SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

linear-oblong. cures itching. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. Saptata. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. mouth troubles. urinary and vaginal discharges. Sige-balli or kai. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). indigestion.-t. hypertrophy of tonsils. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. Tans. M. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract).USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. :—An extensive woody climber. DISTR. Lalkhair. Western Peninsula. Phena. Shikekai. Dantadhavan. " Kapha ". :—E. Country and Gujarat. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Shige. M. Pegu.—bipinnate. LOC. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. anthelmintic. :—Throughout India.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). leprosy. cooling. Kanara forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Vidula.-July. Sk. Fr. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). CHAR. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. DISTR. ulcers. LOC. relaxation of the uvula. psoriasis. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. Charmakusha.—pod. Chikakai. Dyes. Sikkim. M. Manda-otte. yellow. erysipelas.—in fascicled globose heads. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. 5-10 cm. boils. Ritha.-6-10 . overlapping. Dipta. K. . leucorrhoea.8 cm. Himalayas up to 1700 m. COM. See—Timbers. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Khandesh Akrani S. Fl.5-12. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. LOC. acrid. :—Rajastan. Saradruma. Deccan. heaviness. measles and other skindiseases. Khadira. H. G. It is given in diarrhœa. fleshy when green. prurigo. gums. Burma. Kushthari. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. piles. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Yajnika. " Vata ". China. Sd. Bhuriphena. Sk. throat diseases. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). FAM. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. wrinkled when dry . sore-throat and tooth-ache. Kochi. antidysenteric. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Kanara (often on laterite). 7. strengthens teeth. Fl. anti-pyretic. NS. given in elephantiasis. inflammations.. tonic. Kath-bole. Soap-pod tree. along the coasts of Konkan and N. bronchitis..-Mar. Khair.5X2-2. In ulceration of the gums. leaflets 10-20 pairs. long. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. L. aphrodisiac. Malay Islands. :—Common throughout the Stale .

HABITAT :—Moist situations. causes " Vata". expectorant and good emetic. tonic. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. detergent. Gum—sweetish. cooling. K. See—Timbers. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. prurigo.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. cures " Kapha. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Kankri. purgative. Girimeda. Stinking acacia. Vilavati kikar. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. Sponge tree. Sauna jali. DISTR. :—E. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . LOC. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Internally they are aperient. Gandhelo khair . inflammations. Cassia flower. anti-dysenteric. erysipelas. improves appetite. Gandhbabul. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. eczema. Jali. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. often planted . ulcers. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). cures stomatitis. stomatitis. LOC. Gums and Resins. blood diseases. itching. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Marudruma.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. G. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. buboes. digestible. erysipelas. anti-diarrhoeal. . USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. not indigenous but naturalised. alexiteric. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles .. Kari jali. Devababhul. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). bronchitis. blood-diseases. Jheri baval. ascites. Pissibabul. Arimeda. COM. biliousness. Sind. cardio-tonic.pungent. LOC. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. In Philippines decoction. anthelmintic. burning sensation. leaves and gum. M. piles. deobstruent. leucoderma. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark. leucoderma. H. caries of teeth. often cultivated. FAM. Sk. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. anthelmintic. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea.

females. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. K. K.. CHAR. :—Throughout India. high. males. Latjira . axillary spikes . . A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers.—opposite.— ovoid. L. branches terete or quadrangular striate. pneumonia and rheumatism.—Euphorbiaceæ.—utricle. 3. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. about 50 cm. softly hairy. M. Khokali. tropical Africa. 30-75 cm. t. Sd. M. angular. :—Common in the Deccan and S. small. Khokla. Sk. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. :—G. somewhat 3-nerved. one-seeded. crenate-serrate. brown. Philippines. Uttrane . Fl. Kuppi. H. G. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.5 cm. oblong-cylindric. Fr. many. Country. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis.3 X 2. Vasira. in lax. COM. Ceylon. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 2. Fr. Var. :—An erect herb 0. long in fruit. Chalmari. Sk. hispid. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. LOC. Arittamanjaria. pale-brown. NS. Apamarga. Fl. Vanchhikanto. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Kantarika. FAM. rounded at base. Apang.5-4. H.—Nov. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. brown. high. Chirchira.3-0.—Amarantaceæ. Ksharamadhya.8-6. stem stiff. erect. Aghada . It is used in congestive headache.—truncate at apex. Prickly chaff-flower. in elongate terminal spikes. :—E.9 m.5 cm. Fl.-Jany.. Khajoti. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. ascending. The plant contains acalyphin. DISTR. Fl. L. LOC. Kharamanjiri.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.—capsule. Utranigida.5x2-4. Sd. Chichra. COM. asthma. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. elliptic obovate. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. erect herb. perianth 4-5 segments. scattered. Kuppi-gida. M.—June-Sept.—greenish white. minute. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. elongate. CHAR. Merkati. FAM.57. enclosed in perianth smooth. clustered near the summit of spike. branches long. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. :—Annual. Agheda-di. smooth. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. t.—monœcious. few.

7-3. LOC. skin eruption etc. G. Baluchistan. leucoderma (Yunani). long. rat-bite.9-1. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. anthelmintic. good for mouth diseases. improves appetite. long. emmenagogue . COM. and is considered useful in dropsy. PARTS USED :—Root. anthers yellow. LOC. M. carminative. abdominal pains. ascites. bronchitis. liver and chest pains. spathe 15-75 cm. margins wavy. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. inflammations. sepals scarious. :—E. laxative. Sk. expectorant. slightly curved. Fr.8 cm. Jatila. Bach. itching. useful in general weakness. kidney troubles. "Vata".. 5-10 cm. Ceylon. dyspepsia. NS. America.. laxative. carminative. inflammations. See—Sacred Plants. Vekhand. piles. heating.8 X 1. useful in abdominal pains. bronchitis. heart diseases. flatulence. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Africa. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. piles. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. worms in the ear (Ayurveda).—turbinate. :—Throughout India. top pyramidal. Gorbach . emetic. toothache. laxative. stomachic. CHAR. LOC. acute. prismatic. spadix. creeping and branching. heating. leaves. L. useful in vomiting. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. Bhutnashini. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. throat. flowers and seeds. bright-green. Sikkim. alexiterie. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. boils. delirium. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. .—Araceæ. green . carminative. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bitter. Sweet flag . Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. DISTR. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. useful in dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Baja . H. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. Godavaj. Throughout Asia. dysentery. fevers. thickened in the middle. voice. thirst. dysentery. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. improves appetite. tumours. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. loss of memory. etc. America. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. K. :—An aromatic herb . PARTS USED : —Root. obtuse. Gandhilovaj. Vacha. Tropical Asia. bitter. hysteria. Australia. brain-tonic. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. diuretic. pungent. stomatitis.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Europe and N. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Ugragandha. epilepsy. Vekhand . 0.

excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Gorakhaamli. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . LOC. HABITAT':—Cultivated. See—Timbers. colic. NS.—Lauraceæ. African calabash.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. M. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . Bukha. Rukhdo . It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Gorakshi. fever. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. Sk. Gorakhchinch. N. NS. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. dysentery. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. etc. COM. PARTS USED : —Root. LOC. useful in biliousness. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. :—E. H. It is a good remedy in asthma.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. Tudgensu . PROPERTIES AND LOC. indigenous in tropical Africa. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. DISTR. Brahmamlika.:—Konkan. Baobab. fevers and other maladies. anti-pyretic. Haggodgimara. G. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. M. Gujarat. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Deccan. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Gopali. :—Western Peninsula. :—Grown in many places in India . LOC. in children. Kanara evergreen forests. FAM.—Bombacaceæ. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. Goremlichora . The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. Pisa. COM. FAM. Pichli. vomiting. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. :—K. In cases of irritation of throat and cough.. Monkey-bread tree. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Powder is very effective insecticide. DISTR. Gorakamali. leaf and fruit. Panch-parnika. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. bark.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Ankota. Kullumavu. Kanara. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. pungent. :—Throughout the State. Root-bark poisonous. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). alexiteric. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Onkla.) FAM. Karnapura. rat-bite. (Mimosaceæ). stem. it is said to stop after-pains. dysentery. Ankol. Root-bark— used in piles. aromatics or honey. diarrhœa. Juice—emetic. Shirish. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa.—Alangiaceæ. useful in inflammations. lumbago. cures " Kapha". Malaya. Kalosadasado. LOC. Shirish. Ankoli. blood diseases. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Kalshish. anthelmintic. NS. Sirisa. alterative. :—E. :—Throughout India. carminative. aphrodisiac. useful in worms. H. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). G. Shirisha. Tamraphala. COM. NS. burning of body. Vamaka. Sk. China. Chinchola. leaves (rarely). COM. expectorant. acute fever. Fruit—laxative. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Kathora. Sage-leaved alangium. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. Kalashirish. Ankola. Anedhera. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. colic. M. Ceylon. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). Asroli. Ankoli. biliousness. Shankiniphala. often along banks of nalas in N. gleet. Gudhapatra. K. Piloshirish. spermatorrhoea. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. S. Dridhakantaka. Uddanaka. inflammations. inflammations. FAM. fish-poison. " Vata "-pain. Sirai. poisonous bites. Krishnashirisha. anthelmintic. hydrophobia. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. Philippines. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. See—Timbers. Ankola.—Leguminosæ. alexipharmic . Sirsul. Shyamala. Akoly. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. K. G. Sk. Ankora. cures erysipelas. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. H. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. heating. Seeds—cooling. M. Dodda-Hombage. Kaloshirish. lumbago (Yunani). and fruit. Garso. wasting diseases. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. Tantia. indigestible. commonly planted along roadsides. . LOC. Ankotha. tonic. Ankola. blood diseases.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. LOO.

PARTS USED :—Bulbs. Rajapriya.. NS. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. cooling. Seeds—tonic to brain. etc. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. catarrh. improves taste. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. flowers.. Burma. etc. tumours. piles. diarrhœa. ear-ache. inflammations.—Liliaceæ. spleen diseases. B & C. piles. stimulant and expectorant. COM. DISTR. Bark and seeds are astringent. . PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds—fattening. LOC. prescribed in ophthalmia. ophthalmia. blood diseases. given in piles. scabies. maturant. Flowers—aphrodisiac. See—Vegetables. which acts as a diuretic. itching. erysipelas. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. excessive perspiration. cultivated everywhere. stomachic. paralysis. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). aphrodisiac. Onion. Root—astringent. used in leprosy. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. anthelmintic. good in rat-bite. Kanda. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. cures "Vata". USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. and chronic bronchitis . Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). LOC. It is an important garden crop. bark. useful in malaria. occasionally used in fever. vomiting. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Bark-bitter. G. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. dropsy. tonic. Bark— anthelmintic. and also in skin diseases . scabies. FAM. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. Ulageddi. H. biliousness. Palandu. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. leucoderma. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. :—Native country probably Persia. leaves. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). volatile oil. their smell useful in hemicrania. bleeding piles. The plant contains vitamins A. deafness. Ceylon. Dungari. Rochaka. seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. eruptions and swellings. Leaves—good in night blindness. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. M. emollient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. weakness. Sk. skin-diseases. asthma. epistaxis.:—E. Bengal. Piyaz. usually planted. Oil is used in leprosy. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. useful in vomiting. relieves tooth-ache. LOC. bronchitis. alexiteric. boils. See—Timbers.: —Throughout India. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. body pains. seeds. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. syphilis. strengthens gums and teeth.K. Bulb—tonic. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). enriches blood.

epileptic fits. liver and lungs . Ugragandha. COM. Kumari. Diuretic. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Korkand. M. G. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Kuvarpatha. NS. In pulmonary phthisis. heating. Lasan. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Kattali. Lolisara. M. aphrodisiac. alexipharmic. caries of teeth. Lasan. In cases of diphtheria. fattening. Lasun.—Liliaceæ. The plant contains vitamin C. Lahsan. carminative. See—Vegetables. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. Kumari. FAM. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. leucoderma. K. :—E.—Liliaceæ. inflammation. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Korphad. improves appetite. clears voice. :—E. " Vata ". Kanya. paralysis. good for lumbago. Country. NS. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. useful in diseases of eye and heart. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. Indian aloe. body and joint pains. leucoderma. lumbago. Garlic. aphrodisiac. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. FAM. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. bronchitis. Kapila. oleaginous . .16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Ghi-kumari. Sk. chronic fevers. LOC. In Cambodia. Sk. hemiplegia. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. coughs and other debilitating conditions. thirst. useful in inflammations. It is an important garden crop. ALŒ VERA Linn. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. sciatica. thins the blood (Yunani). COM. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. paraplegia and convulsive affections. thirst. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. asthma. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. M. LOC. tonic. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. tumours. Ikshurmallika. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. H. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. Lashuna. troubles of spleen. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. K. low fevers. G. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. Rasonaka. anthelmintic. complexion. voice. piles. H. digestive. Bellulli.

:—A perennial herb . Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. piles. asthma. It also acts as a mild purgative. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. used in fevers. pain in muscles. stem short thick. biliousness. LOC. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Kaduhale. K. West Indian Islands. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. LOC. Satwin. :—Wild along the coast in S. Hale. alterative. liver troubles. India. ophthalmia. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. Root. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kadusale. leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. :—E. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. scape longer than the leaves. Kanara. M. :—Throughout India. bark. C. somewhat divided. PARTS USED :— . inflammations. perianth cylindric . The plant contains aloin. Jamaica. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. DISTR. L. cooling. Satian. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Mediterranean. LOC. digestive. spleen enlargement. carminative. Barbados. scaly. Saptaparna. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. Bitter . Ceylon. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. margins spiny. wild along the coast. skin diseases. methritis. planted in Indian gardens . liver complaints. Native of S. aphrodisiac. simple or branched.—in dense racemes . used in form of paste in pleurisy. anthelmintic. NS. jaundice. purgative. yellow. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. milky juice. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. bronchitis. E. COM. Satwin. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places.—Apocynaceæ. gonorrhœa. alexiteric. also cultivated. tonic. isobarbaloin and emodin.—sessile. FAM. and it is largely imported into India. useful in splean inflammation. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Chatian. pale-green. strangury. fattening. DISTR. useful in eye-diseases. ulcers (Ayurveda). Java. Australia. pendulous. vomiting. Africa. H. lanceolate. Br. crowded. Fl. tonic. lumbago. emollient and demulcent. tumours. Saptachhada. Dita bark tree. tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Moist forests. fleshy. biliousness (Yunani). common in the rain-forests of N. Sk. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis.

female calyx oblong. Kantalo dambho. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. also useful in catarrhal fever. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. DISTR. numerous. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Mulladantu. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. " tridosha " pain. stomachic.8 cm. apiculate. bristles pointed. often reddish. . Drug Com. :—E. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. tumours. alexiteric. Tandulibija. ovoid. digestible. high. LOC. rugose. rubbish heaps . See—Vegetables. laxative. bronchitis. leucoderma. tropical countries. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. heating. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. Mullarave-soppu. Kantanatia.2—7. blood diseases.— 3. improves appetite. Bark—acrid. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda).3—3. Fl. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. diuretic.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. thickened at the top. Tandulja. laxative. Root—heating expectorant. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. lanceolate. leprosy. :—An erect glabrous herb. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. obtuse.5 X 1.—Amarantaceæ. male calyx acute. rubbish heaps and fields. COM. G. M. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. long. Sk. Fr. Cholai. rat-bite. biliousness. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. oleaginous. obtuse. LOC. good in diseases of the heart. burning sensation. boils and burns. 30-60 cm. :—Throughout India. useful in " Kapha ". NS. asthma. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints.— capsule.). Kante math. diseases of the blood. K. H. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . entire. Ceylon.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. Kantanu-dant. See—Timbers. also in fields. Tandulaja. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. Pathyashaka. sudorific and febrifuge. hallucination. Apamarisha. ovate. CHAR. antiperiodic and febrifuge. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic.. piles. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. Prickly amaranth. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. bitter. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. HABITAT :—In waste places. L. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. leucorrhoea. FAM. unisexual. anthelmintic. ulcers. galactogogue. appetiser. LOC.

LOC.:— Konkan.—Nov. " Vata. Kurendika. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Fr. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. COM. Suran. Kuranda.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. branches usually opposite. strangury . Bitter and acrid . FAM. NS. Arshaghna. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). Fl. useful in piles. G. tumours. Malaya. Bharajambhul. depressed. Kanthalla.—opposite. Vikata. NS. Australia. COM.—Lythraceæ. stomachic. Suran. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. Deccan.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Blistering ammania. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). vomiting. fresh or dried. globose. Suran. G. corm. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Tropical Africa. Ceylon. Jangli mehandi. Grows wild on the banks of S. elephantiasis . aphrodisiac. Sk. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. Elephant's foot. :—E. appetiser. Sk. :—E. red. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. LOC. In the Konkan.—Araceæ. L. M. Gujarat and Kanara. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Kandala. acrid. stomachic. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. K. Suran .—capsule. t. Vatari. high. erect or subscandent herb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. fevers etc. Konkan rivers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Throughout India in moist places. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. :—An annual. Fl. FAM. DISTR. DISTR. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. PARTS USED :—Root. increases appetite and taste. Kuranti. Afghanistan. Sukaranda. H. pungent. abdominal pains. 8-65 cm. blood diseases. It is also used as an emmenagogue. LOC. bronchitis. causes itching sensation. Sd. sessile. Dadmari. Kandavardhan." blood troubles. the plant. . irregularly circumsciss above the middle. much narrowed at the base. enlargement of the spleen. constipating. H. CHAR. removes " Kapha ". Jalavgiyo.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. LOC. laxative. :—Cultivated widely in the State. M. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). China. harmful in "Kapha". asthma.

Kajutaka. anthelmintic. Crow-Fish Killer. 10-12 X 7. tumours. See—Vegetables. Upapushpika. digestible. Sk. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. It is supposed to have restorative power. B. Oils. Kakamari. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . leucoderma.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. G. M.5 cm. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. DISTR. Kaju. H. hot. & A. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. bark vertically furrowed . ascites. flowers. Fl. The plant contains Vitamins A. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). COM. Gerubi. NS. and trace of C. :—E. Govamba. Kakamari. Kanara.—in panicles 25-35 cm. LOC. L.—Menispermaceæ. many flowered. ringworm.. K. cordate or truncate. Garalaphala. swollen peduncle of fruit. Jermic. equal to almond oil. . G. FAM. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. CHAR. :—E. broadly ovate. Kempu— Turkaka geru . corns and obstinate ulcers. See—Timbers. long. Cashew apple-nut. PARTS USED :—Bark. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. which is nutritious and emollient. aphrodisiac. Kaju. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Kakamari. Prithagbija. :—A native of tropical America. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. Agni-krita. leaves. The seed contains vitamin A. sweet. Sk. Kaju . M. fever.— subcoriaceous. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. . Kakanashika. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Kakamari. Corm is poisonous. Sophara. Gova. K. H. also cultivated.5-12. Fish-Louse Berry. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. LOC. dysentery. 5-nerved. Kakkisoppugida . skin diseases. Kakamari. piles. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. USES :—Bark is alterative. ulcers. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. NS. Kakaphal. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. FAM.

M. G. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests.) LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive.—Sept. causes cough and biliousness. DISTR. Ananas hannu. good expectorant. diaphoretic and refrigerant. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Ananas. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. removes gases from the intestines . M. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. leaves and fruits. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. . also allays gastric irritability in fevers. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. LOC. E. It acts also as diuretic. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . Mahateet. Mahatit. K. Kantak sanjika. Ananas . :—Konkan. NS. Kanara. See—Fruit Trees. K. Sk. DISTR. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. PARTS USED :—Roots. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. it is useful in jaundice. Kirata. :—Khasia Hills. black . Assam. Bhuinimba.-Oct. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Fl. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. petals absent. a poison to fish (Yunani). Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. from Orissa to Ceylon. :—E. Ananas . PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Ananas. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Pine-apple . G. Olen kirayat. to a certain extent in Gujarat.—Acanthaceæ. dioecious. Bengal. Ama. N. COM. smooth. FAM. also acts as a purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . COM. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. fruits. t. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. LOC. Creat. Kiryat. NS. LOC. Nelabevu gida. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Kiriyata. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. native of Brazil (tropical America). :—E. Ananasa. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. Sk. H. Olikiriyat. Parvati. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. FAM. H.—Bromeliaceæ.

L. stem quadrangular. clothed with woolly hairs . branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. ellipsoid.—small. Fl. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Green leaves. Sd. lower 3lobed.—Ghats. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Karitumbe. smooth. :—An erect shrub.-Oct. . sometimes cultivated. high.—Labiatæ. Karnatak. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. 6. rugosely pitted. high. :—E. G.2-1. lateral lobes small. stomachic. undulate. LOC. CHAR.—in dense whorls . Malay Peninsula. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease.5 cm. Sundraphul. t.. polished brown.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. DISTR. linear-oblong. forming a spicate inflorescence. upper lip 2-toothed. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. oblong-lanceolate. pale above. t. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. Sk. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Fl. and N. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. dyspepsia and fever from teething.—lanceolate.—many. Malabar Catmint. made into an electuary. 1. rose coloured. K. Alamoda. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. COM.—very thick. acute at both ends . and anthelmintic. crenate-serrate. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. tonic. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic.8 m. very small. lower lip very large and broad .3-10 X 2-4. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. Gojivana. Sundara. L. Chodhara. dysentery. :—Throughout India. :—An erect branched annual 0. Br. C—2-lipped. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. bracts lanceolate. C—2-lipped. Fl.9 m. FAM.-Nov. M. Vaikunth. acute.3-0. Oshthaphala.—nutlets. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. distant. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. Fr. extensively used in Bengal.— capsule. Fl. Plant is useful in general debility. yellowish brown. Fr. distant. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. :—Konkan and Kanara. thickly woolly.—Dec. Kanara. white below. :—Deccan. and certain forms of dyspepsia. purple. approximate above. HABITAT. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. DISTR. NS. alterative. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. solitary. Ceylon. pale beneath. :—S. LOC.

Krishnabija. Bahubijika. Ata. flavoury. PARTS USED :—Root. Custard apple. useful in anaemia. Dhava. Dhavada. G. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. :—A native of West Indies . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Dyes. :—E. Sweet-sop. bark. Dabria. Dindala. discharges. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. COM. Dhavala. Damora. Sk. increases muscular strength. Dhava. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Sugar apple. See—Timbers. fruit and seeds. Fruit—sweet.—Anonaceæ. COM. Bejjalu. Dindiga. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Bark is a powerful astringent. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. LOC. Amritphala. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. stimulant. sedative to heart. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. PARTS USED :—Root. improves taste and appetite . FAM.—Combretaceæ. Pitaphala. Dohu. now cultivated throughout India. H. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . and eyesores. Sitaphala. (Yunani). NS. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. bark. G. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Bark is bitter. increases biliousness . applied to skin-diseases. H. astringent to the bowels. enriches blood. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . chronic diarrhœa. LOC. causes fever and furunculosis . K. erysipelas. Sitaphala. cooling. tasty. Button Tree. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Sk. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". leaves. Shushkanga. Sitaphala. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds—difficult to digest. expectorant. good tonic. LOC. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Sitaphala.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Anan. FAM. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. useful in liver complaints. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Durangi. Ceylon. Dhavada. produce ulcers in the eye. enriches blood . Bakla. Root—cathartic. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Sitaphal. cooling . NS. Sharipha. leaves and fruits. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). abortifacient. DISTR. Dhamora. Kanara border. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. K. Anuram. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. M. :—E.

Peninsula. :—W. DISTR. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. good in uterine complaints. Valkala. USES:—In the Konkan. Kadamb . Karnapuraka. It is generally considered tonic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. sprouts and fruits. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. aphrodisiac. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. They are detergent and their powder. Ashokari. H.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. See—Fruit Trees. biliousness. Sacred Plants. H. aphrodisiac. In eye inflammations. K. Ceylon. PARTS USED:—Bark. wild or cultivated. burning sensation. often cultivated. saline. bitter. Niv. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. :—G. common near Yellapur. stomachic. Kaduve. Nadija. cooling. " Vata". Kadamb. Surabhi. Chandkuda. See—Timbers. " Kapha".—Rubiaceæ. is a good hairwash. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. Nipa. DISTR. LOC. vulnerary. :—Throughout India. galactagogue. Upas Tree. K. FAM. M. Malay Islands. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Tennaserim. Chandkuda. mixed with gram-flour. NS. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). from the Himalayas to Ceylon. M. Kadamba. Pegu. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. COM. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kadubale. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. Jajpugri. Kadamb. causes biliousness when ripe. astringent to bowels. Malayan Peninsula. Kadam. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. sap of the tree. Kanara . sweet. Sk. Bairi. Ajjanpatte. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. . Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Chandala. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. COM NS. Sprouts—acrid. Kadamb . Burma. strangury. FAM. Sk. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. LOC. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Fruit—heating. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. LOC. opium and alum is applied round the orbit.—Moraceæ. alexiteric. :—E. Fodder Plants. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. indigestible.

FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Fr. Europe. :—E. heart and spleen diseases. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. bronchitis. fever with cough. Java and Malaya. ridges narrow. aphrodisiac. W. Africa.—1. Bodi ajomoda. and γ-antiarin. Ajamoda. Ajmud. Glucoside apiin is present. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. rheumatism. nasal catarrh (Yunani). M. Mandapi. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. vomiting. branching. Karafs. cure " Kapha ". HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Brahmakoshi. appetiser. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab.3-2. Snehabijaka. good in ophthalmia. Seeds—carminative. erect. Fibres. segments once or twice trifid. Bhuimug-chana. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic.4 m. K. Bhuimug.5-2 mm. " Vata " . :—E. good for heart. Ground-Pea-nut. urinary discharges. LOC. Monkey-nut. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. high. DISTR. apex toothed . astringent to bowels .— in umbels. Bhuimug. ascites. N. Markati. vomiting. :—A biennial plant. M.. COM. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. H. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. LOC. . Wild celery. Shimbika. Chinimung. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. CHAR. G.— radial. hiccup. tooth-ache. scabies. See—Timbers. vittae broad. Bhuchanak. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. Celery. COM NS. laxative. Bori ajmud. The plant contains vitamins A. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma.:—Foot of the N. cure asthma. chest-pains. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. abdominal pain. anthelmintic. scorpion and other stings. Sk. abortifacient. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Ajmoda . pedicels 6-16 . improve appetite . FAM. 0. amenorrhœa. Ugragandha. Abyssinia. Mungphali. NS. Sk. cauline 3-partite. specially near large cities. rectal troubles. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. W. tonic. G. L. See—Vegetables. β-antiarin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. rays 5-10. Asia. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Fl. Afghanistan. used in anasarca and colic. traces of B and C. useful in ophthalmia. inflammations. Nelkadle.—Umbelliferæ. Moda. H.

Hopari. Mysore. Betta. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. . Sk.:—Extensively grown in N. Pophal. In French Guinea. M. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). M. Areca palm. oil is given in acute abdominal pain.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in urinary disorders. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. improves appetite and taste. removes foul breath. Seed cooling. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. cardiotonic. See—Food Plants. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency.. Akota. Chikka. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. H. removes pus (Yunani). gleet. Country. leaves (rarely). Tantusara. Suppiyari. Gujarat and S. :—Madras. Bengal. diuretic. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. indigestible. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Betel-nut palm. NS. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. gum. Kaungu. bleeding gums. :—E. Indo-Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. G. DISTR. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. Poga. Gum pungent. Malabar. Sopari. used for eye-inflammations. Areca-nut palm. LOC. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. seeds. cooling. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. digestive. emmenagogue. Burma. K. Kanara. giddiness. DISTR. FAM. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Supari. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. aphrodisiac. Nut astringent. Supari. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. COM. ARECA CATECHU Linn. LOC. Oils. Adki. laxative. LOC. Deccan. USES. Chikkan. Pugiphal. LOC. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B.—Palmæ. Siam. fairly largely in the Konkan. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. Assam. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Chhataphala.

rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. LOC. various skin-diseases. LOC. Datturi. expectorant and demulcent. diam. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. Pirangi datturi. sedative. Fr. Balurakkisa. t. Ind. spinous.—numerous. opening by 4-6 valves. prickly. branching. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph.—Papaveraceæ. relieves blisters. glaucous herb . It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. See—Timbers. K. :—A glabrous. netted. oblong. yellow. Svarnakshiri. G.12 m. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. DISTR. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. useful is strangury. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). Srigalkanta. nauseant. FAM. Bharbhand. stem clasping. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. Pita-pushpa. COM.). oblong-ovoid 2. NS.—thistlelike.8 cm. arecaidine. H. emetic. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. Fruit Trees. Darudi. inflammations and bilious fevers. veins white. Mexican prickly poppy . Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. Root anthelmintic. Daruri.— terminal. cures leprosy. prickly. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara.—capsule.—all the year. juice yellow. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. 7. Indigenous in tropical America. :—E. . Bila dhatura. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. globose. PARTS USED :—Root. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). It is also diuretic. jaundice and cutaneous affections. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. arecoline.5-5 cm. Brahma dandi. destroys worms . high. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. and in pertussis and asthma. stem 0. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Fl. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. antidote to various poisons. This is said to bring the worm out at once. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani).5-3. Sk. Sd. brownish black. Shialkanta. USES :—Root is an alterative. Plant enriches blood. sinuately pinnatifid. Fl. Seeds—purgative. and guvacine. purgative.5-18 cm. Juice—used as a collyrium. Seeds are laxative. L. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. CHAR. seeds and yellow juice.3-0. India. 2. M. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State .

Fr.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. :—E. Deccan and S. K. H. tip linear dark purple. white-tomentose. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. pubescent outside. COM. oblongellipsoid. infundibuliform. prostrate. t.3 cm. M. stems stout.5 cm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Vridhadaraka. CHAR. powdered root is given with milk. the bands silky pubescent outside. Fl. (sometimes even larger). useful in " Vata". 12-ribbed . CHAR. Peninsula. Hastivalli. Samudraballi. :—Bengal. Arabia. L. absorptive. :—A very large climber. Samudrashok. H. Gandali. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. COM. Kiramar. long and as broad as long.:—Konkan. perianth 2. painful joints. Fl. stems. Ceylon. Dhuma-patra. LOC. Kitakaba. M.—Aug. used in gleet. glabrous inside. LOC. aphrodisiac. Samandarka phal. t.— Aug. Adumuttadagida. Ganda. Kidamari. tube inflated. DISTR. FAM. Sk. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. weak. white-tomentose L.-Nov. peduncles stout. Country. Samudrapatrashoh. anthelmintic. long.8-7. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. " Kapha" fevers. white-tomentose beneath. Gujarat and S. C—5-6. base subglobose. :—Throughout India. Sd. M. Country. :—E. chronic ulcers (Yunani).—solitary. Kitamari. .— globose apiculate.—capsule. long. Varghoro. with revolute margins.— 7. Krimighni. W. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). bracts large . reniform or broadly ovate. Fl. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. NS. rose purple.-Sept. See—Ornamental Plants. Fr.— 3. tubular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative.—Convolvulaceæ. Samardar sokh.5 cm.3-2 cm. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. perhaps a native of Bengal. LOC. Soge.—deltoid with cordate base . Leaves are maturative. Shyambhuna. K. HABITAT. Dridhadaru. G. base cordate with wide sinus . Ajantri. long.3-25 cm. Elephant Creeper. :—A slender perennial.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. DISTR. base cordate. ovate glabrous above. FAM.. striate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . Samudrashosh. M. Kidamar. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Bracteated Birth-wort. strangury. diuretic . 1. tropical Africa.5-30 x 6. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Konkan.—Aristolochiaceæ. G. Java. Fl. pedicel with a large bract at the base. gonorrhœa.—in sub-capitate cymes.5-4. cultivated. In synovitis. NS. Sk.

—Nov. K. Saraparni. Ishvari. perianth greenishwhite. purgative (Yunani). Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Mother or Mugwort.8-10 X 1. COM. Majtari. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. :—A twining shrub. DISTR. tonic.—flat. obovate oblong 10-12. Nagdamani. The plant contains an alkaloid. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. 3. COM. H. M. Isharmula. M. bract opposite the pedicel. Nagduna. dyspnoea of children. joint-pains. NS. G. NS. winged. Ruhimula. The plant contains an alkaloid.5 cm. t. — capsule. Indian Birth-wort. Fl. Fr. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Nakuli. alexiteric. bitter." pains in the joints. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Arkamula. also useful in dropsy. Mastaru. long with globose inflated base. Fl. PARTS USED :—Roots.—Aristolochiaceæ.:—Konkan and S. Stem long.5 cm. Gathona. K. Bengal. Nepal. :—E. leaves and seeds. M. Isvara balli beru . emmenagogue. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Plant is used as an abortifacient. Dona. Dhor-davana. base vaiable. entire with undulate margins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. FAM. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. biliousness. Country. useful in " Tridosha.. Sugandha. Indian wormwood. Ceylon. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Sapsan. 6-valved. LOC. dry cough.—variable linear oblong. slender. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. .3-2. reaching 4. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties.—Compositæ. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Seeds useful in inflammation. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip.) FAM. Nilpushpa. Manjipatri. woody at the base. Sk. Dovana. H. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa.5 cm. globose-oblong. grooved. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC.5x7. Flea-bane.—in few flowered axillary racemes.. LOC. Sk. Sd. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Arkamula. :—Western Peninsula. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. :—E. CHAR.

ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. tonic. M. HABITAT. Phanas. Sk. aphrodisiac. toothed or again pinnatisect. See—Timbers. base lobed. ovate. Chakki. stems leafy. pubescent above.6-2. appetiser.— achene.:—A perennial shrub. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. asthma. hairy. Ceylon. Ghats. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Fl. oleaginous. aphrodisiac. temperate Asia. LOC. Skandaphala. deeply pinnatisect. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. An infusion is given as a tonic. Panos. G. Jack-fruit tree. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. Kanthal. oblong ellipsoid. NS. Externally it is used in fomentations.10x2. cooling. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. leprosy.—Urticaceæ. fattening. solitary or 2. Phanasa. inner hermaphrodite. Java. 3-fid or entire. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. L— lower leaves 5. COM. Panas. Kanara. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. Fruit Trees and Dyes. FAM. but rather difficult to digest. white tomentose beneath. lobes entire. t. Kujja.—heads ovoid or subglobose. itching (Ayurveda). :—Konkan.—Jany. DISTR.-Hilly districts. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. "Vata". :—Widely cultivated. The plant contains an essential oil. Jack-Orange wood. LOC. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. ulcers. The unripe fruit is astringent. often planted along roadsides in N. Kantakaphala. " Kapha". 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. Tage.5-5 em. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. grown in gardens also. alexiteric. outer flowers female. . aromatic. Vanas. cures "Kapha". USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. diuretic. Halasina. LOC. fertile. constipating (Ayurveda). upper leaves smaller. Fr. " Vata". involucral bracts villous.4 m. petioled. :—E. ripe fruit laxative.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. K. Seeds sweet. Fl. high. aphrodisiac. Panesa. deobstruent and antispasmodic. useful in biliousness. minute. DISTR. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. enriches blood. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. although very nutritious. LOC. 0. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. Thailand (Siam). asthma and brain diseases. H. lanceolate. fruit and seeds. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions.

PARTS USED:—Root. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. JAVANICA Baker. Fl. erect. Indies.—orange in axillary umbels. Satavari. Sk. narrowed at both ends. fragrant. Siprimuli. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. 2. segments. Svetmuli. cladodes in tufts. FAM.—opposite 7. Kuraki.—in simple raceme. Asual Shatavari. S.5 cm. linear. up to 1.— follicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. CHAR. leaves and flowers. Sd. inflammation. :—G. Fl. tonic. spines recurved. useful in dysentery. oleaginous. galactogogue. aphrodisiac. :—Extremely scandent. CHAR. cooling. dark brown. in the Himalayas. red when ripe. root-stock tuberous. M. LOC.—berry. :—An erect undershrub. with coma. Fr. H.000 m. :—E. C. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. from Kashmir eastwards. spinous.-Dec. NS. M. cultivated as ornamental plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. COM. astringent to bowels. high. M. Kaktundi. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. tapering at both ends.5-5 cm. Svadurasa. PARTS USED:—Root. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. alterative.—June-Sept. K. A fibre is extracted from the plants. L. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. undershrub.—lobes reflexed in flower. indigestible. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. NS. white. t. and moist monsoon forests. t. Satavari. :—Deccan.5 cm. .3-2. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. abundant round about Poona. Tropical Africa. Satavari. throat complaints. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM. valvate in bud. stomachic. blood and eye diseases. Java and Australia. curved. solitary. Var. 7. COM.. Country. Fl.-Feb.ovoid.2 m. Flower is a good styptic. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. biliousness. Satamulika. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. globose. straight. oblong. DISTR. thin. 0. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.—linear with a stout spinous spur. DISTR. :—Introduced from the W. Fr. naturalised in many parts of India.5-10 X 1.—Asclepiadaceæ. lanceolate. Shatavari. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. tumours. thorn.9-1. appetiser. long. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. common in the Deccan. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. L.—Liliaceæ. LOC. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC.

thirst. Talim-khana. (Yunani. gleet. H. useful in jaundice and anasarca. pointed. Fr. tube. And. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. CHAR. Sk. Kalavankabija.) FAM.) LOC. The root is sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. :—G.2 cm. USES.5 cm. Talamkhan. ciliate . Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Narayana Taila.6-1. hypnotic. 18 X 3-3. leprosy.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. K. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. . antispasmodic. stems fasciculate. like leaves. M. thickened at the nodes. high. Ceylon. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. tonic. abruptly swollen at the top. widely 2-lipped. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. upper 2-fid. tonic.— purple blue. Vikhara. hispid with long hairs. lanceolate.—capsule. Konkan and Deccan. USES :—The root is refrigerant. LOC. t. aphrodisiac . Fl. Shrigalghant. aphrodisiac . LOC. long.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. inflammations. 3. leaves and seeds. anuria. Prameha-Mihira-Taila.—sessile. eyediseases. COM. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. Gokshura. lower deeply 3-lobed. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. demulcent. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. Vajrakantaka. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. C. Kak-Kokilaksha.—June-Jany. Leaves good for cough. Seeds cooling. erect. Ikshura. tonic. 0. Talamkhana.— Acanthaceæ. abdominal troubles. L. aphrodisiac. laxative. Phalaghrita. Used in diarrhœa.:—Common throughout the State. Seeds fattening. Fl. improve blood (Yunani). lips sub-equal.8 cm. aphrodisiac. and dysentery. diuretic. NS. 2 outer large. PARTS USED :—Root. scalding of urine. galactogogue. Gokhran. biliousness. bracts. Vishnu Taila. ascites. subquadrangular. linear oblong. colic. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). useful in diarrhœa. Gokhalkanta. gonorrhoea. constipation. :—A stout herb. Africa. anæmia. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. expectorant. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Kolavalike. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node.. DISTR. Ekharo. 4-8 seeded. urinary calculi and discharges. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. tropical and S.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . tonic. HABITAT:—Swampy places. sedative to gravid uterus . 4 inner small. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. hairy. dysentery. and alterative tonic. :—Throughout India. aphrodisiac.

:—E. Thyme-leaved graticula . striate. Fruits are used in pickles. decussate. capsule. astringent to bowels . Fl. Bama. lobes equal spangled. Kamarakh. enlargement of spleen. NS. succulent. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Fl. See—Fruit Trees. Jany-May. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. astringent to bowels. DISTR. CHAR. branches many ascending. Brahmi. DISTR. anæmia. allays thirst. Jalneam. t. also used in diarrhœa. COM. digestible. Kirihuli. Karmal. rarely wild. emetic. "Vata". :—A glabrous. black dotted : entire. 2-lipped. . Brahmi. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). FAM. H. COM.. Karmar. K. pale blue or white. leprosy. Soumyalata. Karmare . sour.—Oxalidaceæ. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . it is cooling and antiscorbutic. tumours. Fr. acute. K. Mudgara. heating. pale. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. C. NS. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. LOC. Karuka. sessile. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. G. perhaps a native of Malaya. Carambola apple. Ceylon and all warm countries. Manduki. pungent. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . fruits.:—Konkan and Deccan. causes biliousness (Yunani). HABITAT :—Damp places. L. Tamarak. Kanara villages. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. :—E. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). causes biliousness. ovoid. 6-25 X 2. Sd.5-10 mm. useful in bad ulcers. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sk. Shiral. oblong. laxative. found wild near N. Coromandel gooseberry. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. solitary. inflammations. Nirbrahmi. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. tonic. fleshy. Kamaranga. indigestion. Safed-Kammi. LOC. dried fruit is given in fevers. with shining dots. Sk. Barambhi.:—Throughout India in wet places.—Scrophulariaceæ. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. M. LOC. obovate-oblong or spatulate.) FAM. M. axillary. Kamarakha. Kamrang. creeping herb. Fruit sour. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. when fresh. Darehuli. stems rooting at the nodes. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. Brahmi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. heats the body (Ayurveda). ascites.

:—E.8 m. sinuate. :—Bihar.—Burseraceæ. CHAR. They are used in dropsy. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. COM. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. Jamalgota. Assam. diseases of skin and abdomen. Seeds are poisonous. Sk. FAM. Guggula. N. NS. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). toothed. Guggula. obovoid. G. leaves and seeds. abundant on the hills of Karanja. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Danti. K. :—A stout undershrub. Peninsula. leucoderma. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. syphilis . the lower large. capsule. epilepsy and hoarseness. or in monsoon forests. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. K.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. LOC. purgative. Gugul.9-1. W. . Fr. ellipsoid. Dec. enlarged spleen. good in scabies. inflammations. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Danti. Root and leaves are cathartic. NS. often palmately 3-5 lobed. alexiteric. Danti. 0. PARTS USED :—Root. smooth. Fl. anasarca and jaundice. wounds. Vishodhini. :—Dry open Deccan plains. piles. LOC. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. aphrodisiac . mottled. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. FAM. Guggula. Dantika. useful in pains. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Hakum. LOC. Rechani. Kaduharalu. purifies blood. Guggul. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient.—Euphorbiaceæ. the upper small. Uddipta. yellowish. DISTR. Bengal. Mukul. Sk. M. L. t. Sd. Jatala. 2-glandular. anaemia. Leaf-juice. in monsoon forests of N. high. Fl. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Kanara. of three 2-valved cocci. diuretic. COM. epilepsy and hoarseness. jaundice (Ayurveda). conjoined with petroleum. anthelmintic. all male or with a few females below. M. branching from the roots. useful in insanity. Dantimul. H.. H. itching. leucoderma. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Burma. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. Devdhup. Chota Nagpur. :—G. Malaya. hairy. Gum gugul. Danti. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

aphrodisiac. Kudimah. tonic to liver. vaginal discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. flat. Root. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. blood diseases. cardiac and general tonic. blood diseases . cures strangury. urethral discharges. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. biliousness. cures biliousness.—pod. Timisha. astringent. burning sensation. menorrhagia. enriches blood. DISTR. seeds. aphrodisiac. dysmenorrhoea. :—E. Kohala. asthma. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. leprosy. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. Koholu. Kushmanda. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. tonic. Fl. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. appetising. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. urinary discharges and calculi.5 cm. DISTR. LOC. cures biliousness. anthelmintic. COM.-Feb. red and white. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. :—Cultivated throughout the State. Kondha. given' to corpulent persons. Fruit—antiperiodic. not indigenous. in dyspepsia and flatulence. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Sk. K. thirst. biliousness. tuberculous glands. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards.-Apl. fever. H. M. . ulcers. wounds and ulcers. bark and flowers. Sd. cough. Karkutika. used in strangury. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms.10-15. used in dry cough. Buds—indigestible. leprosy. removes foul taste from mouth.8-2. styptic in haematuria (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative.—Cucurbitaceæ. tonic. Shikhivardhaka. "Kapha". Bark—astringent to bowels. it is also anti-fat remedy. used in piles. asthma. Seeds— cooling. thirst. Bhuru-koholu. blood impurities. heart tonic (Ayurveda). oil from the seeds. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. tuberculous glands. FAM. Tallow-White gourd. Budekumbalkai. leucoderma. anal troubles. LOC. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. Kumaon. used as gargle in stomatitis. diuretic. eye diseases. There are two varieties. Dorokaru. G. Ash pumpkin. Fr. dehiscent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Burma. China. Sikkim. USES :—Root-decoction is given. cough. 15-20 X 1. Golkaddu. " Tridosha". t.

oblong. and diuretic. FAM. M. Tropical Africa. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. blood diseases. haemoptysis. laxative. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. fevers. good in syphilis (Yunani). cooling.—heads many. bitter.3—0. :—Annual herb. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). sweetish. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. H. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. cures bronchitis. M. heart diseases. finely silky pubescent on both sides. Kukkurdru. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. pungent. LOC. COM. :—G. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. base tapered. Fr. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity.—Jany. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. elliptic-oblong. catarrh. pubescent. Malaya. Konkan. Pilokapurio. febrifuge.:—In plains south of Bombay. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. S. . Fruit is made into confections. burning sensation. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. See—Vegetables. Deccan. thirst. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Kukurbanda. t. ash colored. Tamrachuda. Australia. CHAR. BLUMEA LACERA DC. etc. phthisis. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. Kakaronda.9 m.-Apl. Kakarunda. densely glandular.—Compositæ. LOC. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. Country. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst.—the lower ones petioled. 0. sharply serrate-dentate. Jangali-muli. Fl. Fl. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. good for the brain and liver. Mriduchhada. high. asthma. it is given in bleeding piles. pappus white. Kanara. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. anti-pyretic. with a strong odour of turpentine. :—Throughout plains of India. Sk. stem erect. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). China. Bhamurdi. mixed with black pepper.-achene. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. inner bracts with green midrib. Kalhar. not ribbed. it is also useful in insanity. and nutritious tonic. astringent. Oil—is soporific. Ceylon. often incised or lyrate. upper subsessile. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. L. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. NS. LOC. DISTR.

DISTR. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. expectorant. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. whitish beneath. Hogweed. inflammations. bluntly 5-ribbed. asthma. Shothaghni. HABITAT :—A weed. K. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. cultivated and self-sown. Varshabhu. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Brab tree. cultivated. 1. Kolaba and Thana districts. Tad. in pain of joints. alterative. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Santhikari. Dhvajadruma. Ceylon.—clavate. spleen enlargement. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Fr. . heart diseases. Tad. It is used in jaundice. Persian Gulf. India. M. very glandular . common in S. DISTR. :—E. :—E. Leaves— appetiser. fusiform. Fl. cooling . Africa and America. Kommegida. useful in biliousness. (Ayurveda). NS. Madhurasa. gonorrhœa. K.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white.—in corymbose umbels. Seeds—tonic. COM. Punarnava. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. Vasu. It produces a very marked and persistent.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. Asavardu. :—Tropical India. LOC.3—2 cm. Celyon. Moto-satodo. native of tropical Africa. carminative. t. FAM. L. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. useful in lumbago. blood impurities. :—A diffuse herb. Tad.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn.. Bitter. sub-orbicular. Uttar Pradesh. Indian Archipelago. P. COM. CHAR. H. Palmyra Palm. Lekhyapatra. Raktakanda. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. M. Burma. PARTS USED :—Root. Talimara. green above. Sk. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava).— Nov. alexiteric. margins undulate. Fl.—Palmæ. generally found in poorer soils. stem prostrate or ascending. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. abdominal pains. Plant contains large quantities of pot. Sk. G. tumours. —Nyctaginaceæ. LOC.—in unequal pairs at each node. root large. "Kapha" heating. Tala. Ghetuli. H. Baluchistan. Dholia-saturdo. useful in ophthalmia. Fan Palm. very small. anæmia. astringent to bowels . leaves and seeds. and dropsy. G. Desert Palm. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. pinkish. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. FAM. LOC. scabies. "Vata". leucorrhoea. NS. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn.

:—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Guggali. intoxicating. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. also found in Belgaum District. NS. laxative. leaves. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). Salpe. cough. hot. intoxicating. with a good flavour. Salashi. K. Sambrani. G. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. with a little salt added. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. fruits. cooling. useful in intestinal troubles. allays asthma. fattening. allays thirst. expectorant. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. helps delivery. . fruit and gum. ulcers . Bark-decoction. burning sensation. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. "Vata". thirst and scalding of urine. purifies blood. LOC. aphrodisiac. flowers. skin diseases. Fruit—cooling. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . See—Timbers. flowers. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. astringent to bowels. expectorant. Dhupam. fevers. Liquors. thirst. blood complaints . scabies. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. dry. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. M. Gums and Resins. removes "Kapha". antipyretic. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . invigorating. Mukulsalai. bad throat.. Luban. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. allays. Gum is of five kinds . its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). COM. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . " Vata". may cause vomiting.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. antibilious . also used as antiperiodic. cures dysentery. useful in biliousness. binding. convulsions. asthma. juice. tonic. causes headache. if taken regularly acts as laxative. fattening. PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Moddi. causes " Kapha ". Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. vaginal discharges. Fruit—aphrodisiac. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. diuretic . Vishesha-dhupa. Guggula. H. :—E. Dup. improves taste. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. Salgond. Salphali. Loban. DISTR. alexiteric. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. biliousness. bitter. Fermented juice—tonic. bronchitis. FAM. Sugars.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. heals wounds . purifies blood (Yunani). causes flatulence (Ayurveda). Kundur. tonic. fatigue. Dhup. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. strengthens teeth. Salai. diaphoresis. antidysenteric. LOC. used for boils. Indian olibanum tree. Gum—hot. aphrodisiac. mouth-sores.—Burseraceæ. useful in skin and blood diseases. antiglycosuretic.

In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. biles. eye-troubles. used with butter in syphilis . cure nose. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. spasmodic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. COM. rheumatism. . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. good in cough and for inflammations. Broach. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). " Vata". destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). neuralgic and rheumatic affections . HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. :—E. Khandesh. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. LOC. DISTR. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. NS. increase appetite . Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. kill external parasites. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. dispel fever . scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. Jwalanti. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Taramira . stomachic. Sk. LOC. ear. increase bile. chiefly in Nasik. FAM. lessen oedema of body. vermicide. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. bechic. Kali-rai. internal congestions. Gums and Resins. Seeds-laxative. and toothache. India. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. cure skin-dissases. See—Condiments and Spices. appetiser. good for throat complaints. G. Kaira. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. spleen. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. Black-True mustard. Surat. cure enlargement of spleen. Kari Sasive . Dharwar and Belgaum. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Sarshapa. Rai.—Cruciferae. Asuri. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Rajika. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. K. See—Timbers. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Seeds— remove cough tumours. anthelmintic . cause burning . as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . H. :—Cultivated in India. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Seeds act as digestive condiment . Mohori.

Suviraka. K.— membranous. glabrous . USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. NS. Apastambhini. PARTS USED :—Root. Malaya. 5-partite. Shivalingi. pungent. Manj. ovate-oblong. diam. Shivavalli. :—G. FAM. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. paler and smooth beneath. S. southward to Ceylon. LOC. streaked with broad vertical lines . tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. 10-15 cm. Ekalkanto.—Cucurbitaceæ. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. and in fevers with flatulence. LOC. long. bark. corolla companulate. Fr. Asana. margins sinuate denticulate. Fl. hot. globose.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. :—Deccan. COM. NS. LOC. tendrils 2-fid : L. Shivlingi. Kavodi. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. DISTR. deeply cordate base. Asana. Country. corolla as in the male . tropical Africa. Ishawara-Shivalingi. CHAR.. lobes oblong lanceolate. Garige. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Asana. Kaj.—baccate. :—An annual scandent herb. M. Mullu-siru Honne.:—Throughout India. Kassi. It is used in bilious attacks. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda).—yellowish brown. H. Patharphoda. Mahavira. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. :—G.. Sd. Chandra. Gargumaru. stem grooved. t. of Shivaling shape . 5-lobed.— Aug-Sept. Asana. heating. Gauli.. or few or many. Lingini. Mauritius. subsessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. Tans. Sk. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. 3—2 . lumbago. M. useful in "Vata". Gunjan. COM. Goge. Philippines. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. DISTR. Fl. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Ekadivi. Australia. female flowers solitary. M. FAM. 1 .—Euphorbiaceæ. bluish green. Lingaja. hemiplegia. alterative. bitter. 5 cm. See—Timbers. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. green and scabrid above. smooth. Khaja. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. H. Sk.

Zakhi-haiyat. decussate. Lonnahadakana gida. :—Hot and drier parts of India. binding. NS. LOC. leaves. Fr. Gujarat. Rajadana. S.—small. expectorant. aphrodisiac. DISTR. :—Native of tropical Africa. buds with root. ulcers. Tapaspriya. tonic. younger reddish. Char. "Vata" and biliousness. :—H. :—G. deciduous open forests.2 m. Stems obtusely 4-angled. purgative. elliptic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. laxative. Murukali. C. Deccan. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. H. S. carminative. constricted in the middle. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world.) FAM. HABITAT :—Dry. occasionally compound. Burma. CHAR. Pyalchar. Panphui. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. aphrodisiac. fattening. leaflets ovate. Cochin-China.—pendant. in large panicles. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . t. M. K. Snehabija. astringent to bowels. reddish purple. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). allays . crenate or serrate. fruit.—Crassulaceæ. DISTR. Char. See—Ornamental Plants.3-1. NS. Fl. LOC. Charoli. also wild. Charpoppu. the Dangs. burning sensation on body. gum (rarely). cures blooddiseases. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. purifies blood. seeds. Lalana. Panphuti. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). lower usually simple. vomiting. fevers. speckled with white. inflammations. boils and bites of venomous insects. Sk. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. FAM. upper 3-5-7 foliate.—Anacardiaceæ. M. cardio-tonic. COM. useful in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. LOC. Sk. :—Konkan. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).. lobes triangular. bruises. It is a disinfectant.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. with opposite branches . smooth. analgesic. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. Kolegeru. Char. K. PARTS USED :—Roots. Asthibhakshya. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". COM. cooling. the older light-coloured. Sd.—variable. Country. when punctured. Country. Paira. Parnabija. Priyal. alexipharmic. Charoli. Thailand (Siam). The bark is bitter and poisonous. Dhanu. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. L.—Jany.—swollen and octagonal at the base. thirst. high. :—Konkan. Deccan. M. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Cambodia. Leaf-juice digestive. M. Piyal.

BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. astringent. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. gonorrhœa. Fruit and seed—hot. G. Seeds tonic to body and brain. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. good in fevers. Kuntz. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. anthelmintic. H. Kshatadru. Gums and Resins. diseases of anus. Khakera. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Dyes. pimples. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Kakria. good in biliousness. lessens lumbago. Bastard teak. useful in piles. Khakda. LOC. strangury. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. useful in syphilis. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). emmenagogue. burning sensation. pterygium. if chewed. used in diseases of chest and lungs. anthelmintic. carminative. burning urine. Palas. corneal opacities. Gum—acrid. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . cold and cough. :—E. Dhak. laxative. digestible. eye diseases. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. bark. Muttala. piles. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. tonic to liver. diuretic . biliousness. fractures. lessens inflammations. thirst. leaves. gonorrhoea. gout. LOC. Sk. Tripatrak. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. hydrocele. stomachic. Leaf—very astringent. lessens biliousness. aphrodisiac. useful in elephantiasis. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). M. Fruit and seeds—oily. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. tumours. aphrodisiac. stomatitis. cures excessive perspiration. Flower—aphrodisiac. topically in piles and hydrocele. anthelmintic. cures ulcers and tumours. K. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. LOC. ascends to 1200 m. India.) FAM. Palas. aperient used in urinary discharges. purifies blood. good in dysentery. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. gum. DISTR. Bark—appetiser. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Flowers—cure " Kapha". skindiseases. seeds. Khakhrao. tonic. useful in bone fractures. leprosy. cause headache (Yunani). Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. cough. NS. Yajnika. COM. relieves abnormal thirst. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. buboes. Chichra. See—Timbers. Bark—appetiser. Gum—astringent to bowels. dry. used in liver disorders. Oils. dysentery. inflammations.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). expectorant. flowers. cure tumours. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . dysmenorrhoea. remove bad humours. prickly heat and itch.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Leaves—good for eye diseases. worms and piles. piles. Kinshuk. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Muttuga. in the Khandesh Akrani. colic. anthelmintic. Palash.

very common near the sea-coast. Sk. They are applied to orchitis. :—An extensive climber. antiperiodic. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. pinnae 6-8 pairs. :—E. hydrocele. Dyes. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch.—JulySept. :—Throughout India. strongly mucronate. Fruit—acrid. Physic nut. Leaves contain a glucoside. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. K. flowers and fruit.3 cm. . Kakechika. Gajaga. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. NS. astringent to bowels. Karanja. G.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. leucorrhcea. H. t. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Seed—styptic. Fl. Gajjige. long . PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. fevers. densely armed on the faces with prickles. 5-7. petioles prickly. etc. Katkaleja. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. leprosy (Yunani). heating. M. Katkaranj. asthma and colic. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. Flowers are astringent. Sd. skin-diseases. cures inflammation . aphrodisiac and diuretic. prevents contagious diseases . Gums and Resins. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. anthelmintic .—yellow. CHAR. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . Gum solution is applied to bruises. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. leaves. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Sind.—pod. long.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. oblong 5-7. the tropics generally. Kuberakshi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Deccan hills. act as rubefacient. See—Timbers. LOC. aphrodisiac. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. Fl. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). elliptic-oblong. shortly stalked. Fr. LOC.5 cm. DISTR. FAM. lead-colored 1.—abruptly pinnate. L. ringworm.—1-2 oblong. piles. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles.) COM. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. anthelmintic. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". 30-60 cm. cures urinary discharges. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base.5 X 4. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Gajga. Sagargota.5 cm. malaria. wounds. sprouts useful in tumours. Fever nut. useful in colic. Tapasi.

FAM. Ak. Br. M. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. base cordate. gum. Sk. Surpan. Purasakeshera. Kshiranga. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. FAM. used in chronic fevers. covered with cottony pubescence. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Arka. Punnag. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. Kshirparni. Undi. COM.4-3 m. Sk. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Akand. See—Timbers.. Ark. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. thick. both surfaces tomentose. Sultanchampa. Surangi. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Madar.—Guttiferæ. K. Dholaakdo. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). high. elliptic or ovate oblong. CHAR.H.. L. NS. lessens appetite. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Ekke. East African Islands. Shuka-phala. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. :—E. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. DISTR. . often gregarious. Rui. Alexandrian laurel. :—E. Gigantic swallow-wort. Madar. Oils. NS.. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. H.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. Akdo. 2. branches stout. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". The gum from wounded branches. LOC. and oil. Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.. M. Mandara. COM. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Surhonne. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. Kanara associated with littoral species. 10-20 X3. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. Tungakeshera. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark.— opposite.—Asclepiadaceæ. Ponne. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Polynesia. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Punnaga. and for its oil. Ceylon. astringent. Australia. sometimes amplexicaul. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Arka. much branched.8-10 cm. very common in N. :—Cultivated throughout India.. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Vuma. K. Mandara. Undi. :—A large shrub. sessile. G.

astringent. oleaginous. purgative. expectorant and anthelmintic. broad. cures asthma and syphilis. swellings. spongy.—lobes deltoid-ovate. apex with two auricles. M. FAM. Malay Islands and S. Madar..MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. asthma. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. Mandara. Fl. Sd. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. . ascites and anasarca.-July. elliptic or obovate.8-2. Safedak. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. subglobose. Rajarka.—Asclepiadaceæ.—7. buds ovoid. Milk— heating. elephantiasis. lobes usually erect. Flower—analgesic. tumours. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. buds globose. See—Fibres. cures piles and "Kapha". Ak. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. catarrh and loss of appetite. across. painful joints . Juice—anthelmintic.5 cm. laxative. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . Sk. piles.5-10 X 5-7. rat-bite. corona shorter than the column.— purplish in umbellate cymes. alterative and purgative properties. NS. tonic and stomachic in action. also useful in intestinal worms. Flowers—stomachic. Fr. bark corky. CHAR. Milk— caustic... 9-10 cm. India. ascites. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. L. ellipsoid or ovoid. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. C.—about 2.—follicles. Mandara. cures leprosy. purplish or white. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda).5 cm. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. dropsy. young parts white. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. very common. back much curved. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. used in cough. very common is S. cottony. scabies. bark. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. flattened tomentose. depilatory. ulcers. useful in leprosy. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. high. acrid . LOC. Br. t. green. cures inflammations. Ark.—broadly ovate. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.—subsessile. heal wounds. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . Flowers—digestive. cures leucoderma. liver and spleen enlargement. DISTR. China. spleen and liver diseases.—in umbellate cymes.7—15 X 4.:—H. C. COM. :—An erect shrub usually 1. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. good for liver (Yunani). Sd:—many. asthma.— Feb. Fl. ringworm of scalp. diaphoretic. tumours.2 cm. Ceylon. leaves and flowers. Root-bark is diaphoretic. comose .5-8. Fr.4 m. leaves applied to paralysed parts. coughs. ovate oblong. comose. eruption on body. usually 5. long.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. erect. M. The pods contain vitamin A. acrid. P. staminodial segments. COM. M.. Kamakshi. indigestible. L. biliousness. green. narrow. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. Kadavare.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Akalabera. Sema.—segments 2. tropical Africa.:—Perennial herb . (Chopra). Arabia. Tamateballi. cooling. NS. Waziristan. veins arching. membranous. H. hernia and colic. Asishimbi. PARTS USED :—Leaves. DISTR. LOC. abundant in Sind. Devakeli. Kardali. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. See—Vegetables. Egypt.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. Sk.. oval or orbicular. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. on trees and hedges . stem 0. greenish or colored. H. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. Sarvajaya.5 cm. Kadsambu. Shimbi.—Scitaminaceae. ulcers (Ayurveda). Sabbajaya. Paraholiya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. flowers and milky juice. root-stock tuberous. COM. tonic. Warm leaves used as poultice. 3 sub-erect. G. K. :—E.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. FAM. they are given in cholera. Fl. DISTR. Abai. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. Sambe. LOC. Tarvardi. LOC. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. FAM. Kalehu. but doubtfully wild. lanceolate to ovate.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. appetiser. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. PARTS USED :—Pods. CHAR.2 m. Broad—Sword bean. Koshaphala. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Gavara. useful in burning sensations. Sk. CANNA INDICA Linn.9-1. Shitarambha. Nilashimbika. Gigantea. spatulate. Indian shot.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. Iran. NS. G.3 cm. Sarvajaya. high .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). long. Hudingana. Flowers used as detergent. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Afghanistan. 1 linear . :—E. Gavria. See—Fibres. Khadsambal. bracts oblong. K.

3-lobed. useful in " Kapha". Not indigenous. imbricate. Sd. Siddhapatri. astringent to bowels. Fl. globose. serrate. alterative .MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. (2) Bhang. lessen inflammation. :—E. Unmattini. female crowded under convolute bracts. PROPERTIES AND LOC. black. They are broken in small pieces. DISTR. oil-good for earache. soporific. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. Sk. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. piles. Central Asia. seeds and resin. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). causes biliousness. LOC. :—Throughout India. cough. tonic. Shivapriya. intoxicating. usually 0. :—Widely cultivated in India. LOC. Seeds—carminative.—many. sepals 5. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Vijaya. See—Ornamental Plants. CHAR. shining. dioecious. L. Bhangi. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. Harshini. (3) Charas. melancholia. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. heating. male fascicled. intoxication (Ayurveda). flowers and seeds. impotence. FAM. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). dropsy. upper 1-3. Hemp. LOC. antidiarrhoeic. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. G. male flowers. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). Female inflorescence is stomachic. good for hydrocele. K. stomachic. leprosy. abortifacient. Bhang. Ganja. tonic. causes thirst. Leaves—bitter.9-1. t. DISTR. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. female perianth hyaline. Mohini. Ganja.—more or less throughout the year. hot. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . aphrodisiac. leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. Fl. check vomiting. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. echinulate . PARTS USED :—Roots. leaves. flowers. causes thirst and biliousness. Bhang.—alternate or the lower opposite. Wild in the Himalayas. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. astringent.—small axillary. hallucinations. intoxication. also wild. high in its feral state. soporific. insanity.—Urticaceæ. Fr. cause headache. COM. excessive use causes indigestion.—achene.5 m. Bark—tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. restlessness. water extract anthelmintic. useful in convulsions. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered.—sub-globose or oblong . aphrodisiac. H. M. Ganja. lower 3-8 foliate. NS. Fr.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. PARTS USED :—Bark. inflammations. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases.

M. often found as an escape. Madana modak used in cough. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. Mirchi. See—Condiments and Spices. M. loss of consciousness. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. dysuria. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Capsaicin and Solanin. See—Gums and Resins. and dropsy. acute mania. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. Mirchi. The fruit contains Capsisin. spermatorrhoea. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Vegetables. H.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. The plant contains cannabinin. DISTR. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. Ujjvala. COM. in the form of electuary. increases appetite. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Tivrashakti. NS. whooping cough. Fruit—pungent. asthma. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. Menshinkai. . Chillies. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). delirium (Ayurveda). expectorant. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. increases biliousness. diarrhœa. Raktamaricha. FAM. Cayenne-pepper. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. weakness of body. Marichiphala. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. and flatulence. LOC. Lalmirchi. Sk. cholera.—Solanaceæ. Country in Deccan. Tikshna. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. useful in indigestion. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. chronic ulcers. and is employed by Indian physicians. :—Cultivated all over India. :—E. muscular pains. Fibres. LOC. Narcotics. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. dyspepsia. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. also in gout. G. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. It is stomachic. Marchu . useful in brain complaints. K. erysipelas. Lanka mirchi.

introduced. abscesses and ulcers. Maniju balli. skin-diseases. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. Blister creeper. PARTS USED :—Root. Kumbhi. HABITAT :—In hedges . DISTR. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. C.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. H. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. K. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils.—Myrtaceæ. G. NS. Karnasphota. bark. alexiteric. Ghats. Kumbi. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. dry. diuretic and aperient. Kumbhi. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . PROPERTIES AND LOC. common in S. black. LOC. Kangu. anthelmintic. Root. trigonous. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. winged at the angles. 2-ternate. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. petals 4. colic.—globose.—Sapindaceæ. Thailand (Siam). subglobose. very acute apex. Kalindi. The plant contains saponin. flowers and fruits. See—Timbers. Sk. Wild guava . rounded at the apex. :—Throughout India. COM. hot. Kumbha. Ceylon. Fr. ultimate segments lanceolate. Jyotish-mati. leaves and seeds. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. deltoid. Root is considered diaphoretic. Karolio. K. and is administered in fevers. :—E. CHAR. Deccan. M. dyspepsia. " Vata ". G. smooth. :—E. aphrodisiac. bronchitis. FAM. Gavvahannu. leucoderma. Kapalphodi. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. urinary discharges. bladdery . M. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. inciso-serrate. when moistened. Sk. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Girikarnika. piles. Fruit—acrid. Konkan and W. it is mucilaginous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. Malay Peninsula.—white. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. FAM. . Hennumatti. Daddala.—capsule. LOC.— alternate. NS. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. COM. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. useful in tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. Shaundi. Sind. DISTR. Fl. Sakralata. Fibres. Balloon vine. epileptic fits. Kanphuti. L. :—Most warm countries. Sd. LOC. Vakambi. bark. Agni-erum. stem wiry.

is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. Guppe. expectorant. Dyer's saffron. astringent to bowels. Safflower. diuretic. "Tridosh". Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. wounds of urinary track. Indies. Papaw. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. DISTR. aphrodisiac. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. NS. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Pangi. causes burning sensation . removes urinary concretions . Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Mexico and Brazil. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). Ahmednagar and Nasik. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. FAM. PARTS USED :—Leaves. bleeding piles. LOC. strangury. NS. scabies. made into curries. appetiser . Agnishikha. removes biliousness . Papaya. relieves obesity. Popayi. :—E. :— E. Seeds—oleaginous. Papita. FAM. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. leprosy. Papayi. Kamalottama. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). White thin latex contains Papain. bronchitis. Karada. :—Native throughout India. "Kapha". bile. Kusumba. Kusumbha. hypnotic. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. green fruit is laxative and diuretic.—Caricaceæ. Chibda. Kardai. Kusumbo. unripe fruit. cooling. Papaya. Kusumba. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. piles. G. appetiser. seeds and oil. Sk. . K. heating. LOC. K. :—Grown extensively in Poona. diuretic. Leaves—hot. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. COM. Sk. See—Fruit Trees. Pappayi. LOC. used. fruit and seeds. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. depilatory.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. aphrodisiac. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths.—Compositæ. G. leucoderma. flowers. M. Nalikadala. cures inflammations. H. H. cause biliousness. Flower—tonic to liver. cure urinary discharges. it is used to procure abortion. Fruit—stomachic. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. DISTR. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. cures inflammation. HABITAT :—Cultivated. in haemoptysis. digestive. cures insanity (Ayurveda). diuretic. of W. enlargement of spleen. Papaya. carminative. cure "Vata". COM. Kusumba. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Barre. Oil—indigestible. laxative. Karrak. ringworm. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Chirbhita. good for eyes.

chest pains. The seeds bitter and hot. Dadamardana. Oma. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. COM. stomachic. spleen. aphrodisiac. See—Vegetables. NS :— E. Dyes. Europe. purgative. M. Iran. bitter. good for old people. leaflets 10-12 pairs. Simyatase. Ajamo .—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. liver. oblique at the base. LOC. appetiser. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. emmenagogue and sedative. Winged senna. piles. aphrodisiac . vomiting. K. M. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. good for ear boils. Sk. CASSIA ALATA Linn. FAM. inflammation (Yunani). Tivragandha. give lustre to eyes. Dwipagasti. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. enlargement of spleen. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. H. Ajamoda. :—Cultivated extensively in India. LOC. bechic. CHAR. stimulate intestines. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. L. Dadmardan. Datka pat. mucronate. hiccup. long. good for heart and tooth-ache. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. cure ascites. rachis . strengthening. Dodda sagate. Dadrughna. :—E. Elgra. abdominal tumours. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. carminative. vomiting. G. enrich blood. Oil—good in all diseases. and even in cholera. anthelmintic. and diarrhœa. dyspepsia. NS. myrabolans and rock salt. diuretic. Afghanistan. Seeds—purgative. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . Baluchistan. Bishops' weed . DISTR. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Ajwain. Leaves contain vitamin A. abdominal pain. Dipyaka. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. pungent. COM. carminative. oblong-obtuse. Owa. tonic and carminative properties. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). tonic. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. kidney troubles. See—Condiments and Spices. atonic dyspepsia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. Ringworm shrub. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. paralysis. Omu . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. downy beneath. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. 30-60 cm. H. pinnate. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. Sk. laxative. They are administered in flatulence. Oils. FAM.—Umbelliferæ. subsessile. Egypt. they are used in jaundice . K. chest and throat pains. improve speech and eyesight. stimulant. cure catarrh. carminative. good in weakness of limbs. Ajowan.

10-20 X 1. ringworm. Mukerji). CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. Madhya Pradesh and W. M. Tarwad. useful in vomiting. LOC. NS. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. K. Mayahari.) COM. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. Tangadi. 20-25.. t. Ph. Bark has the same properties. dull green above. :—Introduced into India. buds in yellow bracts. DISTR. asthma . rachis densely pubescent. bark smooth. LOC. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. thirst. CHAR. Tarwad. itching. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration.3-1. " In eczema. 28-4-88). .6 cm. M. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. good for ulcers. pale beneath. Pitakilaka.—bright yellow with darker veins. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. cures tumours.—30-35. asthma. C.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Indies. straight. Peninsula. very likely a native of the W. urinary discharges .-50 or more. 5 cm. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). Sd. LOC. obliquely septate. :—E. skin diseases.-July.—pod. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. leprosy. nocturnal emissions. Sakusina. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve.-Oct. reddish brown. H. N. Ceylon. rotundate. leaflets 8-12 pairs. cure " Vata ". leaves. G. Fl.5 X 10 cm. LOC. Taroda. rhombohedral. Fl. and throat troubles. Gujarat and S. membranous. anthelmintic. J.—Jany. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. L. fruits and seeds. Fl.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. diabetes.—in spiciform. Avartki. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub.—7. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. Fr. mucronate. Charmaranga.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. Fr. The whole plant. Sk. alexipharmic . In cases of bronchitis and asthma. flowers. Ahmed. long. skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). Sd.. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . causes flatulence . stipules very large. useful in thirst. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. cough. yellow with orange veins. FAM. DISTR.. Awal. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). t. HABITAT :—Planted. PARTS USED :—Root.—pod long. oblong-obovate. reniform. Avarike. pedunculate racemes . slightly overlapping. Fl. Tanner's cassia. across. along the sea coast in laterite region. Burma. vermicide (Ayurveda). cm.—large. Country.

In Konkan. Sk. Dodda-tagase. 10—12. laxative. DISTR. Suvarnaka.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. Balla. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. Aragina. carminative. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Pudding-pipe or stick. :—E. Fruit—digestible. Rankasvinda. eye-diseases.5 cm. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. purgative. Kasari. Leaves lessen inflammation. hard. G. K. often purplish.—20-30. Fl. Kasondi. :—Throughout India. antipyretic. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. NS. Fr. :—E. M. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. distinctly torulose. Rechana. cooling. Fl. leprosy. leaflets 3-5 pairs.) COM. astringent. (Ayurveda). Stinking weed. smooth. Negro coffee. Amaltas. cures burning sensation. heal ulcers . G. used in rheumatism. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. purgative. demulcent. Chimkani. Bandartauri. H. Arimarda. yellow. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. Sd. Kasonda. Ornamental Plants. LOC. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis.. Rajataru. juice given in erysipelas. axillary and forming a terminal panicle.) COM. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. Kakka. Garmala. cause flatulence. Leaves—anti-periodic . Seeds—emetic (Yunani). flowers. Bahava. Flowers—improve taste. 15-20 cm. Golden shower. CHAR. Sk. rheumatism. faintly veined with orange . improve appetite. See—Timbers.— Jany-March. H. also planted. Ceylon.—petals 5. Kacodari. branches furrowed. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Kasoda. Konde. throat-troubles. long. K. useful in chest and liver complaints.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Vyadivata. cooling. griping. leaves. Kasmarda. shining dark olive-green. t. It is a mild laxative. NS. Fruit—antipyretic. Tans. L. syphilis. ovate-lanceolate. Indian laburnum. cure " Kapha ". fruit and seeds. See—Dyes. Kasundari. Hema-puspha. and Famine Plants. C. FAM. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Ane sogate. recurved. tuberculous glands. Arogyashimbi. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base.—very foetid when bruised. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. Seeds— oily. base somewhat oblique. apex acute. transversely septate. Flowers—purgative. abortifacient. long. Burma.—pods. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. safe for children and pregnant women. biliousness . .—in few flowered racemes. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. M. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. PARTS USED :—Root. corymbose. Chakinda. FAM.

heals wounds. fevers. The bark. Fl. LOC. C. in Kutch.—18-23 cm. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. Leaves—aphrodisiac. high. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—A shrub 2. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. :—G. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. H. mixed with honey. Kasundari. hiccup. lanceolate.Jany.510 cm. " Vata ". CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. CHAR. obtuse. 7. See—Famine Plants. In many countries root is considered diuretic. leaves and seeds. " tridosha " . See—Famine Plants. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. LOC. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. The plant contains glucoside emodin.4-3 m. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. Sd. petals 5. PARTS USED :—Root. opposite. LOC. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. . base rounded. and seeds are cathartic. tonic and febrifuge. cures ascites. are given in diabetes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. yellow..—in axillary. slightly recurved. alexiteric. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. Kasamarda. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . At Kotra. with a solitary conical gland near the base . Fr. dark brown . cough. FAM.—30-40 broadly ovoid. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. M. LOC. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. leaves and seeds. Banar.. K. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). turgid.— Nov. stomachic. Fl. elephantiasis. asthma. cure " Kapha". :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). when mixed with sandal-wood paste. Seeds used in heat of the blood. rachis grooved . few flowered corymbose racemes. Sk. Baskikasondi. annual or perennial. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. leaflets 6-10 pairs. DISTR. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. leaves. L. ovate. t. septate between the seeds . Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. Talapota. Kasondi. Kasamarda. NS.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—pod. Ran tankala. long . A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant.

alternate. Chakramarda. hot. Svarnalata. reddish brown. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. K. laxative. Fr. capsule. Kangli. Madras State. CHAR. small yellowish-green. leaflets 3 pairs. Sd. obovate. 7. Tarota. pale yellow. K. 12. L. globose. Taragosi. Foetid cassia. LOC. expectorant. Ceylon. unarmed. upper petal 2-lobed . remove "Vata" and "Kapha". Malhangana.5-10 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. rachis grooved. crenate. in drooping panicles. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Seeds—bitter.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. appetiser.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malkamni.5 mm. 30-90 cm. leaves and seeds. covered with lenticels. :—E. COM. high. bright yellow. Kangodi. opposite (lowest smaller).—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. Climbing-staff plant. 18 m. Sk. :—A very common weed all over the State. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Velo . ovate or obovate. emetic. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. LOC. cause burning sensation.. brain and liver tonic. much curved when young. aphrodisiac.8-7. Burma. Sk. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. M. Fr. X 4. 1-6 completely covered with red. long. high. G.—pod. Fl. obliquely septate. Dadamari. bitter. oblong. M. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Tagache. branches rough. H.5 cm. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Pamad. CHAR. Kanguni. L. Kangani.— petals 5. C. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. Panevar. Malkakni. Taga. usually unisexual. Malkangoni. stem upto 23 cm. shining above. in diam. Fl.) COM. :—E. PARTS USED :— Root.—pinnate. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. Black-oil tree. Dadrughna. :—Large deciduous climber.—after the rains. fleshy arillus. t. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. Takala. Intellect tree. H. The plant contains glucoside emodin.—Celastraceæ..:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. DISTR. base oblique. . HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Sphutabandhani. powerful brain tonic. :—An annual foetid herb. FAM. 6. NS. FAM. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. DISTR. NS.. Sd. Chakunda.5-20 cm. Chagoche. cure joint-pains. Seeds— acrid. Jyotishmati.3-10 X 3.

reniform. t. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. Vondelaga. Brahmamanduki. pink. Fl. :—Throughout India. FAM. COM. gout.).—opposite. . good for cough and asthma. M. Fl. obovate or oblong. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. Brahmi. stem creeping with long internodes. :—A slender herbaceous plant. pink. G. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. ovoid. radical leaves revolute.—tubular lobes 5. they are also sudorific. Mahaushadhi. high. Fr. cloves. L. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. rooting at the nodes. Sk. base deeply cordate stipulate. Jangli-karayatu.—Feb. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium.—3 from each node. :— E.-Apl.—in fascicled umbels. CHAR. spreading star-like . The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. Deccan and S.—May-Nov. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. and is employed for external application. K. M. DISTR. LOC. orbicular. linear-oblong. Country. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. aphrodisiac and stimulant. used in leprosy. :—Konkan.—Umbelliferæ. Seeds are hot. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork.). Jhinkun-kariatum. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. Fl. H. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. Ekpani. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. C. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Oil stomachic. tonic. CHAR.—Gentianaceæ. Brahmamanduki. H. hard-rugose. M. L. Don. elliptic. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. cauline smaller. :—G. narrowly oblong . Lahanchirayat. paralysis and leprosy. Fr. NS. persistent. Vallari . t. NS. Mandukparni. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. long. LOC. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. Fl. COM. Barmi. FAM. especially in Bengal.—capsule.—4 mm. minute.

Tande. Leaves are also diuretic. :—Throughout India and Ceylon.—Apocynaceæ. ointment. . COM. carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Plant—bitter. digestible. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. used in insanity (Ayurveda). The plant contains glucoside cerberin. USES :—Bark is purgative. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. China. fruit. Sukanu. bitter. cooling. Kanara. improves appetite (Yunani). Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. stomachic. Honde. voice. LOC. biliousness. bronchitis. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . bronchitis. plaster or bath are used. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. anæmia. antipyretic. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. diuretic. memory. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. :—South Konkan and N. LOC. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. milky juice. leaves and seeds). Chanda. FAM. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. nut is narcotic and poisonous . LOC. alterative. inflammations. asthma. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". cures leucoderma. alexiteric. fevers. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. scalding of urine. :—K. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. water courses throughout the State. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tonic. spleen enlargement. " Kapha ".MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. abundant on the Malabar Coast. sedative to nerves. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. M. PARTS USED :—Bark. Leaf-powder. soporific. tonic. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. cures hiccup. asthma. DISTR. laxative. cardio-tonic.) DISTR. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. small-pox. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. NS. :—Throughout India near the coast. Australia Pacific Islands. For external use powder. clears voice and brain. and a bitter substance odollin. bechic. urinary discharges. :—In moist situations (streams. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. Malay Archipelago. thirst. blood diseases. nallas. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. twigs. headache .

K. Balabhojya. . Sk. NS. :—E. useful in biliousness. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Fruit is very sour . H. Cheel. G. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tonic to liver. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. LOC. The fruit is acrid and astringent. "Vata". H. LOC.) FAM. acrid. The plant yields an essential oil. HABITAT :—Cultivated. fruit and seeds. H. FAM. aphrodisiac. Pandu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite.. Tanko.—Chenopodiaceæ. Lavali. :—Widely distributed. Rai-avala. DISTR. K. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). LOC. Rayara nelli. also cultivated as a pot herb. Chana. Chandanbedu. vomiting. Chalmeri. Deccan and S. Chanaka. See—Fruit Trees. useful in thirst. Country. sour . Vajibhakshya. M. Chillika. COM. :— E. Chakwat. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in bronchitis. root and the seed are cathartic. piles . Ksharadala. Chana. Chick pea. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Chania. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. throattroubles. laxative. biliousness. eye-diseases. LOC. M. biliousness. COM. But. Bathusag. M. "Kapha". HABITAT :—Cultivated. anthelmintic. Wild-spinach. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Laveni. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. Goose-foot. oleaginous. improves appetite. Bengal—Common-gram. :—E. :—Very common in the Deccan. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Sk. Chakravarti. USES :— Root is purgative. heart.—Euphorbiaceæ. fragrant. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. tonic. diuretic. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. G. spleen (Ayurveda). diseases of blood. Chakravati. Kadale. FAM . Skandhaphala. LOC. Kanchuki. M. Sk. Harparauri K. Agralohita. :—Cultivated in India. CICCA ACIDA Merr. Harparrevdi.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. piles. NS. Country gooseberry. Harbara. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. abdominal pains. NS. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. constipation. Kari-Kempukadale. urinary concretions. COM. Chunna.

Dalchini. Oil—carminative. Sk. See—Condiments and Spices. anthelmintic. Gudatwaka. diarrhœa. Kanara district. . aphrodisiac. Peninsula. seed and acid exudation. :—G. alexiteric. Burma. Dalchini. Dalchini. good for diseases of liver and spleen. flatulence. abortifacient. useful in " Vata ". useful in loss of appetite. DISTR. pains . toothache (Ayurveda). useful in bronchitis. itching. tonic to hair. Lavange-hakke. Valkala. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. Duk. M. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. carminative. flatulence. Dalchini. H. aphrodisiac. emmenagogue. causes flatulence. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. astringent to bowels . headache. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. Oil—styptic. throat troubles. bronchitis (Yunani). :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. piles. bronchitis. LOC. pungent. Leaves contain vitamin A. rectum and urinary diseases. refrigerant. indigestion. COM. useful in hydrocele. causes flatulence. causes salivation. enriches blood. tonic. LOC. Oils. NS. Seed—indigestible. chest complaints. anthelmintic . diarrhœa and dysentery. expectorant. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. tonic .—Lauraceæ. Ceylon. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). See—Food Plants. appetiser. biliousness. :— Bark and oil. blood troubles. throat troubles. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. useful in inflammations. leprosy. cold in head. very common in the N. Nisane. heart. Malay Peninsula. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. tonic. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Bark—tonic. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. cures skin diseases. Darchini. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. cures thirst and burning. aphrodisiac. biliousness. aphrodisiac. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. vomiting. Leaves—purgative. abdominal pains. thirst. heated brain. headache. indigenous and cultivated. LOC. :—W. liver-tonic . Kash. It possesses carminative. vomiting. strengthens liver. carminative. hiccup. Seed—stimulant. toothache. foul mouth and fever. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). parched mouth. improve taste and appetite. K. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. useful in cold. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. PARTS USED. etc. It checks nausea and vomiting. cure bronchitis.

FAM. burning. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. L. Asso. diam. branches more or less pubescent.5-20 cm. upto 25 cm. Venivalli. Patha. C. Sd. fever. :—In hills. NS. yellowish. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. angular . Fl.-Jany. sub-globose. Indruk. :— E. Mahendravaruni. Kanara. which possibly has a cholinergic action. t. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . Velvet-leaf. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Tumtikayi. red or yellowish white. 5-partite.—Menispermaceæ.—large. Ghorumba. margins ciliate. Indrayana. Indraphal. FAM. Fl. COM. asthma . destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". G. Annual Report. dropsy and cough. monœcious. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). somewhat hairy. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. mucronate. Katurasa. Venivel. (Ind. Pavamekke Kayi. L. cordate at the base. M. 3. COM. Trapusi. :—Deccan. itching .e. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. 7. M. heart troubles. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed.8-10 cm. Africa and America. also for prolapsus uteri. Uthika. young shoots woolly. uterine complaints. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. long. H. skin eruptions. R. or twin. Paharmul. G.—A climbing shrub. PARTS USED :—Root. Indrayan. The active constituent of the drug. minute. H. peltate. E. DISTR. Fr. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. smooth.. female flowers in elongate. removes pain. leaves. lobes obovateoblong. axillary racemes . K. Nirbisi. warm parts of Asia. tendrils bifid. diam. Bitter apple. :—An extensively climbing annual. dysentery. Fl.—Cucurbitaceæ. male flowers in axillary cymes. orbicular or reniform.— usually margined. removes intestinal worms. 5-nerved. helps parturition. useful in hemicrania. Chitraphala. F. . alleviates vomiting. Makal. HABITAT. diarrhœa.. Colocynth. hairy. i. CHAR. flesh juicy. waxy coated. Indrayan. Pahadvel. NS. deeply divided or but moderately lobed.—Nov. drupe. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. greenish. :—E. compressed. Sk. 1949). Sk. has been isolated. red. subglobose. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. in conjunction with aromatics. an alkaloid. LOC. CHAR. subcampanulate. LOC.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. Kaduvrindavan.—July-Sept. yellow within. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. solitary. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. FL t. greenish outside. stem thick. Fr. solitary.

fortifies chest. good in vomiting and skin diseases. antipyretic. constipation. useful in biliousness. elephantiasis . :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. Also indigenous in Arabia. removes " Vata ". relieves vomiting and retching. chest troubles. FAM. Kirmirtvaka. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. DISTR. Rind— anthelmintic. Narangi. aphrodisiac . tonic. LOC. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. asthma. good in fevers. M. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. anthelmintic . fever and worms. :—Widely cultivated in India. Doddile. H. with or without nux-vomica. Flower— stimulant. astringent. Narange. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. sea-shores. LOC. " Kapha". tuberculous glands of neck. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. sweet and has agreeable flavour. anæmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. anthelmintic. leuco-derma. K. dyspepsia. Sk. and lumbago. jaundice. tonic. bowel complaints. Tvakasugandha. constipation. Fruit—sour. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. aphrodisiac. Naringa. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . LOC. enlargement of spleen. Kittale. throat diseases. :—Konkan. urinary discharges. bronchitis. (Poona. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. ascites. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . G. Sunthura. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). pain in joints. removes biliousness. carminative. Ceylon. Gujarat. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. N. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. useful in piles. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Narenj. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). ulcers. Naringi. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. laxative. In the Konkan fruit and root. DISTR.—Rutaceæ. Santra. purgative. Asia. :— E. removes fatigue . COM. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). enlargement of spleen. diuretic. cooling. Root and fruit cooling. epilepsy. relieves colds. LOC. Deccan. cures tumours. W. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Nagaranga. NS. Cardiotonic. Sukkare-kanji. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated.

INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Mahaphala. dry and tonic .66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. useful in vomiting. thirst. Motalimbu . Turanj. though there are no regular plantations. flowers. Kutla. Thora-limbu. Bera nimbu. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Harale. increase appetite. The fruits contain vitamins A. . Adam's apple. G. Fruit—sweet and sour. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. astringent to bowels . the pulp cold and dry. its preserve is used for dysentery. K. COM. M. Mahaphala. jaundice. Rusaki. tonic and astringent properties. NS. fruits and seeds. Bijoru. :— E. Bijaura. cures leprosy. Seeds—indigestible. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. Madala. Bijapurna. leaves and flowers hot and dry. seeds. Idalimbu. asthma. H. Citron . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. digestible. COM. :—E. Lemon . Mavalunga. anthelmintic. flatulence. cough. aphrodisiac. H. bark and fruit. B and C. VAR. Paharinimbu . hiccup. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. DoddaGaja-nimba. NS. LOC. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Limonum. M. Ghats. LOC. Ruchaka. removes colic. tonic. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. said to be wild in W. Balank. Mahanimbu. G. relieves sore-throat. cough. :—Roots. Devamadala. anasarca and chronic fever. oily. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. useful in abdominal complaints. Matulunga. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). relieve vomiting. stimulant. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Jambira. gastric irritability in general and general debility. heating. sharp. See—Fruit Trees. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. FAM. Flowers—stimulant. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. Amlakeshara. Sk. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Citron rind is hot. USES. Matalunga. also corrects foetid breath. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Turanj. LOC. used in constipation and tumours. PARTS USED :—Root. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". with a sharp taste. anæmia. According to Theophrastus. Mahalunga. the juice allays ear-ache. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. the fruit is an expellent of poisons.:—Grown in gardens in the State. asthma. juice refrigerant and astringent. intoxication. PARTS USED. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Matunga. HABITAT :—Cultivated. rind of the fruit is bitter.—Rutaceæ.

COM. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. VAR. Nimbuka. H. t. FAM. relieves vomiting . entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Limbe. measles. improves liver. Khatalimbu. Fl. where there is dry skin and much thirst. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani).5 cm. NS. not good in old age. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. long ovate or orbicular. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. constipation. :—An extensive climber. cures abodominal complaints. Nimbu. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy.—in axillary corymbose panicles. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne.—Sept.—petals O. plethora. Kagadi limbu. white. Churhar. Nimbu. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Rochana. Fruit—sour. Nimbe. Murhari. ovoid. Lebu.—Ranunculaceæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC. whole plant tomentose. Limbu. Acida. leaves (rarely). it cures and prevents scurvy. burning in the chest. . G. vomiting. Morata. PARTS USED :—Fruit. COM.Nov.—achenes. Murva. Morhari. stimulant . scarletina. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. stomachic.—simple or once ternate. but often found trailing amongst grass. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Fl. petioles twinning. bronchitis . M. Fr. throat trouble. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Devashreni. Nebu. sharp taste. Moravel. brain disorders. Sk. blades 2-2. heart. Limpaka. Madhulika. Acid-Sour lime . loss of appetite. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. eyes . lobes mucronate. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Snuva. Lebu. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . Dhantiate. sepals 4-6. relieves biliousness. L. Sk. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. CHAR. Ranjai. hairy outside. H. :—E. LOC. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. K. it helps digestion. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. NS. with flavour. silky villous. See—Fruit Trees. appetiser. hemicrania. fatigue . successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. with long feathery tails . Morvel. also useful in rheumatism. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. K. :—G. anthelmintic. Amlasara. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. C. M. Oil from rind. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief.. Shodhana.

Adityabhakta. Hulhul. 30-90 cm. Fl. Harhuria. FAM. stimulant.—Verbenaceæ. DISTR.—3-5 foliate. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. M. transversely striate. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. LOC.—axillary. yellow.—Sept-June. H. Phanjika. L. very common in the Deccan. Kiritekki. C. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Talvari. petioles of lower leaves longer.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. NS. cooling. . Nayibela. removes " Kapha". in lax racemes. :—G. Sd. CHAR. stomachic. and dispel intestinal fermentation. used internally in thirst. anthelmintic. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. Brahmani. t. NS. stimulates secretion of bile. LOC. M. diuretic. reduces tumours and inflammations . astringent. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Kasaghni. Tinmani.—Capparidaceæ. Bharangi. leaflets elliptic-oblong. oblong-obovate. Plant has penetrating bad smell. DISTR. obliquely striate. and fevers. Sk. Tilwan. Bharangi. Jangali-harhar. erect. Sauri. subglobose. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. :—W. veined. Karnasphota. :—Annual erect herb.—brownish black. externally applied to boils. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. causes excessive biliousness. :—Common in grass lands. Bharang. LOC. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Konkan. mixed with oil. COM. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). terminal the largest. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). blood diseases. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. :—G.—capsule. Sk. useful in leprosy. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. K. high. Kanphutia. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. laxative. Fr. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. bitter. stems grooved and glandular. Fl. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Vatari. bitter taste and a strong odour. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). hot. K. Leaves—favour digestion. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. H.—petals 4. COM. Bharangi. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. hairy. Juice— cures ear-ache. hairy. Ghats. Gantubarangi. laxative. Tilparni. good in malaria. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. Kanphodi. Barbara. dryness and urethral discharges. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. HABIT :—A common weed. tapering towards both ends . FAM.

Garani. C. and blue flowered. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. Ceylon.2 m. Koyala.5 X 2-3. Kalina. L. heating. wounds (Ayurveda). :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. burning sensation. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. lower one deflexed. nearly straight. COM. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections.9-2. NS. Fl. "Vata". 3. pubescent. 4 lobes flat. 12.2 cm. headache. blood diseases. Root increases appetite. sometimes opposite. Gokarnika. leucoderma. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. hiccup. acrid. PARTS USED :—Root. Kajli. t— June-Jany. :—A perennial twining herb. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia.. M.—Shrub.. FAM. tuberculous glands. L. PARTS USED :—Root. stems terete. inflammations. K.. Kowa. 0. Fr. bronchitis.—axillary. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. ulcers of the cornea. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. There are two varieties :—white flowered. elephantiasis. anthelmintic. Sk. CHAR. spreading. . useful in ascites (Yunani).—pale blue. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. Girikarnika. DISTR. beaked. asthma. Fl. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills .—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm.3 cm. Root is purgative and diuretic.8-5 cm. 2-2. fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. the larger lower lobe dark purple. anthelmintic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).— Aug. Fl. in lax dichotomous cymes. pains. showy. useful in inflammation. collectively forming a terminal panicle. LOC. sharply serrate.. elliptic oblong. also found throughout the State. Gokarni. biliousness. stems bluntly quadrangular. tumours.7-6. tubercular glands. obovoid. fleshy. fevers (Yunani).-Oct. with an orange centre. laxative. lessens expectoration. Vishnukranta.—ternately whorled.—many. Aparajita. smooth. good for eye-diseases. Aparajita. epilepsy. tube hairy within.:—More or less throughout India. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. oblong or elliptic. tonic to the brain. HABITAT :—In hedges. Fr. C. diuretic. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. t. black. high. leaves and seeds. solitary. flat. asthma. :—G. ulcers (Ayurveda). leaflets 5-7. Fl. standard bright blue or white. Wowatheti. cures "Tridosha". hairy. stomachic. useful in bronchitis. LOC. leaves and seeds. Girikarniballi. Sd.— drupe. inflammations.—much exerted.—imparipinnate. Malay Peninsula. The plant contains an alkaloid.—6-10 yellowish brown. long . LOC. ozœna. consumption. DISTR. H.5-15 X 5.

Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. burning of hands and feet. Tana. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor).) FAM. Vevdi. LOC. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. astringent to bowels. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Country. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Vasantitikta. consumption. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Tundi. Galedu. tropical Africa. allays thirst. Bimb. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Malaya.—Menispermaceæ. biliousness.:—Root cooling.:—Cultivated in gardens.—E. :—G. Tondeballi. USES:—In the Konkan. aphrodisiac. and jaundice. M. flowers. urinary losses. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Parvel. Bimba. LOC. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Vevati. Konkan. Vasanvel. cause flatulence. K. Bimbika. wild in hedges. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. H. Bimbi. Ceylon. Fruit— indigestible. Faridburti. Gujarat. M. Root bark. DISTR :—Throughout India. Seeds are purgative and aperient. fruit. Jamtikibel. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Deccan. Kambhoja. Leaves—acrid. Tundika.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. useful in ascites and fevers. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. diseases of blood. Dirghvalli. Ink-berry. NS. Ghobe. See—Vegetables. Chireta. H. Garudi. galactagogue. Vasandi. NS. & A. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). PARTS USED :—Root. M. " Vata". Hunder. Sk. cures leprosy. S. COM. K. The plant contains an enzyme. dried and powdered. Tondali. stops vomiting. Flowers cure itching. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. a hormone and an alkaloid. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. Broom-creeper. Kanduri. asthma. G. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Sk. . FAM. HABITAT. COCCINIA INDICA W. Glum. given for uterine discharges. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Oshthi. antipyretic . Fruit is aphrodisiac. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta".

3-3.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. indigestible. with a few heads of pepper. Fl. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. It is also used as a refrigerant. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. burning sensation. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. mixed with water. Mahaphala. it is heating. urinary discharges. In the Konkan. S. useful in diabetes. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. India.8 cm. tonic. as a cure for gonorrhœa. H. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. size of a small pea.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Tengu. lessens thirst. Leaf-juice. S. Seed-cooling.—Palmæ. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. aphrodisiac.—Dec.. Fr. NS. useful in biliousness. India and Ceylon. LOC. aphrodisiac.8-6. "Kapha" and "Vata". blood diseases. appetiser. 3-5 nerved. bronchitis. also in many places in the interior. L. COM. Toyagarbha. useful in leprosy. keeled. Pegu. Tenginmara. Naral.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. dysentery. it is used for coughs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. LOC. Narikel. Jataphala. M. K. Cocoanut palm. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). oil. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. DISTR. Deccan. biliousness. fattening. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . Nalivar. aphrodisiac. laxative. cardiotonic. enriches blood. fattening. Konkan. rugose . oleaginous. constipation. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. villous . Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Mad. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ".:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. causes "Kapha". thirst. Antipyretic. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. tropical Africa. Flower-cooling . alexipharmic . tumours. Narial. seed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. Common in Konkan and N. LOC. lessens bile and burning sensation. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). FAM. laxative and sudorific. Gujarat. Arabia. Milk—cooling. tonic. t. male in small axillary cymose panicles. which is taken internally with sugar. Kanara. Mangalya. PARTS USED :—Root. ovate. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance.—dioecious. :—E.—3. DISTR. fermented juice. flowers. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Fl. good in fractures. smells sweetish and pungent. bark. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). tuberculosis. Nariyal. ovate-oblong. G. young parts densely Villous. China. 2-8 together. . female in axillary clusters. HABITAT :—In hedges. subdeltoid or subhastate. and put on to sore-eyelids.3 X 1. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. Sk.—drupe. laxative.

ulcers (Ayurveda). Rajputana. rachis within the bract slender. sheaths long. above the bract stout. bluish grey. Kasai.—10-15 x 2. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Gojivha. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. Madhya Pradesh. NS. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. lessens inflammations . Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Dabha. polished. Job's tears. HABITAT :—Gregarious. long.—Gramineæ COM. internodes smooth. Fibres. H. piles and scabies (Yunani.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). Oil—indigestible. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. M. tropical Asia-Africa. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . stem 90-150 cm. it promotes growth of hair. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing.5-6. bronchitis. Ran-jondhala. It is refreshing and laxative. promotes hairgrowth. fermented juice is intoxicating. useful in lumbar-pain. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A.. asthma. it also purifies blood. Oil—sweet. polished. :—Himalayas. G. smooth. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. America. fattening. stout. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. midrib stout. long. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. DISTR. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Fr. diuretic. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. paralysis. diuretic . consumption.6-10 mm. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams.—Oct. Fl. Sk. t. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. It is also used for burns. Madhya Bharat. :—A tall leafy grass. Japan. LOC. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. abundant in standing water. Polynesia. Oils. spinously serrate margins. Jargadi. incipient phthisis and cachexia.5-5 cm. useful in fever.—broadly ovoid to globose. Gavedhu. See—Fruit Trees. Gurlu . Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. enriches blood. S. increases body weight. LOC. piles . base cordate. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. :—E. tonic. liver complaints. notched at the nodes . Assam. L. useful in urinary complaints. high or more.—monœcious racemes 2. 6. FAM. India. B and C.3 cm. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. Malaya. Fl. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. LOC. China. Bengal. CHAR. rooting at the lower nodes. smooth. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).

Fr. See—Fibres. Challa.—Tiliaceæ.5-10 X 2-3. Fl. L. FAM. histidin. 5-valved. t. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn.—7. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. COM.:—E. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. tyrosin. K.— Sept. and dyspepsia. Jute . arginine and coicin. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. subglobose. ridged and muricated. brown. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. Hadige. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Gujarat. Mannadike. serrate. NS. M. lanceolate. Bargund. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Col. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Chaunchan . The plant contains leucin.2 cm. :—Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . :—E. 12 mm. astringent. buds obovoid. growing very tall under cultivation. lysin.— capsule. cultivated in most tropical countries. In jutegrowing districts. Bhokar. Resalla. See—Fodder Plants. Sk. Gondan. anthelmintic. CHAR. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Patta. yellow. leaves and fruit. G. diam. Fl. Kalasaka. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . Lassora. laxative. Bhukerbudara.—few in each cell. :—An annual herb. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. acute or acuminate. carminative. Sebesten plum. NS. Sk. Pistan. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. . also efficacious in skin-diseases. Rayagundo. Sd. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. wedgeshaped. Chhunchh . LOC. C. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Bhuselu. H. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. and intestinal antiseptic. also as antiperiodic. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin.—in short cymes. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. stomachic. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. M. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. DISTR. smooth. G.—Boraginaceæ. Bhokar. FAM. It is also used as a bitter tonic. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. fever.—petals 4-5. not beaked.

:—Throughout the State in W. LOC. gives appetite. Konphir. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Fruits are used as spice. aphrodisiac. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. analgesic. diuretic. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. causes suppuration. Syria. bronchitis. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. gleet. Fruit—diuretic. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. G. M. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). highly esteemed in coughs. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. stomachic. Kanara. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). K. Seeds—aphrodisiac. expectorant. Allaka. anthelmintic. jaundice. DISTR. useful in hiccup. Fruit is aromatic. Kothambri. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). H. burning of throat. DISTR. prevents coryza and bronchitis. heart and liver. Ceylon. Egypt. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. headache. PARTS USED :—Bark. tuberculous glands. Kothamir. cooling. used in dry cough. eye-pains. biliousness. Mesapotamia and Greece. stimulant. often planted. Cochin-China. vomiting. Dharika. inflammations. indigestion. tooth-ache. used in syphilis. biliousness. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. Leaves—hypnotic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. wild and cultivated. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. biliousness. thirst. anthelmintic. uterus and urethra. Hivija. maturant. scabies. Dhania. bleeding gums. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. also cultivated. Fibres. . leaves (rarely) and fruit. piles. Vitunnaka. tropical Australia. widely known from Palestine. :—Throughout India.—Umbelliferæ.:—E. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Coriander. stomatitis. carminative and antispasmodic. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). antipyretic. purgative. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. diseases of chest and urethra. used as an expectorant and astringent. dyspepsia. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. :—Cultivated throughout India. pains in joints. Ghats. diseases of chest. COM. FAM. cures thirst. removes bad humours. stimulant. Sk. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. The plant and fruit— acrid. Satpudas. LOC. chronic fevers. anthelmintic. NS. See—Timbers. bechic. laxative. tonic to brain. Kothimbir. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Kustumburi. LOC. vulnerary.

Sk. bright red. t. a tonic is prepared from it. Varuna. Barna. concave. LOC. It is also astringent and digestive. anæmia. Ajapa. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Pinga. in moist and shady places. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Pushkarmula. depurative. Ceylon. S. Kushtha. PARTS USED:—Root. M. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Mahakapittha. Biliana. K. Madhya Bharat. useful in catarrhal fevers. " Kapha".-Oct. . :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. many. Bilpatri. red. S. :—More or less throughout India. coughs and skin diseases. China. dyspepsia. M. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . also planted near Muslim tombs.— black with white aril. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. H. Khandala. Kashmira. nalas. high. lip white with yellow centre. and aphrodisiac. bracts ovate. Fr.—Aug.—Capparidaceæ.— in very dense spikes. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. H. :—An erect plant 1. The plant yields an essential oil.5 cm. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. globosely 3-gonous. Shura. Sd. root-stock tuberous. COM. C. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Vayavarna. Chikke. Fl. By the earliest writers. FAM. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome.:—Konkan ghats. Bitusi. Kemuka. mucronate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. :—G.—15-30 X 5.—Scitamineæ. India. Var. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. NS. subequal. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. See—Condiments and Spices. Nervele. Var. fever. COM. lumbago. M. Kust. oblong. Fl. CHAR. Varno. Varuna. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod.—capsule. DISTR. K. stem sub-woody at the base . Pushkarmula. L. Vayavarno. and " Vata". Changalkashta. Sk. subsessile. sheaths coriaceous . DISTR. Karikuttu. NS. Malay Islands. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. Kumaraka. :—G.2-2. LOC.7-7. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. Keu. Castle Rock.— tube short. rheumatism. spirally arranged.7 m. useful in bronchitis. crisped. LOC. Pakarmula. hiccup (Ayurveda). silky-pubescent beneath. lobes ovate-oblong. Penva. Country.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Hadawarna. Varvunna. FAM. inflammations.

bracts 7. removes "Vata". COM. carminative. antipyretic. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections.—1 (rarely 2). urinary discharges. flat. with a sheathing base. heating.5 cm. bark. LOC. Nag-damani. Kanda-shalini.—Amaryllidaceæ. beaked. lobes 6. M. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. laxative. long. K. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. Seeds—purgative. detergent. aphrodisiac. L. chest. linear. Chindar. PARTS USED :—Root. chest and blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. tuberculous glands. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). useful in biliousness.—subglobose. Vishamungalli. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). expectorant. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). diseases of vagina. cylindric. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths .9-1. urinary concretions. Kanwal. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used.—20-30. stomachic. Fl. bright green.5-18 cm.. Kanmu. and seeds. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. gonorrhœa.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. scape 45-90 cm. bitter. laxative. thin. emmenagogue. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. as long as the tube. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. 0. Nagdavana. diam. linear lanceolate. "Pitta" and "Kapha". Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. toothache. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs.:—G. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. vulnerary. leaves. vesicant. also wild. increases secretion of bile. LOC. fragrant at night. bulb 5-10 cm. Fr. vomiting. Patra-pushpi.. CHAR. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. bechic. anthelmintic. act as rubefacient and vesicant.—15-50 in an umbel. The plant contains saponin. flowers and fruits. USES:—Root is alterative. Ceylon. antilithic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first.5-10 cm. white. anthelmintic. Sk. Bark promotes appetite. Visha-Mandalamardini. Wild or cultivated. H. Sd. found wild in North and South Konkan. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). night-blindness. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. good in strangury. NS. expectorant. Nag-damani. Tonic. leaves. laxative. tumours. anuria. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. digestive. lung and spleen diseases. :—Throughout tropical India. it promotes appetite. lumbago. strangury. FAM. diuretic. . then sweet. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. X 12. defective vision. perianth tube greenish-white. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Pindar. Nagadown.

Nepala . Purging croton . DISTR. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative.—Euphorbiaceæ. Sk. leaves and seeds. :—E. Malay Islands. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. inflammations. Danti. COM. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. The plant contains lycorin. it is in great request. LOC. fever. FAM. DISTR. :—H. Nepala. etc. See—Timbers. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Danti. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Konkan. NS. convulsions. Assam to Malacca. nauseant and diaphoretic. Ceylon . Bengal. Sk. cathartic. PARTS USED :—Root. M. Ceylon. H. in small doses. insanity. emetic. :—Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. bronchitis (Ayurveda). K. good in sore eyes. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Madhya Pradesh. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. NS. Oil cathartic. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Ganasur. Jayapala. See—Ornamental Plants. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. :—Rare in the State. bark. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Seeds cause burning sensation. tonic. expectorant. :—Naturalised in S. Chota-Natpur. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Ieucoderma. :—Sylhet. G. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. carminative. Western Peninsula. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Bhutankusam. near Junnar (Poona Dist). M. Nepal. useful in mental troubles. Burma. Japala. As an application to sprains. Oil from the seed is purgative. . abdominal diseases. FAM. excessive phlegm. naturalised or cultivated. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). Jamalgota. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. Burma. Chucka . In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. Kanara. LOC.. Jepal. Jamalgota .—Euphorbiaceæ. China.

:—In Deccan. NS. diaphoretic. H. Melon. K. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. in ascites and anasarca. Rind—vulnerary. gives headache. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Valaka. Kalangida. diuretic. ascites. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. H. nutritive and diuretic. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. convulsions. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. M. may cause indigestion. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. cures " Vata ". Karkati. cooling. Kharbuja. LOC. dropsy. Tarkakadi. Said to be truly wild in India. Valungi. biliousness. LOC. galactagogue. tonic. Sk. COM. . C. Sweet melon . Shadrekha. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Kharbuja. :—G. laxative. Lomashi. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. It is useful in apoplexy. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. insanity. chronic fever. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Pathira . Vrittervaru. Mahanaracha Rasa. DISTR. Seeds—lachrymatory. thirst (Yunani). They are edible. Fruit—tonic. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. allays fatigue. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. G. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. M. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. Kharbuja. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. wholesome. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. and lock-jaw. fruit and seeds. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. aphrodisiac.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Kachra. Kankadi. It is given internally with great caution. obstinate constipation. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. ascites. Mutrala. strengthens heart. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. Kakadi. urinary discharges. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Chibuda. synovitis. Kakri. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. oily. fattening. Ripe fruit—sweet. used in liver and kidney troubles. insanity. Shantanu. cures ophthalmia. diuretic. colic. PARTS USED :—Root. brain and body. Sk. DISTR. COM. See—Timbers. Kakni.—Cucurbitaceæ. &c. Chibdu Shakarteti. NS.:—E. LOC. Karkali. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. MELO Var. FAM. bronchitis.

H. improve complexion. FAM. G. Kakari.—monœcious . K. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Sudhavsa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. pulp bitter.—Cucurbitaceæ. fatigue. Kankdi. cures thirst. "Kapha" and flatulence. Vishala. C. roasted and powdered. Fruit—fattening . Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. Cucumber. enrich blood. See-Fruit Trees. cordate at the base. Fl.:—E. male in clusters. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). fever. seeds. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Fr. cooling. Seeds—diuretic. See—Vegetables. COM. stomachic. Takamaki.—June-Sept. Seeds possess cooling properties. . Fl. Yunani). melo var. Khira. margined . Kakdi. and C. NS. astringent. Sushitala. t. cures biliousness. causes "Vata". Ripe one tonic. Chitravalli. utilissimus (Ayurveda. good for brain and body. Tavasa. HABITAT :—Cultivated. allay thirst. Hislambhi. used in thirst. NS. lobulate or dentate . Santekayi. Cultivated in all parts of India. dry. pale yellow when ripe. Kothiban. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. Sk.— suborbicular. angled.—white. Mrigadani. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. lobes obovate. :—G. strangury. M. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. fruits. they are also used as diuretic. Khira. female peduncle longer than male. hairy. B. are administered in throat affections. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. L. purgative. diuretic.:—N.—subglobose or ellipsoid. Trapusha. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. FAM. Kumbhakshi. DISTR. tendrils simple. indigestible. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. CHAR. biliousness. India is considered to be the original home. antipyretic. They are nutritive. Seed oil used in fever. LOC. :—A perennial climber. H. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Sd. Karit. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh).—yellow segments elliptic. rigid. stem slender. Tansali. LOC. COM. LOC.

LOC. The plant contains glucoside saponin. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). H. Karkarn. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. COM. indigestible. M. Kaddu. PARTS USED :—Root. Mithakaddu. Dangari. increases " Vata ". Afghanistan. Kumra. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Koron. G. LOC. K. Safedkaddu . PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. carbuncles. Kushmand. See—Vegetables. on hedges. etc. DISTR. DISTR. stomachic. FAM . HABITAT :—Cultivated. cultivated in many parts of India. Malaya. fruit is used to prevent insanity. HABITAT. :—E. :—Cultivated. Kushmand. Pitakushmand.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. allays thirst. Red squash gourd. LOC. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Kumbala. Australia. Iran. LOC. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. cures cough. NS.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. unhealthy ulcers. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Bhopala. :—Throughout the greater part of India. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. fruits and seeds.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kadimah. Pumpkin. . DISTR. Melon pumpkin. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. : — E. Ceylon.:—Considered to be a native of America. Vegetable marrow. N. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. Punyalata. M. Seeds are used as taeniacide. Dried fruit indigestible . Kashiphala. LOC. Fruit contains vitamins A. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. In Malabar. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . H. FAM. USES. B and C. astringent to bowels . Dudia. K. Sk. Kumbala. G. improves taste (Ayurveda). Tambda bhopala. increases " Vata" . NS. Sk.

Jiru. Kalimusali. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. Jire. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. astringent. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. :—E. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. H. aphrodisiac. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. H. eye-diseases. Kalimusali. leucoderma. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. Sk. Talamulika. tonic. Zira. fatigue. fever. Fruit—very cooling. LOC. beneficial in consumption. fattening. Dipaka. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. See—Condiments and Spices. cures haemoptysis. antipyretic. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. Jira. M. also a lactagogue. increases appetite . FAM. carminative. NS. purifies blood (Ayurveda). antidysenteric. sweet. G. Seeds anthelmintic. Jirige. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Cures " Vata " tumours. Seeds—diuretic. carminative. Neltati gadde. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. enlargment of the spleen. DISTR. Kalimusali. astringent to bowels. Mushalikand . :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. PARTS USED :—Fruit. tonic. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. COM. alexipharmic. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). Leaves—digestible. ulcers. Ajjika. stops epistaxis . throat and eyes. emmenagogue. M. Dirghaka. good for teeth. fever. abortifacient. LOC. analgesic. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. vulnerary. Musali. appetiser. Girautmi. allays thirst. carminative. stomachic. Sk. astringent to bowels. Cumin. ft contains vitamins A and C. biliousness. FAM. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. cooling. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. belching . cures leprosy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. fruit and seeds. :—G. K. . uterine stimulant. Neladati. LOC. bronchitis. diuretic and demulcent. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). thirst. Kapha " and " Vata ". Gaurajerka. haematinic. tonic to intestine. and the root for making these more potent. inflammations.—Amaryllidaceæ. heals corneal opacities. See—Vegetables. gonorrhœa. Fruit astringent. leprosy. COM. remove biliousness. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Fruit yields an essential oil. scabies. laxative. NS. K. Seeds are taeniacide. asthma. relieves hiccup.—Umbelliferæ. cure haemoptysis.

tonic. emollient. troubles in the mouth and ear. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink.5-12. inflammations (Ayurveda). FAM. K. oblong lanceolate. laxative. Fr. tips sometimes rooting. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. scape. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. vomiting. Sk. gleet. Peninsula. fatigue. Fl.—capsule. fattening..5-15 X 3. Kapurahaldi. L. perianth segments elliptic. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Mango-ginger.:—W.5 cm. jaundice. root stock large. rhizome. gleet. COM. LOC. DISTR.—long petioled in tufts. cooling. Fl. piles. Assam. useful in piles. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. Bengal.3-2. bronchitis. common at the beginning of rains. distichous.8-5 cm. sessile. bitter. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. often cultivated. Root—carminative.-Sept. C—white or very pale-yellow. ophthalmia. Ambahaladara. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. expectorant. " Vata". alterative. gonorrhœa.— in racemes. aphrodisiac. :—Bengal. M.—grooved. antipyretic. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. :—A small herb. oblong. :—E. useful in inflammations. all skin-diseases. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. appetising. PROPERTIES AND USES. pains in joints (Yunani). aphrodisiac. tubers thick. useful in bronchitis. diuretic. 1545 X 1. yellow.—Scitamineæ. clavate . useful in biliousness. :—Stemless herb. stomatitis (Yunani). Ambehalad. ulcers on penis. Ambahaldi. asthma. DISTR. Sd. pale yellow inside .— May-June. diarrhœa. LOC. colic. scabies. oblong. maturant. alterative and tonic. appetiser. cylindric or ellipsoid. t. G. Fl.—sessile or petiolate. 30-45x7. antipyretic. antipyretic. appetiser. H. biliousness. Fl. lumbago. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . Amragandha. shining . hairy on the back. W. linear or linear-lanceolate . roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. causes "Vata". Java.5 cm. Amhaladi. indigestion. L. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . :—Konkan and Gujarat. t. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. hydrophobia. Malay Archipelago. Peninsula. gonorrhœa. Bitter. CHAR. hiccup.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. alexiteric. with a beak . lumbago. black. debility and impotence. during convalescence after acute illness.:—Sweet. NS. diarrhœa. :—Konkan and N. Karpuraharidra. very short. . flowering bract greenish-white. Kanara.— in autumnal spikes 7.

Sholika. 3lobed. Yellow Zedoary. root-stock large. Also cultivated in Konkan.-May. rounded at the tips. t.—tube 2. it is seldom used alone . Sk.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. Sholi. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. H. COM. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. also stomachic. NS. LOC. appetiser . CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. upper half funnel-shaped. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. annulate. :—E. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Sometimes cultivated. C. Vanhaldara. FAM. the dorsal longer.— flowering stem sheathed. Indian saffron. Sk. lobes pale-rose. Ran-halad. Jayanti. :—E. Halad. lip yellow. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Cochin-Wild turmeric. green. long. L. biennial.. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. See—Condiments and Spices. sometimes cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. Banharidra.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. forming pouches for the flowers. M. Banhaladi. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers .MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. M. PARTS USED :—Tubers. palmately branched. It is considered tonic and carminative. sessile. K. DISTR. appearing before leafing stem. :—Western Peninsula.—Scitamineæ. flowering bracts cymbiform. Aranyaharidra. Turmeric. FAM. . NS. flowers fragrant. COM. Haridra. :—Stemless herb. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. variegated above. G. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. lateral lobes oblong. Arishina. Harita. used as an application for skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Bengal. Kapur-kachali. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. Halada. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. DISTR. long. pale green.5 cm. in spikes 15-30 cm. G. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions.—Scitamineæ. Fl. Fl. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. CHAR. Mangalya. H. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. Halad. Varnadatri. base deltoid. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Vanarishta. LOC. LOC.

bruises. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. It contains vitamin A. Kachari. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. CHAR. DISTR. Shathi. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis .—capsule. In small-pox and chicken-pox. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. 3-gonous. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. alexiteric. leucoderma. The plant contains curcumin. Zedoary. swellings. :—Stemless herb. Sk. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. heating. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. Kachora. laxative. L. bronchitis. fumes are used during hysteric fits . C. bitter. Jatala. and yields an essential oil. annulate tubers. anthelmintic. asthma. urinary discharges. FAM . good for liver affections.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. lip 3-lobed. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. "Vata ". taste bitterish spicy. heating. maturant. bruises. urinary discharges. sprains (Ayurveda). Kachuri. 30-60 cm. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . boils. In coryza. M. scabies. inflammations.—Scitamineæ. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India.—4-6 with long petioles. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. flowering bract green tinged with red . internally administered in blood disorders. :—Cultivated in the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in " Kapha". vulnerary. anthelmintic. coma-bract crimson or purple . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. See—Condiments and Spices. externally applied to leech-bites. appetiser. blood diseases. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. said to be Wild in E. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. diuretic. COM. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. alexiteric. cylindric. root-stock of palmately branched. Kachora. carminative. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. itches etc. an alkaloid. deepyellow. improves complexion. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. Bitter. useful in leucoderma. pale-yellow inside. G. clothed with sheaths. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. tonic. piles. clouded with purple down the middle.— flowering stem 20-25cm. . small-pox. emollient. bruises (Yunani). destroys foulness of breath. boils and urticaria. bitter. scabies. long. odour like camphor. Narakachora. Fl. oblong-lanceolate. H.—funnel shaped. fragrant. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. used in prurigo. Hakhir. jaundice. long. Tuber is used as a stimulant. vulnerary. oblong. lobed .:—E. antipyretic. K. flowers yellow in spikes. Himalayas and Chittagong. Fr. LOC. Gandhamulaka sara. appearing before the leaves. NS. LOC. Karechura.

applied to bruises and sprains. high. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. furunculosis. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). long. sheaths terete . USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. laxative. tuberculous glands of neck. useful in griping of children. NS. chronic rheumatism. epileptic fits. COM. K. also used as a tonic and depurative. alexipharmic. of much use in typhoid fevers. Majjige hullu. It is also aromatic. hot. carminative. nodding. alexipharmic. useful in bronchitis. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. leprosy. Lilicha. pains. it is stimulant. antispasmodic and diaphoretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. it is also a good application for ringworm. toothache (Yunani). enlargement of spleen. and is of great value in cholera. LOC. appetiser. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. M. Externally it is rubefacient. long. expectorant. glaucous green. CHAR. sprains. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. Gandhatrina. Bhustrina. bitter. :—A tall perennial. emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent.8 m. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. Ligule very short.—Gramineæ. culm stout. laxative. Lemon grass. emmenagogue.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. L. inflammations. probably of Indian origin. upto over 90 cm. aphrodisiac. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. others narrow and separating. gastric irritability. Takratrina. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. midrib whitish on the upper side. neuralgia. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa.. H. sharp hot taste. anthelmintic. stimulant and carminative. Sk. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. velvety at the nodes. sharp. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago.:—E.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Gavati-chaha. DISTR. Bitter. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. G. LOC. erect. LOC. up to over 1.—linear tapering upwards to a point. . and other painful affections. carminative. It is an excellent stomachic to children. good odour. sheaths of the culm tight. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Leaves. Purhati hullu. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. tonic to brain and heart. Tubers yield an essential oil. Putigandha.

Kobbar. Bahuvirya. wide below.—spikes 2-nate. long. usually broad. thirst.—flat. Fl. high. soft. NS. slender. Harali. throat troubles. Ghats.—Gramineæ. 12-18 mm. LOC. LOC. Geramium grass.—2-10 cm. straw coloured. forming matted tufts.t. stem. G. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. W. Bhutika. Konkan. useful in biliousness. Rohisha. NS. Fl. most warm countries. See-Oils. H. Saugandhika. finely acute. skin . cooling. X 1 cm. Sk.—Oct.4 m. bitter. G. Shyamaka. prostrate . Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. widely creeping. through N. Baluchistan. Durva. :—Cosmopolitan . COM. :—Sourashtra. Shatagranthi. Bujina. Sk. glaucous beneath. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. carminative. leafy. Burma. L. green or purplish. sweet. Fl. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. smooth.. M. stem. COM. :—E. Garikehallu. FAM. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Fl. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). Durva. Gujarat. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. Vasanchullu. Sind. scabies. L. and Ceylon ascending to 3. upto 2. Deccan. margins scabrid. subcordate or rounded at the base. narrowly linear. leprosy. K.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. M. heart diseases. burning sensation. sheaths tight. 1. particularly the Deccan trap areas.—throughout the year. Mirchiagand. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems.—grain. Durba. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.000 m. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. fatigue. Shatamula. long. Dhro.5-30 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. hallucinations. useful in fevers. leprosy. Roshdo. Roshagavat. pungent. Africa to Morocco.-Nov. Fr. with erect flowering branches 7. PARTS USED :—Whole plant.—Gramineæ. K.:—Grows all over the State. Rohisha. throughout India. DISTR. DISTR.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. epileptic fits. Gharo. pains. vomiting. oblique or divaricate. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. long. FAM. :—A perennial grass . :—Punjab. Afghanistan. t.3 cm. Rhusghas. :—E. in the Himalayas. long. bad taste in the mouth. 1 mm. S.5-2. H. CHAR. high. CHAR. LOC. Dhoboghas. Country.5-5 cm. Mangala. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils.

dysentery. Granthi. very troublesome weed. acrid.82. vulnerary. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever.— in simple or compound umbel. ophthalmia. stomatitis. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. cooling. stomachic. erysipelas (Ayurveda). stolons elongate. Mustaka. Fl. LOC. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. pain. They are also diuretic and stimulant. Kachhola. most hot countries. vomiting. trigonous. burning sensation. juice is used in hysteria. astringent. M. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. Mutha. :—Throughout India. Tubers yield an essential oil. Koranarigadde.. FAM. CHAR. epistaxis. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. . epilepsy. urinary concretions (Yunani). See—Fodder Plants. emmenagogue. L. appetiser. diaphoretic. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. t. Sk Bhadramusta. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Bitterish. PARTS USED :—Tubers. epistaxis (Ayurveda). Nagarmotha. epilepsy and insanity.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. Tungegaddo. blood diseases. expectorant. anthelmintic. dyspepsia. DISTR. vulnerary. :—G. fever. thirst. narrowly linear. Sugandhi-granthila. 0. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. erysipelas. useful in leprosy. Ceylon. diarrhœa. anthelmintic. biliousness. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia.. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. dysentery. Nut—broadly ovoid. K. it is diuretic. spikelets 10-50 flowered. hiccup (Yunani). Root— diuretic. diarrhœa. pruritis. fever. greyish black. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. fevers. useful for ulcers and sores. :—Glabrous herb. NS. bruises. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. LOC. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. H. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. USES :—Roots are commonly. biliousness. Motha. blood diseases. difficult to eradicate. Bimbal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. Motha. COM.—shorter or longer than the stem. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds.5 cm. useful in vomiting. Motha. In Ceylon. Fl. LOC.—Sept-Nov.—Cyperaceæ.

Gujarat. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. PROPERTIES AND LOC. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. somewhat zigzag. Kariyu-Um-Matta. high.—thin. Sd. covered with straight sharp prickles. double. . soft spiny. Rajdhattura. packed. :—Deccan. Fl. green. COM. M.-Jany. tubular. divaricately branched. Fr. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Fl. Fl. NS. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. Sk. entire or with large teeth or lobes. DISTR. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. G. Ns. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution.5 cm. :—H. and sub-involution of the uterus.5 cm. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle.— tubular.—7. S.—follicle. t. acute.5-15 X 3. Bhranta.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. 30-60 cm. lobes spreading. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. FAM. Kaladhatura. CHAR.2 cm. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Sept-Dec.. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. usually pubescent. Sd. e. Fr. greenish-yellow or dull-white. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. glabrous above.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. Black-Purple datura. Kanaka. Sk. funnel-shapped. LOC. beak long. corona outer and inner. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. 18 cm. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus .—Solanaceæ. across. Country. FAM. stem hairy. ciliate. Kanaka. Kala-dhotara. Fl.g. afterwards racemose. paralytic ileus.—Asclepiadaceæ. M. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. H. Ceylon. L. Unmatta. solitary. LOC. K: Dhattura. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. :—A perennial twining herb. spur acute. white inside. reflexed.—purple outside. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). Phalakantak. very unequal at the base.—many.2-7. HABIT :—A common weed. L. yellowish brown. diam. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. subglobose. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. a glucoside.—Aug. Kaladhatura. long 10-20. M. :—Throughout India in hotter parts.:—E. Utran.—capsule. COM. CHAR. nodding. t. Utarni. ovate. :—Annual shrub. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. on curved stalk 3. long. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Administered after the third stage of labour. outer truncate. inner curved high over the staminal column. velvety pubescent beneath. C.

Europe. with curdled milk. USES :—Out of the two varieties. (Ayurveda). painful tumours. in gonorrhœa. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. FAM. black variety is considered to be more powerful. ulcers. leaves and seeds. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. Sk. H.. ganja. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. to increase their stupefying effect. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Gajjari. . They regarded the drug as intoxicant. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Leaf poultice. anthelminitic . febrifuge. useful in leucoderma. The plant as a whole has narcotic. G. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. Leaf-juice is given internally. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. skin-diseases. bronchitis. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. chronic coughs. majum. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. nodes. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. M. LOC. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. cause headache (Yunani). enlargement of testicles and boils. febrifuge. GranthiPinda-Mula. tonic. Cultivated in many parts of India. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. PARTS USED :—Roots.—Umbelliferæ COM. toxic. nosetrouble. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. emetic. digestive and heating. Garjara. Gajra. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. toddy. alexiteric. mumps etc. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. anthelmintic. LOC. aphrodisiac. Seeds—narcotic. Shikkikanda. :—Throughout the tropics. Gajar. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. equal in effect to atropine. black (Kala) and white (Safed). leaves and seeds. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Carrot. bitter. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. :—E. heating. in combination with subja. biliousness. The whole plant is narcotic. jaundice. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. K. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. anodyne. headache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Gajar. emetic. piles. PARTS USED :—Root. NS. relieves pain. and antispasmodic properties. Gajar.

vomiting. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Deccan and S. thirst. Philippines. hairy.2 m. chest troubles. Tonic. LOC. K. piles. thirst. Fr. high. Darh. H.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite.6-1. Fl. cures typhoid. good for inflammation. nausea (Yunani). hiccup. asthma. astringent to bowels. sub-falcate. :—Konkan and N.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). vomiting. LOC. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge.—May-July. " Tridosha ". cardiotonic. urinary discharges. DISTR. alexipharmic. pains. boiled with honey and fermented. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. Salparni. membranous. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. cough. alterative. aphrodisiac. other fevers. NS. China. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). they produce a spirituous liquor. cures leprosy. green and glabrous above. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). Roots contain vitamins A. Sk. Salpani. stomachic. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. FAM. Ceylon. :— G. Salwan. Murele-honne. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. L. tropical Africa. Country. Ranbhal. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . See—Vegetables. cures biliousness. Dirghamula. Fl. vomiting and asthma.—in terminal or axillary racemes. they are also diuretic.—onefoliate. expectorant. asthma.—pod. Salwan. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. standard cuneate at the base . margins wavy. hooked hairy. prevents death of fœtus in womb . bronchitis. astringent to bowels. LOC. Kanara . diuretic. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. carminative. inflammations. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. upper edge straight. Vidarigandha. stems and branches angled. ovate-oblong. Shaliparni. Kitavinashini. dysentery . B and C. burning sensation. 0. . t. C—violet or white. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. CHAR. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. joints 6-8. Salpan. piles. USES :—Externally. Burma. useful in chronic fevers. Salwan. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. " Vata". throughout India. urinary complaints. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Malay Peninsula and Islands . chronic affections of chest and lungs. biliousness. fattening. biliousness. indigestible. COM.. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. removes " Kapha". Root marmalade is refrigerant. good for liver. paler and hairy beneath. It is used in fevers. antidysenteric. tonic. anthelmintic. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. M. M. :—A woody undershrub. used in bronchitis. tumours.

stems 30-90 cm. DISTR. vaginal discharges. thirst. NS. Kalatendu. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. cures ulcers and " Vata". flowers. biliousness. Fruit—oleaginous. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. sheaths glabrous. tufted. L. Gujarat. stolon very stout. branched from the base. G.. Makurkendi. Sk. Konkan. :—Perennial tall grass. Anilsara. Nubia. margins hispid. Gale. Malay Archipelago. Wood cures biliousness. Zeeberwo.—Ebenaceæ. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. t. clothed with sessile spikelets. Tinduka. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sphurjaka. Timbwini. diseases of blood. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. rigid.—many. Pavitra. -panicle 15-45 X 1.) FAM. Sk. COM. Fl. heating.—Dec. branches short crowded. Davoli. NS. LOC. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. skin eruptions. Tumaki Mara. Syria. Dabha. covered with shining sheaths. jaundice. Tendu. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Temburni.—Gramineæ. cooling. See—Fodder Plants.—G. Wild mangosteen.:—Saurashtra. smooth. LOC. rootstock stout. H. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Tumari. . Ceylon. Thailand (Siam). HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda).3-3. vomiting. M. H. in the beds of rivers and streams. Banda. good for lumbago. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Darbha. :—Along the coasts of N. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). erect. K. asthma. vesical calculi. FAM. useful in blood diseases. Sacred Plants. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Kanara and the Konkan. erect pyramidal or columnar. reaching 50 cm. stout. Dab. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. Fl. Durva. CHAR. diseases of bladder. astringent to bowels. the basal fascicled. COM. Kusha.8 cm. sedative to pregnant uterus. interrupted. Gavandu. Egypt. diuretic. high. bark. Darbha. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. LOC. oleaginous. aphrodisiac. Kalaskandh. strangury. PARTS USED :—Wood. M. :—Throughout India. long. :—E. ligule a hairy line . used in biliousness and blood diseases. Flowers—aphrodisiac. creeping. Riber ebony. fruit and seeds.

ozoena. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. COM. Basingh. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. short. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. asthma.Gahat. abdominal complaints. Kulitha. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. Tans. See-Food Plants. Grains contain vitamin A. K. eye troubles. Kalvrinta. cures " Kapha". dry. FAM. cordate. Kulith.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. ovate. Kulthi. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Ashvakatri. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. CHAR. improves complexion. emmenagogue. pain in liver. green when very young but soon turning dark brown.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). piles. Surfaces naked. It is demulcent in calculus affection. anthelmintic. cures hiccup. NS. M. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. appetiser. Kulthi. inflammation. Hurali. G. :—M. coughs etc. NS. :—E. bronchitis. FAM. Konkan— Ratnagiri. fertile ones long stalked. Sk. :—Tropics of the old world. hiccup. Diuretic. :—Rhizome creeping. Kulit. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Country—Belgaum. diseases of the brain and eyes. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. M. base decurrent on the stipe. removes stone from kidney. H. grown to a certain extent in S. Bijapur and Dharwar. COM. acrid. "Vata". DISTR. Sori two in each primary areole. causes biliousness (Yunani). fattening. densely clothed with red-brown scales. Kulithaka. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. urinary discharges. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Nasik.—Polypodiaceæ. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Seeds. liver troubles. piles. . variously lobed. Kulathi. generally on trees and rocks. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. enlargement of spleen. Sk. Texture membranaceous to leathery. heart-troubles. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. stout. Sitetara. intestinal colic. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. LOC. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Jurali. antipyretic. strangury. See—Timbers. leucoderma. Wandar bashing. hot. Horse-Gram. tumours.

diseases of heart.—achene obconic. Konkan. LOC. hysteria. glabrous above. gleet. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. Bhangro. subentire. urinary discharges. Sk. Fr. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). stems and branches strigose and hairy. CHAR. Bhringraj. pain in joints.3—0. Utanti. high. causes " Kapha". S. Utkantaka.5 cm. tonic. Deccan. densely villous. sinuate and spinescent. LOC.—Compositæ.9 m. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots.—limb linear.—Compositæ. . inflammations. Balari. Fl. sessile. strigose and hairy. " Vata". Kadigga-garaga. involucre. DISTR. M. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). It is used in hoarse cough.— Nov. wooly beneath. pappus short. C.-Jany. Pitripriya. dyspepsia and cough. Kantaphala. Kantalu. cottony pubescent. Mochand.—sessile. LOC. :—A much branched rigid annual. yellowish. oblong. biliousness. :—More or less throughout India. NS. bracts 3seriate. the lobes triangular and oblong.— opposite. Kalobhangro . Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. hot. also cultivated to a certain extent. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Bhangra. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. increases appetite. H. M. Country. usually oblong-lanceolate. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. Sk. Keshrangana. FAM. FAM. K. used in strangury. Utkanto. Utakatara. Root— abortifacient. :—G. Markara. long. used in ophthalmia. 0. t. COM. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Afghanistan. Shulio. dyspepsia. spines 2. spiny. hectic fever. M. Maka. often rooting at the nodes. cottony. :—Konkan. astringent to bowels . HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. COM. Fl. antipyretic. cooling. deeply pinnatifid. analgesic. useful in brain-diseases.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. surrounded by strong white bristles. Utkanta. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. :—Kanara. chronic fever. improves taste. Kadechubak. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. L. Plant stomachic. globose. intermediate produced in sharp spine. bitter. thirst. NS. Ajagara. L. DISTR.:—Throughout India. Utkatara. Seeds—wholesome. Garagadasoppu.—heads white. Sunilaka. branches widely spreading from the base. stimulates liver. H. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. Bhangra. :—G. Dadhal. CHAR.

COM. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. W. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. alterative. Chandrabala. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . :—E. K. C—often 4-toothed . syphilis. disk ones tubular . involucral bracts about 8 . cultivated. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Ceylon. and for strengthening gums. leucoderma.. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. internal diseases. heart and skin diseases.—in heads. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. H. ray flowers ligulate.-Dec. solitary or 2 together. t. See—Sacred Plants. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. Sk. stomatitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Sind. Fl. fattening. improves colour of hair. alexipharmic. Gourangi. good for spleen diseases.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. G. Burma. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. hair. prevents abortion and miscarriage. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . cures vertigo (Yunani). Elachi. anthelmintic. eye diseases. axillary. lustre of eyes. Velchi. Veldoda. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). a reputed and popular liver tonic. good for complexion. Malaya. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. anæmia. LOC. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. Peninsula). stomachic. pappus 0. tonic. it is powdered and applied externally. M. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. hemi-crania. eyes. LOC. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. antipyretic. It is given internally in scalding of urine. Gandhkuti. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. FAM. expectorant. :—Western valleys of N.:—India (Bengal. night blindness. Choti-Elachi. There are two forms erect and prostrate. "Kapha". NS. Bahula. It relieves headache when applied with oil. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. . In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. cuneate with a narrow wing. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fevers. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Kanara (Siddapur. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Triputa.—Scitaminaceæ. Madhya Bharat. asthma. hot. Yalakki. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda).— Oct. Ela. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. bronchitis. toothache.—achene. cures inflammations. Karangi. liver pain. DISTR. Fr. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. teeth. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. Bitter . Ilaji. Panjab. "Vata". hernia.

bitter. rich or poor. PARTS USED :—Grain. FAM. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. useful in head. useful in biliousness. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. . :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. ear and tooth ache. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. fruit is tonic.—Myrsinaceæ. It is said to be astringent. Vayuvitang. LOC. CUM. Navalo-nagali. Narttaka.:—G. strangury. Wavrung. Rotka. cooling.:—Western and S. Vavading. tonic. Rajika. fragrant. LOC. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Sk. COM. :— G. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. consumption. M. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. H. DISTR. cooling. See—Condiments and Spices. alexiteric . M. tonic to heart. Vidariga. Marua. Kanisha. K. Pavaka. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. K. abortifacient. Nagali. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats).MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. useful in asthma. H. NS. cultivated. causes thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. India. NS. root is laxative and tonic. brain and mouth. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. See-Food Plants. lessens inflammation. most suitable to hard-working classes. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. Boberang. fruit and seeds. stomachic. Bhasmaka. Seed—fragrant. scabies. carminative. diseases of bladder. Bidanga. Grains contain vitamin B. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM.—Gramineæ. Ragi. stimulant and emmenagogue. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. chest and throat (Yunani). Jantughna. Bavato. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. Varding. pungent. kidney. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. bronchitis. Makra.. Sk. stomachic. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. clear head. It is stomachic. laxative. cause biliousness . bad humours of liver. diuretic. In S. Vavoding. piles. diuretic. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. Nachani. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. LOC. pruritus.

purgative.—berry. Seed— acrid. cooling. anthelmintic . Sk. anæmia. strangury. antipyretic. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. tonic. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . COM. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. NS. bronchitis. Dhatriphala. Fr. cures tumours. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). sour. racemes minute. alexiteric. . laxative. ascites. Adiphala. internodes long. Dhatri.—Feb. anuria. Amalaka. alterative. vomiting. " Kapha'.—in lax panicles. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). L. reddens urine. Ceylon. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A.) FAM. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. et. succulent. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. useful in asthma. " Tridosha ". aphrodisiac. Paranjpe and G. thirst. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. LOC. laxative. mental diseases. G. often planted in Konkan. carminative. LOC. M. dyspnoea. good for plethoric constitution. alexiteric. erysipelas. poisoning. bark studded with lenticels . :—A large scandent shrub. flexible. S. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. flowers. Embelic myrobalan. with a sharp bitter taste. anthelminitic. shining above. greenish yellow. China. constipation. vulnerary.—Euphorbiaceæ. sweats. Avala. K. Daula . Nellika . branches long. Western Ghats. Anola. China. black when ripe. alterative. elliptic-lanceolate. Triphala. paler and silvery beneath. LOC. like a pepper corn when dried. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Amla. DISTR. t. cures bronchitis . Amlika. smooth. dries wound discharges . leaves. Ceylon. useful in burning sensation. Bitter. Ther. biliousness. HABITAT :—Rain forests. carminative. Amlika. S. Anward. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary discharges. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. urinary discharges. Malay Islands. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). 42-II-1932). DISTR. H. Dadi. nearly globose. bark. piles. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. Pharm. (Dymock). :—Hilly parts of the State. many. hemicrania. good appetiser. Konkan and N. wild or planted. Gokhale. Ambala. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms.—alternate. slender. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. Fl. Kanara. leprosy. Bhoza . diseases of heart.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fl. dry. coriaceous. Int. PARTS USED :—Fruit. jaundice. analgesic. inflammations. :—Throughout India. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. Arch. Malaya. bronchitis. :— E. fruit and seeds.

USES :—Root. M. improves appetite. L. mid-nerve strong. useful in heart-diseases. Fr. Madvinashi. DISTR. Saurashtra. variable. :—A perennial glabrous herb. rounded apex. Dried fruits. Giant's rattle. .—Aug. COM. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda).—Gentianaceæ. narrowed at the base. LOC. LOC. Mackary bean. biliousness. COM. aperient.) FAM. R. cooling. H. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. M. Malaya. :—Konkan. Nagajivha. S. Doddakampi. vulnerary. piles. NS.—sessile.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). bark and fruit are astringent. Fruit—acrid. diuretic and laxative. Kadvinayi. branched from the base.— capsule. FAM. opposite. used as laxative and astringent. sub-quadrangular or terete. Gujarat. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Grey). Hallekayiballi. Fruit Trees. West Indies. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Tans. Fl. thirst. Country. astringent. Mabhipaka. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. M. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). expectorant. :—E. :—G. Sind. Unripe fruit is cooling. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Mamejavo . In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. lobes 5. Tanavadi. white. 3-nerved. sour. Tiktapatra. NS. Chhotakirayat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. ellipsoid. See—Timbers.-Nov. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. t. anthelmintic. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Garbe. Celyon.—sessile. stems erect or procumbent. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". high. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Garambi. tropical Africa. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. LOC. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. CHAR. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. tonic. Ind. stops nasal hæmorrhage. K. liver complaints. Sk. 10—50 cm. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Fl. Dyes. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Lady nut. Nahu. purifies body humours (Yunani). Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. eye troubles. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. cold in the nose. C—infundibuliform.).

Planted as ornament. diam. Phandra . Sk. PROPERTIES AND LOC. indented between the seeds. Mandara. Var. Halivan. Indian coral-tree. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanara. Fl. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. shining and brown.. W. 4. wide and 3-8 cm. stomachic.— Mar. the tropics generally. H. 3. improve appetite. stalked. smooth. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). USES :—Powdered kernel. Raktapushpa. leaflets 7-5 x 2. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". :—Coast forests of Malabar.—yellow. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Arakan. ORIENTALIS Merr. Pangara.-May. Pegu. Mullumurige. Panjira.7-5x7.—2pinnate. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Leaves—bitter.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. :—E. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. pinnae 2—3 pairs.S.3-2 cm. dark green. DISTR. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. hot. often along river banks. bark. PARTS USED :—Seeds. mixed with spices. orbicular. Nepal. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. thick. K. Fl. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. Sundribans.—pod. woody. 30-90 cm. they are given internally as an emetic. . in debility and glandular swellings . Tennaserim. Pangara. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. bark used in dysentery. Peninsula. flowers. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk.—6-15. for grapevines in Nasik district. Panderavo. L. Sd.5-10 cm. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Paribhadra. along sea-coast above high-water. Mandara. oblong or obovate. branches terete. anthelmintic. Panarvo. G. rigidly coriaceous.. slightly curved.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. cure urinary discharges.5-5-7 cm. COM. compressed.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. glabrous. Fr. Dadap. The plant is used as a fish-poison. Kantakinshuka. Ceylon. Salaki. N. M. long. :—Konkan and N. Hongara. Planted as support for pepper vines. long. LOC. inflammations. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. t.) FAM.. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. Andamans and Nicobar. Bangaro. C. Mochi-wood. leaves.

Pusitoa. Fr. Milk hedge. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. . t. See—Timbers. Ceylon. Bahukshira. Bottugalli. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. Achchegida. Kodukalli. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. FAM. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . G. Dandalio thora. Dudanali. high. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. The plant contains an alkaloid. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Shirthahar. globose. M. NS. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. branches often 4-angled. Sendh. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Sd.—capsule. Plant is chiefly used for worms. bowel complaints and cough in children. dark green above. rugose. Dudhi. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. Dandasruha. Sk. :—Annual herb.) FAM. G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sc. erect or ascending. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. :— E. Paradeshi thora .—involucres numerous. 15-50 cm. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. pale beneath. Sher. appressedly hairy. and to relieve pain of the joints. Vajradruma. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Cong. gland minute. Australian asthma herb. H. COM. Sk. L. Nevli. with or without a limb. Sahud. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. —throughout the year. base unequal-sided. Pill-bearing spurge. M. Fl. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Dudhi. it is anthelmintic. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. H. reddish brown. Indian tree spurge. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. serrulate or dentate.—Euphorbiaceæ. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. COM. Govardhan. :—E. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. Milk bush. Duddi. Nagpur 1931).—opposite. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ. FL. NS. Mondukalli. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Dudhi. K.—ovoid-trigonous. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). K. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. 18th Ind.

Fr. thick like quill. LOC. CHAR. LOC. Sk. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. high. leprosy. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. useful in abdominal troubles. smooth. alexiteric. linear. naturalised in India. dropsy. branchlets whorled. campanulate. terete. Sd— glabrous. 4valved. mostly female. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). almost leafless. Fl. Fl. Juice is purgative. dyspepsia. Sd. M. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. L. alterative.— capsule. Vishnugandhi. long. branches erect. teething of infants . colic. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory.-Aug. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma.—Convolvulaceæ. stone in bladder (Yunani). jaundice. long (appearing in rainy season) . USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . 6-13 mm. Jhinkiphudardi. :—Native of East Africa. Konkan and Gujarat. more than 5 cm. elliptic-oblong. employed to raise blisters. tropical and sub-tropical countries. DISTR.—many. cocci velvety. axillary. milk is alexiteric. stems many. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. FAM. DISTR. :—A perennial herb. also as an alterative.—ovoid. The plant contains an alkaloid. H. Fr. useful in gonorrhœa. useful in bronchitis. smooth. tonic. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Kalisankhavali.-July-Nov. enlargement of spleen. :—Sind. silky hairy. rootstock woody . Fl. LOC. Nilpushpi. leucoderma. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Vishnukranta. whooping cough. solitary or sometimes 2. :—A small tree. and with oil to promote growth of hair.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. pungent. usually clothed with long hairs . carminative. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. COM. epilepsy. NS. globose. wiry. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). . LOC. Vishnukranti. carminative. tumours.—small. leprosy and leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. about 6 m. :—Throughout the State. Shyamakranta . spreading.—capsule.-light blue. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. polished. L. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. anthelmintic. base acute. thin. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. t. useful in biliousness. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. K. prostrate. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. t. brightens intellect.-Sep. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. peduncles very long. Vishnukranta. asthma. :—G. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. Ceylon.

Sd. high. Arabia. reaching 60 cm. yellowish brown. pyramidal to the apex. NS. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Deccan hills and S. more or less glandular. Fl. Fl. toothache.-Aug. L. acute. Baluchistan. Ustarkhar. reduces tumours. CHAR. Waziristan. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. Prabhodhini. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani).-Nov. shining. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. the middle the largest. Fr. of 5. DISTR. asthma. 1-seeded cocci. L. glandular hairy. deeply 5-partite.— showy. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. 1-3 foliate. petioles deeply striate. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. N. FL. Atmamuli. ophthalmia. cooling. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). thirst. removes "Vata". sessile. Dhamasa. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. alexipharmic. Fr.-Dec. the upper blue. about 1. smooth. in chronic bronchitis. Country. good for liver troubles. DISTR. :—An erect annual. Punjab.). Udichirayat. Rajasthan. M. t. Sk. LOC. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning.—capsule. arising from between the stipules . vomiting. ellipsoid. Fl. Bark is used in scabies. stem. Kashaya. small." asthma. smooth. ovate. COM. Dhamaso . Mysore. obliquely obovate.-Oct. pale rose-coloured. also used in chronic fevers.2 cm. root fibrous. :—Madras State. scarcely branched. CHAR. FAM. Dusparsha. purifies blood (Ayurveda). elliptic or lanceolate. Barachirayat. urinary discharges. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. FAM. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. 5-nerved. in copious terminal cymes . flattened.—opposite. :— H. it has got cooling properties. :—Konkan. stomatitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb.—Zygophyllaceæ. Cooling. Mediterranean. COM. LOC. . NS. quadrangular. :—G. Gujarat.—very variable in size and form sessile. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. M. t. Circars. C—lobes 4-5. typhoid. :— Sind. leaflets linear. Coimbatore. cures dysentery.—Gentianaceæ. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . westwards to Afghanistan.— ovoid. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Hinguna. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. Iran. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Dhanavi. LOC. Ghats. erysipelas. long. Ind. Maval. fever. spitting of blood. lower half white.—solitary. removes "Vata. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. H. W. Upper Gangetic plains.

Vat. Kavath.5 cm. asthma. Avaroha. Bar. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Kapitha. Elephant or wood apple. useful in biliousness. Ala. Vad. high. good for throat. DISTR. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. NS. 10-20 X 5-12. COM. aphrodisiac.— globose. Kotha. Fruit—sour . heart diseases. Fr. Bargat. common in the Tapi Valley. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. shining above. Alada. Grahiphala. strengthening to gums . Java. Kathel. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. :— E. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). M. Goli. M. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. tumours. Kathinyaphala. Byala. India. ovate to elliptic. See—Timbers.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. Dadhiphala. acrid. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. diam. cures cough.—Rutaceæ. Kapipriya. Nyagrodha. S. often cultivated. with male. hiccup. Balin. alexipharmic. Kavitha.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Kanara. " Vata ". gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Bhringi. Vad. removes biliousness.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Ceylon. :—Cultivated all over the State. refrigerant. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Banian tree. leucorrhoea. Sk. :—Indigenous in S. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). G. Seeds—antidote to poison. G. M. about 2 cm. Sk. Monkey fruit. LOC. consumption. FAM. cordate or rounded base. Self-sown. blood impurities. Vata. Vadlo . ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—Leaves. K. CHAR. K. Manmadha. liver and lungs . tonic to heart. " Tridosha". dysentery. LOC. Kait. Bahupada. Malura. NS. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . binding diuretic. COM. LOC.. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. vomiting . fruit and seeds. refrigerant . thirst. Kavit. fatigue. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Belada. Kothun. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. female. :—E.—Moraceæ. . Leaves—very astringent. Jatala. H. Ghats. with spreading branches. often planted. country and N. Fruit Trees. H. Bargad. difficult to digest. astringent.—coriaceous. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children.

useful in "Vata". useful in piles. Dharwar. vulnerary. H. . alexiteric. LOC. useful in syphilis. maturant. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. demulcent. DISTR. dysentery. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. thirst. paralysis. nutritive. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Cultivated in N. boils and carbuncles. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). W. fever. Fibres. liver and spleen diseases. M. Milky Juice—expectorant. laxative. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. tonic. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. stimulates hair-growth. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Afghanistan. Asia and Mediterranean. inflammation of liver (Yunani). aphrodisiac. leaves. Sacred Plants. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. useful in leucoderma. Kakodumbar. nose-diseases. Anjir. lessens inflammations. in rheumatism and lumbago. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. FICUS CARICA Linn. bruises. leprosy (Ayurveda). NS. ulcers. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Anjir. gonorrhœa. hill ranges of S. Root—tonic. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Simeyatu . erysipelas. Aerial root is styptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. :— E. pain in chest cures piles. inflammations. Bijapur. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. USES :—Fruit is emollient.—Moraceæ. Grown scattered elsewhere. LOC. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. root-fibres. lithotriptic. Sk. vaginal complaints. diuretic. biliousness. FAM. LOC. G. COM. India. ringworm. useful in "Kapha". useful in inflammation . weakness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. seeds and milky juice. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. :—Baluchistan. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. leprosy. Seeds are cooling and tonic. vomiting. India. Anjura. PARTS USED :—Bark. biliousness. Fig. See—Famine Plants. W. K. diseases of head and blood. dangerous for eyes (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. Anjir. Anjir. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils.

Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Pavitraka. G.—Moraceæ. Vriksharaj. urinary discharges. Pipal. good for foul taste. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. burning sensation. FAM. Gular-Country fig. Lalka. given in leucorrhoea. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Hemadugdha. DISTR. M. Bark is cooling. Fruit—astringent to bowels. in diseases of blood. burning sensation. Bark. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Pippala. Ashvatha. Pipers. NS. Milk—aphrodisiac. DISTR. Rumadi. Atti. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Gular. COM. Pimpal. blood diseases. Pipal. Yajnika. leaves.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. good for gravid uterus. See—Timbers. M. fatigue. (Yunani). The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. menorrhagia. Sacred Plants. Umbar. vulnerary. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Peepal tree . K. LOC. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. HABITAT :—Planted. fruit. galactagogue. allays thirst. Bodhidruma. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). leucorrhoea. G. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves—astringent to bowels . is given to cattle in rinderpest. useful in "Kapha". styptic. ground with onions. bark. :—E. Sk. Shuchidruma. LOC. loss of voice. nose bleedings. K. planted all over. Sk. leaves and fruits. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. bark. H. Fruit— useful in dry cough. leprosy. Umar. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. LOC. Umbro. H. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. Jari. Umar. :—Widely spread throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. biliousness. :—Throughout the State near villages. Udumbara. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. latex. Bark useful in asthma and piles. biliousness. Ashwatha mara. Demera. vagina. diseases of kidney and spleen. useful. Pipli. cummin. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. . NS.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. COM. :—E. ulcers. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. FAM. good for bronchitis. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. Arani. uterus . acrid. Pippala.—Moraceæ. Ragi.

Soupa. Bilangra . Ghats. M. HABITAT :—Hills. gum. FAM. astringent in leucorrhoea. Shalina. promotes granulations. Mullutari. PARTS USED :—Root. . and produces sterility in women. good for lumbago. Burma. N. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. H. common in the Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Katar. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. heart diseases. Fennel. appetising and digestive. Root good for gout. NS. Tambat. Variari. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. COM NS. Satpura. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Tapaspriya. COM. Fruit—purgative. Bhakal. Bhanber. :—E. DISTR. bark. Potika. aphrodisiac. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. fruit. K. M. Finkel. upper Gangetic plain. Variali. LOC. Gajale. seeds. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. See—Timbers. K. Hettarimullu. W. H. Badisoppu. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst.—Flacourtiaceæ. Bhuripushpa. LOC. Young bark useful in bone fractures. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. S. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. FAM. Kanara Jungles. Swadukantaka. Country and N. cleans ulcers. Khandesh. See—Timber. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums.—Umbelliferæ. Akrani. Hunmunki. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Badishep. Shateya. M. Circars. SAPIDA Roxb. Kankod . Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. The juice is employed in hiccup. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. G. Paker. checks vomiting (Yunani). The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Sk. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Sacred Plants. Fodder Plants. Sk. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. Handi Kandai. Fruits are sweet. :— G.

useful in bleeding piles. :—Endemic in W. laxative. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. cough and asthma. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". amenorrhœa. Mulgala. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. DISTR. :—A tall glabrous. :—Apparently a native of S.—in large umbels . annual. cardiotonic. LOC. tumours. Kokam . seeds-carminative. demulcent and emollient.6-0. improves appetite and allays thirst. furrows vittate. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Amlabija. Wild mangosteen. L. K. alexiteric.—Guttiferæ.9 m. DISTR. aromatic and carminative. Ghats south of Bombay. Fr. ultimate segments linear. diuretic. G. NS. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. FL. COM. (Mhaskar and Caius). leprosy (Ayurveda). appetiser. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter.—ellipsoid. M. See—Condiments and Spices. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. galactagogue. strengthen eyes (Yunani). dark green. Wynaad. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata".— decompound. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. wounds. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Ghats. eye-diseases. dysentery. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Bark. Konkan and N. common in S. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. PARTS USED :—Roots. biliousness. carpophore 2-partite. bracts and bracteoles absent. LOC. Leaves—improve eyesight. LOC. aphrodisiac. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. fever. Tittidika . stomachic. H. :—E. Kokam . Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. Murjinhalli. Atyamla. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. Oils. LOC. anthelmintic. wounds etc. kidney. dysentery. yellow. Coorg. See—Timbers. " Vata ". Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. It is much used as a nutritive. USES :—used as stimulant. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. causing constipation . HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures "Tridosh". 0.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. in headache. . :—W. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. useful in diseases of chest. stimulant. leaves and seeds. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. fruit and seeds. Kanara. difficult to digest. often cultivated. thirst. fissures of lips. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). USES :—Bark is astringent. Tintidika. Ratambi. ridges prominent. Kokam. lessen inflammations. Sk. leaves (rarely). spleen. burning sensation. FAM.

first white then changing to yellow. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. See—Timbers. Bikke. t. LOC. C.-tubular. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. all dry districts of Madras State. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Dikemali. Peninsula). As sold in the bazar it is hard. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . shining. See—Gums and Resins. Suvirya.8 cm. Hingu. buds resinous. Jantuka. -June. Cambi resin tree. HABITAT :—Open situations. H. LOC.. oblong. PARTS USED :—Gum. LOC. Pinda. about 1. not fragrant. Gums and Resins.-sessile. common on laterite in southern parts of N.—Feb. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). 1-3 together. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. DISTR. Fl. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. DISTR. Northern ghats of Madras State.8 m. Burma.5-3. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour.—Rubiaceæ. lucida (Ayurveda). Dakamali. COM. opaque. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali.-subsessile. PARTS USED:-Gum.—2. Dekamari. Sk. Fl. COM. Kanara. NS. Dikamali. :—India (W. same as for G. :—E. unarmed. :—A deciduous shrub. CHAR. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. M. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. Dikkamalli. 4. FAM. Fr. FAM. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. :—India. Dikamari. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . oblong or ellipsoid.5x22. astringent to bowels. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. K.5 cm. L. relieves pain of bronchitis. G. :—Common from Konkan southwards. . HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. high. lucida. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. Western Peninsula. elliptic-obovate. long.

COM. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.2 cm. FAM. In case of retained placenta. leaves and flowers. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. Agnimukhi. axillary . The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. stems annual. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. t. Cochin-China. LOC. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. . changing colours from greenish yellow. Nangulika. :—G. thirst. Akkitang hall. orange. Tropical Africa. piles. branching climber . On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. Dudhio vachhonag. alexiteric. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst.5-3. solid. linear-lanceolate. leprosy. K. filaments long spreading. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. abortifacient. perianth segments reaching 6. tall. There are two varieties of the plant.. M.3 cm. PARTS USED :—Tuber. :—Throughout tropical India. FL. Fl. acrid. useful in chronic ulcers. NS. Linn. inflammations. LOC. Languli. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). itching. root-stock of arched. Garbhapatani. Sk. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms.—Liliaceæ. bitter. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Kathari.—sessile. Fr. ovate lanceolate. abdominal pains.. H. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. Tuber— astringent. solitary.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. Khadyanag. Malay Peninsula. 7. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Huliyuguru. :—Herbaceous. Ceylon. sometimes whorled. scattered or opposite.5 cm. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. L. scarlet.—capsule. heating.5 X 15 X 2-4. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2.—large. linear oblong. margins wavy. In Guinea. Karianag. The former is supposed to be male. anthelmintic. Kulhari. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent.-July-Oct. CHAR.. Kalikari. expectorant. given off from young tubers . Kalihari. laxative. Indai. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. and crimson from blooming to fading. Sivasaktibalb . DISTR. used to remove placenta from uterus.

neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. Tree cotton. PARTS USED :—Root. Nurma . Shiwan. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. Khandesh. made into paste. K. flowers and fruit. tonic. Ceylon. Sind. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. thirst. leaves. common on Satpuda. :—Throughout the State. Sk. laxative. DISTR. Kashmari. K. useful in "Vata". with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Gumbhar. Philippines. Shripani. PARTS USED :—Root. strangury. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Provinces. useful in hallucinations. useful in fevers . See—Fibres. stomachic. Devkapas. Deokapas. G. leprosy. Gandhari. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. piles. catarrh of the bladder etc. urinary discharges. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. root is also stomachic and laxative. scalds etc. Gambari. anthelmintic . the root. White teak. useful in indigestion. In the Konkan. Rajasthan and N. H. Cashmere tree. anæmia. COM. Root taken with liquorice. See—Timbers. Root extract is bitter and tonic. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. FAM. :—Throughout India. NS. gleet. Flowers—astringent. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Gambhari. LOC. Kumbudi. flowers and seeds. thirst.—Malvaceæ. FAM. chronic cystitis. scattered in monsoon forests. promotes hair-growth. Mahabhadra. Malaya. Shivan . NS. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Karibatti. :— Bengal. Var. consumption and some catarrhal affections . . improves appetite . W. M. Shivani. Devakapus. COM. Oils. ulcers. Sk. G. aphrodisiac. Madhya Bharat. Fruit— diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. fevers. H. indigestible. DISTR. LOC.—Verbenaceæ. LOC. burning sensation. Karpasam. Hanji. alterative. M. Savan. Coomb teak. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). consumption. Bachanige. Gupsi. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. " Tridosha ". It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. abdominal pains. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk.:—E. Shiwan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. anasarca. :— E.

110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. NS. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . in hills near Poona. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. Phalsa. leaves. enrich blood. S. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). removes " Vata" and biliousness. Iran. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. Parapera. wild in Deccan. extensively in Gujarat. tonic. allay thirst. aphrodisiac. Mesapotamia. Kapus. Leaves remove " Vata " . cures inflammations. in hypochondria. Kupas. Sk.. sour. :— Cultivated in N. PARTS USED :—Root.—Tiliaceæ. Pharuah. Rui. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. A. Buttiyu-dippa. COM. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Egypt. LOC. acrid. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Arabia and Asia Minor. Oils. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. M. cure all ear-troubles. H. COM. W. fruit. Tadasala. Roshana. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. analgesic. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Hatti. Seeds are laxative. :—Cultivated in the State. M. extensively cultivated. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Phalsi. Country.Phalse. digestible. Rui. bark. G. FAM. Karihariyale. Arali. laxative . All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Cotton . heart and blood disorders. Dhamin. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. poultice applied to burns' scalds. M. Ripe fruit—sweet. Gujarat and S. Parusha. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . K. Sutrapuspha. East Tropical Africa. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Syria. Mediterranean. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Baluchistan. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Badari. expectorant. Province (Pakistan). (Yunani). In India they are used to procure abortion. H. DISTR. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. LOC. :—E. fruits and seeds. Sk. scabies . demulcent. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. increase flow of urine. expectorant and aphrodisiac. Kapas . fevers and consumption. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. U. fomentation for burning eyes . tonic. :—Sind. used in orchitis. good for all kinds of inflammations. good for throat . probably in N. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. preventing their access to wounds etc. Tula. :—G. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. See—Fibres. leaf-juice good in dysentery. removes " Vata ". K.—Malvaceæ. Jana.. restore consciousness. cooling. Anagnika. NS. Seeds— ' galactagogue. F. Afghanistan. DISTR. Karpas.

— opposite. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose.—follicle. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. :E. leucoderma. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. Br. Kabari. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. alterative. H. Karalia . Meshavalli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. LOC. Vishani. — Asclepiadaceæ. :— E. acrid. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. sweet. Sati talvani. Shrikala. bronchitis. anthelmintic. :—Throughout the State. Karnasphota. Mabli. Fr. alexiteric. cornea. Mardashingi. Vakundi. common in hedges in Dharwar district. yellow .—Capparidaceæ. corona of 5 processes . Tilparni. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. elliptic. helps removal of dead fetus. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). K. See—Fruit Trees. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Periploca of the woods. Kavali. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. tonic. ulcers. ovate. S. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. Kanphodi. t. Bastagandha. Sanngera.— Apl. Ugragandha. Pandhari tilwan. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. LOC. K. cooling. M. Fruit—sour. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. FAM. . FAM. relieves thirst and hiccup. COM. Sannagerse. C. Tropical Africa. CHAR. Kanara coast.— companulate . Small Indian ipecacuanha. DISTR. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. L. Adiyakharan. Gurmar. Caravella. should not be eaten raw. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). Merasingi. India. base rounded or cordate . asthma. FL. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Bedki. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. strengthens chest and heart. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Sd. NS. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. G. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Tanmani. NS. G. piles. SK. biliousness. Mahabaleshwar and N. Hulhul. COM. Arkapuspika. stomachic.-May. :—Western Peninsula.— with thin marginal wing. much branched. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). the stomachic stimulant. inflammations. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Fl. vitreous body) burning sensation. Ceylon. Churota. LOC.—in cymes . M. Meshashingi. lanceolate. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. H. Root and bark used in strangury. young stems densely pubescent. good in heart-diseases. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. The ease of administration. usually single. Hulhul. :—A large woody climber.

Sinhgad hills. hairy on the nerves beneath. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. PARTS USED :—Root. hairy. acute. LOC. FAM. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . white or blue. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. pain. ulcers. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Murdasing. L.—Sterculiaceæ. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda).—June. Mrigashringa. Jonkaphal Maraphali. Avartant.—Oct. pink . China.—in dense bracteate racemes.—capsule. NS. with divaricate herbaceous branches . vesicant. Murudseng. :—M.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. (Kirtikar and Basu). COM. Kewan.—rather rigid. H. Fl. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. hills near Nagothana. Gidesa Jitasai. Sd. long . producing copious exudation. FAM.6—1. Murudi. LOC. elliptic-obovate. t. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. Fr. pedicels viscid hairy. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation.—capsule.. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. Fr. :—Deccan. Marosi. viscid.-Feb. CHAR. sessile. ellipsoid . LOC. HABITAT:—Hills. M. tumours.2 m. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. Fl. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb.—muricate. S. removes "Vata". :—A common weed in all tropical countries. t. :—An annual erect herb 0. earache. hills in Supa Taluka. Edamuri.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.12.. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. Kavargi. gynophore 2-2. good in ascites. Katraj Ghat.—many. dark-brown . They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. NS. Sd.—3-5 foliate. glabrous or pubescent above. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. stem and branches hairy. . DISTR.—Rubiaceæ. long. Gujarat. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. .8-9 cm. hairy. L. :—G. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. 5-9 cm. elliptic-lanceolate.—petals 4 with long slender claws. high. tapering at both ends. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. :—A small deciduous shrub. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Fl. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. C. Sk. opposite. Kanara. DISTR. leaves and seeds. K. stomachic . margins crenate-dentate. COM. M. Country. leaflets subsessile. pubescent. stipules triangular.5-20 X 3.

greenish outside. obliquely cordate. joint-pains. foul body odour. Utpalashariva.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR.5 X 5-10 cm. and leaves.-Dec. Upalsari. urinary discharges. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. LOC. Burma. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. epileptic fits. G. :—Large shrub or small tree.512.—numerous. :—Throughout the State. Australia and West Indies. They are demulcent. Sugandhi-balli. Magrabu. anti-galactagogue.Sd. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. purplish inside. alexiteric.—throughout the greater part of the year. diaphoretic. t. H. mildly astringent. syphilis.. PARTS USED :—Root. . The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Sd. LOC. asthma. “tridosh". low appetite. Fl. Stem lessens inflammation. Sk. paralysis. K. "Vata' dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. Root useful in hemicrania. Malaya. root-Stock woody . asthma. Durivel. angular . PARTS USED :—Root.—tubular. long. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. stems thickened at the nodes . red at first fading to lead colour. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. Fr.—follicle cylindric. ovate orbicular. DISTR. blood diseases. Upalsali. lessens griping. NS. cough. India. t — Aug. L. often variegated with white above. :— E. rat-bites. CHAR. 5-6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. Fl. demulcent. fevers. beaked. astringent to bowels. 7. LOC.3 cm. diuretic. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). FAM. common in hedges. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). Kapurimathuri. scabrous above. FL. Indian sarsaparilla . bark and fruit. thirst. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. Fr. poisoning. L. M. astringent to bowels . dark-green.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. diarrhœa. leucorrhoea.—Asclepiadaceæ. cures all skin-diseases. bronchitis. antidiarrhœal. Kanara ghat forests. See—Fibres.— very variable. uterine complaints. Hamadaberu .-biferous. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. eye troubles. Root and stem—laxative. Country. Dhaval kashtha. useful in piles. DISTR. good for brain. C. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). spirally coiled.— in cymes in opposite axils.—follicle of 5-6. Fl. Hindisalse. stem. COM. irregularly crowded. Anantmula. HABITAT :—In hedges. useful in gleet. tapering .— with silvery white coma . M. Ceylon. liver and kidney diseases . Konkan. Br. "Kapha". Anantmula. bilabiate. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. Deccan and S. :—Upper Gangetie plain. burning sensation.

Root is valuable in coughs. skindiseases.—no fruits produced in India. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary discharges. remove burning of body. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. M. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. involucral bracts 5-7.—short petioled. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. entire near the base.—during most of the year. tonic. Fl. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Jasuva. Native country probably China. G. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. C. seminal weakness. L. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. It is said to purify blood. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. K. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. pedicel jointed above the middle. petals thrice as long as the calyx. :—A perennial shrub. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. bright red. FAM. etc. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). cm. Japapushpa. Fr. Sk.—7. Root roasted in plantain leaves. astringent. glabrous. :— E. In the Konkan. . red. Raktapushpi. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in loss of appetite. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India.. Rudrapushpa. crimson. demulcent. yellow. Dasanihu. piles. irregularly serrate towards the top. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. NS. uterine and vaginal discharges. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. fevers. magenta. DISTR. Fl. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). bark and petals are demulcent.5. cooling.—axillary. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. ovate or ovate lanceolate. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Shoe flower. syphilis and leucorrhoea. solitary. and mixed with ghee. Jasut. t. tubular below. Kempupundrika. diam. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. It is also diuretic. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. H. flowers. Harivallaba. Aruna. and as early as 1864. Jasavand. COM. LOC. Dasavala. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. leaves. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). Jasum.—Malvaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste .

(lower leaves sometimes entire).—large. entire glabrous.-Mar. :—Cultivated. Madmalati. DISTR.3-7. Vasanti. . serrate. HABITAT. glabrous. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Fl. 1. Sd. Sd. orbicular. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. Fr.2-2 cm.—coriaceous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. Lal ambadi. Ragotpiti.—capsule. :—G. asafoetida and molasses. involucral bracts 10. young parts silky. COM.—purple with darker centres. LOC. M. hairy.—Malpighiaceæ. 10-18 X 4.—axillary. mid-lobe the longest. Lal ambari. FAM.—in erect racemes.—Oct. Vasantduti. on the margins. 3-5 lobed. 5th petal yellow at the base. NS. long. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Red sorrel. K. petioles silky. ovoid. white. COM. base cuneate. pepper. stem and branches purple. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. CHAR. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Patwa. fragrant. Ceylon. Ghats. uppermost petal broader. Madhumalati. Adimurtte Adirganti. 3-winged. Atimukta. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. purple. Fibres. Pundi-bija or soppu. LOC. Konkan. Kampti. :—An annual. Lal ambadi. L. Fl.—5-7. :—Throughout the State. Kempupundrike. See—Vegetables.— Jany. NS. covered with minute hairs . HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Madhavi. Fr. long. often blotched with purple with darker centre.. L. and adding a little salt. H. Atimukta. Fl. acuminate. Madhavi. calyx fleshy. fruits and seeds. Kamuka.—1-3. Chandravalli. G. M. t. purple.) FAM.—Malvaceæ. Malati. clawed. Fl. black-brown.5 cm. globose. Vasantduti. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. C.5 cm. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. erect. much used in curries.lobes oblong. H. across. CHAR. Rozelle. fringed.—petals 5. tropics of the old world. sedative and refrigerant. Madhavi. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. Sk. Madhalata. beaked. C. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. flowers. Deccan.-Dec. t. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Haladvel.— solitary. elliptic-oblong. Kanara. :—E. Madhavi. K. Grows abundantly on the W. PARTS USED :—Leaves.

HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. good in erysipelas. colic. Sk. Assam. leprosy. Karnatak. N. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. NS. Ceylon. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts.—Feb. tonic. Veppale. flowers and seeds. good in headache. Kuda. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. Thailand (Siam). cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). cause "Vata". Seeds—carminative. PROPERTIES. tonic. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. cooling. main nerves conspicuous . good in chronic bronchitis. Kudsalu. Kurchi tree. Kumaon. branchlets drooping. FL. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. burning sensation.. Mt. G. lumbago. leprosy. Flowers— acrid. Kutaja. styptic. white. Leavesastringent. long. cures dysentery. K. FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. bleeding piles. wounds. appetiser cure blood diseases. fatigue. broadly ovate or elliptic. galactagogue. vulnerary. ulcers. L. biliousness. throat hairy inside. Andamans. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Indrayana. cough. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. LOC. M. Pandhara Kuda. Conessi bark tree. aphrodisiac.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. insecticidal.—10-20 X 5-11. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. t. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. smoke good for piles. leaves. Nepal. given in chest affections. Kura. Kuda. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Dudhi. Bark—bitter. asthma. PARTS USED :—Bark. biliousness. C—tubular. burning sensation. bitter. heating. COM. fevers. acrid. Sd. anthelmintic. H. LOC.5 cm. leucoderma . The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Siwalik. diarrhœa. often dotted with white spots. cylindric. Abu. Karuindrayan. :—Throughout the State. thirst. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo .— in terminal corymbose cymes . Karohi. lessens inflammations. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. Madras State. " Kapha". Fr. LOC. skin diseases. DISTR. vulnerary. :—E. piles. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. See—Ornamental Plants. Kodasige. excessive menstrual flow. Seeds—appetiser.—Apocynaceæ. diuresis (Yunani). astringent to bowels cure pains. Hale. cool the brain. acrid. remove "Tridosh". Malay Peninsula. Fl. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. urinary discharges. inodorous. China. CHAR. boils.-June. Burma. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. strengthens gums. skin and spleen diseases.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs .—follicles 20-48 cm. Hath.. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. Kaduoindrajav. Kaling. thirst and inflammation. Circars. remove muscular pains .

:—E. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. Hayapriya. Ymvah. pains in chest. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. sweetish. They are astringent. Yava. nor astringent. acrid. useful in biliousness. PARTS USED :—Seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. dysentery and intestinal worms.—Gramineæ. Java. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. Gaz. lowers the pulse. NS. nor styptic. Javegodhi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. (R. kurchine. fevers (Yunani). good for ulcers. Germinated barley. . diarrhœa. The grains contain vitamin B. inflamed gums. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). M. headache. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. aphrodisiac. allays thirst. —Cultivated chiefly in N. Jav. and kurchicine. asthma. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. LOC. Divya. Med. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. LOC. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. Satu. Sk. bronchitis. See—Food Plants. H. stomachic. 1928). They are also used after delivery. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. Jawa. improves voice. FAM. febrifuge. demulcent and expectorant. causes constipation. anæmia. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. burns. DISTR. with radicle attached to it. malt sugar and diastase. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. G. biliousness. COM. Suj. appetiser. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. fattening. Jav. Knowles. K. Ind. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. especially cod-liver oil. Tasteless. Barley. Aug. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. useful in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. Shaktu. India. widely cultivated in temperate regions. useful in bronchitis. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn.

Bharnarasalya. Fr. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. DISTR.) FAM. white. Bhorsal. C.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. high. increases taste and appetite. FL.—Bixaceæ. Kowti. tomentose. FAM. more or less coriaceous. Kshiradru. M. For scald-head. Ghats. Dondra. PARTS USED :—Seeds. . Sk.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Dondru. globose or ovoid. See—Oils. :—K. Bhrijatuaka. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. K.—berry. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. broadly ovate. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. common in Travancore. L. Doti. DISTR. Amarachala. good for the throat.—Apl. Ugragandha. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. Bhanina.—Jany. Kanara evergreen forests. M. Bandaru. Betaga.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. Bihar. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Garudphala. Common in N. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Gandele.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. cures all tumours (Ayurveda).—Rubiaceæ. dioecious . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. bitter. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Sk. M. Madhya Pradesh. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers.—numerous. Kadukavata.8-7. Bhutabi. flat. Kastel. :—G. LOC. young parts brown pubescent. CHAR. camphor and lime-juice. sulphur. Phaldu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Peninsula. NS. acuminate.—solitary or in racemes. 12. t. :—W.5-23 X 3. LOC. S. size of small apple. Sd. Southern and Western India. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Niradivittulu. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases.. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. COM. sometimes along river banks. pungent. NS. Bhringamallika. Malabar. COM. Country and Kanara. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. H. Fl. Bhoswar. Garudphala.

Fl. Sk. 10-15 cm. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. M. DISTR. :—More or less throughout India.—1-5 flowered peduncles . " Vata ". cylindric . Country. :—A large twining shrub . Kalmisag. Kalidudhi. lobes with white hairs on the upper side.—in axillary and terminal. LOC.-Dec.—Apocynaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Fodder Plants. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. X 4 cm. Kalaka. ovoid . Br. Shradhashaka. PARTS USED :—Root. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. In Indo-China. numerous . L. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers.—4 or 2. throat and tube dull purple . pubescent. The outer layer is tasteless. Gorwiballi. prostrate. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. stems long. :—Throughout the State.5 cm. COM. Karihambu. glabrous above. :—G.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Sd. Nalichibhaji. CHAR. :—Annual or biennial herb. FAM. upper constricted.—4-5-7 X 2-3. NS.—capsule. lobes obscure .—5-12. thirst. Fl. cures " Kapha ". very slender. elliptic oblong. Java. Sd. Australia.—Nov. Bhadra. S. C.—linear.—Convolvulaceæ. vomiting. C. straight or slightly curved. t. Fl. . Kanara. the powdered wood is used for herpes. biliousness. fever.2 -7. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. trailing on mud or floating. H. Ceylon. Kalaghantika. Kanara. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). Nadika.—follicle. black with white scanty coma.—tube with narrow portion below. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. acute. blood diseases. Gopini. :—H. base rounded. hollow. Krishnasariva. aphrodisiac. Siamalata. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. thick. FL. FAM. Kantebhovari. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Pechuli. stalks and leaves. L. CHAR.— Nov. greenish white. Sariva. :—Konkan. t. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. M. COM. Fr. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. cooling. Potuasaga. LOC..-Apl. rooting at the nodes . trichotomous cymes. Common in the evergreen forests of N. Chandangopa. NS. Sk. Karmi. Kalambika. See—Timbers. Nalanibhaji. LOC.5x 3. very common in Gujarat. young branches finely fulvous tomentose .8 cm. rusty pubescent. Fr. cordate or hastate. middle portion much inflated. K. M.

galactagogue. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. often broader than long. root large. stomachic. Sd. useful in leucoderma. (Ayurveda). vomiting. 3. dry. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda).—capsule. " Kapha " . Nila-kumbala. :—Perennial. demulcent and lactagogue. Ceylon. H. blood diseases. LOC. Bhunichahragadde.3 cm. (Yunani). improves voice and complexion. L. Africa. anthelmintic . twining. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. See—Gums and Resins. appetiser. Bilaikand . 4-celled. pale. Leaves enrich blood. DISTR.—10-15 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. useful in fever.—in. Carminative. :— E. Bhuikohala.-July-Sept. anthelmintic. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. galactagogue. burning sensation. liver complaints. near sea coast. entire. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. Root—heating. Kanara sea coast. ovoid. (Yunani). ovate-lanceolate. biliousness. enclosed in fleshy sepals. deeply palmately divided. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . long. being regarded as tonic. Australia in moist climate. :—Throughout India. long. alterative. aphrodisiac. FAM. flowers (rarely).—Convolvulaceæ. stem long. CHAR. bronchitis. M. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. stimulant. Swadu Vidarikand. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. COM. In Burma. Africa and Australia. tropical Asia. LOC. Sk. . thick. indigestible. expectorant. Giant potato . useful in leprosy. useful in syphilis. Flower causes " Vata ". also useful in liver complaints. alterative. jaundice. gonorrhœa and inflammation. debility and want of digestive power. aphrodisiac. tropical Asia. leaves. peduncle solitary axillary. cures biliousness. Bhumikushmanda. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. glabrous. biliousness and fevers. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. tonic. Fl. t. to children in case of emaciation. LOC. NS. 4-valved. lessens inflammation. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. leprosy. K. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. PARTS USED :—Root. purple.8—6. Fr. America. carminative. diuretic. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. lobes 5-7.

tropical Africa. leucoderma. Musekani.—1. L. :—A herb . scabies and biliousness.-5-12. :—Western Peninsula. Fr. H. creeping and rooting at the nodes.—3. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). Indian jalap. Africa.. Kaladanah. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. 3-celled.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes .:—Throughout India. dries the phlegm. axillary. H. surrounded by ciliate sepals. anthelmintic. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. K. LOC. in the Himalayas. deeply three-Iobed. Sd. stems many. G.3-2. subglobose. COM. FAM. K. PARTS USED :—Seeds. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. petioles hairy. believed to be of American origin. Kaladana. :—An annual herb. S. Fl. Vrishchikparni. Purgative. M. :—G.— yellow. Sk. LOC. glabrous . DISTR. ovate-cordate. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. Fl. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. Shyamala-bijak. reniform or ovate-cordate. subglobose or ovoid.-Oct. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). bronchitis (Ayurveda). NS. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. :—E. CHAR. Krishna—Shyama-bija. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. broad. Sk. abdominal diseases. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. Deccan. E. Fr. COM. stems twining. t. L. diseases of head.—capsule. DISTR. Nilpushpa. diam.5 cm. Undirkani. Ganribij. Country. Ceylon.) FAM.—Convolvulaceæ. long tubular funnel-shaped. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). useful in liver and spleen diseases. Nilvel. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. crenate. Mirchai. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative.—Convolvulaceæ. Undirkani. NS. Kalokumpo. . headache. LOC. Fl. cures inflammations. fevers. Morning glory. carminative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth.— 4-6. blue tinged with pink. C. See—Ornamental Plants. M. bechic. lobes ovate. The plant contains a glucoside. :—Konkan. filiform. bracts linear.—Sept. clothed with long hairs. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. pains in joints. sparsely hairy. S.8-5 cm. CHAR.—capsule. Sd.5 cm. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses.—dark chestnut coloured .

—Convolvulaceæ. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided.—in few flowered cymes. Mauritius. pains of chest and joints. Nandi. Rechani. useful in spleen enlargement. It is also alterative. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. removes bad humours. paralysis. G. Turbith root. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). burning sensation and intoxication. heart and abdomen. brain diseases. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. Root— bitter. Sk. base cordate or truncate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. mucronate. H. fistula. Kalaparni. sometimes cultivated. cooling. useful in bilious fevers. lungs. rarely slightly lobed.—5-10 X 1. carminative. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. tropical Africa and America. often pinkish. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. much branched. uterus. root long. Ceylon. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. Malay Islands. HABITAT :—Wild . Philippines. enclosed in enlarged sepals . other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). muscular pains. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. inflammations and abdominal diseases . pungent. bracts large. good in pain. CHAR.—capsule. Kanaka. anthelmintic.. antipyretic. bechic. applied in diseases of eye and gums. inflammations. Br. Nashotar. laxative. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. PARTS USED :—Root. Nahatara. :— E. False-Indian jalap. bronchitis. . Fr. useful in bilious tremors of body. 3.8-5 cm. Common in southern Gujarat. leucoderma. also in the Konkan and N.-Jany. strangury. L. Fl. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. COM. FAM. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. LOC. C. bladder. t. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. useful in loss of consciousness. ovate or oblong.—Oct.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. like others of the genus . K. white variety is a mild cathartic. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). Triputi. stems very long. angled and winged. wounds. acrid. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. globose. fleshy. M. LOC. Fl. Trivrit. anæmia. laxative. Nishottara. :—Throughout India. good for weakness. long. Root with bark should be used. Pithori. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). Indian rhubarb. useful in diseases of kidney. Nishoth. purgative. paralysis. NS. expectorant. pedicels thickened upwards.3-7 cm. DISTR. urethral discharges. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). fevers. twining and twisted together. LOC.—white. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. when used alone .

LOC. sessile. wild. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. HABITAT :—Cultivated .9 m. intermediate sessile . Ceylon.— Rubiaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants. size of a pea. 5-12. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. terminal rather larger. 3. Priyanvada.—3. stipules . NS. Kisukare. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. Pankul. Ajjige.—opposite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. C. pale when dry. M. coriaceous. COM. also along river banks.8 cm. Bakali. Sk. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. t.—July-Sept. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. :—A large subscandent shrub. CHAR. Parali. LOC.—opposite. Jai. Chambeli.—Oleaceæ.5 cm. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Surabhigandha. Fl. oblong. oblong. Chambali. K. proximal petiolulate.3 cm. white. very common in Konkan and N. obtuse. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. :—E. :—E. K. Fl. L. high. :—Western Peninsula. purple when ripe.2-6. G.—ripe carpels 2. Kepala. COM NS. FL—numerous.. DISTR. Pendgul. often tinged with pink outside. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. distal pair confluent with the terminal. of stems and roots. FAM. H. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. pale when dry. petiole and rachis margined. Fr. obtuse .. across.—throughout the year. Sk. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. :—Cultivated throughout India. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. Bandhuka. Anemallige. Chambeli. Guddedasal. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs.—globose. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. . fleshy. leaflets 7-11. t. Fr. Jati. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. CHAR. Raktaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. M. tube long. :—Bombay southwards . L.3 coriaceous. FAM.2-6.—tubular. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. sessile. imparipinnate. DISTR. lobes 4 (rarely). Flame of the woods . smooth. very slender . Jajimalle. Fl. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. 5-10 X 3. stipules with a long rigid point.

base rounded or subcordate. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). Navamallika. flowers and oil. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. eyes and ear. L. Fl. surrounded by calyx-teeth. Sambac. Tuscan jasmine. G. headache and weak eyes. M. very fragrant. FAM. allays fevers . Sk. soporific.—ripe-carpels 1-2. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. useful in stomatitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. membranous. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. Banmallika. suppurative. intoxicating. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . diseases of mouth.—more or less throughout the year . alexiteric. anthelmintic. stomatitis. Mogro. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. :—E. In Goa. Vanchandrika. :—Cultivated throughout India. Flower has bitter taste . head. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). Mallige. ear. given in blood diseases. . :—A sub-erect shrub. alexiteric. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. otorrhoea.—Oleaceæ. leprosy. vulnerary. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases.—white. See—Ornamental Plants. Mogara. softens skin. diuretic. Motia. black. expectorant. LOC.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. Leaves are also used in toothache. subglobose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling.—opposite. good in asthma. Oil—lessens inflammations. CHAR. Pramodini. aphrodisiac. heating. paralysis. rheumatism. tonic to brain. teeth. Ananga-mallika. brain tonic . emetic. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. alexiteric. COM NS. Fl. H. it is used in cases of insanity. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. Iravantige. LOC. variable in shape. Arabian Lily. caries of teeth. Root—purgative. Mogra. t. The plant contains an alkaloid. K. good for pains in joints and ear. useful in diseases of eye. biliousness (Ayurveda). abundant in April-May. ulcers. LOC. DISTR. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. mouth and skin. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. Flowers—tonic. biliousness. aphthae. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Plant—deobstruent. scarcely climbing. entire. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. Chamba. emmenagogue. Fr. and for scabies (Yunani). cures headache.

LOC. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. COM. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. and also promotes healing. FAM. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. yellow. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Seeds contain active principle curcin.5 cm.—Euphorbiaceæ. .— alternate. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. NS. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Jyotishka. Mogali—Ran-erand. DISTR. French or Small physic nut. Sk. 10-15 X 7. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. disk of female flower urceolate. when applied to boils. Fl. black.—ovoid oblong. longer than calyx. dull brownish black.8 cm. Akhuparnika. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. stipules capillary. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). long-petioled. male flowers. Coral plant. Sutashreni. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . LOC. fistula. coral-red. NS. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. 3-lobed. abdominal complaints.—capsule. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. G.5 cm. Virechani. 7. long. Fr.—orbicular. thirst. M. broadly ovate. Barbados Physic nut. cordate. FAM. H. The acrid.5-12. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). 7.—in flat-topped cymes. Fl. Sk. Vilayati haralu.—E. Fr. multifid.—monœcious.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. The seeds act as drastic purgative. Sd.. Jangali erandi. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. K. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Wood. urinary discharges. corolla lobes 5. subfleshy. Bhadradanti. Dundigu. Ratanjot. leaves. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. Simeavadala. useful in chronic dysentery. L. COM.5 mm. anaemia. CHAR:—A handsome. large.—Euphorbiaceæ. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. K. villous within. garden shrub . diam. herpes. across. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. 1. " Tridosha". :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. :—E. Jangali—Pahari erand. :—Native of tropical America. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. have suppurative effect. Kananerand. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. L. fruits and seeds. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. juice sticky opalescent. CHAR.5-12.— ovoid. biliousness.

—Ghati pitpapda.5 cm. wounds. Bhutakeshi.5-12. Kalmashi.—capsule. Krishna-nirgundi. L. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. Nilmanjari. CHAR. leaves. pains. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. purple within. native of N. vaginal discharges. enlarged spleen. Fr. NS. Shindhuka. rheumatism and dysentery. FAM. In Cambodia. useful in piles. " Vata ' and "Pitta". Sk. Kala adulsa. Nilinirgandi. bitter. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. COM. fattening tonic .—white spotted. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. high . vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). fevers. :—Bomb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. LOC. LOC.6-1.—Acanthaceæ. causes " Kapha ". COM. long. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. Karinchki. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. branches subterete with raised lines. M. NS. Bakas. FAM. DISTR. America. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. HABITAT :—Shady positions. Fl. Seed— oleaginous. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). purgative. K.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. 5-12. . PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. aphrodisiac. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. dry . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. 7. M. all over the State. useful in bronchitis. DISTR.5 cm. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—H. Nachukaddi. Karambal. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. tympanitis. eye diseases (Ayurveda). latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. inflammations.—Acanthaceæ. :—A native of China. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. wild in Tenasserim. clavate glabrous. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. in interrupted spikes. heating. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . dyspepsia. skin-diseases.2 m. Leaves are used in scabies. hot. LOC. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. often met with in Bengal.

K. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—lobes lanceolate. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. COM. Panchgani. Western Ghats . PARTS USED :—Tubers. Fl.—variable. thirst. good in spleen diseases. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. strengthens lungs. Cultivated in gardens. :—N. Travancore. gives lustre to eyes.—in cylindric terminal spikes. LOC.— June-July. increases " Vata ". Malay Islands. (Yunani). Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Ceylon. elliptic. :—Western Peninsula. purifies blood in skin diseases.-Mar. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. C.—Oct. lower 3-lobed . ovate or lanceolate. Sk. fragrant. :—More or less throughout India. wandering of mind. L. spreading horizontally.:—Stemless herb. removes indigestion. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). P. fugacious. oval. aromatic. Kachri. DISTR. pure-white. t. constricted between the seeds .—2-lipped.. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). oblong shortly pointed. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. Chandramulika. M. pale violet pink. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. 6. :— H. root-stock tuberous. teeth. tube funnel-shaped . LOC. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. tired feeling. urinary discharges.—612 from the centre of the plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling.—2. Deccan. upper lip notched. vomiting. petioles channelled. CHAR.5-9 cm. enriches blood. Australia.—finely tuberculate.3-12. stomachic. deep green. round. biliousness. obtuse at both ends. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. t. lying flat on the ground. FAM. .5 X 4. Tubers yield an essential oil. Konkan. softly pubescent. constipating . aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. Chandramala. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. diaphoretic. L. Maval in the Deccan. Fl.. burning of body. Kachchura . South Konkan. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). Kapurkachri. Sugandhavachai. Malaya. expectorant. Fr. Fl. stops vomiting. thin.—Scitaminaceæ. NS. :—Konkan. fever. Madras State. diuretic. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. HABITAT :—Cultivated. intoxication. Plant diuretic.—capsule. LOC. Sd.

Alkaddu. Bhuichampa . simple.-Apl. M. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. long. :—Stemless plant. Fl..— sweetly fragrant.5-10 cm. elliptic-oblong. :—E. oblong. PROPERTIES AND LOC. annulate . Fl. crowded in a globose bead . petiole as long as blade. spathe 7. Kaddu. remedy for itch. Lauka. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps.—Scitaminaceæ. NS. G. —Feb. . used in the form of poultice. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. COM. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . midrib very stout. M. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. diam. H. NS.—globose 3. very poisonous . DISTR. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.. LOC. CHAR. M. Ceylon. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. thick.5 cm. Sk. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. tubular below. Cochin. Travancore.—30X7. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. t. Dudhya bhopala. :—M. t. :— G. Fr. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Tumbaka. :—Konkan. Sk. Bhuichapha. Fl. :—Mysore. creeping. Dudio Tumbada. DISTR. FAM. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. H. Bhuichampo .. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. semicylindric.—Aroideæ. L. CHAR. The whole plant. COM. K.. Katutumbi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Kanara.5 X 5-12. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. female cylindric. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Fl. coriaceous. Labuka. FAM. Country. N. Calabash. Bottle-gourd. anthers crowded. entire. Dudhi. COM. inflorescence of many ovaries. S. Tubers yield an essential oil. NS. L.. Kadu bhopala. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. of various shades of purple and white. Vatsanabhi. Nelasampige .—Cucurbitaceæ. Coorg. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.-Mar. yellow. Danta-bija.— inflorescence. FAM. K. rootstock reaching 5 cm.—narrowly oblong. promotes suppuration. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. in many cycles.5-23 cm. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Halagumbala. furrowed. margins undulate. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike.8-5 cm.—15-37. Bhuchampaka. Malay Islands. :—An aquatic herb.

In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. See—Timbers.—Lythraceæ. Sk. LOC. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. sweet. bark. bronchitis. flowers. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. diuretic. NS. refrigerant and anti-bilious. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . oleaginous. lessens inflammations. Konkan Ghats. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. aphrodisiac. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. inflammations. alexiteric. muscular pains. cures leucorrhoea. DISTR. brain-tonic. Malaya. fever. cures asthma. Holematti. emetic. cause haemoptysis. anti-periodic. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. Flowers cooling. in many cases only cultivated. USES :— Leaves are purgative. COM. LOC. seeds are narcotic. Seeds—good for hot constitution. cardiac and general tonic. Arjuna. scalding of urine. ulcers. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. increases "Vata". Ornamental Plants. bitter. causes bronchitis. fattening. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. piles. :—Western Peninsula. improves taste. Assam. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. Taman. leaves. LOC. bitter variety is diuretic. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. Bark and leaves are purgative. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. LOC:—North Kanara and S. In the Andamans. China. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. Tarul. Arjuna. pains (Ayurveda). anti-bilious. Nirbendeka: M. leaves. cooling. wild (rarely). laxative. DISTR. . K. PARTS USED :—Root. earache. :—H. fruits and seeds. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Seeds emetic (Yunani). wholesome to fœtus. fruits and seeds. Bandhara. Fruit good in bronchitis. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. earache. dry cough. "Vata". See—Vegetables. flatulence. styptic. There are two varieties. Challa. vulnerary. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. antipyretic.) FAM. cures blood diseases. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. PARTS-USED :—Root.

Fl. Wooly-headed gnidia. FAM. Peninsula—Ceylon. Sk. Nakharanjaka. N. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. inflammation. Madaranga.—Dec-May. Gorantha. lameness. Tree mignonette. t. yellow. Khesari. common on the Supa Ghats.5 X 2-2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. Medika.—in erect. G. causes much flatulence. DISTR. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. M. 5-7. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. glabrous above. LOC. subsessile. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. DISTR.8 cm. :—E. pain. Yavaneshta. heart-troubles. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. (Ayurveda). (B. M. Ragangi. The bark is used to poison fish.5 cm. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. H. cooling. Rametha.5-3. NS. COM. Sandika. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. burning. Belgaum hills . with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Mukute. Henna plant. Chickling—White vetch. :—A much branched large shrub. swellings etc. pointed. :—E.—Thymelaeaceæ. oblong flat. S. G. dense terminal heads 2. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Grains contain vitamin A. silky beneath.. K. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . D. Mehndi. Sk. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. :—W. bark mottled. piles and wandering of the mind. Lakh. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. tonic. oblong lanceolate. Lang. common at Mahabaleshwar.—ellipsoid-oblong. NS. CHAR.—Lythraceæ. L. perianth-tube densely silky villous . :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. but dangerous cathartic. improves taste. COM. K. enclosed in the perianth . LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. Fl. FAM. M. :—Konkan southwards. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—E. Deccan hills. Triputi. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark.. Latri. Basu).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Mendi. Country. LOC. Fr. Medi. Kukurgal. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. lobes 4.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. COM. . diam.—opposite or scattered. Rami. Kassar. Kanara. FAM. See—Food Plants.

Ragadali. Fr. amenorrhœa. Sd. globose.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Belgaum and Poona districts. mucronate. Massur. cure strangury tumours. stomatitis. pyramidal and panicled cymes. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. M. Fl.). LOC. boils. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . white or rose coloured . & Gib. Fl. fragrant. LOC. scabies. NS. favours hair-growth. dysentery. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. diseases of spleen. cure leucoderma. useful. L. in diseases of heart and of . :—A glabrous much branched shrub. wild in Arabia. The oil and essence keep the body cool. often ending in spinous point. ulcers. H. Gabholika. expectorant. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Masuridal. truncate. Europe and in temperate W. planted as hedge. HABITAT:—Cultivated. useful in headache. allay burning sensation. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). E. supported by persistent calyx. Asia. :—Grown in Nasik. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. FAM. PROPERTIES. ophthalmia. The plant contains a glucoside. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . Masura. Sura. Iran and Baluchistan.—Apl-July. :—A cold weather crop throughout India.—capsule. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. PARTS USED :—Leaves. t. DISTR. lateral branches 4-gonous. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. bronchitis. Ceylon. syphilitic sores.—angular. See—Dyes.—in terminal. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. G. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. Chanangi. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). diuretic. skin diseases . They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. Sk. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. LOC. Flowers are refrigerant. cure insanity (Ayurveda). applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. Masur. K. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. vulnerary.—opposite. Masur. Gurubija. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. finger nails and hair. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. lumbago. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. improve appetite. many. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. diuretic. veined outside. :—E. COM. indigenous in S. enriches blood. Leaves—bitter. Lentil. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. DISTR. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. flowers.

Seeds—indigestible. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). :—An erect glabrous annual. tonic. Asia. NS. aphrodisiac . In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. The covering is styptic and astringent. blood and skin diseases. the lower petiolate.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. bechic. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Ahaliva. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. CHAR.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). useful in diseases of chest. Chavnsar. PARTS USED :—Root. good in inflammations. Hot and dry. aperient. and muscular pains. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Fr. M.—small. Halim . stomatitis . galactagogue. tonic. See-Food Plants. H. C—petals 2-4 or 0. :—E. FAM. K. Chandrashura. They are mucilaginous and laxative. :—Cultivated throughout India. Hurfi. Sk. eye diseases (Ayurveda). LOC.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Grains contain vitamins A and B. Chandrika. laxative. Suvasura. Garden cress . HABITAT :—Cultivated. white. They contain vitamin B. Raktabija. constipating. rheumatism. . Asahio. Allibija. LOC. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. DISTR. chest complaints. See—Vegetables. affections of spleen. cures dysentery .—Cruciferæ. Ashalika. enrich blood. often with linear segments . Fl. COM. bronchitis. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . Leaves are used as pot-herb. good for pain in abdomen. G. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. upper sessile. L. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. leaves and seeds. bitter. Seeds contain fatty oil. Kurutige. LOC. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. very likely indigenous in W. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Halim. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. diuretic. tumours and injuries.

Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. "Pitta". seeds and oil. Common tallow laurel. Sk. Fibres. . branchlets densely tomentose. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). remove biliousness. bark somewhat corky. Medini. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. tonic. native country probably Egypt. M. dysentery. boils. Common flax. t. bronchitis. cure leprosy.5 mm. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). colds and throat complaints. Madagandha. heal ulcers. NS. lenticellate. :—Cultivated throughout India. LOC. Kanara. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. lead to impotency. Tailottama. supported by the thickened pedicel. pale beneath.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. Garbijaur. FAM. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. yellowish. DISTR. See—Oils. hard to digest. hot. causes loss of appetite. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. LOC. inflammations. Tisi. used in consumption. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Roasted seeds are astringent. LOC. COM. bad for eyesight. Maidalakadi. Seeds—mucilaginous.. K. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient.—May-July.— globose. COM. Sedhavi. NS. PARTS USED :—Bark. diuretic. usually alternate. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. leaves. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. glossy dark-green above. Linseed.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. Malina. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson).. black. Haimwati. H. urinary discharges . Seeds contain vitamin A. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Maidelakri. G. emmenagogue. galactagogue. :—E. Fl.—Linaceæ. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. aphrodisiac . base narrowed. Fl. aphrodisiac. Sk. M. flowers. good for cough and kidney troubles.:—E. L. CHAR. Alsi. Alashi. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. perianth lobes wanting. H. diam. "Kapha". Country.:—A small evergreen tree. Alashi. gouty and rheumatic swellings. remove "Vata". USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic.—crowded at the ends of branches. burnt bark styptic and healing. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Alasi. back-ache. 7. Alshi. Fr. Jivanika. M. Javas .—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment.—Lauraceæ. 8-12 together in heads. Alsi. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. urinary complaints. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. FAM.

Divali.100 m. high. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. Root—astringent. Mrityupushpa.—alternate. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. AMARA Clarke. :—E. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". 2. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . pains in joints. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. useful in inflammations.—Cucurbitaceæ. Karvituri. Katukoshataki. H. strangury. Dhamana. C—2-lipped. Narsala. Sthulanala. paralysis. CHAR. Ceylon. Fl. Australia.—numerous.2-3 m. heart. :—E. Kandele. expectorant. Kalahogesoppu. COM. NS. finely serrulate. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.5-3. burning sensation. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . M. Bibhishana. :—Konkan. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. burning sensation. Wild tobacco. lanceolate. branched upwards. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). erysipelas (Ayurveda). Kahire. diseases of blood. 1. heating. Devnal. consumption. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Ranturai. spleen diseases. It acts as anodyne. FAM. LOC. Malay Islands. Sk. biliousness. cure cough. diuretic. midrib white. Nali. K. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Dhaval. overheated brains. bronchitis. throat troubles. G. white. stomachic.—capsule.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. Deccan and S. COM. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. Leaves are mucilaginous. uterus. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. SK. Country. DISTR. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Narttaka. LOC. M. 3 usually connate throughout . It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac.—Nov. aphrodisiac. fever. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. tonic. Fr. acrid. .9 cm. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts .134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. NS. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. light green. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. lower much longer. Devanala. G. Jhinga. M. Jalini. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. K. nearly sessile. leaves. yellowish brown . LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. Ghontali. subglobose. bark. thirst. Nal. Ridge gourd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. lobes linear. stem stout. H. galactagogue. LOC. long. Kadudodka. fruits and seeds. t. many. Fl. useful in biliousness. bitter. very small.-Mar. all oblong.—. leprosy (Ayurveda). opening by 2 valves. FAM. vagina.—Lobeliaceæ. Sd. much curved. aphrodisiac. "vata". L. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. hollow. long.

prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. stems 5-angled. asthma. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. piles. pale green. 5-10 cm. uterine and vaginal tumours . Mahula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. Madhuka.—obovoid. digestible. Burma. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. piles. Sk. . tumours. Mhowra. H. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. C. at length scabrid. jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. biliousness. Kanara (rare) . thrives in Deccan trap. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. Doddippa. L.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State.—Sapotaceæ. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. Fl. Mahua tree. leucoderma. solitary in the same axil as males. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. carminative. thick. useful in rat-bite. tuberculous glands. anæmia. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). 10-ribbed. Mahura. K. LOC. :—E. obtusely conical at both ends. Fr. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. recommended in splenic enlargement. Madhya Pradesh. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. flowers and fruits. USES. long and about 2. base cordate. bitter. Root-bark is abortifacient. Bengal to the W. cures "Vata". ascites.—petals yellow with green veins . The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. bitter. LOC. M. diuretic. Fruit cures fever. W. Mowda. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). Moha. PARTS USED :—Bark. Madhusrava. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). inflammations. COM. t. leaves. acrid. cough. especially in western Peninsula. Mahuda. "Kapha". Ceylon. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). bronchitis. :—Plant is bitter. cathartic. at first whitish and softly villous. DISTR. Hunage. alexiteric.8 cm. also in Konkan and N. Gudapushpa. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. tonic and diuretic. hydrogogue.) FAM. 5-7 lobed.:—A large climber. DISTR. Fl. haemorrhoids and leprosy. asthma. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis.53. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. Mahua. PARTS USED :—Leaves. cures urinary discharges. females.—Sept. liver complaints.—monœcious. laxative.—small. Butter tree. tendrils usually 3-fid. LOC. :—Throughout India. Mowa. Pokka. fruit and seeds. NS.. tonic to intestines. G. palmate.

Kesarimavu. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. fattening. Mohwa. There is a trace of alkaloid. Kambhal Raini. LOC. Mahuda. Kapilo. flowers act as a mild purgative. :—E. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. :—Western peninsula. FAM. ulcers. Ippe. See—Timbers. Flowers—oleaginous. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. galactagogue. Famine Plants. fatigue . Mahuva of S. thirst. M. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. cures blood diseases. Hullichillu. Liquors.) FAM. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. often planted. and Kanara. COM.—Sapotaceæ. and appetiser (Sushruta). Movaro. bronchitis. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Karnatic. burning sensation. tonic. Oil is good for skin-diseases. Honey tree. aphrodisiac. H. leprosy. causes "Kapha". DISTR. Mysore. cooling. Kampillaka. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. G. yields two important products. Sk. anthelmintic. and Upper Burma. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Flowers are regarded as cooling. USES :—Astringent and emollient. NS. H. Movanuhjad. cures biliousness. Kapila. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Mohache jhad. used in fractures. Monkey-face tree. :—-E. . M. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. aphrodisiac. consumption. tonic and nutritive. K. LOC. Oils. flowers and oil. Oils. good in heart diseases.. Madhuka. COM. PARTS USED :—Bark. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. G.—Euphorbiaceæ. Fruit-tonic . Oil—emollient (Yunani). NS.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. India . Mehua. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Kapila. and also a remedy for itch. K. Ceylon. Shendri. heals wounds . used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Sk. :—Konkan. Kamala. astringent. fixed oil and a spirit. expectorant. Huli. Moha. Flower—sweet. carminative.

Am.—Anacardiaceæ. leaves. hiccup. aphrodisiac. bad blood. good in dysentery. DISTR. cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. stomachic. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). wild and cultivated. vaginal troubles. Ghats and the Satpudas. lessen intestinal pains. ulcers. DISTR. removes bad smell from mouth. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. Introduced. cure "Vata". MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. diuretic. laxative. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. useful in skin-diseases. beautifies complexion. heals ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. vomiting. Sahakara. FAM. good in cough. dysentery. aphrodisiac. purgative. Mavin-mara. carminative. Amra. good in heart trouble. Sind. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. anthelmintic. Kamarasa. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). K. Dyes. LOC. "Pitta". :—Tropical Himalayas. detergent. tonic. "Kapha". Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. in "Tridosh". vulnerary. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. useful in bronchitis. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. H. sweet. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. Gum . alexiteric. China. Fruit—heating. LOC. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. stone in bladder. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. piles. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). used in chronic diarrhœa. sour. Bihar. COM. it exudes a pink coloured gum. purgative. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. liver pain. cultivated throughout the State. flowers. Amba. dispels langour and burning of body. Ceylon. anthelmintic. G. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. biliousness. chronic dysentery and gleet. thirst. :—-Throughout the State. Chuta. See—Timbers. Australia. M. diseases of abdomen. Cuckoo's Joy. improves cough. Astringent. Mango tree. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. fruits and seeds. Burma. spleen. Sikkim. Kanara. styptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Malay Islands. NS. leaves. improve taste and appetite. maturant. cooling. Khasia Hills. vermifuge and. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). PARTS USED —Root (rarely). improves complexion. Rasala. Bhutan. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. wounds. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. liver. cause flatulence and constipation. throat troubles. Sk. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. enriches blood. a good collyrium (Yunani). cure leucorrhoea. Amri. urinary discharges. LOC. Ambo. bronchitis. styptic. appetiser. tonic to body. :—E. fruits and seeds. Seeds-astringent to bowels. clears brain. tumours. :—Throughout tropical India. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. Mavu.

Dugdhike . rugosely striate. H.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. Nakchhikni. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. slightly tapering to a very blunt point.—Meliaceæ. good for dyspepsia. Fruit Trees. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. M. :—-E. all plains districts of Madras State. Khandodi. useful in bleeding piles. aphrodisiac. t. NS. leucoderma. Nimba. Juice of kernel. Sd. coma copious . broadly ovate or suborbicular. Ripe fruit is laxative. useful in diseases of eye. inflammations. fleshy.—rotate with broad lobes. corona lobes large. K. K. few glands above the petiole cordate .-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. older branches ash coloured. Nim or Margosa tree. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Ceylon. COM. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. antipyretic. Hemajyoti-valli. alexiteric. Assam. tumours. See—Timbers. M.) FAM. L.5-11. Sk. :—Bengal. Country. Dodi. Fl. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. stops nasal bleeding. . biliousness.—follicles. 7. Nimla. LOC. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions.—many. Hari. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Kadulimb. Paribhadraka.—Asclepiadaceæ. cures "Vata". Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. COM. overlapping to the right. :—Deccan and S. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. :—A large twining shrub. Juss. It is also anthelmintic. Nimba. cooling. Ambri. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Limbada. Balant nimba. urinary discharges.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Suparnika.) FAM.—Apl.5-10 cm. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. rat-bite (Ayurveda). burning sensation.5 cm. H. Harandori. Bevu. M. green or yellowish green. LOC. Java. Kharkhodi. Fl. C. Limbra.—6. Nim. Nimbaka. G. margined. USES.3-15 X 4. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Fr. long. CHAR. DISTR. Madhumalati. piles. flattened. asthma.. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. if snuffed.—broadly ovate. with lenticels and black dots. astringent to bowels. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. NS. :—G. pale yellowish brown.

expectorant. COM. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. lumbago. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. lessens inflammation. antiperiodic. fever. tumours. LOC. carminative. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. stimulant and stomachic. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . insecticidal. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . H. cures ulcers and inflammations . and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. Tonic. toothache. See—Timbers. urinary discharges. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. "pittadosh.. FAM. Vanmethika. pectoral. thirst. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. NS. maturant. Small melilot. leprosy. astringent. fruits and seeds. tonic and antiperiodic. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. Burma. leaves. alexiteric. tonic. Oils. good in ophthalmia. flowers." vomiting. refrigerant. piles. general debility. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. good for leprosy. The flowers are stimulant. skin diseases. boils. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. rheumatism . chronic leprosy. piles. maturant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. fatigue. bruises. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. leucoderma. convalescence. . swollen glands. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. bark. Sk. anthelmintic. Ranmethi. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. cough. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. DISTR. relieves "Kapha". biliousness. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. it is a general vermifuge. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. valuable in consumption. LOC. stomachic. bad taste in the mouth. PARTS USED :—Root. for unhealthy ulcers. aphrodisiac.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). useful in syphilitic sores. and loss of appetite. resolvant. Banmethi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. burning sensation near heart. earache. M. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. sprains. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. :—E. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. asthma. blood complaints.

slightly echinulate.—one. :—Western Peninsula. Externally used as a fomentation. given as a gruel (Murray). MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. ellipsoid. glabrous or slightly hairy. FAM. north Bengal. PROPERTIES AND LOC. glabrous. Ghugri. scabrid. Fl. base cordate. lobes dentate or serrate . male fascicled on short peduncles. C. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient.—pale yellow. :—Common in Deccan. in spicate close racemes. DISTR. very hispid . M. females sessile. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. Malaya and Africa.. brown. . Ceylon. NS.—pod. introduced into many other regions. stem angular. M. oblong-ellipsoid. G. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. 30-45 cm. Khasia. tendrils simple. Agamaki. Corn-March mint. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. Chatinmaragu. young parts white-hairy. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. at first green and variegated with yellow. COM. "Sikkim. Sd. :—E. Pudina. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. Pudina. DISTR. Bilari. Afghanistan. H. high. Pudinah. L. FAM. oblanceolate. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short.—monœcious . NS. t. Fr. leaves and seeds.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—An erect annual herb. LOC. deltoid-ovate entire. Country and Gujarat. truncate at the apex. Fl. Assam. :—India (tropical zone). In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. especially in strained back. finally red. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds.—variable in size. standard exceeding the wings and keel. K. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. rounded. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. Europe. S. tapering at both ends. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. It has expectorant properties to some extent. COM. of terminal rather long. LOC. M. Fr. L. also in S. Iran.—Labiatæ. Fl.—small. HABITAT :—In hedges.— Jany. CHAR. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—H.—size of a pea. poultice or plaster for swellings.—3-foliate. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . leaflets toothed.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.

lilac. K. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Assam Iron-wood. L. pains in joints (Ayurveda). Burma Tenasserim. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. :—A perennial erect herb . Europe. Suvarna. headache. Nagkesara. sorethroat. Naghas. M. useful in liver and spleen diseases. leaves. Konkan and N. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. Assam. Country. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. DISTR. biliousness.-narrowed below. Himalayas. Nagsampige. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Kashmir. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. expectorant. lined with hairs and hairy outside.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. Ceylon Iron-wood. diuretic. hairy. LOC. dry. North and West Asia. COM. :—E. Travancore. infusion is given in fevers. digestive. DISTR. . the upper similar and large. and stimulant. Nagchapha. indigestion and cephalagia. binding. LOC. LOC. Andamans. emmenagogue. MESUA FERREA Linn. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). Gums and Resins. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. Sk.—Guttiferæ. The plant is used in chutneys.—sub-equally 4-lobed. China. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. ovate. FAM. good for fevers. Kanara. S. used for cough. stalked. hiccup. :—Western Himalayas. toothed. Bengal. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. oblong. stem short. vomiting. sweats. smooth. good in asthma and sweats. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. Nagakeshara. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. Oils. C. asthma. Nagkesara. :—E. skin diseases. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. cough. small tumours. cardiotonic. flowers and fruits. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Ceylon. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Nagkinjalka. Fl. Fr. M.—in axillary distant whorls. foul breath. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests.—nutlets dry. E. USES :—Root. tonic to kidneys . PARTS USED :—Bark. thirst. See—Timbers. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. In N. blood and heart troubles. lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. alexipharmic. NS. Carminative. LOC. none at the top.

IndoChina. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Ghats. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision.. M. Pivala chapha. petioles hairy. diuretic. LOC. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. glabrous above. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. leaves. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Champaka.-Oct. Flowers— expectorant. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Risemani. FAM. H. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). high. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. LOC. NS. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. near temples and in gardens.—Sept. Sampige. it is given with honey to relieve colic. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . Kanara. sensative. Lajja. Suvarna champaka. H. G. diuretic. Assam.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Raktamula. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . useful in cough. K. Fl. W. Hem-pushpa. blood affections. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Sparshalajja. pinnae 1-2 pairs.—bipin-nate. Lajari. Surabhi. in globose heads. Fr. nausea and fevers . Flowers-stomachic. COM. :—A diffuse under-shrub. Yellow champa . :—E. Fl. Pilochampo. Dyes. Champo. leaflets 15-20 pairs. :—Cultivated all over the State. also used as purgative. digitate. Burma. 57. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. COM. Sk. clothed with glandular hairs . Muthmurika. "Vata". Sensitive plant. bark. evergreen rain-forest of N. remove biliousness. . M. "Kapha". Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence.. Sonchampo. stimulant. Champaka. aphrodisiac. removes worms. flowers and fruits. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. facilitates micturition. gout.—Magnoliaceæ. S.—4-merous. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Golden champa.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. rachis bristly. cultivated. Fruit. Champaka. diaphoretic.5 cm. ophthalmia. PARTS USED :—Root. Lajalu. Lajalu. bile. FAM. stems and branches sparingly prickly. G. K. Vanamallika. Champa. Sankochini. rheumatism.-pod flat. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. India. pink. Lajjika. in vertigo. Nachike-gidda. :—E. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. CHAR. acrid. See—Timbers. DISTR. t. hairy beneath. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. rheumatism. Lajjavati. Sone-chapha. NS. Lajalu. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. long. Humble plant. slightly recurved. Sk. 45-90 cm. Yunnan. destroys poisons. good in leprosy.

Varsuli. alexipharmic. bilious fevers. COM. often planted in gardens. good for gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. leucoderma. It is also resolvent and alterative. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. DISTR. acrid. flowers and fruits acrid. smallpox (Yunani). HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. astringent to bowels. teeth and gum diseases. cure blood diseases. liver complaints. Borsalli. Sk.:—Western Peninsula. Malaya. blood diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds fix loose teeth. :—G. oleaginous. Flowers—expectorant. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). piles. headache. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Kanara. M. Bark cardiotonic. stomachic. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. sweet. See—Ornamental Plants. cultivated in gardens in pots. cures biliousness. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar).MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. Ceylon. fruits and seeds. Bakula. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Vovali. burning sensation. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Kalhala. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. inflammations. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . Bakul. cure biliousness. asthma. Flowers give taste. cooling. flowers. Anangaka. fatigue. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Bolsari. anthelmintic. in piles and fistula. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. Baphuli. LOC. Fruit causes flatulence. alterative. Root. LOC. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. Sharadika. FAM. K. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. cultivated in the tropics. Mukul. Kanara and Konkan. Juice is applied externally. leprosy. :—Naturalised throughout India. cooling. alexipharmic. nose diseases. In Brazil root is used as emetic. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. cures "Kapha". jaundice. bark. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. dysentery. useful in blood and bile diseases. Mulsari. Bakul. biliousness. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Root. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. vaginal and uterine complaints. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. H.—Sapotaceæ. Root is resolvent. LOC. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Mugule. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. NS. Ranjal. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. Bakul. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). leprosy. probably a native of tropical America.

lessen inflammations (Yunani). Marvel of Peru. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Guleaabbas . CHAR. Karelo.—Cucurbitaceæ. HABITAT -Cultivated. Karela. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. Kandura. native of tropical America. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. t. Karavalli. L. It is also tonic and febrifuge. K. 30-75 cm. FAM. it is applied to relieve headache. Fr.—membranous. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Kareli. brightly coloured (dark crimson. DISTR. yellow. :—Grown throughout India. Fl. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. COM.—large. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. :—E. Hagala. cordate. LOC. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. high with large perennial tuberous roots. G. and rather fleshy stems . Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Fl. M. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Sk. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Karala. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. M. . Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. LOC. H. often ribbed or rugose.—continually in bloom. Fruit Trees. FAM. NS. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. :—A herbaceous plant. See—Ornamental Plants. Karli. H. Krishnakali. K. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Four o'clock plant. blackish.—Nyctaginaceæ. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. Leaves are maturant. good for syphilitic sores. Karela. COM.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Carella fruit. NS. See—Timbers. Sk.—E. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. each one surrounded by an involucre. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Oils. Hagalkai. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Gulbasa .

HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Cucurbitaceæ. asthma. Kantoli. rheumatism. Leaves—aphrodisiac. Plant cures diseases of blood. hearttroubles. bronchitis. anthelmintic. hiccup. etc. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. cooling. Fruits contain vitamins A. Fruit— bitter. and externally in ague as an absorbent. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary discharges. LOC. Fruit—bitter. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. laxative. Gid-hagalu. urinary discharges. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. bronchitis. tumours. It is useful in gout. laxative. antibilious. rheumatism. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. Sk. also in Malaya. piles. and America. . all kinds of poisoning. China. Fruit—very bitter.'. M. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. cure "Vata". anthelmintic. S. Leaves act as galactagogue. LOC. fever consumption. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. DISTR. Country and Gujarat. cures biliousness. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. erysipelas (Ayurveda). tropical Africa. :—Cultivated throughout India. FAM. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. Kantolan. eye and heart. lessens expectoration . Vishakankini. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. carminative. sparingly in Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. ulcers. Beksa. urinary calculi. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. "Kapha". burns. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root. Vandhya. Nagarali. See—Vegetables. antipyretic. Ceylon. laxative and authelmintic. M. K. blood diseases. boils.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. appetiser. DISTR. jaundice etc. stomachic. longpepper. leprosy. leaves and fruit. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Throughout India. anæmia. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. Karehiballi. digestible. Kanta. :—G. anthelmintic. tonic. NS. stomachic. stomachic. leaves and fruit. aphrodisiac. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). diseases of spleen and liver. B and C. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. hot alexiteric. used in syphilis. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . Karkotaki. Golkandra. COM. cure "Tridosh". Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. Fruit is tonic. LOC. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. Kartoli. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. H. piles. excessive salivation.

See—Dyes. Achchuka. leaves. improves appetite. aphrodisiac. Drum-stick Tree. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. leaves and fruits. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Mochaka. Sargavo. Ainshi. Shevaga. inflammations. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . useful in heart-complaints. FAM. also in the Oudh forests. M. eye diseases. M. dyspepsia. G. DISTR. all "tridosha" fevers. LOC. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. makes blood impure . HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. flowers. anthelmintic. also wild. COM. stuttering. Famine Plants. Segua. Aal. Tikshnamula. H. causes burning sensation. China. astringent to bowels. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated . G. Introduced var.—Rubiaceæ. Rochana. alexiteric. Ak. :—E. Root-tonic to body and lungs.—Moringaceæ. Bartondi. Sk. NS. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Tagase . NS. Murangi. bark. Formosa. Indian horse radish . Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. tumours. Sk. Indian mulberry. biliousness . Burma. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. COM. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. analgesic. See—Vegetables. fattening. cultivated throughout India and Burma. DISTR. "Vata". Achi. emmenagogue. . Saraoji. Guggala. fruits and seeds. Nuggi. FAM. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Sajina. Seglo. Ugra. Al. "Kapha". K. Munigha. ulcers. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. Ab. Ashyuka. spleen enlargement. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. earache. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. K. Mulgule. tuberculous glands in neck. Haladipavate. digestible. H. Mochaka. removes all kinds of pains. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous.

In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. carminative. PARTS USED :—Root. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. H. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. enriches blood. diuretic. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). it is cooling laxative. heart. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. leaves and fruit. cooling. loss of appetite. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. burning sensation (Ayurveda). DISTR. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. common about villages in N. aphrodisiac. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. rheumatism. Sk. Kanara. Fruit—tonic. wounds. White mulberry. expectorant. Peninsula. Tut. See—Fruit Trees. diuretic. diarrhœa. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. Karihannu. Kambali. enriches blood. Leaf paste. good for brain. . Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. The plant contains an alkaloid. Siahtut. expectorant. obstinate asthma. sour. K. M. biliousness. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. bark. cures gleet. Oils. epilepsy and hysteria. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. NS. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. ulcerated intestines. spleen. anthelmintic. Tuta. Tut. Gums and Resins. fattening. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Madhu pippali. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. with garlic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. Tutri. salt and pepper. lumbago. :—E. Fibres. Ambat. B and C. Fruits contain vitamins A. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. useful in small-pox. gout. Tuda. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. turmeric.—Moraceæ. Root is purgative. laxative. stomatitis. LOC. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. G. sweetish. LOC. Shetur. good for inflammations of throat and chest. FAM. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . See—Vegetables. enlarged spleen or liver. increases biliousness. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. MORUS INDICA Linn. aromatic and acid flavour. bronchitis. appetiser. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. urinary discharges. COM. lumbago.

:—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. Banana. tonic. juice given for headache. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. CHAR.—5-6 small. Kela. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Seed is considered a nervine tonic.. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. lateral very unequal sided.5x1. 5-7. Tikshna.—Scitaminaceæ. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. LOC. grey-silky beneath. Kadali. Himalaya up to 1200 m. " Vata ".3-11.. Kela. LOC. Adam's Fig. :—E. LOC. terminal smaller. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. Hasaguni. Goncha. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. FAM. which produce intensa irritation of skin. Nayi songuballi.3 cm.—in drooping racemes. Kadvare. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Maoz kela. Strong root infusion. G. L. They are used as anthelmintic. Kivanchha. t. Havanch. :—An annual twiner. M. Kela. Sk. sometimes cultivated. petioles 6. Kapikachu. Urustambha. covered with tawny stinging hairs. cures blood diseases. Ceylon. Kavach. common in hedges. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. :—E. Fl. Turashi.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. 6-30 flowered. Sd. DISTR.—Oct-Nov. Kivanch. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. leaflets membranous. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. G. H. Kunth.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Bale. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. consumption. tonic. K. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). H. Root useful for delirium in fevers. long. laxative. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Kuhili. Seeds— alexipharmic. leaves. Vanari. NS. :—Punjab plains. turgid-shaped.2 cm. silky. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. pods and seeds. flowers and fruit. Root—emmenagogue. spermatorrhoea etc.) FAM. Sk. Kavatch. COM. Plantain. biliousness . from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Dirghapatra.—3-foliate. HABITAT :—In hedges. cultivated. MUSA PARADISIACA L. Atmagupta. HABITAT :—Humid areas . . dark-purple. NS. K.—pod. Var. Cowhage. SAPIENTUM O. M. stem. improves blood. Fr. Fl. Rambha. DISTR. with honey is given in cholera.

improves complexion (Ayurveda). biliousness. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. stipules twin. Lawsat. Serwadh.--in terminal cymes. astringent to bowels. PARTS USES :—Root. indigestible .— July-Oct. Nagavalli. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . aphrodisiac. K. COM. aphrodisiac.. and are used in acidity. Shrivalli. Sk. hairy. Fruit—sweet. very hairy outside. anthelmintic. Fl. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. :—S. Root-juice. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. urinary discharges.—Rubiaceæ. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. t. broadly elliptic.—tubular. heart-burn and colic. Ipparati. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. buds densely hairy.— berry. FAM. Tropical Himalayas. lobes broadly ovate. flowers and fruit.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Fibres. Fl. kidney troubles (Yunani). with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . appetiser. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. deep golden yellow. diseases of uterus and vagina. dyspepsia. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. LOC. Burnt stem is vulnerary. useful in "Kapha". Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. Bhutakes. in thirst. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. tonic. astringent to bowels. good for dry bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC. ear-pain. DISTR. increases appetite. linear. Fr. :—Konkan and N. leprosy. thickens blood. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. consumption and bronchitis. NS. tube slender. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. See—Fruit Trees. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. M. CHAR. strangury. menstrual disorders. Root-juice is anthelmintic. LOC. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. :—A rambling shrub. subglobose. sore-throat. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. C. Bellotti. diabetes. blood diseases. B and C. pubescent. :—H. Kanara. Bedina. in " Vata". Andamans. antidysenteric. leaves. broad at base. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts.—opposite or 8nately whorled. . Hastygida. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. tonic. L. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Assam. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. causes bronchitis .

small. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. ovate to lanceolate. common in the Kumta taluka. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Himalayas. axillary on slender peduncles. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. DISTR. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. Myrtle. PROPERTIES AND LOC. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. FAM. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. black when ripe. LOC. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. It is credited with opposite qualities. Habules. Malati. Galen and the Arabian writers. :—E. Fl. NS. M. white. fruits and oil. very sweet smelling. Sk. as .—Myrtaceæ. Dioscorides. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Kanara Ghats . Kaiphal. It is used as a substitute for true mace. COM. PARTS USED:—Seeds. emmenagogue. LOC. used in stopping vomiting. :—Western Peninsula. especially epilepsy. enriches blood. Condiments and Spices. is regarded as. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. applied locally to relieve pain. :—A shrub. FAM. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver.— solitary.—small. W. A decoction is employed. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Fr. allaying pain. False nutmeg. intermittent fevers and dropsy. :— E. M. Malabar. smoke beneficial to piles. Kanage. Murad. Vilayantimendhi. H. COM. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. all over the State. :—Konkan and N.— Myristicaceæ. cures headache. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . diuretic. K. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart.—berry. ellipsoid. DISTR. Pliny. L. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. Malati. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. Kamuka. LOC.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. Ram-patri. NS. promotes growth of hair. See—Timbers. They are given in asthma. CHAR. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers.

Padam. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. FAM. ovoid. cures asthma. LOC. white or rosy. :—E.. Kandalu. concave or cupped. vulnerary. M. LOC. :—E. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. stem.) FAM. anthers with clavate appendages. t.—white. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. 3-valved. PARTS USED :—Root.-Dec.—solitary. Ambuja. L. curved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. peltate. Fl. Ripe carpels. high. K.—July. petiole winged. LOC. petioles very long. Nelanaringa . glabrous. Kapurbhendi. t. spongy. Kamal.—pendulous. alexiteric.—alternate.5 cm. top flat. Pitmari. C. Sk. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Kanara. elliptic.—membranous. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. linear spathulate. leaves. :—A large aquatic herb. in diam. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. & A. cells 2-seeded. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. 0. petals 5. :—A small branching undershrub.—Meliaceæ. Fl. Goanese ipecacuanha. :—W. CHAR. Padma. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. Kamal. disk annular. diam. COM. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. 10-25 cm. DISTR.-Nov. ovoidglobose. hæmorrhage. G. Ambuj. Sd. Fl. orbicular. muricate. erect. solitary or 2 together. Kandabahula. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. Tavari-bija or gadde. ulcers (Ayurveda). Pundarika. Papra-vel. Fl. Kamala. Pankaja. NS. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. 3-foliate. Belakanji. radiately nerved.6 m. DISTR.3-0. CHAR.—petals many 5-12. Chinese water-lily. Kamal. Indian sacred lotus. axillary. Aravinda. Sk. torus 18 mm. Timpani. dysentery. Sarasija.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. M. rough with distant prickles . entire. bronchitis.—Nymphæaceæ. Suriyakamal. Fr. K. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. biliousness. :—Konkan. See—Ornamental Plants. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. long. elongate. COM. fleshy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. H. L. NS. with slender.—capsule. from Iran eastwards to Australia. Amlavalli. free. ..

:—E. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. Fl. coriaceous. DISTR. allays thirst. LOC. leucoderma. ulcers and sores of mouth. Vishavrikshanka. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. 10-15 cm. spermatorrhoea. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Waziristan. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. also cholera. t. also recommended as cardiac tonic. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. small-pox. fever. menorrhagia. G. useful in fevers . Ashwa-marak. good in throat-troubles. dark green and shining above. planted in gardens throughout the State. NS. LOC. flowers. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. tapering into short petiole. Kanher. H. diseases of skin and eye . leaves. fruit. inflammations and poisoning. also as a hedge plant. useful in piles. leaves. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. Paddali. Cool. FAM.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. seeds. Karvira. removes worms. strangury. Kaner. Cool. In China and Malaya dried red petals. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. slightly bitter. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . biliousness. useful in burning sensation of the body. good in blood-complaints. Sind. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . . Karber. Salt Range. rose or white. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . CHAR. Sk. COM. linear-lanceolate. vomiting. in fever and liverdiseases. long.—flowers more or less throughout the year. rigid.—funnel-shaped. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. cures cough. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . India. stem. Sweet scented oleander. PARTS USED :—Root.—Apocynaceæ. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. Kanel. Filaments are astringent and cooling. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. Fr. L. chest-pains. Fl. gives tone to breast. lobes rounded. M. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. K. :—Madhya Bharat. Kanagile. See—Ornamental Plants. astringent to taste . Sd. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Karvira. at length separating. aphrodisiac. Pratihasa.—in threes. long. allays thirst.—red. Kaner. S. flowers. 15-23 cm.—follicles. Baluchistan. throat scaly. Upper Gangetic Plains. honey. heart and brain tonic . HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . diuretic. C. fragrant.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. improves watery eyes (Yunani). Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir.

See—Ornamental Plants. emetic. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. tonic. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). K. oblong or elliptic. asthma. tubercular glands of neck. base wedgeshaped . are poisonous and are used externally. wounds. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. H. Krimighni. Root—aphrodisiac. L. sores.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). disinfectant. An ointment made . USES :—Leaves are narocotic. NS. M.8 cm. tonic. dimness of sight. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. a mental stimulant. conical. large (especially lower ones). good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. cultivated in all tropical countries. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. inflammations. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. DISTR. good for lumbago.—pink or white. water from hookha is diuretic. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. the surface is plain or bullate. also applied in leprosy. sedative and emetic. headache. FAM.—in open corymbose panicles . C. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. Hoge soppu. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. Bujjarbhang. Tamarakuthika. across. Fl. Kalanja. The plant contains a glucoside. G. caries of teeth. Tobacco. lobes spreading. Fr. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). foul nose.—capsule. skin diseases. Sk. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. smoke constipating. useful in bronchitis. CHAR. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. :—E.—Solanaceæ. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. scabies (Yunani). anthelmintic. carminative. bronchitis. LOC. especially root. LOC.—alternate. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). Tambak. inflammations. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. Dhumrapatrika. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. USES :—All parts of plant. :—Native of America. useful in caries of teeth. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. nervous depression and sleeplessness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tabak. about 1. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. LOC. laxative. Poisonous to fish. COM. Tamaku. very poisonous. Flowers— aphrodisiac.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. Tamakhu. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Tambakhu. funnel-shaped. scabies.

. L. Bark cures bronchitis. solitary. It is used with honey in chronic fever. stomachic. Cultivated in many parts of India. Bengal. Lotus. hairy. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. flowers and seeds. COM. Har. DISTR. Parijataka.— more or less throughout the year. densely pubescent beneath. ovate acute. Kanval. HABITAT :-Cultivated. M. axillary. bark. Shonapadma. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. tonic to hair. Parijata. NS. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. FAM. Fl. Alipriya. K. tube orange-coloured. :—E. Indian Mourner : G. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Har-singhar. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. useful in bilious fevers. compressed. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs.3 cm.—Nymphæaceæ. Kanwal. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. a decoction of root. peduncles 4angled. PARTS USED :—Root. Nilophhal. southwards to the Godavari. Chotakanwal. Aravind. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala.—opposite 5-10x2. t. H.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. Sephalika. Madhya Bharat. M. Parijata . . cures fevers. obcordate or merely orbicular. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia.—Oleaceæ. Kharapatraka. LOC. rough above with bulbous hairs. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. 2-celled. scalp affections etc. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. young branches quadrangular. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . COM. G. carminative.—lobes white. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Nalkumkuma. H. Lalkamal. Nyadale huvu .) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . Harsing. Sk. abundant July-Sept. C. :—A large shrub or a small tree. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Prajakta. Fl. (Ayurveda). leaves.— fragrant. lessen inflammation. astringent-to bowels. Kumuda. Assam. Buds are tonic. K.5-6. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Sephali. CHAR. Sk. bark. :—E. Fr. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn.—capsule. Burma. Bilitavarai. NS. Prajakta. Jayaparvati.

emmenagogue. leaves and flower. obtuse. 15-25 cm.6-0. Hungary. "Vata".:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. short. leaves. roundish. Fr. Common sweet basil. Manjarki. Barbar. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). high. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. Ajagandhika. useful in diseases of heart and brain. febrifuge. Ceylon. rough. Bahari. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). green. fleshy. K. M. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. diuretic.—3 cm. Damaro. biliousness. lessens bile. thyrsiflora.—ovate. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. causes burning sensation. irregularly sinuate-dentate. L. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. Surasa. Burma. Philippines. C. LOC.9 m. leucoderma. long. CHAR. Java. long. chronic pain in joints. Var. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. Surabhi. entire. oblong. flowers and seeds. pale rose or white. stamens about 40. Fr. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. t. Ramkasturi. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. H. Tukhamariya .—2-lipped. bracts stalked. Nasabo. PARTS USED :—Roots.—all the year.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. Fl. pink or purplish. allays thirst. red. Sabja. bitter taste. deeply cordate at the base.. :—Large aquatic herb . enlarged spleen. diam. cooling . open in the morning only.—nutlets about 2 mm. Sajjebija. 7. DISTR. C. juice gives lustre to . ripening beneath the water. glabrous or pubescent. and nigropunctate above.—solitary. glabrous. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. toothed or lobed. diameter. " Kapha". Sabzah. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. Barbar. Fl. pubescent and prominently veined beneath .— ovoid. cylindric. G. :—Var. inflammations. bitter. LOC. alexipharmic. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda).—petals about 12.— in whorled racemes . COM. filaments dilated at the base . Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. NS. removes impurities from blood . anthelmintic. :—E. antipyretic . globose. ellipsoid. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.—Labiatæ. across. DISTR. purple stem. FAM. hot taste. diarrhœa and piles . LOC.5-20 cm. Tungi. petioles very long. black and pitted. erect. Sabja. stomachic. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. submerged . :—An erect herb 0. white. Rihan. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. useful in diseases of heart and blood. 8-13 mm. L. improves taste . itch. Plant has a sharp. stems and branches green or purplish. Sd. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. Fl. acute. "Vata". aphrodisiac . Africa. peduncles very long .—peltate. "Kapha". root stock tuberous.

The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. earache. strengthens gums. " Vata". Ajaka. :—Throughout India. branched. inflammations. skin diseases. :—A perennial shrub. lower lip longer.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. rugose. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. CHAR. Plant has bitter. t. carminative. headache. diuretic and demulcent properties. heating. BanMal tulasi. :—Konkan. Rama-Ran tulasi. removes foul breath. high. useful in diseases of brain. NS. alexiteric. Java. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. 1. L. LOC. Rantulasi. Country. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Deccan. strangury . they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. LOC. fits. gland-dotted. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. aphrodisiac . Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. pale greenish yellow.—2-lipped.—6. Ram Tulasi. they are also aphrodisiac. stimulant. given in infusion in gonorrhœa.8—5. Fl. in close whorls . good for toothache. During fever when the extremities are cold. M. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani).8 m. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. heart. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. woody below . diuretic and stimulant. stems and branches subquadrangular . Lemon—shrubby basil. FAM. causes insomnia (Ayurveda).3—12. COM. M. elliptic-lanceolate. Sk. Fl. pubescent. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. G. DISTR. rachis quadrangular . mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. useful in vomiting. brown.—Labiatæ. " Kapha". often cultivated : Ceylon. Gujarat. The flowers possess.. . OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. young ones pubescent. Sumukha. sharp taste . liver and spleen. LOC. good for griping and piles (Yunani).— in simple or branched racemes. S. It is also styptic. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition.—nutlets subglobose. coarsely crenate-serrate. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. Fr. C.2—1. :—E.7 cm. Avachi-bavachi. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. Large basil. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective.-July-Oct. H. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing.5 X 3.

CHAR. entire or serrate.—Rubiaceæ.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Vishnuvallabha. leucoderma.— nutlets.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Papli. 30-60 cm. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system.—2. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers.—pale brown. . Fr. globose or pyriform . H. Vranda. t. HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. stipules with bristles . Tulasa. Malay Archipelago. Arabia. long. vomiting. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. used in catarrh and bronchitis . :—An annual plant. bitter. COM. painful eye. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. :—G. M. upper lip pubescent on the back. lumbago pains. M. Asia to Java and the Philippines.6— 3. Fl. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. long in close whorls . L. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. See—Sacred Plants. high. Damanpaper. minutely gland-dotted. angular.2 cm. COM.—2-lipped. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. " Vata". foul smells. cholagogue. Deccan and S. FAM.5—38 cm. Phapti. and are given with honey. stems numerous.—Labiatæ. of children and in hepatic affections . :—Konkan. linear or linear-lanceolate. Parpat. Sd. Krishna tulasi. stomachic. especially in children. leaves and seeds. clothed with soft hairs . alexiteric. smooth. Sk. elliptic-oblong. Manjari. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. strangury. Vrinda. LOC. useful in heart and blood diseases. West Asia. antipyretic. K.—Sept-Nov. DISTR. bronchitis.— capsule.—subsessile.:—E. :—Throughout India. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). HABIT :—A common weed. purplish. Kala tulasi. NS. Tulasi. Pavitra. yellow with black marking. M. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. H. Fl. Australia. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. LOC. usually 2-3 cm. Tulasi. Tulasi. Fr. hiccup. Ceylon. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. lobes acute. Tropical E. PARTS USED :—Root. high. Suravallari. L. varying from 7. purplish. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . margins recurved and scabrous. Country.—on filiform pedicels. purulent discharge of ear. Parapate. " Kapha". :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. :—An annual herb. stems and branches subquadrangular. DISTR. Sk. Fl. CHAR. heating. LOC. FAM. pubescent. obtuse or acute. asthma. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders.5-5 X 1. NS. anthelmintic..

dull bluish-green. Mullugalli. G.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. reddish purple when ripe. Grown as hedge. piles. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Plant juice—heating. Nagadru. Prickly pear. recurved. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. FAM. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. Nagdali. lumbago. long. angular or warty. 3 m. anæmia. Nagaphani. yellow or orange. flowers and fruits. burning. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. or more high. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. tumours. good for leucoderma. COM. Nagaphana. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. cures biliousness. it is also used in liver complaints. Chorhothalo. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Phadyanivdung. yellow at the edges. Sher. antipyretic. cures inflammations. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles.—5 cm. Fr. vesicular calculi.5 mm. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. ascites. K. . urinary complaints.—Cactaceæ. LOC.— berry. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . M. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. ulcers. Plant bitter. CHAR. cures bronchitis in children. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. LOC. Zhoratheylo. juice cures earache (Yunani). :—E. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. diuretic. spleen enlargement. carminative. L. alexiteric. laxative. inflammations. Fl. Hathathoria. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. carminative. xerophyte. long. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. used in ophthalmia. pyriform. Joints variable in size. " Vata". Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). rather thin. Vajrakantaka. stomachic. HABITAT :—Common in waste places .—7. Sk. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. inner spathulate. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. digestive. Slipper thorn. liver complaints. DISTR. loss of consciousness. across. leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. introduced into India. purgative. Snuka. H. Nagaphana. reddish at the tips.5 cm. perianth rotate. subulate. largest 3. spleen enlargement. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. rusty brown. obovate or elliptic. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. NS.

very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). Pharri. tonic. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. K. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. dysentery. Ghats. Tans. Fruit—expectorant. M. Tuntaka. Akki. G. oleaginous. Bagi. Shyonaka. appetiser. Cochin-China. Malaya. Ava. cooling. aphrodisiac. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. :—E. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Seeds are purgative. Arlu. Mokka. inflammations. Tetu. fattening. LOC. M. H. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Vrihi. Podval. aphrodisiac. useful in " Vata". :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Bhat. HABITAT :—Aquatic. NS.). Tetu. anthelmintic. Dyes. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. K. Sk. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. :—The Konkan and the N. diuretic.—Bignoniaceæ. K. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Alangi. NS. LOC. Sk.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. It is astringent and tonic. Dirghavrinta. Indian trumpet flower. Chaval. G. Chokha. M.S. Rice . improves taste.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. :—E. anal troubles. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Nivara. Tandula. FAM. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. COM. intestinal worms. leucoderma. fevers. See—Timbers. Kanara ghats . OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). useful in leucoderma (Yunani). LOC. Rice.—Gramineæ. good in heart and throat diseases. H. Fruit—acrid. COM. sweet. biliousness. piles. Tandula. Tetu. :—Widely cultivated. Mayarjangha. useful in biliousness . DISTR. improves appetite. astringent to bowels . bronchitis. stomachic. Araluka. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. DISTR. vomiting. R. tonic. asthma. Ullu. Shali. PARTS USED :—Grain. FAM.

taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. easy to digest. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. Ambuti. L. used externally. Sd. Indian Sorrel. small-pox. COM. Amrul. obcordate. Dudhani.—Asclepiadaceæ. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. leaflets 1. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. brown. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. Sk.5 cm. Fl. COM. FAM. DISTR. Rice water. Sk. :—G. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. K. Chukrita. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . stems rooting. . LOC. It is an excellent application to abscesses. It is a pleasant. Marudbhava. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Fr. measles. Dudhatani. :—Throughout the State. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Dugdhika. Ambastha. dysentery and scurvy. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. ulcers. cures dysentery. pubescent.—Oxalidaceæ. ovoid. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. Amlalonika.—palmately 3-foliate. inflamed piles. M. also in burns and scalds. to which a little lemon juice is added. base cuneate subsessile. linear-oblong.— many. :—E. C. gives great relief. Changeri. NS. Fl.—axillary. bruised. margins ciliate. CHAR. Br.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. H. boils.2—2. Dugdhike. astringent. diarrhœa. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). 5-angled. yellow. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. if applied to chest.—petals 5. Shuklika. Jaladudhi. petioles very slender. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. Kyirin . juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Dudhialata. bowels or kidneys. The grains contain vitamin C. rounded at the apex. Ceylon. Dudhialata. good appetiser . Dudhari.— Oct-May. FAM. oblong. Dugdhica. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. t. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers.— capsule. buboes. In dysentery. NS. K. beaked. See—Food Plants. H. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . long. scarlet fever. " Vata " and piles. removes " Kapha ". sub-umbellate . In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. Kshiravi. transversely striate. M. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice.

9—1. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. t. tonic. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . heat of body. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. expectorant. pain in the muscles. COM. diseases of heart and brain. pain. linear or linear-lanceolate. useful in strangury and tumours. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. alexiteric. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties.3 cm. DISTR. anthelmintic. Keora. palegreen. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. LOC. yellow or red. LOC. ovoid-lanceolate tapering.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. CHAR. Kewoda. C. Ketgi.8-6.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. black.—oblong or globose. aphrodisiac.—very numerous. Kedige. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes.5-9 cm. M.5 m. Fl.—dioecious. . Kevada. 4. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. fruit and oil from bracts. cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. somniferous. LOC. syphilis. Chama-pushpa. HABITAT :—Usually near water. Gogandhul. anthers. L. X 3. gonorrhœa. Gandha-pushpa. Giripriya. Sk. Dhulipushpika. Mundige. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Andamans. dry. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). coriaceous ensiform. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. much branched. Sundarbans. root. Java. FAM. long. milky juice. Fl. Country— Belgaum. indigestible. anthelmintic. Deccan. :—Konkan and N. NS. Kanara. laxative. margins and midrib spiny. Poona Sangam. leaves. strikingly handsome. :—A shrub up to 6 m. causes flatulence. corona staminal. mouth with pubescent ring. female flower spadix solitary. 3. K. Fruit—tonic.—Pandanaceæ. juice is used in gleet. Umbrella Tree. with flavour. coma present.8 mm. stems many. Screw pine. DISTR. Anthers useful in pruritus. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels.—Dec. PARTS USED :-Root. Sd. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. fruit. :—Konkan. Ceylon. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. 0. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. L. aphrodisiac. diuretic. rarely erect. PARTS USED :—Plant. G.. often planted. " Kapha ". leucoderma. long. Flowers improve complexion. high. thin. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. S. Kanara. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn.—deciduous. aphrodisiac. scabies.—glaucous green. small-pox. pale rose or white. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Leaves are useful in leprosy. purple veined. bitter. Fr. Ketaki. H. Fr. Burma. M. Ketaka.—follicles. lobes ciliate. :—E. stem supported by aerial roots .— large. Fl. Fruit is useful in " Vata ".

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

aphrodisiac. and southwards to Ceylon. 2. wild date palm. few flowered racemes. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. cure biliousness. long. Magavala.5—5 cm. anthelmintic. long. Kohesaru.3—2. bronchitis. yellow. LOC. Kurangika. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. cough. Sendhi. :—G. Kolaba and Kanara. Kajuri. Khajuri. Fr. gout. Tadi. layer. Siyindu.—in sub-capitate. bitter. Ranmug. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. :—Annual or perennial. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. good in fevers. Kharjurika. Ichela-mara. " Kapha". cures consumption. wiry. leaflets 1. K. laxative. Kidney diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. :—Largely grown in. thirst.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. M. Fl. CHAR. Kapila. antipyretic. as a kharif crop. Belgaum. G. Kallu. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). LOC. Adavada. Deccan and Gujarat.—Oct. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Abyssinia. Satara. straight subcylindric. Khaji. LOC. slightly recurved. Burma. broadly spathulate. DISTR. Fl. . It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. mugawana. inflammations. enrich blood. Afghanistan. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Vanmudga. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). light and astringent. Swadi. FAM. headache. K.:—Very common throughout the State. NS. Trianguli. t. Dharwar. :—E. COM.5 cm. glabrous or hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling.—Palmæ. Shimbiparni. Konkan. prostrate.—3-foliate. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. The grains contain vitamins A and B. DISTR. NS. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. See—Food Plants. biliousness. blood diseases. Kashayi. dysentery. Koshila. piles. Kharjuri. digestible.— pod. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. Ahmedabad. H. Date sugar palm. nose complaints. L. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. peduncles 10-23 cm.—6-12. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Indian wine palm. membranous. Sk. dry. Sk. eye troubles. styptic. throat inflammations. Shindi. astringent. long. Adabanmagi. Sd. good for eyes. Kherk. burning sensation. good for the eyes . PARTS USED :—Seeds. Ahmednagar. Ranmath. petioles grooved. LOC. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. FAM. Malay Islands. Sind. M. Kalli-chalu. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. Khandesh. Seeds— tonic. astringent to bowels. H. Mugani. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. " Tridosh". Boichand.

USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. lower 3-lobed. fattening. alexiteric. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. petioles compressed towards the apex.—white or pale-pink. spadix 60-90 cm.. male white. LOC. Fr. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. Ratuliyo. :—G. Baluchistan. clothed with appressed white hairs . The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. high. constipating. wild or more often cultivated. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. COM. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. subsessile. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. Fl. :—A creeping perennial herb.— dioecious. Sharadi. aphrodisiac. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . vomiting.—rounded at the ends. :—Throughout India. sharply serrate in upper part.—Jan-Feb. cardiotonic. ensiform. oblong. Siwalik. upper 2-lobed. 2-lipped.—pinnate. cooling. long. rigid. anthelmintic. fruit and juice of the tree. cooling. stems rooting at the nodes. Mysore. female spadix and spathe as in the male. orange-yellow. :—Tolerably common throughout India. Jalapimpli. Bengal.5 m. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat.—sessile. M. spiny at the base.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. densely fascicled. erect. fevers. rounded at the apex. pointed. Ceylon. flowers very many. scented. deeply grooved on one side. Poona and Belgaum districts. angular. oleaginous. long. much branched. Vashira. crown hemispherical. oblong-ellipsoid. wandering of mind.—Verbenaceæ. aphrodisiac. Agnijwala. Coromandel Coast. 9-15 m. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet.—Fibres. C. useful in diseases of heart. Fl. oblique. Famine Plants.) FAM. long. Ratoliya. Sd.5 m. pinnules many. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. Bihar. triangular. flowers distant. Sholapur. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. outer Himalayas. . t. CHAR. LOC. 15-45x2-2. Toyavallari. See. good in heart and abdominal complaints. blood and eye. roundish. :—Found fairly in Surat. Okra. Jalapipali.5—3. and in beds of streams and water courses. 3-4. large and thick. DISTR. usually along banks.—globose. spatulate. t. Langali. H.—2. :—A tall graceful palm. Fl. L. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. greyish-green. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. Jalpippali. Africa. DISTR. Fr. Sk. L. Rohilkhand. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. Fl.—more or less all the year. Ratoliya. This is called neera.—opposite. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). LOC. spinous. Bhuiokra. NS.2 cm.

useful in thirst. globose.— numerous. hiccup. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. distichous. good for ulcers. thirst. high . CHAR :—An annual herb. Amala. Ceylon. LOC. stem branched at the base. LOC. angular. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. dry.useful in fevers. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. Vituntika. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. sores. scabies. It is valuable in scurvy. Bhumyamali. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. anæmia. :—G. Bhumyamalaki. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). Bhuianvalah. burning sensation. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin.—yellowish. fruit.— July-Aug. t.. :—Throughout India. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. Bhuiavli. H. scarcely lobed. FAM. asthma. diuretic. NS. Infusion is a good tonic. . bronchitis. Plant—hot. M. Fl. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. Sadahazurmani. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. Kiranelligida. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. of female. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. milky-juice. very numerous. cooling. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. Fr. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. PARTS USED :—Root.—Euphorbiaceæ. Tropics generally.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste.—capsule. Jaramla. LOC. Fl. maturant. DISTR. except Australia. COM. L. and without salt may be applied to bruises. leprosy. biliousness. very small. ringworm (Yunani). K. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Leaves are stomachic. wounds. anuria. urinary discharges. lobed. monœcious. :—Konkan and Deccan. Sukshmadala. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. annular. wounds. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . bronchitis. Bhumyamali.—3-gonous. leaves. smooth. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). The whole plant. elliptic-oblong. 30-60 cm. Sk. Ajata. longitudinally ribbed on the back. asthma. axillary. Sd. males 1-3. females solitary. alexipharmic . disk of the male of minute glands. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Stomachic.

Kaphavirodhi. Malimirich . heating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. See—Condiments and Spices. leavs. inflammations. useful in toothache. COM. asthma. Menasu. K. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. Fresh leaves. M. Kanara. aphrodisiac. Kalamirich. Black-pepper. M. useful in "Vata". Pan. smeared with oil. G. Betel leaf vine. increases biliousness. Pan. " Kapha ". Nagavalli. Sholapur. pains. PARTS USED :—Fruits. bronchitis. Sk. tonic. foul smell in the mouth. generally in Konkan. :—E. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. Tikshna. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. styptic (Yunani). Sk. purgative. Kalaka. H. tonic to brain. Betelleaf. aphrodisiac. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. improves voice. Menasin-kallu . vulnerary. satyriasis and to allay thirst. Tambulavalli. night blindness. Satara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. carminative and astringent. spleen diseases. ozœna. elephantiasis . given with milk in hysteria. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. tonic and digestive. It sweetens breath. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. COM. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. FAM. NS. removes all foulness from mouth. acrid. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. It contains an aromatic essential oil. DISTR. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Poona. It increases saliva. Golmirch . and fruits (rarely). urinary discharges. LOC. carminative. heart and liver. Tambola. Mensinballi. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. K. ozoena. clears throat. Bhakshyapatra. Vata". Warm leaves. Vidyache-pan. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. . FAM.—Piperaceæ. throat diseases. LOC. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. LOC. :—E. NS. Betel pepper. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. stomachic. hot. carminative. G. alterative. Vileyad-ele. Linn. Saptashira. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. laxative. anthelmintic. useful in "Kapha". Panu. H. Kalamiri. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant.—Piperaceæ. Kalimiri. :—Wild in the N. Marich. cultivated in Konkan and N. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. Pan. strengthens teeth . alexipharmic. Kanara forests. bechic. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. piles. Eleballi. liver and muscular pains.

leprosy. Fl. piperidine and an essential oil. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. PROPERTIES AND LOC. base tapering into petiole. N. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. ophthalmia and phthisis. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. paralysis . Burma. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. M. facilitates menstruation. dries body humours (Yunani). used as febrifuge. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. chronic fevers. piles and some skin-diseases . FAM. COM. and possesses narcotic properties .5-12.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . See—Timbers. Deccan. H. Khandala (pretty common). as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat.—Plantaginaceæ.—Pittosporaceæ. L. See—Condiments and Spices. chest affections. Tammata. hills of S. LOC. LOC. :—E. lanceolate or greenish . the oil is alterative. Bark contains a glucoside.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. FAM. Bartang. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Lahuriya. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. NS. COM. Externally it is rubefacient. weakness following fevers. . lumbago. Konkan. & A.5 cm. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. CHAR. bruises.—lobes 4. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. ovoid. It is a good expectorant. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. Khasia Hills. Arcot and Salem. various forms of cutaneous diseases. sciatica. vertigo. In physiological action. It yields an essential oil. Vehkali.— alternate. Greater plantain . :—K. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. coma. petiole longer than leaf-blade. used in chronic bronchitis. NS. tonic and a local stimulant. ovate or oblong. Fr. W. Vikhari. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. radial 2. It has specific effect on skin-diseases.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. sprains. C. variable in width. DISTR. entire or toothed. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Kanara in ghat forests. long. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock.

Lead-wort. Raktachitraka. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). exauriculate petiole. long in long terminal axillary. M. W. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river.Sept.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Burma. :—Temperate Himalayas. Malaya. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Lalchitrak. C. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. limb wide. LOC. attenuate. high. Fl. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. top coming off as a conical lid. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). Fire plant. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. DISTR. oblong. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. HABITAT :—Along river banks. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . NS. erect. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts.—tube slender.—3-5 cm. FAM. Nilgiris. Sd. :—Cultivated throughout India. rosy scarlet. Lalchita. Sk.-4-8. H. zeylanica. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. K. Agnishikha. Ratochatro.-Feb. t.—large. Lalachitraka. Chitra. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Lalchitrak. COM. leaves. Fl. stems herbaceous. angled. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. dull-black. LOC. t. and seeds. lax spikes. Fl.—Plumbaginaceæ. Rosy-coloured leadwort. obtuse. afford relief. L. base passing into amplexicaul. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Fattening. G.. Palni hills.. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. PARTS USED :—Roots. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Baluchistan.Kempuchitramula. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. CHAR. alterative. :— E. Ceylon. alterative and diuretic. :—Konkan : Deccan. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. PARTS USED :—Roots. Ghats. striate .—throughout the year. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. LOC. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Chitraka. Mahang. Assam. DISTR.

ascites. LOC. FAM. Fl. woody. root-bark. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. Root—bitter. Fr. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin.5 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. G. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. alexipharmic. ring-worm. piles. :—Throughout India. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Malay Peninsula. " Vata" and " Kapha". Res. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). piles. COM. Medi. alterative .—Aug. it is useful in dyspepsia. itching. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Vahni.—in elongate spikes. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. Chitra . L. t. leaves are caustic. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. :—E. ovate. K. leucoderma. leaves. vesicant. Vallari. leprosy. In S. Ind. H. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. astringent to bowels. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. useful in laryngitis. See—Ornamental Plants. stomachic. rachis glandular .-Sept. tonic. lobes 5. See—Ornamental Plants. aborti-facient. cultivated . January 1933). it may be used in chronic skin diseases. The use of Pl. M. and in leucoderma. expectorant. Fl. Journ. Chitrak.6-1. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. inflammations. stomachic. carminative. laxative. a favourite medicine for flatulence. rheumatism. NS. terete. spreading. striate. dysentery. Tropics of the old world. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Bengal. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. bronchitis.—capsule. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . diarrhœa. hot. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. Sk. a paste is made with milk. scabies. Jyotishka. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. consumption. oblong. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. anthelmintic. C. Chitra . Chitraka. LOC. Chitramula. diseases of spleen. anasarca. Chitaro Chitrak. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Bile-Chitra-mula. cure intestinal troubles.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. stems 0. juice. skin disease. pointed. appetiser. leucoderma. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. DISTR. entire. " Tridosha" . It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Chitranga.—Plumbaginaceæ. diseases of liver. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. long.—white. Chitra. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. wild in Western Peninsula. Ceylon. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. It is used in procuring abortion.—thin. Agnishikha. . bechic. attenuated into a short petiole.

Kanara. 4-lobed.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. common. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. 12 cm. pungent. See—Ornamental Plants. cylindrical. Goleurchampa. C. LOC. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. M. cultivated. high. inner face angular. t.—follicles. Frangipani.5-18x3. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. NS. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. CHAR.—Apocynaceæ. stems and branches quadrangular. Fl.-May. upper lip white shot with purple.—2-lipped. DISTR. DISTR. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. L. Mahabaleshwar.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. many flowered. itching. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. COM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Dec. shining. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. leaves and milky juice.8 m.—salver-shaped. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. laxative . FAM. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). :—Konkan. :—M. rounded. LOC. rarely maturing. Fl. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. urinary discharges. useful in leprosy. S. FAM. . divaricate. 15-30 cm. lower lip white. Root-bark is purgative. acrid. carminative. Pangli. spirally arranged. t. Radha-champo. Fl. K. purple. 7. heating. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. bark. Rhuruchapha. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. C.—Labiatæ. acute at both ends. NS. :—A small shrub 1. Fr.-nutlets ellipsoid.-Feb. Fl. L. abundant from Mar. irregularly doubly toothed. broadly ovate. LOC. Khairchapha. M. :—Native of tropical America.8-9 cm. Phangla. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. long. venereal sores. white with a pale yellow centre.— large. smooth. whorls close. G.—practically throughout the year. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir.. 3-lobed. very fragrant. Country. with an intra-marginal vein. :—E. Deccan. H. Champakam. Pagoda tree. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. oblong-lanceolate. ascites (Ayurveda). shining black. abundant. long. useful in gleet. Devagangile. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. CHAR.2—1.:—More or less throughout India. Golainchi. entire. ulcers. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. :—All throughout the State. Belchampaka. Kadu-sampige. pains.

:—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Sk. See—Timbers. Gracie). Aran. Sk. Kanaji. G. Seeds—acrid . COM. Oil—styptic. Ustabunda . are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Arni. Arand. Indian beech. cure earache. In Satara. juice is given in colic and fever. NS. urinary discharges . very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. bruised. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. liver pain. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. fruits and seeds. vagina. Karanja. piles. Kirmal. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. head and brain diseases. leucoderma. leaves. cures biliousness. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. bark. Huligili. FAM. Naktamala. Oils. Karanja. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Ichu. :—G.) FAM. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Jayanti. Oil—anthelmintic. Kanika. Arni. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. rheumatic pains. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. Agnibijaka. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. K. itching. M. F. :—E. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. ascites. carminative. Chamari. . Gaura. skin diseases. USES :—The fresh leaves. good in scabies. Kanja.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. ulcers. anthelmintic. M. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Agetha. PARTS USED :—Root. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. wounds (Ayurveda). Pavaka. leprosy. chest complaints. lumbago. skin and in keratitis .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Karanjmara. chronic fever. H. Karanj. cures eye diseases. chronic fever and hydrocele. purify and enrich blood. LOC. wounds. " Vata ". useful in diseases of eye. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Honge. K. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). DISTR. NS. COM. relieves inflammation. flowers. good for tumour. alexipharmic . The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). lumbago. along Deccan rivers . Karanj. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. piles. also planted. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani).—Verbenaceæ. " Kapha ". J. Agnimandha. LOC.

dyspepsia. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Piyara. LOC. Young leaves are tonic in the . broadly elliptic.— June-July. sour. high. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. good in colic and for bleeding gums. Vastula. lobes 4. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. Peruka. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Ceylon. K. It is given in the form of decoction.2-6. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. as an astringent to bowels. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. stomachic. Sd. . chyluria. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda).—Myrtaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. H. pungent.3 cm. Gum is tonic. small. fruits and gum. used in bronchitis. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. Peru . Sk. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Fl.—tubular."Vata". Jamphal. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils.— globose. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Fl. constipation. applied to sore eyes. Safedsafari. See—Famine Plants. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. cooling. laxative. seated on the calyx . NS. blue-black. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. L. FAM. :—Cultivated all over the State. cool heated brain.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. causes "Kapha". Perala. Root is laxative. for unhealthy ulcers. fever. flowers. M. good for liver complaints (Yunani). PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. rough-tubercled . PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. cylindric. bark yellowish. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. laxative after food. :—E.—5-9 X 3.—hard.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Andamans. bronchitis. Jamud-rukh. heating. Peru. smooth. DISTR. stomachic. Fruit—tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. G. Gova. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. useful in anaemia. Guava tree. inflammations. C. LOC. aphrodisiac . Nicobars and Malaya. It is also employed in scurvy. Perala. entire or upper part dentate. Jamb. Kanara. LOC. DISTR. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. greenish yellow. cooling. Dridhabija. Amrut. Fr.. hairy in the throat. diabetes. Anthers—dry wound. piles. Flowers cool body. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. t. COM. LOC. common about Karwar.

G. t. Babachi. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. standard orbicular. improves appetite.6-1. Fl. good for heart troubles.—pod. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. 10-30 flowered racemes . 0. DISTR. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. piles. Fr. studded with glands and white hairs. Bavachi.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. mucronate. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. difficulty in micturition. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. bitter taste. Seed—purgative. nigro-punctate. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. ovoidoblong. black. causes biliousness. Sd. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. LOC.—bluish purple . PARTS USED :—Root. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini".2 m. white hairy. M. Fruit—diuretic. cures "Vata". an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. raw one is used in diarrhœa. improves hair and complexion. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache.—Aug-Dec. stimulant. leaves. Babachi. FAM. CHAR. " Rakta-pitta". rounded and mucronate at the apex. HABITAT :—Waste places. clawed. Vanguji. 3. L. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. fruit and seeds. Bukchi.—one. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. smooth. anthelmintic.8 X 2. alterative. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). . Kushtaghni. vulnerary. laxative. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. inflammation. petioles hairy and gland-dotted.—simple. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. Bavachi. Chandralekha. M. skin diseases. closely-pitted. Bhavanj. urinary dis charges. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. :—An erect annual. C. scabies. vomiting. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). Sk. solitary.5—5 cm. NS. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. See—Fruit Trees. Country. Seeds— refrigerant. Bowach-chi. alexiteric. aphrodisiac. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—in dense axillary. good for leucoderma. diuretic. leprosy. nephrites and cachexia. anthelmintic. biliousness. antipyretic. COM. high. :—E. Konkan and S. LOC. cures blood diseases . Kalameshi. K. bronchitis. Fl. Bakuchi. H. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. stem and branches grooved. heals ulcers. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). stomachic. anæmia.

is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Sk. Bibla. DISTR. griping. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. laxative. NS. Khandesh and Dangs. used in sore throat. burning sensation. body eruptions. Raktabija-pushpa. Gum. biliousness. ascends to 1100 m. Sk. scattered but not gregarious . Bijak. Bigsah. India. tonic. applied to hydrocele. flowers and gum. LOC. M. Flowers— improve appetite. Kanara. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. :—E. Dharimb . elephantiasis. Benga. anthelmintic. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. LOC. Mahakutaj. FAM. Bibla. Dalimb . H. Dadima. urinary discharges. Gums and Resins. Valka-phala. vulnerary. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). alterative . prolapsus ani. spleen complaints.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). tonic. LOC. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. COM. Honi. allays thirst. Hirdokhi. " Kapha ". G. heart-disease. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. PARTS USED:—Root. diuretic. Kabul and Baluchistan. Sunila. ulcers. :—Wild in Iran. Bibla. useful in eye troubles. Common in N. Flowers—check vomiting. useful in vomiting. urinary discharges (Yunani). leprosy. good for biliousness. strengthens gums. blood diseases. called kino. colic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Dhalim. anthelmintic. Pitasar. K. liver tonic. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). leucoderma. earache. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. antipyretic. used in piles. laxative. flowers and fruits. K. H. anal troubles. Bija. DISTR. erysipelas. Anar. useful in biliousness. NS. :—Leaves. stomatitis. . Fruit-appetiser. styptic. thirst. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. bark. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Pomegranate tree. Malabar kino-tree. cures " Vata ". chest troubles. fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. G. sore-throat. Bio. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Dadam. Dadima. COM. Indian kino-tree. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). cultivated in many parts of India. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). enriches blood. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests.—Punicaceæ. Bark—astringent. " Tridosh". sore eyes brain diseases. gleet. Bia. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Hulidalimb . Dadimba. M. ophthalmia. scabies. Honne. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. boils. :—Western Peninsula and S. fever. Ceylon. Gum—bitter. Dalimba. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. somewhat milder in action than catechu. PARTS USED. useful in all body diseases. also in Konkan. :—E. FAM. in Akrani.

FAM.— ellipsoid. 7.—Combretaceæ. Rangoonkibel. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. Fr. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. numerous. DISTR. Rangoon creeper. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. base rounded. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Rangoonchavel. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. LOC.—Mar. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. CHAR. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. M. USES :—In Amboyana. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) .—opposite. G. Karigidda. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. calyx tube long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. dark green. glabrous above. long. acuminate. Dharaphal.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Mangari-kai. Fl. LOC. widely cultivated all over India. :—E. elliptic. hairy beneath. Emetic nut. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. K. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. Barmasinivel. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. H. NS. Chinese honeysuckle. S. Midhola. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. The rind of the fruit. Karhar Mainphal. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Malaya. jasmine . NS. Lalchameli. Country and Kanara. M. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. :—E. Fl.-Aug. Pinditak. FAM. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Annam. Madana. Mindhola.—in axillary and terminal spikes. G. Minkare. :—A strong climber. pendant. It is given in the form of decoction. Gela. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. H. . M.—Rubiaceæ.5 cm. In China. nearly 6 cm. at first white then deep red . Gelphal. t. C—petals 5.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. COM. Sk. Konkan. COM. Fruit contains vitamin C. lanceolate . acutely 5-angled. L. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State.

cholera. useful in diseases of heart. Radish. DISTR. E. carminative. carminative. China. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . stomachic. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). piles (Ayurveda). muscular pains. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. LOC. and all inflammations . :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. H. It also contains an essential oil. Mulak. COM. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. emetic. " Vata" and " Kapha". boils. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. ulcers. emmenagogue. Java. Bitter. bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. Mula. skin-diseases. inflammations. :—E. See—Timber. Tropical Africa. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. useful in chronic bronchitis. Mula. tonic. purgative.—Cruciferæ. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . G. The plant contains glucoside saponin. flowers. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Juice of . leprosy. leucoderma (Yunani). leaves. Mura. binding. inflammations. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. good in tumours. eruptions. Ceylon. FAM. Muri. PARTS USED :—Root. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. Sumatra. Muro.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. sweet. fruit and seeds. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. its action is very safe. S. aphrodisiac. It is also used to poison fish. it is equal to it in every respect. piles. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. carminative. certain and regular. alexiteric. M. anthelmintic. laxative. paralysis. bad taste. good for spleen and in paralysis. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. asthma. Seeds-sharp. juice relieves earache. destroys "Vata". Ruchira. :—Throughout India. produce alopecia (Yunani). NS. leprosy. cures abscesses. K. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Bili Mulangi. Ksharmula. amenorrhœa. hiccup. antipyretic. Hastidanta. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. used in diseases of the brain. heating. tumours. Sk. LOC. emetic. Mali.

COM. Palakjuhi. Java. ginger. and black salt. Root contains vitamins A. Harki. Ceylon.5-6. Fl. lanceolate. diuretic. M. ulcers (Ayurveda). nodular. serpentinine. Sivanabhi. Chandrika. Group B — Serpentine. DISTR. B and C. In the Konkan. often tinged with violet. .—drupe. yellowish root stock. Fl. seeds are considered peptic. heating. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. specific for insanity. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. K. Mungusavel. Kanara. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. 7. anthelminitic . Sarpakshi. carminative.-in whorls of 3. bright green above. single or didymous. irregularly. Western Peninsula.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. It is hypnotic. black shining. FAM. NS. M.) FAM. Harkaichand. sharp. C. CHAR. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions.— Mar. ajamalinine. :—An erect perennial shrub. :—H. white. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. LOC..—tubular. ajmalicine. Fr. swollen a little above the middle.9 m. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. pale beneath. See—Vegetables.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. shady open places near rain-forests. Yuthikaparni. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. Doddapatike. laxative. bright red . sedative.5-18 X 2. Juipani. acrid.. with a long. :—H. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Nai. Chandrika. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. pungent.—Acanthaceæ. COM. Sk.-May. Gaja-karni.—Apocynaceæ. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. thin. L. Chhotachand. Sarpagandha. cures " Tridosha ".3 cm. leaves (rarely). t. Sk. used in hyperpiesis . LOC. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Garudpatala.. K. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. expectorant. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. acute. PARTS USED :—Root.—in irregular corymbose cymes. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. Andamans. NS. Nakulikand. corrective and emmenagogue.

:—Throughout India. aphrodisiac. Divald. body pains. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. earache. Seed and oil—cathartic. Country (Dharwar. LOC. H. Castor oil plant. increase biliousness. DISTR. ascites. Fr. narrow. Tirki. cultivated. velvety hairy Sd. Sholapur). S. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. useful in skin-disease. useful in inflammations. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Vardhamana. elliptic lanceolate. high. Belgaum. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative.—nearly sessile.—Oct. Fl. useful in liver troubles. diseases of rectum and head. Country. Leaves—galactagogue. L.. LOC. dropsy. fevers. piles. K. alterative. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). HABITAT :—Hills.—Euphorbiaceæ. Mahabaleshwar. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. COM. stems obscurely angled. Very little in other districts of the State.-Jany. good for burns. flowers and seeds. vaginal pains.— tuberculate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. Arand. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". glandular. Triputiphala. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. leaves and seeds. Divaligo. intestinal worms. LOC. asthma.—5-10 X2-5 cm. Erand. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. Erand. :—Probably of African origin. lumbago. G. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Straits-Settlements. amenorrhœa (Yunani). entire. elephantiasis. alterative.—capsule. leprosy. DISTR. lumbago. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Palma christi. leprosy. M. ascites. convulsions. Erand. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. hills near Belgaum. purgative. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Madagascar (cultivated). leaves. useful in heart diseases. :—Undershrub. :—E. tumours. liver and spleen diseases. inflammations. increases "Kapha". night-blindness. carminative . causes biliousness (Ayurveda). generally cultivated. pointed. eructations. Fl. glands. piles. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. tropical Africa. upper lip bifid . Java. Fruit— appetiser. solitary. M. M. ascites. :—Deccan. rheumatism. Root-bark—purgative.5 m. widely cultivated in tropical countries. pubescent: C. Cattle are fed with leaves for .9—1. t. NS. FAM. Haralu. PARTS USED :—Root. some fevers.—lipped. Chitrabija. oil—anthelmintic. asthma. boils. anal troubles. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. paralysis. black. Vardhaman. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. bronchitis. strangury. Khandala. pains. Eranda. typhoid. pain in back. Ceylon (wild) . ring-worm. LOC. bracts ovate lanceolate. 0. hairy outside . useful in pains. white.

sometimes glandular. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin.5 m. double. cardiotonic. etc. :—Origin unknown. stipules scarcely dilated. Italy. biliousness. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor .. Ati-manjula. cooling.3 cm. t. Tarana. they are cold. used in heat of body. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). laxative. See—Ornamental Plants. liver.— all the year. expectorant. astringent when dry (Yunani). LOC. CHAR. Fl. Sk. See—Oils. Soumyagandha. sweetish. pink or white. Greece and Germany. H. 2. head-ache. LOC. Shatadala. Gulab . stomatitis. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. . pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . inflammations. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. attaining 1. Sudburj. seldom griping or causing flatulency. antipyretic. adults.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect.—pinnate. tonic. :—A perennial shrub. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. K. good for eyes. Lakshmipushpa. removes bad odour from mouth. They are also applied to painful joints. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. aphrodisiac. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—obovate . Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. cures leprosy. Ghazipur is a chief centre. FAM. PARTS USED :—Flowers. which is a powerful poison. red. dry. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. with a good odour. benefits lungs. sometimes striped .5-6. mild and safe purgative. M. G. intestinal affections.— usually corymbose. acrid. Flower—bitter. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Pannira. P. much used in lotions and collyria . cultivated all over India. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. burning sensation. long. laxative. serrate. COM. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. Gulab. stems with stout and hooked prickles. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Gulab. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . Fr. France. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. hairy. L. Punjab and U.—Rosaceæ. chronic fevers. Fl. improves appetite (Ayurveda). ovate oblong. cephalic. DISTR. NS. excessive perspiration. petioles prickly. tooth-ache. In constipation it is used as an enema. " Vata". kidneys. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. cardiotonic.

Manjishha. Fl. anthelmintic. Bladder. with a thin red bark. shining. blood. ear. tropical Africa. Manjishtha. inner perianth-segments membranous. Malay Peninsula. dysentery.5—7. CHAR. Fr. :—E. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin.—in whorls of 4.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. jaundice. Raktasara. bitter. ulcers and skin-diseases. Manjit. H. H. NS. purplish black when ripe. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. urinary discharges. :—E. FAM. Sk. branches quadrangular . If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. ulcers. CHAR. acrid. alexiteric.—white or pink. obtuse. smooth. :—Root. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. . spleen-enlargement. Country. Sorrel. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). all scabrous with white prickles. emmenagogue. diuretic. L. analgestic. Indian Madder. used in eye-sores. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. COM. roots very long. leaves and fruit.—Rubiaceæ. five-nerved.—in terminal panicled cymes. L. inflammations. Manjishtha. lactagogue. grooved. eye. M. Tamravalli. leucoderma. one pair with longer petioles ovate. Aruna. FAM. antipyretic. Fl. analgesic. stems very long. Ceylon. Decoction tinges blood. Java. valves hyaline.—Polygonaceæ. erysipelas. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan.—2. ovate. Ambat Chuka. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. antidysenteric. Fl. pains in joints. Root—bitter.—didymous or globose. increase appetite. heating. piles.-Jany. cylindric. 15-30 cm. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. branched from the root. Fr.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . DISTR. LOC.5 cm. vagina. M. prickly. diseases of uterus. Leaves-sweet. lethargy. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. elliptic. paralysis. erect glabrous herb. :—Annual. LOC. t-Oct. lower leaves larger. it powerfully affects the nervous system. greenish. Rohini. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. oleaginous . Gulmketu. base cuneate. K. and was much used in dropsy. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. COM. leucoderma. high. Japan. uterine pains (Yunani). Chukra. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. Amlavetasa. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. cures " Kapha ". rheumatism. NS. :—Perennial climbing herb. Sk. Dock. petioles triangular.. M. urine and even bones red. Majit. improves voice and complexion . cordate or hastate. liver complaints. paralysis. the Konkan and S. Chuka. jaundice. orbicular . leucorrhoea. PARTS USED. laxative. Chitralata.

Kharmor. Sd. Sadabu. M. Satapa . stomachic. The juice allays tooth-pain. The seeds have the same properties . :—Common throughout the State. K. NS. generally in the Deccan. while fresh they are bruised. S. asthma. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). H. LOC. Parpatha. aperient and diuretic. Fr. Fl. Kanara. analgesic. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India.—white. t. then erect. Konkan. Sk. in dysentery. pale brown. Vishapaha. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. Ghati pittapapada . :—E.— subsessile. G. also considered as a vermifuge. dyspepsia. Country. Common—Garden-rue . COM. DISTR. laxative. diseases of the spleen. COM.-Jany.—Rutaceæ. upper emarginate. Persia. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Satri. N. NS. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. alcoholism. Satap. piles.—Nov. bracts elliptic.—Acanthaceæ. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. :—G. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. blue or pink. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bites and stings of poisonous animals.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. often rooting near the base. Sk. C. USES :—Leaves are cooling. FAM. :—A herb . LOC. Havananju. acute. tonic. acute . constipation. with darker spots. M. Nagadali. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. they are prescribed. Afghanistan. rugose with furrow.—suborbicular. bronchitis. useful in scabies. L. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. FAM. Africa. useful in heart troubles. stems usually decumbent. checks nausea and promotes appetite. roasted. oblong lanceolate. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. hiccup. Khatselio . with scarious faces and hard ridges. DISTR. lower shortly 3-lobed. pains. M. ciliate. 2-lipped. LOC. vomiting. :—Western Punjab. Trans-Indus Hills. H. tumours. Deccan. leucoderma. CHAR. . See—Vegetables. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani).—capsule. Fl. toothache. flatulence. Sadapaha. ovoid oblong. Cooling. Pismarum Sadab.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). it may be given internally in hysteria. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. Gudatrina. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman).—petals 4. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. S. The oil is the best form for administration. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. flatulence. H. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. abortifacient. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. epilepsy. obtuse . Kabbu. heats body. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Naisakar. indigestible. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. colic. Satara.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. anti-aphrodisiac . useful in fatigue. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Egypt and Algeria. segments cuneate. Ingotu. flawed. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. . leprosy. laxative. Sk. COM. Gudakastha. G. in pots. Sherdi. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. There are three varieties . decompound. forest and mountain. Us . cultivated throughout India. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. diuretic. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Sugarcane. digestive. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . The plant is tonic. petioled. LOC. LOC. K. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. heating to body . diuretic. Ukh . thirst. S. grown in gardens.. cooling. aphrodisiac. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. spathulate or linear-oblong . Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. Madhuyashti. Kumad. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). :—Grown everywhere in India.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. L. :—A strong smelling herb . Rikhu. M. tonic. increases mental activity.—angled. The plant contains glucoside glutin. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. C. NS :—E. etc.-alternate. and externally used as a rubefacient. DISTR. Fr. emmenagogue.—Gramineæ. amenorrhœa. all over the State. particularly Deccan. garden. Sd. FAM. Ganna. Tanigarbu . yellowish. DISTR. Powdered and combined with aromatics. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Rasala. oblong-obovate. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. HABIT :—Cultivated. glandulose punctate. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). M. Ikshu. Poona. oleaginous.

—Salvadoraceæ.. Seeds—purgative. Sugar causes " Kapha". often planted near Muslim tombs. diam. Brihat madhu pilu. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Pilu.". fattening. LOC. . Jal. LOC.-Feb. causes " Kapha. Fl. Cane—sweet. laxative. Pilu. the Konkan and N. globose.—Nov. purifies blood . improves appetite. analgesic. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. astringent to bowels. near the coasts of Gujarat . smooth. leucoderma. scabies. tonic to liver. shining. :—Dry districts of the State. NS. Kharijal. Abyssinia. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. dry regions of W. It is good in calculous complaints. H. lessen inflammation . red when ripe.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid.—very thin. pectoral and aphrodisiac. DISTR. opposite. inflammations. often mucronate at the apex. Khakan Mirjoli. improve diuresis (Yunani). useful in heat. Pilu. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. L. fleshy. carminative. Ceylon. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . Tooth-brush tree. Sind. Sk. ulcers. Kanara in littoral forests. delirium. Piludi. diuretic. Goni. sometimes it raises blisters. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. disorders and wind. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. carminative and diuretic. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. drooping. leaves. lobes much reflexed. tonic and aperient. branches numerous. :—Drier parts of India. strengthen teeth. numerous. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. anthelmintic. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). finely striate. Fr. deobstruent. oil is digestible. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. Leaves—bitter. diuretic. K. Mahaphala.—drupe. aphrodisiac . leaf-juice is given in scurvy. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. C. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. piles. useful in biliousness. t. anæmia. Pilu. PARTS USED :—Bark. erysipelas. Asia. LOC. COM. :—E. M. In the Punjab. alexiteric. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. bile. Egypt. useful in biliousness. corrective. Fruit—aphrodisiac. deeply cleft. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. good for lungs . sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. stomachic . sugar is considered heavy. Fruits are deobstruent. G. In cases of poisoning by copper. bad for liver (Yunani). fruits seeds and oil.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. useful in nosetroubles. white. greenish-yellow. 3 mm. Fl. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. FAM. See—Food Plants.

Rishta. COM.. often planted. aphrodisiac. cures "Tridosha". Chandan. Shrigandhalmara. head-ache (Yunani). alexiteric. burning sensation. antipyretic. paralysis. :—Western Peninsula. FAM. Arishtaka. H. Mangalya. LOC. Phenila. LOC. PARTS USED:—Wood. to temples in fever. See—Timbers. Ceylon. Aritha. hemicrania. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. G.—Sapindaceæ. COM. Soap-Nut tree. allays uterine pains. gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. Sukhad . small-pox (Ayurveda). Burugukayi. strangury. Ritha . vaginal discharges. diarrhœa. bronchitis. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. Country and N. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Mysore and parts of Madras State. Malayaja. Kugale. ground. India. Ritha. :—E. :—Indian Peninsula. to allay heat and pruritus. alexiteric. G. exhilarating. M. PARTS USED :—Root. alexipharmic. gonorrhœa. Chandan. K. NS. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. K.—Santalaceæ. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. . is applied to local inflammations. fruit and seed. chiefly in S. NS. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Anthuvala. useful in inflammations. Ringni. stomachic. Oils. DISTR. USES :—Wood. emetic. epileptic fits of children. Bhogivallabha. S. Agarugandha. Oil. :—E. tonic. laxative. Chandan. much cultivated. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. Bhadrasara. Suket. acts as diaphoretic. astringent to bowels . useful in chronic dysentery. Fruit—bitter. Chandal. cholera. thirst. abortifacient. Cultivated elsewhere. Kumblabijaka. H. Sandal. Arithan . LOC. up with water into a paste. aphrodisiac. Antharalo. Bhadrasri. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Sk. useful in diseases of heart. M. Sandal-wood Tree. tubercular glands. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Phenilu. lumbago. M. " Kapha ". Sk. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. in skin-diseases. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). biliousness. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). DISTR. FAM. Root—expectorant. cold in head.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

HABITAT :—Cultivated. obscurely angled . carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. an emollient poultice is also made from them. CHAR. oil. enrich blood. inflammations (Yunani).—standard as broad as long. DISTR. linear-oblong. scabies. :—A soft-wooded shrub. few flowered axillary racemes. useful in sorethroat. Rasin. aphrodisiac. cooling. FAM.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.5-15 cm. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. Fr. M. H. PARTS USED :—Root. bleeding piles. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. long. spleen troubles. cure menorrhagia. etc. Seed-oil—fattening. Jayat. applied to gouty joints. leaflets 914 pairs. diuretic. Jayanti. branches striate. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. tonic. of eye and ear. They are also emmenagogue. applied to ulcers and piles. Raysingani. indigestible . syphilitic ulcers. into claw. asthma. Janjhan. seeds. biliousness. Sd. diuretic and lactagogue. See—Oils. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. removes "Kapha". COM. Nadeyi. Jaya. mottled with purple on the outside. promote hair growth. cures . in height. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. Jayanti. yellow.—in lax. LOC. long. astringent to bowels. urinary concretions. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated all over India. septate between the seeds. beaked. galactagogue. oleaginous. Jayantika. They are nourishing. pendulous. Jayanti. gouty joints. seeds. Sk. probably a native of tropical Africa. 7. They have been used to procure abortion. Black variety is common. useful in dry cough. inflammations. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. NS. eye diseases . Jinangi. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections.—pod. K. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. bark. opposite. strangury. 15-23 cm.— abruptly pinnate. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. alterative. Fl. Seeds contain vitamin A. L. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. lung diseases. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. Baluchistan.. and as an oildressing for ulcers. white and red. Waziristan. 4-5 m. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. C. suppurating wounds. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. such as dysentery etc. small-pox. leaves. useful in diarrhœa.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—20-30. diseases. strengthening. inflammations. hair-tonic. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). slightly torulose. LOC. leaves. tonic. There are three varieties of seeds : black. :—G. Shewari. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. burning sensation.

—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Flowers—cooling. See—Fodder Plants. Kempagase. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. long. flowers. M. maturant. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures " Tridosh " pains. . leucoderma. 15-30-cm. dysentery and paludism. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. diabetes. Bak. improve appetite . Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Hatiya . The plant contains vitamin A.5-8. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). H. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Kanali. Agasti. anthelmintic.—7. Basna. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. C. K. relieves throat-troubles. Agase. anaemia. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. 50 cm. "Kapha" and inflammation. bronchitis. Fl. FAM. Bark—astringent.8 cm. demulcent. useful in ophthalmia.— pinnate. useful in ozœna.—in racemes . See—Vegetables. gout. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. :—A soft wooded tree . 2-4 white or red. epilepsy.— flowers at various times. An infusion is given in small-pox. fruits. Leaves—indigestible. Sk. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. useful In diseases of spleen. LOC. CHAR. diarrhœa. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. LOC. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). Ornamental Plants. Agasta. Fr. Australia. leprosy. gout . SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. Agathio. alexiteric. rubbed into a paste with water. Indigenous from Malaya to N. linear oblong. Vranari. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Munidruma. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Leaves—purgative. Fl. COM. stimulant. anthelmintic. Agusta. is applied in rheumatism. t. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Dirghashimbi. ulcers.— pod. leaves. astringent. very showy. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. high. Fruit—laxative . 6-9 m. allays thirst. Agati. is applied in painful swellings. LOC. Seeds—emmenagogue. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). night-blindness. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. cure itching. cure quartan fever. tumours . heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . improves taste. biliousness. DISTR. :—G. L. long. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. Bark— astringent. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani).

5-5 cm. Pata. stomachic and tonic. base rounded. Kherati. H. Bala. Fl. Baladana. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. " Kapha " . linear . useful in blood and throat diseases. carpels 5-9.—5-6 mm. M.—1-2 in each axil. bleeding piles. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms.-Nov. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Chikna. Bala. FAM. pedicel jointed about the middle.—Malvaceæ. Bala. PARTS USED :—Root. diam. with ginger.— yellow.Dec. Fr.—2. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. black. :—Hotter parts of India. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). leaves and seeds. is given . Rajbala. Sd. :—Konkan. K. Country Mallow. Chittuharatu. Vatyapushpi. strongly reticulated. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . M. Hettutti-gida. decoction. minutely hairy. CHAR. aphrodisiac . SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. scabrid-hairy.—smooth.—solitary or few together. linear.. Country. ovate-oblong. softly hairy all over. NS. LOC. astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. Kharanti.—Malvaceæ. COM. Gujarat and S. Tukti. yellow.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. Fl. Pata. K. Jayanti. " Pitta ". Deccan and S.-Oct. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. G.5-6. NS. carpels 7-10.—2. cordate. diuretic. useful in fever. a weed. CHAR. Barial. :—G.. astringent. Country. pedicel jointed much above the middle. puberulous. Khareti. M. LOC. strongly reticulated . Kareta. Kisangi. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. long. Prahasa. awns 2. awns 2. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). L. upper margins ciliate. dorsal scabrid. cooling. Chikna. :—Konkan (common). diam. FAM. Kumghi. removes " Vata ". emollient. :—A shrub. LOC. Sk.—Nov. Sk. crenate. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. Bariara. sharply serrate. t. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). C. obtuse. Fl. H.—6-8 mm. Root—cooling. HABITAT :—Moist places . infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. bark. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. long. COM. digestive. Samanga. lanceolate.3 cm. :—E. M. dorsal margins toothed. branches slender. L. glabrous. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. DISTR. t. LOC. DISTR.. Batyalaka. Fl.

—achene. black. FAM. stiff-neck. juice is used for healing wounds.—opposite. Linn. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. stem stiff. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. Pilibadkadi. t. L. Fl.6—1. PROPERTIES AND LOC. rhomboides Roxb. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. cystitis. . Fl. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. all running down wing-like into petiole. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. Fl. :—Throughout India. 0.—Compositæ. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine.—heads small in leafy panicles . Bala—Sida cordifolia. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. administered in hemiplegia. Katampu. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. It is also used to favour menstruation. CHAR. DISTR. deeply and irregularly toothed. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. and head-ache. 5 outer clavate. slightly rough. triangular-ovate. :—A large annual herb. Country. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. common. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. also in colic and tenesmus. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. :—Deccan. diaphoretic. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. erect. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn.—yellow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. facial paralysis. Ceylon. involucral bracts 2 rows. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. noise in ears.-Dec. pappus 0.2 m. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. M. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. COM. tinged with purple. :—G. S. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. M. 5 inner boat-shaped. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". high.—Nov. Fr. Externally. those of the ray red beneath. NS. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". LOC.

" Vata". H. sharp. Vrittaphala. Sd. improves appetite. prickles large. eye diseases (Ayurveda). The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. 8 mm. H.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. M. C. COM. Bhantaki.. Philippines. FAM. Dorli. China. Mahotika. FAM. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. fruit and seeds. base unequal-sided. Hinguli. Ceylon. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. useful in leucoderma.—5—15 X 2.—minutely pitted: Fl. " Kapha". Nilaphala. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". loss of appetite. Fl. digestive. :—E. LOC. diam. clothed outside with purple hairs . It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections.5 cm. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. L. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves (rarely) and fruits. cardiotonic. Vantak. petiole prickly. lessens inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. . Kadusonde. :—Throughout tropical India. 0. DISTR. NS. Vengni. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). dark-yellow when ripe.— berry. anthelmintic. Barhanta. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. prickly. fever. K. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in India. Bhanta. lobed. analgesic. Brinjal. globose. Bhantaki. high. Indian Nightshade. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. pruritus ani. bronchitis. Fr. Hinguli. Vadikadheri.5—7. Root is applied to lessen pain.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. covered with stellate hairs. Badanikai. Ubhi-bhuringni. Habba-Kirigulla.. Kattarta. G. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. vomiting.. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. LOC. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. G. Baingan. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. leaves. Ranringni. very. or triangular-ovate. It is seldom used alone. K.3—1.—pale-purple. ovate.-Aug. COM. stem stout.—Solanaceæ. Mhotiringni. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. Rigana. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. t. subentire. Vayase. pain. Sk. Brihati. maturant. recurved. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). enriches blood. laxative. NS. beneficial in cardiac troubles . sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. Malpya. Egg Plant. causes biliousness. removes foulness of the mouth.-Oct. rarely wild. Fruit—cardiotonic. Vange. :—E. bad for piles if taken internally.—Solanaceæ. DISTR. HABITAT :—Hilly parts.5 m. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vartaki.

taste. Tiktika. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. diarrhœa. not to be given to pregnant women. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. diam. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. Piludi. Kabaiya. stem erect. Kakamachi.—Solanaceæ. useful in diseases of eye. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. PARTS USED :—Root. griping. bitter. Gurkamai. minutely pitted . leaves and fruit. G.—small.— berry. chronic fever. FAM. entire or sinuate toothed. laxative. Makoi. Kakamachi. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. Hound's Berry. Morellel. NS. subumbellate. fever. worms in ear. L. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. smooth. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. dysuria and asthma. inflammation. shining. yellow. gonorrhœa (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. aphrodisiac. tonic. COM. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. useful in heart and eye-diseases. in pains. t. It acts as a hydrogogue. in extra-axillary. C. H. throat burning. urinary discharges. bark. B and C. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow).-Jany. Kakamunchi. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. heating. vomiting. fever. :—E. favours conception and facilitates delivery . diuretic. etc. Vayasi. Fl. inflammation. 6 mm. bronchitis. asthma. Fr. DISTR. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera.. improves voice . Katuphala. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. :—A variable annual herb . leucoderma. alterative. 3-8 flowered cymes . The seeds are used as a stimulant. Ceylon. piles. . LOC. :—Throughout India. liver inflammation. Seeds—laxative. good for neck ulcers.—discoid. itch.—many. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). Sd. Root-bark—laxative .—Sept. ovatelanceolate. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. cathartic and diuretic. and used with success in psoriasis. Fl. useful in giddiness. Kamoni. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. Black Night-shade. See—Vegetables. hiccup. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. LOC. dysentery. K. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. In S. Sk. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. M. eye-diseases hydrophobia. much divaricately-branched . bronchitis. " Tridosha". tapering into petioles. ear and nose . CHAR. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. Fruit contains vitamins A.

Brihati. "Vata" and " Kapha". FAM. Durrah. aphrodisiac. Dirghashara. Basu).—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . Sundia . appetiser. Ceylon. hairy on both sides. Yuvanala. Bhoyaringni. ozoena. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. stem zig-zag.. bright green perennial herb .198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. stomachic. DISTR. & Wendl. fruits and seeds. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough.— June. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Vrittatandula. strangury. tropical Australia. leaves. heart disease. useful in bronchitis. Sk. Fl. S. LOC. Jowari. often exceeding 1. K. Nidigdhika. Dhavani. Africa. Jonera. Nele-Rama-gulla . LOC. they are used in the burning of feet. Konkan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. catarrhal fever and chest pain. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Seeds—anthelmintic. Fr. Kateli. asthma. Root—aphrodisiac. biliousness. :—A very prickly diffuse. lumbago. sinuate or subpinnatifid. fevers. anthelmintic . muscular pains. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Ikshupatraka. laxative. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. E. Sorgho. pruritus . dysuria. lobes deltoid. Kenjal. NS. stone in bladder. Jolah. Kantakari. prickles compressed. Kantakini. Jondhala. base unequal-sided. Nirgol. H. chronic bronchitis. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. thirst. G.-5-10 X 2. Yengara . D. 3-2 cm. L.. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . M. Sk. C. It is used in asthma. :—E. Fruit—laxative. :—Common in the Deccan .—berry. Jowar.—purple. straight. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. CHAR. Shalu. FAM. Chikka-sonde. piles. NS. M.7 cm. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. Ringni. hairy outside. t.—Solanaceæ. Sind. sterility in women. long. yellow and shining. K. Bhui-Kate-ringni. PARTS USED :—Root. yellow or white with green veins. good in inflammation. diam. heating. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. surrounded by enlarged calyx . SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Malaya.3 cm. COM. Sholapur. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. H. Leaves—good application for piles. Katai. urinary concretions. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. fever. Jundri. stems.—Gramineæ. petiole prickly. Great Indian millet. COM. expectorant and febrifuge. Fl. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . :—Throughout India. flowers. LOC. :—G. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. ovate or elliptic.5-5. Bijapur and E. pains.

Vritta. on dry stony hills. Gorakhamundi. hence used in intermittent fevers. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . :—Seeds. laxative. bladder and kidney complaints. FAM: —Compositæ. Fibres. :—The grain is cooling. Swami-mara. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. constipating. stem and branches cylindric.—sessile. PARTS USED. Rohini. Munditika. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. while Belgaum. Ahmedabad. G. FAM. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Poona.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Ruhin. Sk. fevers. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. glandular. introduced into America and Australia. Grains contain vitamin B. Gorakmundi. Sk. COM. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). cures " Tridosha ". Asia and Africa. HABITAT :—Open situations. M. Some. .—Meliaceæ. Country. indigestible. common in Gujarat. ulcers. H. Ceylon. COM. Sumbi. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Aruna. Indian Red-Wood. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES. :— E. biliousness. H. piles. good for sore-throat. general debility. Rohina. See—Food Plants. Rohani. Mahamundi. tonic and antiperiodic . LOC. :—Widely cultivated in India. Juss. high. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. :—G. useful in " Kapha". L. Kumbhala. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. DISTR. See—Timbers. M. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. aphrodisiac. diseases of blood. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Karanda-gida. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Dharwar. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. K. Tans. leprosy and dysentery . :—Bark-acrid. NS. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Agniruha. anthelmintic. Rohun. hairy. Bodiakalara. :—Bark. Bastard Cedar. Gorakhmundi. NS. aphrodisiac. Khandesh and S. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . Bijapur and E. :—Dry forests of W. PARTS USED. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. K. Pravrajita. with toothed wings. vaginal injections and enemas. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. CHAR. DISTR. Gums and Resins. tumours (Ayurveda). refrigerant. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. M. improves appetite and taste. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rawtarohan. LOC.

Akara-karava. Fl. :—Deccan. alexipharmic. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. ovate. :—Common in the Konkan. and tonic (Stewart) . used in insanity. Pellitary . indigestion. leaves. :—Root. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in heads ovoid. strangury. gives lustre to eyes . enriches blood . . sometimes grown in gardens. hemicrania (Ayurveda). alterative. truncate. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). ovate-oblong. LOC. cooling. :—E. C. oblong. :—Root. Fl. They are given in powder form. looseness of breasts. elephantiasis. glandular hairy. t. scabies. PARTS USED. Pappuso. They are chewed to relieve toothache. all warm countries. Africa. USES.—Compositæ. in cases of worms and indigestion. peduncles reaching 10 cm. Powdered root is given as tonic. scalding of urine. t. used also for local application. emmenagogue.—Nov. asthma. stem and branches hairy. anthelmintic. spleen diseases.. Country and Kanara. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. useful in skin diseases. involucre bracts linear. urethral discharges and jaundice. globose ovoid. epileptic convulsions. jaundice. urinary discharges. biliousness. Australia. boils. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . flowers and seeds. lessens inflammations . involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. Celyon. depurative. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. LOC. the latter when present minute. serrate or dentate. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. Akkalkara . base usually acute. vomiting. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. solitary or subpanicled. It is also used as fish and crab poison. :—Wild and cultivated. :—Throughout India. :—Annual herb. ring-worm of waist. Tonic. compressed . Fr.. laxative. pain in uterus and vagina.—Achene. stalked. increases appetite. glaborous. S.—purple. gleet. piles. Ceylon. H. bark. FAM. tuberculous glands. peduncles with toothed wings. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. L. leaves and flower-heads. laxative. Fl. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. digestible. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. Sk. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. with honey they are given in cough. fattening. irregularly crenateserrate. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. Fl. :—Common in rice-fields.— achene. :—Hot. HABITAT. M. CHAR. NS. dysentery.—compound heads. HABITAT. M.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. good for eyesore. leucoderma. Akarakara . COM. cools brain. :—Throughout India. Fr. rectal pain. chest diseases. LOC. anæmia. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. biliousness. DISTR. ciliate near the ends .—opposite. bronchitis. tonic. Malay Islands. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. long.—Nov-Jany.

Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. PARTS USED. leaves and fruit. LOC. ulcers. burning sensation. Indian Archipelago. Sk. Dr. oblique. high. Giri Hadari.-usually 1. Sd. ash-coloured . Country. 3. aphrodisiac. Patala. Kumbhi. NS. Fl. M.. t. Kariguddada. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Marahunise. Ali-vallabha. See—Gums and Resins. :—Bark.-Apl. Kalavrinta. Konkan. S. Padal. . :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. appetising. H. Gum is demulcent. widely planted. ovoid. LOC. Padal. Patala. Fr. Hulave. Hude. Avatekayi. bark smooth. W. Parur. :—E.— petals 4-5. Pitana. Amrataka. Gujarat. Andamans. C. NS. L. Amra. Kamduti. astringent. good for sore-throat. Kapichuta. :—Leaves-tasty. COM. Ran-amba . pinkish green. oblong. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Ambodha. trunk straight.—Anacardiaceæ. Bile Tree. CHAR. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws.Feb. FAM. long. K. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Kanara. Sk. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. Pandri. phthisis. Toyadhivasini. Western Peninsula. entire. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. destroys " Vata ". Fruit—indigestible.8-7. Salt Range. cures rheumatism. tonic. :—Often planted throughout the State. Amate.—Bignoniaceæ. :—H.. Tungi. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Indian Hog-Plum. Ambada. It has been found useful in dysentery. blood complaints . refrigerant.—drupe. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Fl. ovate oblong. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism.5 m. Ceylon. COM. Wild Mango.. hard. M. enriches blood . and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. M. stone woody. yellow. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. :—Cultivated. Hongkong. Padiala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth.5 cm. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. HABITAT. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). biliousness.8 cm. long. round with furrows and cavities. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. Pahad.5-18 x 3.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. branches nearly horizontal. Burma. DISTR. :—A tree 9-10.

Sk. :—Very common in Konkan and N. N. Travancore . Burma. Kajra. Kachita. sub-Himalaya. PROPERTIES AND USES. asthma. Travancore. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Nirmal. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Hemushti. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. FAM. :—E. diuretic. LOC. jaundice. See—Timbers. NS. K. tonic. :—Wood (rarely). Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. itching. Indo-China. Ceylon. tonic. COM. DISTR. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . Flowers— acrid . cures leucoderma. Kakatinduka. :—Root-bitter. Kanara. LOC. piles . blood diseases. Kangira. piles. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. fruit. Laos. blood diseases. Kajra. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Karnatak. LOC. eructations. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. It is regarded as cooling. ring-worm. :—Monsoon-forests. G. heating. Kuchala. "Kapha". PARTS USED. poisonous. Planted in Ceylon. Ittangi. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. astringent to bowels. "Vata". Circars. pungent. PARTS USED. tonic. ulcers. from Kashmir to Sikkim . useful in bilious diarrhœa. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . H. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). DISTR. Visha-druma. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. inflammation. fevers. Fruit—bitter. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). M. loss of taste. Kajavara. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kanara. fruit. bitter. Crow Fig. :—Root. Kupaka. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. cures pains in joints.—Loganiaceæ. Kuchla. antipyretic. :—More or less throughout tropical India. west coast of Madras State. vomiting. Fruit—useful in hiccup. LOC. Karaskara.. appetiser. flowers. :—In forests south of Bombay. lumbago. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". abundant on laterite along sea-coast. heating. anæmia. thirst. burning sensation. diuretic. Kuchla. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. Vishamushti. :—Fruit-acrid. Poison Nut. Kelakutaka. seeds. heating. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. emmenagogue . Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed.

jaundice. thirst. :—Deciduous dry forests. M. Ambuprasadini. PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Country. Shodhanatmaka. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. The demand for strychnine is increasing. improve eye-sight. :—Western Peninsula. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. See—Timbers. Seeds—bitter. also in Konkan. Clearing Nut Tree.. LOC.—Loganiaceæ. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Nivali. Kataka. Fruit useful in eye diseases. diuretic. LOC. Madhya Bharat. Kanara and Khandesh. Nirmali. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. cure strangury. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. (Rasendrasarasangraha). Chittu bija. emetic. astringent to bowels. Ceylon. head-diseases (Ayurveda). poisoning. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Aduguchali-bija. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. increases "Vata". :—Root cures leucoderma. causes biliousness. COM. . relieve colic (Yunani). gonorrhœa. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. HABITAT. aphrodisiac. good for liver. urinary discharges. diaphoretic. alexipharmic. M. PARTS USED. H. :—Root (rarely). fruit and seeds. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. See—Timbers. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. FAM. Nelmal. NS. K. cures inflammations. kidney complaints. tonic. hallucinations. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Burma. lithotriptic. anæmia. Seeds—acrid. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. :—E. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. DISTR. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. alexiteric. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. Sk.

COM. K.—Gentianaceæ. S. Sk. . aphrodisiac. cures cough. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. diseases of blood. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues.. C. DISTR. Tiritaka. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. See—Timbers. LOC. white with blue veins. 5-nerved . a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . high. bleeding gums . LOC. 2-valved. H. etc. :—Bark-acrid. C. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". Torna fort. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. PARTS USED. Deccan . M. FAM. Fl. Fl. CHAR. China Nora. Californian Cinchona. biliousness. :—W. :—M. Bose). Kadu. in powder or in fresh decoction. inflammations. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . decussate. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. Deccan. Lodh Tree. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in abortions . :—An erect herb. :—India (W. Loder. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. t. Peninsula).— Oct. cooling. emmenagogue. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. broadly ovate. ovoid or oblong. :—The whole plant is bitter. winged . Shavaraka.—many. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . E. :—Root.9 m. 0. leprosy.— sessile. Lodhraka. C. useful in eye-diseases. Country. Chota Nagpur. :—Hilly parts. Tillaka. :—Western Ghats . Balaloddujinamara.— lobes 4-5. alexiteric.3-0. digestible. colloturine and loturiaine. :— E. Broughton). PROPERTIES AND USES. L. :—Konkan and N.. stem densely leafy. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). acrid. Lodhra . Peninsula. Fr. Lodhra. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. vaginal discharges. DISTR. NS. Dyes. PARTS USED.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . flowers (rarely). HABITAT. M. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. Lodh . Mahabaleshwar. NS.—capsule. :—Bark. eye-diseases and ulcers . 4-winged. Bhilli.-Jany. Bark—bitter.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. quadrangular. LOC. throughout N. COM. Sd.—Symplocaceæ. Lodh. Lodh is used in raw condition. astringent to bowels. Burma. FAM. dysentery.

Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. Malaya. very often planted. both wild and cultivated. Fruit Trees. COM. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Sk. PARTS USED. K. stop urinary discharges (Yunani).—Myrtaceæ. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. Jambura. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. enriches blood. Ceylon. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. dysentery. Jambula. Nilphala. K. . biliousness. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. digestive. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. also wild. blood impurities. fruits and seeds. fruit vinegar is tonic. good lotion for ring-worm in head. asthma. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent.) FAM. Jamen. NS. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Jam. Shukapriya. Gulabjaman. astringent to bowels. Jambu. LOC. good for sore-throat. common along river banks. removes bad smell from mouth. H. G. sweet. carminative and diuretic. increases "Vata". thirst. Shukapriya. cooling. Jambudi. LOC. DISTR. also used in spongy and painful gums. Jambul. :-Black-Java Plum. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent to bowels. Jambul. :—E. See—Timbers. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. Jambu-Nayinerale. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. good gargle for sore-throat. :—Bark. Malay—Rose apple. Pharenda. Kokileshta. Seeds—diuretic. astringent. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. strengthens gums and teeth. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. COM. bronchitis. Jamburaj. common at Mahabaleshwar. useful in spleen diseases. M. Fruit—acrid. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities.—Myrtaceæ. Jambu. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. gargles and washes . Nerate. :—Throughout the State. ulcers. anthelmintic. Surabhipriya. Nenda. :—Bark-acrid. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. H. Sk. LOC. Neralu. sprouts. Australia. carminative . Jambu.) FAM. dry. Gulab-Jamb. NS. Jambu. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Pannerali. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. etc. M.

—snow-white. C—lobes overlapping to the left. dysentery..—rainy season. :—E. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. Nandi. Taggar. cultivated in many parts. K. COM. NS.) FAM. inodorous during the day. LOC. used in liver complaints. wood and oil. Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Apocynaceæ. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. H. digestible.5-5 cm. Wax flower. PARTS USED. See—Timbers. weakness of limbs. Ananta. CHAR. thirst. fatigue. aphrodisiac. tonic to brain. useful in "Kapha. Root—bitter . Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. M. Fruit—sweet and tasty. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. orange within. hot. :—Bark is sweet. Tagar. Fr. pale beneath.5-15 X 2.—follicles. Fl. 7. E. lessens pains in limbs and joints . See—Ornamental Plants. tonic. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Assam. Trinidad . elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. margins wavy. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). tonic to brain. bronchitis. 1-3 ribbed. glossy green above. heating. Br. Yunnan to Australia. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Seeds are astringent to bowels. used in syphilis (Yunani). PARTS USED.— opposite. strangury.5-5 cm. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. Maddarasa gida . astringent to bowels. salver-shaped. astringent to bowels. improves voice. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. Khasia Hills. . heavy speech. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. Ashvathabheda. Chandani. liver and spleen . across. cures epilepsy. . :—Upper Gangetic Plain. t. fragrant at night. useful in paralysis. bitter. astringent to bowels. :—Root. G. Cultivated in many places. lobes 5 in single. Garhwal. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. indigestible. and an essential oil. :—Root is acrid. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. Tagar . removes bad humours. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. purgative. Burma. Tagara. Fl. double. with milky juice . alexipharmic. LOC. divaricate. :—Sikkim Terai. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. Root chewed relieves toothache . Kottuhale. indigestible. :—Bark. LOC." biliousness. :—Cultivated in gardens. Sk. emmenagogue. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. L. DISTR. The plant contains an alkaloid. used in asthma. acrid.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.

throughout the Konkan and N. Fl. Kanara. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. LOC. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda).4-4. rough. acrid.5 cm. Travancore up to 7. LOC. Tintidika. :—E. See—Ornamental Plants. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Makhamal. PROPERTIES AND USES. coriaceous. divaricata. Sd. muscular pains. FAM. :—Same as T. LOC. NS. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. Maddarssa. high. 7. :—Native of Mexico. Tintrani.. NS. oil. Amlike.—white. Amli. Makhamali.000 m. somewhat boat-shaped.2-7. : K. Amli. Nagaskuda.—surrounded by red pulp. Imli. Chinch. H. Halmeti. kidney troubles. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . astringent. Amala. carminative. 2. :—Leaves and flowers. stomachic. internally they are said to purify blood. COM. Amla. L. :—Root. Leaves—good for piles. M. Fl.. . PARTS USED. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. M. HABITAT. their juice is given in ear-ache. oblong lanceolate . yellow when ripe.—Compositæ. H.5 cm. Chinchika. :—Flower-pungent.. HABITAT. bitter.— Mar-Apl. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . :—E.. CHAR. Sk.— tube inflated near the top. Fr. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. French Marigold. Nagakuda. HABITAT.5-20 X 3. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. Kalaga.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. PARTS USED. wood. DISTR. :—Cultivated. useful in scabies. K. Makhamala. Teter.5 m. COM.—opposite. Genda. :—Rain-forests. belching. Flower—bitter. G. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. NS. M. Sthulapushpa. PROPERTIES AND USES. Zendu. lessens inflammation . across in pedunculate cymes . Nuli.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—Apocynaceæ. FAM. Chinch.—follicle. t. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. good for teeth . Pandarakuda. DISTR. Tamarind. grown in gardens all over India. bark grey. Sandu. common in rain-forests. Guljharo. COM. Amlika. Gultora. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. C. G. :—Malabar. FAM. Sk. Zanduga.

PARTS USED. PARTS USED :—Root. Circars. sore-throat. LOC. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. flowers. Teka. heals ulcers. sweetish. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves. H. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. causes cough. tumours. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Seeds are good astringent. eye-diseases. abundant all along the slopes of W. astringent to bowels. tonic.. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Bark—astringent. Madhya Bharat. Tegu. K. aphrodisiac. boiled they are used as a poultice. Fruit—sour. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Sagwan. Sk. Arna. Condiments and Spices. Malay Peninsula.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Sumatra and Java. intoxication &c. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Sagach. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. vomiting. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. FAM. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. biliousness. COM. :—Throughout India. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Kanara. Teak. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. bark. tonic to heart. DISTR. and for sizing materials. Sagwan. carminative. urinary discharges. anthelmintic. NS. Anil. heals wounds and fractures. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Cultivated also. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. small-pox. Burma. earache. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. thirst. Fruit-sour.. costiveness. DISTR. useful in giddiness and vertigo. useful in liver-complaints. LOC. stomatitis. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. scabies. wood. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Tropics generally. Tega. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. indigestible. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Flowers— appetising . Sag. such as body-burning. Sag. Seeds astringent. :—Bark. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. M. heating.—Verbenaceæ. Mahapatra. digestive. laxative. flowers and seeds. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. . G. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Kanara. fruit and seeds. and laxative. laxative. See—Timbers. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. tasty. Sagun. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. :—E.

cures diarrhœa . Sharapunkha. Leaves—tonic to intestines . slightly curved. NS. Fl. See—Timbers. biliousness.—5-6 . M. C.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. Empali. alterative. increase "Vata".—pod 3—4. .—petals clawed. Unhali. long. ground and made into a pill. gonorrhœa (Yunani). mucronate. inflammations. cultivated lands and roadsides. glabrous above. high.2 cm. allays thirst. L. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. leprosy.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Konkan. useful in piles.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. laxative. LOC. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). It appears to act as tonic and laxative. useful in bronchitis. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. Udhadi. Sarphoka. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. PARTS USED. CHAR. silkyhairy beneath. 30—60 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES. enriches Blood .—Oct. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled .MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. K. Wood good for head ache. Flowers—acrid. useful in bronchitis. ulcers. Sarphonka.8—1. COM. Deccan. Country. Wood—acrid. spleen. tumours. along forest borders. LOC. S. :-G. antipyretic. red. :—Plant-digestible. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. poisoning. sedative to gravid uterus. cooling. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). branches spreading. LOC. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. long. anthelmintic. Fr. DISTR. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. dry. M. t. mucronate. cures diseases of liver.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. Jhila. Plihari.. suborbicular. urinary discharges. anthelmintic. expectorant. oblanceolate. Phanike. Fl. asthma. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. alexiteric. root. good in piles. heart.-June. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. :—The whole plant. Gujarat.5 cm. Sd. Kalika. boils and pimples. bitter.. allays thirst. useful in lung and chest diseases. burning pain over the region of liver. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. it acts also as a vermifuge. :—All over India. Sarpankho. Ghodakan. standard. 2—2. syphilis. improve appetite. Malay Peninsula. leaflets 11—21.8 X 0. HABITAT:—Open situations. pubescent on the back. blood. linear. Sharapunkha. :—A perennial herb. biliousness. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . Sk. "Root—diuretic. FAM. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. liver. Bark is an astringent. asthma. leaves and seeds. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). spleen diseases. H. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. fresh root-bark. useful in scabies. Kogge.

Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. ulcers. Vibhata. blood-diseases. Rajastan and Sind.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. sore-throat. styptic. acrid. strangury. Madhya-Bharat. inflammation. :—Bark. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. Arjuna. urinary discharges. DISTR. M. Kalidrum. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). leucoderma. " Kapha". :—Throughout the greater parts of India. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. Behada. White Marudah. with milk. excessive perspiration.. very common in South Konkan. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. COM. Karvirak. LOC. asthma. G. Belleric Myrobalan. useful in bronchitis. Voting. Sadura. heart disease. Kahu. PARTS USED. biliousness. useful in biliousness. Hela.—Combretaceæ. biliousness. Shantimara. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Madras State. Fruit-pungent. diuretic. Behedo. Expectorant. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. strangury. Ceylon. & A. Karshaphala. Kushika. Sk. Bera. Sagona. Kakubha. Indradruma. Tari. Buhura. tonic. anthelmintic . both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). in Khandesh Akrani. anthelmintic.. fruit and seed. :—E. Bastard Myrobalan.. Bedda Nut. :—Bark. K. Arjun-Sadada. DISTR. K. tumours. Koha. Baire. . digestible. leaves. Bahara. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. FAM. FAM. Burma. intoxication. PROPERTIES AND USES. Arjun Sadada. tonic. in the sub-Himalayan tract. PARTS USED. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. Vibhitika. Bark is astringent and febrifuge.—Combretaceæ. Arjuna. aphrodisiac. externally in wounds and fractures. H. laxative. NS. :—Alexiteric. fruit (rarely). :—Throughout the forests of India. anæmia. COM. Bahaza. Tara. Bibhitiki. G. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. :—Konkan and Deccan. Chota-Nagpur. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. false presentation of fœtus. LOC. Dhanvi. Sk. H. useful in fractures. LOC. See—Timbers. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Arjan. Arjuna. NS. Beheduk. Sadado. M. Madhya-Pradesh. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Aksha. except in dry arid regions.

expectorant. vesicular calculi. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). sore-throat. LOC. mixed with honey. useful in caries of teeth. See—Timbers. Hirdo . Seed—acrid. used in paralysis (Yunani). USES. typhoid fever. PROPERTIES AND USES. Black myrobalan. stomachic. Harara. carminative. ascites. FAM. eyes. Haria. piles and diarrhœa. LOC. delirium (Ayurveda). H. elephantiasis. Harade. anaemia. enriches blood. G. inflammations. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". itching pain. antipyretic. hoarseness. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. alterative . thirst. bilious headache. constipation. tonic. tonic. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. intoxicating. useful in asthma. anthelmintic. Alate. good in ophthalmia. diseases of eye. Chebulic myrobalan. diseases of spleen. Dyes. heart and bladder. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. attenuant. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. Kernel has narcotic properties. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. corneal ulcers. Gums and Resins. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. useful in thirst.—Combretaceæ. urinary discharges. bleeding piles. Har. carminative. Sk. K. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. in Travancore. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. leucoderma. COM. nose. DISTR. useful in dyspepsia. gums. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. :—Bark and fruit. biliousness. Abhaya. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. Haritaki. PARTS USED. Jivanti. strengthens brain. which is considered a good digestive. tumours.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. M. Jivantika. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. hiccup. NS. common in Khandesh Akrani. vomiting. heating. strangury. :—Fruit-dry. bleeding and ulceration of gums. piles. —E. vomiting. heart and bladder. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. tonic. eye diseases etc. gout. is used as an application in ophthalmia. applied to eyes. the fully ripe or dried fruit. Ceylon. diseases of eye. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. aperient. dyspepsia. Hirda. Haritaki. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. Ripe fruit—purgative. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. Fruit-astringent. cold in head. Burma. antidysenteric. brain tonic (Yunani). Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. piles. diarrhœa. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. LOC. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. Kanara.

flowers and fruit. COM. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Bhindi. Portia Tree. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. also planted as roadside tree. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Gajadanta. leaves. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. Phalisha. Arasi. Parisha. increases " Kapha " . Kanara. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. See—Timbers. Fibres. Parasipu. LOC. produces worms in intestines . Kuberaksha. Paraspiplo. Kandarala. Gandarati. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. H. especially centipedes. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". It is also used in chronic dysentery. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Burma. :—Bark. Bhandi. difficult to digest. :—Coast forests of India. LOC. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. K. Tans. burning of body . Bugari. Jogiyarale. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Bhend. PROPERTIES AND USES. Hucerasi. Ranbhendi.. Sk. :—E.—Malvaceæ. DISTR. PARTS USED. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. acrid . Paraspipal. G. Mhaskar and Issac). The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. :—Fruit-sour. . Suparshuakan. profuse discharge. FAM. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. See—Timbers. Tulip Tree. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. NS. aphrodisiac . Dyes. Bengal. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Sacred Plants. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Paras-piper.

bark corky. yellow. Amritvalli. See—Ornamental Plants. Vatsadani. M. Gulancha. Ashvaghna. eye-troubles. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. PARTS USED. it has no action on digestive enzymes . frequently planted. ventrally flat. 7—9 nerved. very poisonous (Ayurveda). long. virgin uterus. K. FAM. Amarvel. :—Bark. :—E. elliptic. L. pungent. FAM.. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. Haripriya. tubular. Pittaghni. :—Stem.. acrid. astringent to bowels. Shatakumbha. Gulvel.—broadly obovate.—drupes. NS. :—Often planted.—generally 4. exocarp fleshy. DISTR. Fr. :—Native of S. Andamans and Ceylon. endocarp corky.5 cm. NS. throat campanulate. useful in urethral discharges. grooved . bronchitis . corona in the throat. G. crowded . .—Menispermaceæ. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Pila kanir. Amrita-Valli. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. across. H. Heart-leaved moonseed.—Apl. often planted in India.—Apocynaceæ. piles. :—An extensive climber. PARTS USED. Pila kaner. Zard kunel. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. cures " Vata " . lobes 5. :—E. DISTR. Exile or yellow Oleander. root. CHAR. CHAR. LOC. Gulhel. Sk. bright green and shining above. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub.—membranous. COM. size of a pea . mesocarp bony. America and W. bladder. red. G. and blood vessels .-spirally arranged. LOC. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). C. Indies .—in terminal cymes. Uganiballi. but its use is attended with considerable danger. Fl. linear. seeds and milky juice. hot. Burma. 5 cm. growing on mango and other trees. 7. :—Throughout tropical India. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter.—in axillary and terminal racemes. Karvira. Gado. male fascicled. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. Fr. skin diseases. 5—10 cm. M. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. females solitary. worms. Fl. wounds.. Gurch. yellow. Fl. Gulo. dorsally convex. Sk. LOC. COM. HABIT :—In thickets. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . Gulvel. HABITAT. Jwaranashini. Pivali kanher. H. t. fevers. with milky juice. leucoderma. 1—3. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.5—12.

Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. also in the Deccan hills. LOC. Philippines. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. diuretic. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. Sk. good in cough. Gangalaki. PROPERTIES AND LOC. vomiting. Kadu-menasu. coriaceous. size of a large pea. :—Stem-bitter. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. female flower buds oblong. Root-bark is aromatic. high. leaflets sessile. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. armed with small hooked prickles . Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). orange coloured. crenulate. Manger. DISTR. especially acid. juice useful in diabetes. enriches blood. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. Khasia Hills. M. Root and stem are bitter. China.—globose. Jangali-Mirchi. 5-10 X 1. stomachic.-Jany. renews blood. Fl. fruits. PARTS USED. Limri. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. oblong. . cures jaundice.— alternate. Kumaon to Bhutan. Forest Pepper. Sumatra.—Rutaceæ. chronic fever. Stem-bitter. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. bark. Ceylon. (Kirtikar). antipyretic.—Aug. anæmia. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. HABITAT. COM. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. stimulant and anti-periodic. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. unisexual. Kaduhakukare. dark shining green above.8. L. causes constipation. expectorant. pitted on the rind. 3-5 grooved.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. tonic appetiser. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases.—in axillary cymes. fever. vomiting. LOC. diarrhœa. Macimullu. t. K. :—All over the Madras State . Java. male flower bud globose. Konkan and Kanara.—Dehan. Fl. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. jaundice. piles. burning sensation. common in S. 5-7 lobed. white. useful in skin diseases. :—Rain-forests. giddiness. Dahan. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. Mirchi. ovary rudimentary. tropical Africa. digitately trifoliate. vaginal and urethral discharges. Lopezroot Tree. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. FT. :—E. 15 m. NS. CHAR. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever.8-3. allays thirst. :—Root. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. H. FAM.. stimulates bile secretion. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). leaves. tonic. USES. stomachic . stigma sessile.

Lud. :—Fruit. Toon. Kalingi. :—E. DISTR.) FAM. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. HABIT. LOC. biliousness. See—Timbers. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Shringa-kanda-taka. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Waitz). PARTS USED. Water-chestnut. Nand-vriksha. Deodari. Mahalimbu. urinary discharges. Tun. inflammation. fatigue. :—Bark and flowers. Malaya. Apina. Ceylon. digestible. removes " Kapha ". expectorant. Mandurike. cardio-tonic. Kuruk. astringent to bowels. Shingada. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. of India). Sk. Garige. PARTS USED. burning sensation. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. NS. astringent to bowels. Gums and Resins.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. cooling. often cultivated.. LOC. Lim. antipyretic . very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. blood diseases. Bark—bitter. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. useful in ulcers. H. Kuberaka. tropical Africa. aphrodisiac. indigestible. biliousness. LOC. M. Dyes. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). Trikone-phala. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Tunika. Gandhagarige. fattening. Tundu. Trikota. burning sensation. :—Throughout India. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. :—Aquatic (in tanks). cures leprosy.—Meliaceæ. aphrodisiac. causes " Vata " . and blood complaints (Ayurveda). "Tridosha". aphrodisiac. FAM. headache. Sk. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures fevers. anthelmintic. M. tonic. Kaechaka. strangury. leprosy. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. :—Bark-acrid. NS. Tuni. COM. Burma. Chota-Nagpur. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue.—Onagraceæ. Kanara. H. Shingoda. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Sandal Neem. Jalakantaka-valli. itching. Indian Mahogany. Chittagong. :—E. DISTR. astringent to bowels. useful in . in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. :—Cooling . Singodi. G. Singhara. good for scabies and gleet. removes " Tridosha". Assam.

each with 2 pairs of hard. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Ceylon. young parts silky. Calthrope. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn.—several in each coccus . Kere Padye. NS. used as food. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . antipyretic. Country. Gokshura.—globose. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. The plant contains an alkaloid. Negalu . Gamhar. Gokharu. improves taste . along nalas and in swampy localities. Sumatra. Gokhura. Sd. Tumri. appetiser.. bronchitis. Malay Peninsula. COM. Gokhru. Aphrodisiac. abruptly pinnate. They are also used in the form of poultice. considered cool and sweet. Karahate. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. M. oblong. Sk. :—A procumbent herb. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. alexiteric. leaflets 3—6 pairs . bad-teeth (Yunani). biliousness. NS. bile and phlegm. one pair longer than the other . Beta-Nahan Gokhru.—opposite. L. upto 3300 m. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Deccan and S. one of each pair smaller than the other. DISTR. base oblique. a common weed of the drier parts. Ceylon. . Gokshri. :—H. K. lumbago. thirst. PARTS USED. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). in Kashmir. sore-throat. useful in chronic fevers. Pindara. :—Plant is cooling tonic. G. LOC. t. K. :—E. Shadanga. Kanara. Sk. yellow. LOC. of 5 woody cocci. COM. See—Food Plants. Assam. See—Timbers. Trikantaka.—Euphorbiaceæ. FAM.—throughout the year. Hussuk. pain.. Sarata.:—Saurashtra. Fl. sharp spines. hairy. Petari . Seeds abound in starch. DISTR. all warm regions of both the hemispheres.. LOC. Kantaphala. Java. H. Gujarat. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. CHAR. :—The whole plant. Gokhru. stems and branches pilose. M. Fr. M.—Zygophyllaceæ. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. Fibres. LOC. Chhota gokhru. Kurangaha. Pindara. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). mucronate. solitary. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. :—Throughout India. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa.

Brahmadandi. vesicular calculi. Mt. gleet. yellowish brown. Konkan. Brahmadandi. linear-oblong or lanceolate. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. gonorrhœa. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. LOC.—sessile. diuretic. bitter. Kanara. : — G. Physiaran.—heads 6—8 mm. —achene. PROPERTIES AND USES. enriches blood . "Vata". used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). alleviating burning sensation. Brahma-dandi. L. Central India. :—Hot. S. useful in strangury. Diuretic. Sk. aphrodisiac. fattening. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. Brahmadandi. diuretic. USES :—Fruits are cooling. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . slender. COM. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. Talakanto. leaves. pappus shorter than the achenes. :—The whole plant. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. cough. tonic. Mota-Motachor. appetiser. Fl. stem erect. West Rajastan. reduces inflammation . t.—Compositæ. . :—Root. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . DISTR. emmenagogue (Yunani). :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. pain . alterative . leprosy . branches angled and ribbed. fruits. Fl. faintly ribbed. ciliate. seeds. ovoid.— purple. urinary discharges. :—Cooling . tonic . cures skin and heart diseases. tonic. :—A glabrous herb. urinary disorders and impotence. spinous toothed or serrate. CHAR. inflammations. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. purifies blood . bloody urine. the Deccan. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. H. Fr. M. long. Kantapatraphala. stomachic. increases menstrual flow. M. Country. suppression of urine. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). pruritus ani. FAM. copious. :—Western Peninsula. asthma. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. reduces inflammation. S. :—Wild in places. which is taken in large quantities. oblong. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). cures "Kapha". LOC. Kanara. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. piles. lumbago .MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. S. cures strangury. Aja-dandi. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). PROPERTIES AND USES. improves appetite . PARTS USED. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. Brahmadandi. removes " Tridosha ".— Dec. NS. Abu. LOC. C. HABITAT. K.

headache and boils. pungent. H. K. Perula. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Ratan-indrayan. :—E.-6. Indrayan.-5-12.6—4. Sk. K. In Bombay. HABITAT:-In hedges. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. axillary. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. Jangali chichonda. Jyotsna.5—7. :—Root. tendrils 3 cleft. alexiteric. eye diseases. Root-juice is very purgative. leprosy. leaves. ovoid-fusiform. anasarca and ascites. orbicular. blood diseases. long. Mahakala. Wild Snake-gourd.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn.—2. paler beneath. t. :—Throughout India. Sk. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. deeply 5-lobed. palmately 3-5 lobed. furrowed. useful for boils and intestinal worms. long as well as broad. Avagude-hannu. Malay Peninsula. slender. white. with a long sharp beak. N. COM. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic..3-12. FAM . erysipelas. Kadvi-padyal or patola .—Cucurbitaceæ. leucoderma. long. leaf-juice is emetic. PARTS USED. scarlet when ripe. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . green with white stripes when raw. oil. variable. L. Ceylon. Kaundal. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. male in axillary racemes. Fl.—monœcious. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. Lal-indrayan. allays thirst. cures bronchitis. Fl. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Leaves—good for biliousness. fruit.5 cm. —G. antipyretic. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. CHAR. reniform or broadly ovate.. stem robust. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). :—Root-cathartic .—July-Oct. COM.-male in axillary . base cordate . LOC.5 m. ulcers. the Deccan.5 cm. FAM. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). PROPERTIES AND USES. stems 3. Jangli— Kadu padval. Katuka. G. dentate or serrate.. alterative. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. Kiripodla. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Fl. Mukal. distantly denticulate. — surrounded with red-pulp . base deeply cordate. Sd. females solitary. laxative. long. Patola. cures itching. L. NS. LOC. M. Fruit—hot. DISTR. it is given in decoction with ginger.3 cm. burning sensation. stomachic. slightly hairy. chireta and honey. antipyretic. asthma. Betlada padaval. woody below. tendrils 3-fid. dark-green above. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—A scandent annual. Malaya. Australia. Panduka. Makal. lobes ovate-oblong. bitter. NS. Fr. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic.—Cucurbitaceæ. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. M. H. CHAR.

densely silky hairy. high. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). M. t. :—A perennial straggling herb. ovate-elliptic. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm.— Apl. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts.—petals wedge-shaped. Japan. white.—many . Fr. Malaya. HABITAT. FAM.. LOC. PARTS USED. Sd. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. female solitary. DISTR. CHAR. outer involucral bracts ovate. fringed. lessens inflammations . :—Abundant in the Deccan. on the Himalayas. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. many years ago.. heat of brain. black. limbweakness.—throughout the year.75-1 in. Ceylon. diam. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. purgative. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. DISTR. Ekdandi. slender. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. gargle good for toothache. bracts large. 30-60 cm. L.75 X . TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. acute. PROPERTIES AND USES. rheumatism. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic.. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. :—Throughout India. PARTS USED. Deccan and S. NS. Ray flowers ligulate. sparsely white hairy. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. very hairy. boiled with gingelly oil. LOC. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES. 3-partite. bruises and wounds. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). C. :—Wild in hilly parts. leprosy. Fruit—carminative. COM. abortifacient. Fr. cures hemicrania. all over the State. Australia. axillary. :—Root and fruit. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. t. China. Country.—globose 3-8.—Compositæ. stem and branches hairy. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. ophthalmia. glandular. hairy.—head solitary. middle lobe smallest. ligules yellow.— achene. :—Leaves. which is found abundantly all over the country. :—M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. LOC. . Fl. used in epilepsy. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places.—1. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. peduncles very long. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens.-July. N.5 cm. :— Wild in Konkan. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. Fl. petioles densely hairy.. Kirkee. Juice of fruit or root-bark. inner slightly longer than outer.

dropsy. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk.—Aug. :—Hot. Antamul. much used in colic. base cordate. M. See—Vegetables. narrowed at the apex to a free point. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline.-Nov. Muthi. H. Methi. Fl. enlargement of spleen and liver. S. . TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli.5—10 cm. removes bad taste from mouth. Pitabija Vedhini.—deeply lobed. also in low and sandy localities. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. FAM. tonic and carminative. "Vata". C. flatulence. long.— broadly ovate. PROPERTIES AND USES.—opposite. M. Country. Nepala . astringent to bowels. chronic cough. vomiting. :—Leaves and seeds. emmenagogue. LOC. useful in dropsy.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—Cultivated. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.7 cm. FAM. roots many. diuretic. tonic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). anthelmintic. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda).. Menthe—palle. 7. NS. aperient. and the seeds contain vitamin A. :—E. Janglipikvan. fleshy. HABITAT. :—South of Bombay. corona gibbous below. antipyretic.—in umbellate cymes .5-5. K. G. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. bronchitis. Fenugreek . appetiser. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. diarrhœa. K. ovate or elliptic oblong. DISTR. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). Chandrika. suppurative. M. COM. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. Kashmir. L. CHAR. Sk. Methi . FN.. tapering to a fine point at the apex. :—Punjab. Methi. long. purplish within. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. cultivated in many parts of India. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. Kanara. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. Sd. Methi. greenish-yellow outside. Hot and dry. COM. with coma . USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. Jyoti. NS. piles. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. dysentery. LOC. cures leprosy. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. enlargement of spleen and liver. Methini. Fl. :—H. LOC. :—A twining perennial. large for the genus.—follicles. t. Konkan. 5-10 x 2. Pitakari (Pitamari). INDIAN PREPARATIONS. they are also aphrodisiac.

Malay Islands.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. Fl. :—Throughout India. joints 3-6. USES. Dabra.. COM. tapering to both ends . found useful in dysentery. 0.. :—Western Himalayas. NS. black. light-brown . W. Indian Squill. :—Sandy places. Ranganja .. polished. Sd. CHAR. Fl. 15-45 x 1. .—in racemes 15-30 cm. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). ellipsoid. Vanapalandu. Fr. stalks long. H.—Aug. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery.— flattened. H. linear-oblong.—capsule. diaphoretic and expectorant. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion).. Fl.— imparipinnate. 10-20 cm. :—Wild. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed.. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. tropical Africa. linear. drooping. Ceylon. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Dried leaves are emetic. NS.— pod. t. hairy beneath.3-2.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. :—G. L. Rankanda. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Jaglipiaz. :—Common on sandy shores. Pitvan. PARTS USED. Pithavan.. Bihar. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Panjala. Philippines. Peninsula.— Liliaceæ. LOC. flat. M. tropical Africa.—appearing after the flowers. :—E. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. FAM. perianth campanulate.—purple. C. :—Throughout the plains of India. folded on one another. USES. 5-7 (rarely 9). long. stems downy with hooked hairs. Sk. Pitavan . PROPERTIES AND LOC. Chitra—Prishthi-parni.8 m. LOC. 20-30 cm. FAM. Malay Islands. COM. long.— petals lanceolate. L. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Shankaraja . high. DISTR. HABITAT. URARIA PICTA Desv. :—A perennial shrub. Prishna-parni. KolaPutakand.-Sept. long. :—Bulb.9-1. blotched with white above. DISTR. Burma. CHAR. glabrous. Sk. :—Konkan. Ceylon.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Thailand (Siam). Jangli-Ran-khanda. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. M. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. C. Borneo. :—A herb. G. Chota-Nagpur. HABITAT. PARTS USED.5 cm. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. :—Roots and leaves. Fr. scape erect 30-45 cm. pale lead-colored. white.

indica is in no way inferior to the official U. The plant contains an alkaloid. praemorse. LOC. L. and U. t. Gaz. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. LOC. lip bluish dotted with purple. tonic to brain and liver.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. The bulb is stomachic. skin diseases.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. emmenagogue. A. cardiac. inflammations. obtusely keeled. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. :—Bengal. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). Vanda. toothache. Persara. scandent by simple or branching roots . Rasno. S. Gujarat and Kanara. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . anthelmintic. tip. alexiteric. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. 15-20 X 1.. Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES. pollinia ellipsoid. :—Root is bitter. heating. LOC. hiccup. Sarpagandha. K. Travancore. maritima of U. long. Fr. Vriksharuha. diseases of the abdomen. rheumatism. anthelmintic. CHAR. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. Rasna. . :—G. bronchitis. stout. and an acute interposed one. lumbago. and was found useful (Koman). diuretic. Bandanike. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. laxative. diseases of nose.. Madhya-Pradesh. scilla of Great Britain. antipyretic. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. internal pains (Yunani). middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. M. complicate.3-2 cm. recurved. long. boils in the scalp. renal calculi. tremors (Ayurveda). acute. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. COM. stem 30-60 cm. long. NS. :—The bulb is pungent. 1931. 2-lobed. Ceylon.5—9 cm.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. alexiteric. good for piles.—capsule. Sk. :—Epiphyte. Bihar. bronchitis. :—Root and leaves. :—An epiphyte. erect. heals fractures (Yunani). purgative. rheumatic pains. Nakula. Chota-Nagpur.. HABIT. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. heating. DISTR. H. Root is bitter. asthma. Fl. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. Rasna. bronchitis. Br. (In Med. FAM. useful in dyspepsia. Banda. column very short. USES :—Expectorant. W.— July.—Orchidaceæ. stimulant and diuretic. lessens inflammations . Rasna. Fl. alexiteric. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. dropsy.—thickly coriaceous. :—Konkan. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. useful in paralysis. PARTS USED. Atiras.

USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. (T. entire or crenate. skin eruptions. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. Fl. alexipharmic. itch (Ayurveda). useful in leprosy. Sandras. Fl. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Oils. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. Mysore. resin. H.—Rhamnaceæ. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. acrid.-nut about 5 mm. CHAR. stomachic. cures cough. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. PARTS USED. Poppli. piles.—Dipterocarpaceæ. t. abundant in S. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. PARTS USED. bechic. detergent. Malamaitra.8 cm. tuberculous glands. globular. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). Shandike. Red Creeper. Kundura. Madidhupa. Bilidhupa. tonic and stimulant. H. anæmia. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Dhupa. buds 5-angled. Pitti. Khandvel. also in N. Kanara and S. also planted. :—Madras State. FAM. Raktavalli. greenish. Coorg in Ghats. :—A large much branched woody climber. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Gums and Resins. whitish). DISTR. M. deciduous and monsoon-forests. rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES.. Safed-damar. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. hemicrania. :—E. Lokhandi. carminative. Fr. Sk. Sk. urinary discharges.—petals 5. 1-nerved wing. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. debility and slight cases of fever. useful in atonic dyspepsia. Haruge. :—Western India. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. Ceylon. L. Shala. M. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. K. diam. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). NS. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Sarjaka. diarrhœa. Sekalyel. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings.. Kaharub. tonic.—in large drooping terminal panicles. yellowish. LOC. alexipharmic. Tenasserim. :—Bark. M. See—Timbers.—5-10 X 2. eardiseases. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. in chronic bronchitis. amenorrhœa. USES. Ragatarshado. fruit. COM. :—North Kanara. Kanara. C. :—Bark-hot. LOC. good for sore-throat. Dhupa. dysentery. ulcers and wounds. young branches and panicles pubescent. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul.—Dec. NS.5-3.-Jany.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn.. with an offensive odour. . Country. boils and ringworm. dark. COM. G. Kubbila. K. LOC. :—E. expectorant. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . DISTR. FAM. Travancore. :—Bark.

hairy. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. hairy.-May. "Vata" and "Kapha". :—G. branched near the top. yellow. China. Kalhara. Kadvojiri. :—E. :—An annual herb. lobes 5. Kalizhiri. hairy. hairy on both sides. Ceylon . COM. Vishamushti. Country.. Kutki. LOC. Kalijiri. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. DISTR. compound or pinnatisect. Fl. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). H. Java . t— Jany. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. Bhutakeshi. The juice of the whole plant.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. all coarsely dentate. often cultivated. Deccan . is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. robust. Somaraj. stems 60—90 cm. sub-globose. Ceylon. with purple tips . is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet.6-0. in equal proportions.Feb. rounded.5—3. Sundika. NS. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. erect. lanceolate. Seeds— anthelmintic.-achene oblong cylindric. CHAR. LOC. anthelmintic. Kulhala. used in skin-diseases. Purple Fleabane. about 40-flowered.—heads subcorymbose. involucre bracts linear. high. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. M.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O.—oblong. NS. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages.. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. G. Gadar-tambaku. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage.2 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES. leafy herb . stem 0. PARTS USED. high . pappus reddish. PROPERTIES AND USES. K.9 m. Kalejire. L. Somaraj. M.. Fr. ofter cultivated. rachis glandular pubescent. Fr.—alternate. Gujarat. Sk. H. LOC. Sd. Vanajiraka. :—Plant. . USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. Fl. :—Annual. :—Throughout India . cure ulcers. :—Konkan . Vapehi. Bakchi. FAM. lyrate. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Agnibija. t. COM.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. :—Seeds-acrid. warted. K. 5—9 x 2. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. and leaves.. CHAR. astringent to bowels.) FAM.—Scrophulariaceæ.-rotate. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India.—Compositæ. C. HABITAT:-Waste places. coarsely serrate. innermost the longest. Sk. Kulara. The juice mixed with mustard oil. M. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. PARTS USED. L. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S.—capsule. 10-ribbed. Fl. on long petioles. Fl. DISTR. Afghanistan. truncate. squeezed out by pounding.8 cm.—Dec.

flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). M.—simple. Mudivala. Kuruvelu. tonic.— pinkish violet. Sadori. FAM. Ushira. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. FAM. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. :—A common weed throughout the State. :—E. :—Plant. alternate. pappus white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. Khas. heads small. L. flowers.—Jan.—Gramineæ. stem stiff. DISTR. CHAR. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. are used in destroying pediculi. silky on the back. kidney troubles. plant is used in fever convulsions. :—E. Panni. They are also used as tonic. Sind. Sadodi. Vecrnam.—Compositæ. cold. Ash-coloured Fleabane . Powdered seeds mixed with salt. oblong. Koosa. erect herb. Fl. Osari.—achene. stomachic and diuretic. seeds. The expressed juice is given in piles. :—Annual. Devika. H. Sk. bruised seeds ground up in paste. PARTS USED. tropical Asia. Dandotpala. Sedardi. clothed with white hairs . HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. applied in inflammatory swellings . about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. stomachic. made into a bolus with lime-juice. striate. K. Vala. used for asthma. M. Valo . 15—75 cm. In Ceylon. t. a depilatory (Yunani). Sk. Fl. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. NS. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). NS. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. asthma.-Feb. H. . COM. with lime-juice. hiccup . K. G. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. Fr. Sahadevi. consumption. cures "Tridosha". pubescent. Bala. LOC. remove blood from liver.. Australia. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. astringent. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. LOC. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Bena. COM. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). :—Throughout India. Africa . USES :—Root is given for dropsy. bronchitis . VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. good for sores and itching of eyes. Ardhaprasadana. G. Sahadevi. LOC. high. Lavancha. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. The plant with quinine. Sahadevi. Cuscus grass. awned. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate.

Afghanistan.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. Sind. strangury. bitter. tonic and vermifuge.—Verbenaceæ. Nigod. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. sweats. Lakki. long. inflammations and irritability of stomach. The roots contain an essential oil. :—Cooling. Culms stout. useful in burning sensation. up to over 1. astringent. lower ones keeled and fan-like. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . soporific. alexiteric. head-ache. expectorant and diuretic. spleen enlargement. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. bitter. DISTR. Cooling to brain. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. PARTS USED. Konkan and Deccan. LOC. leucoderma. Nirgundi. :—Throughout the State. rachis stout. USES :—Root is tonic. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). leaves. bronchitis. inflammations. slender. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. NS. FAM. Sk. erect. Bilenekki. Sinduvara. stomachic. pale green. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. bitter. Nirgundi. The otto is used as a tonic.-leaf sheaths compressed. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Sambhalu. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). long. bilious fevers.. margin spinously rough. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. West-Indies and Brazil. thirst. useful in spermatorrhoea. febrifuge. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . Sessile spikelets. Philippine Islands. heating. Nirgari. Nukki. stomachic.8 m. COM. throughout the Malayan regions. LOC. L. also cultivated. Leaves are aromatic. foul breath. Nirgundi. M. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Kanara in damp places. :—Roots. DISTR. :—G. consumption. promotes hair-growth. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. stimulant and tonic. diuretic. asthma. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . colour varying from yellowish to black. LOC. astringent. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. blood diseases (Yunani). HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. useful in eye diseases. Nirgud. usually sheathed all along. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES. refrigerant. PARTS USED. Nilpushpi. biliousness. H. Ceylon. Fl. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. Indrani.. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. cephalic.—panicle up to 30 cm. :—Throughout India. K. racemes up to 5 cm. high. :—Root.

stops bleeding from mouth. produces constipation. PROPERTIES AND USES. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Stem. flowers. Ahmednagar. K. cures thirst. Fruit is nervine. cooling useful in thirst. asthma. . Madhurasa. piles. See—Timbers. Country. good for eyes and throat. Yakshmaghni. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). M. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Draksha. stones in bladder. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. syphilis. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Draksha. fattening. diuretic. allays vomiting. cough. M. liver and kidney. astringent to bowels. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. :—A native of western Asia. jaundice. aperient. causes gases in the stomach. burning. fruits. COM. LOC. fattening . HABITAT. Draksha. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". laxative. skin should not be eaten. Drakh . Angur. LOC. :—Cultivated. difficult to digest. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. The fruits contain vitamin A. testicle swellings and piles. W. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. Sap of young branches. heat of body. NS. tonic to liver. :—Deccan. laxative. fever. sweet. emmenagogue. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. :—E. hoarseness and consumption. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. strangury. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. and given in coughs. Sk. produces alopecia. Grape-vine. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. Flowers—expectorant. fever. a remedy for skin diseases. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. allays vomiting. appetiser. Khandesh. cooling. G. purifies and enriches blood . H. applied in scabies. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. India. Fruit— digestive. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. good for lungs. Darakh. useful in old fevers. expectorant. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. The plant contains an alkaloid. Gujarat and S. spleen inflammation. emmenagogue. cooling . "Kapha" (Ayurveda). stomachic. bad effects of drinking.. diarrhœa. good in chronic bronchitis . Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. catarrh and jaundice. Angura. and traces of vitamins B and C. Draksha. diuretic . sparingly in Poona. Guchaphala. seeds. :—Fruit-acrid. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. leaves. FAM-—Vitaceæ. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. blood diseases. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent.

Winter-cherry. linear oblong. heating.5-5 cm. Drakshasava—used as tonic. 6 mm.—berry. useful in "Vata". diam.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. Punir. Sd. Kanara. CHAR. 23-30 cm. dark-green. pinnae 4-6 pairs. M. HABITAT.-Feb. NS.-Jany. 7. L. branches armed with recurved prickles . . high. smooth. Hooliganji. t. Balada. chest troubles etc. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. :—A branched erect undershrub. :—Deccan. NS. calyx-tube. entire. lumbago. seeds. constricted between them. ovate. spathulate. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. acrid. red. oblong. asthma. tonic. FAM. M. somewhat scurfy. insomnia. Vajini.. 0. anthritis. Deccan. Ashvagandha. G. FAM. hoary tomentose . inflammations. :—A robust woody climber. Hirimaddina-gadde. Wakeri.3-1. COM. leaves. slightly 5-angled. H. favours constipation (Yunani). "Kapha". aphrodisiac. See—Fruit Trees. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). coriaceous. emmenagogue .—5-10 X 2. C. main rachis armed with prickles. inserted on the top of. :—Konkan jungles. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. Canaries.5 cm. Sk. Cape of Good Hope. Gandhpatri.. green berries. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz.. Asoda. branches terete. Sd. Kanchuki. LOC. Fl. abundant in Sind . Wagati. long. hard. dark-orange. Gujarat. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. pretty common in the ghats.— Sept. Fr. Amangura. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . long. L. USES. Asan. leucoderma. scabies. :—Root and bark. good in asthma. PARTS USED. Wagati. :—Drier regions. tonic.) DISTR. oblong. alexipharmic. Fr. CHAR. COM.—Solanaceæ. ulcers. marasmus of children. Fl. K. Asgundh. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. long. armed with prickles . usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . :—E.—pod. obovate. enclosed in inflated calyx.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). bronchitis. leaflets 5-7 pairs. Sogada-beru.5 m.—greenish or lurid yellow. :—In the drier regions of India . minutely hairy. Tuber—bitter. Mediterranean regions. Ceylon. Kamrupini. bony Fl. anthelmintic.—yellow. aphrosidiac. consumption. bronchitis.—petals 5. swollen above the seeds. :—Tubers-bitter. base dentate. t.—2-pinnate. alterative. inflammations. psoriasis. rachis grooved with soft hairs. Asgund. :—K. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. DISTR.—3-4. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula.5-12. (not common. Ghodasoda. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. senile debility.

:—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. wedge-shaped. ovate-lanceolate. Indrajav. :—G. branches long. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . ulcers and painful swellings . Kodamurki. erysipelas. long. Sk. LOC. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. useful in leucorrhoea. Madagascar. :—Bark and flowers. Indrajav. The plant contains an alkaloid. cooling. Hallunova. brown. used in thirst. Dhawai. anthelmintic . . H. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. :—Throughout India. debility from old age. Dhavani. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. scarlet. See—Tans. :—Pungent. acrid. Kuda. :—Monsoon-forests. dysentery. Br. simple. Kalakuda. Bela. Madhuindrayava. Madhavasini. Java. M. Dhaw.3-2. 1 cm.—capsule. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Sumatra. K. Dec. Fl. Ceylon. Japan. haemorrhoids. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. Dhateki. It is narcotic. Vanhishikha. LOC. USES. PARTS USED.—Lythraceæ. Indrajav. COM.-May. Are. Sd. Phulsatti. alexiteric. :—Root is regarded as tonic. NS. leprosy. COM. Dyes.—mostly opposite. NS.5 cm. Sk. common in the Konkan and N. alterative. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane.) FAM. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Tamrapushpi. and in derangement of liver . H. tropical Africa. L. Dhawadina. Swetakutaj. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. nigro-punctate beneath.— numerous. Hayamaraka. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. t. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Dhavani. Kanara near the sea-coast. velvety above. DISTR.. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Fl. smooth. rheumatism. irregularly dehiscent. Santha. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. toxic. diuretic and deobstruent. 5-9X 1. Dhaiti. Kalikari. emaciation of children. lumbar pains. Ornamental Plants. :—G.—numerous. leaf-infusion is given in fever. Baluchistan. Dudhi. uterine sedative. Fr. on trap in the Akrani.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. blood diseases. FAM. China. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara).—Apocynaceæ. K. Hale. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). HABITAT. Khirni.

tonic. NS. 3-lobed. LOC. Fl. Bur-Weed. West-Peninsula.—many. in W. Kambu-Vanamalini. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . LOC. USES :—Root is bitter. :—The whole plant. :—Annual herb . the bark is specially useful in piles. ovoid in fruit. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. In S. M. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. t.achene..—Jany. :—Rajastan. FAM. CHAR. long. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. rough with short hairs . :—Cooling. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). Fr. Sk. COM. :— Throughout India. Banokra.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. fever. Gadrian. L. stout. Dutundi. poisonous bites of insects. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dumundi. biliousness. salivation. epilepsy. LOC. digestive. improves appetite. PARTS USED. 5-7. cures leucoderma. 1-3 cm. H. barren heads many. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica.. with 2 erect beaks. . tonic. Clot-Cockle-bur. fertile heads few. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Fl. involucre of fertile head. all over the State. fattening. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. Aristha.1-6. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). at the top. axillary. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. anthelmintic.-E. hard and tough. alexiteric. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. Sankeshwar. DISTR. Khandesh at 1050 m. compressed . voice. See—Timbers. antipyretic. antidysenterica (Yunani). USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. laxative. stem short. memory. PARTS USED. especially root and fruit. Madhya Pradesh. LOC. Ceylon.Feb.. PROPERTIES AND USES. Itara. Shankhahuli. complexion.5 cm. Sarpakshi. DISTR.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. G. irregularly incisoserrate . hairy on both sides. :—Bark and seeds. Timor. oblong ovoid. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular .—Compositæ. long and broad.

PARTS USED. :—Rhizome. and dry situations. Alen. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). LOC. stomachic. G. NS. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Ipanji. Hasisunthi. Alla Adrak. tongue and increases appetite. pains. asthma. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. M. Gulmmula. Sk. anthelmintic. LOC. Ada. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. rheumatism. COM. :—Cultivated. on poor soil and in rocky places. gives lustre to eye. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Ginger. Badari. alexiteric. H. tonic. useful in heart and throat diseases. "Vata". bronchitis. Chinese Date. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Bor. stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. FAM. K. Boyedi. expectorant.. Bordi. Indian Cherry. carminative. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. loss of appetite and piles. FAM. Plum. Bore. Beri. H. Shringavera. It is stimulant. heating. Koli. Egasi. inflammations. M. "Kapha". Ardraka. COM. pains (Yunani). to prevent nausea and griping. vomiting. flatulence. Ajapriya. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). DISTR. head-ache. :—E.—Rhamnaceæ. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Kandara. Rhizome—pungent. Kuvali. eructations.—Scitaminaceæ. G. useful in elephantiasis. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. . it is also given in the form of infusion. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Rhizome-pungent. :—E. Ber. HABITAT. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. dyspepsia. Sk. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. removes pain due to cold. K. Dridhabija. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. vomiting. carminative. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . laxative. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. Bogari. aphrodisiac. Alen. Bor. aphrodisiac. it cleans throat. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. Anupama. piles. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. good in piles. Ber. NS. lumbago. colic. Adrate.

Africa. Fruit— cooling. . biliousness. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . Seed—astringent. cooling. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. Burma. aphrodisiac. useful in fevers. fruit. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Bark—causes boils .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. vomiting. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . good in consumption and blood-diseases. PARTS USED. tonic to heart and brain . good in liver complaints. :—Root-bitter. burning sensation. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. Leaves form a plaster to boils. abundant in the Deccan. Kanara. wounds and ulcers. leaves. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. Australia. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Afghanistan. causes diarrhœa in large doses . seeds. DISTR. Leaves antipyretic. bark. See—Timbers. causes cough. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. allays thirst (Yunani). :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. Fruit Trees. PROPERTIES AND USES. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. Leaves—anthelmintic. reduce obesity. tonic. China. Fruits contains vitamin A. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. LOC. Ceylon. :—Root. Root and Bark tonic.. thirst. cure asthma. on the laterite near the coast in N. laxative. head-ache. Fruit—sweet and sour. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). removes biliousness. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. indigestible.