Gokhura.. PARTS USED. Negalu . Kanara. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. bad-teeth (Yunani). Beta-Nahan Gokhru. Sumatra. H. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Hussuk.—throughout the year. pain. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge.—several in each coccus . LOC. bronchitis. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Petari . NS. Ceylon. G. M. They are also used in the form of poultice. Gokshura. :—H. :—The whole plant. in Kashmir. DISTR. LOC. Kere Padye. one of each pair smaller than the other. t.—opposite. CHAR. K. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. COM. Gokshri. biliousness. COM.
USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). aphrodisiac. Mota-Motachor. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. cures "Kapha". tonic. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). faintly ribbed. pain . urinary discharges. West Rajastan. S. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . removes " Tridosha ". PROPERTIES AND USES. vesicular calculi. cures strangury. Mt. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. useful in strangury. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. bitter. Aja-dandi. Kantapatraphala. branches angled and ribbed. gonorrhœa. S. suppression of urine. yellowish brown. Kanara. COM. the Deccan. gleet. Fl. LOC. Kanara. lumbago . seeds. USES :—Fruits are cooling. :—The whole plant. emmenagogue (Yunani). Brahma-dandi. urinary disorders and impotence. slender. H. bloody urine. Sk. :—A glabrous herb. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. S. LOC. fattening. asthma. CHAR. pappus shorter than the achenes. linear-oblong or lanceolate. L. . "Vata". Brahmadandi. :—Cooling . reduces inflammation.—heads 6—8 mm. Diuretic. stomachic. Fl. Brahmadandi. Abu. appetiser. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. leaves. Brahmadandi. PARTS USED. which is taken in large quantities. stem erect. improves appetite . :—Western Peninsula. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. :—Root. copious. diuretic. cough. increases menstrual flow. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. spinous toothed or serrate. alleviating burning sensation. :—Hot. enriches blood . FAM. piles. pruritus ani. Central India. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). oblong. Talakanto.—sessile. Konkan. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Country. : — G. M. :—Wild in places. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . ovoid. ciliate. HABITAT. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda).—Compositæ. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). fruits. LOC. diuretic. C. t. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections.— purple. PROPERTIES AND USES. long. alterative . Brahmadandi. NS. purifies blood . tonic. inflammations. M. reduces inflammation . cures skin and heart diseases. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. K. —achene.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED.— Dec. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. Fr. leprosy . :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. tonic . DISTR. Physiaran.
it is given in decoction with ginger. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). Kaundal. Fl. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). blood diseases. Sd. variable. with a long sharp beak. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. allays thirst. long. In Bombay. distantly denticulate. Australia. orbicular.. anasarca and ascites.5—7. H. stem robust. antipyretic.—2. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. palmately 3-5 lobed. DISTR. burning sensation. L. stems 3.. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. long. Jangli— Kadu padval.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Root-cathartic . Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb.6—4. Sk. eye diseases. Perula. dentate or serrate. reniform or broadly ovate. woody below. Ratan-indrayan. long as well as broad.-6. leucoderma.—monœcious. asthma. — surrounded with red-pulp . stomachic. N. Fl. chireta and honey. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . Indrayan.5 cm.—Cucurbitaceæ.-male in axillary . G. the Deccan. furrowed. LOC. base cordate . erysipelas. CHAR. axillary. slightly hairy.-5-12. NS. NS. Kadvi-padyal or patola . females solitary. PROPERTIES AND USES. Malay Peninsula. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. green with white stripes when raw. ovoid-fusiform. base deeply cordate. —G.5 m. slender. Mahakala. Panduka. bitter. Makal. antipyretic. Malaya. FAM. M. laxative. Fr. M. Fl. alexiteric. Patola. LOC. Sk. Avagude-hannu. t. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. long. deeply 5-lobed.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. leprosy. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. Mukal.5 cm.. cures bronchitis. tendrils 3-fid. Jangali chichonda. Lal-indrayan.3 cm. cures itching. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. ulcers.—July-Oct. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. Fruit—hot. paler beneath. Ceylon. Katuka. alterative. PARTS USED. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Wild Snake-gourd. K. leaf-juice is emetic. white. L. tendrils 3 cleft. pungent. :—E.3-12. scarlet when ripe. CHAR. Betlada padaval. fruit. Kiripodla. useful for boils and intestinal worms. H. :—A scandent annual. oil. Root-juice is very purgative. male in axillary racemes. COM. leaves. COM. :—Root. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. dark-green above. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. Leaves—good for biliousness. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. headache and boils. HABITAT:-In hedges. Jyotsna. :—Throughout India. lobes ovate-oblong. K. FAM .
USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles.—head solitary. C. Malaya. all over the State.—globose 3-8. DISTR.. Fr. acute. 3-partite. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. petioles densely hairy. densely silky hairy. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . :— Wild in Konkan. slender. outer involucral bracts ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES. t. DISTR. bracts large. FAM. :—M. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. Fl.-July. :—Throughout India. Fl.— Apl. t. PARTS USED. purgative. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda).75 X .—petals wedge-shaped. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. N. L. limbweakness. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. ovate-elliptic. heat of brain. hairy. glandular. LOC. COM. Country. M. bruises and wounds. PARTS USED. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric.—throughout the year. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. :—Wild in hilly parts. Fruit—carminative. Australia. which is found abundantly all over the country..— achene. Sd. axillary. lessens inflammations . stem and branches hairy. used in epilepsy. LOC. . Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. black. white. CHAR.. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. :—Root and fruit. Fl. very hairy. fringed. high. 30-60 cm. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. HABITAT. :—Abundant in the Deccan.75-1 in. rheumatism. Kirkee. :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. female solitary. peduncles very long. PROPERTIES AND USES. Japan. ophthalmia.—Compositæ. Fr. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil.5 cm. diam. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). on the Himalayas.—1. abortifacient. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. cures hemicrania. boiled with gingelly oil. Deccan and S. sparsely white hairy. LOC. middle lobe smallest.. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. many years ago. ligules yellow. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm.—many . gargle good for toothache. Ceylon. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. leprosy. NS. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Ray flowers ligulate. :—A perennial straggling herb. China. inner slightly longer than outer. Ekdandi. Juice of fruit or root-bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes.
. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. Methi.—Aug. tonic. Sd. antipyretic. appetiser. cultivated in many parts of India. aperient.—follicles. dysentery. piles. Konkan. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Kashmir. Nepala . roots many. with coma . dyspepsia with loss of appetite. NS. M. diarrhœa. diuretic. emmenagogue. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. enlargement of spleen and liver. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. long. narrowed at the apex to a free point. large for the genus. enlargement of spleen and liver. Sk. bronchitis. suppurative. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. Antamul. flatulence. CHAR. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. Pitakari (Pitamari)..—Asclepiadaceæ.5—10 cm. G. Hot and dry. FN.5-5. Fenugreek . chronic cough. Methi. much used in colic. also in low and sandy localities. LOC. Menthe—palle. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. "Vata". Methi . The leaves contain vitamins A and B. Muthi. Jyoti. and the seeds contain vitamin A. LOC. FAM. fleshy. tonic and carminative. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.—in umbellate cymes .7 cm. Methini. :—H. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. Janglipikvan. :—South of Bombay. LOC. base cordate. 5-10 x 2. S.—deeply lobed. FAM. Kanara. M. Pitabija Vedhini.—opposite. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. useful in dropsy. :—A twining perennial. H. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. . astringent to bowels. COM. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean.— broadly ovate. corona gibbous below. cures leprosy. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. Chandrika. M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). See—Vegetables. :—Leaves and seeds. K. tapering to a fine point at the apex. DISTR. COM. purplish within. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). ovate or elliptic oblong. :—E. dropsy. Fl. they are also aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. Country. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. long. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). :—Hot. C. 7. :—Punjab. greenish-yellow outside. removes bad taste from mouth. K.-Nov. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. vomiting. HABITAT. Fl. t. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. anthelmintic. L. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. Methi. :—Cultivated.
—Aug. light-brown . Sk. DISTR.—capsule. 0. Borneo. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Indian Squill. :—Common on sandy shores. Burma. H. Shankaraja .— pod. glabrous.. FAM. black. scape erect 30-45 cm. Fr. pale lead-colored. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.—in racemes 15-30 cm. hairy beneath. 20-30 cm. CHAR. USES. ellipsoid. long. Sd. Vanapalandu. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. polished. long. C.—appearing after the flowers. linear-oblong. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. NS. Jangli-Ran-khanda. :—Throughout India. Ceylon.— flattened.— Liliaceæ. CHAR. Panjala. Fl. Dabra. G.. tapering to both ends . folded on one another. Malay Islands. HABITAT. 5-7 (rarely 9). Bihar. Fl. Ranganja . :—A perennial shrub. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. C. HABITAT. :—Western Himalayas.5 cm. COM. blotched with white above. Pitvan. W.— petals lanceolate. L. linear.—purple. Prishna-parni. long. FAM. LOC. Dried leaves are emetic. Thailand (Siam). Rankanda.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).. stems downy with hooked hairs. Pithavan. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. COM. USES. :—Sandy places.. 10-20 cm. Malay Islands. URARIA PICTA Desv. M. KolaPutakand. 15-45 x 1.9-1.-Sept. found useful in dysentery. NS. H.. drooping. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. white.3-2. Philippines. M. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. diaphoretic and expectorant. :—A herb. PARTS USED. tropical Africa. :—Bulb. Pitavan . . :—Wild.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. Sk. tropical Africa. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Peninsula.. perianth campanulate. :—G. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman).— imparipinnate. Jaglipiaz. DISTR. :—Throughout the plains of India. t. Ceylon.8 m. flat. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. high. :—Konkan. joints 3-6. :—E. Fr. LOC. Fl. L. stalks long. :—Roots and leaves. Chota-Nagpur.
HABIT. long. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. S. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. heals fractures (Yunani). Rasna. Ceylon. CHAR.. and U. heating. asthma. Persara. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. Gaz. Br. useful in paralysis. Vanda. laxative. Rasno. 1931. useful in dyspepsia. column very short. Chota-Nagpur. obtusely keeled. recurved. tip. tremors (Ayurveda). Fl. COM. rheumatism. W. 15-20 X 1. Sarpagandha. :—Root is bitter. stout. The bulb is stomachic. Madhya-Pradesh. alexiteric. H. Vriksharuha. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. :—An epiphyte. :—Epiphyte. Peninsula. Gujarat and Kanara. anthelmintic. :—Konkan. stem 30-60 cm. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. bronchitis. erect. bronchitis.5—9 cm.3-2 cm. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. inflammations. :—Bengal. long. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Expectorant. hiccup. M. bronchitis. (In Med.—Orchidaceæ. maritima of U. heating. Root is bitter. purgative. Nakula. Atiras. LOC. L.—capsule. tonic to brain and liver. Bihar. :—The bulb is pungent. :—Root and leaves. lip bluish dotted with purple. scilla of Great Britain. complicate. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . Fr. . good for piles. NS. FAM. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. internal pains (Yunani). A. and an acute interposed one. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. Bandanike. Travancore. :—G. acute. stimulant and diuretic. boils in the scalp. DISTR. diseases of the abdomen. long. Banda. scandent by simple or branching roots . 2-lobed. K. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders.. rheumatic pains. lumbago.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. lessens inflammations .—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. Rasna. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. praemorse. LOC. and was found useful (Koman).—thickly coriaceous. Rasna. renal calculi. dropsy. antipyretic.— July.. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. alexiteric. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). pollinia ellipsoid. Fl. alexiteric. skin diseases. diuretic. anthelmintic. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. Sk. diseases of nose.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. The plant contains an alkaloid. t. LOC. PARTS USED. emmenagogue. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. cardiac. toothache.
Oils. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. buds 5-angled. expectorant. bechic. acrid. Ragatarshado. DISTR. H. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). G. boils and ringworm.—5-10 X 2. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Dhupa. Shandike.8 cm. Ceylon. Dhupa. 1-nerved wing. M. also planted. hemicrania. tuberculous glands. with an offensive odour. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). Fr. Raktavalli. :—Western India. Coorg in Ghats. Kaharub. alexipharmic. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. dysentery. PARTS USED. itch (Ayurveda). detergent. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat.. Malamaitra. K. COM. Travancore. stomachic. LOC. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. dark. rheumatism. skin eruptions. piles.-Jany. useful in atonic dyspepsia. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Fl. L. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. Mysore. K. Madidhupa. USES. C. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. carminative.—Dipterocarpaceæ. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . anæmia. :—Bark-hot. alexipharmic. Tenasserim. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. Haruge. H. Red Creeper. NS. ulcers and wounds. Sandras. FAM. amenorrhœa. Kubbila. abundant in S. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. Khandvel. t. Bilidhupa. PARTS USED.—Rhamnaceæ. :—Bark. Poppli. globular. CHAR. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. M. diarrhœa. tonic.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Shala.5-3. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Lokhandi. tonic and stimulant. in chronic bronchitis. Pitti. :—E.-nut about 5 mm. useful in leprosy. M.—Dec. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. :—Madras State. Country. :—North Kanara. Sk. resin. NS. Kanara. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. good for sore-throat. whitish).MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. FAM. debility and slight cases of fever. LOC. COM. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. . cures cough. fruit. LOC.. Sk. Safed-damar. :—A large much branched woody climber. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. entire or crenate. also in N. urinary discharges. See—Timbers. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. Sekalyel. young branches and panicles pubescent.—petals 5. Gums and Resins. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. yellowish. :—Bark. deciduous and monsoon-forests.—in large drooping terminal panicles. :—E. Kundura. greenish. Kanara and S. diam. eardiseases. Fl. Sarjaka. (T.
Fl. lyrate. high.—in simple or branched terminal racemes.) FAM. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. H. leafy herb . hairy. NS. LOC. Kulhala. 5—9 x 2. on long petioles.8 cm. cure ulcers.—oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. coarsely serrate. M. branched near the top. Java . :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S.5—3.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. Kalizhiri. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. Gujarat. erect. and leaves. G. :—E. warted.—alternate. . Somaraj.-May.6-0. sub-globose. Kulara. ofter cultivated. t. Kadvojiri. all coarsely dentate. COM. CHAR.—Dec. China. PARTS USED. Fr. Deccan . Ceylon .—heads subcorymbose. high .. Vishamushti. C. :—Plant. Sd. DISTR. The juice of the whole plant.. Fr. Kalhara. Fl. NS. :—An annual herb. Bakchi. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. involucre bracts linear. Vanajiraka. with purple tips . truncate. Fl. :—Seeds-acrid. Kutki. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). M. :—G. DISTR. hairy.2 cm. Sk. M. H. stem 0. Country. Vapehi. Somaraj. in equal proportions. FAM. Ceylon.—capsule.-rotate. L. L. stems 60—90 cm. LOC.—Scrophulariaceæ.. Agnibija. t— Jany. hairy. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. K.Feb. compound or pinnatisect. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). :—Annual. about 40-flowered. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. hairy on both sides. robust. squeezed out by pounding. Fl. The juice mixed with mustard oil. "Vata" and "Kapha". LOC. Seeds— anthelmintic. yellow. Kalejire. 10-ribbed.. Afghanistan. lanceolate. pappus reddish. COM. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. Gadar-tambaku. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. often cultivated. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. astringent to bowels. Kalijiri. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Purple Fleabane.-achene oblong cylindric. innermost the longest.—Compositæ. used in skin-diseases. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. CHAR. Sundika. rachis glandular pubescent. anthelmintic. K.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. :—Throughout India. :—Throughout India . :—Konkan . lobes 5. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. HABITAT:-Waste places. PARTS USED. rounded.9 m. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Bhutakeshi.
bronchitis . The plant with quinine. LOC. Osari. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). Devika. Africa . They are also used as tonic. Sind. :—A common weed throughout the State. flowers. K.—Gramineæ. Lavancha. cures "Tridosha".— pinkish violet. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). Fr. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. COM.—simple. Koosa. LOC. Sahadevi. Cuscus grass. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). The expressed juice is given in piles. with lime-juice. Kuruvelu. Ardhaprasadana. striate. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. Sedardi. t. CHAR. are used in destroying pediculi. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. 15—75 cm. seeds. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate.—Compositæ. heads small. Bena. :—E. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria.—achene. stomachic and diuretic. asthma. . Australia. plant is used in fever convulsions. M. clothed with white hairs . Vala. Bala. Fl. :—Plant. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. stem stiff. LOC. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. pubescent. H. Valo . kidney troubles. Fl. H. In Ceylon. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. :—Throughout India. cold. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Dandotpala. FAM. remove blood from liver.—Jan. Vecrnam. NS. Sk. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). DISTR. K. Khas. NS. applied in inflammatory swellings . :—E. pappus white. tonic. G. used for asthma. USES :—Root is given for dropsy.. COM. Ash-coloured Fleabane . Sadodi. Mudivala. high. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. Sk. G. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. astringent. M. FAM. hiccup . Sahadevi. Panni. a depilatory (Yunani). stomachic. Sadori. :—Annual. good for sores and itching of eyes. tropical Asia. consumption. silky on the back. bruised seeds ground up in paste. L. PARTS USED. Sahadevi. made into a bolus with lime-juice. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. alternate. Ushira. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. erect herb. Powdered seeds mixed with salt.-Feb. awned. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. oblong.
L.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. leaves. inflammations and irritability of stomach. useful in eye diseases. expectorant and diuretic. bronchitis. foul breath. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. Konkan and Deccan. PARTS USED. bitter. Afghanistan. Nukki. Indrani. throughout the Malayan regions. PROPERTIES AND USES. bilious fevers. Nirgundi. Nirgundi. K. rachis stout. Cooling to brain. Nirgundi. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. Fl. DISTR.—Verbenaceæ. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. Nirgari. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. racemes up to 5 cm. PARTS USED. :—Root. Culms stout. spleen enlargement. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. up to over 1. Nigod. Philippine Islands. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. astringent. strangury. alexiteric. West-Indies and Brazil. inflammations. slender. erect. The roots contain an essential oil.. soporific. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). lower ones keeled and fan-like. astringent. pale green. Nirgud. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. M. cephalic. Nilpushpi. bitter. USES :—Root is tonic. refrigerant. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Sinduvara. NS. stomachic. long. Lakki. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). Sind. useful in spermatorrhoea. H. useful in burning sensation. high. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. bitter. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. DISTR. head-ache. thirst. Sambhalu. LOC. also cultivated. :—Roots. anthelmintic. :—G. :—Cooling.-leaf sheaths compressed. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . febrifuge. Sessile spikelets. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Kanara in damp places. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . COM.. Bilenekki. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. long. stimulant and tonic. leucoderma. usually sheathed all along. colour varying from yellowish to black. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. :—Throughout India. blood diseases (Yunani). stomachic. asthma. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid.—panicle up to 30 cm. heating. biliousness. FAM. The otto is used as a tonic. tonic and vermifuge. margin spinously rough. LOC. Ceylon. LOC. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. consumption. promotes hair-growth. Leaves are aromatic. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . diuretic. sweats. Sk. :—Throughout the State.8 m.
There are numerous cultivated varieties. :—Fruit-acrid. cough. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. burning. Guchaphala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. fever. causes gases in the stomach. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. LOC. hoarseness and consumption. fattening. FAM-—Vitaceæ. leaves. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". stones in bladder. Khandesh. Draksha. stops bleeding from mouth. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. LOC. aphrodisiac. Drakh . Angura. flowers. spleen inflammation. See—Timbers. Grape-vine. cooling . Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. DISTR. expectorant. Country. Flowers—expectorant. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. asthma. Madhurasa. emmenagogue. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. Draksha. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Seeds—aphrodisiac. good for lungs. testicle swellings and piles. W. Draksha. Gujarat and S. a remedy for skin diseases. useful in old fevers. astringent to bowels. Angur. Darakh. Fruit— digestive. aperient. Fruit is nervine. PARTS USED :—Stem. difficult to digest. applied in scabies. emmenagogue. skin should not be eaten. allays vomiting. G. NS. piles. heat of body. syphilis. COM. K. sparingly in Poona. Ahmednagar. tonic to liver. The fruits contain vitamin A. Sap of young branches. cooling useful in thirst. produces constipation. diarrhœa. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. good in chronic bronchitis . ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). allays vomiting. stomachic. :—E. :—A native of western Asia. blood diseases. jaundice. sweet. fattening . In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. :—Cultivated. fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. cures thirst. bad effects of drinking. M. Sk. India. appetiser. The plant contains an alkaloid. HABITAT. Draksha. and given in coughs. purifies and enriches blood . fever. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. diuretic . good for eyes and throat. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. laxative. strangury. and traces of vitamins B and C. catarrh and jaundice.. seeds. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. produces alopecia. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. diuretic. liver and kidney. :—Deccan. laxative. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. . cooling. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. H. Yakshmaghni.
. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. rachis grooved with soft hairs. Hooliganji. NS.5 cm. aphrodisiac. LOC. Sogada-beru. L.3-1.—5-10 X 2. calyx-tube. slightly 5-angled. PARTS USED :—Root. Drakshasava—used as tonic. alexipharmic. bronchitis. coriaceous. Fl. obovate. smooth. chest troubles etc. 23-30 cm. branches armed with recurved prickles .—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. good in asthma. asthma. leaves. . Sd. Wagati. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ashvagandha. FAM. inflammations. oblong. psoriasis. COM. branches terete.—pod.. Gujarat.-Feb.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). (not common. emmenagogue . :—Tubers-bitter. :—A branched erect undershrub. HABITAT. linear oblong. Sd. long.—greenish or lurid yellow. Asgundh. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Kanara. anthritis. Asoda. 7.— Sept. tonic. :—Deccan. Sk. :—Konkan jungles. lumbago. long. pretty common in the ghats. leaflets 5-7 pairs. L. LOC. Amangura.—yellow. :—Drier regions.5-12. Ghodasoda. spathulate. somewhat scurfy. heating. minutely hairy. scabies. bronchitis. COM. M. Kanchuki. pinnae 4-6 pairs. hard. PARTS USED. alterative. main rachis armed with prickles.—3-4. inflammations. consumption. :—E. H. 6 mm. ovate. Fl. Tuber—bitter. bony Fl. Asgund. Canaries. Winter-cherry. Gandhpatri. dark-green. favours constipation (Yunani).—berry. aphrosidiac. red. abundant in Sind . leucoderma. dark-orange. M. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. armed with prickles . See—Fruit Trees. tonic. t. swollen above the seeds. Mediterranean regions. long. Fl.5 m. Asan. PROPERTIES AND USES. seeds. :—Root and bark. "Kapha". HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. Hirimaddina-gadde. enclosed in inflated calyx.. base dentate. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. C. hoary tomentose . entire. Kamrupini.—2-pinnate. Fr.—petals 5. insomnia. Fr. oblong. marasmus of children. Ceylon. Vajini. K.5-5 cm. CHAR. Deccan. FAM. senile debility. Punir. Balada. :—In the drier regions of India . CHAR. NS. Wagati. :—K. Cape of Good Hope. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. acrid. 0. Wakeri. inserted on the top of.) DISTR. green berries. :—A robust woody climber. high. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . ulcers. constricted between them. USES.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. G. useful in "Vata". t. DISTR.-Jany. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . diam.—Solanaceæ.
branches long. Kalikari. Kodamurki. Indrajav. China. and in derangement of liver . Japan. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. USES. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. :—Pungent. See—Tans. COM. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. used in thirst. acrid. irregularly dehiscent. NS. Ornamental Plants. wedge-shaped. . Baluchistan. erysipelas. Bark-infusion is used for asthma.— numerous. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Sd. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. alexiteric. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . ovate-lanceolate. Bela. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. :—Root is regarded as tonic. dysentery. Ceylon. Java. leprosy. K. tropical Africa. anthelmintic . brown. It is narcotic. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Dyes. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia.—mostly opposite. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. nigro-punctate beneath.—Apocynaceæ. M. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. smooth. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda).-May. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . scarlet. PARTS USED. uterine sedative. Kanara near the sea-coast. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Vanhishikha. H. on trap in the Akrani.—capsule. haemorrhoids. Hayamaraka. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Dec. ulcers and painful swellings . Indrajav. Dhaiti. Dudhi. 1 cm. t. Kuda.) FAM. LOC. velvety above.—numerous. Madhuindrayava. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dhavani. Kalakuda. :—Throughout India. Fr. :—Monsoon-forests. Tamrapushpi. emaciation of children. long. Santha. LOC.—Lythraceæ. Hallunova. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles.5 cm. :—G. Swetakutaj. cooling. Br. Dhawadina. common in the Konkan and N.. :—Bark and flowers. Indrajav. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. H. :—G. Phulsatti. leaf-infusion is given in fever. Madhavasini. HABITAT. Are. DISTR. Fl. Fl. L. rheumatism. Sumatra. Madagascar. lumbar pains. Sk. toxic. Dhaw. blood diseases. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. 5-9X 1. M. FAM. Hale. useful in leucorrhoea. Dhavani.3-2. Sk. diuretic and deobstruent. simple. COM. Khirni. Dhateki. debility from old age. Dhawai. alterative.
long. LOC. 5-7. useful in cancer and strumous diseases.achene. Sankeshwar. . In S. NS.Feb. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. Khandesh at 1050 m. :—Rajastan. memory. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. LOC. :—Bark and seeds. Clot-Cockle-bur. :—Annual herb . 3-lobed. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . :—The whole plant. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. at the top. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. tonic. stem short. M. Banokra. t. :—Cooling.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. alexiteric. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. tonic. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. antipyretic. fever. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. COM. Fl. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts.1-6. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kambu-Vanamalini. involucre of fertile head. Fl. improves appetite. complexion. Itara. FAM. G. compressed . cures leucoderma.—Jany. axillary. voice. See—Timbers. PARTS USED. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Aristha. Bur-Weed. 1-3 cm. Shankhahuli. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. :— Throughout India. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). biliousness. especially root and fruit. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). all over the State. Gadrian. rough with short hairs . long and broad. irregularly incisoserrate . India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Sk. Timor. the bark is specially useful in piles. West-Peninsula. oblong ovoid.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. laxative. LOC. fertile heads few.. in W. salivation.5 cm. with 2 erect beaks. L. PARTS USED. poisonous bites of insects. USES :—Root is bitter. Dutundi.. Dumundi. barren heads many. epilepsy. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. Ceylon. stout.—Compositæ. Sarpakshi. DISTR. fattening. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. ovoid in fruit. DISTR. Fr. digestive. H.—many. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn.. anthelmintic. Madhya Pradesh. hard and tough. LOC. hairy on both sides. antidysenterica (Yunani).-E.
"Vata". carminative. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia.—Rhamnaceæ. Shringavera. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. useful in heart and throat diseases. Chinese Date. stomachic. K.—Scitaminaceæ. . INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Bore. Ginger. Alen. pains (Yunani). Sk. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Anupama. DISTR. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. removes pain due to cold. See—Condiments and Spices. colic. G. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Boyedi. Badari. to prevent nausea and griping. :—E. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . PROPERTIES AND USES. Dridhabija. vomiting. G. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. lumbago. Koli. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. asthma. anthelmintic. rheumatism. it cleans throat. head-ache. M. flatulence. Plum. FAM. "Kapha". ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. COM. dyspepsia. H. tongue and increases appetite. pains. Sk. expectorant. Ber. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). :—Rhizome-pungent. good in piles. Bogari. Hasisunthi. carminative. it is also given in the form of infusion. H. LOC. vomiting. Ardraka. Gulmmula. Beri. useful in elephantiasis. Alen. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. stomachic. inflammations. M. piles. Alla Adrak. Adrate. loss of appetite and piles.. Indian Cherry. laxative. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. LOC. Kuvali. NS. and dry situations. :—Cultivated. COM. on poor soil and in rocky places. aphrodisiac. appetiser. Ajapriya. heating. Egasi. Bor. HABITAT. :—Rhizome. PARTS USED. FAM. eructations. It is stimulant. bronchitis. K. Kandara. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Bordi. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Ipanji. Rhizome—pungent. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). :—E. Ber. NS. Ada. tonic. gives lustre to eye. Bor. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations.
Afghanistan. abundant in the Deccan. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . China. good in consumption and blood-diseases. vomiting. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Fruits contains vitamin A. Australia. :—Root-bitter. Fruit Trees. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. reduce obesity. Leaves—anthelmintic. seeds. tonic. . good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). :—Root. See—Timbers. removes biliousness. frequently planted as a fruit tree. LOC. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. indigestible. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Seed—astringent. cure asthma. Ceylon. useful in fevers. Leaves antipyretic. tonic to heart and brain . USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. burning sensation. leaves. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. Africa. biliousness. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. DISTR. Bark—causes boils . :—Throughout the State in dry situations . Kanara. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. cooling. causes cough. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. causes diarrhœa in large doses . Burma. head-ache. allays thirst (Yunani). and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. on the laterite near the coast in N. Root and Bark tonic. PARTS USED. wounds and ulcers. aphrodisiac. thirst. Fruit— cooling. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. good in liver complaints.. fruit. laxative. Fruit—sweet and sour. Leaves form a plaster to boils.