This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Kushthari. urinary and vaginal discharges. CHAR. Charmakusha. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion.-6-10 . astringent to bowels. G. 7. leprosy. :—Common throughout the Stale . Shige. China. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. Sige-balli or kai. Kath-bole. K. erysipelas. measles and other skindiseases. wrinkled when dry . INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth.5-12. In ulceration of the gums. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.-t. L. DISTR. strengthens teeth. sore-throat and tooth-ache. Western Peninsula. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract).. Dyes. throat diseases. Manda-otte. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. . :—Common in the Konkan and N. mouth troubles. Bhuriphena. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. :—Rajastan. FAM. overlapping.—pod. Malay Islands.5X2-2. relaxation of the uvula. Shikekai. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti.—in fascicled globose heads. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. aphrodisiac. anti-pyretic. long. Saradruma. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Chikakai. See—Timbers.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Sk. Sikkim. Tans. 5-10 cm. Vidula. ulcers. Pegu. Sk. cooling. Kanara forests. NS. Burma. hypertrophy of tonsils. anthelmintic. psoriasis.—bipinnate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Himalayas up to 1700 m. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. M. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). leucorrhoea. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). :—E. LOC. Lalkhair. Fr. LOC. acrid. Phena. fleshy when green. Fl. Saptata. Yajnika. Deccan. Dipta. Soap-pod tree. M. Khandesh Akrani S. It is given in diarrhœa.-July. LOC. Sd. Country and Gujarat. Ritha. Kanara (often on laterite). along the coasts of Konkan and N. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles .. yellow. H. M. Dantadhavan. " Vata ". given in elephantiasis. Kochi. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Khair. inflammations.-Mar. bronchitis. leaflets 10-20 pairs. linear-oblong. " Kapha ". :—An extensive woody climber. piles. prurigo. heaviness. indigestion. antidysenteric. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Fl. boils. tonic. COM. DISTR. cures itching. gums. Khadira. :—Throughout India.8 cm. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers.
Kari jali. Devababhul. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). anti-diarrhoeal. erysipelas. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. bronchitis. often cultivated.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. DISTR. anti-dysenteric. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. K. caries of teeth. PARTS USED :—Bark. leucoderma. externally they are applied to leprous patches. itching. LOC. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. often planted . burning sensation. Arimeda. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. stomatitis. anthelmintic.. improves appetite. See—Timbers.pungent. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. cooling. leucoderma. Marudruma. Sk. HABITAT :—Moist situations. detergent. prurigo. anthelmintic. COM. digestible. NS. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. inflammations. causes " Vata". Jheri baval. buboes. In Philippines decoction. Cassia flower. leaves and gum. H. cures stomatitis. M. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. FAM. Sponge tree. cardio-tonic. alexiteric. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Sind. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). ascites. purgative. expectorant and good emetic. Kankri. Girimeda. :—E. ulcers. Pissibabul. Sauna jali. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. Stinking acacia.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Gum—sweetish. tonic. G. Gandhelo khair . blood-diseases. Gandhbabul. Gums and Resins. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . erysipelas. not indigenous but naturalised. eczema. . biliousness. cures " Kapha. Internally they are aperient. deobstruent. Jali. LOC. Vilavati kikar. piles.
many. G. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. M. Chirchira.57.5-4. brown. Fl. t. ascending. Fr.—utricle. Latjira . Kharamanjiri. asthma. Sd. in lax. crenate-serrate. 2. long in fruit. Sk.. CHAR.5 cm. 3. Fl. somewhat 3-nerved. hispid. Apamarga. Prickly chaff-flower. Kantarika. PROPERTIES AND LOC. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.5x2-4. scattered. NS. Arittamanjaria. perianth 4-5 segments. rounded at base. stem stiff.9 m.—opposite. Sd. Uttrane . FAM. K. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. pale-brown. :—E. 30-75 cm. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. in elongate terminal spikes. Aghada . Khajoti. FAM. softly hairy. t. elongate. few. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.3 X 2. :—An erect herb 0. Vasira. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. clustered near the summit of spike. Ceylon. males. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. enclosed in perianth smooth. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Merkati. Chichra. It is used in congestive headache. H. LOC. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. brown. one-seeded. Var. angular. Utranigida. erect herb. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. Apang. small. Philippines.5 cm. L. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. CHAR. The plant contains acalyphin. Vanchhikanto. Agheda-di.—Nov.—June-Sept. NS. axillary spikes .—truncate at apex. Khokla. minute.— ovoid. K.3-0. branches long. smooth. elliptic obovate. Chalmari. M.. high. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. L.—Euphorbiaceæ. M. . H. erect. tropical Africa.8-6.—greenish white. :—G.-Jany. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. :—Annual. LOC. oblong-cylindric. Sk. Khokali. :—Common in the Deccan and S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.—Amarantaceæ. COM.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places.—monœcious. females. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Fr. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. DISTR. Kuppi-gida. about 50 cm.—capsule. pneumonia and rheumatism. high. COM. branches terete or quadrangular striate. Fl. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. Country. :—Throughout India. Ksharamadhya. Kuppi. Fl. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic.
:—Throughout India. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. 0. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. Godavaj. Fr. Sk. Gandhilovaj. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. LOC. thickened in the middle. etc. Throughout Asia. acute. useful in abdominal pains. Vacha. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. America. Baja . NS. boils. anthers yellow. improves appetite. Sikkim. :—An aromatic herb .9-1. carminative. improves appetite. stomatitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. delirium. diuretic. dyspepsia. and is considered useful in dropsy. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. emetic. spathe 15-75 cm. Vekhand . bitter. anthelmintic. abdominal pains. stomachic.. flatulence. epilepsy. heating. Bhutnashini. itching. PARTS USED :—Root. slightly curved. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. tumours. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. useful in vomiting. flowers and seeds. green . creeping and branching. margins wavy.—turbinate. rat-bite. laxative. useful in general weakness. K. long. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia.7-3. fevers. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. See—Sacred Plants. sepals scarious. M. carminative. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). COM. piles. leaves. "Vata". its infusion is tonic and stomachic. Baluchistan. HABITAT :—Marshy places. throat. voice. prismatic. piles.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.8 cm. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. loss of memory. good for mouth diseases. laxative. dysentery. America. Australia. Vekhand. laxative. thirst. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. heating. leucoderma (Yunani). useful in dyspepsia. H. L. Jatila. Ugragandha. inflammations. bright-green. toothache. obtuse. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. LOC. dysentery. LOC. Tropical Asia. Sweet flag . hysteria. FAM. CHAR. bronchitis. :—E. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. top pyramidal. alexiterie. kidney troubles. 5-10 cm. bronchitis. Bitter. carminative. ascites. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. . spadix. PARTS USED : —Root.8 X 1. skin eruption etc. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. Africa. Ceylon. liver and chest pains. long. emmenagogue . inflammations. heart diseases. pungent. Gorbach . Europe and N. DISTR. Bach.. G. brain-tonic. blood diseases (Ayurveda).—Araceæ. expectorant. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn.
Powder is very effective insecticide. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Gujarat. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. K. See—Timbers. Gorakamali. NS. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. Panch-parnika. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. Baobab. indigenous in tropical Africa. HABITAT':—Cultivated. LOC. vomiting. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. M. LOC. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Gopali. H.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. in children. etc. Gorakhchinch. It is a good remedy in asthma. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. DISTR.. Gorakhaamli. Haggodgimara. Brahmamlika. FAM. colic. :—E. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. Pichli. leaf and fruit. Gorakshi. Pisa. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. Bukha. N. Kanara evergreen forests. G. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Deccan. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Goremlichora . LOC. :—K. :—Western Peninsula. anti-pyretic.—Bombacaceæ. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . fevers and other maladies. dysentery. Monkey-bread tree. M. African calabash. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. NS. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Sk. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. bark. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi.—Lauraceæ. PARTS USED : —Root. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. FAM.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . :—Grown in many places in India . USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. useful in biliousness. fever. Tudgensu . Rukhdo . Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs.:—Konkan.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Kalosadasado. FAM. blood diseases. Shirish. aphrodisiac. tonic. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). lumbago (Yunani). M. LOO. Shirish. Shankiniphala. . China. Tantia. Fruit—laxative. Kullumavu. G. Kanara. :—Throughout the State. Ankola. inflammations. M. Vamaka. COM. Sk. Seeds—cooling. often along banks of nalas in N. :—E. Piloshirish. DISTR. cures " Kapha". LOC. :—Common throughout the State in dry places .Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Sirisa. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Ankotha. Sirai. S. expectorant. useful in inflammations. (Mimosaceæ). alexipharmic . :—Throughout India. Juice—emetic. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Akoly. Ankoli. K. " Vata "-pain. H. COM. Ankola. Anedhera. hydrophobia. Ankora. H. Sirsul. and fruit. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sage-leaved alangium.) FAM. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Shyamala. Dridhakantaka. Uddanaka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Chinchola. Onkla. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. it is said to stop after-pains. blood diseases. Ankola. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. :—E. Root-bark poisonous. Kathora. colic. pungent. Ankoli. Karnapura. inflammations. leaves (rarely). carminative. diarrhœa. Root-bark— used in piles. gleet. aromatics or honey. lumbago. Shirisha. rat-bite. Malaya. Ankota. Ankol. Kalashirish. spermatorrhoea. dysentery. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Asroli. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). LOC. useful in worms. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Gudhapatra.—Alangiaceæ. Krishnashirisha. Garso. alexiteric. indigestible. See—Timbers. Sk. G. Kalshish. fish-poison. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. biliousness. anthelmintic. NS. alterative. K. heating.—Leguminosæ. wasting diseases. Philippines. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. burning of body. cures erysipelas. poisonous bites.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. commonly planted along roadsides. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. NS. Tamraphala. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. stem. acute fever. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Dodda-Hombage. Kaloshirish.
. M. bleeding piles. Onion. Leaves—good in night blindness. ophthalmia. improves taste. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. given in piles. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. blood diseases. used in leprosy. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. alexiteric. skin-diseases. epistaxis. stomachic. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). stimulant and expectorant. The plant contains vitamins A. which acts as a diuretic. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. FAM. aphrodisiac. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. Piyaz. Root—astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. good in rat-bite.: —Throughout India. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. usually planted. NS.K. :—Native country probably Persia. Burma. Ceylon. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. emollient. Palandu. deafness. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. their smell useful in hemicrania. maturant. Oil is used in leprosy. useful in malaria.. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). weakness. ear-ache. piles. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. enriches blood. G. LOC.:—E. dropsy. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. appetiser. biliousness. Rajapriya. . H. Dungari. piles. catarrh. etc. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. cures "Vata". seeds. cooling. Bengal. diarrhœa. cultivated everywhere. See—Vegetables. prescribed in ophthalmia. and also in skin diseases . and chronic bronchitis . Bark— anthelmintic. Seeds—fattening. leucoderma. relieves tooth-ache. It is an important garden crop. paralysis.—Liliaceæ. occasionally used in fever. Sk. Ulageddi. strengthens gums and teeth. syphilis. itching. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. flowers. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. anthelmintic. erysipelas. seeds. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. boils. tonic. vomiting. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. LOC. Kanda. volatile oil. COM. inflammations. leaves. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. Seeds—tonic to brain. Bulb—tonic. scabies. eruptions and swellings. Rochaka. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. spleen diseases. LOC. DISTR. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). Bark-bitter. Bark and seeds are astringent. body pains. excessive perspiration. etc. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. bronchitis. B & C. useful in vomiting. asthma. scabies. bark. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils.
Indian aloe. G. Korphad. oleaginous . Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. Lashuna. H. alexipharmic. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. aphrodisiac. epileptic fits. ear-ache (Ayurveda). It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. G. complexion. Kattali.—Liliaceæ. FAM. paraplegia and convulsive affections. It is an important garden crop. Bellulli. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Kanya. useful in inflammations. troubles of spleen. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. tumours. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. COM. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. anthelmintic. Lasan. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. In pulmonary phthisis.—Liliaceæ. Sk. H. Ugragandha. aphrodisiac. Lahsan. FAM. paralysis. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Diuretic. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Ikshurmallika. useful in diseases of eye and heart. thirst. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. clears voice. Kapila. chronic fevers. NS. carminative. lumbago. Lolisara. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Lasan. thins the blood (Yunani). The plant contains vitamin C. Rasonaka. liver and lungs . M. tonic. Kumari. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. K. digestive. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. In cases of diphtheria. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Ghi-kumari. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. thirst. K. M. " Vata ". Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. asthma. M. Korkand. LOC. Garlic. :—E. improves appetite. In Cambodia. Lasun. Sk. voice. COM. See—Vegetables. low fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. bronchitis. caries of teeth. Kumari. piles. ALŒ VERA Linn. Kuvarpatha. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. sciatica. Country. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. body and joint pains. LOC.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. hemiplegia. leucoderma. good for lumbago. inflammation. heating. . Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. fattening. leucoderma. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. NS.
Mediterranean. piles. It also acts as a mild purgative. Chatian. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. ulcers (Ayurveda). jaundice.—Apocynaceæ. HABITAT :—Moist forests. LOC. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. PARTS USED :— . scape longer than the leaves. Ceylon. inflammations. liver troubles. ophthalmia. Hale. useful in splean inflammation. gonorrhœa. C. DISTR. The plant contains aloin. simple or branched. Australia. :—A perennial herb . cooling. strangury. E. biliousness. liver complaints. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. wild along the coast. Bitter . Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. purgative. :—E. aphrodisiac. lumbago. spleen enlargement. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. tonic. used in fevers. Kadusale. Sk. K. scaly. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. and it is largely imported into India. somewhat divided. pain in muscles. Saptachhada. pale-green. Root. fleshy. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. stem short thick. NS. margins spiny. Dita bark tree. lanceolate. tropical Africa. anthelmintic. milky juice. FAM. crowded. tumours. asthma. LOC. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. digestive. Barbados. alterative. Satwin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kaduhale. tonic. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Leaves. perianth cylindric . isobarbaloin and emodin. yellow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. leaves. carminative. pendulous. H. West Indian Islands. Saptaparna. emollient and demulcent. bronchitis. Kanara.—in dense racemes . L. Jamaica. :—Wild along the coast in S. planted in Indian gardens . also cultivated. alexiteric. Native of S. COM. Java. India. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B.—sessile. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. LOC. used in form of paste in pleurisy. purgative. Satian. Satwin. Br. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. biliousness (Yunani). Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. :—Throughout India. bark. methritis. Africa. fattening. M. useful in eye-diseases. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. common in the rain-forests of N. Fl. vomiting. skin diseases. DISTR.
ovate. also in fields.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. rugose. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. Tandulibija. thickened at the top. leucorrhoea. Apamarisha. galactogogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. entire. obtuse.2—7. rat-bite. boils and burns. Prickly amaranth.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. laxative. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. Mullarave-soppu. tumours. ulcers.8 cm. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). K. COM. leprosy. M. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. obtuse. See—Vegetables. Fr. blood diseases. 30-60 cm. bitter. DISTR. Drug Com. Kantanatia.). Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. :—Throughout India. unisexual. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. male calyx acute. improves appetite.— capsule.3—3. See—Timbers. Pathyashaka. good in diseases of the heart. rubbish heaps and fields. Tandulja.. Ceylon. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . Mulladantu. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses.— 3. Fl. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. ovoid. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. anthelmintic. female calyx oblong. numerous. " tridosha " pain. Bark—acrid. Root—heating expectorant. NS. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. Tandulaja. tropical countries. high. LOC. burning sensation. H. stomachic. Cholai. L. asthma. Kantanu-dant. alexiteric. FAM. long. :—E. bronchitis. lanceolate. also useful in catarrhal fever. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. bristles pointed. digestible. diuretic. biliousness. heating. apiculate. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. diseases of the blood. piles. antiperiodic and febrifuge. . HABITAT :—In waste places. laxative. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. sudorific and febrifuge. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. :—An erect glabrous herb. oleaginous. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa.—Amarantaceæ. LOC. LOC. hallucination. appetiser. Sk. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. often reddish. rubbish heaps . useful in " Kapha ". The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. antipyretic. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers.5 X 1. G. Kante math. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. leucoderma. Kantalo dambho.
Grows wild on the banks of S. Jalavgiyo. G. Fr. G. Deccan. increases appetite and taste. " Vata. harmful in "Kapha". globose. fevers etc. sessile. PARTS USED :—Root. t. . Corm is irritant and also the seeds. erect or subscandent herb. Suran. L. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). irregularly circumsciss above the middle. In the Konkan. It is also used as an emmenagogue. LOC. FAM. fresh or dried. pungent. :—E. Kurendika. strangury . NS. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. :—E. Tropical Africa. Fl. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. Gujarat and Kanara. vomiting. H. Elephant's foot.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . depressed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . stomachic. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Sk. corm. Konkan rivers. CHAR. LOC. 8-65 cm. Jangli mehandi. Sd. FAM. Suran. K. appetiser.:— Konkan. abdominal pains. red. Suran. Ceylon. tumours. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. blood diseases. the plant. Afghanistan. :—Cultivated widely in the State. causes itching sensation. laxative. LOC. enlargement of the spleen.—Nov. :—Throughout India in moist places. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Fl. used as an appetiser (Yunani). aphrodisiac.—opposite. constipating. Bitter and acrid . Kandala. Sukaranda. LOC. Sk. Bharajambhul.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Australia. acrid. Dadmari. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. COM. elephantiasis . DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. branches usually opposite. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. stomachic. Blistering ammania. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. high. Kuranti. Suran . :—An annual. Kuranda. M. Kandavardhan. DISTR. M. Arshaghna. asthma. Vatari. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. bronchitis. much narrowed at the base. useful in piles. NS.—Araceæ. Vikata.—Lythraceæ. Kanthalla. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. Malaya.—capsule. COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons." blood troubles. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. China. removes " Kapha ".
USES :—Bark is alterative. Prithagbija. PARTS USED :—Bark. Crow-Fish Killer. H. See—Timbers. bark vertically furrowed . It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. K. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Kaju. Kaju . Kajutaka. Kakamari. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Kakamari. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. flowers. Sk. Agni-krita. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. sweet. 5-nerved. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. ulcers. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. See—Vegetables. ascites. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. long. Oils. ringworm. Fl. DISTR. LOC. & A. H. and trace of C. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. FAM. B. aphrodisiac.5-12. . It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. NS. 10-12 X 7. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. Sk. COM.—in panicles 25-35 cm. hot. cordate or truncate. K. Fish-Louse Berry. Gerubi. Kaju. swollen peduncle of fruit.. piles.—Menispermaceæ. Garalaphala. Kempu— Turkaka geru . dysentery. digestible. :—E. LOC.— subcoriaceous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid.—Anacardiaceæ. Kanara. which is nutritious and emollient. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". It is supposed to have restorative power. corns and obstinate ulcers. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. The seed contains vitamin A. equal to almond oil. M. :—E. Jermic. NS. COM. G. CHAR. Gova. :—A native of tropical America. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . Corm is poisonous. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakamari. skin diseases. Kakamari. Sophara. G. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakanashika. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). . Govamba. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. broadly ovate. Kakkisoppugida . also cultivated. FAM.5 cm. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. many flowered. Upapushpika. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. fever. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. Kakamari. Cashew apple-nut. anthelmintic.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. leaves. L. Kakaphal. M. leucoderma. tumours. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. The plant contains Vitamins A.
Bhuinimba. Ananas hannu. FAM.) LOC. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). E. PARTS USED :—Roots. removes gases from the intestines . Olen kirayat. Ama. M.-Oct. Bengal. Kiriyata. COM. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. Fl. leaves and fruits. N. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. petals absent. Ananasa. Olikiriyat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. COM. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. Nelabevu gida. Ananas . also acts as a purgative. DISTR. causes cough and biliousness. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic.—Sept. Kirata. :—E. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. NS. NS. cultivated. It acts also as diuretic. good expectorant.—Bromeliaceæ. Kiryat. Pine-apple . Creat. LOC. a poison to fish (Yunani). to a certain extent in Gujarat. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. DISTR. Sk. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Sk. Mahateet. M. :—Khasia Hills. dioecious. :—Konkan. Ananas. t. native of Brazil (tropical America). Ananas. H. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. Ananas . LOC. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. :—E. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. See—Fruit Trees. G. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. Kantak sanjika. it is useful in jaundice.—Acanthaceæ. from Orissa to Ceylon. K. fruits. Mahatit. H. Kanara. Parvati. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. black . . diaphoretic and refrigerant. LOC. K. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Assam. FAM. smooth.
:—Konkan and Kanara. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Green leaves. yellowish brown. C—2-lipped.—Dec. oblong-lanceolate. lateral lobes small. distant.— capsule. Fr. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. .—in dense whorls . Oshthaphala. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. t. Ceylon. :—S. C—2-lipped. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. lower lip very large and broad . Fl. Karitumbe. dyspepsia and fever from teething. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. linear-oblong. Sundara. Malay Peninsula.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. forming a spicate inflorescence.-Oct. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. 1.—Ghats. t. G. :—An erect branched annual 0. acute. Fl.9 m. :—E. CHAR. NS. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.—many.—Labiatæ. smooth.3-0. high. COM. stem quadrangular. acute at both ends . bracts lanceolate. Gojivana. pale above. thickly woolly.—small. undulate.—nutlets. Plant is useful in general debility. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. Sd. solitary.. LOC.3-10 X 2-4. tonic. and N. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Fl. Sundraphul. sometimes cultivated. lower 3lobed. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. K. DISTR. pale beneath. Vaikunth. LOC. approximate above. DISTR. Chodhara. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla.-Nov. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. purple. very small. made into an electuary. extensively used in Bengal. and certain forms of dyspepsia. Malabar Catmint. distant. rose coloured. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. stomachic.5 cm.—lanceolate. HABITAT. and anthelmintic. clothed with woolly hairs . The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. white below. PROPERTIES AND LOC. alterative. :—Throughout India. upper lip 2-toothed. high. 6. Sk. :—An erect shrub. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. M. Br. Karnatak. Fr. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes.8 m. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. crenate-serrate. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. :—Deccan. Alamoda. L. Kanara. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part.—very thick.2-1. FAM. ellipsoid. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. L. rugosely pitted. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. Fl. dysentery. polished brown.
DISTR. K. Krishnabija. Seeds—difficult to digest. DISTR. COM. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Dabria. Dohu. Damora. cooling . the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. and eyesores. erysipelas. Dhavala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. Amritphala. COM. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. produce ulcers in the eye. Button Tree. Kanara border. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . H. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). flavoury. stimulant.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Anan. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases.—Combretaceæ. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Durangi. Dhava. enriches blood. leaves and fruits. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. :—A native of West Indies . removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". LOC. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. leaves. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Dhava. (Yunani). :—E. M. tasty. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . H. chronic diarrhœa. discharges. Dindiga. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. FAM. now cultivated throughout India. :—Throughout the greater part of India. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. Ceylon. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. useful in anaemia. Shushkanga. G. Dindala. :—E. NS. Sk. Sitaphala. fruit and seeds. sedative to heart. Root—cathartic. causes fever and furunculosis . enriches blood . Fruit—sweet. useful in liver complaints. improves taste and appetite . Dhamora. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. LOC. Bahubijika. good tonic. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. applied to skin-diseases. Sugar apple. Custard apple. Sharipha. See—Timbers. Bakla. increases biliousness . LOC. bark. Sitaphala. increases muscular strength. Anuram. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Bark is a powerful astringent. LOC. Sitaphal. expectorant. astringent to the bowels. Sitaphala. abortifacient. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Sk. Pitaphala. G. Dhavada. Ata. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Dyes. Dhavada.—Anonaceæ. Sweet-sop. Bejjalu. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. K. Sitaphala. M. Bark is bitter. cooling.
Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. See—Fruit Trees. Niv. often cultivated. Surabhi. Sk. LOC. K. common near Yellapur. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Kadamb. Sacred Plants. wild or cultivated. sweet. :—Throughout India. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. biliousness. Seeds yield an oil and resin. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. :—G. Pegu. aphrodisiac. " Vata". LOC.—Moraceæ. Upas Tree. USES:—In the Konkan.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq.—Rubiaceæ. acrid. Jajpugri. Kadamb . Fruit—heating. In eye inflammations. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Chandkuda. galactagogue. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. good in uterine complaints. PARTS USED:—Bark. Nipa. cooling. Valkala. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. Kadubale. Ceylon. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Tennaserim. COM. Sk. Nadija. astringent to bowels. mixed with gram-flour. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. LOC. Kadam. :—E. Kadamb. vulnerary. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Burma. Karnapuraka. sprouts and fruits. alexiteric. Malay Islands. It is generally considered tonic. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . burning sensation. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. M. stomachic. They are detergent and their powder. K. Bairi. H. Peninsula. COM NS. " Kapha". NS. saline. Ashokari. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. sap of the tree. Kadamb . H. Chandkuda. indigestible. Chandala. blood diseases. :—W. FAM. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. FAM. Kanara . Malayan Peninsula. bitter. DISTR. Kaduve. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. causes biliousness when ripe. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Sprouts—acrid. strangury. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. . from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Fodder Plants. is a good hairwash. M. Ajjanpatte. Kadamba. DISTR. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid.
L. NS. Java and Malaya. Africa. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. rheumatism. useful in ophthalmia. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. Ajamoda. Bodi ajomoda. Ajmud. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis.5-2 mm. segments once or twice trifid. Bhuimug-chana. hiccup. appetiser. M. DISTR. N. CHAR.— in umbels. Monkey-nut. Fr. H. inflammations. erect. cure " Kapha ". tonic. and γ-antiarin. :—E. Moda. FAM. . :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Sk. Europe. vittae broad. scabies. Chinimung. COM. G. used in anasarca and colic. 0. good in ophthalmia. urinary discharges. Nelkadle. rectal troubles. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison..4 m. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Markati. heart and spleen diseases. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Fibres.:—Foot of the N. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. See—Timbers. Bhuimug. Karafs. K. M. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. Glucoside apiin is present. astringent to bowels . pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. :—E. Brahmakoshi. LOC. traces of B and C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. amenorrhœa. Shimbika. Ajmoda . tooth-ache. abdominal pain. Afghanistan. fever with cough. Celery. cure asthma. anthelmintic. Ugragandha. aphrodisiac.—Umbelliferæ. W. Ground-Pea-nut. H. Mungphali. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. vomiting. nasal catarrh (Yunani). Sk. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. " Vata " . Seeds—carminative. Mandapi. abortifacient. cauline 3-partite. vomiting. Bhuimug. specially near large cities. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. laxative. Asia. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—A biennial plant. Abyssinia. W. ascites.3-2. branching. Wild celery. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. chest-pains. Bhuchanak. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Bori ajmud. COM NS. rays 5-10. The plant contains vitamins A. scorpion and other stings. G.—1. See—Vegetables. high. pedicels 6-16 . bronchitis. apex toothed . improve appetite . ridges narrow. good for heart.— radial. β-antiarin. Snehabijaka.
LOC. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. M. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. digestive. LOC. Country. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. :—E. Chikka. Bengal. In French Guinea. aphrodisiac. Tantusara. Betta. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. bleeding gums.—Palmæ. Mysore. H. Indo-Malaya. Kanara. Betel-nut palm. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Chhataphala. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. NS. used for eye-inflammations. fairly largely in the Konkan. Adki. Pugiphal. cooling. laxative. Assam. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Areca palm. Seed cooling. ARECA CATECHU Linn. DISTR. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. FAM. Sk. Pophal. useful in urinary disorders. cardiotonic. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. DISTR. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. LOC. seeds. Sopari. indigestible. leaves (rarely). giddiness. removes foul breath. emmenagogue. Supari. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). See—Food Plants. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system.. K. Supari.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Poga. Gujarat and S. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. G. . Malabar. Chikkan. Hopari. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. Akota. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. diuretic. Suppiyari. Areca-nut palm. USES.:—Extensively grown in N. Burma. removes pus (Yunani). Kaungu. PARTS USED :—Root. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. M. LOC. Deccan. COM. gum. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Gum pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). gleet. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Nut astringent. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Siam. improves appetite and taste. :—Madras. Oils. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa.
3-0. brownish black. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . COM. arecaidine. cures leprosy. . relieves blisters. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. and guvacine. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. stem 0. 7.).—Papaveraceæ. H. yellow. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. Darudi. prickly. spinous. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). rhubarb and castor oil are indicated.8 cm. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. FAM. Sd. M. Shialkanta. netted. inflammations and bilious fevers. sinuately pinnatifid. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. G. t. Bharbhand. prickly. diam. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Fl. Daruri. Indigenous in tropical America. :—A glabrous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. oblong.5-3. Juice—used as a collyrium.12 m. glaucous herb . It is also diuretic. Svarnakshiri. sedative. purgative. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. veins white. Brahma dandi. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. Ind. Seeds are laxative. CHAR. 2. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea.—capsule. oblong-ovoid 2. arecoline.—thistlelike. Pita-pushpa. LOC. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. useful is strangury.5-5 cm. L. NS. :—E. Balurakkisa. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Srigalkanta. expectorant and demulcent. Fr. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. and in pertussis and asthma. Bila dhatura. Plant enriches blood. emetic. Sk. Seeds—purgative. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Fl. antidote to various poisons. various skin-diseases. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). This is said to bring the worm out at once.5-18 cm. K. India. juice yellow. Datturi. Fruit Trees. branching. stem clasping. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root. jaundice and cutaneous affections. seeds and yellow juice.—numerous.— terminal. Root anthelmintic. DISTR. nauseant. Mexican prickly poppy . destroys worms . It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap.—all the year. LOC. Pirangi datturi. USES :—Root is an alterative. high. globose. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. opening by 4-6 valves.
K. Adumuttadagida. Gujarat and S. Kidamari. infundibuliform. Ajantri. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. COM. base cordate.3-2 cm.—Aristolochiaceæ. Fl. HABITAT. Samandarka phal. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). Fl. Java. weak. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter .— 3. Leaves are maturative. glabrous inside. Dridhadaru. white-tomentose L. Konkan. bracts large . .5-4. base subglobose. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. gonorrhœa. useful in " Vata". reniform or broadly ovate.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. Sk. Dhuma-patra. H. NS. Samardar sokh. Kitamari. FAM.— 7. aphrodisiac. Samudrashok.—capsule. anthelmintic. Ceylon. Bracteated Birth-wort. 1. t. C—5-6. ovate glabrous above.—in sub-capitate cymes. tropical Africa. M. tubular. long and as broad as long. prostrate. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz.—deltoid with cordate base .8-7. tube inflated. CHAR. M.-Nov.5 cm. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. pubescent outside. used in gleet. Deccan and S. rose purple. long. oblongellipsoid. K. H.-Sept. Country. G. Samudraballi. peduncles stout.3 cm. Sd. FAM. white-tomentose beneath.. (sometimes even larger). Elephant Creeper. Krimighni. the bands silky pubescent outside. DISTR.— globose apiculate. pedicel with a large bract at the base. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Kiramar. Fr. t. M. Gandali. strangury.—Aug. LOC. long. Samudrashosh. Shyambhuna. NS. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. :—Throughout India. See—Ornamental Plants. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. painful joints.3-25 cm. CHAR. Soge. Vridhadaraka. Fl. tip linear dark purple. absorptive. W. 12-ribbed . LOC. M. Samudrapatrashoh.5-30 x 6. Peninsula. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. perianth 2. Fr.— Aug. In synovitis. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. :—A slender perennial. Kitakaba. Arabia.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. base cordate with wide sinus . Varghoro. diuretic . :—E. cultivated. perhaps a native of Bengal. Fl. DISTR. :—Bengal. white-tomentose. Sk. LOC. L. long. G. Ganda.—solitary.—Convolvulaceæ. stems stout. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers.:—Konkan. powdered root is given with milk. COM. " Kapha" fevers. :—E. Kidamar. striate. stems. :—A very large climber. Hastivalli. with revolute margins.5 cm.
Indian wormwood. Mastaru. Fl. purgative (Yunani). bract opposite the pedicel. The plant contains an alkaloid.:—Konkan and S. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Ishvari. Indian Birth-wort. emmenagogue. Dona.5x7. H. Plant is used as an abortifacient. M. Nakuli. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. base vaiable. Sk. COM. also useful in dropsy. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. The plant contains an alkaloid. Manjipatri. Nagduna. dry cough. 3. Gathona. Isharmula. winged. perianth greenishwhite. CHAR. slender. Flea-bane. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). K. COM. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. LOC. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. Majtari. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. entire with undulate margins.—Compositæ. Isvara balli beru . Dovana. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. L. :—E. Nepal. M. obovate oblong 10-12.—variable linear oblong. H.—flat. grooved. Sugandha. PARTS USED :—Roots. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. :—E.—in few flowered axillary racemes. M. Sd.. Nilpushpa. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Seeds useful in inflammation. DISTR. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. :—Western Peninsula. NS. t. FAM. Arkamula. leaves and seeds. reaching 4.5 cm. joint-pains.. Saraparni. long with globose inflated base. Bengal. Sapsan. woody at the base. globose-oblong. Stem long. Fr. bitter. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. NS. Arkamula.) FAM. alexiteric. Country. . :—A twining shrub. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. biliousness. Mother or Mugwort. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent.8-10 X 1. Nagdamani. Fl." pains in the joints. dyspnoea of children. Sk. Ruhimula. useful in " Tridosha.3-2. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. Ceylon. 6-valved. Dhor-davana.—Nov. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. K. tonic. — capsule.5 cm.5 cm. G.—Aristolochiaceæ.
:—Throughout hilly districts of India. minute. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. Panesa. NS. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. deeply pinnatisect. pubescent above. Ceylon. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Thailand (Siam). Fl. M. temperate Asia.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sk. Fl. 3-fid or entire. L— lower leaves 5. HABITAT. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. Skandaphala. ulcers. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. fruit and seeds. aromatic.4 m. asthma and brain diseases. asthma. ovate. lanceolate. Fruit Trees and Dyes. upper leaves smaller. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. ripe fruit laxative.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. aphrodisiac. H. FAM.10x2. leprosy. alexiteric. enriches blood. petioled. LOC. "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. An infusion is given as a tonic. Kantakaphala. although very nutritious. Kanara. lobes entire.—Urticaceæ. fattening. LOC. G. :—Konkan. COM.6-2. high. " Kapha". Jack-Orange wood. Externally it is used in fomentations. Seeds sweet. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. useful in biliousness. :—Widely cultivated. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Phanasa. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. often planted along roadsides in N. Kanthal. base lobed. The plant contains an essential oil. K. LOC. oleaginous. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. grown in gardens also. aphrodisiac.5-5 em.:—A perennial shrub. Ghats. solitary or 2. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Leaves. aphrodisiac. DISTR. :—E. toothed or again pinnatisect. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. t. . Phanas. Halasina. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. LOC. cures "Kapha". Vanas. Chakki. appetiser. Java. cooling. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. Jack-fruit tree. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Kujja. fertile. inner hermaphrodite. Panas. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions.—Jany.— achene. Panos. Fr. outer flowers female. DISTR. 0. stems leafy. diuretic. The unripe fruit is astringent. involucral bracts villous. tonic. itching (Ayurveda). Tage. white tomentose beneath. but rather difficult to digest. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. hairy.—heads ovoid or subglobose. constipating (Ayurveda). " Vata".-Hilly districts. oblong ellipsoid. The young leaves are used in skin diseases.
Flower is a good styptic. oblong. Satavari.—in simple raceme. from Kashmir eastwards. spinous. M. PARTS USED:—Root. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. high. DISTR. root-stock tuberous. :—An erect undershrub. thin.—June-Sept.. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. stomachic. Var. 2. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. COM. 0. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. inflammation. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet.—orange in axillary umbels. thorn. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. Fl. Fr. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa.5-10 X 1. and moist monsoon forests. astringent to bowels. lanceolate. Sd. blood and eye diseases.— follicles.3-2.-Feb. Satavari. spines recurved. Satavari. solitary.—Asclepiadaceæ. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. A fibre is extracted from the plants. 7. cultivated as ornamental plant. Kuraki. cooling. white. :—E. L. t. .5-5 cm. :—Introduced from the W. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn.—opposite 7. abundant round about Poona. Shatavari. tapering at both ends. Country. M. K.5 cm.—Liliaceæ.—lobes reflexed in flower. PARTS USED:—Root. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. Fr.—linear with a stout spinous spur. in the Himalayas. with coma. LOC. Siprimuli. Svadurasa. curved.ovoid. LOC.—berry. Sk. Kaktundi. alterative. narrowed at both ends. long. throat complaints. fragrant. dark brown. S. segments. up to 1. biliousness. JAVANICA Baker. C. red when ripe. CHAR.000 m. straight. globose. undershrub. naturalised in many parts of India. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. Fl. :—Extremely scandent. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. :—Deccan. COM. tumours. leaves and flowers. aphrodisiac. Fl. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. linear. common in the Deccan. cladodes in tufts. oleaginous. Java and Australia. tonic. Asual Shatavari. valvate in bud. appetiser. DISTR. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. useful in dysentery. FAM. t. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. Indies. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha.-Dec. L. Tropical Africa.2 m. indigestible. Satamulika.9-1. NS. CHAR. M. Fl. erect.5 cm. Svetmuli. :—G. galactogogue. FAM.
CHAR. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. hispid with long hairs.2 cm.— Acanthaceæ. sedative to gravid uterus . The root is sweet.—sessile. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. erect. tube. COM. USES :—The root is refrigerant. K. Talim-khana. biliousness. 0. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. constipation. expectorant. LOC. laxative. Vishnu Taila.. Narayana Taila. pointed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. useful in diarrhœa. ascites. aphrodisiac. Africa. And. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. 2 outer large.—capsule. upper 2-fid. :—A stout herb. thirst. Fl. Gokhran. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. colic. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. Kolavalike. :—Throughout India. Kak-Kokilaksha. LOC. aphrodisiac. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. Phalaghrita. diuretic. 4 inner small. Talamkhan.8 cm. t. L. NS. eyediseases. linear oblong. Talamkhana. useful in jaundice and anasarca. Used in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Root. 3. Seeds fattening. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. urinary calculi and discharges. H. hypnotic. ciliate . scalding of urine. Sk. Kalavankabija. 4-8 seeded. Gokhalkanta. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). . Gokshura. long. abdominal troubles. gleet. inflammations. Konkan and Deccan. anæmia.— purple blue. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. lanceolate. leprosy. Vikhara. lower deeply 3-lobed. Shrigalghant. C. aphrodisiac . gonorrhoea. anuria. Ikshura. DISTR. USES. stems fasciculate. HABITAT:—Swampy places. Fl. thickened at the nodes. tonic.) LOC. Ekharo. high. :—G. 18 X 3-3. improve blood (Yunani). demulcent. and alterative tonic. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. leaves and seeds. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. M. hairy. Seeds cooling.5 cm. Ceylon. tropical and S. (Yunani. like leaves. Leaves good for cough.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. tonic. dysentery. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. abruptly swollen at the top. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. lips sub-equal. aphrodisiac .:—Common throughout the State. bracts. tonic. antispasmodic. galactogogue. widely 2-lipped.—June-Jany.6-1.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Vajrakantaka. and dysentery. night-blindness (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. tonic. Fr. subquadrangular.) FAM.
oblong. :—E. decussate. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . stops diarrhœa and vomiting. "Vata". black dotted : entire. stems rooting at the nodes. pale.. Kamrang. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda).:—E. Brahmi. laxative. Kamarakha. C. Barambhi. sour. Kamarakh. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic.—Oxalidaceæ. when fresh. Fruits are used in pickles. heats the body (Ayurveda). t. . pungent. allays thirst. Soumyalata. sessile. Karuka. DISTR. anæmia.:—Konkan and Deccan. Nirbrahmi. Sk. Root is given in cases of poisoning. acute. Bama. digestible. Karmare . (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. inflammations. dried fruit is given in fevers. 2-lipped. G. ascites. FAM. L. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. succulent. Jany-May. enlargement of spleen. Manduki. M. solitary. Sk. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. fruits. Karmar. K. perhaps a native of Malaya.) FAM. Fr. See—Fruit Trees. leprosy. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Fl. causes biliousness (Yunani). H. branches many ascending.5-10 mm. astringent to bowels. with shining dots. Shiral. Ceylon and all warm countries. fleshy. ovoid. M. found wild near N. emetic. Thyme-leaved graticula . Darehuli.:—Throughout India in wet places. striate. LOC. Carambola apple. Karmal. Fl. DISTR. LOC. obovate-oblong or spatulate. indigestion. Fruit sour. Brahmi. Tamarak. COM. LOC. HABITAT :—Damp places. axillary. lobes equal spangled. tumours. K. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. capsule. H. Kirihuli. 6-25 X 2. NS. Kanara villages. Safed-Kammi. NS. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. Jalneam. COM. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. causes biliousness. useful in bad ulcers. astringent to bowels .MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn.—Scrophulariaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. Coromandel gooseberry. heating. Sd. Mudgara. CHAR. Brahmi. creeping herb. tonic. pale blue or white. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). also used in diarrhœa. rarely wild. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kamaranga. :—A glabrous.
Burma. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. anaemia.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. abundant on the hills of Karanja. purifies blood. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. epilepsy and hoarseness. of three 2-valved cocci. Kaduharalu. :—Bihar. in monsoon forests of N. COM. Dec. Dantika. purgative. all male or with a few females below. They are used in dropsy. K.—Euphorbiaceæ. hairy. useful in pains. K.—Burseraceæ. branching from the roots. leaves and seeds. good in scabies. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Chota Nagpur. aphrodisiac . M. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. leucoderma. :—E. Fl. yellowish. smooth. the lower large. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Guggula. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. LOC. Hakum. ellipsoid. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. often palmately 3-5 lobed. capsule. Assam. diuretic. Danti. anthelmintic. FAM. epilepsy and hoarseness. :—Dry open Deccan plains. Seeds are poisonous. Danti. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. Jatala. Guggula. Danti. G. Mukul. H. wounds. PARTS USED :—Root. 2-glandular. Leaf-juice. Malaya. :—G. piles. Jamalgota. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Devdhup. NS. CHAR. LOC. . NS. Sk. H. mottled. itching. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. diseases of skin and abdomen. Dantimul. inflammations. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). Rechani. 0. t. FAM. Gugul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Vishodhini. leucoderma. toothed.8 m. Guggula. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Guggul. the upper small. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Uddipta. anasarca and jaundice. Kanara. Danti. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. W. L. or in monsoon forests. DISTR. high. COM. Peninsula. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Bengal. conjoined with petroleum. enlarged spleen. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine.. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Fl. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. LOC. syphilis . Fr. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. obovoid. M. Gum gugul. Root and leaves are cathartic. useful in insanity. HABITAT :—Dry open plains.9-1. jaundice (Ayurveda). :—A stout undershrub. alexiteric. sinuate. N. Sk. Sd.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
:—Cultivated throughout the State. flat. used as gargle in stomatitis. Sikkim. Fl. given' to corpulent persons. LOC. tonic. Tallow-White gourd. See—Ornamental Plants. aphrodisiac. used in piles. biliousness. DISTR. seeds. Fruit—antiperiodic. FAM. appetising. menorrhagia. eye diseases. Burma. bark and flowers.10-15. Sk. t. aphrodisiac. cures biliousness. ulcers. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. heart tonic (Ayurveda). dehiscent. blood impurities. thirst. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Timisha. LOC. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. Koholu. Shikhivardhaka. NS. M. not indigenous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). Seeds— cooling. K. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. wounds and ulcers. in dyspepsia and flatulence. :—E. oil from the seeds. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. tonic. tuberculous glands.-Feb. diuretic. leprosy. used in dry cough. dysmenorrhoea. HABITAT :—Cultivated. astringent. COM. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. PARTS USED :—Root.—pod. cough. fever. H. Ash pumpkin. anthelmintic. Golkaddu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. Buds—indigestible.5 cm. G. Sd. blood diseases . urinary discharges and calculi. Kushmanda. Kumaon.8-2. Kudimah. Dorokaru. Bhuru-koholu. There are two varieties. Budekumbalkai. tuberculous glands. cardiac and general tonic. burning sensation. cough. China. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. Karkutika. Root. cures biliousness. cures strangury.-Apl. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). asthma. Kondha. Kohala. asthma. leprosy. vaginal discharges. USES :—Root-decoction is given. it is also anti-fat remedy. tonic to liver. used in strangury. anal troubles. removes foul taste from mouth. PARTS USED :—Fruit. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. blood diseases. urethral discharges. " Tridosha". Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula.—Cucurbitaceæ. "Kapha". red and white. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Fr. Bark—astringent to bowels. thirst. biliousness. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. enriches blood. leucoderma. 15-20 X 1. DISTR. LOC.
—Jany. t. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. LOC. Sk. stem erect. ash colored. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. Fr. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. good for the brain and liver. often incised or lyrate. etc. densely glandular. and nutritious tonic. Jangali-muli. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. pungent. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. catarrh. Kakaronda.—the lower ones petioled. Country. pappus white. :—Throughout plains of India. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. Kakarunda. anti-pyretic. Mriduchhada. LOC.—heads many. it is given in bleeding piles. CHAR. bitter. COM. :—G. it is also useful in insanity. burning sensation. finely silky pubescent on both sides. M.-achene. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Deccan. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. Tamrachuda. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Kukurbanda. sharply serrate-dentate. cures bronchitis. mixed with black pepper. M. Tropical Africa. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. haemoptysis. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. :—Annual herb. S. Kalhar. Ceylon. L. good in syphilis (Yunani). fevers. and diuretic. H. upper subsessile. Malaya. asthma. LOC. . blood diseases. elliptic-oblong.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. oblong. China. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. FAM. Pilokapurio.-Apl. Kukkurdru. astringent. NS. cooling. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. not ribbed. Australia. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). with a strong odour of turpentine. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). febrifuge. thirst. high. laxative.3—0. Fruit is made into confections. base tapered.9 m. Fl. DISTR. phthisis. Kanara. pubescent. heart diseases. See—Vegetables. 0. inner bracts with green midrib. Bhamurdi. BLUMEA LACERA DC. Fl. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. Konkan.—Compositæ. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis.:—In plains south of Bombay. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. sweetish. Oil—is soporific. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle.
asthma. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Africa and America. fusiform.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. —Nyctaginaceæ. Moto-satodo.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. 1. . margins undulate. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. native of tropical Africa. spleen enlargement. K. common in S. anæmia. stem prostrate or ascending. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). astringent to bowels . alexiteric. Burma. H. useful in biliousness. Uttar Pradesh. Ghetuli. CHAR. Dhvajadruma. abdominal pains. G. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. green above. G. Punarnava.— Nov. Bitter. generally found in poorer soils. Persian Gulf. Fl. FAM. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. L. Raktakanda. (Ayurveda). Tala. leucorrhoea. in pain of joints. It produces a very marked and persistent. whitish beneath. very glandular . diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Tad. and dropsy. Sk. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Sk.—Palmæ. :—A diffuse herb. LOC.. NS. HABITAT :—A weed. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . blood impurities. tumours. cooling . Seeds—tonic. "Kapha" heating. heart diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). COM. LOC. Leaves— appetiser. LOC. FAM. root large. H. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Tad. Ceylon. Vasu. Madhurasa. expectorant.—in corymbose umbels. Desert Palm. cultivated and self-sown. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. DISTR. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. "Vata". sub-orbicular. tropical and sub-tropical Asia.3—2 cm. Fl. M. Santhikari. Celyon. :—E. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. Asavardu. P. very small. Talimara. DISTR.—in unequal pairs at each node. pinkish. COM. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Tad. NS. :—E. bluntly 5-ribbed. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves and seeds. Dholia-saturdo. Kommegida. Shothaghni. scabies. Fan Palm. useful in lumbago.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Kolaba and Thana districts. M. alterative. Baluchistan. t. Plant contains large quantities of pot. Brab tree. useful in ophthalmia. :—Tropical India. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Fr. It is used in jaundice. cultivated. Lekhyapatra. inflammations. carminative. India.—clavate. gonorrhœa. Hogweed. Palmyra Palm. K. Varshabhu. Indian Archipelago.
Moddi. " Vata". See—Timbers. fattening. fatigue. useful in intestinal troubles. antiglycosuretic. DISTR. antipyretic. aphrodisiac. bitter. cures dysentery. Bark-decoction. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. H. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. improves taste. diaphoresis. cough. burning sensation. allays. M. also found in Belgaum District. diuretic . dry. LOC. useful in skin and blood diseases. helps delivery. G. useful in biliousness. K. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds.. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Salgond. tonic. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). bad throat. tonic. fruit and gum. intoxicating. Fruit—cooling. Vishesha-dhupa. blood complaints . Salpe. thirst and scalding of urine. Sambrani. flowers. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. Salashi. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Sugars. Guggula. Gum—hot. skin diseases. invigorating. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. allays thirst. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. expectorant. Guggali. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). heals wounds . also used as antiperiodic. NS. fattening. removes "Kapha". purifies blood.—Burseraceæ. Dup. if taken regularly acts as laxative. fevers. Gum is of five kinds . Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. vaginal discharges. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. Dhupam. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. flowers. Fermented juice—tonic. FAM.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. may cause vomiting. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Loban. . Luban. binding. juice. ulcers . antibilious . COM. used for boils. fruits. :—E. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . astringent to bowels. laxative. mouth-sores. intoxicating. Liquors. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . biliousness. aphrodisiac. allays asthma. scabies. Mukulsalai. Kundur. thirst. Gums and Resins. Sk. Dhup. causes headache. alexiteric. leaves. hot. expectorant. "Vata". as a collyrium in ophthalmia.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. with a good flavour. antidysenteric. Indian olibanum tree. PARTS USED :—Bark. convulsions. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. asthma. LOC. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. causes " Kapha ". Salphali. with a little salt added. purifies blood (Yunani). strengthens teeth. Salai. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. cooling. Fruit—aphrodisiac.
cure nose. Black-True mustard. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Seeds act as digestive condiment . LOC. internal congestions. FAM. Rai. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. " Vata". :—Cultivated in India. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. spleen. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. kill external parasites. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . COM. cause burning . Dharwar and Belgaum. Kali-rai. Surat. :—E. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. LOC. See—Timbers. used with butter in syphilis . Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). anthelmintic . Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. G. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. India. . given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. good for throat complaints. Seeds-laxative. Seeds— remove cough tumours. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. if swallowed whole they are laxative. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. lessen oedema of body. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. cure enlargement of spleen. Broach. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. cure skin-dissases. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Asuri. increase appetite . Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath.—Cruciferae. Mohori. Taramira . vermicide. Khandesh. chiefly in Nasik. M. bechic. Sarshapa. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. rheumatism. Gums and Resins. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. K. increase bile. good in cough and for inflammations. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. stomachic. appetiser. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. and toothache. Sk. spasmodic. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. H. Jwalanti. eye-troubles. dispel fever . See—Condiments and Spices. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. biles. ear. Rajika. Kaira. Kari Sasive . Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. Kunder or Mhashaguggula.
Fl. Patharphoda. FAM.—yellowish brown. 5-lobed. smooth. Sk. Manj. tendrils 2-fid : L. Shivlingi. M. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. pungent. female flowers solitary. streaked with broad vertical lines . Mauritius. Fl. CHAR.— Aug-Sept. bluish green. :—An annual scandent herb. lumbago. diam.:—Throughout India. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Ishawara-Shivalingi. K. and in fevers with flatulence. It is used in bilious attacks.— membranous.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. 3—2 . or few or many. Lingaja. LOC. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. stem grooved. 1 .. DISTR. Shivalingi. DISTR. margins sinuate denticulate. Malaya. deeply cordate base. paler and smooth beneath. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. Fr.. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Ekadivi. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. 10-15 cm. S. Kaj. Kassi. hemiplegia. Goge. ovate-oblong. Mullu-siru Honne. H. 5-partite. globose.—Cucurbitaceæ. Gauli. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. green and scabrid above. H. hot. Suviraka. FAM. COM. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Sd. bark. bitter. NS. Apastambhini. Gargumaru. alterative. tropical Africa. of Shivaling shape . Asana. Garige. lobes oblong lanceolate. heating. corolla companulate. :—G. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. corolla as in the male . . Tans. 5 cm. Khaja. Asana. M. Asana. Asana. southward to Ceylon. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell.. Mahavira. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. useful in "Vata". long. Lingini. Philippines.—baccate. subsessile. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Gunjan. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. :—Deccan. LOC. glabrous .44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Sk. Kavodi. Chandra. Ekalkanto. t. Australia. Shivavalli. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). NS. :—G. COM. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. Country. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.
—Jany.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. fevers. Burma. cooling. aphrodisiac. Murukali. Gujarat. Cambodia. COM. S. LOC. tonic. The bark is bitter and poisonous. Charpoppu. M. astringent to bowels. fattening. thirst.. Leaf-juice digestive. :—H. crenate or serrate. LOC. COM. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. Char. alexipharmic. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. constricted in the middle. with opposite branches . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). L. buds with root. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. Dhanu. Paira. :—Konkan.) FAM. Charoli. when punctured. aphrodisiac. Stems obtusely 4-angled. Fr. purgative. Char. Tapaspriya.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Fl. gum (rarely). Asthibhakshya. Panphui.—Anacardiaceæ. Kolegeru. M. fruit. Sk. M. inflammations. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. M. LOC. decussate. Char. cures blooddiseases.3-1. lower usually simple. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Country. DISTR. FAM. purifies blood. high. vomiting.—small. H.—variable.—pendant. Thailand (Siam). Country. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). :—Hot and drier parts of India. Deccan. Panphuti. Zakhi-haiyat. Fl. deciduous open forests. the Dangs.—Crassulaceæ. analgesic. Cochin-China. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. useful in diarrhœa. expectorant. leaflets ovate. K. the older light-coloured. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. cardio-tonic. S. upper 3-5-7 foliate. younger reddish. K. Lonnahadakana gida. Parnabija. in large panicles. ulcers. Rajadana. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. Charoli. burning sensation on body. smooth. laxative. Sk. leaves. Piyal. carminative. PARTS USED :—Roots. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . binding. Priyal. CHAR. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". allays . astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Sd. occasionally compound. bruises. It is a disinfectant. DISTR. lobes triangular. NS. elliptic. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. Lalana. "Vata" and biliousness. Snehabija. See—Ornamental Plants. Deccan. reddish purple.—swollen and octagonal at the base. NS. t. seeds. boils and bites of venomous insects. speckled with white. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery.2 m. C. also wild. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. :—Native of tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Dry. :—G. Pyalchar.
aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. good in biliousness. burning urine. Flowers—cure " Kapha". burning sensation. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. stomachic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). tonic. tumours. in the Khandesh Akrani. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. LOC. pimples. COM. Flower—aphrodisiac. topically in piles and hydrocele. good in fevers. cures excessive perspiration. ascends to 1200 m. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. anthelmintic.) FAM. cause headache (Yunani). gout. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. Seeds tonic to body and brain. cold and cough. eye diseases. useful in piles. Bark—appetiser. fractures. Palash. used in diseases of chest and lungs. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). digestible. Kshatadru. Gum—acrid. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). corneal opacities. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. skindiseases. Yajnika. gum. hydrocele. dysmenorrhoea. laxative. anthelmintic.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. buboes. Khakda. Fruit and seeds—oily. inflammations. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . Gum—astringent to bowels. Khakera. stomatitis. Khakhrao. India. Chichra. Bark—appetiser. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. lessens inflammations. tonic to liver. cure tumours. lessens biliousness. aperient used in urinary discharges. purifies blood. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. colic. :—E. Kuntz. Leaf—very astringent. aphrodisiac. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. bark. useful in bone fractures. diseases of anus. astringent. aphrodisiac. dry. useful in elephantiasis. emmenagogue. strangury. tonic. Muttuga. Leaves—good for eye diseases. good in dysentery. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. thirst. Fruit and seed—hot. leprosy. biliousness. Dhak. Gums and Resins. G. Oils. diuretic . BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. K. PARTS USED :—Root. gonorrhoea. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. LOC. dysentery. cough. Tripatrak. remove bad humours. Bastard teak. seeds. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. relieves abnormal thirst. flowers. pterygium. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. NS. used in liver disorders. Sk. Kinshuk. expectorant. piles. Ceylon. cures ulcers and tumours. useful in syphilis. Muttala. LOC. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Kakria. H. if chewed. See—Timbers. piles. anthelmintic. gonorrhœa. Dyes. Palas. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . worms and piles. M. DISTR. lessens lumbago. prickly heat and itch. leaves. carminative. Palas.
long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. 5-7.) COM. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. Deccan hills. skin-diseases. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. H. Fruit—acrid. malaria. petioles prickly. oblong 5-7. lead-colored 1. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. NS. astringent to bowels. Sagargota. . Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". very common near the sea-coast. Sd. 30-60 cm. anthelmintic. Leaves contain a glucoside. K. Sind. Katkaleja. heating. elliptic-oblong. :—An extensive climber.—pod. useful in colic. Karanja. Kakechika. leaves. flowers and fruit. long . sprouts useful in tumours. Gum solution is applied to bruises. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. Katkaranj. Gajjige. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. LOC. M. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. antiperiodic. Gums and Resins. shortly stalked. Tapasi. See—Timbers. long. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. anthelmintic . leucorrhcea. Fever nut. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. etc. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder.3 cm. Seed—styptic. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. aphrodisiac and diuretic. the tropics generally. ringworm. wounds. Physic nut. LOC. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. asthma and colic. leaflets 6-9 pairs.—JulySept. cures urinary discharges. piles.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. FAM. They are applied to orchitis. fevers.5 cm. leprosy (Yunani).—1-2 oblong. Gajga. CHAR. :—Throughout India. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . L. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Gajaga. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . prevents contagious diseases . strongly mucronate. Fl. densely armed on the faces with prickles.—yellow. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. Dyes. cures inflammation . Fr. G. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. aphrodisiac. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Kuberakshi. Flowers are astringent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. act as rubefacient. t.5 X 4. hydrocele. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). good in small-pox and elephantiasis. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch.5 cm.—abruptly pinnate. DISTR. :—E. Fl.
4-3 m. LOC. Undi. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. 10-20 X3. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. thick. both surfaces tomentose. East African Islands. Akdo.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. Arka. Polynesia. 2. LOC. FAM. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Madar. elliptic or ovate oblong.. :—A large shrub. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. high. CHAR.. K. K. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. The gum from wounded branches. Rui.H. branches stout. Mandara. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Tungakeshera. Surangi.8-10 cm. Ekke. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. much branched. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. covered with cottony pubescence. Arka. M. Malaya. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Dholaakdo. Purasakeshera. Kshiranga. COM. NS. Sk. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". improves complexion (Ayurveda). Vuma. :—E. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Oils. Surpan. gum. Punnag. FAM. very common in N. G. Punnaga. lessens appetite. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. See—Timbers. Madar. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. COM. :—E. base cordate. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Gigantic swallow-wort. astringent. Ark. Mandara. and oil. L. M. Sk. Kshirparni. Alexandrian laurel. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Ak.—Guttiferæ. sometimes amplexicaul. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action.— opposite. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Kanara associated with littoral species. used in chronic fevers. Br. Shuka-phala. Ceylon. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. PARTS USED :—Bark. . Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies.. sessile. often gregarious. Undi.—Asclepiadaceæ. Surhonne. DISTR.. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Ponne. :—Cultivated throughout India. Akand. NS. and for its oil. Sultanchampa.. Australia. H.
used in cough. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. back much curved. useful in leprosy. Ark.5 cm.—about 2.—follicles.— Feb.— purplish in umbellate cymes. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. usually 5. tumours. long. COM. spleen and liver diseases.2 cm. t. comose. flattened tomentose. DISTR. heal wounds. buds ovoid..5-8. asthma. laxative. also useful in intestinal worms. green.—broadly ovate.5-10 X 5-7.7—15 X 4. depilatory. C. India. elliptic or obovate. broad. dropsy. lobes usually erect.8-2. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. Fl. very common. cures leucoderma. purgative. very common is S. buds globose. Br. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. China. acrid . cures inflammations. painful joints . NS. . piles.—subsessile. cures leprosy. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. alterative and purgative properties. L. Rajarka.-July. M. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. leaves applied to paralysed parts. young parts white. good for liver (Yunani). Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles .. PARTS USED :—Root. Madar. Sd:—many. Flower—analgesic.. ringworm of scalp. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. Fl. ulcers. Milk— caustic. CHAR. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. FAM. C. rat-bite. Mandara.:—H. diaphoretic. ovate oblong.4 m. Juice—anthelmintic. Sk. cures piles and "Kapha". See—Fibres. expectorant and anthelmintic. elephantiasis. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. LOC. catarrh and loss of appetite. coughs. subglobose. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. Ak. bark corky. cottony.—lobes deltoid-ovate. Safedak. Fr. Mandara. bark. liver and spleen enlargement. ascites. purplish or white. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Flowers—stomachic. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. swellings. comose . tonic and stomachic in action. :—An erect shrub usually 1. Root-bark is diaphoretic. Malay Islands and S. 9-10 cm. Ceylon. Flowers—digestive. across. tumours. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha.—7. eruption on body. Fr. :—Throughout warmer parts of India.5 cm. apex with two auricles. LOC. leaves and flowers. spongy.—in umbellate cymes. high. cures asthma and syphilis. oleaginous. asthma. scabies. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. ellipsoid or ovoid. astringent. corona shorter than the column. Milk— heating. ascites and anasarca.—Asclepiadaceæ. Sd.
50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions.—segments 2.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Abai. tropical Africa. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Sambe. CHAR. green. biliousness. they are given in cholera. long. Kardali. Nilashimbika. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Kalehu. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. 3 sub-erect. ulcers (Ayurveda). Shimbi.5 cm. Asishimbi. high .—15-45 X 10-20 cm. oval or orbicular. on trees and hedges .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). K. H. M. DISTR. P. Sk. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Kadavare. but doubtfully wild. Fl. Tarvardi. lanceolate to ovate. CANNA INDICA Linn. Devakeli. See—Fibres. LOC. DISTR. stem 0. See—Vegetables. Koshaphala. indigestible. veins arching. Tamateballi. Sarvajaya. Sarvajaya. L.3 cm. Indian shot.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Waziristan. :—E. Akalabera. Iran.:—Perennial herb . PARTS USED :—Leaves. Paraholiya.. LOC. erect. root-stock tuberous. flowers and milky juice. Arabia. Shitarambha. acrid. cooling. :—E. Gavara.. Warm leaves used as poultice. 1 linear . staminodial segments. Kamakshi. LOC. Afghanistan. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. NS. tonic. Broad—Sword bean. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. FAM. PARTS USED :—Pods. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. G. Khadsambal. NS. FAM. abundant in Sind.9-1. Kadsambu. greenish or colored. (Chopra). Gigantea. K. appetiser. useful in burning sensations. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. Hudingana. Sabbajaya. bracts oblong. There is an alkaloid present in the pods.2 m. Egypt. Sema. narrow. COM.—Scitaminaceae. hernia and colic. G. Sk. COM. membranous. M. The pods contain vitamin A. spatulate. Flowers used as detergent. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Gavria.
female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. dropsy. DISTR.5 m. COM. Ganja. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered.—many. good for hydrocele. Ganja. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. soporific. female crowded under convolute bracts. sepals 5. abortifacient. seeds and resin. :—Throughout India. shining. HABITAT :—Cultivated. female perianth hyaline.—small axillary. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. melancholia. Ganja. (2) Bhang. 3-lobed. Sd. leaves. black. PARTS USED :—Roots. (3) Charas. astringent to bowels. astringent. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Shivapriya. intoxication. Bhangi. DISTR. restlessness. hot.—alternate or the lower opposite. flowers and seeds. heating. :—Widely cultivated in India. soporific. Female inflorescence is stomachic. leprosy. high in its feral state. FAM. lower 3-8 foliate. Wild in the Himalayas. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. stomachic. Hemp. Fr. Central Asia. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. Bark—tonic. L. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Urticaceæ. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . lessen inflammation. piles. flowers. CHAR. excessive use causes indigestion. causes thirst. Leaves—bitter. Fl. LOC.—more or less throughout the year. hallucinations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. LOC. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell).—sub-globose or oblong . aphrodisiac. Vijaya. Fl. male fascicled.—achene. check vomiting. M. Sk. cough. oil-good for earache. usually 0. Harshini. :—E. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). leaves. t. tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. Siddhapatri. NS. upper 1-3. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. causes thirst and biliousness. also wild. K. Not indigenous. tonic. See—Ornamental Plants.9-1. useful in " Kapha". USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. LOC. globose. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). alterative . :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. water extract anthelmintic. serrate. echinulate . intoxicating. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. G. Unmattini.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. aphrodisiac. Bhang. intoxication (Ayurveda). Bhang. impotence. Mohini. Seeds—carminative. imbricate. inflammations. useful in convulsions. causes biliousness. They are broken in small pieces. male flowers. H. cause headache. antidiarrhoeic. insanity. dioecious.
Marichiphala. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. Marchu .52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. expectorant. :—Extensively cultivated in S. DISTR. . asthma. FAM. LOC. G. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. Capsaicin and Solanin. COM. cholera. Tikshna. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. whooping cough. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Chillies. It is stomachic. LOC. also in gout. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn.—Solanaceæ. Madana modak used in cough. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. Country in Deccan. Vegetables. H. The plant contains cannabinin. Cayenne-pepper. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Fibres. often found as an escape. loss of consciousness. increases biliousness. Lalmirchi. NS. spermatorrhoea. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The fruit contains Capsisin. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Tivrashakti. M. useful in brain complaints. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. acute mania. increases appetite. :—E. and is employed by Indian physicians. and flatulence. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. and dropsy. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. Mirchi. See—Condiments and Spices. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. weakness of body. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. dyspepsia. delirium (Ayurveda). useful in indigestion. erysipelas. :—Cultivated all over India. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Ujjvala. Fruit—pungent. Narcotics. Raktamaricha. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Sk. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. K. in the form of electuary. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. dysuria. Lanka mirchi. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. muscular pains. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. See—Gums and Resins. chronic ulcers. Mirchi. M. diarrhœa. Menshinkai. PARTS USED :—Fruit. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms.
aphrodisiac. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . Jyotish-mati. Root. very acute apex. COM. Sk. :—Throughout India. rounded at the apex. LOC. :—Most warm countries. 2-ternate. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. K. Girikarnika. subglobose. it is mucilaginous. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Ghats. The plant contains saponin. L. Maniju balli. Sd. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. stem wiry. bark. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . DISTR. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. C. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. CHAR. skin-diseases. useful in tumours. Blister creeper. diuretic and aperient. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. COM. smooth. Kanphuti. Sakralata. See—Timbers. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. M. Karnasphota. Agni-erum. alexiteric. " Vata ". dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. when moistened. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Hennumatti. Fruit—acrid. Fibres. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda).—Sapindaceæ. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Konkan and W. urinary discharges. Kumbhi. epileptic fits.—globose. bark. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. common in S. :—E. leucoderma. petals 4. flowers and fruits. Balloon vine. dry. DISTR. winged at the angles. K. Karolio. Shaundi. Sind. abscesses and ulcers. leaves and seeds. Kumbi. Ceylon. ultimate segments lanceolate. Kalindi. Fr.—white. Root is considered diaphoretic. Kumbha. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. LOC. trigonous. Gavvahannu.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Daddala. leaves. inciso-serrate. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis.—capsule. hot. Deccan. Malay Peninsula. H. Kumbhi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kangu. piles. M. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. Sk. deltoid. bladdery . colic. Kapalphodi. NS. G. black. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. NS. G.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. FAM. HABITAT :—In hedges . FAM. Wild guava . and is administered in fevers. anthelmintic.—Myrtaceæ. :—E. Vakambi. LOC. introduced. dyspepsia. .— alternate. Thailand (Siam). PARTS USED :—Root. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas.
useful in skin diseases (Yunani). strangury. Pangi. Nalikadala. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. White thin latex contains Papain. COM. flowers. in haemoptysis. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. Ahmednagar and Nasik. M. scabies. FAM. Kardai. seeds and oil. unripe fruit. aphrodisiac. used. HABITAT :—Cultivated. expectorant. cure "Vata". bleeding piles. :—Grown extensively in Poona. "Tridosh". USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Pappayi. Papayi. DISTR. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. diuretic. Papaya. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. cures inflammations. cooling. Dyer's saffron. cures insanity (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. NS. leprosy. :—E. heating. K. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). H. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. Kusumba. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. removes biliousness . hypnotic. removes urinary concretions . Popayi. depilatory. Kusumbha. diuretic. good for eyes. G. Papaya. aphrodisiac. H. leucoderma. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Papita. Karrak. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide.—Compositæ. Indies. it is used to procure abortion. Seeds—oleaginous. G. astringent to bowels. laxative. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Barre. Safflower. Leaves—hot. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. Sk. piles. :—Native throughout India. enlargement of spleen. wounds of urinary track. cures inflammation. Kusumbo. Kusumba. Papaw.—Caricaceæ. bronchitis. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. :— E. carminative. Karada. digestive. NS. Oil—indigestible. Flower—tonic to liver. bile. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Fruit—stomachic.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. . cure urinary discharges. FAM. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Kusumba. DISTR. K. Guppe. fruit and seeds. causes burning sensation . useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Papaya. Kamalottama. ringworm. diuretic. LOC. made into curries. Agnishikha. See—Fruit Trees. relieves obesity. LOC. appetiser. Mexico and Brazil. of W. appetiser . Chibda. cause biliousness. Chirbhita. Sk. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. "Kapha". M.
Ajamoda. and even in cholera. cure ascites. enlargement of spleen. strengthening. Dodda sagate. Dadrughna.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. laxative. K. Dwipagasti. L.—Umbelliferæ. Ajamo . Elgra. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. and diarrhœa. good for old people. See—Vegetables. DISTR. FAM. purgative. CASSIA ALATA Linn. Owa. improve speech and eyesight. COM. Dadmardan. Iran. long. give lustre to eyes. kidney troubles. 30-60 cm. good for heart and tooth-ache. rachis . tonic and carminative properties. abdominal pain. bechic. they are used in jaundice . pinnate. inflammation (Yunani). See—Condiments and Spices. Ajwain. diuretic. Oma. cure catarrh. Egypt. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Omu . The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. Simyatase. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. chest pains. spleen. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. Sk. Bishops' weed . Dyes. good in weakness of limbs. Tivragandha. carminative. :—Cultivated extensively in India. Ajowan. NS. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. aphrodisiac . hiccup. They are administered in flatulence. The seeds bitter and hot. paralysis. stimulate intestines. M. Leaves contain vitamin A. G. pungent. dyspepsia. myrabolans and rock salt. FAM. chest and throat pains. carminative. good for ear boils. H. Sk. NS :— E. emmenagogue and sedative. tonic. COM. Afghanistan. Ringworm shrub. anthelmintic. downy beneath. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. Datka pat. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). oblong-obtuse. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. mucronate. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. aphrodisiac. liver. bitter. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). Dadamardana. Oils. vomiting. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . Dipyaka. LOC. carminative. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. Oil—good in all diseases. stimulant. atonic dyspepsia. abdominal tumours. enrich blood. piles. :—E. subsessile. Winged senna. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. K. H. Seeds—purgative. leaflets 10-12 pairs. M. Europe. Baluchistan. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. stomachic. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. LOC. appetiser. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. oblique at the base. CHAR. vomiting.
5 X 10 cm. Indies. ringworm. urinary discharges . USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. Ceylon. Fr. rhombohedral. Country. Mukerji). reddish brown. dull green above. cure " Vata ". slightly overlapping. LOC. FAM. Fl. long. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. Pitakilaka. Avartki. t.. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. cm. reniform. Awal. leaflets 8-12 pairs. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. M. :—E.—30-35. cough. yellow with orange veins. good for ulcers. J. Taroda. Madhya Pradesh and W. nocturnal emissions. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. useful in thirst. Gujarat and S. " In eczema.—Jany. asthma .—in spiciform. pale beneath. Peninsula. straight. cures tumours. L. NS. Tangadi. Fl. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. along the sea coast in laterite region. across. Bark has the same properties. M. skin-diseases.—large. t. Avarike. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. . K. skin diseases. membranous. alexipharmic . very likely a native of the W. 5 cm.3-1. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). The whole plant.-Oct.—7. and throat troubles. Tarwad. fruits and seeds.—bright yellow with darker veins. Sd. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. mucronate. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Planted. Tarwad. C. vermicide (Ayurveda). oblong-obovate. rachis densely pubescent. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. Sd. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. G. Sakusina. Fl.-July. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. rotundate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. anthelmintic. Tanner's cassia.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. N. leprosy. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. itching. DISTR. useful in vomiting. obliquely septate. pedunculate racemes . diabetes. Ph. 10-20 X 1. Burma..—pod. bark smooth.6 cm. H. Charmaranga. Fl. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Mayahari. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. DISTR. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). a linear gland between each pair of leaflets .—pod long.) COM. Fr. LOC. :—Introduced into India. thirst. 20-25. leaves. flowers.-50 or more. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). stipules very large. Ahmed. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Sk. asthma.. causes flatulence . 28-4-88). PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). buds in yellow bracts.
—petals 5. Kasari. cause flatulence. Rankasvinda. LOC. Seeds— oily. Dodda-tagase. LOC. syphilis. CHAR.—20-30. eye-diseases. Arogyashimbi. t. faintly veined with orange . Chimkani. antipyretic. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). abortifacient. Bandartauri. G. Konde. Vyadivata. ovate-lanceolate. FAM. DISTR. demulcent. Indian laburnum.) COM. Rajataru. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Pudding-pipe or stick.—in few flowered racemes. yellow. leaves. Fruit—digestible. used in rheumatism. improve appetite.— Jany-March. It is a mild laxative.—pods. Fl. cooling. :—Throughout India. Ornamental Plants. also planted. long.) COM. Kasmarda. throat-troubles. :—E.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Suvarnaka. Flowers—improve taste. fruit and seeds. biliousness . It has been found to act as a strong purgative. carminative. apex acute. G. juice given in erysipelas.—very foetid when bruised. NS. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. long. Kakka. Flowers—purgative. Burma. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. transversely septate. PARTS USED :—Root. C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Ane sogate. heal ulcers . purgative. Sk. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Kasundari. H. Balla. rheumatism. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Fr. Amaltas. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Kasonda. . tuberculous glands. corymbose. K. and Famine Plants. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Chakinda. branches furrowed. K. Sk. FAM. hard. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. cures burning sensation. Ceylon. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. 10—12. shining dark olive-green. See—Timbers. purgative. Hema-puspha. Bahava. Kasondi. Kacodari. smooth. astringent. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. laxative. griping. Negro coffee. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. leprosy. Kasoda. H. cooling. recurved. Golden shower.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Rechana. 15-20 cm. (Ayurveda). flowers. safe for children and pregnant women. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. distinctly torulose. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. cure " Kapha ". often purplish. Garmala. leaflets 3-5 pairs. See—Dyes. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. M.. Tans. :—E. base somewhat oblique. useful in chest and liver complaints. NS. Aragina. In Konkan. Sd. Fruit—antipyretic. Leaves lessen inflammation.5 cm. Arimarda. L. Leaves—anti-periodic . M. Stinking weed. Fl.
rachis grooved .4-3 m. Fl. cures ascites. NS. Banar. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). DISTR. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. Leaves—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. base rounded. PARTS USED :—Bark. turgid. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. Ran tankala. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). mixed with honey. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. leaflets 6-10 pairs. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. fevers. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. Fr. septate between the seeds . for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). are given in diabetes. LOC. t. leaves and seeds. slightly recurved. :—G. lanceolate.Jany. alexiteric. LOC. cure " Kapha".. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. CHAR. Baskikasondi. . stomachic. C. Sk. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. Talapota.—in axillary. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally.510 cm. dark brown . in Kutch. and seeds are cathartic. asthma. obtuse. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. Fl. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places.—pod.. M. petals 5. LOC. See—Famine Plants. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds.— Nov. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. elephantiasis. heals wounds. DISTR. K. cough. COM. Seeds used in heat of the blood. " Vata ". with a solitary conical gland near the base . hiccup. leaves and seeds. " tridosha " . Kasundari. high. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. H. L. Kasamarda.—18-23 cm. opposite. :—A shrub 2. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . PARTS USED :—Root. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. annual or perennial. The bark. ovate. Kasamarda. In many countries root is considered diuretic. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. 7. See—Famine Plants.—30-40 broadly ovoid. At Kotra. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. leaves. long . FAM. yellow. few flowered corymbose racemes. Sd. LOC. tonic and febrifuge. Kasondi.
Tarota.. leaves and seeds. C. in diam. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. reddish brown. LOC. brain and liver tonic. crenate. Dadrughna. oblong. alternate. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. Tagache. expectorant. Sd. Kangodi. K. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. CHAR. Malkangoni. capsule. H. long. Jyotishmati. appetiser. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Taga. Fl. Burma. Taragosi. :—A very common weed all over the State. stem upto 23 cm. Sphutabandhani. Dadamari. NS.—pinnate.. Malhangana. Fr.5-20 cm. branches rough. FAM. :—An annual foetid herb. Malkamni. aphrodisiac. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Black-oil tree. :—Large deciduous climber. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. LOC. Madras State. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. The plant contains glucoside emodin. much curved when young. cause burning sensation. CHAR.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Svarnalata. COM. obovate. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat.—Celastraceæ. 30-90 cm. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". ovate or obovate. small yellowish-green. G.8-7. 6. in drooping panicles. DISTR. emetic. PARTS USED :— Root.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . obliquely septate. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething.— petals 5. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. base oblique. Fl. Malkakni. usually unisexual. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. FAM. fleshy arillus.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn.) COM. covered with lenticels. DISTR. M. Kangani.. rachis grooved. cure joint-pains. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kanguni. bitter. Panevar.—pod. Kangli.5 mm. :—E. K. 1-6 completely covered with red. hot. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). L. Sk. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. leaflets 3 pairs. . HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. NS. Fr. Ceylon. :—E. t. high.5-10 cm. Sd. M. globose. X 4. Sk. 7. Chakramarda.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. H. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Climbing-staff plant. L. Chakunda. Seeds— acrid. pale yellow. Takala. bright yellow. high. shining above. Chagoche. opposite (lowest smaller). Intellect tree.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. upper petal 2-lobed . powerful brain tonic. Velo . Pamad. 12.5 cm. Foetid cassia. laxative.—after the rains.3-10 X 3. Seeds—bitter. 18 m. unarmed.
Country. H. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic.—opposite. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. and is employed for external application. COM. NS. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. rooting at the nodes.—4 mm.—tubular lobes 5.). obovate or oblong. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. G. LOC. :—G. hard-rugose. pink. Fl. spreading star-like . C. persistent. Mahaushadhi. t.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. linear-oblong. Brahmamanduki. Jangli-karayatu. Barmi. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Ekpani. Brahmi. cauline smaller. Seeds are hot. high. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fr. DISTR. :—Throughout India. narrowly oblong .). tonic. Deccan and S. base deeply cordate stipulate. minute. Jhinkun-kariatum.—3 from each node. used in leprosy. gout. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). . ovoid. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. COM. H. cloves. Fl. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. radical leaves revolute. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. K. paralysis and leprosy. CHAR.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. L. Lahanchirayat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. aphrodisiac and stimulant. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri.—capsule. FAM. orbicular. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. long. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. CHAR. Fr. t. :—Konkan. NS. Fl. M. reniform.—Feb. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Sk. L. pink.—May-Nov. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. Mandukparni. good for cough and asthma. Vallari . :— E. Don. M. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. they are also sudorific.—Gentianaceæ. M. especially in Bengal. Brahmamanduki.-Apl. elliptic. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium.—Umbelliferæ. Fl. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. Oil stomachic. stem creeping with long internodes. LOC. FAM.—in fascicled umbels. Vondelaga. :—A slender herbaceous plant.
thirst. asthma. ointment. improves appetite. blood diseases. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. cures hiccup. cooling. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. Malay Archipelago. and a bitter substance odollin. bronchitis. milky juice. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark. water courses throughout the State. Tande. M. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. LOC. digestible. FAM. diuretic. plaster or bath are used. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. LOC. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison.) DISTR. asthma. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. DISTR. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. tonic. :—Throughout India near the coast. cardio-tonic. voice. scalding of urine. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. Australia Pacific Islands. cures leucoderma. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Sukanu. Leaves are also diuretic. " Kapha ". For external use powder. See—Timbers. alterative. fevers. laxative. tonic. :—South Konkan and N. small-pox. bitter. nut is narcotic and poisonous . USES :—Bark is purgative. Kanara. :—K. headache . antipyretic. urinary discharges.—Apocynaceæ. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . tropical and subtropical regions of the world. spleen enlargement. China. biliousness. Leaf-powder. improves appetite (Yunani). carminative. :—In moist situations (streams. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". twigs. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Chanda. fruit. soporific. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. . bechic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. stomachic. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. leaves and seeds). anæmia. abundant on the Malabar Coast. sedative to nerves. bronchitis. clears voice and brain. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Plant—bitter. inflammations. memory. LOC. Honde. nallas. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. COM. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative.
K. Chalmeri. heart. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated.) FAM. H.—Euphorbiaceæ. Harparrevdi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). But. LOC. Balabhojya. constipation. Chakwat. Chick pea. Fruit is very sour . anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. "Kapha". tonic. Lavali. CICCA ACIDA Merr. LOC. spleen (Ayurveda). :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. FAM . LOC. Chana. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Tanko. useful in thirst. Kanchuki. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Pandu. urinary concretions. Country gooseberry. eye-diseases. Chillika. Chandanbedu. M. :—Widely distributed. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. Chanaka. Cheel. COM. fragrant. LOC. Vajibhakshya. piles. diuretic. H. Kari-Kempukadale. NS. Deccan and S. vomiting. Sk. Wild-spinach. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). diseases of blood. aphrodisiac. See—Fruit Trees. Bengal—Common-gram. :— E. laxative. M. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. . Harparauri K. M. Sk. Sk. Kadale. fruit and seeds. Chakravati. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. :—Very common in the Deccan. Harbara. sour . infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Rai-avala. Agralohita. oleaginous. The plant yields an essential oil. NS. Chunna. tonic to liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. root and the seed are cathartic. abdominal pains. G. "Vata". FAM. :—E. LOC. Rayara nelli. Chania. useful in biliousness. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. acrid. H. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. COM.—Chenopodiaceæ. useful in bronchitis. Country. Ksharadala. biliousness. Chakravarti. piles . also cultivated as a pot herb. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. Bathusag. The fruit is acrid and astringent. K. :—Cultivated in India. Skandhaphala. USES :— Root is purgative. DISTR. Chana. Goose-foot. COM. NS. CICER ARIETINUM Linn.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Laveni. improves appetite. throattroubles. M. biliousness. G..
Duk. pains . indigestion. aphrodisiac. Bark—tonic. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. vomiting. useful in " Vata ". headache. astringent to bowels . :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. heart. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. useful in bronchitis. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. Darchini. strengthens liver. Seed—indigestible. abdominal pains. thirst. LOC. diarrhœa. Dalchini. M. piles. anthelmintic. flatulence. biliousness. useful in cold. aphrodisiac. tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. cold in head. Nisane. appetiser. enriches blood. etc. diarrhœa and dysentery. Lavange-hakke. LOC. abortifacient. aphrodisiac. Kash. aphrodisiac. Kanara district. Gudatwaka. throat troubles. Dalchini. carminative. tonic . Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda).—Lauraceæ. bronchitis. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. heated brain. indigenous and cultivated. blood troubles. carminative. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. alexiteric. causes flatulence. Dalchini. Oil—carminative. Burma. improve taste and appetite. toothache. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. NS. causes salivation. tonic to hair. See—Food Plants. refrigerant. :— Bark and oil. expectorant. chest complaints. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. It possesses carminative. Malay Peninsula. leprosy. . :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. vomiting. cures skin diseases. throat troubles. emmenagogue. anthelmintic . Oil is externally used in neuralgia. flatulence. Oil—styptic. H. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). Sk. useful in inflammations. DISTR. hiccup. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. FAM. See—Condiments and Spices. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. COM. anthelmintic. pungent. Dalchini. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. seed and acid exudation. Leaves—purgative. Peninsula. PARTS USED. Valkala. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. useful in hydrocele. foul mouth and fever. biliousness. K. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Oils. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. useful in loss of appetite. cures thirst and burning. causes flatulence. headache. very common in the N. itching. liver-tonic . :—G. Leaves contain vitamin A. It checks nausea and vomiting. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. rectum and urinary diseases. parched mouth. toothache (Ayurveda). :—W. Seed—stimulant. bronchitis (Yunani). cure bronchitis.
:—An extensively climbing annual. Asso. NS. subcampanulate. axillary racemes . PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. t. Sk. 7. Pavamekke Kayi.—Cucurbitaceæ. Patha. asthma . Bitter apple. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. FAM. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. Ghorumba. G. Indruk. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. removes pain. Chitraphala.-Jany. drupe. Indraphal. Trapusi. Makal. skin eruptions.— usually margined. Indrayan.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. Mahendravaruni. H. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. LOC. Tumtikayi. Katurasa. greenish outside. heart troubles. monœcious. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. :—In hills. K. FL t. waxy coated. tendrils bifid. F. which possibly has a cholinergic action. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. or twin. Fr. somewhat hairy. red. L. DISTR. CHAR. diam. Kaduvrindavan. CHAR. C. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. Nirbisi. solitary. minute. has been isolated. margins ciliate. Fl. removes intestinal worms. The active constituent of the drug. useful in hemicrania. lobes obovateoblong. H.. uterine complaints. Venivalli. :—E. long. Kanara. mucronate. M. an alkaloid. fever. . angular .—July-Sept. Fr.. R. solitary. peltate. itching . 5-nerved. helps parturition. dropsy and cough. M.8-10 cm. Indrayana. alleviates vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . 3.—Nov. red or yellowish white. orbicular or reniform. :— E.—Menispermaceæ. i.e. Uthika. upto 25 cm. 1949). E. greenish. COM. LOC. young shoots woolly. NS. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). (Ind. Venivel. warm parts of Asia. yellow within. stem thick. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. Sk. sub-globose. Annual Report. burning. Colocynth. piles. yellowish. dysentery. HABITAT. Indrayan. 5-partite. Paharmul. diarrhœa.5-20 cm. Fl. Fl. branches more or less pubescent. G. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. flesh juicy. Africa and America. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. Sd. cordate at the base. female flowers in elongate. COM. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. leaves. subglobose. male flowers in axillary cymes. :—Deccan. Velvet-leaf. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. Pahadvel. also for prolapsus uteri. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. in conjunction with aromatics.—A climbing shrub. L. smooth.—large. diam. FAM. hairy. compressed.
NS. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. anthelmintic . INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. Naringa. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. Fruit—sour. constipation. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . LOC. chest troubles. pain in joints. diuretic. COM. carminative. FAM. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. tonic. aphrodisiac . cooling. Nagaranga. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. antipyretic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). removes fatigue . " Kapha". aphrodisiac. :—Widely cultivated in India. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. H. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains.—Rutaceæ. Root and fruit cooling. anæmia. dyspepsia. Narangi. relieves vomiting and retching. bronchitis. :— E. G. Narenj. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Doddile. Santra. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Asia. useful in biliousness. and lumbago. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). DISTR. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. ulcers. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). useful in piles. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. elephantiasis . Flower— stimulant. sea-shores. Gujarat. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. good in vomiting and skin diseases. In the Konkan fruit and root. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). fever and worms. constipation. leuco-derma. bowel complaints. enlargement of spleen. Deccan. with or without nux-vomica. Sk. removes " Vata ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. throat diseases. Sunthura. tuberculous glands of neck. Kittale. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Also indigenous in Arabia. LOC. epilepsy. Tvakasugandha. fortifies chest. sweet and has agreeable flavour. Kirmirtvaka. jaundice. laxative. W. good in fevers. N. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Rind— anthelmintic. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. LOC. Narange. Cardiotonic. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. Ceylon. M. K. DISTR. anthelmintic. urinary discharges. relieves colds. Naringi. astringent. enlargement of spleen. removes biliousness. :—Konkan. cures tumours. ascites. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). LOC. Sukkare-kanji. (Poona. purgative.
removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). urinary calculus and caries of teeth.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. anthelmintic. though there are no regular plantations. stimulant. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Bijoru. DoddaGaja-nimba. useful in abdominal complaints. anasarca and chronic fever. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. thirst. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Fruit—sweet and sour. tonic and astringent properties. M. used in constipation and tumours. FAM. Mavalunga. juice refrigerant and astringent. anæmia. NS. relieve vomiting. H. hiccup. also corrects foetid breath. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Thora-limbu. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. Seeds—indigestible. PARTS USED. Kutla. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Amlakeshara. G. COM. tonic. Paharinimbu . :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. B and C. its preserve is used for dysentery. Mahaphala. HABITAT :—Cultivated. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. Jambira. with a sharp taste. flatulence. Bijaura. Balank. fruits and seeds. Madala. aphrodisiac. Citron . VAR. K.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Devamadala. Idalimbu. Motalimbu . jaundice. G. M. oily. intoxication. Harale. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. The fruits contain vitamins A. heating. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. . Ruchaka. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia.—Rutaceæ. the juice allays ear-ache. H. asthma. cough. the pulp cold and dry. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. :—Roots. LOC. Adam's apple. increase appetite. Limonum. Matulunga. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. cough. sharp. :— E. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Mahaphala. leaves and flowers hot and dry. Lemon . asthma. Matalunga. rind of the fruit is bitter. useful in vomiting. removes colic. cures leprosy. COM. Flowers—stimulant. astringent to bowels . dry and tonic . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bijapurna. :—Citron rind is hot. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). relieves sore-throat. Mahalunga. Mahanimbu. bark and fruit. Bera nimbu. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. Sk. digestible. LOC. seeds. said to be wild in W. flowers. Turanj. Matunga. Rusaki. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Sk. Ghats. NS. USES. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. K. See—Fruit Trees. Turanj. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. According to Theophrastus.
Lebu. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. FAM. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. K. Murva. Devashreni. not good in old age. NS. blades 2-2. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. plethora. sepals 4-6. M. lobes mucronate. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. H.—Ranunculaceæ. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. where there is dry skin and much thirst. scarletina. C. petioles twinning. Nimbuka. throat trouble. leaves (rarely). Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. :—E. vomiting. Nimbe.—simple or once ternate. Snuva. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . eyes . hairy outside. white. COM. brain disorders. ovoid. bronchitis . measles. Khatalimbu. Fl. . burning in the chest. with long feathery tails . also useful in rheumatism. Sk. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Nimbu. anthelmintic. it helps digestion. whole plant tomentose.Nov. with flavour. L. loss of appetite. COM. Morvel. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Fruit—sour. CHAR. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. LOC. cures abodominal complaints. H. t. PARTS USED :—Fruit. K. :—An extensive climber. Kagadi limbu. Limbe. Amlasara. fatigue .—achenes. Moravel.5 cm. stomachic. Limpaka. constipation. G. Ranjai. silky villous. VAR.. sharp taste. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. NS.—Sept. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. improves liver. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Sk. :—G. Murhari. relieves biliousness. long ovate or orbicular. Morhari. Fr. appetiser. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. stimulant . Limbu. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Acida. Shodhana. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. it cures and prevents scurvy. hemicrania. Rochana. M. Madhulika. Fl. See—Fruit Trees. heart.—petals O. but often found trailing amongst grass. Dhantiate. Oil from rind. Acid-Sour lime . relieves vomiting . Churhar. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. Lebu. Nimbu. Morata. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nebu. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa.—in axillary corymbose panicles.
—axillary. M. leaflets elliptic-oblong. COM. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. H. Sd. LOC. Tilwan. cooling. oblong-obovate. Plant has penetrating bad smell. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Kasaghni. HABIT :—A common weed. Barbara. LOC. removes " Kapha". and dispel intestinal fermentation. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. stimulates secretion of bile. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. Phanjika. Harhuria.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. :—W. used internally in thirst. :—Annual erect herb. Ghats. C.—petals 4. erect. transversely striate. :—G. high. hairy. Konkan. laxative. Tinmani. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. Fr. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. Bharang. Juice— cures ear-ache. DISTR. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda).—Verbenaceæ. FAM. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Kanphutia. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). Hulhul. bitter taste and a strong odour. Vatari. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. hot. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bharangi. veined. Tilparni. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. K. Sk. Leaves—favour digestion. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. FAM. stomachic.—capsule. in lax racemes. K. Kanphodi. Sauri. Gantubarangi. and fevers. Brahmani. Nayibela. COM. CHAR.—3-5 foliate.—Sept-June. L. good in malaria.—brownish black. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. hairy. Bharangi. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. tapering towards both ends . :—G. . Karnasphota. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. gradually becoming shorter upwards. 30-90 cm. M. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Jangali-harhar. petioles of lower leaves longer. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. very common in the Deccan. reduces tumours and inflammations . yellow. mixed with oil. astringent. Fl. t. Talvari. :—Common in grass lands. Kiritekki.—Capparidaceæ. obliquely striate. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. Adityabhakta. LOC. Bharangi. NS. Fl. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. causes excessive biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. H. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. dryness and urethral discharges. terminal the largest. externally applied to boils. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). diuretic. NS. useful in leprosy. stimulant. Sk. bitter. stems grooved and glandular. subglobose. laxative. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. anthelmintic.
:—More or less throughout India. :—G. useful in ascites (Yunani). long . leaflets 5-7. good for eye-diseases. smooth. fevers (Yunani). hiccup. pains. sharply serrate.2 cm. 12. t. tonic to the brain. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. asthma. The plant contains an alkaloid. FAM. Root increases appetite.—pale blue. ulcers (Ayurveda).5-15 X 5.. HABITAT :—In hedges. Root is purgative and diuretic. the larger lower lobe dark purple. 3. laxative.—Shrub. CHAR. . hairy. Wowatheti. standard bright blue or white. H. black. Ceylon. C. lessens expectoration. wounds (Ayurveda).8-5 cm. blood diseases. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. L.—many. heating.3 cm. pubescent. K. L.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. Kalina.. consumption. solitary. with an orange centre. Malay Peninsula. :—A perennial twining herb.—much exerted.5 X 2-3. stomachic. LOC. bronchitis. COM. biliousness.. tubercular glands.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fr. Fl. diuretic. fleshy.— drupe. PARTS USED :—Root. showy. alexiteric. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. stems bluntly quadrangular.—axillary.—ternately whorled. useful in inflammation. burning sensation. Garani. Koyala. Girikarniballi. headache. "Vata". oblong or elliptic. inflammations. epilepsy. also found throughout the State.9-2. and blue flowered. 2-2. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. LOC. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. spreading.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. in lax dichotomous cymes.2 m. Gokarnika. Fl. tumours. flat. Kajli. high. beaked. collectively forming a terminal panicle. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. Aparajita. leaves and seeds. Fr. elephantiasis. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. anthelmintic. NS. 0. cures "Tridosha". Girikarnika. elliptic oblong. tube hairy within. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. PARTS USED :—Root. M. Fl. Fl. anthelmintic. DISTR. C. Kowa. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. leaves and seeds. Aparajita. t— June-Jany. Vishnukranta. leucoderma. lower one deflexed. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections.—imparipinnate. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. nearly straight. useful in bronchitis.—6-10 yellowish brown. acrid. Sd.— Aug. inflammations. obovoid..-Oct. LOC. Gokarni. fevers.7-6. ulcers of the cornea. Sk. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . ozœna. asthma. burning sensation. 4 lobes flat. tuberculous glands. stems terete. There are two varieties :—white flowered. sometimes opposite.
USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Seeds are purgative and aperient. consumption. LOC. NS. Bimb. USES:—In the Konkan. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. cures leprosy. HABITAT. LOC.—Menispermaceæ. tropical Africa. Galedu. Bimbika. M. Jamtikibel. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Fruit is aphrodisiac. NS. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Sk. M. Vasandi. Vasantitikta. H. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. Flowers cure itching. Vevati. & A. Faridburti. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). fruit. Fruit— indigestible. Broom-creeper. Bimba. galactagogue.—E.—Cucurbitaceæ. leaves. Kambhoja. Ghobe. asthma. Hunder. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). Root bark. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Deccan. Chireta. a hormone and an alkaloid.:—Cultivated in gardens. Oshthi. Tundika. FAM. See—Vegetables. Dirghvalli. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Glum. Vevdi. flowers. cause flatulence. Kanduri. antipyretic . inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Tana.) FAM. allays thirst. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. urinary losses. Parvel. Konkan. K. given for uterine discharges. COCCINIA INDICA W. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. " Vata". The plant contains an enzyme.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Leaves—acrid. useful in ascites and fevers. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. :—G. S. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Country. diseases of blood. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Tundi. DISTR :—Throughout India. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Vasanvel. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. Malaya.:—Root cooling. M. Ink-berry. Tondali. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. G. dried and powdered. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. astringent to bowels. . stops vomiting. biliousness. burning of hands and feet. Gujarat. wild in hedges. Bimbi. and jaundice. COM. Tondeballi. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. H. Sk. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Garudi.
enriches blood. In the Konkan. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . K. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. laxative. Arabia.3-3. seed.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Antipyretic. LOC. appetiser. aphrodisiac.3 X 1. good in fractures.—Dec. with a few heads of pepper. Toyagarbha. Dried seed (copra) improves taste.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. as a cure for gonorrhœa. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. female in axillary clusters.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. 3-5 nerved. Mahaphala. Narial. Tengu. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. young parts densely Villous. :—E. t. laxative. Fl. S. Narikel. villous . It is also used as a refrigerant. NS. useful in leprosy. Mangalya. and put on to sore-eyelids. mixed with water. FAM. Flower-cooling . tonic. fattening. aphrodisiac. Seed-cooling. Nalivar. Nariyal. M. . Common in Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. cardiotonic. rugose . it is heating. oleaginous. constipation. laxative and sudorific. ovate. India. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. L. LOC. Deccan.. ovate-oblong.8 cm. keeled. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. bronchitis. useful in biliousness. biliousness. Jataphala. Mad. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. burning sensation.—dioecious.—3. fermented juice. Naral. bark. also in many places in the interior. it is used for coughs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Kanara. Fl. Konkan. Leaf-juice. oil. thirst. tropical Africa. HABITAT :—In hedges. India and Ceylon.8-6. Pegu. dysentery. fattening. "Kapha" and "Vata". DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. H. S. lessens thirst. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". tumours. Fr. Milk—cooling. urinary discharges. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. smells sweetish and pungent. LOC. blood diseases. Cocoanut palm. alexipharmic . lessens bile and burning sensation. COM.—Palmæ. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. tuberculosis. size of a small pea. Sk. aphrodisiac. useful in diabetes. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). DISTR. male in small axillary cymose panicles. subdeltoid or subhastate.—drupe. causes "Kapha". Tenginmara. indigestible. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). China. which is taken internally with sugar. 2-8 together. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). tonic. flowers. Gujarat. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts.
high or more. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. LOC. notched at the nodes . Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. tonic. consumption. Ran-jondhala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). DISTR. It is refreshing and laxative. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. liver complaints. base cordate. :—Himalayas. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Malaya. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. Madhya Bharat. promotes hairgrowth. Gojivha.. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. 6. internodes smooth. above the bract stout. fermented juice is intoxicating. America. useful in urinary complaints. Fl. Gavedhu. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . incipient phthisis and cachexia. FAM. Kasai. stem 90-150 cm. it promotes growth of hair. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. enriches blood. Madhya Pradesh. fattening. Bengal. piles and scabies (Yunani. rooting at the lower nodes. bluish grey. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. L. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. LOC.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. Jargadi. Oil—indigestible. smooth. Oil—sweet. long. midrib stout. smooth. polished.—broadly ovoid to globose. diuretic . paralysis. ulcers (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Gregarious. Oils. lessens inflammations . CHAR.3 cm. See—Fruit Trees.—10-15 x 2.5-5 cm. Assam. Polynesia. Fr. M. spinously serrate margins. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Gurlu .6-10 mm.5-6. Japan. :—E. diuretic. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. sheaths long. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). B and C. H. :—A tall leafy grass. China. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. bronchitis. G. piles . USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. tropical Asia-Africa. t. long. Job's tears. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Fibres. useful in lumbar-pain. Sk. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. abundant in standing water.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. polished. Fl. Dabha. Rajputana.—monœcious racemes 2. it also purifies blood. NS. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. S. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. asthma. India. increases body weight. stout. useful in fever. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds.—Oct.—Gramineæ COM. It is also used for burns. LOC. rachis within the bract slender. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy.
Kalasaka. growing very tall under cultivation. also as antiperiodic. In jutegrowing districts. Chaunchan . FAM. See—Fibres. :—E. LOC. H. not beaked. and intestinal antiseptic. anthelmintic. It is also used as a bitter tonic. The plant contains leucin. buds obovoid. Chhunchh . cultivated in most tropical countries.—petals 4-5. yellow.2 cm. Jute . CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . serrate.—few in each cell. subglobose. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. FAM. Gondan. COM. astringent. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa.— Sept. :—An annual herb. histidin. M. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Col. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. Sk. NS. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. lysin. Challa. See—Fodder Plants. Bhokar. smooth. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet.5-10 X 2-3.—in short cymes. Pistan. COM. K. L. acute or acuminate. 5-valved. Rayagundo. DISTR.—7.—Boraginaceæ. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion.— capsule. :—Konkan. G. Gujarat. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. 12 mm. Sk. t. NS. Resalla. laxative. and dyspepsia. Mannadike. arginine and coicin. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bargund. Sebesten plum. Sd. wedgeshaped. Patta. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Hadige. Fl. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. CHAR. G. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. M. C. leaves and fruit. stomachic. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. ridged and muricated. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier.—Tiliaceæ. tyrosin. Bhukerbudara. Fl. Fr. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. lanceolate. also efficacious in skin-diseases. diam. . carminative. brown.:—E. Lassora. Bhuselu. fever. Bhokar.
Kustumburi. Mesapotamia and Greece. removes bad humours. stomachic. prevents coryza and bronchitis. tonic to brain. LOC. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. Bark is used as a mild tonic. biliousness. G. :—Throughout India. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. widely known from Palestine. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. inflammations. stomatitis. anthelmintic. analgesic. . heart and liver. NS. laxative. Sk. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests.:—E. bechic. DISTR. Kothimbir. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). Cochin-China. jaundice.:—Throughout the State in W. expectorant.—Umbelliferæ. Fibres. PARTS USED :—Bark. diuretic. tuberculous glands. COM. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. cooling. anthelmintic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. vulnerary. uterus and urethra. gives appetite. useful in hiccup. headache. gleet. Leaves—hypnotic. biliousness. H. Fruit is aromatic. The plant and fruit— acrid. M. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. antipyretic. thirst. maturant. Hivija. Konphir. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. purgative. bronchitis. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. dyspepsia. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. indigestion. LOC. FAM. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. carminative and antispasmodic. tooth-ache. See—Timbers. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Syria. Kanara. LOC. LOC. pains in joints. Kothamir. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. piles. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Fruit—diuretic. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Kothambri. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. causes suppuration. highly esteemed in coughs. Ceylon. DISTR. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. diseases of chest. used as an expectorant and astringent. cures thirst. stimulant. often planted. Allaka. Satpudas. tropical Australia. used in syphilis. eye-pains. wild and cultivated. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. scabies. aphrodisiac. vomiting. burning of throat. Vitunnaka. Egypt. biliousness. stimulant. bleeding gums. Dhania. Ghats. also cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. diseases of chest and urethra. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Coriander. Fruits are used as spice. used in dry cough. K. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). Dharika. chronic fevers. :—Cultivated throughout India.
CHAR. PARTS USED:—Root. subsessile. anæmia. coughs and skin diseases. L. " Kapha". :—More or less throughout India. H. Penva. M. Bilpatri. Sk. DISTR. . Varuna. NS. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . USES:—Root is anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Pinga.-Oct. COM. It is also astringent and digestive. depurative. root-stock tuberous. Nervele. :—G. Pakarmula. NS. bright red. S. Madhya Bharat. in moist and shady places. lip white with yellow centre. fever. sheaths coriaceous . Varno. COM. Hadawarna. DISTR. Vayavarno. lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Varuna.7 m. Pushkarmula. Country. Varvunna. Fr. Ceylon. Bitusi. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. Changalkashta. spirally arranged. Khandala. H. useful in bronchitis. lobes ovate-oblong.—15-30 X 5. red. dyspepsia. also planted near Muslim tombs. Karikuttu. rheumatism. LOC. Shura. S. Castle Rock. :—Almost all over India (Assam. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. crisped. See—Condiments and Spices. oblong.—Aug. India. globosely 3-gonous. bracts ovate. The plant yields an essential oil.— in very dense spikes. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. FAM. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Vayavarna. inflammations.2-2. Malay Islands. silky-pubescent beneath. Fl. subequal. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). M. Chikke. K. Barna. Biliana. Var.— black with white aril. Sd. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. high. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children.—capsule. hiccup (Ayurveda). LOC.—Scitamineæ. a tonic is prepared from it. Pushkarmula. FAM.7-7. Kushtha. useful in catarrhal fevers. Keu. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. many. t.:—Konkan ghats. Fl. :—G.—Capparidaceæ. Mahakapittha. Ajapa. By the earliest writers. concave. M. and aphrodisiac. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. C.— tube short. Kumaraka. :—An erect plant 1.5 cm. Var. Kust. LOC. nalas. Sk. and " Vata". China. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. mucronate. stem sub-woody at the base . seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Kemuka. Kashmira.
removes "Vata". lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. strangury.5-18 cm. then sweet. expectorant. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. thin. vesicant. Fl. bright green. diam.—20-30. expectorant. Kanmu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.—subglobose.. increases secretion of bile. detergent. CHAR. cylindric. vulnerary. scape 45-90 cm.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. anuria. also wild. Bark promotes appetite. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). Kanda-shalini. The plant contains saponin. USES:—Root is alterative. bulb 5-10 cm. :—Throughout tropical India. See—Timbers. bark. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first.5-10 cm. "Pitta" and "Kapha".. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). bracts 7.—Amaryllidaceæ. with a sheathing base. white. bitter. COM. lobes 6. Ceylon. anthelmintic. urinary concretions. Sd. H.5 cm. Nag-damani. Tonic. digestive.—15-50 in an umbel. Visha-Mandalamardini. leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kanwal. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. K. antipyretic. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. . tuberculous glands. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. flat. bechic. perianth tube greenish-white. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). diseases of vagina.:—G. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. anthelmintic. and seeds. LOC. flowers and fruits. found wild in North and South Konkan. diuretic. chest. Vishamungalli. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Nagadown. Fr. useful in biliousness. Nagdavana. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. urinary discharges. emmenagogue. lumbago. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. L. Seeds—purgative. it promotes appetite. LOC. M. PARTS USED :—Root. chest and blood diseases. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. linear lanceolate. laxative. beaked. stomachic. X 12. good in strangury. DISTR.—1 (rarely 2). NS. gonorrhœa. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . lung and spleen diseases. Nag-damani. Chindar. laxative. vomiting. heating. linear.9-1. act as rubefacient and vesicant. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Pindar. 0. Patra-pushpi. carminative. leaves. fragrant at night. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). defective vision. laxative. useful in bronchitis. antilithic. aphrodisiac. Sk. as long as the tube. FAM. Wild or cultivated. tumours. night-blindness. toothache. long. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State.
LOC. leaves and seeds. China. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Seeds cause burning sensation. naturalised or cultivated. abdominal diseases. insanity. excessive phlegm. convulsions. Jepal. Jamalgota . In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. carminative. NS. Western Peninsula. K. M. As an application to sprains. Japala. :—H. good in sore eyes. :—E.—Euphorbiaceæ. FAM. Purging croton . Ganasur. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Burma. Konkan. Danti. FAM. Assam to Malacca. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. Ceylon. Nepal. M. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Ieucoderma. Oil cathartic. cathartic. useful in mental troubles. Chucka . near Junnar (Poona Dist). expectorant. Nepala . Sk. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Jamalgota. Jayapala. in small doses. LOC. fever. H. inflammations. :—Sylhet. nauseant and diaphoretic. Bhutankusam.. G. Seeds contain an alkaloid.—Euphorbiaceæ. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. See—Timbers. Madhya Pradesh. Nepala. :—Rare in the State. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. it is in great request. COM. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. :—Naturalised in S. DISTR. Malay Islands. Kanara. Danti. etc. emetic. Burma. bark. tonic. NS. Ceylon . . removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. :—Bengal. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. See—Ornamental Plants. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. The plant contains lycorin. Chota-Natpur. DISTR. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Bengal. Oil from the seed is purgative.
HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. biliousness. K. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Shadrekha. galactagogue. Fruit—tonic. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Kharbuja.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. COM. Lomashi. Shantanu.—Cucurbitaceæ. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. ascites. Said to be truly wild in India. Sk. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. M. H. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. ascites. diuretic. NS. Tarkakadi. Karkati. Chibdu Shakarteti. COM. cooling. insanity. cures " Vata ". HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. synovitis. allays fatigue. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. and lock-jaw. Kalangida. nutritive and diuretic. urinary discharges. See—Timbers. :—G. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. gives headache. colic. H. It is useful in apoplexy. diuretic. LOC. NS. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Karkali. Kharbuja. fruit and seeds. convulsions. insanity. cures ophthalmia. Vrittervaru. diaphoretic. G. chronic fever. DISTR. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. LOC. used in liver and kidney troubles. FAM. C. . DISTR. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Pathira . &c. in ascites and anasarca. Valaka. fattening. thirst (Yunani). Valungi. Sk. Kachra. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Melon. may cause indigestion. Mahanaracha Rasa. Kankadi. Rind—vulnerary. laxative. Kakri. oily. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. tonic. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Sweet melon . Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. strengthens heart. Kakni. Ripe fruit—sweet. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. wholesome. MELO Var. :—In Deccan. Kakadi. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. They are edible. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. obstinate constipation. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Chibuda. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. LOC. bronchitis. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism.:—E. dropsy. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Seeds—lachrymatory. aphrodisiac. brain and body. laxative. Mutrala. PARTS USED :—Root. Kharbuja. It is given internally with great caution. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative.
with 10 green longitudinal stripes. Yunani). fever. cures thirst. melo var. roasted and powdered. good for brain and body. H. NS. allay thirst. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. Cultivated in all parts of India. lobes obovate. Tansali. purgative. Kakdi. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). FAM. stem slender. seeds.—monœcious . NS. rigid. improve complexion. Fl. L. are administered in throat affections. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. Khira. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. cures biliousness. COM. Trapusha. G. they are also used as diuretic. Cucumber. causes "Vata".—Cucurbitaceæ. CHAR. Fr. female peduncle longer than male. Karit. See—Vegetables. used in thirst. Hislambhi. indigestible. Sk. lobulate or dentate .:—N. Tavasa. Seeds—diuretic. Mrigadani. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn.—June-Sept. male in clusters. and C. FAM. hairy. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). Khira. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cordate at the base. pulp bitter. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. . B. M. utilissimus (Ayurveda. Sd. tendrils simple.—Cucurbitaceæ.— suborbicular. They are nutritive. Kakari. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. enrich blood. strangury. antipyretic. t. C. M. :—A perennial climber. biliousness. H. fruits. Kothiban. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). K. pale yellow when ripe. Kumbhakshi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. See-Fruit Trees. dry. LOC. stomachic. Kankdi. Ripe one tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated.:—E. LOC. Sudhavsa. Vishala. DISTR.—white. Seeds possess cooling properties. cooling. Sk.—yellow segments elliptic. angled. Fruit—fattening . :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. Chitravalli. fatigue. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. margined . Fl.—subglobose or ellipsoid. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. Sushitala. "Kapha" and flatulence. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. diuretic. LOC. Takamaki. COM. astringent. Santekayi. India is considered to be the original home. Seed oil used in fever.
LOC. H. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. fruit is used to prevent insanity. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. M. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. NS. increases " Vata" . Punyalata. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Kaddu.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. increases " Vata ". G. indigestible. COM. Pitakushmand. The plant contains glucoside saponin. cultivated in many parts of India. Dangari. Red squash gourd. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. Sk. Kadimah. :—Throughout the greater part of India. allays thirst. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Dried fruit indigestible . :—E.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. Kumra. Bhopala. on hedges. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . HABITAT. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. FAM. Koron. improves taste (Ayurveda). Karkarn. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Tambda bhopala. FAM .—Cucurbitaceæ. M. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). : — E. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. In Malabar. USES. carbuncles. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vegetable marrow. Kushmand. cures cough. Sk. . Australia. DISTR. Afghanistan. B and C. Pumpkin. N. astringent to bowels . It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. H. LOC. NS. Ceylon.—Cucurbitaceæ. stomachic. Kumbala. Safedkaddu . Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. fruits and seeds. DISTR. LOC. G. Dudia. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. :—Cultivated. K. COM.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Seeds are used as taeniacide. Melon pumpkin. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Malaya. LOC.:—Considered to be a native of America. Mithakaddu. Fruit contains vitamins A. See—Vegetables. Iran. Kashiphala. Kumbala. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Kushmand. DISTR. unhealthy ulcers. etc.
COM. Seeds anthelmintic. cures leprosy. Jire. fever. astringent to bowels. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. leprosy. allays thirst. DISTR. inflammations. Cumin. Kalimusali. leucoderma. LOC. tonic to intestine. astringent. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Sk. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). antipyretic. throat and eyes. appetiser. and the root for making these more potent. Kalimusali. COM. K. H. fattening. beneficial in consumption. M. :—G. carminative. Dipaka. alexipharmic. cures haemoptysis. aphrodisiac. enlargment of the spleen. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. NS. diuretic and demulcent. Fruit astringent. asthma. fever. Ajjika. tonic. Musali. . thirst. Leaves—digestible. gonorrhœa. Jiru. carminative.—Amaryllidaceæ. tonic. stomachic. Jirige. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. laxative. uterine stimulant. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. eye-diseases. ft contains vitamins A and C. Dirghaka. H. purifies blood (Ayurveda). cure haemoptysis. LOC. Jira. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). FAM. good for teeth. :—E. abortifacient. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. haematinic. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Seeds—diuretic. heals corneal opacities. M. Sk. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Fruit yields an essential oil. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State.—Umbelliferæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. increases appetite . ulcers. Kapha " and " Vata ". analgesic. Talamulika. PARTS USED :—Fruit. astringent to bowels. stops epistaxis . belching . Gaurajerka. Mushalikand . LOC. See—Vegetables. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Seeds are taeniacide. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. Neladati. NS. Neltati gadde. Kalimusali. carminative. Fruit—very cooling. anthelmintic. also a lactagogue. Girautmi. sweet. fruit and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. bronchitis. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). antidysenteric. G. Zira. See—Condiments and Spices. vulnerary. Cures " Vata " tumours. biliousness. remove biliousness. scabies. relieves hiccup. cooling. FAM. fatigue. emmenagogue.
scape. antipyretic. t. alterative and tonic. sessile. vomiting.-Sept.5-15 X 3. gleet. expectorant. causes "Vata". blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Assam. ophthalmia. Mango-ginger. antipyretic. L. CHAR. rhizome. PARTS USED :—Root. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. ulcers on penis. perianth segments elliptic. with a beak . lumbago. K. Java. Sk. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . gonorrhœa.. aphrodisiac. G.5 cm. " Vata". bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma.—long petioled in tufts. Ambahaladara. bronchitis. Kapurahaldi. Bitter. appetiser. aphrodisiac. diuretic. indigestion. Sd.:—W.8-5 cm. DISTR. :—Stemless herb. linear or linear-lanceolate . colic. Fl. appetising. 1545 X 1.—Scitamineæ. useful in bronchitis. Fl. hairy on the back. Fl. :—A small herb. Amragandha. cooling. laxative. useful in piles. . hydrophobia.:—Sweet.— in autumnal spikes 7. alexiteric. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. pains in joints (Yunani). cylindric or ellipsoid. maturant. PROPERTIES AND USES. very short. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Kanara. :—E. NS. piles. Fr. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. Ambehalad. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. L. gleet. inflammations (Ayurveda). Ambahaldi. yellow. W.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. :—Konkan and N. Karpuraharidra. antipyretic. LOC. black. oblong lanceolate. Root—carminative. flowering bract greenish-white. Bengal. asthma. t. all skin-diseases. clavate . often cultivated. COM. distichous. bitter. gonorrhœa. scabies. LOC. H. DISTR. M. Fl. jaundice. lumbago.—sessile or petiolate. LOC. :—Konkan and Gujarat. appetiser. tips sometimes rooting.5 cm.— May-June. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac .—capsule. Malay Archipelago. troubles in the mouth and ear. tubers thick.— in racemes. useful in inflammations. 30-45x7.—grooved. shining . Amhaladi. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent.5-12. tonic. pale yellow inside . Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. during convalescence after acute illness. root stock large. diarrhœa. hiccup. emollient. C—white or very pale-yellow. oblong. diarrhœa. common at the beginning of rains. alterative. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Peninsula. stomatitis (Yunani). FAM. fattening. fatigue. oblong. debility and impotence. biliousness. :—Bengal.3-2. useful in biliousness. aphrodisiac.
Turmeric. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. long. also stomachic. Kapur-kachali. H. Sholi. 3lobed. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. rounded at the tips. DISTR. :—E.— flowering stem sheathed. Fl. Halada. base deltoid. Sometimes cultivated. Indian saffron.. variegated above. pale green. LOC. Halad. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Haridra. annulate. COM.—Scitamineæ. in spikes 15-30 cm. Sk. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. Halad. K. It is considered tonic and carminative. palmately branched. sessile. lip yellow. upper half funnel-shaped. :—Western Peninsula. used as an application for skin-diseases. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. Banhaladi. Also cultivated in Konkan. the dorsal longer. FAM. DISTR. it is seldom used alone . M. long. appearing before leafing stem. Sholika. G. Arishina. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). CHAR. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. Mangalya. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo.-May. Vanhaldara. NS. forming pouches for the flowers. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. Fl. Jayanti. green. :—Stemless herb.—tube 2. Aranyaharidra. Cochin-Wild turmeric. H. C. COM. Harita. LOC.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Vanarishta. Yellow Zedoary. . CURCUMA LONGA Linn. appetiser . bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. LOC. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. t. Bengal. sometimes cultivated. Sk. :—E. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . flowers fragrant. biennial. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Ran-halad. Banharidra. See—Condiments and Spices. L.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. lateral lobes oblong. lobes pale-rose. G. NS. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. flowering bracts cymbiform. FAM. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste.—Scitamineæ. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. M.5 cm. root-stock large. Varnadatri.
Karechura. bronchitis. inflammations. appearing before the leaves. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. externally applied to leech-bites. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. FAM . :—Stemless herb. annulate tubers. boils. good for liver affections.—4-6 with long petioles. an alkaloid. jaundice.:—E. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. Kachora. flowering bract green tinged with red . antipyretic. Narakachora. Shathi. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. odour like camphor. bruises. destroys foulness of breath. lip 3-lobed. and inflammatory troubles of the joints .—funnel shaped. improves complexion. Hakhir. M. swellings. Sk. See—Condiments and Spices. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. Himalayas and Chittagong. coma-bract crimson or purple . anthelmintic. internally administered in blood disorders. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. blood diseases. clouded with purple down the middle. urinary discharges. maturant. alexiteric. In small-pox and chicken-pox. clothed with sheaths. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. piles. pale-yellow inside.—capsule. fragrant. Fl. DISTR. useful in leucoderma. fumes are used during hysteric fits . and yields an essential oil. "Vata ". . bruises. taste bitterish spicy. anthelmintic.—Scitamineæ. long. vulnerary. heating. root-stock of palmately branched.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.— flowering stem 20-25cm. flowers yellow in spikes. laxative. oblong-lanceolate. useful in " Kapha". L. G. sprains (Ayurveda). Fr. Tuber is used as a stimulant. In coryza. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. carminative. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. diuretic. 30-60 cm. 3-gonous. Zedoary. NS. COM. vulnerary. bitter. said to be Wild in E. Bitter. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. emollient. cylindric. deepyellow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. CHAR. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. It contains vitamin A. asthma. :—Cultivated in the State. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. LOC. long. lobed . Kachari. used in prurigo. leucoderma. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. bitter. small-pox. tonic. heating. urinary discharges. H. scabies. Kachuri. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. bruises (Yunani). appetiser. The plant contains curcumin. itches etc. Gandhamulaka sara. boils and urticaria. LOC. oblong. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. scabies. alexiteric. C. Kachora. Jatala.
alexipharmic. chronic rheumatism. It is also aromatic. of much use in typhoid fevers. laxative. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. high. gastric irritability.8 m. useful in griping of children. It is an excellent stomachic to children. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. sharp. useful in bronchitis. furunculosis. carminative. Takratrina. NS. good odour. and is of great value in cholera. it is also a good application for ringworm. erect. LOC. bitter. emmenagogue. long. carminative. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. nodding.—linear tapering upwards to a point. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. :—A tall perennial. Bitter. neuralgia. sprains. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. pains. upto over 90 cm. G. sheaths of the culm tight. LOC. Tubers yield an essential oil. alexipharmic. Lemon grass. culm stout. M. tuberculous glands of neck. expectorant. applied to bruises and sprains. velvety at the nodes. tonic to brain and heart. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. Majjige hullu.:—E. others narrow and separating. and other painful affections. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda).—Gramineæ. . throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. hot. it is stimulant. Lilicha.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. enlargement of spleen. up to over 1. Gavati-chaha. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Gandhatrina. Sk. Ligule very short. epileptic fits. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. Externally it is rubefacient. long. inflammations. DISTR. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. emetic. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. L. Putigandha. leprosy. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. FAM. laxative. stimulant and carminative. midrib whitish on the upper side.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. glaucous green. H. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. LOC. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. appetiser. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Leaves. COM. anthelmintic. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. Bhustrina. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. toothache (Yunani). Purhati hullu. also used as a tonic and depurative. probably of Indian origin. sheaths terete .. sharp hot taste. CHAR.
cooling. 12-18 mm. Rohisha. with erect flowering branches 7. pains. high. long. long. Harali. bitter. :—E. Durba. leprosy. thirst. Fl. M. Burma. Gharo. LOC. G. CHAR. 1. Africa to Morocco.5-5 cm. Saugandhika. hallucinations. useful in fevers. usually broad.—Gramineæ. LOC.-Nov. bronchitis. Bahuvirya.000 m. :—A perennial grass . Fl. most warm countries. smooth.—grain. useful in biliousness. Bujina. K. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. straw coloured. Deccan. Country. leafy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—spikes 2-nate. :—Cosmopolitan . COM. Fr. Sk.3 cm. H. S. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—flat. Ghats. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge.t. Dhro.4 m. Afghanistan. long. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Shatagranthi. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. X 1 cm. oblique or divaricate.—throughout the year. long. Kobbar. Roshdo. margins scabrid. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bad taste in the mouth. soft. LOC. stem.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. fatigue. Geramium grass. Fl. narrowly linear. Shyamaka. W. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. high. throughout India. scabies. in the Himalayas. FAM. sheaths tight. :—Punjab. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Dhoboghas. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Rhusghas. Fl. vomiting. CHAR. H. Shatamula. through N. forming matted tufts. and Ceylon ascending to 3. carminative. Gujarat. Baluchistan. Mirchiagand. prostrate . epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). burning sensation. epileptic fits.5-30 cm. leprosy. 1 mm.5-2. widely creeping. glaucous beneath. G. skin . wide below. finely acute. particularly the Deccan trap areas.—Gramineæ. subcordate or rounded at the base. slender. sweet. Bhutika. K. DISTR. Durva.—2-10 cm. M. :—Sourashtra. throat troubles. pungent. Vasanchullu. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. FAM. Sind. green or purplish. stem. L. heart diseases.:—Grows all over the State.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. t. :—E. Konkan. Sk. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. DISTR. Mangala. Rohisha. L. See-Oils. NS. Durva..—Oct. NS. Roshagavat. Garikehallu. COM. upto 2. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils.
Ceylon. :—G. LOC. vulnerary. burning sensation.82.. acrid. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. fever. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. diaphoretic. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. dysentery.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases.—Cyperaceæ. epilepsy. Mutha. Granthi. fevers. Tubers yield an essential oil. See—Fodder Plants. Bitterish. PARTS USED :—Tubers. vomiting. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. cooling. Motha. diarrhœa. Nut—broadly ovoid. pain. Motha. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. Sugandhi-granthila. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. ophthalmia. Motha. Koranarigadde. biliousness. They are also diuretic and stimulant. useful in leprosy. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. fever. Fl. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. stomatitis. vulnerary. Sk Bhadramusta. Mustaka. :—Throughout India. Tungegaddo. Bimbal. epilepsy and insanity. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. CHAR. expectorant. anthelmintic. useful for ulcers and sores.—Sept-Nov. juice is used in hysteria.. LOC. In Ceylon. stolons elongate. emmenagogue. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. erysipelas. blood diseases. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. very troublesome weed. Nagarmotha. Fl.5 cm. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . stomachic. trigonous. Kachhola. useful in vomiting. appetiser. NS. biliousness. narrowly linear. spikelets 10-50 flowered.— in simple or compound umbel. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. thirst. erysipelas (Ayurveda). most hot countries. FAM. diarrhœa. epistaxis (Ayurveda). hiccup (Yunani). greyish black. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. t. DISTR. USES :—Roots are commonly. K. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. 0. urinary concretions (Yunani). M. anthelmintic. dysentery. H. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. L. epistaxis.—shorter or longer than the stem. it is diuretic. Root— diuretic. :—Glabrous herb. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. pruritis. difficult to eradicate. dyspepsia. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. LOC. blood diseases. astringent. . bruises. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue.
FAM. acute. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. Administered after the third stage of labour.—Solanaceæ. lobes spreading. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. M.2 cm. yellowish brown. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Ceylon. high. Bhranta. NS.—purple outside. diam.—follicle.5 cm. Black-Purple datura. Country. Kaladhatura. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. M. Ns. glabrous above. soft spiny. DISTR. COM. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. Phalakantak. HABIT :—A common weed. very unequal at the base. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. Sd. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions.—thin. LOC. t.-Jany.—Aug. on curved stalk 3. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. Fl. Sk. greenish-yellow or dull-white. G. beak long.— tubular. subglobose. L. Rajdhattura. LOC. L. Kanaka. H. . USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. ciliate. :—A perennial twining herb.—Asclepiadaceæ. nodding. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. Fl. paralytic ileus. inner curved high over the staminal column. 18 cm. outer truncate.5 cm. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Unmatta.:—E. M. long 10-20. :—Deccan. divaricately branched. tubular. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. a glucoside. Gujarat. Fl. Kala-dhotara. packed. somewhat zigzag. funnel-shapped. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. and sub-involution of the uterus. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. PROPERTIES AND LOC. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. long. white inside. S. velvety pubescent beneath. CHAR. COM. Utarni. stem hairy. entire or with large teeth or lobes. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". Fl. 30-60 cm. Kaladhatura. Utran. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. covered with straight sharp prickles. across. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. Sk. afterwards racemose. spur acute.—many. double.—Sept-Dec. ovate. reflexed. FAM. Kanaka. Sd.—7. K: Dhattura. e. CHAR.g. Fr. corona outer and inner.—capsule. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). has been isolated and its mode of action studied.. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. t. C.2-7. :—Annual shrub. usually pubescent. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. green. Fr. Kariyu-Um-Matta. solitary. :—H.5-15 X 3.
useful in leucoderma. emetic. nodes. jaundice. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period.—Umbelliferæ COM. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Gajar. chronic coughs. PARTS USED :—Roots. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. piles. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. painful tumours. in gonorrhœa. Gajar. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. alexiteric. skin-diseases. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. K. :—E. DISTR. ganja. emetic. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. in combination with subja. headache. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. majum. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. M. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. black (Kala) and white (Safed). toddy. The plant as a whole has narcotic. anthelmintic. H. Leaf poultice. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. (Ayurveda). Gajra.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. LOC. G. leaves and seeds. Cultivated in many parts of India. ulcers. and antispasmodic properties. USES :—Out of the two varieties. febrifuge. aphrodisiac. mumps etc. Sk. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. :—Throughout the tropics. bronchitis. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. HABITAT :—Cultivated. . Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. tonic. LOC. heating. toxic. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. Leaf-juice is given internally. digestive and heating. Europe. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. biliousness. febrifuge. Gajar. bitter. leaves and seeds. nosetrouble. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. GranthiPinda-Mula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid.. The whole plant is narcotic. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. cause headache (Yunani). with curdled milk. anthelminitic . Garjara. Shikkikanda. Carrot. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. equal in effect to atropine. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. black variety is considered to be more powerful. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Gajjari. anodyne. relieves pain. enlargement of testicles and boils. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Seeds—narcotic. to increase their stupefying effect.
:— G. piles. It is used in fevers. antidysenteric. alexipharmic. Roots contain vitamins A. alterative. Salwan. useful in chronic fevers. Shaliparni. C—violet or white. Country.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite.—May-July. vomiting. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. hiccup. FAM. Fl. K. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. asthma. 0. Murele-honne. hairy. LOC. Darh. pains. vomiting and asthma. chronic affections of chest and lungs. cough. USES :—Externally. COM. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. good for liver. t. Fl. tumours.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Root— astringent in diarrhœa. they are also diuretic. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. asthma. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. high.—pod. aphrodisiac. ovate-oblong. astringent to bowels. H. Deccan and S. Dirghamula. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . abundant in Khandesh Akrani. bronchitis.. Sk. B and C. L. LOC. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. . Salwan. paler and hairy beneath.—in terminal or axillary racemes. Ceylon. stems and branches angled. boiled with honey and fermented.6-1. standard cuneate at the base . indigestible. hooked hairy. throughout India. urinary complaints. astringent to bowels. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. cures biliousness. stomachic. Vidarigandha. Kitavinashini. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. biliousness. used in bronchitis. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. M. Ranbhal. Salparni. NS. cardiotonic. carminative. :—Konkan and N.—onefoliate. " Vata". CHAR. anthelmintic. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. upper edge straight. " Tridosha ". :—A woody undershrub. Malay Peninsula and Islands . expectorant. nausea (Yunani). good for inflammation. burning sensation. they produce a spirituous liquor. green and glabrous above. joints 6-8. urinary discharges. China. biliousness. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. LOC. Salpan. Fr. sub-falcate. prevents death of fœtus in womb . removes " Kapha". Philippines. aphrodisiac. dysentery . Burma. Kanara . used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. piles. thirst. inflammations. other fevers. thirst. vomiting. tonic. Salwan. chest troubles. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Tonic. Root marmalade is refrigerant. membranous. tropical Africa. cures typhoid. fattening.2 m. margins wavy. diuretic. DISTR. cures leprosy. M. Salpani. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables.
urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). M. Kalaskandh. diseases of blood.3-3. stolon very stout. margins hispid. skin eruptions. Tendu. reaching 50 cm. erect pyramidal or columnar. LOC. covered with shining sheaths. Davoli. NS. M. ligule a hairy line . jaundice. Konkan. Tumaki Mara. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Gale. t. Timbwini. fruit and seeds. vesical calculi. creeping. LOC. Egypt. Kusha. cures ulcers and " Vata". strangury. Malay Archipelago. Fruit—oleaginous.—G. thirst. Tumari. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. Wood cures biliousness. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. branches short crowded. Pavitra.. rootstock stout. oleaginous. sheaths glabrous. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. vomiting. bark. L. H. Anilsara. used in biliousness and blood diseases. interrupted. Banda. :—Perennial tall grass. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. DISTR. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. NS. Kalatendu. Sacred Plants. Riber ebony. COM. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. diseases of bladder. COM. branched from the base. . Nubia. diuretic. Sk.—Gramineæ. FAM.8 cm. -panicle 15-45 X 1. :—Along the coasts of N. high. tufted. Durva. Dabha. long. stems 30-90 cm. Fl. See—Fodder Plants. stout. the basal fascicled. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Dab. useful in blood diseases. LOC. Darbha. asthma. astringent to bowels. cooling. in the beds of rivers and streams. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Wild mangosteen. G. Zeeberwo. PARTS USED :—Wood. Gujarat. :—E. Temburni. H. Sk. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. clothed with sessile spikelets. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. erect. vaginal discharges. rigid. Makurkendi. sedative to pregnant uterus. K. aphrodisiac.) FAM. CHAR.—many. heating. Sphurjaka. Flowers—aphrodisiac.—Dec. good for lumbago. Syria. biliousness. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Darbha. Kanara and the Konkan. Gavandu. Ceylon.:—Saurashtra. Thailand (Siam).—Ebenaceæ. flowers. Tinduka. smooth. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places.
Wandar bashing. Horse-Gram. enlargement of spleen. improves complexion. intestinal colic. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. Jurali. cordate. Basingh. It is demulcent in calculus affection. antipyretic. Bijapur and Dharwar. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Polypodiaceæ. appetiser. Ashvakatri. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. piles. grown to a certain extent in S. NS. Kulit. strangury. Kulith. Country—Belgaum. hot. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. stout. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. G. ovate. LOC. short. Sk. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. causes biliousness (Yunani).92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. ozoena. FAM. Grains contain vitamin A. CHAR. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. piles. See-Food Plants. asthma. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. "Vata". Kulithaka. abdominal complaints. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. . cures " Kapha".Gahat. FAM. Sitetara. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. astringent to bowels. LOC. NS. acrid. Kulthi. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. H. inflammation. leucoderma. cures hiccup. removes stone from kidney. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. Surfaces naked. base decurrent on the stipe. :—Tropics of the old world. heart-troubles. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Nasik. :—Rhizome creeping. eye troubles. Sori two in each primary areole. Kulitha. M. Tans. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. coughs etc. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). diseases of the brain and eyes. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. urinary discharges. M. fattening. Diuretic. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. PARTS USED :—Seeds. :—E. generally on trees and rocks. COM. COM. fertile ones long stalked. bronchitis. Konkan— Ratnagiri. dry. densely clothed with red-brown scales. K. Kulthi. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). :—M. variously lobed. emmenagogue. Texture membranaceous to leathery. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Kalvrinta. hiccup. pain in liver. DISTR. tumours. Hurali. liver troubles. Kulathi.
0. NS. pappus short. Garagadasoppu. deeply pinnatifid.— Nov. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Pitripriya. hectic fever. Bhringraj. dyspepsia. Deccan. intermediate produced in sharp spine. improves taste. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. :—Kanara. thirst. COM. Fl. Bhangra. inflammations. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. Sunilaka. Bhangro. Kantaphala. Markara. Mochand. cottony pubescent. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. used in strangury.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. t. LOC. high. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). LOC. hysteria. M. antipyretic. Country. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. COM. bracts 3seriate. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). gleet. strigose and hairy. " Vata". oblong. also cultivated to a certain extent. chronic fever. urinary discharges. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. useful in brain-diseases. Utakatara. Bhangra.—Compositæ. Ajagara. H. :—G. globose. wooly beneath. Maka. NS.-Jany. Utkanto. FAM. H. Konkan. LOC. increases appetite. Balari. often rooting at the nodes. bitter. Utanti. astringent to bowels . It is used in hoarse cough. M. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. M. Root— abortifacient. Kantalu. subentire. Dadhal. :—A much branched rigid annual. Kadigga-garaga.—achene obconic. Utkantaka. Shulio. spines 2. Fl. Keshrangana. analgesic. branches widely spreading from the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. :—Konkan. sinuate and spinescent. L. biliousness.—limb linear.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. cottony. :—More or less throughout India. glabrous above. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani).3—0. Fr. densely villous.—sessile. diseases of heart. involucre. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice.:—Throughout India. L. hot. sessile. used in ophthalmia. :—G.— opposite. S. FAM.—heads white. cooling. stimulates liver. Utkanta.—Compositæ. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. Afghanistan. Sk. DISTR. usually oblong-lanceolate.9 m. causes " Kapha". K. Utkatara. the lobes triangular and oblong. CHAR. CHAR. dyspepsia and cough. yellowish. Sk. Kalobhangro . spiny. Plant stomachic. tonic. surrounded by strong white bristles. C. Seeds—wholesome. Kadechubak. stems and branches strigose and hairy. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. long. . pain in joints.5 cm. DISTR.
Fr. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). stomachic. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis.. expectorant.-Dec.—Scitaminaceæ. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. alterative. internal diseases. Sk. hair. and for strengthening gums. tonic. Peninsula). Ilaji. Chandrabala. leucoderma. hernia. bronchitis. cures inflammations. Fl. It relieves headache when applied with oil. Kanara (Siddapur. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . cures vertigo (Yunani). anthelmintic. "Kapha". heart and skin diseases. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. Bahula. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). pappus 0. disk ones tubular . asthma. It is given internally in scalding of urine. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. toothache. it is powdered and applied externally. liver pain. H. Ceylon. syphilis. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sind. anæmia.—in heads. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. t. W. night blindness. Madhya Bharat. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. ray flowers ligulate. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . improves colour of hair. "Vata". C—often 4-toothed . good for complexion. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. DISTR. COM. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State.—achene. Elachi. NS. M. LOC. Velchi. cuneate with a narrow wing. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. hemi-crania. cultivated. eye diseases. LOC. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. stomatitis. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Panjab.— Oct. Bitter . See—Sacred Plants. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. teeth. There are two forms erect and prostrate. Ela. solitary or 2 together. :—E. Triputa. prevents abortion and miscarriage. .94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. lustre of eyes. fattening. Gourangi. K. FAM. axillary. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Gandhkuti. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum.:—India (Bengal. alexipharmic. good for spleen diseases. a reputed and popular liver tonic. antipyretic. eyes. hot. Choti-Elachi. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Veldoda. Yalakki. G. Malaya. fevers. involucral bracts about 8 . Karangi. Burma. :—Western valleys of N.
useful in asthma. Bidanga. pruritus. M. stomachic. diuretic. most suitable to hard-working classes. Jantughna. Nagali. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. See-Food Plants. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. carminative. root is laxative and tonic. cooling. bronchitis. Vavading. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. stimulant and emmenagogue. CUM. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. fragrant. bitter. Vidariga. useful in biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. diseases of bladder. Vayuvitang. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Grain. chest and throat (Yunani). In S. pungent. DISTR. LOC. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. See—Condiments and Spices. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. LOC. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. K. India. Bavato. Rajika. brain and mouth. alexiteric .—Myrsinaceæ. Ragi. causes thirst. Navalo-nagali. abortifacient. H. useful in head. piles. laxative. fruit and seeds. strangury. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. . rich or poor. Kanisha. cultivated. ear and tooth ache. clear head.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Seed—fragrant. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. K. FAM. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. tonic to heart. scabies. Bhasmaka.:—G. bad humours of liver. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). Marua. fruit is tonic. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic.:—Western and S. Wavrung. NS. NS. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. Grains contain vitamin B. Nachani. Vavoding. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon.—Gramineæ. Boberang. lessens inflammation.. Sk. Makra. Narttaka. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. :— G. diuretic. Pavaka. H. LOC. kidney. It is said to be astringent. COM. M. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). tonic. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. cause biliousness . It is stomachic. consumption. cooling. Varding. Rotka. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. Sk.
Seed— acrid. carminative. Arch. :—A large scandent shrub. alexiteric. S. branches long. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. Anward. like a pepper corn when dried. urinary discharges. K. aphrodisiac. good for plethoric constitution. reddens urine. :—Hilly parts of the State. LOC. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. H. leaves. cures bronchitis . ascites. Bitter. flowers. " Tridosha ". Adiphala. analgesic. inflammations. Avala. slender. :— E. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Fruit. laxative. leprosy. Amalaka. purgative. G. flexible. Fr. Daula . Ceylon. racemes minute. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Rain forests.—Euphorbiaceæ. dries wound discharges . shining above. anthelminitic. piles. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. strangury. Embelic myrobalan. Western Ghats. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. constipation. black when ripe. Paranjpe and G. Amla. anæmia. Anola. Malaya. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. Kanara. Amlika. dyspnoea. paler and silvery beneath. mental diseases. internodes long. elliptic-lanceolate. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). vulnerary. dry. coriaceous. China. Int. Fl. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). antipyretic. bark. Deccan.—berry. thirst. alterative. Ambala. M. urinary discharges. carminative. nearly globose.) FAM. Konkan and N. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. many. LOC. useful in burning sensation. et. anthelmintic . K. bronchitis. cures tumours. L. " Kapha'. Amlika. sweats.—in lax panicles. LOC. S. Triphala. wild or planted. bark studded with lenticels . jaundice. DISTR. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Dhatriphala. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. with a sharp bitter taste. Malay Islands. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. alterative. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. Ther. often planted in Konkan. greenish yellow. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. Gokhale. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . sour. China. fruit and seeds. good appetiser. succulent. Fl. (Dymock). erysipelas. tonic. Bhoza . Dadi. Sk. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. PARTS USED :—Root. anuria. :—Throughout India. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. DISTR. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. useful in asthma. diseases of heart. Dhatri. NS. t.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. .—Feb. 42-II-1932). COM. cooling.—alternate. Pharm. Nellika . biliousness. Ceylon. vomiting. hemicrania. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. bronchitis. poisoning.
—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Dried fruits. Sind. Hallekayiballi. M. 10—50 cm. Giant's rattle. aperient. sub-quadrangular or terete. white. See—Timbers. DISTR. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. Nahu. H. Fl. thirst. rounded apex. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Chhotakirayat. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. Country. Lady nut. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Nagajivha. :—G. Fruit—acrid. stops nasal hæmorrhage. expectorant. useful in heart-diseases. Doddakampi. West Indies. CHAR. C—infundibuliform. :—A perennial glabrous herb. Dyes. Tans. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. Fruit Trees. COM. Tanavadi. Grey). Madvinashi. Unripe fruit is cooling. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. Gujarat. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Tiktapatra. purifies body humours (Yunani). eye troubles.—Gentianaceæ. Celyon. high. :—Throughout the greater part of India. used as laxative and astringent. 3-nerved. Saurashtra. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. sour. LOC. lobes 5. vulnerary. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. branched from the base. FAM.—sessile. cold in the nose. variable. . narrowed at the base.).—Aug.— capsule. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Mabhipaka. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. mid-nerve strong. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. R. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. NS. S. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. piles. Malaya. opposite.-Nov. LOC. Garbe. M. M. t. bark and fruit are astringent. Fl. Garambi. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Kadvinayi. liver complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. stems erect or procumbent. Ind. tropical Africa. :—Konkan. improves appetite. COM. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. tonic. Mamejavo . cooling. Mackary bean. diuretic and laxative. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. NS. anthelmintic. ellipsoid. biliousness. LOC. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). Fr.—sessile. Sk. K. USES :—Root.) FAM. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). astringent. L. in axillary clusters all along the stem.
Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Sd. stalked. Pangara. thick. smooth.) FAM. N. Kantakinshuka.. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Nepal.—yellow.— Mar. DISTR. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". Panderavo. C. indented between the seeds. M.5-5-7 cm. Mullumurige. axillary or from the nodes of old branches .. Dadap. leaflets 7-5 x 2. Planted as ornament. Mochi-wood. t. Panjira. leaves.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. along sea-coast above high-water. glabrous. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk. Halivan. stomachic. long. Arakan. they are given internally as an emetic. Fl. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. compressed. long. mixed with spices. LOC. Andamans and Nicobar. L. rigidly coriaceous. Peninsula.—2pinnate. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Mandara. 4. Planted as support for pepper vines. Pegu. DISTR. Panarvo. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. oblong or obovate. dark green. PARTS USED :—Seeds. pinnae 2—3 pairs. bark used in dysentery.7-5x7. often along river banks. 30-90 cm. Tennaserim. Bangaro. diam. LOC. H.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Ceylon. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. in debility and glandular swellings . COM.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. The plant is used as a fish-poison. hot. shining and brown. Sundribans. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. for grapevines in Nasik district. wide and 3-8 cm.—6-15. :—Konkan and N. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas.3-2 cm. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. anthelmintic. Salaki. . Var. Mandara. Hongara. branches terete. bark. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. 3. :—Coast forests of Malabar. flowers. Indian coral-tree. ORIENTALIS Merr.S. cure urinary discharges. slightly curved. Leaves—bitter. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda).—pod. K. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. USES :—Powdered kernel. PARTS USED :—Root. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Paribhadra. Pangara. Phandra . orbicular. Fr. G.5-10 cm. improve appetite. the tropics generally. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge.. Raktapushpa. woody. Fl.-May. :—E. W. Kanara. inflammations. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara.
It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. NS. . See—Timbers. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. COM. Mondukalli. NS. Sahud. Vajradruma. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. K. Sk. rugose. G.—Euphorbiaceæ. Sendh. Milk bush. L. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. H. globose. and to relieve pain of the joints. Shirthahar.—ovoid-trigonous. Plant is chiefly used for worms. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Dudanali. gland minute. 18th Ind. Sher.—opposite. Cong. Nagpur 1931). high.) FAM. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Fr. Pusitoa. :— E. Fl. base unequal-sided. reddish brown. G. Achchegida. pale beneath. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. bowel complaints and cough in children. M.—Euphorbiaceæ. Dandalio thora. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Kodukalli.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. Indian tree spurge. COM. Australian asthma herb. Nevli. Bahukshira. —throughout the year. appressedly hairy. Milk hedge. CHAR. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. FL. Dandasruha. Dudhi. Ceylon. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. t. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Paradeshi thora . Bottugalli. branches often 4-angled. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn.—involucres numerous. Govardhan. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Annual herb. serrulate or dentate. Dudhi. dark green above. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Pill-bearing spurge. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections.—capsule. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. H. with or without a limb. it is anthelmintic. M. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. LOC. Sd. Dudhi. Duddi. erect or ascending. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—E. 15-50 cm. Sc. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. K. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts.
milk is alexiteric. Vishnukranta. :—Throughout the State. branches erect. terete. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. silky hairy. stems many. mostly female. leprosy and leucorrhoea. smooth. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. useful in bronchitis. . PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. leprosy.-July-Nov. DISTR.-Aug. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. tumours. CHAR. epilepsy. LOC. colic. alexiteric. useful in gonorrhœa.—capsule. Sk.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. pungent. LOC. employed to raise blisters. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. tropical and sub-tropical countries. spreading. and with oil to promote growth of hair. alterative. L. Ceylon. Vishnugandhi. 4valved. naturalised in India. M. tonic. enlargement of spleen. prostrate.— capsule. campanulate. FAM. Kalisankhavali. useful in biliousness. useful in abdominal troubles. brightens intellect. leucoderma. Jhinkiphudardi. polished. LOC. elliptic-oblong. :—A small tree. whooping cough. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. stone in bladder (Yunani). :—A perennial herb. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. more than 5 cm. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Sd. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. dropsy. linear. Fl. Juice is purgative. K. long (appearing in rainy season) . t. cocci velvety. smooth. NS. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . The plant contains an alkaloid.-Sep.—many. t. L. thin. :—Sind. branchlets whorled. Fl.—ovoid. teething of infants . asthma. solitary or sometimes 2. carminative. Fl. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. DISTR. Shyamakranta . jaundice. Fr.—Convolvulaceæ. LOC. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. usually clothed with long hairs . axillary. peduncles very long. H. about 6 m. Fr. Vishnukranti. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. Nilpushpi. thick like quill. dyspepsia. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. Vishnukranta. rootstock woody . :—G. wiry. biliousness. base acute. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts.-light blue. Konkan and Gujarat. almost leafless. 6-13 mm. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Sd— glabrous. anthelmintic. long. :—Native of East Africa. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. also as an alterative. globose. carminative.—small. high.
M. fever. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Waziristan. Iran. reaching 60 cm. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. :— H. M. asthma. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. H. :—An erect annual. W. Hinguna. cooling. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. M. typhoid. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). Udichirayat. Circars. :—Konkan.—solitary. Cooling. Fl. Bark is used in scabies. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns.—very variable in size and form sessile. Arabia. :—Madras State. ophthalmia. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. emmenagogue. LOC. elliptic or lanceolate. NS.).— showy. sessile. Barachirayat. stem. :— Sind. removes "Vata. Atmamuli. it has got cooling properties. NS. more or less glandular. Sd. Ustarkhar. t. Dusparsha.—Zygophyllaceæ. of 5. Country. vomiting.—opposite. Fr. FAM. 5-nerved. Mysore. flattened.—capsule.— ovoid. FL. Fl. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. :—G. Coimbatore. Rajasthan. Deccan hills and S. t. Dhamasa. Maval. the middle the largest. . yellowish brown. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. purifies blood (Ayurveda). pale rose-coloured. reduces tumours. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). urinary discharges. also used in chronic fevers. arising from between the stipules . in chronic bronchitis. ellipsoid. 1-3 foliate. DISTR. acute. small. smooth. erysipelas. COM. petioles deeply striate. Fl. COM. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Kashaya. Fr. CHAR. about 1.2 cm. deeply 5-partite. pyramidal to the apex. cures dysentery. LOC. Ind. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. smooth. Prabhodhini. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. toothache. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. Upper Gangetic plains.-Aug. Baluchistan. shining. Sk." asthma. high. 1-seeded cocci. stomatitis. L. obliquely obovate. thirst.—Gentianaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb.-Nov. Dhamaso . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. DISTR. L.-Oct. ovate. LOC. removes "Vata". root fibrous. the upper blue.-Dec. C—lobes 4-5. Mediterranean. Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. FAM. Dhanavi. CHAR. glandular hairy. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. Ghats. scarcely branched. westwards to Afghanistan. N. quadrangular. Punjab. long. in copious terminal cymes . leaflets linear. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. spitting of blood. good for liver troubles. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. lower half white.
Nyagrodha. Manmadha. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Sk. tumours. diam. :—Cultivated all over the State. Kavitha. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Ghats. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Vata. K. Kavit. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Kothun. M. Bar. tonic to heart. Kathel. ovate to elliptic. dysentery. Monkey fruit. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. G. Avaroha. . Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic.. often cultivated. Bargat. :—E.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. K. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. LOC. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Alada. LOC. binding diuretic. hiccup. PARTS USED :—Leaves. strengthening to gums . Dadhiphala. Elephant or wood apple. about 2 cm. Bahupada. Malura. Kait. 10-20 X 5-12. blood impurities. M. difficult to digest. Fruit—sour . Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. Grahiphala. NS. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. Kavath. H. often planted. fatigue. M. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Bhringi.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. COM. leucorrhoea.—Rutaceæ. ophthalmia. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). FAM. S. Kathinyaphala. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. good for throat. COM. country and N. high. Kapipriya. India. refrigerant. fruit and seeds. refrigerant . consumption. Banian tree. Kanara. thirst. Vad. Kapitha. with spreading branches. cordate or rounded base. liver and lungs . L. Balin. Vadlo . Sk. Java. Fruit Trees. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. " Vata ". Vad. Bargad. Vat.—coriaceous. common in the Tapi Valley. asthma.5 cm. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . :—Indigenous in S. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. Ceylon. aphrodisiac.— globose. alexipharmic. Leaves—very astringent. " Tridosha". See—Timbers. with male. acrid. Belada. :— E. Self-sown. astringent. female. Ala. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Seeds—antidote to poison. removes biliousness. H.—Moraceæ. CHAR. G. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. Byala. heart diseases. useful in biliousness.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. cures cough. Fr. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. NS. Goli. Kotha. vomiting . shining above. Jatala. DISTR.
M. NS. Anjura. diuretic. vulnerary. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. aphrodisiac. thirst. Grown scattered elsewhere. Simeyatu . leprosy. :—Baluchistan. useful in inflammation . in rheumatism and lumbago. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. leprosy (Ayurveda). Anjir. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. ulcers. dysentery. LOC. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. Milky Juice—expectorant. Sacred Plants. See—Famine Plants. demulcent. Bijapur. Sk. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. useful in "Kapha". Fibres. biliousness. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. :— E. H. DISTR. biliousness. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. lessens inflammations. Asia and Mediterranean. nutritive. paralysis. LOC. ringworm. weakness. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. G. stimulates hair-growth. FAM. Kakodumbar. useful in "Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. nose-diseases. Dharwar. . inflammation of liver (Yunani). boils and carbuncles. W. FICUS CARICA Linn. Fig. Anjir. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. useful in leucoderma. Aerial root is styptic. root-fibres. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. leaves. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). vaginal complaints. bruises. fever. Anjir. K. Root—tonic. maturant. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Afghanistan. useful in syphilis. India. PARTS USED :—Bark. Cultivated in N.—Moraceæ. COM. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. tonic. Seeds are cooling and tonic. gonorrhœa. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. Anjir. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. useful in piles. W. USES :—Fruit is emollient. lithotriptic. alexiteric. seeds and milky juice. liver and spleen diseases. hill ranges of S. diseases of head and blood. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. inflammations. vomiting. erysipelas. India. pain in chest cures piles. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes.
leaves and fruits. Pippala. See—Timbers. LOC. burning sensation. useful. Hemadugdha. Sacred Plants. :—Throughout the State near villages. :—Widely spread throughout India. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Yajnika.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. COM. Pipal. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Gular. :—E. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. acrid. Umar. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. useful in "Kapha". DISTR. Umbro. good for foul taste. Pavitraka. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Milk—aphrodisiac. Ragi. Shuchidruma. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. ulcers. Ashvatha. good for bronchitis. Demera. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. ground with onions. K. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. menorrhagia. leprosy. G. Pipal. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. diseases of kidney and spleen. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). bark. styptic. Leaves—astringent to bowels . fruit. NS. given in leucorrhoea. Arani. NS. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. urinary discharges. (Yunani). galactagogue. Lalka. Ashwatha mara. Bark is cooling. Vriksharaj. Sk. biliousness. fatigue. loss of voice. latex. H. in diseases of blood. biliousness. . Atti. Udumbara. Jari. Bark useful in asthma and piles. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Fruit—astringent to bowels. Umar. Peepal tree . DISTR. uterus . LOC.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. FAM. is given to cattle in rinderpest. leaves. vulnerary. good for gravid uterus. FAM. Gular-Country fig. allays thirst. nose bleedings. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. planted all over. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Rumadi. Umbar. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. vagina.—Moraceæ. LOC. Bodhidruma. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Pipli. burning sensation. leucorrhoea. Sk. cummin. Pimpal. PARTS USED :—Root. H. G. blood diseases. Pippala.—Moraceæ. COM. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. HABITAT :—Planted. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Pipers. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. bark. Bark. M. :—E.
Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. M. Kankod . Variari. heart diseases. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Kanara Jungles. Bhuripushpa. See—Timbers. common in the Peninsula. DISTR. Hettarimullu. Gajale. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. H. and produces sterility in women. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Akrani. SAPIDA Roxb. W. cleans ulcers. Variali. Shalina. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fennel. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Root good for gout. FAM. K. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. good for lumbago. Circars. Bilangra . checks vomiting (Yunani). Ghats. Finkel. COM. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). H. Swadukantaka. appetising and digestive. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Mullutari. LOC. The juice is employed in hiccup. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Satpura. Paker. Bhakal. upper Gangetic plain. Khandesh. gum. Fruit—purgative. Sk. LOC. Hunmunki. Handi Kandai. promotes granulations. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. S. . Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Fodder Plants. COM NS. astringent in leucorrhoea. seeds. FAM.—Flacourtiaceæ. See—Timber. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. Soupa. :— G. Root-bark good in stomatitis. PARTS USED :—Root. G. aphrodisiac.—Umbelliferæ. bark. Shateya. K. Fruits are sweet. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Sk. Badisoppu. HABITAT :—Hills. NS. M. Potika. :—E. Bhanber. N. M. Badishep. fruit. Burma. Katar. Tambat. Country and N. Sacred Plants. Tapaspriya. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda).
In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. wounds. seeds-carminative. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Kokam . alexiteric. HABITAT :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. Fr. difficult to digest. K. Coorg. diuretic. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. M. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections.— decompound. PARTS USED :—Bark. Kokam. Oils. stimulant. wounds etc. It is much used as a nutritive. Leaves—improve eyesight. LOC. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. Ghats. LOC. cures "Tridosh". :—Endemic in W.—Guttiferæ. COM. 0. Ratambi. in headache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. See—Timbers. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. :—W. lessen inflammations. DISTR. USES :—used as stimulant. furrows vittate. Konkan and N. :—E. eye-diseases. PARTS USED :—Roots. bracts and bracteoles absent. stomachic. useful in diseases of chest. kidney. high. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. common in S. carpophore 2-partite. Murjinhalli. tumours. fruit and seeds. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. Kanara. L. dysentery. cough and asthma. strengthen eyes (Yunani). Wynaad. (Mhaskar and Caius). G. annual. appetiser. fever. NS. dark green. USES :—Bark is astringent. DISTR.—ellipsoid. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. amenorrhœa. leaves (rarely). leaves and seeds. ridges prominent.9 m. laxative. aphrodisiac. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). Sk. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. yellow. aromatic and carminative. . cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. Mulgala. :—A tall glabrous. FAM. H. ultimate segments linear. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. galactagogue. Tittidika .6-0. improves appetite and allays thirst. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. Ghats south of Bombay. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. spleen.—in large umbels . " Vata ". Amlabija. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. thirst. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. demulcent and emollient. Atyamla. Kokam . leprosy (Ayurveda). useful in bleeding piles.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. burning sensation. :—Apparently a native of S. anthelmintic. LOC. dysentery. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. cardiotonic. causing constipation . biliousness. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. Wild mangosteen. fissures of lips. Tintidika. FL. often cultivated.
Peninsula).-sessile. M. Gums and Resins. Sk. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Fr. all dry districts of Madras State. G.5x22. Cambi resin tree. elliptic-obovate. See—Gums and Resins. Northern ghats of Madras State. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. As sold in the bazar it is hard. relieves pain of bronchitis. Dakamali. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. unarmed. Burma. Dikkamalli. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating.. long. 1-3 together.-tubular. NS. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. astringent to bowels.—Rubiaceæ. high. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. Jantuka. about 1. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . first white then changing to yellow. Western Peninsula. common on laterite in southern parts of N. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . oblong. Kanara. LOC. shining. :—Common from Konkan southwards. not fragrant. lucida. oblong or ellipsoid. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. :—India. -June. FAM.8 cm. . :—E. PARTS USED :—Gum. LOC. DISTR. lucida (Ayurveda). GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb.8 m. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. same as for G. :—India (W. COM. Fl. buds resinous. Bikke. Suvirya. CHAR. Dikamali. opaque.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. Fl. PARTS USED:-Gum.—2. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. See—Timbers. LOC.5 cm.—Rubiaceæ. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. NS. Hingu. Dikemali. 4.-subsessile.5-3. C. :—A deciduous shrub. Dikamari. LOC. t. K. Dekamari. HABITAT :—Open situations. H.—Feb. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). FAM. Pinda. DISTR.
Kulhari. perianth segments reaching 6. itching. Huliyuguru. Garbhapatani. There are two varieties of the plant. linear-lanceolate. Fr. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. LOC. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms.. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. :—Throughout tropical India.. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. ovate lanceolate. In Guinea. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. COM. linear oblong. axillary . The former is supposed to be male. thirst. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. t. branching climber . changing colours from greenish yellow.5 cm. Karianag. . :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. Linn. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa.2 cm. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. laxative. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). Khadyanag. NS. 7. anthelmintic. H.-July-Oct. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. Dudhio vachhonag. margins wavy. Tropical Africa. stems annual.—capsule.3 cm. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. leprosy. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. PARTS USED :—Tuber. solid. Sivasaktibalb . M. Fl.. L. given off from young tubers . Nangulika. solitary. orange. useful in chronic ulcers. LOC. scattered or opposite. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Sk. Languli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. tall. inflammations. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). expectorant. In case of retained placenta. CHAR. filaments long spreading. FAM. Agnimukhi. bitter. FL. Ceylon. root-stock of arched.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. Kalikari. Kalihari. Malay Peninsula. abortifacient. K.5 X 15 X 2-4. and crimson from blooming to fading. :—G. Cochin-China. sometimes whorled.—Liliaceæ. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. Akkitang hall. DISTR. abdominal pains. scarlet. alexiteric. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins.5-3. :—Herbaceous. piles. acrid.—sessile.—large. heating. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. Tuber— astringent. used to remove placenta from uterus. Indai. leaves and flowers. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. Kathari.
useful in hallucinations. PROPERTIES AND LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Flowers—astringent. burning sensation. chronic cystitis. Fruit— diuretic. NS. H. DISTR. White teak. the root. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Gupsi. . useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Karpasam. piles. Shivani. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers. Karibatti. Ceylon. :— Bengal. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Bachanige. G. scattered in monsoon forests. See—Timbers. Shivan .:—E. Var. Madhya Bharat. Gandhari. Gumbhar. root is also stomachic and laxative. Devkapas. " Tridosha ". Philippines. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. :— E.—Verbenaceæ. COM. made into paste. thirst. Hanji. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Sind. strangury. leaves. improves appetite . HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Mahabhadra. alterative. FAM. In the Konkan. gleet. anthelmintic . useful in fevers . abdominal pains.—Malvaceæ. consumption and some catarrhal affections . useful in indigestion. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. consumption. Cashmere tree. Oils. stomachic. common on Satpuda. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. M. Gambari. scalds etc. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. laxative. Kumbudi. Coomb teak. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. K. COM. leprosy. LOC. aphrodisiac. tonic. Nurma . M. DISTR. Provinces. urinary discharges. fevers. Khandesh. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. thirst. See—Fibres. useful in "Vata". Root taken with liquorice. flowers and seeds. :—Throughout India. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Kashmari. Malaya. Shiwan. G. promotes hair-growth. :—Throughout the State. Sk. anæmia. K. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. PARTS USED :—Root. Shiwan. leaves. catarrh of the bladder etc. flowers and fruit. LOC. anasarca. Tree cotton. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Devakapus. LOC. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). H. Savan. Shripani. indigestible. Rajasthan and N. Deokapas. Sk. FAM. Gambhari. Root extract is bitter and tonic. W.
scabies . wild in Deccan. Oils. :—E. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Baluchistan. Tula. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . COM. leaves. Mesapotamia. Tadasala. analgesic. Mediterranean. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. poultice applied to burns' scalds. removes " Vata ". Parapera. preventing their access to wounds etc. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Parusha. Sk. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. DISTR. H. Phalsa. Seeds— ' galactagogue. Rui. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cure all ear-troubles. Ripe fruit—sweet. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . acrid. Sk. M. Hatti. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). M. Country. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. fruit. Kupas. in hypochondria. Iran.. Egypt. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. in hills near Poona. restore consciousness. Kapas . Seeds are laxative. cures inflammations. increase flow of urine. Arali. G. Buttiyu-dippa. Seeds—aphrodisiac. See—Fibres. Phalsi. Province (Pakistan). LOC. A. cooling. Roshana. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold.Phalse. FAM. S. :— Cultivated in N. F. extensively in Gujarat. M. FAM. enrich blood. Sutrapuspha. H. fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. removes " Vata" and biliousness. Arabia and Asia Minor. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot.—Malvaceæ. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. bark. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Gujarat and S. Karihariyale. U. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. LOC. DISTR. NS. expectorant and aphrodisiac. K. Afghanistan. Pharuah. probably in N. laxative . Kapus. fevers and consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. LOC. extensively cultivated. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. East Tropical Africa. demulcent. K. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Rui. Leaves remove " Vata " . good for all kinds of inflammations. fomentation for burning eyes . digestible. :—Sind. NS. expectorant. used in orchitis.—Tiliaceæ. allay thirst. Jana. Syria. In India they are used to procure abortion. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. :—Cultivated in the State. aphrodisiac. Dhamin. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. W. Cotton . Karpas. Badari. sour. (Yunani). leaf-juice good in dysentery. COM..110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. good for throat . tonic. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. heart and blood disorders. tonic. Anagnika. PARTS USED :—Root. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection.
FL. anthelmintic. Tanmani. . Fruit—sour. Tilparni. Sd. relieves thirst and hiccup. COM. Gurmar. M. LOC. much branched. good in heart-diseases. SK. acrid. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Meshavalli. bronchitis. Mabli. Mardashingi. Churota. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. the stomachic stimulant. base rounded or cordate . Mahabaleshwar and N. L. Adiyakharan. G. Small Indian ipecacuanha. Vishani. :— E. COM. biliousness. FAM. LOC. young stems densely pubescent. Ceylon. Br. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. alexiteric. Kanphodi. Kabari. tonic. Bedki. piles. Arkapuspika. asthma.-May. Karalia .—in cymes . In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. leucoderma. usually single. Hulhul. strengthens chest and heart. vitreous body) burning sensation. India. Meshashingi. ulcers.—follicle. Sati talvani. helps removal of dead fetus. t. :E. LOC. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Root and bark used in strangury.— Apl. cornea. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Tropical Africa. corona of 5 processes . C. CHAR. H. Fr. Bundelkhand Saharanpur.—Capparidaceæ. K. M. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Fl. :—Throughout the State. Ugragandha. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. K. stomachic. Pandhari tilwan. Caravella. NS. The ease of administration.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles.— opposite. PARTS USED :—Whole plant.— with thin marginal wing. ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). Karnasphota. — Asclepiadaceæ. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Periploca of the woods. Hulhul. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. inflammations. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Bastagandha. lanceolate. :—Western Peninsula. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R.— companulate . Merasingi. should not be eaten raw. H. Kavali. cooling. yellow . Sk. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). urinary discharges (Ayurveda). NS. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. G. sweet. Shrikala. Sanngera. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Kanara coast. S. elliptic. Sannagerse. Vakundi. common in hedges in Dharwar district. FAM. DISTR. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. See—Fruit Trees. alterative. :—A large woody climber.
tapering at both ends. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. Fr. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. stem and branches hairy. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Fl. t. high. M. dark-brown . pubescent. :—An annual erect herb 0. pink .—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. margins crenate-dentate. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers .—3-5 foliate. DISTR.—in dense bracteate racemes. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). stomachic . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. Avartant.. Kewan. 5-9 cm. NS. PARTS USED :—Root.5-20 X 3. DISTR. C. LOC. Gujarat.2 m. removes "Vata". Jonkaphal Maraphali.—rather rigid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot.—muricate. Murdasing. Murudseng. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. Kanara. Kavargi. :—G.—June. :—Konkan—Karanja Island.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. vesicant. Katraj Ghat. CHAR. leaves and seeds. earache. viscid. Country. . sessile. COM. :—Deccan. acute. hills in Supa Taluka.—Sterculiaceæ. gynophore 2-2. M. Mrigashringa. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles .12. t. S. K. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. producing copious exudation. FAM. stipules triangular. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. China. good in ascites. pain.—Oct. HABITAT:—Hills. hairy on the nerves beneath.5 cm. Marosi. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil.—many. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. hairy. hairy. Edamuri. Fl. long . Sd. COM. L.—Rubiaceæ. (Kirtikar and Basu). Murudi. white or blue. Sk. long. opposite. with divaricate herbaceous branches . .—petals 4 with long slender claws. hills near Nagothana.—capsule. NS. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.8-9 cm. Fl. pedicels viscid hairy. H. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. ellipsoid . LOC. ulcers. FAM. tumours. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. leaflets subsessile. elliptic-lanceolate.—capsule. :—M. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus.. LOC. Sinhgad hills. elliptic-obovate. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Fr. glabrous or pubescent above. L. :—A small deciduous shrub.6—1. Gidesa Jitasai.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. Sd.-Feb.
They are demulcent. Durivel. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. alexiteric. paralysis. diaphoretic.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together.—tubular. "Kapha". red at first fading to lead colour. syphilis. Root useful in hemicrania. :—Upper Gangetie plain. t.— very variable.—follicle cylindric.3 cm. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. Anantmula. epileptic fits. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. antidiarrhœal. Utpalashariva.Sd.—Asclepiadaceæ. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. anti-galactagogue. Country. joint-pains. :—Throughout the State.—throughout the greater part of the year. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. liver and kidney diseases . Root and stem—laxative. Magrabu. spirally coiled. Br. Konkan. useful in piles. root-Stock woody . In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. lessens griping.— in cymes in opposite axils. FAM. often variegated with white above. K. DISTR. low appetite. stems thickened at the nodes . bark and fruit. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). G. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R.-Dec. angular . LOC. India.5 X 5-10 cm. diarrhœa. poisoning. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. Kapurimathuri. Dhaval kashtha. diuretic. greenish outside. fevers. CHAR. See—Fibres.-biferous. M. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). M. 5-6. “tridosh". ovate orbicular. thirst. Malaya. bronchitis. DISTR. Hamadaberu . bilabiate. NS. urinary discharges. cures all skin-diseases. astringent to bowels .MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. Fl. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. dark-green. uterine complaints. useful in gleet. Anantmula. C. long. tapering . Deccan and S. FL. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. burning sensation. Sd. . Sugandhi-balli. scabrous above. t — Aug. Fr.—numerous. beaked. demulcent. Fl. Burma. Indian sarsaparilla . useful in syphilis and leucoderma. LOC. Fr. mildly astringent. stem. common in hedges. cough. HABITAT :—In hedges. Kanara ghat forests. L. obliquely cordate. :— E. :—Large shrub or small tree. rat-bites. Upalsari. "Vata' dysentery. asthma. eye troubles. Australia and West Indies. leucorrhoea. asthma. Sk. Hindisalse. Ceylon. Fl. and leaves. purplish inside. foul body odour. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels.512.— with silvery white coma . Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. H. Upalsali. good for brain..—follicle of 5-6. L. 7. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. COM. Stem lessens inflammation. LOC. irregularly crowded.
DISTR.5. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. involucral bracts 5-7. Dasanihu. Shoe flower. remove burning of body. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair.. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. FAM. astringent. Jasuva. CHAR. LOC. Aruna. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. t. pedicel jointed above the middle. yellow.—axillary. entire near the base. Jasum. LOC. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. piles. :—A perennial shrub.—no fruits produced in India. M. crimson. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. K. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. COM. Native country probably China.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. . and mixed with ghee. Root is valuable in coughs. Fr. Jasavand. G. skindiseases.—during most of the year. petals thrice as long as the calyx. ovate or ovate lanceolate. cooling. diam. Fl. In the Konkan. demulcent. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. red. See—Ornamental Plants. fevers.—Malvaceæ. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. C. Japapushpa. NS. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange.—7. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. cm. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. Dasavala. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. bark and petals are demulcent. seminal weakness. tonic. Fl. magenta. irregularly serrate towards the top. It is said to purify blood. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. leaves. Kempupundrika.—short petioled. Rudrapushpa. Sk. H. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers. :— E. Jasut. It is also diuretic. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Root roasted in plantain leaves. glabrous. syphilis and leucorrhoea. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. and as early as 1864. urinary discharges. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . tubular below. Harivallaba. Raktapushpi. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). solitary. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. bright red. uterine and vaginal discharges. useful in loss of appetite. HABITAT :—Cultivated. L.
Lal ambadi.—1-3. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Grows abundantly on the W. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. fruits and seeds. 10-18 X 4. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. 5th petal yellow at the base. Madhavi. Lal ambadi.— solitary. white.— Jany. Adimurtte Adirganti. :—Throughout the State. H.-Mar. purple. Vasanti. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. involucral bracts 10. M. uppermost petal broader. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. on the margins.-Dec.2-2 cm. CHAR. long.—Oct. Madhumalati. elliptic-oblong.3-7. 1. L. Atimukta. CHAR. Madmalati. K. Haladvel. Fr. covered with minute hairs . Ragotpiti. Lal ambari. Fr. long. M. Fibres.—purple with darker centres. mid-lobe the longest.—coriaceous. Vasantduti. Madhalata. flowers. acuminate. G. fringed. Chandravalli. Kampti. pepper. black-brown. LOC. Fl. orbicular. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat.—large. COM. glabrous. Malati. K. Fl.5 cm. NS. COM. sedative and refrigerant. C. asafoetida and molasses. C. globose. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Atimukta.—capsule. base cuneate. Sd. Kanara. 3-winged. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz.—in erect racemes. Vasantduti. NS. purple. ovoid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Kempupundrike. across. 3-5 lobed.—5-7. :—An annual. Pundi-bija or soppu. t. Konkan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Red sorrel.—axillary. serrate. PARTS USED :—Leaves. erect.—Malvaceæ. petioles silky. :—E. Kamuka.. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.—Malpighiaceæ. young parts silky. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Rozelle. t. Sd. DISTR. LOC. L. . stem and branches purple. entire glabrous. Madhavi. Fl. tropics of the old world. fragrant. often blotched with purple with darker centre. much used in curries. Ceylon. Patwa. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. :—Cultivated.) FAM.—petals 5. clawed. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. hairy. Sk. HABITAT. beaked. Fl. FAM. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. H. Madhavi. See—Vegetables. Ghats.5 cm. Madhavi. Deccan. :—G. calyx fleshy. and adding a little salt.lobes oblong.
flowers and seeds. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . wounds. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). heating. Hath. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Karnatak. LOC. Karohi. FL. H. vulnerary. Sk. :—E. C—tubular. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves.. good in chronic bronchitis. COM. appetiser cure blood diseases. Malay Peninsula. bitter.—10-20 X 5-11. throat hairy inside. galactagogue. Kuda. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. cool the brain. good in erysipelas. fevers. Conessi bark tree. Kurchi tree. insecticidal. remove "Tridosh". G. thirst and inflammation. PARTS USED :—Bark.5 cm. tonic. Kumaon. Indrayana. burning sensation.—Feb. branchlets drooping.-June. biliousness. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. often dotted with white spots. hallucinations (Ayurveda). vulnerary. :—Throughout the State. Andamans. L. FAM. LOC. NS. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts.—Apocynaceæ. Pandhara Kuda. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. main nerves conspicuous . Karuindrayan. leucoderma . Assam. diuresis (Yunani). China. Seeds—appetiser. Bark—bitter. " Kapha". HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. Seeds—carminative. Kudsalu.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Fl. M. bleeding piles. leprosy. urinary discharges. good in headache. Mt.—follicles 20-48 cm. tonic. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. Siwalik. lumbago. ulcers. leaves. asthma. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Circars. Veppale. strengthens gums. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Ceylon. fatigue. aphrodisiac. thirst. PROPERTIES. cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Kaduoindrajav. cause "Vata". smoke good for piles. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. white. colic. given in chest affections. broadly ovate or elliptic. astringent to bowels cure pains. Hale. Kuda. burning sensation. Sd. Kura. leprosy. diarrhœa. Thailand (Siam). CHAR. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. cures dysentery. piles. Kutaja. LOC. Burma. anthelmintic. lessens inflammations. Nepal. K.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Kaling. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. long. See—Ornamental Plants. acrid. excessive menstrual flow. Flowers— acrid.. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). N. biliousness. acrid. DISTR. skin and spleen diseases. cough. inodorous. Leavesastringent. Madras State. Kodasige. Fr. styptic. cylindric. Dudhi. remove muscular pains . t. skin diseases. boils. Abu.
They are also used after delivery. HABITAT :—Cultivated. diarrhœa. M. dysentery and intestinal worms. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). fattening. nor styptic. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Java. burns. (R. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Suj. The grains contain vitamin B. See—Food Plants. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery.—Gramineæ. useful in biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. FAM. Gaz. causes constipation. pains in chest. febrifuge. kurchine. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. lowers the pulse. Jav. Shaktu. Ind. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). Barley. DISTR. LOC. Jav. . Tasteless. Javegodhi. demulcent and expectorant. Germinated barley. useful in fevers. headache. India. Ymvah. sweetish. malt sugar and diastase. nor astringent. inflamed gums. K. PARTS USED :—Seeds. NS. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. Aug. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. especially cod-liver oil. bronchitis. appetiser. COM. Yava. Jawa. improves voice. allays thirst. asthma. biliousness. Divya. Knowles. 1928). anæmia. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. LOC. Satu. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. Med. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. They are astringent. and kurchicine. H. Sk. :—E. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. G. —Cultivated chiefly in N. aphrodisiac. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. widely cultivated in temperate regions. with radicle attached to it. fevers (Yunani). Hayapriya. useful in bronchitis. acrid. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. good for ulcers.
Madhya Pradesh.8-7. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Niradivittulu. Sd. NS. Fl. acuminate. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Sk. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. t. PARTS USED :—Seeds. more or less coriaceous. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.5-23 X 3. CHAR. K. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. Bhanina. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. Bhorsal. Common in N. FL. FAM.—Apl. Bharnarasalya. Malabar. camphor and lime-juice. Country and Kanara. good for the throat. bitter. :—W. Sk. M. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. common in Travancore. tomentose. increases taste and appetite. Ghats. Fr. Southern and Western India.—berry. Phaldu. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kanara evergreen forests. :—K. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. pungent.) FAM.5 cm. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. S. flat. COM. Kshiradru. Bihar. Garudphala. Peninsula. For scald-head. 12. M. C.—solitary or in racemes. Dondra. Ugragandha. H. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . white. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. :—G. COM. Kowti. Bandaru. Amarachala. . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Doti. sulphur. high. LOC.—Jany. M. Kastel. Kadukavata. Bhutabi. NS. Gandele. DISTR. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). DISTR. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Bhrijatuaka. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment.—Rubiaceæ. Bhringamallika. Bhoswar. sometimes along river banks. Garudphala. dioecious .—numerous. globose or ovoid.—Bixaceæ. See—Oils. Betaga. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . LOC. Panch Mahals in Gujarat.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Dondru.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. size of small apple.. young parts brown pubescent. L. broadly ovate.
Fl. Nadika. FAM. COM. Gorwiballi. C. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. prostrate. t. Sk. :—G. Shradhashaka.—capsule. numerous . t. Br. rusty pubescent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. throat and tube dull purple . Fr. hollow. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. PARTS USED :—Root.—Apocynaceæ. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. Gopini. See—Timbers. Karihambu. Siamalata. Sd.—1-5 flowered peduncles . :—More or less throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. Kalaka. lobes obscure . Fl. C. the powdered wood is used for herpes.. Fl. :—Throughout the State. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.-Apl. rooting at the nodes . Potuasaga. trichotomous cymes. vomiting. biliousness. Chandangopa.—Convolvulaceæ. L. Country. Fr. cures " Kapha ". LOC.— Nov. CHAR. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. L. Java. DISTR. LOC. In Indo-China. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Fodder Plants. Kanara. " Vata ".—follicle. CHAR. Krishnasariva. blood diseases. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. COM. glabrous above. M. Kalidudhi. Sariva. Kantebhovari. X 4 cm. Nalichibhaji. straight or slightly curved. base rounded. Kalmisag.—4 or 2. Australia. thirst.—linear. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. :—Annual or biennial herb. acute. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Kanara. Sk. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. middle portion much inflated. NS.—in axillary and terminal. FAM. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. The outer layer is tasteless. Karmi. :—Konkan. trailing on mud or floating.-Dec. Pechuli. M. Common in the evergreen forests of N. fever. cylindric . in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). very slender. pubescent.5 cm.—tube with narrow portion below. stems long. :—H. Sd. thick. K.2 -7. M. Nalanibhaji. FL.8 cm. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . cordate or hastate. Kalambika. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. upper constricted. very common in Gujarat.5x 3. aphrodisiac. elliptic oblong. NS. greenish white.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white).—Nov. cooling. stalks and leaves. H. black with white scanty coma. LOC. Bhadra. Ceylon. 10-15 cm.—5-12.—4-5-7 X 2-3. S. ovoid . Kalaghantika. . :—A large twining shrub .
Fl. aphrodisiac. (Yunani).3 cm. pale. M. deeply palmately divided. useful in leucoderma.—10-15 cm. 4-valved. L. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. twining.8—6. In Burma. CHAR. root large. enclosed in fleshy sepals. Fr.—Convolvulaceæ. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. cures biliousness. appetiser. tropical Asia.—capsule. " Kapha " . :—Throughout India. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. Flower causes " Vata ". to children in case of emaciation. debility and want of digestive power. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. America. H. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . See—Gums and Resins. purple. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Kanara sea coast. Carminative. Fl. biliousness and fevers. long. Bhuikohala. bronchitis. improves voice and complexion.-July-Sept. flowers (rarely). stimulant. Africa and Australia. blood diseases. NS. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. vomiting. Bilaikand . :—Perennial. peduncle solitary axillary. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. Nila-kumbala. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. glabrous. alterative. liver complaints. Australia in moist climate. alterative. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. galactagogue. galactagogue. Bhumikushmanda. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stem long. DISTR. COM. Sk. Giant potato .—clothed with brown cottony hairs. LOC. near sea coast. also useful in liver complaints. LOC. t. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. stomachic. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. jaundice. FAM. thick. long.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. diuretic. leprosy. Ceylon. Root—heating.—in. ovate-lanceolate. (Ayurveda). being regarded as tonic. Africa. 3. lobes 5-7. . 4-celled. expectorant. ovoid. leaves. :— E. dry. tropical Asia. Bhunichahragadde. carminative. entire. Swadu Vidarikand. K. useful in syphilis. useful in leprosy. Sd. useful in fever. anthelmintic . anthelmintic. Leaves enrich blood. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. lessens inflammation. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. burning sensation. demulcent and lactagogue. tonic. indigestible. LOC. often broader than long. (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. gonorrhœa and inflammation. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine.
DISTR. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. C. Ganribij. S. 3-celled. Kaladanah. in the Himalayas. LOC. cures inflammations. diam. bracts linear. axillary. COM. carminative.— 4-6. t. Vrishchikparni. bechic. :—An annual herb.5 cm. Sk. scabies and biliousness.-5-12. :—A herb . Fr. CHAR. FAM. glabrous . M. S. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. Fr.. useful in liver and spleen diseases. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). creeping and rooting at the nodes. subglobose or ovoid. Kalokumpo. fevers. Africa. bronchitis (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Water-logged places. Purgative. diseases of head. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. See—Ornamental Plants. :—E. Fl. Kaladana.—capsule.5 cm. M. dries the phlegm. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. DISTR. Morning glory. Mirchai. broad. clothed with long hairs. anthelmintic. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. believed to be of American origin. Fl. surrounded by ciliate sepals. :—Konkan. deeply three-Iobed. G. blue tinged with pink. Undirkani. ovate-cordate. CHAR. long tubular funnel-shaped. The plant contains a glucoside.—Convolvulaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Country. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. crenate.—Convolvulaceæ. lobes ovate. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. NS. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). tropical Africa.— yellow.—3. H. Sd. Ceylon.3-2. :—Western Peninsula. stems twining. Deccan. Shyamala-bijak.) FAM.-Oct. Nilvel.8-5 cm. K. L. NS. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu).:—Throughout India. pains in joints. COM. PARTS USED :—Seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. L. . Undirkani. Nilpushpa. petioles hairy. reniform or ovate-cordate. abdominal diseases. filiform. Sd. H. LOC.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes .—Sept. M.—capsule. subglobose.—dark chestnut coloured . :—G. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. Indian jalap. stems many. E. Bhumichari Mushakaparni.—1. sparsely hairy. headache. Sk. K. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Musekani. LOC. leucoderma. Fl.
Nishottara. NS. LOC. COM. H. :— E. good in pain. Indian rhubarb. It is also alterative. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. heart and abdomen. mucronate. lungs. paralysis. acrid. white variety is a mild cathartic. brain diseases. uterus. M. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. twining and twisted together. Fr.—in few flowered cymes.—white. paralysis. burning sensation and intoxication. . fevers. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). LOC. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Mauritius. Philippines. CHAR. when used alone . useful in bilious tremors of body. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. bladder. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. 3. Trivrit. Root with bark should be used. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. Nishoth. anthelmintic. enclosed in enlarged sepals . bracts large. Root— bitter. Malay Islands. Kanaka.—Convolvulaceæ. leucoderma. rarely slightly lobed. Triputi.—Oct. strangury. C. laxative.-Jany. bronchitis. inflammations and abdominal diseases . red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). sometimes cultivated. Nahatara. K. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. DISTR. inflammations. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. Sk. Nashotar. applied in diseases of eye and gums. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). Fl. used in rheumatism and neuralgia.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. angled and winged. Kalaparni.—5-10 X 1. HABITAT :—Wild . useful in bilious fevers. Rechani.—capsule. cooling. much branched. stems very long. bechic. Turbith root. useful in diseases of kidney. ovate or oblong. t. LOC. expectorant. also in the Konkan and N. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). purgative. fleshy. root long. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. :—Throughout India.. antipyretic.3-7 cm. Nandi. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. carminative. base cordate or truncate . FAM. False-Indian jalap. pains of chest and joints. useful in spleen enlargement.8-5 cm. G. urethral discharges. good for weakness. removes bad humours. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. globose. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. muscular pains. Pithori. pungent. laxative. Br. PARTS USED :—Root. fistula. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). tropical Africa and America. L. like others of the genus . anæmia. pedicels thickened upwards. often pinkish. Fl. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. useful in loss of consciousness. Common in southern Gujarat. wounds. Black variety should not be used (Yunani).
NS. purple when ripe. sessile.—globose.8 cm. :—E. Jai.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. L. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. CHAR. terminal rather larger. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub.—July-Sept. Flame of the woods . Ajjige.9 m.—3. DISTR. pale when dry. G. imparipinnate. Guddedasal. LOC. Bandhuka. :—Bombay southwards .. Priyanvada. Chambeli. DISTR. oblong. often tinged with pink outside. K. :—E. Surabhigandha. Fr. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. size of a pea. obtuse. HABITAT :—Cultivated . :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. Jati. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. COM NS. M. H. obtuse . wild. stipules with a long rigid point. :—Cultivated throughout India. coriaceous. sessile. Fl. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. L. intermediate sessile . Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. distal pair confluent with the terminal. oblong. Ceylon. stipules . Kepala. . leaflets 7-11. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery.2-6. Kisukare. COM. Sk. Jajimalle. t.—opposite. smooth. white. Anemallige. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. lobes 4 (rarely). C. Pendgul. Raktaka. Fl. across. very common in Konkan and N. LOC. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. FL—numerous. petiole and rachis margined.5 cm.—opposite.—ripe carpels 2.2-6. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. fleshy. Chambeli. K. very slender . :—Western Peninsula.—throughout the year. also along river banks. :—A large subscandent shrub. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Bakali. 5-10 X 3. pale when dry. of stems and roots. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. FAM. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. 3. Pankul. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast.—tubular. M. high. Chambali. tube long. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes.— Rubiaceæ. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat..—Oleaceæ.3 coriaceous. FAM. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. proximal petiolulate.3 cm. Parali. t. Sk. 5-12. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. CHAR. Fr.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. given in blood diseases. Plant—deobstruent.—ripe-carpels 1-2. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. DISTR. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). Fl. cures headache. very fragrant. Sk. caries of teeth. :—A sub-erect shrub. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. paralysis. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. Vanchandrika. CHAR. Banmallika. aphthae. emetic. Mogra. H. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. LOC. Mallige. membranous. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. diuretic. good for pains in joints and ear. good in asthma. Flower has bitter taste . Mogro. it is used in cases of insanity. black. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. biliousness.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. variable in shape. tonic to brain. :—E. Chamba. softens skin. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. t. abundant in April-May. COM NS. surrounded by calyx-teeth. soporific. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. teeth. headache and weak eyes. Fl. Flowers—tonic. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess.—more or less throughout the year . suppurative. expectorant. heating. LOC. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . allays fevers . emmenagogue.—Oleaceæ. mouth and skin. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Iravantige. Navamallika. eyes and ear. stomatitis. Leaves are also used in toothache. Arabian Lily. subglobose. base rounded or subcordate. rheumatism. Pramodini. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. Oil—lessens inflammations. brain tonic . and for scabies (Yunani). alexiteric. entire. flowers and oil. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. Sambac. diseases of mouth. alexiteric. See—Ornamental Plants. Tuscan jasmine. scarcely climbing.—opposite. otorrhoea. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—Cultivated throughout India. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. anthelmintic. . Ananga-mallika. aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. G. Root—purgative. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. See—Ornamental Plants.—white. K. ulcers. FAM. intoxicating. useful in diseases of eye. L. leprosy. head. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. Mogara. HABITAT :—Cultivated. alexiteric. LOC. Fr. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). biliousness (Ayurveda). ear. In Goa. Motia. vulnerary. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. useful in stomatitis. M.
villous within. L. heartdiseases (Ayurveda).— ovoid. dull brownish black. 10-15 X 7.5-12. PARTS USED :—Wood. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. Bhadradanti. Virechani. Fr. Ratanjot. Vilayati haralu. longer than calyx. male flowers. The acrid. Simeavadala. M. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. leaves. useful in chronic dysentery. Jangali—Pahari erand. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. COM. Seeds contain active principle curcin.—orbicular. urinary discharges. across.—ovoid oblong. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. CHAR. CHAR:—A handsome. cordate. K. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. black. " Tridosha". Dundigu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. H. G. French or Small physic nut. fistula. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. The seeds act as drastic purgative. large. biliousness. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores.8 cm. Jyotishka.—capsule. have suppurative effect. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.—E. Sk.—monœcious. K. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. when applied to boils. Mogali—Ran-erand. FAM. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Kananerand. Jangali erandi. garden shrub . Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk.— alternate.5 cm. disk of female flower urceolate. 1.5 cm. 7. coral-red. and also promotes healing. . herpes. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. thirst. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. :—E. 3-lobed. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Barbados Physic nut. Fl. juice sticky opalescent. NS. stipules capillary. Sd.—in flat-topped cymes. abdominal complaints. Akhuparnika.5 mm.—Euphorbiaceæ.5-12. COM. corolla lobes 5.. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. LOC. yellow. fruits and seeds. NS. Sk.—Euphorbiaceæ. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. 7. Fl. LOC. anaemia. Fr. subfleshy. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. :—Native of tropical America. diam. FAM. long-petioled. Sutashreni. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . long. Coral plant. multifid. DISTR. broadly ovate. L. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence.
fattening tonic . Fr. pains. purgative. rheumatism and dysentery. high .5 cm. leaves.—white spotted. often met with in Bengal. LOC. LOC. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. " Vata ' and "Pitta". :—A native of China. Bakas. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . COM. branches subterete with raised lines. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. NS. wounds. CHAR. Kalmashi. 7. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. America. M.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Bomb. Karambal.—Acanthaceæ. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. dry . USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. skin-diseases. useful in bronchitis.6-1. In Cambodia. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Seed— oleaginous. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). useful in piles.5-12. Fl. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Nachukaddi. native of N. dyspepsia. long.—capsule. M. :—H. causes " Kapha ". FAM. Kala adulsa. 5-12. clavate glabrous. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). NS.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers.5 cm. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. COM. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. DISTR.—Ghati pitpapda. aphrodisiac. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. fevers. LOC. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. Shindhuka. bitter. Karinchki. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Sk. purple within. vaginal discharges. Krishna-nirgundi. tympanitis. LOC. Bhutakeshi. K. wild in Tenasserim. Nilmanjari. L. Nilinirgandi. inflammations. all over the State.—Acanthaceæ. hot. in interrupted spikes.2 m. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. HABITAT :—Shady positions. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. FAM. heating. . enlarged spleen. Leaves are used in scabies.
:—Konkan. lower 3-lobed . root-stock tuberous. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it.5-9 cm. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . upper lip notched. Australia. fragrant. pale violet pink. Tubers yield an essential oil. constipating . DISTR. ovate or lanceolate. South Konkan. wandering of mind. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). Fl.—612 from the centre of the plant. tired feeling. NS. Malaya. constricted between the seeds . Fl. good in spleen diseases. tube funnel-shaped .-Mar. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. stops vomiting. teeth. t. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. round. Deccan. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. Fr. Fl. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. gives lustre to eyes. Plant diuretic. Sugandhavachai. spreading horizontally. HABITAT :—Cultivated. biliousness. . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. purifies blood in skin diseases. burning of body. Kapurkachri. Kachri. Chandramulika. removes indigestion. petioles channelled. diuretic. DISTR. Malay Islands. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases.—Oct. stomachic. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). deep green. diaphoretic. Maval in the Deccan.3-12. intoxication. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. thirst.—variable. softly pubescent. t. Kachchura . L. Cultivated in gardens.— June-July. :—Western Peninsula. LOC. K. 6.—2. expectorant. enriches blood. COM. L. FAM. strengthens lungs. :— H. Sk. P.—capsule. :—More or less throughout India. :—N. urinary discharges. fugacious. LOC. pure-white. fever.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR.—lobes lanceolate. aromatic. Western Ghats . CHAR. obtuse at both ends. PARTS USED :—Tubers. C. (Yunani). :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. lying flat on the ground. Sd.5 X 4.. Fl. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). Chandramala. Konkan.. elliptic. thin.—in cylindric terminal spikes.—2-lipped. Madras State. Ceylon.—Scitaminaceæ.:—Stemless herb. oval. oblong shortly pointed. Panchgani. increases " Vata ". M.—finely tuberculate. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. Travancore. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. vomiting.
:—E. M. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. FAM. DISTR. Coorg. Kaddu. :—Mysore. tubular below. semicylindric. :— G. of various shades of purple and white. H. Nelasampige . simple. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Bottle-gourd. Dudhi. furrowed. NS. Labuka. crowded in a globose bead . Fl..5 cm. rootstock reaching 5 cm. Cochin.5-23 cm. DISTR. Bhuichampo .—narrowly oblong. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike.-Mar. Kanara. remedy for itch. The whole plant. Alkaddu. in many cycles. :—Stemless plant. Dudio Tumbada. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—An aquatic herb. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. FAM. petiole as long as blade. —Feb. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . female cylindric.5 X 5-12. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. oblong. yellow. HABITAT :—Marshy places. :—M. very poisonous . NS. Danta-bija. Malay Islands.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. COM. inflorescence of many ovaries. entire. L. Vatsanabhi. midrib very stout. M. elliptic-oblong. anthers crowded. Kadu bhopala. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Calabash. Sk. promotes suppuration. Bhuchampaka. Ceylon. Halagumbala. t. S. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. NS.. N.—globose 3. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. t. H.. margins undulate.—Scitaminaceæ. used in the form of poultice. Dudhya bhopala. COM. Tumbaka.— sweetly fragrant. annulate . G. Country.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. Bhuichapha. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. COM. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Fl. K. Kadu—Mithi tumbi.— inflorescence. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. Fl. :—Konkan.. Sk.-Apl. Tubers yield an essential oil. CHAR. Fl.—Aroideæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5-10 cm. spathe 7. diam.. . carpels partially dehiscent Sd. Lauka. CHAR. K. coriaceous. M. Travancore. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Katutumbi. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Bhuichampa .8-5 cm. FAM. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. LOC. L. creeping. thick.—15-37. long.—30X7.
There are two varieties. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. Bark and leaves are purgative. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. causes bronchitis. See—Vegetables. dry cough. cures leucorrhoea. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. NS. Konkan Ghats. K. China. fattening. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. LOC:—North Kanara and S. scalding of urine. Ornamental Plants. Assam. pains (Ayurveda).) FAM. Ceylon. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. cause haemoptysis. flatulence. Bandhara. fruits and seeds. See—Timbers. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. vulnerary. Nirbendeka: M.—Lythraceæ. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. PARTS-USED :—Root. styptic. Fruit good in bronchitis. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. Holematti. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. Seeds emetic (Yunani). increases "Vata". :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. sweet. emetic. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. refrigerant and anti-bilious. aphrodisiac. wild (rarely). fever. Seeds—good for hot constitution. leaves. LOC. in many cases only cultivated. bitter. leaves. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. brain-tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. In the Andamans. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. COM. Arjuna. improves taste. anti-bilious. diuretic. bark. cardiac and general tonic. Challa. :—Western Peninsula. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. bitter variety is diuretic. inflammations. LOC. seeds are narcotic. bronchitis. earache. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. lessens inflammations. Flowers cooling. USES :— Leaves are purgative. :—H. DISTR. Sk. . piles. Taman. fruits and seeds. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. DISTR. alexiteric. Arjuna. wholesome to fœtus. Malaya. ulcers. "Vata". it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. cures blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. flowers. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. Tarul. cures asthma. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. muscular pains. earache. antipyretic. LOC. oleaginous. anti-periodic. cooling.
Triputi. FAM. Sandika. COM. (B. Medika.5 cm. FAM. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. K. DISTR. COM. subsessile. Fl. Yavaneshta. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. pointed. enclosed in the perianth . S. common on the Supa Ghats. heart-troubles. L. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. FAM. t. Mehndi. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. :—E. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Sk. :—E. Rametha. Deccan hills.. silky beneath. See—Food Plants. G. LOC. DISTR. Country. Medi. pain. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kanara. tonic.. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Latri.—opposite or scattered.5 X 2-2. Grains contain vitamin A. M. inflammation. D. Wooly-headed gnidia. M. Gorantha.—ellipsoid-oblong. N. Peninsula—Ceylon. :—Konkan southwards.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. NS. Basu). dense terminal heads 2. Lakh. Ragangi. Kukurgal. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. swellings etc. oblong flat. Fr. Tree mignonette. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district.8 cm. Kassar. CHAR. yellow. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. lameness. Nakharanjaka. Chickling—White vetch. Mendi. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. improves taste. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. G. piles and wandering of the mind. common at Mahabaleshwar. burning. cooling. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. perianth-tube densely silky villous . M. Mukute. :—A much branched large shrub. H. Belgaum hills . . causes much flatulence. The bark is used to poison fish. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. (Ayurveda).—Thymelaeaceæ.—Dec-May. NS. K. :—W. Fl. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Lythraceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. glabrous above. oblong lanceolate. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. Lang. COM. Rami. Madaranga. diam. :—E. bark mottled. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in erect. Khesari. lobes 4. Henna plant. 5-7. but dangerous cathartic.5-3. M.
diuretic. dysentery. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. many. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. enriches blood. H. finger nails and hair. truncate. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). COM. Gabholika. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". Masuridal. cure insanity (Ayurveda). cure leucoderma. LENS ESCULENTA Moen.). mucronate. Massur. Masura. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. in diseases of heart and of . Leaves are valuable external application In headache. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. DISTR. The oil and essence keep the body cool. LOC. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . white or rose coloured . allay burning sensation.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Masur. Masur. amenorrhœa. K. Gurubija. vulnerary. syphilitic sores. planted as hedge.—capsule. Asia. seeds. :—Grown in Nasik. Chanangi. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . Leaves—bitter. veined outside. diuretic. The plant contains a glucoside. See—Dyes.—Apl-July. boils. LOC. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. improve appetite. indigenous in S. Europe and in temperate W. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sk. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. lateral branches 4-gonous. often ending in spinous point. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. globose. L. cure strangury tumours. PROPERTIES. Lentil. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. ulcers. LOC. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism.—angular. Sd. fragrant. Belgaum and Poona districts. expectorant. flowers. HABITAT:—Cultivated. Flowers are refrigerant. stomatitis. Ragadali. & Gib. favours hair-growth. Ceylon.—opposite. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. NS. E. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. skin diseases . Fl. Iran and Baluchistan. Fr. useful in headache. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. diseases of spleen. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. G. :—E.—in terminal. lumbago. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. ophthalmia. pyramidal and panicled cymes. wild in Arabia. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. useful. supported by persistent calyx. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. scabies. DISTR. M. bronchitis. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. FAM. Fl. Sura.
Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). See—Vegetables. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. Halim . DISTR. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Chandrashura. very likely indigenous in W. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stomatitis . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Fr. bitter.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. galactagogue. L. tonic. diuretic. Garden cress . The covering is styptic and astringent. Ahaliva. Halim. Leaves are used as pot-herb. Seeds—indigestible. useful in diseases of chest. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Chandrika. Suvasura. PARTS USED :—Root. K.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). often with linear segments . good for pain in abdomen. Asia. tonic. Asahio. M. enrich blood. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. They contain vitamin B. NS. Chavnsar. Grains contain vitamins A and B.—Cruciferæ. Allibija. Seeds contain fatty oil. good in inflammations. Raktabija. aphrodisiac. C—petals 2-4 or 0. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. bechic. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. LOC. bronchitis. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. laxative. upper sessile. cures dysentery . :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. :—Cultivated throughout India. chest complaints. Hurfi. Kurutige. aperient. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). See-Food Plants. H. :—An erect glabrous annual. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). CHAR. the lower petiolate. Fl. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. and muscular pains. Hot and dry. affections of spleen. rheumatism. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. . Sk. G.—small. LOC. LOC. leaves and seeds. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. eye diseases (Ayurveda). COM. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. FAM. tumours and injuries. constipating. blood and skin diseases. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . bronchitis. Ashalika. :—E. white. aphrodisiac .
aphrodisiac . base narrowed. H.. boils. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. L. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. urinary complaints. Seeds—mucilaginous. The plant contains glucoside linamarin.:—A small evergreen tree. dysentery. LOC. Fibres. aphrodisiac.. leaves. Roasted seeds are astringent. Sk. bronchitis.—Linaceæ. native country probably Egypt. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic.— globose. t. cure leprosy. Kanara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Common tallow laurel. LOC. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. galactagogue. gouty and rheumatic swellings. Alsi. colds and throat complaints. Madagandha. Malina. . remove biliousness.5 mm. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Fr. Fl.—Lauraceæ. hot. Alashi. Country. hard to digest. "Kapha". Alsi. branchlets densely tomentose. supported by the thickened pedicel. NS.—crowded at the ends of branches. causes loss of appetite. lenticellate. usually alternate. M. Maidelakri. PARTS USED :—Bark. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). Fl.:—E. diam. M. :—Cultivated throughout India. flowers. COM. Sk. FAM. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. emmenagogue. Javas . Tisi. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). Alashi. "Pitta". yellowish. glossy dark-green above. used in consumption. Seeds contain vitamin A. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. bark somewhat corky. :—E. K. bad for eyesight. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. seeds and oil. Haimwati. Sedhavi. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. M. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. 8-12 together in heads. FAM. remove "Vata". Alshi. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. Common flax. NS. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. back-ache. See—Oils. 7. pale beneath. diuretic. tonic. DISTR. black. Maidalakadi. burnt bark styptic and healing. Tailottama. Garbijaur. heal ulcers. Alasi. inflammations. LOC. urinary discharges . lead to impotency. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. H. Jivanika. good for cough and kidney troubles. Medini.—May-July. COM. Linseed.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. perianth lobes wanting. G. CHAR.
Australia. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Dhaval.—numerous. Kadudodka.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. DISTR. LOC. NS. throat troubles. Narsala. high. K. light green. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. Katukoshataki. Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Ridge gourd. branched upwards. M. lobes linear. H. uterus. stem stout. Kandele. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. Fl. diuretic. nearly sessile. It acts as anodyne. Devanala. Country. Kalahogesoppu.100 m. long. opening by 2 valves.—Nov. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. white. expectorant.—alternate. K. Malay Islands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. Ranturai. lower much longer. "vata". tonic. Sd. strangury. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . PARTS USED :—Root. Dhamana. Ceylon. midrib white. aphrodisiac. CHAR. finely serrulate. long. Devnal. NS. galactagogue. SK. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . bark. burning sensation. Root—astringent. stomachic. Deccan and S.9 cm. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. cure cough. lanceolate. thirst. consumption. Mrityupushpa.—capsule. erysipelas (Ayurveda).-Mar. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. Karvituri. aphrodisiac. Nali. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Divali. vagina. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. heart. pains in joints. yellowish brown .5-3. G. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". acrid. t. Jalini. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Bibhishana. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. :—E. LOC. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. leprosy (Ayurveda). M. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. useful in biliousness.—Cucurbitaceæ. hollow. bitter. M.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. all oblong. much curved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. :—Konkan. Kahire.—. many. G. diseases of blood. useful in inflammations. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. Wild tobacco. C—2-lipped. COM. bronchitis. Fl. overheated brains. biliousness. LOC. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. spleen diseases. 1. very small. Sthulanala. paralysis. FAM. Leaves are mucilaginous. . 2. Ghontali. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline.2-3 m. :—E. aphrodisiac. Nal. 3 usually connate throughout . COM. Narttaka. Jhinga. L. leaves. burning sensation.—Lobeliaceæ. heating. fever. subglobose. Fr. AMARA Clarke. H. fruits and seeds. FAM.
Hunage. t. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. digestible. tonic and diuretic. Fr. tendrils usually 3-fid. :—Plant is bitter.—obovoid. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. 10-ribbed. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). leucoderma. flowers and fruits.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. diuretic. Madhuka. Mahura. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. females. Sk. Ceylon. Butter tree. thick.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. cathartic. uterine and vaginal tumours . The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. Pokka. 5-7 lobed. G. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. Mahuda.—Sapotaceæ. alexiteric. Kanara (rare) . :—Throughout India. "Kapha". LOC. thrives in Deccan trap. palmate. cough. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). especially in western Peninsula. cures urinary discharges. bronchitis. at first whitish and softly villous. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. fruit and seeds. jaundice. K. haemorrhoids and leprosy. Doddippa. Mowa. Mhowra.—petals yellow with green veins . PARTS USED :—Leaves. ascites. tuberculous glands. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. obtusely conical at both ends. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. carminative. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. inflammations. asthma. Burma.:—A large climber. L. liver complaints. Mowda. C. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Fl. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani).—small. piles. Madhusrava. pale green. Gudapushpa. base cordate.—monœcious. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). biliousness. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). long and about 2. at length scabrid. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. stems 5-angled. tumours. Bengal to the W. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. H. leaves. bitter. Fl. COM. Fruit cures fever. LOC. DISTR.. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. piles. hydrogogue. asthma. Mahua tree. cures "Vata".) FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark. laxative. Mahua. Madhya Pradesh. also in Konkan and N. . USES. :—E. anæmia.53. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. DISTR. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Mahula. tonic to intestines. M. acrid. LOC.8 cm. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Moha.—Sept. bitter. Root-bark is abortifacient. recommended in splenic enlargement. 5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. NS. useful in rat-bite. W. solitary in the same axil as males.
and Kanara. K. Honey tree. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Kampillaka. There is a trace of alkaloid. Flowers—oleaginous. Ceylon.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. cooling. . Mohwa. Liquors. galactagogue. leprosy. Mahuva of S. often planted. :—-E. and appetiser (Sushruta). G. tonic. Fruit-tonic . fixed oil and a spirit. NS. Shendri. Moha. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Kapilo. and also a remedy for itch. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. consumption.. yields two important products. Kapila. Madhuka. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Oils. Mysore. anthelmintic. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. Huli. thirst. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. and Upper Burma. FAM. Flowers are regarded as cooling. H. Ippe. Hullichillu. H. NS. Flower—sweet. Famine Plants. M. Sk. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kapila.—Sapotaceæ.) FAM. astringent.—Euphorbiaceæ. M. Mehua. ulcers. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. LOC. fatigue . G. See—Timbers. Mahuda. :—Konkan. cures blood diseases. cures biliousness. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. See—Timbers. fattening. Movaro. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. causes "Kapha". expectorant. Kamala. flowers and oil. flowers act as a mild purgative. burning sensation. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. Kambhal Raini. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Oil—emollient (Yunani). HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. good in heart diseases. USES :—Astringent and emollient. Karnatic. aphrodisiac. :—E. Kesarimavu. used in fractures. tonic and nutritive. Monkey-face tree. Sk. :—Western peninsula. carminative. aphrodisiac. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Oils. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. India . Movanuhjad. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. LOC. heals wounds . K. Oil is good for skin-diseases. bronchitis. DISTR. Mohache jhad. COM.
COM. liver pain. good in heart trouble. improve taste and appetite. Fruit—heating. G. purgative. M. liver. sweet. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). ulcers. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. Astringent. leaves. :—Throughout tropical India. stone in bladder. heals ulcers. Ambo. dysentery. clears brain. astringent to bowels. styptic. Amri. a good collyrium (Yunani). LOC. Kamarasa. tonic to body. "Pitta". improves cough. Australia. Mavu. aphrodisiac. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. :—-Throughout the State. See—Timbers. Sikkim. Bhutan. leaves. bad blood. cooling. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. anthelmintic. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. NS. vermifuge and. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. DISTR. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. styptic. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). vomiting. Burma. Sind. Seeds-astringent to bowels. tonic. thirst. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). anthelmintic. detergent. hiccup. cause flatulence and constipation. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. vaginal troubles. Malay Islands. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. cure leucorrhoea. lessen intestinal pains. DISTR. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). stomachic. Amra. cultivated throughout the State. used in chronic diarrhœa. appetiser. chronic dysentery and gleet. Chuta. PARTS USED :—Root. throat troubles. alexiteric. Cuckoo's Joy. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. biliousness. good in cough. Kanara. wounds. :—Tropical Himalayas. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. Bihar. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. wild and cultivated. bronchitis. K. improves complexion. Introduced. cure "Vata". cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Ghats and the Satpudas. fruits and seeds. vulnerary.—Anacardiaceæ. Khasia Hills. spleen. Dyes. Am. useful in skin-diseases. diuretic. Rasala. beautifies complexion. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. removes bad smell from mouth. good in dysentery. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. piles. Gum . useful in bronchitis. :—E. FAM. "Kapha". Sk. purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. Ceylon. tumours. laxative. H. cooling. carminative. Sahakara. diseases of abdomen. China. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. Mango tree. Amba. sour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. LOC. dispels langour and burning of body. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. urinary discharges. in "Tridosh". flowers. Mavin-mara. it exudes a pink coloured gum. maturant. LOC. enriches blood. fruits and seeds.
Ripe fruit is laxative. Balant nimba.—Asclepiadaceæ. L. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Java. rat-bite (Ayurveda).—6.5-11. Dodi. all plains districts of Madras State.) FAM.) FAM. M. C. COM.3-15 X 4. :—A large twining shrub. Fr. G. NS. Fl. 7. asthma. Bevu. M. Dugdhike . Ambri. rugosely striate. Juss. Nakchhikni. USES. Nimba. Sk. COM. Country. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Suparnika. LOC. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. useful in diseases of eye.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. DISTR.—follicles. overlapping to the right. flattened. Sd. Fl.5-10 cm. astringent to bowels. green or yellowish green. NS. H. :—-E. aphrodisiac. with lenticels and black dots. Khandodi. K.—rotate with broad lobes. if snuffed. alexiteric. biliousness. coma copious . older branches ash coloured. useful in bleeding piles. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Harandori. stops nasal bleeding. Nimbaka.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant.—many. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. burning sensation.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. inflammations. LOC. Fruit Trees. Nimla. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Kharkhodi. It is also anthelmintic. long.—broadly ovate. corona lobes large. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Ceylon. Nim. Hemajyoti-valli. K.5 cm. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic.—Meliaceæ. urinary discharges. Sk.. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juice of kernel. CHAR. Limbada. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. fleshy. Kadulimb. :—G. Hari. Paribhadraka. few glands above the petiole cordate . leucoderma. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. M. :—Deccan and S. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. piles. . Assam. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. good for dyspepsia. Nimba.—Apl. Madhumalati. cures "Vata". tumours. Nim or Margosa tree. H. Limbra. t. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. :—Bengal. See—Timbers. cooling. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. pale yellowish brown. antipyretic. margined. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark.
tonic. Ranmethi. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. The flowers are stimulant. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. astringent. rheumatism . used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . urinary discharges. DISTR. antiperiodic. expectorant. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. good in ophthalmia. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. Burma. fatigue. and loss of appetite. piles. anthelmintic. cures ulcers and inflammations . Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. . tonic and antiperiodic. maturant. tumours. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. relieves "Kapha". USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. Sk. earache. Oils. burning sensation near heart. boils. bark. useful in syphilitic sores. general debility. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. stomachic. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf.. "pittadosh. cough. M. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. insecticidal. convalescence. sprains. LOC. skin diseases." vomiting. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. lumbago. asthma. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. maturant. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. anthelmintic. leucoderma. bad taste in the mouth. valuable in consumption. leaves. fever. FAM. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. NS. Banmethi. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . LOC. aphrodisiac. COM. it is a general vermifuge. thirst. See—Timbers. flowers. lessens inflammation. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. piles. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. resolvant. leprosy. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). for unhealthy ulcers. swollen glands. Vanmethika. bruises. stimulant and stomachic. toothache. H. good for leprosy. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . biliousness. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). blood complaints. :—E. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. chronic leprosy. Small melilot. alexiteric. refrigerant. Tonic. carminative. pectoral.
Fr. . :—E.—variable in size. glabrous. FAM. Fl. especially in strained back. M. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. COM. NS.—pale yellow. finally red. :—Common in Deccan. Malaya and Africa. 30-45 cm. FAM. Country and Gujarat.— Jany. Fr.—monœcious . K. Khasia. females sessile. Pudinah. at first green and variegated with yellow. Chatinmaragu. in spicate close racemes.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—pod. LOC. base cordate. tapering at both ends. stem angular. deltoid-ovate entire. very hispid . C. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. poultice or plaster for swellings. leaves and seeds. G. HABITAT :—In hedges. Iran. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. male fascicled on short peduncles. brown. :—Western Peninsula. given as a gruel (Murray). USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. It has expectorant properties to some extent. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. truncate at the apex. rounded. Externally used as a fomentation. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. :—India (tropical zone). In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. slightly echinulate. Ceylon. DISTR.—Labiatæ. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. scabrid. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). S. lobes dentate or serrate . also in S. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. of terminal rather long. M. oblanceolate. young parts white-hairy. Pudina.. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds.—size of a pea. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. :—H. L. high. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . :—An erect annual herb. H. Afghanistan. COM. DISTR. M. north Bengal. leaflets toothed. ellipsoid. introduced into many other regions. Bilari. Agamaki. CHAR.—one. glabrous or slightly hairy. t. Sd. LOC.—small. Corn-March mint. Fl. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Assam.—3-foliate. Europe. Ghugri. standard exceeding the wings and keel. Pudina. L. Fl. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. NS. oblong-ellipsoid. "Sikkim. tendrils simple.
:—E. Nagakeshara. K. China. HABITAT :—Cultivated. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. Nagkesara. Assam Iron-wood. digestive. Ceylon. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. Nagsampige. H. thirst. cough. blood and heart troubles. Kashmir. stem short. dry. Europe. skin diseases. DISTR. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. L. indigestion and cephalagia. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. asthma. none at the top. small tumours. LOC. binding. emmenagogue. foul breath. lilac. S. Nagkinjalka. biliousness. vomiting. M. In N. Assam. hiccup. good for fevers. expectorant. The plant is used in chutneys. stalked. the upper similar and large. infusion is given in fevers. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. sweats.—sub-equally 4-lobed. MESUA FERREA Linn. useful in liver and spleen diseases. lined with hairs and hairy outside. DISTR. Fl. :—A perennial erect herb . combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.—nutlets dry. North and West Asia. tonic to kidneys . often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples.—Guttiferæ. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Sk. ovate. Bengal. diuretic. Himalayas. toothed. lanceolate. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst.-narrowed below. Country. Oils. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. smooth. Ceylon Iron-wood. E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. hairy. and stimulant.—in axillary distant whorls. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. NS. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. Fr. Travancore. cardiotonic. C. USES :—Root. See—Timbers. Naghas. Suvarna. used for cough. LOC. good in asthma and sweats. flowers and fruits. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. leaves. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. alexipharmic. oblong. LOC. Andamans. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). Nagchapha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Konkan and N. Gums and Resins. FAM. :—E. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. headache. M. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. :—Western Himalayas. Kanara. sorethroat. Carminative. pains in joints (Ayurveda). LOC. Burma Tenasserim. Nagkesara. .
Sankochini. Ghats. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. NS. DISTR. Lajalu. Hem-pushpa. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. G. IndoChina. cultivated. rheumatism. M. rachis bristly. Lajalu. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. Champa. Lajja. Raktamula. Sone-chapha.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Fl. it is given with honey to relieve colic. diuretic.—Magnoliaceæ. Yunnan. Sparshalajja. Burma. 45-90 cm. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Dyes. also used as purgative. Fruit. leaflets 15-20 pairs. pinnae 1-2 pairs. Champo. :—E.. M. Sampige. Lajari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. in globose heads. FAM.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Pivala chapha. petioles hairy. useful in cough. slightly recurved. Sensitive plant. hairy beneath.—bipin-nate. diuretic. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). Golden champa. FAM. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges.-Oct. digitate. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Nachike-gidda. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. Surabhi. India. COM. "Vata". flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. W. flowers and fruits. NS. :—Cultivated all over the State. Flowers— expectorant. rheumatism. S. ophthalmia. bile. aphrodisiac. stimulant. near temples and in gardens. K. K. acrid. L. leaves. destroys poisons. Sk. Sk. :—A diffuse under-shrub. "Kapha".. evergreen rain-forest of N. Fl. facilitates micturition. Lajalu. blood affections. high. good in leprosy. diaphoretic. Humble plant. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. gout. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Fr. :—E. . nausea and fevers . Muthmurika. glabrous above. Lajjika. 57. Suvarna champaka.5 cm. pink. LOC. H. Champaka. Yellow champa . sensative.-pod flat. Kanara. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Lajjavati. PARTS USED :—Root. stems and branches sparingly prickly. long. bark. t. H. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Assam. Vanamallika. clothed with glandular hairs .—4-merous. See—Timbers. Champaka. removes worms.—Sept. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Sonchampo. COM. LOC. G. Champaka. Pilochampo. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Risemani. Flowers-stomachic. in vertigo. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. remove biliousness. CHAR. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests .
M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. astringent to bowels. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. probably a native of tropical America. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. headache. flowers and fruits acrid. Bolsari. teeth and gum diseases. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Flowers—expectorant. liver complaints. alexipharmic. Sk.:—Western Peninsula. Bark cardiotonic. cultivated in the tropics. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Fruit causes flatulence. In Brazil root is used as emetic. K. alterative. sweet. in piles and fistula. Bakul. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. Sharadika. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Vovali. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). cures biliousness. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums.—Sapotaceæ. good for gonorrhœa. biliousness. ulcers. Bakul. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. cooling. Flowers give taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. Ceylon. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. cures "Kapha". COM. :—G. Mugule. alexipharmic. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). Varsuli. anthelmintic. cure biliousness. asthma. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. leucoderma. fruits and seeds. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Ranjal. Root. dysentery. Borsalli. stomachic. Mulsari. cure blood diseases. jaundice. Root is resolvent. Bakula. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. H. See—Ornamental Plants. Malaya. :—Naturalised throughout India. Anangaka. Juice is applied externally. LOC. leprosy. inflammations. FAM. Mukul. useful in blood and bile diseases. It is also resolvent and alterative. smallpox (Yunani). flowers. acrid. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. piles. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. blood diseases (Ayurveda). cultivated in gardens in pots. Baphuli. fatigue. Seeds fix loose teeth. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. often planted in gardens. Kanara and Konkan. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Kalhala. leprosy. NS. cooling. DISTR. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. bilious fevers. DISTR. vulnerary. nose diseases. bark. Bakul. oleaginous. vaginal and uterine complaints. LOC. LOC.
Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Karavalli. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. yellow. It is also tonic and febrifuge. often ribbed or rugose. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. G. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate.—Cucurbitaceæ.—Nyctaginaceæ. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . FAM. and rather fleshy stems . Four o'clock plant. Sk. each one surrounded by an involucre. Sandhya-kali or Raga. brightly coloured (dark crimson.—E. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. DISTR. M. CHAR. LOC. lessen inflammations (Yunani). . Karelo. FAM. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. high with large perennial tuberous roots. Oils. Fr. NS. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. Fl. t. Carella fruit. :—E. 30-75 cm. :—A herbaceous plant. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. :—Grown throughout India. cordate.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Marvel of Peru. See—Ornamental Plants.—continually in bloom.—membranous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Sk. M. Hagalkai. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. NS. Karela. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. COM. Gulbasa . Kandura. Karela. blackish. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. L. H. Fruit Trees. Fl. native of tropical America. Hagala. H. HABITAT -Cultivated. Karli. good for syphilitic sores. LOC. it is applied to relieve headache. See—Timbers. K. COM. Karala. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Leaves are maturant. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Krishnakali. Kareli.—large. Guleaabbas . K.
ulcers. Karkotaki. hiccup. bronchitis. DISTR. stomachic. See—Vegetables. tropical Africa. anthelmintic. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . diseases of spleen and liver. "Kapha". rheumatism. Gid-hagalu. leaves and fruit. erysipelas (Ayurveda). jaundice etc. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. cures biliousness. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. FAM. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. . Vandhya. Fruit is tonic. Sk. leprosy. stomachic. boils. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. LOC. Fruit—very bitter. Leaves act as galactagogue. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. laxative and authelmintic. aphrodisiac. S. M. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. Beksa. carminative. lessens expectoration . leaves and fruit. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. digestible. Fruit— bitter. Kanta. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. :—G. LOC. cooling. etc. tonic. bronchitis. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. anthelmintic. It is useful in gout. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. rheumatism. K. hearttroubles. fever consumption. H. burns. and America. LOC. eye and heart. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. Nagarali. DISTR. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. used in syphilis. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). Plant cures diseases of blood. laxative. longpepper. Golkandra. all kinds of poisoning. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. :—Cultivated throughout India. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda).—Cucurbitaceæ. Fruit—bitter. Leaves—aphrodisiac. NS. asthma. urinary calculi. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. Country and Gujarat. and externally in ague as an absorbent. China. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. M. piles. hot alexiteric. B and C. Vishakankini. urinary discharges. Fruits contain vitamins A. tumours. antibilious. Karehiballi. Kantolan. anæmia. anthelmintic. Kantoli. excessive salivation. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cure "Tridosh". urinary discharges. sparingly in Konkan. Malaya. :—Throughout India. antipyretic. blood diseases. Kartoli. stomachic. appetiser.'. piles. also in Malaya. COM. cure "Vata". asthma.
internally they are tonic and febrifuge. removes all kinds of pains. Seglo. :—E. bark. Ab. anthelmintic. Tagase . analgesic. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. makes blood impure . also in the Oudh forests. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Rochana. PARTS USED :—Root. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. "Vata". Ashyuka. FAM. Ugra. Achchuka. Sajina. alexiteric. tuberculous glands in neck. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. useful in heart-complaints. Ainshi. astringent to bowels. Introduced var. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Mochaka. flowers. NS. Achi. Drum-stick Tree. K. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. COM. stuttering. Sk. emmenagogue. H. G. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. leaves and fruits.—Rubiaceæ. Formosa. fattening. DISTR. Tikshnamula. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Aal. Shevaga. China. Haladipavate. G. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . FAM. COM. spleen enlargement. Munigha. See—Vegetables. H. improves appetite. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Sargavo. Segua. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—E. M. Famine Plants. leaves. K. . The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. all "tridosha" fevers. dyspepsia. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. digestible. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Guggala. "Kapha". Saraoji. eye diseases. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Ak. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. biliousness . :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. Burma. Indian mulberry. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Dyes. Mochaka. Indian horse radish . aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated . LOC.—Moringaceæ. Nuggi. earache. Murangi. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Al. Mulgule. M. causes burning sensation. LOC. tumours. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. fruits and seeds. Bartondi. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. cultivated throughout India and Burma. also wild. DISTR. ulcers. Sk.
. The plant contains an alkaloid. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. internal inflammations and calculous affections. sweetish. appetiser. biliousness. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . gout. ulcerated intestines. Ambat. burning sensation (Ayurveda). Fruit—tonic. obstinate asthma. H. G. aromatic and acid flavour. B and C. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). with garlic. Karihannu. laxative. Fibres. LOC. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Siahtut. common about villages in N. Madhu pippali. sour. lumbago. DISTR. Tutri. anthelmintic. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. rheumatism. increases biliousness. good for brain. spleen. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. epilepsy and hysteria. leaves and fruit. Kanara. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". fattening. wounds. Kambali. enriches blood. See—Fruit Trees. Tuta. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Shetur. Oils. lumbago. good for inflammations of throat and chest. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim.—Moraceæ. expectorant. turmeric. Fruits contain vitamins A. stomatitis. aphrodisiac. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. useful in small-pox. NS. cooling. K. loss of appetite. diuretic. M. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). it is cooling laxative. COM. Peninsula. Tut. MORUS INDICA Linn. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. Sk. carminative. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. bronchitis. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. PARTS USED :—Root. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. See—Vegetables. salt and pepper. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. White mulberry. expectorant. Leaf paste. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Tut. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. diuretic. Gums and Resins. Tuda. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. urinary discharges. :—E. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. cures gleet. enlarged spleen or liver. enriches blood. bark. heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. LOC. Root is purgative. diarrhœa. piles.
" Vata ". improves blood. Fl. Vanari. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Kadali. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash.—Oct-Nov. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. 5-7. CHAR. spermatorrhoea etc. Sk. HABITAT :—Humid areas . grey-silky beneath. Bale. Tikshna. Sd.—pod. Var. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Kapikachu.3-11. which produce intensa irritation of skin. Kavatch. H. Dirghapatra. Seeds— alexipharmic. tonic. Kadvare.—3-foliate. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. sometimes cultivated. L. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). cures blood diseases. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . :—An annual twiner. NS. Ceylon. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. DISTR.5x1. Fr. Root useful for delirium in fevers.. Kunth. Urustambha. lateral very unequal sided. Kela. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. HABITAT :—In hedges. turgid-shaped. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . COM. K. Himalaya up to 1200 m. Havanch. DISTR. MUSA PARADISIACA L. flowers and fruit. . Kuhili. COM. with honey is given in cholera. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. Root—emmenagogue. Banana. :—E. NS. long. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. LOC. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. laxative. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Nayi songuballi.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. t. Kivanchha. SAPIENTUM O.) FAM. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. petioles 6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. H. biliousness . K. Hasaguni. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Rambha. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge.. Goncha. pods and seeds. G. Kela. juice given for headache.3 cm. silky. cultivated. tonic. dark-purple. FAM. G.—5-6 small. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Plantain. Kivanch.—in drooping racemes. :—Punjab plains.2 cm. LOC. Atmagupta. leaflets membranous. Kela. :—E. Sk.—Scitaminaceæ. Turashi. LOC. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Kavach. M. Adam's Fig. common in hedges. consumption. 6-30 flowered. PARTS USED :—Root. Maoz kela. Fl. M. stem. terminal smaller. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. They are used as anthelmintic. Cowhage. Strong root infusion. used in powder form in leucorrhcea.
Shrivalli. lobes broadly ovate. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. Burnt stem is vulnerary. Fl. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. diseases of uterus and vagina. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Sk. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. deep golden yellow. COM. Tropical Himalayas. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. :—A rambling shrub.—opposite or 8nately whorled. heart-burn and colic. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. in " Vata". very hairy outside. tonic. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. See—Fruit Trees. LOC. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. PARTS USES :—Root. appetiser. and are used in acidity. leprosy. Bedina. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. ear-pain. Root-juice is anthelmintic. strangury. Ipparati.—tubular. Lawsat. sore-throat. Assam. hairy. antidysenteric. subglobose. t. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. Andamans. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Fl. Fibres. consumption and bronchitis. LOC. leaves. astringent to bowels. pubescent. buds densely hairy. diabetes. tonic. tube slender.. NS. DISTR. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. urinary discharges. linear.— July-Oct. Serwadh. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. blood diseases. Kanara. causes bronchitis . Bhutakes. indigestible . anthelmintic. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Root-juice. menstrual disorders. broadly elliptic. C. FAM. flowers and fruit. good for dry bronchitis. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Fr. dyspepsia. in thirst. :—Konkan and N. Nagavalli.— berry. L. Fruit—sweet. thickens blood.--in terminal cymes. aphrodisiac. stipules twin. M. CHAR. Bellotti. kidney troubles (Yunani). aphrodisiac. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. :—S. increases appetite. . :—H. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . B and C. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa.—Rubiaceæ. biliousness. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. astringent to bowels. broad at base. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. useful in "Kapha". K. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. Hastygida.
NS. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Malabar. W. Murad. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart.—small. Ram-patri. It is used as a substitute for true mace. black when ripe. DISTR. axillary on slender peduncles. ovate to lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sk. :— E. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. small. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. Galen and the Arabian writers. as . M. allaying pain. K. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . Pliny. common in the Kumta taluka. Dioscorides. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. emmenagogue. promotes growth of hair. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. DISTR. Myrtle. especially epilepsy. ellipsoid. It is credited with opposite qualities.— Myristicaceæ. applied locally to relieve pain. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Fr. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. LOC. white. all over the State. very sweet smelling. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Kaiphal. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. :—Western Peninsula. L. Kamuka. LOC. LOC. FAM. :—E. smoke beneficial to piles. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. FAM.— solitary. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. Fl. Malati. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. enriches blood. They are given in asthma. False nutmeg. Habules. Kanage. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. COM. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. fruits and oil. Himalayas.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic.—Myrtaceæ. is regarded as. used in stopping vomiting. cures headache.—berry. Kanara Ghats . M. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. Vilayantimendhi. :—A shrub. :—Konkan and N. See—Timbers. intermittent fevers and dropsy. A decoction is employed. CHAR. PARTS USED:—Seeds. diuretic. Malati. NS. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). H. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. Condiments and Spices. COM.
G. in diam. Tavari-bija or gadde. COM.—Meliaceæ. Chinese water-lily. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Sd. top flat. Papra-vel. axillary. :—A small branching undershrub. vulnerary. Fr. DISTR. :—A large aquatic herb. Fl.3-0.—pendulous. disk annular. cells 2-seeded. H. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. ovoid..—petals many 5-12. DISTR. :—E. from Iran eastwards to Australia. petioles very long. K. M. anthers with clavate appendages. CHAR. Pitmari. muricate. Padma.—membranous. Aravinda. Kamal. 0. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. Suriyakamal. Pankaja.) FAM. COM. spongy. Kandalu. fleshy. & A. 10-25 cm.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. alexiteric. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. petals 5. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. Kanara. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. high. Fl. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. Ripe carpels. Indian sacred lotus. :—W. dysentery. t. biliousness. t. Padam.—alternate. ovoidglobose. entire.5 cm. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Amlavalli. :—E. Kamal. orbicular.—July. white or rosy. Fl. L. Ambuja. L. 3-valved. Sk. Timpani. curved. Kandabahula.—Nymphæaceæ. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. Belakanji.—capsule. See—Ornamental Plants.6 m. Kamal. free. linear spathulate. CHAR. with slender. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. Pundarika. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. elongate. radiately nerved. PARTS USED :—Root. glabrous. concave or cupped. rough with distant prickles . bronchitis. Sk. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas.—white. Fl. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Kamala.—solitary. elliptic. . Ambuj. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. Sarasija. erect. peltate. long.-Dec. leaves. 3-foliate. ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. LOC. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. C. hæmorrhage. Nelanaringa . diam. Kapurbhendi. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. torus 18 mm. stem. M. petiole winged. NS. Goanese ipecacuanha. K. NS. cures asthma.-Nov. solitary or 2 together. :—Konkan.. LOC.
gives tone to breast. diseases of skin and eye . rose or white. long. linear-lanceolate. heart and brain tonic . :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . honey. flowers. Karvira. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Fl. H. CHAR. Vishavrikshanka. strangury. also as a hedge plant. . Cool. tapering into short petiole. Kanagile. Fl. fever. bleeding piles and menorrhagia.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. coriaceous. cures cough. DISTR. t. Karber. good in throat-troubles. removes worms. rigid. leaves. allays thirst. menorrhagia. Sd. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . K. lobes rounded. Paddali. FAM. Sweet scented oleander. S.—follicles. dark green and shining above. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". Cool. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. in fever and liverdiseases. LOC. useful in fevers . In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. flowers. seeds. G. Upper Gangetic Plains. Baluchistan. stem. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. useful in piles. Ashwa-marak. leucoderma. Sind. Fr. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. C. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. In China and Malaya dried red petals.—funnel-shaped.—red. LOC. inflammations and poisoning. chest-pains. Salt Range. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison.—in threes. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. leaves. Filaments are astringent and cooling. fruit. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . 10-15 cm. 15-23 cm. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . Kanel. India. long.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. ulcers and sores of mouth. Waziristan. Pratihasa. spermatorrhoea. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. vomiting. astringent to taste . HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. Kaner. good in blood-complaints. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries .—Apocynaceæ. allays thirst. Kaner. small-pox. useful in burning sensation of the body.—flowers more or less throughout the year. planted in gardens throughout the State. M. Kanher. See—Ornamental Plants. NS. also recommended as cardiac tonic. also cholera. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). :—E. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. diuretic. aphrodisiac. biliousness. throat scaly. slightly bitter. L. improves watery eyes (Yunani). fragrant. at length separating. :—Madhya Bharat. Sk. Karvira.
Fl. inflammations. Tambak. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. water from hookha is diuretic. DISTR. COM. FAM. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Fr.—pink or white. tubercular glands of neck. dimness of sight. useful in bronchitis. NS. The plant contains a glucoside. the surface is plain or bullate. caries of teeth. Tobacco. sores. cultivated in all tropical countries. tonic. Tamarakuthika. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. scabies. large (especially lower ones). good for lumbago. smoke constipating. See—Ornamental Plants. scabies (Yunani). laxative. Tamaku. Tambakhu. C. across. sedative and emetic. Kalanja. Dhumrapatrika. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. K.—alternate. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S.—capsule. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. L. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. useful in caries of teeth. emetic. Krimighni. skin diseases. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). LOC. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. Tabak. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. funnel-shaped. also applied in leprosy. Hoge soppu. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings.—Solanaceæ. Tamakhu. An ointment made . disinfectant. bronchitis. base wedgeshaped . wounds. inflammations. oblong or elliptic. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. very poisonous. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. a mental stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). tonic. about 1. G. CHAR. :—Native of America. M. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Bujjarbhang. M. nervous depression and sleeplessness. Flowers— aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Leaves. anthelmintic. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. conical. Poisonous to fish. headache. USES :—All parts of plant. H. asthma. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. especially root. lobes spreading. are poisonous and are used externally. foul nose. carminative. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. LOC.8 cm. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Sk. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India.—in open corymbose panicles . :—E. Root—aphrodisiac. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings.
COM. Parijataka. leaves. Kanwal. COM.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. Sk. Kharapatraka. a decoction of root. Har-singhar.— fragrant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . LOC. HABITAT :-Cultivated. G. Cultivated in many parts of India. Sk. (Ayurveda). Fl. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. H. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Fl.—capsule. lessen inflammation. 2-celled. Har. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Bark cures bronchitis. Burma. Bengal. FAM.. densely pubescent beneath.—Nymphæaceæ. It is used with honey in chronic fever. See—Ornamental Plants. young branches quadrangular. Nilophhal. astringent-to bowels. Alipriya. ovate acute. peduncles 4angled. bark. carminative.5-6. Buds are tonic. L. DISTR. bark. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. tonic to hair. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Kumuda. cures fevers. Madhya Bharat. flowers and seeds. NS. useful in bilious fevers. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Lotus.—Oleaceæ. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Chotakanwal. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. obcordate or merely orbicular.3 cm. H. scalp affections etc. Assam.—lobes white. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala.) FAM. Harsing. :—E. solitary. :—A large shrub or a small tree. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. K. compressed. NS. stomachic. t. Nyadale huvu . Sephalika. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic.— more or less throughout the year. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Sephali. Nalkumkuma. rough above with bulbous hairs. Lalkamal. Parijata . K. southwards to the Godavari. abundant July-Sept. :—E. C. tube orange-coloured. axillary. Aravind. Jayaparvati. hairy. Prajakta. Fr. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani).—opposite 5-10x2. CHAR. Indian Mourner : G. Bilitavarai. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Prajakta. LOC. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. M. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. PARTS USED :—Root. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Kanval. Shonapadma. M. . separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Parijata. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement.
Fl. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. G. petioles very long. Nasabo. green. febrifuge.—solitary. stomachic. long.—nutlets about 2 mm. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). root stock tuberous.—2-lipped.—all the year. FAM. LOC. bracts stalked. bitter. entire. Surabhi.—3 cm. L. Rihan. ellipsoid. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. Africa. Philippines. Barbar. Tungi. stamens about 40. pale rose or white. Hungary. Var. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. LOC. aphrodisiac . black and pitted. glabrous or pubescent. Sabzah. Plant has a sharp. " Kapha". 7. glabrous or hispidly pubescent.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. diuretic. DISTR. purple stem. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. anthelmintic. useful in diseases of heart and brain. :—E. Sd. emmenagogue. short. M. stems and branches green or purplish. cooling . rough.— ovoid. obtuse. asthma. chronic pain in joints. PARTS USED :—Roots. COM. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. irregularly sinuate-dentate. across.—Labiatæ. Sabja. leucoderma. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. Ceylon. Tukhamariya . :—Large aquatic herb . long. CHAR. DISTR. K. Sajjebija. Fl. flowers and seeds. :—An erect herb 0. 15-25 cm. leaves. See—Ornamental Plants.9 m. white. roundish. C. Fr. diameter. Bahari. inflammations. "Kapha". leaves and flower. Manjarki. oblong. allays thirst. Fl. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). L. cylindric. LOC. :—Var. removes impurities from blood . Damaro.—peltate. deeply cordate at the base. antipyretic . lessens bile. Sk. Fr. juice gives lustre to . t. Ajagandhika.5-20 cm. H. glabrous. filaments dilated at the base . Burma. high. and nigropunctate above. fleshy. useful in diseases of heart and blood. toothed or lobed. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia.—petals about 12. open in the morning only. bitter taste. itch. alexipharmic. improves taste . pubescent and prominently veined beneath . globose. enlarged spleen. ripening beneath the water. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Surasa.— in whorled racemes . :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. causes burning sensation. diam. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). diarrhœa and piles . thyrsiflora. Common sweet basil. pink or purplish. Java. biliousness. hot taste. submerged . HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. red.—ovate. Ramkasturi. 8-13 mm. peduncles very long . Barbar.. Sabja.6-0. C. "Vata". "Vata". erect. acute. NS.
causes insomnia (Ayurveda). :—E. strangury . H. Avachi-bavachi. Fr. Sumukha. CHAR. useful in diseases of brain. pale greenish yellow. rachis quadrangular . they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour.5 X 3. LOC. t. Fl. alexiteric. Rama-Ran tulasi. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective.— in simple or branched racemes.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye.3—12. earache. M. FAM. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. It is also styptic. often cultivated : Ceylon.-July-Oct. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. 1. stimulant. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. heart. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. :—Throughout India. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa.7 cm. diuretic and stimulant. strengthens gums. LOC. The flowers possess. carminative.—2-lipped. they are also aphrodisiac. L. Deccan. During fever when the extremities are cold. woody below . fits. Ajaka. rugose. stems and branches subquadrangular . . useful in vomiting.8—5. brown. :—Konkan. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). for which the juice warmed with honey is given. " Kapha". skin diseases. removes foul breath. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia.—nutlets subglobose. DISTR. Ram Tulasi. pubescent.2—1. M. lower lip longer. gland-dotted. Sk. diuretic and demulcent properties. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. inflammations. Java.8 m. Large basil. Fl. good for toothache. coarsely crenate-serrate. Country. sharp taste . aphrodisiac . Lemon—shrubby basil. Gujarat. headache. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm.. " Vata". Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. heating. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. branched.—6. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. C. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. BanMal tulasi. elliptic-lanceolate. young ones pubescent. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. LOC. G. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. :—A perennial shrub. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. COM. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. high. liver and spleen. good for griping and piles (Yunani). given in infusion in gonorrhœa. S. in close whorls .—Labiatæ. Rantulasi. Plant has bitter.
especially in children. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Sd. DISTR. pubescent. :—G. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Papli.— capsule. L. Tulasa. asthma. smooth. Vrinda. strangury.—Rubiaceæ. Sk. West Asia.—subsessile. Damanpaper. heating. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. stomachic. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . 30-60 cm. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. foul smells. obtuse or acute. purplish. Country.—pale brown.—2-lipped. Fr. Fl. Tulasi. G. :—Konkan. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. margins recurved and scabrous. alexiteric. of children and in hepatic affections . Suravallari. varying from 7. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. FAM. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. yellow with black marking. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. M. lumbago pains. painful eye.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. K. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Asia to Java and the Philippines. vomiting. Pavitra. . Ceylon. leaves and seeds. " Vata". bitter.:—E. H. Vishnuvallabha. cholagogue. angular. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). useful in heart and blood diseases. lobes acute. See—Sacred Plants. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. Krishna tulasi. M. long in close whorls . NS. Arabia. Fl. NS. long. Australia. anthelmintic. antipyretic.— nutlets. purplish. :—An annual plant. Kala tulasi. and are given with honey.—Labiatæ. Tulasi. t. :—Throughout India. Manjari. minutely gland-dotted. M. hiccup. :—An annual herb.6— 3. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. stipules with bristles . high. Parapate. COM. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. elliptic-oblong. LOC. clothed with soft hairs . Malay Archipelago. Fl. CHAR. Phapti. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Cultivated. purulent discharge of ear. stems and branches subquadrangular. stems numerous. Vranda.—Sept-Nov.. LOC.—on filiform pedicels. L. DISTR. Tropical E.—2.2 cm. Sk. upper lip pubescent on the back. FAM. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). C.— in racemes 15-20 cm. globose or pyriform . LOC. COM. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. usually 2-3 cm. Parpat. Tulasi. " Kapha". Deccan and S.5—38 cm.5-5 X 1. bronchitis. linear or linear-lanceolate. HABIT :—A common weed. entire or serrate. CHAR. leucoderma. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. H. Fr. used in catarrh and bronchitis .
Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. Zhoratheylo. outer segments ovate red in the centre. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. lumbago. DISTR. Vajrakantaka. Sk. rusty brown. reddish at the tips. NS. yellow at the edges. L. yellow or orange. Plant juice—heating. piles. spleen enlargement. purgative. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. " Vata". digestive. :—E. Nagaphana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. H. Nagaphani. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. inner spathulate. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. FAM.—7. largest 3. long. cures biliousness. loss of consciousness. carminative. good for leucoderma. K. vesicular calculi. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. reddish purple when ripe. ulcers. subulate. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. leucoderma. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . 3 m. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. perianth rotate. Nagaphana. Joints variable in size. Phadyanivdung. across. Grown as hedge. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. Snuka. Nagadru. . antipyretic. LOC. burning. Slipper thorn. alexiteric. recurved. G. cures bronchitis in children. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. spleen enlargement. stomachic. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. Plant bitter. rather thin. LOC. used in ophthalmia. it is also used in liver complaints. Fr. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. Hathathoria. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. diuretic. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints.5 mm. Prickly pear. CHAR.5 cm. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. juice cures earache (Yunani). anæmia. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. pyriform.—5 cm. COM. inflammations.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. ascites. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. urinary complaints. M.— berry. Nagdali. Fl. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. laxative. or more high. introduced into India. tumours. obovate or elliptic. long. dull bluish-green. xerophyte. cures inflammations. angular or warty. Mullugalli. Chorhothalo. Sher. liver complaints. flowers and fruits. carminative.—Cactaceæ.
PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. cooling. oleaginous. Sk. tonic. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Seeds are purgative. Shali. M. LOC. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Shyonaka. piles. Ava.S.). Tandula. inflammations. Ullu. Fruit—expectorant. Alangi. K. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Bagi. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). G. useful in " Vata". Rice. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. H. Mayarjangha. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. astringent to bowels . bronchitis. :—Widely cultivated.—Gramineæ. Chaval. Tetu. Vrihi. NS. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. appetiser. Sk. Tetu.—Bignoniaceæ. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Bhat. DISTR. Ghats. FAM. Rice . K. improves appetite. COM. Pharri. improves taste. LOC. LOC. Tandula. :—E. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). asthma. LOC. bronchitis (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Dyes. DISTR. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. Indian trumpet flower. FAM. PARTS USED :—Grain. Nivara. leucoderma. :—E. fevers. G. Podval. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Dirghavrinta. diuretic. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Malaya. Tans. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Ceylon. dysentery. useful in biliousness . M. Fruit—acrid. Chokha. :—The Konkan and the N. stomachic. Akki. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. aphrodisiac. M. intestinal worms. Kanara ghats . good in heart and throat diseases. Cochin-China. Mokka. R. fattening. Tetu. COM. It is astringent and tonic. K. H. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. Araluka. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. vomiting. Tuntaka. anthelmintic. tonic. Arlu. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. anal troubles. sweet.
scarlet fever. Indian Sorrel. dysentery and scurvy. " Vata " and piles. . Ambastha. Dugdhika. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. to which a little lemon juice is added. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. M.5 cm. yellow. buboes. COM.— many.—petals 5. K. easy to digest. Dudhani. Changeri. Kyirin . K. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. Dudhari. also in burns and scalds. Br.— Oct-May. bruised. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. Fr. Dudhialata. beaked. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. NS. margins ciliate. L. It is an excellent application to abscesses. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. long. Ceylon. leaflets 1. Sd. Ambuti.2—2. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. transversely striate.—Asclepiadaceæ. ovoid. t. H. used externally. Dudhialata. M. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Shuklika. Kshiravi. pubescent. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. Jaladudhi. Dugdhike. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . linear-oblong. good appetiser . base cuneate subsessile. oblong. astringent. DISTR. It is a pleasant. obcordate. measles. Dudhatani. Amlalonika. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Fl. NS.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good.—Oxalidaceæ. :—A small procumbent acrid herb .—palmately 3-foliate. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. :—E. Marudbhava. Sk. Chukrita. gives great relief. brown. COM. H. The grains contain vitamin C. ulcers. In dysentery. LOC. :—Throughout the State. bowels or kidneys. CHAR. Amrul.—axillary. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. C. cures dysentery. LOC. sub-umbellate . OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. See—Food Plants. if applied to chest. rounded at the apex. 5-angled. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . petioles very slender. Rice water. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. FAM. :—G. removes " Kapha ". boils. Dugdhica. inflamed piles. diarrhœa. FAM. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. Fl. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. stems rooting. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . small-pox. Sk. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman).— capsule.
Umbrella Tree.9—1. Kanara. margins and midrib spiny. Kedige.—deciduous.8-6. fruit and oil from bracts. expectorant. L. Sundarbans. CHAR. Dhulipushpika. Deccan. Andamans.5-9 cm. Screw pine. high. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. Fr. Fl. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. anthelmintic. coriaceous ensiform. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. K. Ketaka. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Fl. black. PARTS USED :-Root. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. 0. somniferous. Java. Gandha-pushpa. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. H. anthers. Fl. coma present. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. juice is used in gleet. 3. Kewoda. Chama-pushpa. DISTR.—Dec. NS. dry.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. X 3.3 cm. indigestible. gonorrhœa.—very numerous. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. pale rose or white. . Anthers useful in pruritus. strikingly handsome. scabies. pain in the muscles. palegreen.—follicles. :—E. :—A shrub up to 6 m. tonic. stem supported by aerial roots .—dioecious. lobes ciliate. G. fruit.— large. often planted. :—Konkan and N. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). female flower spadix solitary. corona staminal. LOC. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. FAM. heat of body. Country— Belgaum. Keora. Sd. with flavour. L. M. M. Ceylon. long. S. yellow or red. Sk. Gogandhul. LOC. small-pox. cough. Flowers improve complexion. :—Konkan. Kevada. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. Ketgi.—Pandanaceæ. diuretic. 4. Fruit—tonic. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . DISTR. root. Ketaki. milky juice. t. LOC. much branched. diseases of heart and brain. Poona Sangam. aphrodisiac. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. HABITAT :—Usually near water. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. syphilis. laxative. mouth with pubescent ring.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. COM. bitter. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). pain. leaves.—glaucous green.. leucoderma. Leaves are useful in leprosy. aphrodisiac. long. causes flatulence. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Burma. alexiteric. useful in strangury and tumours. purple veined. C. Giripriya. rarely erect. thin. linear or linear-lanceolate.—oblong or globose.5 m. Fr. " Kapha ". PARTS USED :—Plant. Kanara. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. stems many. Mundige.8 mm.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
NS. leaflets 1. Belgaum. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. Kajuri. G. dysentery. Koshila. K. Abyssinia. Fl.:—Very common throughout the State. Malay Islands. Ranmug. Siyindu. gout. as a kharif crop. Dharwar. long. Kherk. DISTR. laxative. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. headache. LOC. Kashayi. :—Largely grown in. few flowered racemes. Burma. L. blood diseases. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m.—in sub-capitate.—Palmæ. Mugani. wild date palm. wiry. Vanmudga. astringent. anthelmintic. Kohesaru. good for the eyes . bitter. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. prostrate. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Seeds— tonic. Boichand. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. Adabanmagi. DISTR. slightly recurved. Kharjurika. Kapila. Kurangika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Sd. piles. and southwards to Ceylon.5—5 cm. enrich blood. cure biliousness. Tadi. long. Ahmednagar. 2. H. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Ahmedabad. K. burning sensation. antipyretic. See—Food Plants. Kallu. NS. Trianguli. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. good in fevers. . long. Khandesh. petioles grooved. :—E. The grains contain vitamins A and B. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). broadly spathulate. peduncles 10-23 cm. M. Satara. yellow. Sendhi. Kharjuri.—Oct. " Tridosh". cough. digestible.—3-foliate. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. Ranmath. Indian wine palm. Khajuri. " Kapha". good for eyes. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb.—6-12. t. cures consumption. COM. Kalli-chalu.5 cm. nose complaints. Swadi. dry. inflammations.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). FAM. :—Annual or perennial. COM. Konkan. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Deccan and Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Seeds. astringent to bowels. LOC. Sk. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Khaji.3—2. FAM. LOC.— pod. throat inflammations. layer. light and astringent. M. Shimbiparni. Afghanistan. LOC. membranous. H. mugawana.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Ichela-mara. Adavada. bronchitis. Kidney diseases. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Magavala. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Date sugar palm. styptic. straight subcylindric. CHAR. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Fl. Fr. thirst. Sk. Kolaba and Kanara. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. Shindi. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. :—G. biliousness. eye troubles. glabrous or hairy. Sind.
cardiotonic. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. subsessile. much branched. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. long. erect. Sd. Coromandel Coast. wandering of mind. outer Himalayas. cooling. Vashira. Toyavallari. anthelmintic. crown hemispherical. aphrodisiac. :—Tolerably common throughout India. spatulate. angular. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. deeply grooved on one side. oblong-ellipsoid.—2. rounded at the apex. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. greyish-green. male white. alexiteric. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. large and thick. densely fascicled. Ratoliya. Baluchistan. :—A creeping perennial herb. orange-yellow. Fl. L. Siwalik. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Sholapur. scented. wild or more often cultivated.—white or pale-pink. ensiform. Mysore.—rounded at the ends. vomiting. oblong.—Jan-Feb.—Verbenaceæ. cooling.—globose. COM. fattening.2 cm. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). LOC. lower 3-lobed. Famine Plants. Rohilkhand. NS. This is called neera. H. :—G. 9-15 m. Fl. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. :—Throughout India. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions.— dioecious. Okra. and in beds of streams and water courses. long.—more or less all the year. Langali. 15-45x2-2. C. female spadix and spathe as in the male. Africa. aphrodisiac. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). long. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. Ratoliya. blood and eye. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. Fr.—pinnate. CHAR. petioles compressed towards the apex. Ratuliyo. oblique. t. Fl. See. spadix 60-90 cm. good in heart and abdominal complaints. Fr. useful in diseases of heart. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. Fl.5—3.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. flowers very many. DISTR. 3-4. roundish.) FAM. spiny at the base. Bihar. Bengal. . Ceylon. flowers distant. high. :—A tall graceful palm. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. spinous. fevers. Poona and Belgaum districts. fruit and juice of the tree. clothed with appressed white hairs .5 m. LOC. Jalapimpli. Jalapipali. pointed. upper 2-lobed.—Fibres. pinnules many. stems rooting at the nodes.—opposite. sharply serrate in upper part. Bhuiokra. L. Sk. Jalpippali. LOC. oleaginous.—sessile.5 m.. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. constipating. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. t. triangular. rigid. M. :—Found fairly in Surat. 2-lipped. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. Sharadi. usually along banks. Agnijwala. DISTR.
—3-gonous.. Infusion is a good tonic. burning sensation. disk of the male of minute glands. wounds. L. Leaves are stomachic. dry.—capsule.useful in fevers. anuria. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). . good for ulcers. Tropics generally. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. leaves.— numerous. urinary discharges.—Euphorbiaceæ. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. LOC.— July-Aug. Vituntika. elliptic-oblong. Plant—hot.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. useful in thirst. longitudinally ribbed on the back. milky-juice. diuretic. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Ajata. very small. maturant. females solitary. of female. Sd. Amala. :—Throughout India. bronchitis. sores. CHAR :—An annual herb. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). H. ringworm (Yunani). distichous. biliousness. t. bronchitis. very numerous. Jaramla. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. LOC. :—Konkan and Deccan. K. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. Bhumyamali. LOC. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. and without salt may be applied to bruises. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). smooth. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). monœcious. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. FAM. Sadahazurmani. Sukshmadala. M. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. males 1-3. Kiranelligida. asthma. asthma. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. 30-60 cm. Fr. Fl. alexipharmic . lobed. hiccup. globose. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Stomachic. anæmia. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. leprosy. NS. Bhuiavli. axillary. cooling. stem branched at the base. The whole plant.—yellowish. scarcely lobed. Bhumyamali. Bhumyamalaki. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. :—G. scabies. Bhuianvalah. Fl. fruit. high . Sk. annular. thirst. except Australia. It is valuable in scurvy. wounds. Ceylon. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. angular.
It contains an aromatic essential oil. Panu. Kalaka. useful in toothache. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Sk. heating. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. laxative. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. Pan. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. alexipharmic. leavs. elephantiasis . anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Black-pepper. ozoena. H. Mensinballi. piles. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. bechic. foul smell in the mouth. useful in "Kapha". purgative. LOC. G. M. alterative. Kaphavirodhi. NS. Kanara forests. K. Tikshna. DISTR. Menasu. and fruits (rarely). stomachic. styptic (Yunani).—Piperaceæ. hot. Pan. Satara. COM. Sholapur. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. LOC. Saptashira. carminative. night blindness. bronchitis. Sk. Vileyad-ele. useful in "Vata". . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Kanara. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. strengthens teeth . cultivated in Konkan and N. vulnerary. ozœna. heart and liver. acrid. Linn. M. Vata". Kalamirich. It increases saliva. Poona. FAM. tonic. Malimirich . NS. Golmirch . chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. DISTR. urinary discharges. Pan. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. Fresh leaves. spleen diseases. Kalamiri. PARTS USED :—Fruits. :—E. LOC. given with milk in hysteria. FAM. throat diseases. Tambola. Kalimiri. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Tambulavalli. inflammations. Menasin-kallu . smeared with oil. liver and muscular pains. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. clears throat. pains. Eleballi. :—Wild in the N. " Kapha ". tonic to brain. H. It sweetens breath. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Vidyache-pan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. aphrodisiac. removes all foulness from mouth. G. carminative. :—E. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. Bhakshyapatra. Betelleaf. increases biliousness. Warm leaves. improves voice. Betel leaf vine. generally in Konkan. tonic and digestive. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. aphrodisiac. K. Nagavalli. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Betel pepper. See—Condiments and Spices. carminative and astringent.—Piperaceæ. Marich. asthma. satyriasis and to allay thirst.
lanceolate or greenish . It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. tonic and a local stimulant. M. base tapering into petiole. facilitates menstruation. Vehkali. See—Condiments and Spices. It is a good expectorant. ophthalmia and phthisis. radial 2. FAM. used in chronic bronchitis. W.— alternate. entire or toothed. the oil is alterative. Burma. paralysis . long. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. NS. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids.—lobes 4. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. sprains. and possesses narcotic properties . See—Timbers. Khasia Hills. C. H. ovate or oblong. petiole longer than leaf-blade. . :—K. Arcot and Salem. LOC. various forms of cutaneous diseases. hills of S. Vikhari. Fr. Konkan. vertigo.—capsule. Fl. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. piperidine and an essential oil. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. NS. Bartang.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . Greater plantain . :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Khandala (pretty common). ovoid. COM. COM. L. sciatica. bruises. DISTR. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. Externally it is rubefacient. Kanara in ghat forests. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . coma. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. Deccan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. In physiological action. CHAR. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. leprosy. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. piles and some skin-diseases .—Plantaginaceæ.—Pittosporaceæ. weakness following fevers. & A.5-12. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. N. FAM. variable in width. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. used as febrifuge. :—E. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. chronic fevers.5 cm. It yields an essential oil.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. dries body humours (Yunani). as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Bark contains a glucoside. LOC. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. chest affections. lumbago. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. Tammata. Lahuriya.
when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). The plant contains glucoside aucubin. CHAR.. M. COM. LOC. rosy scarlet. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. zeylanica. t. Fl. C. Fl.—3-5 cm. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. attenuate. oblong. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. DISTR. LOC. Nilgiris. Rosy-coloured leadwort. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Assam.Sept. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. striate . Baluchistan. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. and seeds. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Fire plant. PARTS USED :—Roots. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Fl. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). t. Ghats. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. exauriculate petiole. alterative and diuretic. :—Temperate Himalayas. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. limb wide. NS. G. Malaya. Ratochatro. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. obtuse. W.—Plumbaginaceæ. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Burma. Mahang. Agnishikha. DISTR. Raktachitraka. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. angled. stems herbaceous. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. LOC. long in long terminal axillary. LOC. alterative.—throughout the year. high. They are used in diarrhœa and piles.-4-8. :—Cultivated throughout India. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. base passing into amplexicaul. erect.—tube slender. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. HABITAT :—Along river banks. Lalachitraka. Sd. Sk. Lalchita. :—Konkan : Deccan. K.-Feb. afford relief.—large. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Lead-wort. L. top coming off as a conical lid. Lalchitrak. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. leaves.Kempuchitramula. Chitra.. :— E. Ceylon. Chitraka. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. Lalchitrak. Palni hills. lax spikes. PARTS USED :—Roots. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . dull-black. Fattening.
dysentery. cure intestinal troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. See—Ornamental Plants. aborti-facient. oblong. long. Agnishikha. t. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. itching.—Aug. entire. stomachic. Vahni.-Sept. K. vesicant. leucoderma. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. It is used in procuring abortion. spreading. rachis glandular . Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. useful in laryngitis. Bile-Chitra-mula. FAM. alexipharmic.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. appetiser. and in leucoderma. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger.5 m.6-1. wild in Western Peninsula. anasarca. The use of Pl. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. rheumatism. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. L.—capsule. Malay Peninsula. LOC. Chitrak. Medi. Root—bitter. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. leaves are caustic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Fl. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. root-bark. it is useful in dyspepsia. bronchitis. inflammations. diseases of liver. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. Res. Fl. striate. See—Ornamental Plants. juice. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). woody. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. C. Chitra. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. scabies. Ceylon. leaves. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. Fr. " Tridosha" .—white. leucoderma. Bengal. In S. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. astringent to bowels. ascites. piles. NS. Chitaro Chitrak. anthelmintic. :—E. lobes 5. . it may be used in chronic skin diseases. COM. Chitra .—thin. alterative . laxative. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. terete. hot. ovate.—Plumbaginaceæ. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. ring-worm. Jyotishka. leprosy. stomachic. diarrhœa. consumption. Sk. stems 0. expectorant.—in elongate spikes. pointed. Chitraka. attenuated into a short petiole. Tropics of the old world. H. carminative. a favourite medicine for flatulence. January 1933). diseases of spleen. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. G. Ind. DISTR. piles. Vallari. LOC. Chitra . Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. Journ. a paste is made with milk. :—Throughout India. cultivated . Chitramula. bechic. tonic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. skin disease. Chitranga. " Vata" and " Kapha".
—practically throughout the year. t. laxative . Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. . abundant from Mar. upper lip white shot with purple.-Feb. Goleurchampa. acrid. venereal sores. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. Fl. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. LOC. entire.—2-lipped. Country. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. 7. bark. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. K. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. many flowered. FAM.2—1. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. :—All throughout the State. whorls close. Champakam. with an intra-marginal vein. leaves and milky juice. carminative. Mahabaleshwar. high. NS.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. NS. :—Native of tropical America. divaricate. heating.. Radha-champo. DISTR. DISTR. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. C.5-18x3.—Dec. See—Ornamental Plants. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. Kadu-sampige. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. CHAR. M. L. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. oblong-lanceolate. Pagoda tree.—salver-shaped. purple.8 m. pains. G. lower lip white. common. LOC. Fl. smooth. inner face angular. C. Kanara.:—More or less throughout India. stems and branches quadrangular. useful in gleet. 3-lobed. 4-lobed. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. white with a pale yellow centre. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. itching. Golainchi. :—A small shrub 1. very fragrant. long. Root-bark is purgative. :—Konkan. COM. Phangla. Pangli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. shining. :—M. Frangipani. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. abundant. irregularly doubly toothed. pungent. ulcers. Khairchapha. H. spirally arranged. Sk. shining black. CHAR. Rhuruchapha.—follicles. urinary discharges. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion.-May. Belchampaka.— large. S. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). L. :—E. FAM. t. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. 15-30 cm. useful in leprosy. COM. Deccan. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative.-nutlets ellipsoid. cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. ascites (Ayurveda). acute at both ends. M. 12 cm. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.8-9 cm. Devagangile. long. broadly ovate. Fr. Fl. rounded. cylindrical. rarely maturing.—Labiatæ.—Apocynaceæ. Fr.
M. NS. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Karanj. lumbago. Agnibijaka. M. Kanika. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. alexipharmic . vagina. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. H. Gracie). " Vata ". piles. chronic fever and hydrocele. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. Karanja. flowers. Naktamala. . skin diseases. wounds (Ayurveda). Honge. Arni. In Satara. bark. LOC. also planted. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Sk. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Huligili. DISTR. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Sk. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Kanaji. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Arni. ascites. Chamari. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. Indian beech. good for tumour. FAM. USES :—The fresh leaves. urinary discharges . The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). fruits and seeds. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. bruised. cures eye diseases. relieves inflammation. cure earache.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). F. Agetha. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. itching. Karanj. piles. Oil—styptic. " Kapha ". wounds. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. LOC. Seeds—acrid . carminative. Karanja. rheumatic pains. leucoderma. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. liver pain. ulcers. Oils. useful in diseases of eye. lumbago.) FAM. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough.—Verbenaceæ. COM. skin and in keratitis . PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. NS. Karanjmara. Arand. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). :—E. Aran. Pavaka. purify and enrich blood. Kirmal. Ustabunda . Agnimandha. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Kanja. cures biliousness. K. Gaura. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. G. Ichu. juice is given in colic and fever. Jayanti. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. J. Oil—anthelmintic. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. along Deccan rivers . K. :—G. H. head and brain diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. chest complaints. leprosy. leaves. chronic fever. good in scabies.
causes "Kapha".—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca).—hard. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. cool heated brain. Ceylon. Piyara. high. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. greenish yellow. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.— June-July. common about Karwar. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. It is also employed in scurvy. lobes 4. DISTR. stomachic.3 cm. Dridhabija. bark yellowish. G. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. entire or upper part dentate. K. heating. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. small.—Myrtaceæ. blue-black. Safedsafari.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Peru . Jamud-rukh. piles. fruits and gum. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. Jamb. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. NS. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. bronchitis. pungent. diabetes. Perala. H. M. LOC. aphrodisiac .—tubular. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). DISTR. dyspepsia. laxative after food. useful in anaemia. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. Fr. L. rough-tubercled . Flowers cool body. used in bronchitis. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. good in colic and for bleeding gums. Vastula. Fruit—tonic. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers.2-6. Andamans. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). :—E. Gum is tonic. cylindric. Ash—caustic (Yunani). decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. for unhealthy ulcers. See—Famine Plants. :—Cultivated all over the State. Sd. Peruka. cooling. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. seated on the calyx .—5-9 X 3. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. fever. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. t. smooth."Vata".. broadly elliptic. Fl. good for liver complaints (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kanara. flowers. LOC. Perala. Fl. Root is laxative. as an astringent to bowels. chyluria.— globose. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. constipation. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. hairy in the throat. It is given in the form of decoction. inflammations. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Amrut. stomachic. Peru. . cooling. Anthers—dry wound. Young leaves are tonic in the . Guava tree. sour. LOC. C. Gova. Nicobars and Malaya. applied to sore eyes. Jamphal. LOC.
Fl. Konkan and S. K. closely-pitted. 10-30 flowered racemes . Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. heals ulcers. Bowach-chi. G. stimulant. Fruit—diuretic. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. good for heart troubles. . smooth. aphrodisiac. C. inflammation. anthelmintic. CHAR. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. improves hair and complexion. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Bukchi. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). clawed. cures "Vata". standard orbicular. Bhavanj. studded with glands and white hairs. DISTR. stomachic. ovoidoblong. black. white hairy. t. laxative. :—E. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. M. causes biliousness. Bavachi. L. anthelmintic. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). Seed—purgative. Fr. antipyretic. skin diseases. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". high. Country. biliousness. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. bronchitis. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. Vanguji. Bavachi. vomiting. LOC. LOC. HABITAT :—Waste places. H. Sk. Seeds— refrigerant. good for leucoderma. Kalameshi. COM.—in dense axillary. nephrites and cachexia. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. urinary dis charges. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. 3. Leaves—good for diarrhœa.—Aug-Dec. :—An erect annual. alterative. mucronate. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. " Rakta-pitta".176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. Chandralekha.2 m.8 X 2. alexiteric. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. stem and branches grooved. Kushtaghni. scabies. improves appetite. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Fruit Trees. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism.—pod. diuretic. FAM. 0. M. Sd. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani).—bluish purple . cures blood diseases . anæmia. difficulty in micturition. Babachi.—one. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Fl. Bakuchi.—simple. nigro-punctate. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). bitter taste. NS. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. vulnerary. solitary. raw one is used in diarrhœa. fruit and seeds.5—5 cm. leaves.6-1. Babachi.
boils. Kabul and Baluchistan. blood diseases. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. also in Konkan. scabies. Bark—astringent. tonic. :—Leaves. LOC. body eruptions. Bibla. Honi. allays thirst. colic. Bija. Bijak. Gums and Resins. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. leucoderma. . flowers and fruits. urinary discharges. :—E. ophthalmia. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. India. Anar. strengthens gums. :—E. Indian kino-tree. Flowers— improve appetite. gleet. laxative. PARTS USED:—Root. applied to hydrocele. somewhat milder in action than catechu. Dadima. cures " Vata ". Dalimb . K. DISTR. tonic. Sk. vulnerary. liver tonic. earache. Dhalim. COM. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. Fruit-appetiser. heart-disease. good for biliousness. anthelmintic. called kino. Sunila. DISTR. Mahakutaj. Bio. biliousness. erysipelas. bark. Ceylon. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. LOC. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Sk. useful in vomiting. Dharimb .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). diuretic. Gum—bitter. Dadam. sore eyes brain diseases. leprosy. " Tridosh". burning sensation. Kanara. stomatitis. Raktabija-pushpa. Benga. Bibla. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. flowers and gum. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. H. useful in all body diseases. cultivated in many parts of India. Dadimba. G. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). anthelmintic. enriches blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Bia. used in piles. in Akrani. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. spleen complaints. Khandesh and Dangs. NS. :—Western Peninsula and S. sore-throat. See—Timbers. used in sore throat. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. prolapsus ani. H. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. :—Wild in Iran. fever. G. Bigsah. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). LOC. elephantiasis. Hulidalimb . :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. chest troubles. NS. styptic. ulcers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. PARTS USED. COM.—Punicaceæ. Malabar kino-tree. Valka-phala. antipyretic. fattening. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Bibla. Hirdokhi. Dalimba. Pomegranate tree. useful in eye troubles. FAM. urinary discharges (Yunani). thirst. M. K. Dadima. Common in N. ascends to 1100 m. Honne. scattered but not gregarious . Gum. Pitasar. M. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). alterative . anal troubles. " Kapha ". Flowers—check vomiting. FAM. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. griping. useful in biliousness.
widely cultivated all over India. DISTR. hairy beneath. CHAR. Mangari-kai. elliptic. Rangoonkibel. S. In China.— ellipsoid. pendant. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. Chinese honeysuckle. :—A strong climber. H. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. See—Ornamental Plants. Rangoonchavel. LOC. Konkan. 7. jasmine . Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. :—E. K. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. Gela. C—petals 5. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. long. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. M. M. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking.-Aug. Dharaphal. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. Malaya. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. Emetic nut. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . . acuminate. Fl. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. USES :—In Amboyana. FAM. Fruit contains vitamin C. The rind of the fruit. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. COM. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Rangoon creeper. FAM. Lalchameli.—opposite. acutely 5-angled. Mindhola. COM. LOC.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. nearly 6 cm. M. Barmasinivel. base rounded. NS. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Pinditak. at first white then deep red .5 cm.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula.—Mar. Sk. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. glabrous above.—Combretaceæ. :—E. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. It is given in the form of decoction. Fr. dark green. Karigidda. L. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. lanceolate . Fl. G. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic.—Rubiaceæ. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. t. Midhola. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Gelphal. Madana. numerous. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. calyx tube long. Annam. Karhar Mainphal.—in axillary and terminal spikes. G. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. H. LOC. Minkare. Country and Kanara.
anthelmintic. leprosy. Mulak. Radish. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. alexiteric. emmenagogue. Mali. Mula. " Vata" and " Kapha". amenorrhœa. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. Ksharmula. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. LOC. DISTR. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. and all inflammations . M. produce alopecia (Yunani). Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. boils. The plant contains glucoside saponin. carminative. Sumatra. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. laxative. It is also used to poison fish. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). used in diseases of the brain. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. emetic. asthma. NS. piles. stomachic. Muri. PARTS USED :—Root. cholera. Bili Mulangi. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. good in tumours. sweet. carminative. Hastidanta. paralysis. muscular pains. See—Timber. G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. leprosy. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. Ruchira. heating. China. bad taste. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. piles (Ayurveda). Seeds-sharp. skin-diseases. leaves. useful in chronic bronchitis. useful in diseases of heart. flowers. COM. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. inflammations. Mula. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. It also contains an essential oil.—Cruciferæ. leucoderma (Yunani). emetic. binding. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. H.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. Muro. eruptions. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. inflammations. Bitter. carminative. it is equal to it in every respect. cures abscesses. fruit and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. S. Tropical Africa. bitter. destroys "Vata". Mura. DISTR. its action is very safe. hiccup. E. purgative. Java. :—Throughout India. good for spleen and in paralysis. K. Sk. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . antipyretic. juice relieves earache. tonic. :—E. Juice of . LOC. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. tumours. ulcers. certain and regular.
Juipani.—Acanthaceæ. carminative.5-18 X 2. Chandrika. t. B and C. sedative. It is hypnotic. Western Peninsula. white. PARTS USED :—Root. Palakjuhi.. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. laxative. See—Vegetables. sharp. Sarpagandha. In the Konkan. heating. Root contains vitamins A. black shining.— Mar. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. acute. Chhotachand. single or didymous. Kanara. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. specific for insanity. FAM. irregularly. Fl. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. Nai. ajamalinine. often tinged with violet. swollen a little above the middle.—Apocynaceæ. and black salt. Ceylon. :—H..9 m. 7. NS.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. Sk. :—H. Fr. M. K. ulcers (Ayurveda). Harki. serpentinine. pungent. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. K. bright green above.-in whorls of 3. shady open places near rain-forests. cures " Tridosha ". Andamans. LOC. Fl.) FAM. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. leaves (rarely). corrective and emmenagogue. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Yuthikaparni. NS. Doddapatike. acrid. thin. :—An erect perennial shrub. ajmalicine. seeds are considered peptic. Garudpatala. L.5-6. nodular. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. LOC.—in irregular corymbose cymes. COM. COM. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. Chandrika. M.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. Gaja-karni. Java. lanceolate. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz.—drupe.3 cm. Sivanabhi. HABITAT :—Moist forests. C.-May. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. used in hyperpiesis . bright red . :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. with a long. diuretic. Mungusavel.. yellowish root stock.—tubular. pale beneath. CHAR. anthelminitic . It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. expectorant. Sarpakshi. Group B — Serpentine. Sk. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Nakulikand. Harkaichand. DISTR. ginger.
asthma. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). useful in liver troubles. leprosy. useful in skin-disease. solitary. Khandala. lumbago. glandular. fevers. increases "Kapha". paralysis. Country (Dharwar. Belgaum. NS. Fl. leaves. velvety hairy Sd. G. LOC. inflammations. LOC. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Erand. cultivated. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. Country. amenorrhœa (Yunani). high. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. strangury. useful in heart diseases. tumours. Madagascar (cultivated).—nearly sessile. pain in back. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. Palma christi. diseases of rectum and head. alterative. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. narrow. entire. flowers and seeds. elliptic lanceolate. ascites. COM. Castor oil plant. rheumatism. intestinal worms. Divald. Mahabaleshwar. :—Deccan. vaginal pains. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. H.—capsule. good for burns. Divaligo. Vardhamana. pains. lumbago. generally cultivated.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Erand. hairy outside . night-blindness. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. body pains. DISTR. Triputiphala. pubescent: C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. ascites. useful in pains. Very little in other districts of the State. :—Throughout India. Fruit— appetiser. L. hills near Belgaum. K. bracts ovate lanceolate. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S.-Jany. Fr. Tirki. HABITAT :—Hills. :—Probably of African origin. increase biliousness. alterative. tropical Africa. ascites. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. dropsy. leaves and seeds. bronchitis. M. purgative. inflammations. ring-worm. Java. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. earache. piles. Seed and oil—cathartic. asthma. eructations. pointed. black. boils.9—1. elephantiasis. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ".— tuberculate. Root-bark—purgative. liver and spleen diseases. stems obscurely angled.—Euphorbiaceæ. piles. Sholapur). Straits-Settlements.—Oct. convulsions. Eranda. :—E. useful in inflammations. some fevers.. 0. :—Undershrub. glands. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. t. Cattle are fed with leaves for . oil—anthelmintic.—lipped. Erand.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. M. Leaves—galactagogue. Chitrabija. Fl. aphrodisiac. Vardhaman. upper lip bifid . leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. M. white. LOC. carminative . DISTR. typhoid.5 m. Sk. S. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. anal troubles. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Arand. Haralu. Ceylon (wild) . widely cultivated in tropical countries. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative.
cultivated all over India. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. Sk. 2. serrate. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache.— usually corymbose. Gulab. acrid.—pinnate. P. Pannira. " Vata". :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. head-ache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. with a good odour. sometimes glandular. stomatitis. :—Origin unknown. cephalic. sweetish. Lakshmipushpa. which is a powerful poison. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . See—Ornamental Plants. seldom griping or causing flatulency.— all the year. removes bad odour from mouth. COM. LOC. Gulab. cures leprosy. Fr.3 cm. K. laxative. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. Ati-manjula. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Tarana. red. double. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . :—A perennial shrub. :—E. aphrodisiac. H. petioles prickly. G. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . L. kidneys. intestinal affections. chronic fevers. France. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. t. DISTR. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. inflammations. used in heat of body. PARTS USED :—Flowers. Fl. long. improves appetite (Ayurveda). liver. astringent when dry (Yunani). tonic. laxative. burning sensation. antipyretic.5-6. cardiotonic. stems with stout and hooked prickles. Shatadala. Sudburj. benefits lungs. sometimes striped . In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. attaining 1. pink or white. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. LOC. excessive perspiration. NS. hairy. Italy. Fl. expectorant. Punjab and U. dry. Ghazipur is a chief centre. ovate oblong. they are cold. Soumyagandha. Gulab . mild and safe purgative. much used in lotions and collyria . Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers.—Rosaceæ. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. biliousness. CHAR. Flower—bitter. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. good for eyes. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. etc. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). adults.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. cooling. See—Oils. tooth-ache.—obovate .5 m. stipules scarcely dilated. Greece and Germany. FAM. . cardiotonic. In constipation it is used as an enema. They are also applied to painful joints. M..
emmenagogue. prickly. M. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. high. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. :—Root. Manjishtha. DISTR. Country. blood. Manjishha. leucoderma. grooved. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. LOC. antidysenteric. one pair with longer petioles ovate. base cuneate. LOC. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. five-nerved. bitter. H. :—Perennial climbing herb. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. 15-30 cm. purplish black when ripe. urinary discharges. diseases of uterus. elliptic.—didymous or globose. . it powerfully affects the nervous system. Leaves-sweet. with a thin red bark. lower leaves larger. obtuse. anthelmintic. ulcers. jaundice. ulcers and skin-diseases. erect glabrous herb..—in whorls of 4. spleen-enlargement. Rohini. urine and even bones red. K. CHAR. heating. Indian Madder. branches quadrangular . liver complaints. Japan. Manjishtha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. paralysis. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. Sk. NS. leucoderma. shining. orbicular . dysentery. cures " Kapha ".—in terminal panicled cymes. pains in joints.—Polygonaceæ. acrid. Fr. :—E. leucorrhoea.—2. the Konkan and S. Fl. :—E. COM. erysipelas. Chukra. FAM. improves voice and complexion . Ceylon. used in eye-sores. analgestic.—white or pink. Ambat Chuka. oleaginous . stems very long. COM. and was much used in dropsy.5—7. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. inflammations. valves hyaline. Majit. increase appetite. Chitralata. eye. antipyretic. branched from the root. Sorrel. Bladder. Fr. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. diuretic. L. Amlavetasa. t-Oct. Fl. alexiteric.5 cm. Root—bitter. paralysis. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. H. Raktasara. roots very long. rheumatism. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. laxative. ovate. Chuka. Java. FAM.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . Dock. uterine pains (Yunani). jaundice. smooth. Aruna. piles. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. lethargy. Decoction tinges blood. greenish. M. lactagogue. Manjit. cordate or hastate. ear. Malay Peninsula. L.—Rubiaceæ. Gulmketu. M. petioles triangular. :—Annual. tropical Africa. analgesic. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). all scabrous with white prickles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. inner perianth-segments membranous. PARTS USED. NS. vagina.-Jany. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. cylindric. leaves and fruit. Sk. CHAR. Tamravalli. Fl.
COM. alcoholism. Afghanistan. checks nausea and promotes appetite. while fresh they are bruised. analgesic. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. S. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. H. then erect. Khatselio . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. they are prescribed.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. ovoid oblong. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. Fr. LOC. laxative. acute. :—G. often rooting near the base. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. ciliate. M. generally in the Deccan. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. 2-lipped. asthma. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. diseases of the spleen. LOC. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Sd. Kharmor. Pismarum Sadab. Fl. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). hiccup.-Jany.—Acanthaceæ. flatulence. stomachic. blue or pink. FAM. bites and stings of poisonous animals. Sk. G. Deccan. CHAR. USES :—Leaves are cooling. Ghati pittapapada . Satapa . t. Parpatha. DISTR. useful in heart troubles. COM. :—A herb .—white. C. See—Vegetables. Satri. Common—Garden-rue . with darker spots. :—Common throughout the State. Country. Konkan. Ceylon. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Nov. DISTR. lower shortly 3-lobed. Fl. N. stems usually decumbent. Africa. Havananju. tonic. Trans-Indus Hills. Sadabu. useful in scabies. The juice allays tooth-pain. acute . K. M. leucoderma. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). bracts elliptic. also considered as a vermifuge. toothache. pains.—suborbicular. LOC. oblong lanceolate. :—E. Cooling. aperient and diuretic. . constipation. The seeds have the same properties . pale brown. rugose with furrow. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. Kanara. piles.—Rutaceæ.— subsessile.—capsule. upper emarginate. Persia. L. Satap. Sadapaha. Nagadali.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Western Punjab. H. Vishapaha. FAM. NS. NS. vomiting. with scarious faces and hard ridges. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. roasted. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. in dysentery. M. tumours. Sk.
LOC. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). cooling. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. FAM. NS :—E. Powdered and combined with aromatics.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. G.—angled. epilepsy. Sk.—capsule. :—Egypt and Algeria. Ingotu. M. Poona. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Rasala. it may be given internally in hysteria. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Kumad. and externally used as a rubefacient. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. increases mental activity. aphrodisiac. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Kabbu. glandulose punctate.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. flatulence. etc. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. Rikhu. flawed. indigestible. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. The oil is the best form for administration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. H. cultivated throughout India. diuretic. LOC. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. Madhuyashti. oleaginous. K. The plant is tonic. petioled. HABIT :—Cultivated. DISTR. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. thirst. Sd. grown in gardens. COM. There are three varieties . . all over the State. laxative. oblong-obovate. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. S. Sugarcane. The plant contains glucoside glutin. :—A strong smelling herb . Gudatrina. LOC. L. tonic. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. diuretic. anti-aphrodisiac . leprosy. useful in fatigue. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Gudakastha. S. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Ikshu.-alternate.. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. emmenagogue. Us . I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Naisakar. garden. heats body. Fr. Satara. abortifacient. Ukh . amenorrhœa. segments cuneate. colic. heating to body .—petals 4. Sherdi. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. obtuse . yellowish. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). decompound. Tanigarbu . Ganna. C.—Gramineæ. spathulate or linear-oblong . particularly Deccan. in pots. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. digestive. forest and mountain. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). DISTR. :—Grown everywhere in India. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. M.
The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. H. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. tonic and aperient. scabies. Mahaphala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa.—very thin.". Tooth-brush tree. strengthen teeth. tonic to liver. alexiteric. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. the Konkan and N. FAM. Ceylon. Sk. often planted near Muslim tombs. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. anæmia. Fr. good for lungs . LOC. useful in biliousness. near the coasts of Gujarat . L.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. . PARTS USED :—Bark. diam. delirium. fleshy. M. Egypt. leucoderma. erysipelas.. dry regions of W. Brihat madhu pilu. Sugar causes " Kapha". C. fruits seeds and oil. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Jal. Seeds—purgative. numerous. Abyssinia. Asia. Fruit—aphrodisiac. finely striate. useful in biliousness. The juice contains vitamins A and B. diuretic. diuretic. white. branches numerous. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. corrective. sugar is considered heavy. deobstruent. Pilu. In cases of poisoning by copper.-Feb. greenish-yellow. carminative. opposite. COM. oil is digestible. DISTR. disorders and wind. bile. analgesic. :—Drier parts of India. Fl. red when ripe. fattening. LOC. 3 mm. useful in heat. astringent to bowels.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. Khakan Mirjoli. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive.—drupe. See—Food Plants. inflammations. Pilu. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. anthelmintic. Fl.—Nov. lessen inflammation . improves appetite. Cane—sweet. Leaves—bitter. Pilu. In the Punjab. K. drooping. shining. laxative. Goni. It is good in calculous complaints. causes " Kapha. bad for liver (Yunani). LOC. sometimes it raises blisters. piles. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. pectoral and aphrodisiac. Pilu. Kharijal. smooth. ulcers. Kanara in littoral forests. :—E. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. useful in nosetroubles. aphrodisiac . white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. carminative and diuretic. lobes much reflexed. purifies blood . t. Sind. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. stomachic . deeply cleft.—Salvadoraceæ. globose. Piludi. leaves. often mucronate at the apex. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). :—Dry districts of the State. G. improve diuresis (Yunani). Fruits are deobstruent. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. NS.
Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . paralysis. head-ache (Yunani). Burugukayi. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. useful in inflammations. FAM. lumbago. Kumblabijaka. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). India.—Sapindaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. Sukhad . alexiteric. PARTS USED:—Wood. :—Western Peninsula. hemicrania. Bhadrasara. :—Indian Peninsula. allays uterine pains. COM.—Santalaceæ. :—E. biliousness. NS. much cultivated. bronchitis.. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. Mangalya. gleet. tubercular glands. antipyretic. K. H. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. often planted. Sk. Shrigandhalmara. Oils. cholera. ground. small-pox (Ayurveda). Sandal. PARTS USED :—Root. cold in head. diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. " Kapha ". Chandan. Ceylon. Aritha. Mysore and parts of Madras State. Cultivated elsewhere. gonorrhœa. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. Sk. tonic. K. Sandal-wood Tree. . Wood—tonic to heart and brain. in skin-diseases. Soap-Nut tree. laxative. astringent to bowels . :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . DISTR. exhilarating. to allay heat and pruritus. strangury. USES :—Wood. chiefly in S. LOC. Ritha . M. Anthuvala. stomachic. abortifacient. epileptic fits of children. Arithan . Chandan. Rishta. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Arishtaka. alexipharmic. Fruit—bitter. M. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. useful in diseases of heart. Antharalo. Country and N. Oil. fruit and seed. Phenila. Root—expectorant. G. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Chandal. H. FAM. acts as diaphoretic. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. M. thirst. is applied to local inflammations. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. LOC. LOC. Suket. COM. G. :—E. Ritha. Bhogivallabha. Kugale. Kanara. Phenilu. useful in chronic dysentery. to temples in fever. burning sensation. S. Malayaja. emetic. vaginal discharges. Chandan. Bhadrasri. alexiteric. up with water into a paste. Agarugandha. cures "Tridosha". common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. DISTR. NS. Ringni.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in sorethroat. and as an oildressing for ulcers. lung diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. in height. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. enrich blood. L. diuretic. inflammations. strengthening. linear-oblong. Waziristan. Baluchistan. Seed-oil—fattening. diuretic and lactagogue. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. Janjhan. white and red. asthma. small-pox. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. There are three varieties of seeds : black. Jayanti. inflammations (Yunani). leaves. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. etc. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. cure menorrhagia. COM. :—G. aphrodisiac. applied to gouty joints.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. tonic. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. Jayantika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. M. 15-23 cm. Rasin. tonic. Fl.—standard as broad as long. bleeding piles. anthelmintic. Fr. inflammations. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. Shewari. Sk. of eye and ear. Sd. NS. long. probably a native of tropical Africa. diseases. Jayat. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. urinary concretions. Jayanti. leaves.. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. opposite. Jinangi. septate between the seeds. removes "Kapha". scabies. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. gouty joints.—pod. FAM.—in lax. into claw. :—A soft-wooded shrub.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). syphilitic ulcers.— abruptly pinnate. useful in diarrhœa. yellow. Jayanti. They are nourishing. galactagogue. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. useful in dry cough. hair-tonic. Jaya. oil. Nadeyi. few flowered axillary racemes. PARTS USED :—Root. strangury. seeds. such as dysentery etc. 4-5 m. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). leaflets 914 pairs. applied to ulcers and piles. oleaginous. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. C. pendulous. 7. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike.—20-30. Seeds contain vitamin A.5-15 cm. slightly torulose. spleen troubles. mottled with purple on the outside. LOC. burning sensation. cooling. DISTR. cures . LOC. Raysingani. indigestible . Black variety is common. long. H. suppurating wounds. bark. alterative. They are also emmenagogue. branches striate. an emollient poultice is also made from them. CHAR. :—Cultivated all over India. See—Oils. eye diseases . obscurely angled . carminative. seeds. promote hair growth. K. beaked. They have been used to procure abortion.
Vranari. H. epilepsy. CHAR. leucoderma. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). LOC. long. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. fevers. gout. Fruit—laxative . Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. dysentery and paludism. maturant. high. Basna.— flowers at various times. Agasti. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). long. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. ulcers.— pinnate. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. LOC. :—Cultivated in many parts of India.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). See—Fodder Plants. improves taste. improve appetite . C. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". DISTR.— pod. Dirghashimbi. Munidruma. 50 cm. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. 6-9 m. NS. linear oblong. "Kapha" and inflammation. Leaves—indigestible. Indigenous from Malaya to N. stimulant. cure quartan fever. :—A soft wooded tree . Bark—astringent.5-8. demulcent. Fl.—7. anaemia. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. Bak. fruits. biliousness. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. diarrhœa. Seeds—emmenagogue. Australia. anthelmintic. useful In diseases of spleen. Leaves—purgative. t. anthelmintic. Fl. very showy. useful in ozœna. Agusta. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Agase. . Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. cures " Tridosh " pains. gout . K. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray).—in racemes .8 cm. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. astringent. Agati. Flowers—cooling. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. bronchitis. relieves throat-troubles. is applied in rheumatism. is applied in painful swellings. :—G. FAM. leaflets 16-30 pairs. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. alexiteric. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . See—Vegetables. Kanali. Hatiya . L. 2-4 white or red. COM. Ornamental Plants. Bark— astringent. LOC. 15-30-cm. long. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. M. Agathio. HABITAT :—Cultivated. rubbed into a paste with water. cure itching. Agasta. night-blindness. allays thirst. leaves. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. useful in ophthalmia. Kempagase. The plant contains vitamin A. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. diabetes. tumours . An infusion is given in small-pox. flowers. leprosy.
LOC. Pata.Dec. Vatyapushpi. Khareti. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. astringent. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils.5-5 cm.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.—smooth. cooling. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. t. COM. glabrous. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). decoction. " Pitta ". base rounded..—Malvaceæ. Root—cooling. C. L. long.—2. sharply serrate. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Jayanti. Pata. strongly reticulated. Fl. Kisangi. LOC. Fl. Fr. Kherati. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). Sd. FAM. awns 2. M. Bala. Batyalaka. Fr. :—E. HABITAT :—Moist places . Fl. a weed. :—A shrub. Tukti. awns 2. Chikna. Rajbala. strongly reticulated . In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. ovate-oblong. Bala. K. CHAR. cordate. " Kapha " . Bala. Country. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. K. M. pedicel jointed much above the middle. LOC.5-6. diam.— yellow. dorsal scabrid. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.—1-2 in each axil.—5-6 mm. useful in fever. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. with ginger. crenate. puberulous. yellow. Chittuharatu. Kumghi. pedicel jointed about the middle. diuretic. obtuse. bleeding piles. Prahasa. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. aphrodisiac . in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. :—Konkan.—Malvaceæ. COM. Sk. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. linear. G. :—G.—6-8 mm. astringent. t. FAM. softly hairy all over. Deccan and S.. carpels 7-10. :—Hotter parts of India.-Oct. H.-Nov.—solitary or few together. carpels 5-9. useful in blood and throat diseases. CHAR. M. removes " Vata ". Gujarat and S. PARTS USED :—Root. upper margins ciliate. stomachic and tonic. Country. is given . LOC. Chikna. linear . digestive. dorsal margins toothed. H. long. Kharanti. bark. L. M.—2. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. DISTR. branches slender. emollient. black. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. :—Konkan (common). DISTR. Bariara. leaves and seeds. Hettutti-gida. Kareta. PARTS USED :—Root. lanceolate. Country Mallow. NS. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. minutely hairy. Sk.. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. NS. Samanga. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Barial.3 cm. diam. scabrid-hairy.—Nov. Baladana.
Fr. M. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. administered in hemiplegia. :—G. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra.—opposite.6—1. It is also used to favour menstruation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. DISTR. also in colic and tenesmus. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Fl. black. common. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. Fl. LOC. rhomboides Roxb.-Dec. 0. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. all running down wing-like into petiole. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. Fl. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. Linn. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Pilibadkadi.—achene. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. L. 5 inner boat-shaped. stiff-neck. erect. involucral bracts 2 rows. M.—heads small in leafy panicles . pappus 0. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. t. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. COM. :—A large annual herb. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Bala—Sida cordifolia. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. slightly rough. cystitis. :—Throughout India. facial paralysis. noise in ears. those of the ray red beneath. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. high. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. FAM. . tinged with purple. :—Deccan. 5 outer clavate.2 m. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux.—Compositæ. Katampu. diaphoretic. and head-ache. Externally.—yellow. NS. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. triangular-ovate. S. deeply and irregularly toothed. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. Country. juice is used for healing wounds. stem stiff.—Nov.
—Solanaceæ. Hinguli.3—1. bad for piles if taken internally. COM. rarely wild. leaves. C. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. Badanikai. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. very. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. " Vata". anthelmintic. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated. L. Vengni. sharp. :—Widely cultivated in India. pain. Baingan.— berry. pruritus ani. enriches blood. Mahotika. Bhanta. improves appetite. petiole prickly. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. laxative. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). asthma. base unequal-sided. 8 mm. NS. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. Fr. DISTR. diam. fruit and seeds. useful in leucoderma. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. Vrittaphala.5 cm. subentire. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. causes biliousness. H. lobed. :—Throughout tropical India. Vadikadheri. Sk. FAM. Bhantaki. covered with stellate hairs. Nilaphala.-Oct. Kattarta. bronchitis. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. cardiotonic. recurved. eye diseases (Ayurveda). prickly. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. COM. LOC. It is seldom used alone. Mhotiringni. prickles large. M. Ubhi-bhuringni. China.—minutely pitted: Fl. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. FAM. Barhanta. G. astringent to bowels. Habba-Kirigulla.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. digestive. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. Kadusonde. K. NS.—Solanaceæ. fever. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. Bhantaki. maturant. aphrodisiac. M. 0. stem stout. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. . Sk. Egg Plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. Ranringni. :—E. t. Vange. ovate.-Aug. leaves (rarely) and fruits. Fruit—cardiotonic. lessens inflammations. DISTR.—pale-purple. vomiting. Brinjal. Fl. clothed outside with purple hairs . Brihati. high. globose. Philippines.5—7. Rigana.—5—15 X 2. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). loss of appetite. analgesic. Malpya. Dorli. Vayase. Root is applied to lessen pain.. or triangular-ovate. :—E. K. Indian Nightshade. beneficial in cardiac troubles . LOC... SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn.5 m. dark-yellow when ripe. Hinguli. removes foulness of the mouth. Vartaki. Vantak.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. Ceylon. " Kapha".
Seeds—laxative.—many. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). tapering into petioles. asthma. FAM. yellow. Ceylon. Makoi. itch. Black Night-shade. Fl. inflammation. Sk. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. in pains.-Jany. in extra-axillary. COM. Gurkamai. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. eye-diseases hydrophobia. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. 3-8 flowered cymes . much divaricately-branched . ear and nose . gonorrhœa (Yunani). diuretic. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. improves voice . USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. chronic fever. stem erect. LOC. t. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. fever. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. fever. M. throat burning. Morellel. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. :—A variable annual herb .. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. In S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. leaves and fruit. Vayasi. diarrhœa. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. tonic. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. improves appetite. Fr. . :—Throughout India. bark. K. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. The seeds are used as a stimulant. useful in diseases of eye.—Sept. good for neck ulcers. useful in giddiness. laxative. It acts as a hydrogogue. bronchitis. ovatelanceolate.—discoid. Kakamunchi. Katuphala. Tiktika. minutely pitted . entire or sinuate toothed. Piludi. Kakamachi.—small. piles. heating. griping. leucoderma. Hound's Berry. L. :—E. worms in ear. LOC. CHAR. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. cathartic and diuretic. hiccup. not to be given to pregnant women.—Solanaceæ. dysentery. Fruit contains vitamins A. inflammation.— berry. smooth. alterative. Kamoni. aphrodisiac. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. useful in heart and eye-diseases. " Tridosha".—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). Kakamachi. etc. favours conception and facilitates delivery . shining. 6 mm. Root-bark—laxative . taste. subumbellate. Kabaiya. Sd. G. bitter. liver inflammation. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. See—Vegetables. C. urinary discharges. B and C. H. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. Fl. diam. DISTR. and used with success in psoriasis. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. dysuria and asthma. bronchitis. NS.
:—Common in the Deccan . Khandesh claim about three-quarters . hairy on both sides. expectorant and febrifuge. catarrhal fever and chest pain. Fl. H. Nidigdhika. lobes deltoid. sterility in women. Seeds—anthelmintic. Sk. piles. ovate or elliptic. Kantakari. pruritus . COM. M. hairy outside. Kenjal. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. DISTR. Jowari. Ringni. Sholapur. muscular pains. ozoena. Fl. useful in bronchitis. Jondhala. thirst. Fruit—laxative. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Shalu. often exceeding 1. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. "Vata" and " Kapha". anthelmintic . fruits and seeds. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. leaves. lumbago. D. heart disease. Nele-Rama-gulla .198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. asthma. long. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. Kateli. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Yuvanala.3 cm. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). LOC. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. C. Sundia . NS. LOC. CHAR. biliousness. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. petiole prickly. FAM. 3-2 cm. S.—purple. M.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Durrah. Bijapur and E. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. :—A very prickly diffuse. Jonera. stem zig-zag. fevers. G.—Solanaceæ. Basu). K. Malaya. bright green perennial herb . E. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. stems. t. FAM. surrounded by enlarged calyx . Ikshupatraka. tropical Australia. LOC.— June. Konkan. PARTS USED :—Root. chronic bronchitis. :—E. Dhavani. flowers. stomachic. straight. Sind. urinary concretions. Vrittatandula. Bhoyaringni. Brihati. COM. Jowar. appetiser.. diam. asthma.5-5. strangury. good in inflammation. laxative. Nirgol. Ceylon. yellow or white with green veins. fever. Jundri. dysuria. base unequal-sided. It is used in asthma. heating. :—Throughout India. they are used in the burning of feet. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. Bhui-Kate-ringni.. Chikka-sonde. Katai. & Wendl. Africa. aphrodisiac. K. prickles compressed. yellow and shining. Leaves—good application for piles. Yengara . Jolah. pains. Great Indian millet. L. H.—berry. stone in bladder.—Gramineæ. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Root—aphrodisiac.-5-10 X 2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa.7 cm. Fr. Sk. sinuate or subpinnatifid. :—G. NS. Kantakini. Sorgho. Dirghashara.
cures " Tridosha ". leprosy and dysentery . K.—Meliaceæ. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. aphrodisiac. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur.—sessile. :—The grain is cooling. constipating. tonic and antiperiodic . :—G. Fibres. Bodiakalara. laxative. Kumbhala. Gorakmundi. on dry stony hills. Gorakhamundi. Sk. aphrodisiac. :—Bark. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. NS. FAM: —Compositæ. introduced into America and Australia. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Widely cultivated in India. Bijapur and E. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. LOC. NS. improves appetite and taste. stem and branches cylindric. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. K. Rohini. Rohina. Aruna. Munditika. biliousness. Rohun. Poona. HABITAT :—Open situations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. with toothed wings. piles. COM. Grains contain vitamin B. Rohani. M. bladder and kidney complaints. Agniruha. Sk. Karanda-gida. See—Food Plants. Country. See—Timbers. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . M. Asia and Africa. vaginal injections and enemas. Khandesh and S. refrigerant. Bastard Cedar. DISTR. G. :—Dry forests of W. M. . POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. :— E. good for sore-throat. glandular. Ceylon. Gums and Resins. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. PROPERTIES AND USES. Pravrajita. Vritta. useful in " Kapha". PARTS USED. hairy. common in Gujarat. ulcers. anthelmintic. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. :—Bark-acrid. DISTR. general debility. Ruhin. L. FAM. diseases of blood. tumours (Ayurveda). SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Gorakhmundi. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. hence used in intermittent fevers. Sumbi. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. ulcers. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. while Belgaum. Indian Red-Wood. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . indigestible. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Swami-mara. H. Rawtarohan. Dharwar. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Tans. H. COM. Some. Juss. CHAR. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. fevers. PARTS USED. Mahamundi. Ahmedabad. :—Seeds. high.
Malay Islands. gleet. truncate. HABITAT. CHAR. biliousness. chest diseases. in cases of worms and indigestion. Ceylon. fattening. glaborous. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). leaves. :—Annual herb. Pappuso. They are given in powder form. sometimes grown in gardens. USES. :—Throughout India. They are chewed to relieve toothache. long. H. emmenagogue. solitary or subpanicled. epileptic convulsions. gives lustre to eyes . LOC. :—E. oblong. :—Root. cooling. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. S. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. :—Wild and cultivated. Celyon. Country and Kanara. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. DISTR.— achene. vomiting. laxative. alterative. spleen diseases. leaves and flower-heads. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. ring-worm of waist. biliousness. :—Root. enriches blood . PROPERTIES AND USES. Fr. used also for local application. Fl. C. Akkalkara . scabies. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. lessens inflammations . serrate or dentate. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. Akara-karava. Sk.—Achene. t. tuberculous glands. Powdered root is given as tonic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ovate. :—Common in the Konkan. . and tonic (Stewart) . hemicrania (Ayurveda). USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. COM. Fl. cools brain. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles .—Nov-Jany. with honey they are given in cough. asthma. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. compressed .—Nov. laxative. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. Fr. LOC. FAM.—Compositæ. leucoderma. flowers and seeds. digestible. Pellitary .—in heads ovoid. urinary discharges. boils.—compound heads. M. Fl. urethral discharges and jaundice. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. depurative. DISTR. good for eyesore. irregularly crenateserrate.—opposite. tonic. scalding of urine. elephantiasis. :—Common in rice-fields.. looseness of breasts. rectal pain. Akarakara . strangury. :—Deccan.. NS. LOC. globose ovoid. base usually acute. piles. stem and branches hairy. peduncles with toothed wings. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. used in insanity. involucre bracts linear. PARTS USED. glandular hairy. ciliate near the ends . useful in skin diseases. pain in uterus and vagina. increases appetite. L. PARTS USED. Australia. peduncles reaching 10 cm. jaundice. ovate-oblong. stalked.—purple. HABITAT. :—Hot. indigestion. Tonic. alexipharmic. :—Throughout India. all warm countries. bark. Africa. dysentery. M. anæmia. bronchitis. t. the latter when present minute.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent.
biliousness. enriches blood . leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Ambada. DISTR. yellow. Indian Hog-Plum. Indian Archipelago. M. Toyadhivasini. Hongkong.8 cm. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. round with furrows and cavities. oblong. aphrodisiac. Kanara. Ceylon. blood complaints . Country.5 m. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Ali-vallabha.—drupe. Bile Tree.5 cm. CHAR. Padiala. Kumbhi. Wild Mango. Kapichuta. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. HABITAT. ovoid. Amate. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. PARTS USED. K. Amra. Sd.. LOC. Gum is demulcent. trunk straight. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. ovate oblong. LOC. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. Pahad. refrigerant. M. :—A tree 9-10. C. destroys " Vata ". :—Leaves-tasty. burning sensation. Western Peninsula. Kariguddada. :—H.-Apl. Kamduti. Kalavrinta. H. It has been found useful in dysentery. USES :—Bark is refrigerant.—Anacardiaceæ. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Hude. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Padal. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. M.— petals 4-5. Hulave. Fr. hard. stone woody. FAM. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative.. Ambodha. W. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Giri Hadari. widely planted. ulcers. Amrataka. phthisis. . t. Sk. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Patala.. :—Cultivated.5-18 x 3. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. cures rheumatism. Tungi. Ran-amba . Pandri. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. Gujarat. entire. S. Parur. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Dr. Andamans.—Bignoniaceæ. Salt Range. oblique. Pitana. pinkish green. L. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. K.Feb.8-7. Marahunise. high. branches nearly horizontal. NS. good for sore-throat. long. :—Often planted throughout the State. leaves and fruit. :—E. :—Bark. appetising. Patala. tonic. Sk. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. bark smooth. Fl. NS. Avatekayi. COM. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Konkan. ash-coloured . long. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles.-usually 1. Fruit—indigestible. astringent. See—Gums and Resins. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Padal. COM. 3.
jaundice. asthma. :—Root. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda).—Loganiaceæ. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. Indo-China. blood diseases. inflammation. Kuchla. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Kanara. ulcers. cures pains in joints. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Fruit—bitter. Travancore . useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Ceylon. emmenagogue . :—Root-bitter. anæmia. DISTR. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. Travancore. flowers. west coast of Madras State. tonic. PARTS USED. pungent. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. Karaskara. G. Kachita. blood diseases. astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. sub-Himalaya. Visha-druma. bitter. useful in bilious diarrhœa. fruit. Sk. Kajra. piles. Flowers— acrid . lumbago. It is regarded as cooling. heating. Kupaka. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kangira. N. ring-worm. COM. seeds. See—Timbers. PARTS USED. Kuchala. H. Poison Nut. :—Wood (rarely). LOC. poisonous. antipyretic. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. fruit. heating. LOC. Nirmal. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Planted in Ceylon. "Kapha". useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). diuretic. "Vata". thirst. :—Monsoon-forests. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . PROPERTIES AND USES. Hemushti. heating. Kajavara.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. burning sensation. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Kanara. appetiser. Circars. loss of taste. NS. tonic. Kelakutaka. :—More or less throughout tropical India. Fruit—useful in hiccup. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. leaves. LOC. Laos. Kajra. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. DISTR. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. cures leucoderma. vomiting. K. piles . FAM. LOC. :—Fruit-acrid. Burma.. diuretic. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. itching. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . Kakatinduka. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Crow Fig. M. :—In forests south of Bombay. Vishamushti. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. Ittangi. fevers. Kuchla. from Kashmir to Sikkim . tonic. Karnatak. eructations.
fruit and seeds. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Ceylon. :—E. NS. hallucinations. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. increases "Vata".. lithotriptic. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. . tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Seeds—bitter. causes biliousness. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. head-diseases (Ayurveda). also in Konkan. LOC. Madhya Bharat. M. aphrodisiac. LOC. Chittu bija. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. :—Root cures leucoderma. astringent to bowels. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. thirst. diuretic. Ambuprasadini. See—Timbers. relieve colic (Yunani). :—Sand-stone hills of S. HABITAT. improve eye-sight. :—Deciduous dry forests. Aduguchali-bija. gonorrhœa. K. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. anæmia. PARTS USED. diaphoretic. Kanara and Khandesh. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. :—Root (rarely). good for liver. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. FAM. DISTR. Nivali. COM. alexipharmic. Seeds—acrid. Nelmal. emetic. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Burma. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. alexiteric. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Sk. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. See—Timbers. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kataka. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. cure strangury. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. urinary discharges. poisoning. Clearing Nut Tree. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. H.—Loganiaceæ. :—Western Peninsula. M. Fruit useful in eye diseases. cures inflammations. jaundice. Shodhanatmaka. Nirmali. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. Country. kidney complaints.
2-valved. :—W. white with blue veins. FAM. Fr. K. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. . good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). Peninsula. aphrodisiac. acrid.—many. M. Sd. Lodhra. etc. ovoid or oblong. diseases of blood. C. PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. Deccan . Bhilli. Californian Cinchona. Fl. decussate.— Oct. :— E. S. Deccan..—Gentianaceæ. Chota Nagpur. China Nora.3-0. NS.— lobes 4-5. cooling. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . in powder or in fresh decoction. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. CHAR. Loder. Broughton). :—Hilly parts. HABITAT. inflammations. digestible. LOC. Lodhraka. Kadu. broadly ovate.-Jany. Torna fort. astringent to bowels. Mahabaleshwar. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling.9 m. :—Bark.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. cures cough. LOC. stem densely leafy. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Sk. Tiritaka. H. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. throughout N. E. useful in eye-diseases. bleeding gums . emmenagogue. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). Balaloddujinamara. alexiteric. t. Bose). :—Konkan and N. :—India (W. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. COM. Bark—bitter. vaginal discharges. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Lodhra . Dyes. 0. dysentery. quadrangular. 4-winged. Lodh. COM. Lodh . leprosy. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . biliousness. Country.— sessile. C. DISTR. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K.—Symplocaceæ. flowers (rarely). NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. Lodh Tree. :—The whole plant is bitter. colloturine and loturiaine. :—Bark-acrid. Lodh is used in raw condition. Burma..204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. eye-diseases and ulcers . Fl. LOC. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. C. useful in abortions . Tillaka. 5-nerved . :—Root. :—M. high. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Peninsula). PARTS USED. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. L. PARTS USED. M.—capsule. :—Western Ghats . :—An erect herb. See—Timbers. Shavaraka. winged .
Fruit—acrid. :—Bark-acrid. astringent to bowels. very often planted. also used in spongy and painful gums. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes.—Myrtaceæ. Sk. Sk. Shukapriya. anthelmintic. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. PARTS USED. blood impurities.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. K. Pannerali. gargles and washes . dysentery. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Jambul. Malay—Rose apple. also wild. astringent. Jambu. carminative and diuretic. etc. COM. biliousness. increases "Vata". sprouts. LOC. DISTR. Jambura. Fruit Trees. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. M. Malaya. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. See—Timbers. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Ceylon. common at Mahabaleshwar. :-Black-Java Plum. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Gulab-Jamb. strengthens gums and teeth. NS. . useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. LOC. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions.) FAM. Nilphala. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. common along river banks. Jambula. COM. thirst. Surabhipriya. ulcers. enriches blood. :—E. H. Jamburaj. LOC. both wild and cultivated. Pharenda. Jambu. Jambu. good lotion for ring-worm in head. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. K. good for sore-throat. Kokileshta. G. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. Jambudi. Nenda. Jambu. :—Throughout the State. M.—Myrtaceæ. Seeds—diuretic. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. dry. :—Throughout India. fruit vinegar is tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. asthma. Nerate. Jamen. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. Jambu-Nayinerale. carminative . Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State.) FAM. H. cooling. Jambul. astringent to bowels. Neralu. fruits and seeds. digestive. useful in spleen diseases. bronchitis. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. removes bad smell from mouth. NS. good gargle for sore-throat. sweet. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). Jam. Australia. Gulabjaman. Shukapriya. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. :—Bark.
The fruit is sweet with a flavour.—snow-white. used in liver complaints. fatigue. Seeds are astringent to bowels. astringent to bowels. DISTR. :—E.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.—follicles. t." biliousness. LOC. indigestible.—rainy season. indigestible. . aphrodisiac. digestible. :—Root. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. with milky juice . glossy green above. :—Root is acrid. useful in paralysis. Khasia Hills. used in asthma. Root—bitter . :—Sikkim Terai. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. Hills of Visakhapatanam. alexipharmic. Kottuhale. Tagara. . TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. Sk. Chandani. across. Ashvathabheda. strangury. tonic. See—Ornamental Plants. CHAR. Root chewed relieves toothache . removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. heavy speech.5-5 cm. liver and spleen .—Apocynaceæ. thirst. Tagar . The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. hot. cultivated in many parts. lobes 5 in single.5-5 cm. Br. double. :—Cultivated in gardens. Assam. E. removes bad humours. purgative. astringent to bowels. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. L. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). lessens pains in limbs and joints . weakness of limbs. inodorous during the day. pale beneath. Fruit—sweet and tasty.5-15 X 2. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. C—lobes overlapping to the left. LOC. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark is sweet. emmenagogue. Cultivated in many places. Wax flower. orange within. tonic to brain. heating.— opposite. Bengal. cures epilepsy. G. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate.) FAM. divaricate. Maddarasa gida . Tagar. useful in "Kapha. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. acrid. LOC. Nandi.. Yunnan to Australia. astringent to bowels. improves voice. Burma. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. PROPERTIES AND USES. dysentery. Garhwal. tonic to brain. wood and oil. used in syphilis (Yunani). bitter. Fr. Trinidad . 1-3 ribbed. K. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. Taggar. COM. M. Fl. Ananta. NS. HABITAT. margins wavy. PARTS USED. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Bark. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. salver-shaped. 7. bronchitis. fruit and seeds. PARTS USED. fragrant at night. Fl. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. The plant contains an alkaloid. and an essential oil.
Amli. :—Native of Mexico. Chinch. Tamarind. COM. Genda. Chinchika. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. high. divaricata.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. lessens inflammation . DISTR.. Makhamala. Imli. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Nagaskuda. NS. oil. Kanara. throughout the Konkan and N. wood. astringent. useful in scabies.— tube inflated near the top. G. Guljharo. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. internally they are said to purify blood. LOC.—Compositæ. :—Cultivated. HABITAT. Sk. NS. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Makhamali.5 m. COM. French Marigold. Teter. . across in pedunculate cymes . LOC. acrid. somewhat boat-shaped. :—Leaves and flowers.— Mar-Apl. Nuli. Amala. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia.—Apocynaceæ. 2. :—Flower-pungent. stomachic. HABITAT. See—Ornamental Plants. yellow when ripe. PARTS USED. PARTS USED. Kalaga. Chinch.. G. Sk. coriaceous.—opposite. : K. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. Nagakuda. :—Root. :—Rain-forests. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.4-4. FAM. Amli.5 cm. Zanduga. Maddarssa. Halmeti. CHAR. Flower—bitter. good for teeth . Tintrani.5 cm. FAM. rough. :—Same as T. Gultora. M.—follicle. FAM. Leaves—good for piles. Tintidika. Travancore up to 7. C. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Amla. muscular pains. Fl. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. belching. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sandu. DISTR. :—E. Pandarakuda.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).. L. t. Sd. Fl. :—E. Makhamal. COM.000 m.5-20 X 3. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. common in rain-forests. Fr.—white. Amlike.2-7. H. H. Sthulapushpa. Amlika. LOC. their juice is given in ear-ache. :—Malabar.. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. bark grey. oblong lanceolate . 7. carminative. grown in gardens all over India. bitter. NS. kidney troubles. Zendu. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn.—surrounded by red pulp. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). HABITAT.
sweetish. Teka. DISTR. digestive. astringent to bowels.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. small-pox. vomiting. Condiments and Spices. Arna. Tega. :—E. carminative. Sagwan. Teak. DISTR. Mahapatra. laxative. sore-throat. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. heating. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. flowers and seeds. heals ulcers. useful in liver-complaints. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. PARTS USED. boiled they are used as a poultice. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. heals wounds and fractures. aphrodisiac. LOC. wood. Tegu. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. eye-diseases. indigestible. Sagach. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. H. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Tropics generally. Madhya Bharat. biliousness. :—Throughout India. Burma. causes cough. costiveness. K. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Sagwan. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. stomatitis. See—Timbers. Fruit—sour. laxative. NS. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. and laxative. Circars.—Verbenaceæ. Seeds astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. tonic. Bark—astringent. useful in giddiness and vertigo. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Malay Peninsula. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Sag. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. M. LOC. Seeds are good astringent. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. fruit and seeds.. flowers. and for sizing materials. :—Bark. bark. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". tasty. Sag. anthelmintic. abundant all along the slopes of W. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Kanara. Kanara. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. tumours. tonic to heart. Sagun. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. FAM. COM. Anil. Sk. Sumatra and Java. such as body-burning. Flowers— appetising . thirst. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. scabies. urinary discharges. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Cultivated also. . intoxication &c.. G. Fruit-sour. leaves. earache.
Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). Jhila. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Ghodakan. :—The whole plant. :—Plant-digestible. leprosy. suborbicular. pubescent on the back. bitter. good in piles.2 cm. useful in lung and chest diseases.. urinary discharges. cooling. expectorant. Gujarat. allays thirst.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. CHAR. tumours. Fl. COM.8 X 0. blood. cures diarrhœa . LOC. Flowers—acrid. useful in bronchitis.—Oct. L. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . . cures diseases of liver. gonorrhœa (Yunani). slightly curved. S. M. Kogge. H. leaves and seeds. enriches Blood . sedative to gravid uterus. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. mucronate. Udhadi. :—All over India. DISTR. LOC. fresh root-bark. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Malay Peninsula. K. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). C. Kalika. long. Country. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia.5 cm. useful in bronchitis. spleen diseases. leaflets 11—21. biliousness. cultivated lands and roadsides. 2—2. Deccan. syphilis. anthelmintic. branches spreading. Sarpankho. improve appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES. Wood good for head ache. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. t. liver. Sharapunkha. inflammations.—pod 3—4. along forest borders. allays thirst. linear. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. PARTS USED. LOC. Empali. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. heart. Sd. "Root—diuretic. useful in scabies. Fr. biliousness. laxative. antipyretic..—petals clawed. increase "Vata". Wood—acrid. M.—5-6 . Sarphoka. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. :-G. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. Leaves—tonic to intestines . Plihari. Sarphonka. Sk.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. NS. alexiteric. Phanike. standard. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. useful in piles. :—A perennial herb. Unhali. asthma. oblanceolate.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. ulcers. glabrous above. Fl.8—1. Bark is an astringent. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. asthma. alterative. See—Timbers. spleen.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. it acts also as a vermifuge. root. long. FAM. mucronate. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis.-June. Konkan. boils and pimples. red. dry. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. 30—60 cm. burning pain over the region of liver. ground and made into a pill. silkyhairy beneath. HABITAT:—Open situations. high. poisoning. Sharapunkha.
Kahu. laxative. excessive perspiration. biliousness. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Sadura. blood-diseases. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. DISTR. :—Konkan and Deccan. anæmia. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. K. G. Baire. Rajastan and Sind. styptic. Ceylon. Behada. COM. useful in bronchitis. Tara.. :—Alexiteric. White Marudah. NS.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Arjun Sadada. Bibhitiki. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. COM. :—Bark. false presentation of fœtus. tonic. Indradruma.. anthelmintic . asthma. H. acrid. sore-throat. leaves. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. fruit (rarely). HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. anthelmintic. inflammation. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. FAM. Arjan. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. :—Bark. in Khandesh Akrani. Karvirak.—Combretaceæ. Behedo. Beheduk. PARTS USED. M. leucoderma.—Combretaceæ. Tari. Burma. Buhura. Arjuna. Bahaza. See—Timbers. strangury. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. :—E. Aksha.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Madhya-Bharat. LOC. Sk. Dhanvi. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Karshaphala. Vibhitika. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). tonic. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. LOC. urinary discharges. Arjuna. biliousness. heart disease. digestible. Bahara. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. with milk. Madras State. FAM. M. LOC. Kalidrum. useful in fractures. externally in wounds and fractures. Kushika. Belleric Myrobalan. :—Throughout the forests of India. Voting. G. Sadado. Bera. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Sagona. very common in South Konkan. NS. Chota-Nagpur. except in dry arid regions. " Kapha". Arjuna. PARTS USED. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. aphrodisiac. Sk. useful in biliousness. Bastard Myrobalan. & A. Shantimara. intoxication. ulcers. Bedda Nut. :—E. diuretic. Expectorant. Madhya-Pradesh. Hela. Fruit-pungent. in the sub-Himalayan tract. tumours. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Arjun-Sadada. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. DISTR. K. Vibhata. strangury. Kakubha. fruit and seed. Koha. . H.
tumours. Jivantika. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. antidysenteric. M. brain tonic (Yunani). ascites. good in ophthalmia. alterative . stomachic. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". Haritaki. leucoderma. Kanara. delirium (Ayurveda). tonic. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. heart and bladder. useful in caries of teeth. PARTS USED. hoarseness. mixed with honey. gout. biliousness. the fully ripe or dried fruit. NS. Seed—acrid. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. Jivanti. USES. eyes. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. See—Timbers. diseases of spleen. Hirdo . decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. Har. piles and diarrhœa. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. vomiting. useful in thirst. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. used in paralysis (Yunani). bleeding and ulceration of gums. Dyes. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Abhaya. FAM. DISTR. Haria. cold in head. applied to eyes. strengthens brain. bilious headache. carminative. dyspepsia. K. Gums and Resins. diseases of eye. in Travancore. useful in asthma. Sk. which is considered a good digestive. piles. constipation. Kernel has narcotic properties.—Combretaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. vomiting. Chebulic myrobalan. H. itching pain. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. piles. Harara. anaemia. :—Fruit-dry. attenuant. typhoid fever. urinary discharges. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. common in Khandesh Akrani. Burma. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. LOC. enriches blood. aperient. COM. nose. Ripe fruit—purgative. Fruit-astringent. expectorant. vesicular calculi. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. G. heating. diseases of eye. :—Bark and fruit. hiccup. intoxicating. diarrhœa. elephantiasis. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. LOC. Alate. gums. heart and bladder. sore-throat. LOC. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. PROPERTIES AND USES. thirst. anthelmintic. Black myrobalan. tonic. is used as an application in ophthalmia. bleeding piles. Harade. strangury. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. —E. Haritaki. corneal ulcers. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. eye diseases etc. carminative. tonic. Hirda. Ceylon. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. useful in dyspepsia. inflammations.
See—Timbers. K. flowers and fruit. Mhaskar and Issac). INDIAN PREPARATIONS. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Bhend. Fibres. Sacred Plants. M. Arasi. :—Coast forests of India. DISTR. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. LOC. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Tans. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. difficult to digest. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). acrid . Burma. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative.. It is also used in chronic dysentery. profuse discharge. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Ranbhendi. Bhandi. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Gajadanta. Hucerasi. Tulip Tree. Paras-piper.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Kandarala. COM. Parasipu. Gandarati. especially centipedes. Bugari. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Paraspipal. NS. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Bengal. Kanara. :—Bark. G. burning of body . :—Fruit-sour. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. produces worms in intestines . Suparshuakan. Kuberaksha. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. FAM. PARTS USED.—Malvaceæ. Bhindi. Jogiyarale. LOC. increases " Kapha " . leaves. Parisha. also planted as roadside tree. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac . Portia Tree. Paraspiplo. Eastern and Western Peninsula. :—E. Dyes. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). . Phalisha. Sk. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. PROPERTIES AND USES. H.
Amritvalli. wounds. across. but its use is attended with considerable danger. :—E. Karvira. yellow. 7. :—Bark. DISTR. :—Native of S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. throat campanulate. virgin uterus. Fl. male fascicled.5—12. seeds and milky juice. :—Often planted. CHAR.—drupes. :—E. H. :—Stem. Sk. Gado. Sd. eye-troubles. HABITAT. :—An extensive climber. root.—broadly obovate. bladder. PARTS USED. mesocarp bony. Shatakumbha. G. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge.—Apocynaceæ. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub.. bronchitis .5 cm. COM. piles. Burma. Pittaghni. LOC. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. 5—10 cm. Gulo. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Andamans and Ceylon. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. Heart-leaved moonseed. Amarvel. Uganiballi. Fl. ventrally flat. FAM.—generally 4. L. L. Fr. HABIT :—In thickets. PARTS USED. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. M. Jwaranashini. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. K. Sk. corona in the throat. NS.—in terminal cymes.—Apl. Gulvel. Amrita-Valli. H. fevers. t. Gulancha. long. NS. G. with milky juice. skin diseases. Pivali kanher. often planted in India. Pila kanir. grooved . bark corky..—Menispermaceæ.—membranous. frequently planted. Zard kunel. Exile or yellow Oleander. and blood vessels .. C. linear. exocarp fleshy. M. elliptic. cures " Vata " .—in axillary and terminal racemes. lobes 5. astringent to bowels. Fr. Vatsadani. Gurch. . yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. tubular. crowded . acrid. Gulhel. useful in urethral discharges. growing on mango and other trees. Gulvel. LOC. 7—9 nerved. red. 5 cm. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. size of a pea . bright green and shining above. hot. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. LOC. leucoderma. dorsally convex. 1—3. Haripriya. pungent. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. worms. Pila kaner. it has no action on digestive enzymes . females solitary. very poisonous (Ayurveda). :—Throughout tropical India.-spirally arranged. endocarp corky. DISTR. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . FAM. COM. Ashvaghna. America and W. Indies . Fl.
Sk. enriches blood. male flower bud globose. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine.. vaginal and urethral discharges. :—E. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. Mirchi.8-3. stomachic . H. stimulates bile secretion. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. 3-5 grooved. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. :—Root. stomachic. FT. armed with small hooked prickles . DISTR. tonic appetiser. diarrhœa. chronic fever. leaves. :—Stem-bitter. stimulant and anti-periodic. COM. CHAR. Konkan and Kanara. 15 m.—in axillary cymes. causes constipation. size of a large pea. K. Kadu-menasu. giddiness. tonic. Manger. leaflets sessile. digitately trifoliate. jaundice. expectorant. burning sensation. PARTS USED. Dahan. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. L. China. Fl. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). Kumaon to Bhutan. tropical Africa. vomiting. :—Rain-forests. also in the Deccan hills. cures jaundice. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. stigma sessile. t. Khasia Hills. Root-bark is aromatic.—Dehan. female flower buds oblong. Lopezroot Tree. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers.—Rutaceæ. anæmia. FAM. fruits. Forest Pepper.8. (Kirtikar). orange coloured. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. common in S. juice useful in diabetes.— alternate. Ceylon. 5-7 lobed. oblong. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). fever. :—All over the Madras State . crenulate. NS. renews blood. useful in skin diseases. Root and stem are bitter. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. good in cough.—globose. dark shining green above. bark. ovary rudimentary. LOC. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food.—Aug. pitted on the rind. diuretic. Sumatra. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. high.-Jany. 5-10 X 1. USES. vomiting. allays thirst. HABITAT. Java. . Gangalaki. M. Limri. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Kaduhakukare. especially acid. white. Jangali-Mirchi. LOC. Stem-bitter. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. unisexual. Philippines. piles. antipyretic. coriaceous. Macimullu.
It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. HABIT. :—Aquatic (in tanks). TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Garige. astringent to bowels. Shingada. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. headache. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. FAM.. anthelmintic. Tun. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. Mandurike.—Meliaceæ. H. See—Timbers. Ceylon. PARTS USED. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Mahalimbu. K. LOC. causes " Vata " . Water-chestnut. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Lud. M. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. aphrodisiac. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Tundu. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Malaya. Toon. Kuberaka. Sk. Chittagong. tonic. useful in . NS. Kanara. leprosy. indigestible. :—Bark-acrid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. biliousness. Trikota. blood diseases. cardio-tonic. expectorant. Dyes. biliousness. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Tuni. Singhara. removes " Kapha ". Singodi. Shingoda. Kuruk. :—Cooling . Indian Mahogany. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. cures fevers. itching. urinary discharges. cures leprosy. tropical Africa.—Onagraceæ. digestible. removes " Tridosha". Apina. :—Bark and flowers. good for scabies and gleet. M. useful in ulcers. Sandal Neem. strangury. Gandhagarige. Waitz). antipyretic . Chota-Nagpur. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Shringa-kanda-taka. COM. astringent to bowels. DISTR. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. burning sensation. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. :—E.) FAM. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Kaechaka. LOC. Kalingi. :—Fruit. DISTR. "Tridosha". Gums and Resins. burning sensation. Sk. of India). Bark—bitter. often cultivated. Deodari. aphrodisiac. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). :—E. Trikone-phala. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Jalakantaka-valli. COM. Nand-vriksha. Assam. Lim. cooling. fattening. inflammation. Tunika. fatigue. Burma. G. astringent to bowels. NS. H.
—Euphorbiaceæ. Fibres. bad-teeth (Yunani). yellow. K. DISTR. Gujarat..—globose. LOC. Negalu . . Shadanga. Sk. Deccan and S. Gokshura. Kere Padye. along nalas and in swampy localities. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Plant is cooling tonic. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. NS. Petari . Calthrope. Gokhura. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. base oblique. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . See—Food Plants. bronchitis. :—E. M. PARTS USED. Country. Ceylon. Kantaphala.—opposite. Gokhru. useful in chronic fevers. antipyretic. :—H. G. CHAR. Sumatra. sore-throat. oblong. Gokhru. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Tumri. DISTR. Pindara. FAM. LOC.:—Saurashtra. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Karahate. Kurangaha. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. Malay Peninsula. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. of 5 woody cocci. stems and branches pilose. COM. LOC. K. M. one pair longer than the other . Assam. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. :—A procumbent herb. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Fr. alexiteric. Pindara. Kanara. M. t. Sd.. hairy. Hussuk. upto 3300 m.—throughout the year. in Kashmir. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. pain. H. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. considered cool and sweet. NS. used as food. Ceylon. Seeds abound in starch. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid. Java. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. abruptly pinnate. biliousness.. :—The whole plant. appetiser. :—Throughout India. sharp spines. solitary. young parts silky. mucronate. one of each pair smaller than the other. each with 2 pairs of hard. Kadu Kange Kumbala. lumbago. Sk. LOC. Chhota gokhru. Aphrodisiac. Gamhar.—several in each coccus . See—Timbers. Gokshri. Trikantaka. Fl. FAM. improves taste . They are also used in the form of poultice. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). COM. a common weed of the drier parts. Sarata. Gokharu.—Zygophyllaceæ. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. L. thirst. bile and phlegm.
bitter. cures skin and heart diseases. useful in strangury. DISTR. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. LOC. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. pain . tonic . C. Fl. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). K. :—Root. stomachic. :—Cooling . —achene. gleet. increases menstrual flow. PROPERTIES AND USES.— purple. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. cough. Kantapatraphala. NS. S. "Vata". removes " Tridosha ". improves appetite . faintly ribbed. enriches blood . asthma. Mota-Motachor. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). base of the cauline leaves not auricled . Aja-dandi. S. diuretic. L. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Brahmadandi. inflammations. Talakanto. Sk. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. FAM. COM. purifies blood .MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. pruritus ani. alleviating burning sensation. urinary discharges. USES :—Fruits are cooling. cures "Kapha". :—Hot. :—Wild in places. Mt. Country. suppression of urine. LOC. leaves. Fr. M. H. aphrodisiac. tonic. PARTS USED. which is taken in large quantities.—Compositæ. appetiser. reduces inflammation. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). ciliate. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. bloody urine. cures strangury. urinary disorders and impotence. yellowish brown. leprosy . fruits. tonic. Kanara. seeds. Kanara. diuretic. reduces inflammation . S. vesicular calculi. lumbago . linear-oblong or lanceolate. Brahmadandi. emmenagogue (Yunani). Fl. West Rajastan. copious. :—Western Peninsula. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). slender. t. Physiaran. Brahmadandi. CHAR. M. Brahma-dandi. Central India. : — G. piles. LOC. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases.—sessile. gonorrhœa. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder.—heads 6—8 mm. :—The whole plant. fattening. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. long. stem erect. Diuretic. spinous toothed or serrate. . Abu. :—A glabrous herb. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES. pappus shorter than the achenes. ovoid. branches angled and ribbed. alterative . the Deccan.— Dec. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. Brahmadandi. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. HABITAT. Konkan.
COM.—monœcious. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). palmately 3-5 lobed. Ceylon. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. PARTS USED. leucoderma.3 cm. slightly hairy. Makal. leaf-juice is emetic. pungent. :—Throughout India. females solitary. H.. NS. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m.6—4. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Avagude-hannu.—July-Oct. alexiteric.5 cm. Kiripodla. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. oil. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). antipyretic. FAM. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. ulcers. Katuka. allays thirst. COM.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn.3-12. LOC. distantly denticulate. Ratan-indrayan. Jangali chichonda. lobes ovate-oblong. slender. PROPERTIES AND USES. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. Perula. stomachic.-6. deeply 5-lobed. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. base cordate . :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever.—Cucurbitaceæ. M. ovoid-fusiform. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. Kadvi-padyal or patola . axillary. CHAR. leaves. K. K. it is given in decoction with ginger. tendrils 3 cleft. Patola. with a long sharp beak. DISTR. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. fruit. leprosy. Australia. :—Root-cathartic . Sk.—2. Indrayan. Leaves—good for biliousness. chireta and honey. L. H. tendrils 3-fid. Malaya. Wild Snake-gourd. male in axillary racemes. Mukal. :—Root. Jyotsna. headache and boils. woody below. scarlet when ripe. variable. Fl. L. Fl. CHAR. cures itching. long as well as broad. dark-green above.. erysipelas. Sk. NS. stem robust. green with white stripes when raw. base deeply cordate.-male in axillary .—Cucurbitaceæ. t. Jangli— Kadu padval. blood diseases. HABITAT:-In hedges. N. :—E. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. useful for boils and intestinal worms. Malay Peninsula. Kaundal. orbicular. anasarca and ascites. stems 3. LOC. reniform or broadly ovate. :—A scandent annual. dentate or serrate. Root-juice is very purgative. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . Fr. Panduka. alterative. Sd. the Deccan. furrowed.-5-12. white. cures bronchitis. eye diseases. Fl. M. FAM . :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. burning sensation. Betlada padaval. long. paler beneath. Fruit—hot. Lal-indrayan. long..5 m. Mahakala. asthma. In Bombay. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. long.5 cm. —G. antipyretic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. G. — surrounded with red-pulp .5—7. bitter. laxative.
—head solitary. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. :—A perennial straggling herb. used in epilepsy. . Ray flowers ligulate.—many . :—M.—globose 3-8.—1. black.. DISTR. t.—petals wedge-shaped.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. N.. HABITAT. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant.—throughout the year. outer involucral bracts ovate. Fl. bracts large. Country. CHAR. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. Juice of fruit or root-bark. :—Root and fruit. ligules yellow. PARTS USED. bruises and wounds. China. L. Malaya. many years ago.75-1 in. LOC. high. Deccan and S. :—Wild in hilly parts. Australia. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn.5 cm. boiled with gingelly oil. on the Himalayas. ophthalmia. Ceylon. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. t. FAM. sparsely white hairy. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. Fruit—carminative.. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks .—Compositæ. :—Abundant in the Deccan. slender. rheumatism. hairy. which is found abundantly all over the country. gargle good for toothache. PARTS USED. Fr. fringed. Japan. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. Fr. stem and branches hairy. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. ovate-elliptic. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). axillary. LOC. LOC. glandular. COM. M. heat of brain. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. cures hemicrania. very hairy. 30-60 cm.. Fl. all over the State. :—Leaves. female solitary. middle lobe smallest. densely silky hairy. 3-partite.— Apl.-July. petioles densely hairy. abortifacient. :— Wild in Konkan. Sd. limbweakness. peduncles very long. Ekdandi. diam. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. Fl.75 X . acute. C.— achene. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. DISTR. inner slightly longer than outer. lessens inflammations . purgative. white. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kirkee. leprosy.
FAM. flatulence. Sd. tonic. greenish-yellow outside. Hot and dry. DISTR. removes bad taste from mouth. :—A twining perennial. COM. vomiting. :—Leaves and seeds. enlargement of spleen and liver. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. LOC. roots many. also in low and sandy localities. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. M. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. See—Vegetables. long. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.—Aug.—deeply lobed. Fenugreek . :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. :—Punjab. Konkan. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Country. H. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Antamul. Kashmir. Muthi. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. antipyretic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). fleshy. CHAR. K. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. L. LOC. 5-10 x 2.—Asclepiadaceæ. Methi. G.7 cm. purplish within.— broadly ovate. Jyoti. S. FAM. Methi.5—10 cm. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. :—South of Bombay.—in umbellate cymes . Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. ovate or elliptic oblong. aperient.5-5. astringent to bowels. dysentery. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. HABITAT. Kanara. C. piles. M.—follicles. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. LOC. Pitabija Vedhini. Janglipikvan. with coma . Menthe—palle. . Sk. diarrhœa. long. suppurative. useful in dropsy. :—Hot. enlargement of spleen and liver. :—E. Chandrika. Fl..220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. narrowed at the apex to a free point. chronic cough. :—H. 7. appetiser. The leaves contain vitamins A and B.—opposite. Pitakari (Pitamari). tapering to a fine point at the apex.. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. and the seeds contain vitamin A. Nepala . prevent hair falling off (Yunani). tonic and carminative. :—Cultivated. Methi. they are also aphrodisiac. Fl. large for the genus. emmenagogue. Methini. M. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. bronchitis. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. dropsy. t. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Methi . NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. cultivated in many parts of India. cures leprosy. corona gibbous below. NS. "Vata". anthelmintic. K. base cordate.-Nov. diuretic. much used in colic. FN. PARTS USED.
Pitvan. stalks long.—Aug. Borneo. perianth campanulate. t. KolaPutakand. 20-30 cm. Fl. Jangli-Ran-khanda. USES. HABITAT. Sk.—purple. pale lead-colored. Pitavan . white. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Burma.— petals lanceolate.—appearing after the flowers. Ceylon. L. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. :—Throughout India. linear.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. leaflets on the upper part of the stem.-Sept. W. Fl. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman).— imparipinnate. tropical Africa. FAM. ellipsoid. :—Western Himalayas. COM. :—Sandy places. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Chota-Nagpur. 10-20 cm. :—Common on sandy shores. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. linear-oblong. Malay Islands. Sk. Vanapalandu. Bihar. :—G. M. :—Roots and leaves.— pod. Fl.— Liliaceæ. glabrous. H. tapering to both ends .. Thailand (Siam). Ranganja . M.—capsule. 0.—in racemes 15-30 cm.3-2. diaphoretic and expectorant. :—Bulb. USES. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. long. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery.. FAM. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sd. Pithavan.8 m. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. tropical Africa. Jaglipiaz. Dabra. :—A herb. CHAR..—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). CHAR.. Peninsula. C. Malay Islands. . Ceylon. Philippines. Rankanda. URARIA PICTA Desv. LOC. long. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. COM. polished. 15-45 x 1. :—A perennial shrub. blotched with white above.9-1. Shankaraja . stems downy with hooked hairs. black. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). light-brown . flat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. C. 5-7 (rarely 9). folded on one another. NS.5 cm. PARTS USED. found useful in dysentery. Indian Squill. Panjala.. L. DISTR. Fr. G. hairy beneath. LOC. scape erect 30-45 cm. joints 3-6. long.— flattened. PARTS USED. :—E. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. :—Throughout the plains of India. Dried leaves are emetic. Fr. H. HABITAT.. Prishna-parni. high. drooping. :—Konkan. DISTR. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. :—Wild.
HABIT. 15-20 X 1. Rasna.. long. rheumatic pains. bronchitis. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. . recurved. acute. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. L. K. boils in the scalp. and an acute interposed one. stimulant and diuretic. Vanda. :—The bulb is pungent. anthelmintic.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. 1931. alexiteric. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. and U. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES. anthelmintic. S.5—9 cm. maritima of U. Rasna. lumbago. diseases of the abdomen. heating. t. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. toothache. The bulb is stomachic. diseases of nose. diuretic. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. emmenagogue. LOC. pollinia ellipsoid. cardiac. column very short. skin diseases. stem 30-60 cm. Chota-Nagpur. Bihar. Fl. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. antipyretic. internal pains (Yunani). a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. tremors (Ayurveda). Sarpagandha. Br. Nakula.. :—Epiphyte. COM. Gujarat and Kanara. A. stout. W. good for piles. praemorse. scandent by simple or branching roots . heating.—capsule. Fl. lip bluish dotted with purple. useful in dyspepsia. Root is bitter. (In Med. lessens inflammations . The plant contains an alkaloid. Ceylon. Atiras. long.. rheumatism. bronchitis. tip.— July. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. tonic to brain and liver. M. Gaz. obtusely keeled. :—G. :—Root is bitter. alexiteric.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bengal. Banda. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. long. Bandanike. FAM. Rasno. scilla of Great Britain. Travancore. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. purgative. dropsy. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . DISTR. bronchitis. H.—thickly coriaceous. 2-lobed. LOC. asthma. and was found useful (Koman). NS.—Orchidaceæ. LOC. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. laxative.3-2 cm. renal calculi. :—An epiphyte. Fr. Peninsula. heals fractures (Yunani). hiccup. Vriksharuha. Rasna. Madhya-Pradesh. :—Konkan. Sk. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. USES :—Expectorant. complicate. inflammations. Persara. useful in paralysis. :—Root and leaves. alexiteric.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. erect. PARTS USED.
alexipharmic. acrid. Shala. :—E.—Rhamnaceæ. Coorg in Ghats. Kanara and S. diarrhœa. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. COM. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan.-nut about 5 mm. H. resin. also in N. Fl. M. Kubbila. :—A large much branched woody climber. dysentery. K. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani).—5-10 X 2. whitish). :—E. LOC. K. young branches and panicles pubescent. boils and ringworm.. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. eardiseases. dark. PROPERTIES AND USES. buds 5-angled. DISTR.—petals 5. ulcers and wounds. abundant in S. in chronic bronchitis. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. tonic and stimulant. Kundura. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. urinary discharges. skin eruptions. prolonged into a linear-oblong. anæmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. Ceylon. :—Western India. Mysore. useful in leprosy. Fr. t. yellowish. good for sore-throat.—in large drooping terminal panicles. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sarjaka. piles. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. detergent. Haruge. Malamaitra. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. Madidhupa. greenish. Kaharub. with an offensive odour. NS. useful in atonic dyspepsia. 1-nerved wing. USES. carminative.—Dipterocarpaceæ. tonic. Fl. Kanara. stomachic. also planted. DISTR.8 cm. bechic. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora).—Dec. globular. :—North Kanara.5-3. :—Bark-hot. Tenasserim. M. FAM. Sk. Pitti.. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. Safed-damar. C. debility and slight cases of fever. Dhupa. Bilidhupa. CHAR. hemicrania. M. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. Travancore. COM. rheumatism. Lokhandi. diam. Sandras. entire or crenate. Sekalyel. Khandvel. (T.-Jany. Dhupa. Oils. Shandike. H.. . amenorrhœa. Ragatarshado. expectorant. G. tuberculous glands. LOC. Gums and Resins. L. alexipharmic. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Poppli. fruit. NS. See—Timbers. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. cures cough. Raktavalli. :—Bark. Red Creeper. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. :—Madras State. PARTS USED. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. :—Bark. itch (Ayurveda). LOC. PARTS USED. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. Country. Sk. FAM. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . deciduous and monsoon-forests.
M. involucre bracts linear.. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. :—Annual. Deccan . LOC. DISTR. COM. HABITAT:-Waste places. C. Sk. :—Seeds-acrid. CHAR.-achene oblong cylindric. in equal proportions. Sundika. sub-globose. . high.-May. hairy on both sides. Kutki. warted.—Dec. L. The juice of the whole plant. with purple tips . and leaves. :—Throughout India . :—G. Purple Fleabane. used in skin-diseases. squeezed out by pounding. lanceolate. high . :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. yellow.. Somaraj. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. hairy. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. :—An annual herb.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. L. Ceylon . t— Jany.Feb. Fr.—Compositæ. Country. DISTR. Fr. Java .) FAM. Afghanistan. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Gujarat.. stems 60—90 cm. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. :—E. LOC. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. about 40-flowered.—capsule. NS. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. t. stem 0. 5—9 x 2. Sk.2 cm. coarsely serrate. compound or pinnatisect. NS. M. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES. rounded. often cultivated. all coarsely dentate.—oblong.8 cm. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe.—Scrophulariaceæ. The juice mixed with mustard oil.. China. K. rachis glandular pubescent. Sd. Seeds— anthelmintic. branched near the top. innermost the longest. lyrate. 10-ribbed. Agnibija. Bakchi. FAM. ofter cultivated.—in simple or branched terminal racemes.-rotate. leafy herb .—heads subcorymbose. Vapehi. cure ulcers. Fl. LOC. Bhutakeshi. hairy. :—Plant. H. PARTS USED. M. astringent to bowels. on long petioles. Kadvojiri. lobes 5.—alternate.6-0. CHAR. Kulara. G. Kulhala. PARTS USED.5—3. COM. Gadar-tambaku. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. Vishamushti. Kalijiri. Ceylon. Fl. Fl. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Kalejire. :—Konkan . filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Somaraj. hairy. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. pappus reddish. truncate. Kadu-Kala Jiriga.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. Kalhara.9 m. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. robust. Vanajiraka. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. H. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. erect. "Vata" and "Kapha". Kalizhiri.
USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Kuruvelu. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. Vala. flowers. G. Sadodi. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Mudivala. Ash-coloured Fleabane . Sadori. COM. The expressed juice is given in piles. seeds. consumption. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. CHAR. plant is used in fever convulsions. a depilatory (Yunani). Australia. Ardhaprasadana. L. awned.—Gramineæ. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. striate. Valo . Cuscus grass. Bena. Fl. Sahadevi. Lavancha. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. Koosa. Fl. are used in destroying pediculi. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. hiccup . LOC. oblong. silky on the back.—Compositæ. :—A common weed throughout the State. In Ceylon. :—Annual. Devika. high. stomachic. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. Dandotpala. :—Plant. tropical Asia. Vecrnam. PARTS USED. Africa .—simple. NS. kidney troubles. with lime-juice. t. G. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. Sk. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. pappus white. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Panni. :—Throughout India. astringent. K. FAM. LOC. asthma. bruised seeds ground up in paste. COM.— pinkish violet. H. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Bala. Sk. M. stomachic and diuretic. 15—75 cm. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. heads small. applied in inflammatory swellings . alternate. Fr. NS. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. Sahadevi.. Osari. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. bronchitis . the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). M. Ushira. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. pubescent. The plant with quinine. LOC. cold. Khas. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman).-Feb. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. :—E. clothed with white hairs . :—E. K. cures "Tridosha". H. Sedardi. Sahadevi.—achene. used for asthma. FAM. They are also used as tonic. . Sind. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. erect herb. good for sores and itching of eyes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. stem stiff. DISTR. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). tonic. remove blood from liver. made into a bolus with lime-juice.—Jan.
Afghanistan. colour varying from yellowish to black. LOC. Bilenekki. bitter. sweats. Nirgundi. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. blood diseases (Yunani). M. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. H. Nirgud. Nirgari. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Sind. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. diuretic. astringent. Ceylon. Indrani. DISTR. rachis stout. :—G. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . also cultivated. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. Philippine Islands. slender.. spleen enlargement. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. leaves. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. :—Roots. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. PARTS USED. head-ache. biliousness.8 m. stimulant and tonic. Sessile spikelets. strangury. :—Cooling. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. Kanara in damp places. thirst. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . foul breath. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat.. leucoderma. asthma. Nukki. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. COM. Cooling to brain. febrifuge. astringent.-leaf sheaths compressed. expectorant and diuretic. refrigerant. cephalic. throughout the Malayan regions. The roots contain an essential oil. USES :—Root is tonic. up to over 1. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. Konkan and Deccan. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. inflammations. racemes up to 5 cm. margin spinously rough. Nirgundi. Leaves are aromatic. stomachic. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). Culms stout. long. useful in burning sensation. pale green. useful in eye diseases. soporific. Lakki. stomachic. promotes hair-growth. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. long. Sinduvara. consumption. The otto is used as a tonic. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. LOC.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Nigod. West-Indies and Brazil. :—Common in Gujarat and N. lower ones keeled and fan-like. bronchitis. tonic and vermifuge. PARTS USED. DISTR. bitter. :—Throughout the State.—Verbenaceæ. K. useful in spermatorrhoea. :—Throughout India. bilious fevers. Nirgundi. high. Sambhalu. alexiteric.—panicle up to 30 cm. Nilpushpi. Fl. FAM. erect. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . anthelmintic. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. :—Root. bitter. L. usually sheathed all along. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. NS. inflammations and irritability of stomach. LOC.
Drakh . juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. sweet. aphrodisiac. M. syphilis. stones in bladder. diuretic. difficult to digest. cures thirst. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. Angura. :—Fruit-acrid. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). Stem-ashes good for joint pains. cough. H. piles. allays vomiting. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. applied in scabies. useful in old fevers. stomachic. blood diseases. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. PARTS USED :—Stem.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. causes gases in the stomach. catarrh and jaundice. testicle swellings and piles. produces alopecia. good for lungs. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. Yakshmaghni. Grape-vine. and traces of vitamins B and C. spleen inflammation. Sk. Darakh. fattening . good for eyes and throat. Flowers—expectorant. jaundice. See—Timbers. Draksha. liver and kidney. diarrhœa. fever. W. Draksha. laxative. cooling . fever. The plant contains an alkaloid. aperient. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. skin should not be eaten. Draksha. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. cooling. :—Cultivated. burning. PROPERTIES AND USES. K.. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. stops bleeding from mouth. expectorant. Fruit— digestive. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. :—E. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. allays vomiting. Madhurasa. Angur. Draksha. The fruits contain vitamin A. Seeds—aphrodisiac. appetiser. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. emmenagogue. astringent to bowels. LOC. . cooling useful in thirst. COM. produces constipation. :—A native of western Asia. heat of body. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. FAM-—Vitaceæ. strangury. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. sparingly in Poona. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Gujarat and S. bad effects of drinking. flowers. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. :—Deccan. leaves. asthma. hoarseness and consumption. tonic to liver. Fruit is nervine. laxative. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. diuretic . NS. fruits. seeds. DISTR. India. fattening. and given in coughs. a remedy for skin diseases. HABITAT. emmenagogue. G. purifies and enriches blood . M. LOC. Ahmednagar. Sap of young branches. good in chronic bronchitis . Guchaphala. Khandesh. Country. VITIS VINIFERA Linn.
usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . hard.—greenish or lurid yellow. NS. USES. Gandhpatri. entire. :—Root and bark. 23-30 cm.) DISTR. DISTR. G. Kamrupini. lumbago. somewhat scurfy. Vajini. green berries. Asgundh. Cape of Good Hope. FAM. (not common. COM. Ghodasoda. FAM. scabies. heating. Asan. LOC. "Kapha". consumption. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. smooth. ulcers. COM. oblong. M.-Feb. Mediterranean regions. obovate. . marasmus of children. Asoda. LOC. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Hirimaddina-gadde.— Sept. tonic.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. bony Fl. PARTS USED. :—The roots are given in pneumonia .—3-4. Punir. Tuber—bitter.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). favours constipation (Yunani). L. asthma. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. aphrosidiac. alterative. dark-green. CHAR. seeds. Asgund. abundant in Sind . Wagati.3-1.5 m. insomnia. emmenagogue . useful in "Vata". Canaries. :—In the drier regions of India . Ashvagandha. Gujarat. long..5 cm. armed with prickles . Amangura. Deccan. NS. high. Ceylon.—Solanaceæ. swollen above the seeds. Sd. Kanara. pinnae 4-6 pairs. M. oblong. long. pretty common in the ghats. leucoderma. Sogada-beru.. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. aphrodisiac. diam. leaflets 5-7 pairs. 6 mm. inflammations. :—K. long. main rachis armed with prickles. HABITAT. t.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. Fl. dark-orange.—berry. senile debility. rachis grooved with soft hairs. Wagati. CHAR. Wakeri. good in asthma. enclosed in inflated calyx. Hooliganji.—yellow. leaves.—5-10 X 2. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. 0. ovate. See—Fruit Trees. branches terete. :—E. psoriasis. spathulate. 7.-Jany. Sd. Balada. tonic. Fr. linear oblong. slightly 5-angled. calyx-tube. :—A branched erect undershrub. branches armed with recurved prickles . alexipharmic.—pod. :—A robust woody climber. base dentate. constricted between them. inflammations.—2-pinnate. coriaceous. Drakshasava—used as tonic. bronchitis. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. PARTS USED :—Root. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz.5-12. minutely hairy. anthritis. :—Drier regions. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. inserted on the top of. Fl.5-5 cm. red.. :—Tubers-bitter. Kanchuki. Winter-cherry. Sk. :—Konkan jungles. H. :—Deccan. hoary tomentose .—petals 5. C. t. Fl. L. chest troubles etc. acrid. Fr.
nigro-punctate beneath. NS. COM. Dudhi. Kodamurki. . PARTS USED. Bela. Br. L. Japan. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle.. Indrajav. Dhateki. Santha. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. COM. China. branches long. Dyes. USES. M. long. tropical Africa. Indrajav. Fr. haemorrhoids. Hayamaraka. Vanhishikha. Dhavani. Phulsatti. cooling. Dhawadina. alexiteric.—capsule. Hale. HABITAT. acrid. Madhavasini. diuretic and deobstruent. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. See—Tans. smooth. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. uterine sedative. blood diseases. Ornamental Plants.-May. :—Bark and flowers. rheumatism.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Sk. Hallunova. dysentery. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. used in thirst. Dhaiti. and in derangement of liver . ulcers and painful swellings . Fl. toxic. Fl. Sk. simple. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. NS.—Apocynaceæ. 1 cm. Sd. :—Monsoon-forests. Java. The plant contains an alkaloid. 5-9X 1. Dhavani. emaciation of children.3-2.—Lythraceæ. :—G. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . :—Pungent. leprosy. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. H. Kanara near the sea-coast. LOC. Are. ovate-lanceolate. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Dec. Indrajav. Madhuindrayava. DISTR. Kalikari. LOC. anthelmintic . aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. leaf-infusion is given in fever. It is narcotic. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). Ceylon. Swetakutaj. brown. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Khirni. K.—numerous. :—G. erysipelas. lumbar pains. Sumatra. t. :—Throughout India. common in the Konkan and N. branchlets clothed with white pubescence .— numerous. FAM. M. useful in leucorrhoea. Baluchistan.5 cm. irregularly dehiscent. H. K. velvety above. Madagascar. Kalakuda. Dhawai. Kuda. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying.—mostly opposite. debility from old age. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. PROPERTIES AND USES. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Tamrapushpi. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. wedge-shaped. scarlet. Dhaw.) FAM. alterative. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. on trap in the Akrani. in 2-15 flowered cymes.
alexiteric. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. L. fattening. axillary. Sk.. LOC. t. :—Rajastan. voice.Feb. :—Cooling.—Jany. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. Dumundi. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . PROPERTIES AND USES. Bur-Weed. Ceylon. digestive. CHAR. Madhya Pradesh. the bark is specially useful in piles.-E. NS. Sankeshwar. compressed . Fl. improves appetite.—many. long. Fr. Aristha. :— Throughout India. fertile heads few. antidysenterica (Yunani). common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. poisonous bites of insects. DISTR.1-6. laxative. at the top. G. stout. tonic.. 3-lobed.—Compositæ. Kambu-Vanamalini. M. anthelmintic. PARTS USED. COM. salivation. USES :—Root is bitter. especially root and fruit. West-Peninsula. antipyretic. LOC. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). rough with short hairs . . See—Timbers. hard and tough. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. ovoid in fruit. :—The whole plant. Sarpakshi. DISTR. 1-3 cm. involucre of fertile head. H. irregularly incisoserrate . XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES. Itara. Banokra. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. Khandesh at 1050 m. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. Gadrian. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. oblong ovoid.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. fever. :—Annual herb . LOC. FAM. complexion. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). stem short. 5-7. Fl.. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. Clot-Cockle-bur. Timor. memory. in W.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. all over the State. barren heads many.5 cm. with 2 erect beaks. epilepsy. biliousness. hairy on both sides. long and broad. :—Bark and seeds. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . Shankhahuli. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. cures leucoderma. Dutundi.achene. LOC. In S. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. tonic.
PARTS USED. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. head-ache. Ber. to prevent nausea and griping. useful in elephantiasis. H. laxative. heating. Alen. carminative. tonic. Bor. HABITAT. gives lustre to eye. Ginger. removes pain due to cold. piles. good in piles. pains (Yunani). NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sk. G. :—Rhizome.—Rhamnaceæ. K. Kuvali. Egasi. aphrodisiac. Dridhabija. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Sk. carminative. useful in heart and throat diseases. "Vata". COM. K. aphrodisiac. Bogari. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. and dry situations. It is stimulant. Alen. "Kapha". rheumatism.—Scitaminaceæ. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Indian Cherry. colic. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Chinese Date. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. NS. eructations. Gulmmula. M. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Anupama. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. anthelmintic. Bordi. LOC. M. Alla Adrak. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. vomiting. . carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. Rhizome—pungent. Ber. alexiteric. appetiser. FAM. Kandara. flatulence. G. stomachic. Adrate.. stomachic. asthma. Boyedi. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). on poor soil and in rocky places. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. inflammations. Plum. Bore. :—Cultivated. it cleans throat. :—E. Beri. FAM. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. it is also given in the form of infusion. COM. LOC. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. tongue and increases appetite. vomiting. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Ada. Bor. :—E. pains. :—Rhizome-pungent. See—Condiments and Spices. expectorant. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . Ardraka. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. lumbago. Ajapriya. DISTR. Hasisunthi. Ipanji. Badari. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. Koli. dyspepsia. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Shringavera. loss of appetite and piles. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda).
Fruit—sweet and sour. wounds and ulcers. indigestible. leaves. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). cure asthma. bark. LOC. good in liver complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES. causes cough. PARTS USED. on the laterite near the coast in N. frequently planted as a fruit tree. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. :—Root. Leaves antipyretic. head-ache. laxative. Fruits contains vitamin A. Fruit— cooling. Australia. Burma. . biliousness. thirst. cooling. allays thirst (Yunani). Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. vomiting. Afghanistan. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. reduce obesity. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. fruit. DISTR. Ceylon. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . Fruit Trees. Bark—causes boils . China. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. useful in fevers. Seed—astringent. tonic to heart and brain . removes biliousness. Leaves—anthelmintic. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. seeds. Kanara. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. :—Root-bitter. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . abundant in the Deccan. good in consumption and blood-diseases. tonic.. Root and Bark tonic. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. causes diarrhœa in large doses . good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. Africa.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. burning sensation. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. Leaves form a plaster to boils.