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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums.—in fascicled globose heads. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. K. Sige-balli or kai. leucorrhoea. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. M. 5-10 cm. throat diseases. L. Lalkhair. Country and Gujarat. inflammations. H.. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Fr. Dipta. Sd. China. yellow. anthelmintic. DISTR.-t. prurigo. boils.-Mar. psoriasis. G. anti-pyretic. Vidula. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . piles. LOC. 7. mouth troubles. antidysenteric. LOC. acrid. :—Throughout India. Charmakusha. COM. FAM. Soap-pod tree. Tans. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). Khandesh Akrani S. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. tonic. Saptata. LOC. M.. astringent to bowels. leprosy. . Yajnika. Manda-otte. aphrodisiac. NS. Western Peninsula. :—Rajastan. Chikakai. Sk. :—Common throughout the Stale . ulcers. Kanara forests. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. Fl. Burma. bronchitis. :—An extensive woody climber. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. erysipelas. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. " Kapha ". Malay Islands. It is given in diarrhœa. Ritha. Saradruma. strengthens teeth.-July. Sk. indigestion. leaflets 10-20 pairs. cooling. Deccan. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. fleshy when green. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. relaxation of the uvula. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. linear-oblong. DISTR. overlapping. sore-throat and tooth-ache. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). long. Dantadhavan. Dyes. Kochi. :—E. urinary and vaginal discharges. " Vata ". measles and other skindiseases. Kanara (often on laterite). Shige. Pegu. hypertrophy of tonsils. gums.—bipinnate. Himalayas up to 1700 m. CHAR. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). Khadira. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth. Shikekai. given in elephantiasis. Bhuriphena.-6-10 . Kath-bole.—pod. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. M. cures itching.5X2-2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kushthari. Fl.5-12. See—Timbers.8 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Phena. Khair. In ulceration of the gums. Sikkim. wrinkled when dry . heaviness. along the coasts of Konkan and N.
LOC. often planted . aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). purgative. piles. Kari jali. COM. ulcers. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. bronchitis. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . Girimeda. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. cures stomatitis. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. G. H.. K. not indigenous but naturalised. leaves and gum. NS. Devababhul. cooling. alexiteric. improves appetite. buboes. M. Gandhelo khair . Pissibabul. blood diseases. stomatitis. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. biliousness. cures " Kapha. See—Timbers. deobstruent. detergent. cardio-tonic. anthelmintic. leucoderma. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea.pungent. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. DISTR. Sind. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Moist situations. erysipelas. LOC. Vilavati kikar. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . anti-dysenteric. LOC. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. eczema. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. Gandhbabul. anthelmintic. expectorant and good emetic. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Sauna jali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. inflammations. . Kankri. Internally they are aperient. leucoderma. Arimeda.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Sk. :—E. often cultivated. Jheri baval. Gums and Resins. caries of teeth. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. ascites. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). erysipelas. prurigo. Marudruma. FAM. Gum—sweetish. tonic. In Philippines decoction. anti-diarrhoeal. Stinking acacia. Jali. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Cassia flower. itching. digestible. PARTS USED :—Bark. causes " Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. blood-diseases. Sponge tree.
Prickly chaff-flower. M. H. perianth 4-5 segments. Vanchhikanto. Kantarika. males. Agheda-di.—greenish white.9 m. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. L. Chichra.5 cm. M. 2. CHAR.8-6. erect. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. branches long. angular. in elongate terminal spikes. ascending. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. elliptic obovate. LOC. Uttrane . Khokali. elongate.—truncate at apex. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. softly hairy. hispid. :—G. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. :—An erect herb 0. It is used in congestive headache. pale-brown. enclosed in perianth smooth. Fr.—monœcious. Vasira. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. Kuppi-gida. Khajoti. small. Sd. K. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. stem stiff.3 X 2. Apang. t. Philippines. 3. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. Arittamanjaria. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. NS. many. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. crenate-serrate. smooth. Fl. in lax. G. FAM. Fl. :—Throughout India. Var. :—Annual. high. erect herb.—Euphorbiaceæ. Chirchira. minute. brown.. :—E. Sd. branches terete or quadrangular striate. COM. DISTR. high.—utricle. :—Common in the Deccan and S.—capsule. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. asthma. M. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. few. Apamarga. Kharamanjiri.—Nov.5 cm. one-seeded. tropical Africa. H. Aghada . NS. clustered near the summit of spike. L.. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. brown. LOC. axillary spikes .-Jany. rounded at base. Kuppi. The plant contains acalyphin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn.—Amarantaceæ. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases.—opposite. Sk. long in fruit. pneumonia and rheumatism.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. . PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Sk. 30-75 cm. CHAR. Ksharamadhya. Utranigida. K. Chalmari. FAM. females. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. t.— ovoid. Merkati. about 50 cm. COM. scattered. Ceylon.5x2-4.3-0. Fl. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. somewhat 3-nerved. Country. or orbicular rounded at the-apex.57.—June-Sept. Latjira . It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. oblong-cylindric. Khokla.5-4. Fr.
Tropical Asia. Bitter. stomachic. Jatila. creeping and branching. hysteria. DISTR. improves appetite. Gandhilovaj. Vekhand. acute. useful in abdominal pains. carminative. useful in vomiting. :—Throughout India. Africa. slightly curved. carminative. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. M. 0. piles. toothache. ascites. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. dysentery. America. alexiterie. K. Sikkim. heating. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. laxative. LOC. NS. emmenagogue . itching. green . Baja . prismatic. expectorant. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. obtuse. spathe 15-75 cm. flowers and seeds. Sk. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. etc. Throughout Asia. H. useful in dyspepsia. :—An aromatic herb .. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. dyspepsia. Bach. L. laxative. bitter. margins wavy. Europe and N.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. See—Sacred Plants. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. America. Sweet flag . Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. leucoderma (Yunani). loss of memory. long.8 cm. flatulence. Vacha. anthelmintic. pungent. bright-green. carminative. abdominal pains. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. kidney troubles. Fr.. laxative. tumours. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. dysentery. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. G. blood diseases (Ayurveda). anthers yellow. improves appetite. PARTS USED :—Root. fevers. thickened in the middle. useful in general weakness. Ugragandha.9-1.8 X 1. heating. emetic. inflammations. sepals scarious. Australia. HABITAT :—Marshy places. bronchitis. Baluchistan. PARTS USED : —Root. heart diseases. Bhutnashini. :—E. CHAR. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. throat. epilepsy. Gorbach . good for mouth diseases. Vekhand . delirium. stomatitis. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. boils. LOC. liver and chest pains. "Vata".7-3. and is considered useful in dropsy. Ceylon. . leaves. COM. FAM. voice. 5-10 cm. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m.—Araceæ. bronchitis. spadix. rat-bite. LOC. brain-tonic. top pyramidal. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. long. skin eruption etc. thirst. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). diuretic.—turbinate. Godavaj. piles.
ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. Gorakshi. DISTR. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). colic. anti-pyretic. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. COM. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. Baobab. Kanara evergreen forests. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. FAM. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . NS. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. Sk. G. N. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. Pisa. Gorakhchinch. Brahmamlika. bark. :—Grown in many places in India . NS. indigenous in tropical Africa. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Rukhdo . FAM. fever. etc.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. LOC. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. Pichli. M. Haggodgimara. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. See—Timbers.—Bombacaceæ. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. vomiting. African calabash.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . :—Western Peninsula. in children. Gopali. fevers and other maladies. LOC. Gorakamali. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay.—Lauraceæ. H. Gujarat. DISTR. Panch-parnika. HABITAT':—Cultivated. :—K. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Monkey-bread tree. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. useful in biliousness. :—E. Gorakhaamli. Powder is very effective insecticide. Deccan. K. Bukha. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Goremlichora . leaf and fruit. Tudgensu . root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth.:—Konkan. COM. PARTS USED : —Root. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms.. It is a good remedy in asthma. dysentery.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Akoly. Ankoli. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. aromatics or honey. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. wasting diseases. blood diseases. Malaya. Shankiniphala. Chinchola. DISTR.) FAM. Kalshish. anthelmintic. anthelmintic.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. Ankotha. diarrhœa. Gudhapatra. Uddanaka. NS. Krishnashirisha. blood diseases. G. Sk. tonic. fish-poison. See—Timbers. Philippines. Sage-leaved alangium. . Garso. Ankol. Kathora. :—Throughout India. rat-bite. pungent. Shyamala. burning of body. Piloshirish. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. indigestible. Kaloshirish. spermatorrhoea. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. alexiteric. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). Shirisha. lumbago (Yunani). alexipharmic . G. inflammations. Anedhera. Ankola. " Vata "-pain. Karnapura. gleet. leaves (rarely). Tantia. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. LOO. Sirai. Root-bark— used in piles. Dridhakantaka. acute fever. (Mimosaceæ). NS. Shirish. commonly planted along roadsides. stem. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Ankoli. M. Vamaka. :—E. M. carminative. Sk. expectorant. poisonous bites. useful in worms. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . biliousness. Sirsul. Fruit—laxative. and fruit. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. heating. colic. hydrophobia. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. Kullumavu. K. lumbago. Kanara. Ankora. useful in inflammations. H. K. it is said to stop after-pains. Seeds—cooling. COM. Kalashirish. aphrodisiac. often along banks of nalas in N. See—Timbers. COM. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). China. Root-bark poisonous. Ankota. dysentery. alterative. Tamraphala. Sirisa. LOC. Shirish. :—Throughout the State. Juice—emetic. Asroli. :—E.—Leguminosæ. Onkla. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. H. Ceylon. Ankola. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflammations. LOC. cures " Kapha". Ankola. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. S. Dodda-Hombage. Kalosadasado. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle.—Alangiaceæ. cures erysipelas.
cooling. paralysis.: —Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Bark— anthelmintic. biliousness. asthma. ear-ache. bleeding piles. itching. dropsy. useful in malaria. Bark-bitter. M.—Liliaceæ. COM. improves taste. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. G. Seeds—tonic to brain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. spleen diseases.. Burma. enriches blood. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. Root—astringent. diarrhœa. and chronic bronchitis . useful in vomiting. vomiting. catarrh. relieves tooth-ache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. strengthens gums and teeth. cures "Vata". FAM. B & C. skin-diseases. . :—Native country probably Persia. Rajapriya. It is an important garden crop. Kanda. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. piles. blood diseases. The plant contains vitamins A. Bulb—tonic. ophthalmia. maturant. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Rochaka. LOC. tumours. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits.. good in rat-bite.K. Bengal. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. flowers. inflammations. Onion. alexiteric. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Dungari. leucoderma. cultivated everywhere. and also in skin diseases . mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. body pains. Bark and seeds are astringent. See—Vegetables. excessive perspiration.:—E. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). H. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). seeds. etc. bronchitis. anthelmintic. leaves. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. stimulant and expectorant. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. given in piles. Piyaz. stomachic. piles. Palandu. Sk. scabies. Oil is used in leprosy. bark. Seeds—fattening. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. eruptions and swellings. occasionally used in fever. seeds. emollient. epistaxis. scabies. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves—good in night blindness. volatile oil. NS. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Flowers—aphrodisiac. DISTR. usually planted. weakness. syphilis. used in leprosy. aphrodisiac. Ulageddi. See—Timbers. their smell useful in hemicrania. deafness. Ceylon. etc. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. boils. which acts as a diuretic. prescribed in ophthalmia. erysipelas. tonic.
Korkand. LOC. In Cambodia. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. ear-ache (Ayurveda). body and joint pains. ALŒ VERA Linn. H. anthelmintic. COM. PARTS USED :—Bulb. Kumari. tonic. In pulmonary phthisis. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. piles. voice. oleaginous . Ikshurmallika. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Garlic. sciatica. :—E. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. chronic fevers. Sk. troubles of spleen. Lasan. thirst. liver and lungs . FAM. aphrodisiac. Lolisara. heating. H. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Kattali. NS. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Ugragandha. paralysis. caries of teeth. hemiplegia. Korphad. carminative. inflammation. M. K. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. epileptic fits. LOC. See—Vegetables. M. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. coughs and other debilitating conditions. In cases of diphtheria. complexion. thirst. Country.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Kuvarpatha. COM. Lashuna. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. G. useful in inflammations. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Kapila. " Vata ". DISTR :—Widely cultivated. useful in diseases of eye and heart. lumbago. leucoderma. G. Kumari. Rasonaka. The plant contains vitamin C. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. aphrodisiac. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. low fevers. improves appetite.—Liliaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. fattening. Kanya. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Indian aloe. Lasun. alexipharmic. K. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. Diuretic. FAM. Ghi-kumari. bronchitis. good for lumbago. thins the blood (Yunani). :—E. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. NS. Lasan. tumours. Bellulli. . It is an important garden crop. Sk. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea.—Liliaceæ. leucoderma. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. Lahsan. digestive. clears voice. M. asthma. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers.
The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. used in form of paste in pleurisy. fleshy. inflammations. anthelmintic. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. fattening. Hale. Saptaparna. alterative. Mediterranean. scape longer than the leaves. pale-green. :—Throughout India.—in dense racemes .MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. aphrodisiac. tumours. skin diseases. asthma. Chatian. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. :—A perennial herb . Jamaica. spleen enlargement. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. and it is largely imported into India. jaundice. also cultivated. Root. Kaduhale. Africa. tonic.—Apocynaceæ.—sessile. common in the rain-forests of N. pain in muscles. wild along the coast. C. E. HABITAT :—Moist forests. COM. Fl. crowded. Java. Australia. Dita bark tree. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. milky juice. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. useful in splean inflammation. tonic. Barbados. H. pendulous. Bitter . Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. The plant contains aloin. lumbago. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. K. :—E. :—Wild along the coast in S. used in fevers. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. FAM. M. somewhat divided. alexiteric. bark. LOC. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Ceylon. Saptachhada. piles. Br. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. ulcers (Ayurveda). vomiting. gonorrhœa. L. lanceolate. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. DISTR. isobarbaloin and emodin. liver troubles. Kadusale. simple or branched. scaly. purgative. liver complaints. PARTS USED :—Leaves. methritis. digestive. stem short thick. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. biliousness (Yunani). Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. LOC. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. perianth cylindric . LOC. Native of S. biliousness. emollient and demulcent. Satwin. Kanara. cooling. useful in eye-diseases. bronchitis. tropical Africa. India. purgative. yellow. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. ophthalmia. Satian. carminative. PARTS USED :— . Satwin. DISTR. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. strangury. NS. It also acts as a mild purgative. West Indian Islands. leaves. planted in Indian gardens . margins spiny.
also in fields. numerous. high. " tridosha " pain. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . antiperiodic and febrifuge. diuretic. Apamarisha. bronchitis. digestible. female calyx oblong. laxative. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. Cholai.8 cm. Pathyashaka. rubbish heaps and fields. asthma. rat-bite. ulcers. rubbish heaps . heating. leprosy. Ceylon. Tandulja. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. long. laxative. :—An erect glabrous herb. often reddish. Kante math.3—3.). Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine.2—7. apiculate. LOC. obtuse. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. piles. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. Kantanatia. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. galactogogue. diseases of the blood. Mulladantu. obtuse. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. stomachic. male calyx acute. LOC. See—Timbers.— capsule. blood diseases. :—E. tumours. thickened at the top.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. appetiser. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration.. Prickly amaranth. good in diseases of the heart. Tandulaja. Fl. . See—Vegetables. tropical countries. leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. HABITAT :—In waste places.—Amarantaceæ. also useful in catarrhal fever. antipyretic. bristles pointed. rugose. Tandulibija. anthelmintic. boils and burns. Kantanu-dant.5 X 1. hallucination. entire. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. burning sensation. COM. M. lanceolate. :—Throughout India. unisexual. biliousness. oleaginous. ovate. L. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. NS. leucoderma. FAM. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. Root—heating expectorant. useful in " Kapha ".— 3. Fr. bitter. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. Kantalo dambho. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Mullarave-soppu. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Sk. H. Bark—acrid. CHAR. Drug Com. G. DISTR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. LOC. improves appetite. K. alexiteric. 30-60 cm. ovoid. sudorific and febrifuge.
There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. abdominal pains. appetiser. Gujarat and Kanara. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Deccan.—Araceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. high. :—Throughout India in moist places. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. PARTS USED :—Leaves. M. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . DISTR. NS. Suran. Tropical Africa. corm. Suran . H. :—E. Sk. enlargement of the spleen. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. Sukaranda. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). G. COM. tumours. acrid. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. Bharajambhul. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Jalavgiyo. Blistering ammania. :—Cultivated widely in the State. strangury . China. Sk.—Nov. LOC. Suran. vomiting. Afghanistan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry.—opposite. Konkan rivers. 8-65 cm." blood troubles. Kuranti. stomachic. FAM. COM. Bitter and acrid . t. DISTR. globose. fresh or dried. LOC. G. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. erect or subscandent herb. Grows wild on the banks of S. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). Kandavardhan. Fr. fevers etc. sessile. asthma. irregularly circumsciss above the middle.—Lythraceæ. depressed. increases appetite and taste. Sd. Kandala. H. useful in piles. Arshaghna.:— Konkan. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. blood diseases. aphrodisiac. much narrowed at the base. Jangli mehandi. Ceylon. Australia. causes itching sensation. Dadmari. In the Konkan. branches usually opposite. Fl. It is also used as an emmenagogue. NS.—capsule. Malaya.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Vikata. elephantiasis . :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. stomachic. Kurendika. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Kuranda. LOC. red. pungent. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. removes " Kapha ". L. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. laxative. FAM. constipating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. . " Vata. Vatari. Fl.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . bronchitis. used as an appetiser (Yunani). LOC. Elephant's foot. CHAR. Suran. the plant. Kanthalla. harmful in "Kapha". :—An annual.
corns and obstinate ulcers. Kakaphal. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. COM. digestible. 10-12 X 7. The plant contains Vitamins A. :—A native of tropical America. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. Garalaphala. swollen peduncle of fruit. Corm is poisonous. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Kakanashika. COM. Kaju . DISTR. equal to almond oil.5 cm. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. :—E. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Crow-Fish Killer. K. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. PARTS USED :—Bark. dysentery. G.5-12. :—E. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. and trace of C. Prithagbija. Sk. See—Vegetables. leaves. 5-nerved.—Menispermaceæ. L. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. many flowered. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Kajutaka. Kakkisoppugida . Gerubi. FAM. FAM. Oils. broadly ovate. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. USES :—Bark is alterative. B. aphrodisiac. LOC. The seed contains vitamin A. M.—Anacardiaceæ. . Sk. K. M.— subcoriaceous. Kanara. Kakamari. Kakamari. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. Kaju. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. fever. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. also cultivated. Govamba. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. Fish-Louse Berry.—in panicles 25-35 cm. flowers. which is nutritious and emollient.. G. Agni-krita. Cashew apple-nut. It is supposed to have restorative power. ascites. cordate or truncate. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. tumours. Sophara. leucoderma. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). long. See—Timbers. Kakamari. . Jermic. Kempu— Turkaka geru . Gova. sweet. Upapushpika. & A. piles. NS. Fl. skin diseases. Kakamari. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Kakamari. LOC. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". CHAR. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . ringworm. anthelmintic.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. bark vertically furrowed . Kaju. H. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. hot. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. H. ulcers.
LOC. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. leaves and fruits. See—Fruit Trees. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. Kanara. H. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. FAM. N. Olen kirayat. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). It acts also as diuretic. Nelabevu gida. . :—E. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. Sk. FAM. Assam. Kantak sanjika. diaphoretic and refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive.—Acanthaceæ. Olikiriyat. COM. native of Brazil (tropical America). Ama. t. petals absent. Parvati. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. good expectorant. K. black . Ananas . Kiriyata. G. also acts as a purgative. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . also allays gastric irritability in fevers. Ananas. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. a poison to fish (Yunani). Creat. dioecious. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. H. to a certain extent in Gujarat. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. K. fruits. Ananas. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. smooth. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—E. Mahatit. DISTR. Mahateet. Bengal.-Oct. E. LOC. Sk. causes cough and biliousness. Pine-apple . Ananas hannu. :—Khasia Hills. Fl. Bhuinimba. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Ananasa. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. it is useful in jaundice. COM. NS. Kirata. G. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. LOC. :—Konkan. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Kiryat. from Orissa to Ceylon. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Bromeliaceæ.—Sept. M. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). NS. cultivated. M.) LOC. Ananas . USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. removes gases from the intestines .
and N. solitary.. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. Sd. Karitumbe. polished brown. COM.—many. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Sundraphul.-Oct. purple. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. K. lower lip very large and broad . :—S. Sundara. oblong-lanceolate.—Labiatæ. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. yellowish brown.—nutlets. M.—in dense whorls . clothed with woolly hairs .—Dec. Gojivana.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. alterative.—very thick.— capsule. Chodhara. Green leaves. approximate above. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. Fl. Karnatak. extensively used in Bengal. Ceylon. lateral lobes small. Br. bracts lanceolate. LOC. . linear-oblong. Sk. t. :—An erect shrub.8 m. Malabar Catmint. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. L. white below. sometimes cultivated. forming a spicate inflorescence. rugosely pitted. smooth. DISTR. HABITAT. pale beneath. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. :—Konkan and Kanara. Fr. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. dyspepsia and fever from teething. ellipsoid. 6. FAM. Vaikunth. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. :—An erect branched annual 0. Fr. stem quadrangular. distant.—lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.2-1. C—2-lipped. :—E. Plant is useful in general debility. 1. pale above. acute. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. upper lip 2-toothed.5 cm. :—Throughout India. very small. crenate-serrate. Roots and leaves are febrifuge.-Nov. Kanara. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. CHAR. L. DISTR. dysentery. :—Deccan. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers.9 m. tonic. distant. Malay Peninsula.—small.—Ghats. stomachic. Fl. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . G. PROPERTIES AND LOC.3-0. Alamoda. made into an electuary. Fl. Oshthaphala. lower 3lobed. thickly woolly. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. C—2-lipped. LOC. acute at both ends . and certain forms of dyspepsia. Fl.3-10 X 2-4. NS. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. t. high. undulate. and anthelmintic. high. rose coloured. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease.
It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Ata. Bark is bitter. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. increases biliousness .:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Krishnabija. M. DISTR. Amritphala. sedative to heart. erysipelas. Dohu. and eyesores. astringent to the bowels. Bejjalu. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . tasty. Sweet-sop. Dindala. NS. produce ulcers in the eye. K. See—Timbers. H. PARTS USED :—Root. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. FAM. flavoury. Anuram. Sitaphala. Durangi. increases muscular strength. Dhava. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". LOC. Custard apple. G. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. Dindiga. Anan. leaves and fruits. bark. :—E. enriches blood . COM. causes fever and furunculosis . K. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Bakla. cooling. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. :—E. Bahubijika. Pitaphala. stimulant. chronic diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. Dhava. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Sitaphala. expectorant. bark. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Dhavada. Seeds—difficult to digest. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. fruit and seeds. applied to skin-diseases. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn.—Combretaceæ. Button Tree. COM. Ceylon. Bark is a powerful astringent.—Anonaceæ. Kanara border. improves taste and appetite . useful in anaemia. :—A native of West Indies . useful in liver complaints. good tonic. M. Fruit—sweet. G. Sugar apple. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Root—cathartic. Dabria. discharges. Sitaphala. Sitaphal. Sk. LOC. Sharipha. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Damora. Dhavala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. enriches blood. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. now cultivated throughout India. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. NS. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . Dyes. Dhamora. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Sitaphala. Shushkanga. DISTR. H. (Yunani). They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. LOC. leaves. Dhavada.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. abortifacient. Sk. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). cooling . LOC.
—Rubiaceæ. Chandkuda. Surabhi. blood diseases. Malay Islands. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. is a good hairwash. bitter. Ashokari. Niv. Fruit—heating. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. strangury. good in uterine complaints. Valkala. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. common near Yellapur. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. NS. sap of the tree. . Upas Tree. alexiteric. Nadija. Kadamba.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Malayan Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Sacred Plants. Kaduve. H. aphrodisiac. :—E. Ajjanpatte. sweet. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Bairi. See—Fruit Trees. See—Timbers. :—G. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. Fodder Plants. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. Chandkuda. Kadamb. COM NS. K. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally.—Moraceæ. indigestible. Sprouts—acrid. DISTR. Kadubale. Nipa. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Kadamb . sprouts and fruits. vulnerary. In eye inflammations. stomachic. cooling. USES:—In the Konkan. astringent to bowels. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. FAM. K. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. galactagogue. burning sensation. LOC. Sk. Ceylon. Seeds yield an oil and resin. LOC. Tennaserim. Kadam. M. :—W. Burma. PARTS USED:—Bark. acrid. Karnapuraka. FAM. Kadamb . wild or cultivated. biliousness. mixed with gram-flour. Pegu. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. causes biliousness when ripe. Chandala. COM. It is generally considered tonic. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Jajpugri. LOC. DISTR. M. often cultivated. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. " Vata". aphrodisiac. saline. They are detergent and their powder. Kadamb. H. Peninsula. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. " Kapha". The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. Sk. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Kanara . PROPERTIES AND LOC.
It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. rheumatism. K.— in umbels. COM NS. apex toothed . laxative. Fibres. amenorrhœa. aphrodisiac. N. hiccup. good in ophthalmia. Ajamoda. Wild celery. Shimbika. Afghanistan. M. Snehabijaka. 0. W. erect. LOC. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. appetiser. vomiting. . pinnate with large deeply lobed segments.—1. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. COM. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Brahmakoshi. H. scabies. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison.—Umbelliferæ. CHAR. Ugragandha.— radial. Fr. fever with cough.5-2 mm. Bori ajmud. improve appetite . used in anasarca and colic. β-antiarin. heart and spleen diseases. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). abortifacient.. branching. Mandapi. Celery. FAM. Bhuimug-chana. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Bodi ajomoda. Ajmud. See—Vegetables. NS. Nelkadle. W. abdominal pain. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Europe. Sk. scorpion and other stings. astringent to bowels . cauline 3-partite. cure " Kapha ". :—E. pedicels 6-16 . The plant contains vitamins A. segments once or twice trifid. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. urinary discharges. Bhuchanak. Ground-Pea-nut. Glucoside apiin is present. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. cure asthma. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. Fl. G. " Vata " . vittae broad. inflammations. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Bhuimug. Moda. Java and Malaya. good for heart. vomiting. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases.:—Foot of the N. :—A biennial plant. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. DISTR. M. rays 5-10. high. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial.4 m. Markati. ridges narrow. Seeds—carminative. nasal catarrh (Yunani). G. Monkey-nut. Ajmoda . anthelmintic. Mungphali. bronchitis. Chinimung. ascites. chest-pains. Karafs. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Bhuimug. LOC. Abyssinia. tooth-ache.3-2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Sk. Africa. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). H. specially near large cities. L. tonic. and γ-antiarin. rectal troubles. useful in ophthalmia. Asia. See—Timbers. traces of B and C. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism.
indigestible. Mysore. Oils. Siam. LOC. NS. Burma. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. In French Guinea. Adki. Chikkan. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Kanara. leaves (rarely). Gujarat and S. bleeding gums. M. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Pugiphal. Supari. Betel-nut palm. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. LOC. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. Sopari. Malabar. Chikka. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. . See—Food Plants. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. COM. Areca palm. removes pus (Yunani). Akota. cardiotonic. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina.. used for eye-inflammations.—Palmæ. laxative. DISTR. emmenagogue. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. fairly largely in the Konkan. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Nut astringent. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. Country. diuretic. seeds. Deccan. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. gleet. digestive. LOC. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Chhataphala. gum. :—E. Tantusara. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. cooling. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. M. DISTR. Seed cooling. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. useful in urinary disorders. FAM. LOC. Betta. Areca-nut palm. :—Madras. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. giddiness. Suppiyari. Pophal. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).:—Extensively grown in N. Kaungu. Poga. improves appetite and taste. aphrodisiac. Gum pungent. removes foul breath. PARTS USED :—Root. K. G.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bengal. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. Supari. H. USES. Indo-Malaya. Hopari.
Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. India. globose. Bila dhatura.—thistlelike. Daruri. oblong-ovoid 2. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). useful is strangury. Fr. Seeds—purgative. Plant enriches blood. emetic. prickly. Darudi. stem 0. arecoline. Pita-pushpa. Brahma dandi. L. nauseant. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. DISTR. Datturi. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections.—all the year. purgative. M. CHAR. cures leprosy. high. Fruit Trees. arecaidine. diam.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. Svarnakshiri. and in pertussis and asthma. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. NS. prickly.—capsule. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . good expectorant and aphrodisiac. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. LOC.—numerous. USES :—Root is an alterative. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). . FAM. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. oblong. Ind. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. t.5-18 cm. G. Balurakkisa. :—E. netted. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Sk. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. 7. H. antidote to various poisons. Bharbhand. Mexican prickly poppy . Shialkanta. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Root anthelmintic. 2. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic.12 m. LOC. veins white. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. :—A glabrous.8 cm. seeds and yellow juice. See—Timbers. This is said to bring the worm out at once. jaundice and cutaneous affections. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). destroys worms . Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. stem clasping. Srigalkanta. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. Fl.—Papaveraceæ.). sedative. and guvacine. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. expectorant and demulcent. It is also diuretic.5-5 cm. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. brownish black. juice yellow.3-0. Fl. Juice—used as a collyrium. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. opening by 4-6 valves. PARTS USED :—Root. branching. yellow. Pirangi datturi. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. COM. Seeds are laxative.5-3. Indigenous in tropical America. glaucous herb . K.— terminal. relieves blisters. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Sd. inflammations and bilious fevers. spinous. sinuately pinnatifid. various skin-diseases.
strangury. L.—capsule. cultivated. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. :—A very large climber. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. C—5-6. CHAR. Samardar sokh. :—E.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. LOC.—solitary. DISTR. Country. Elephant Creeper. perianth 2. FAM. painful joints. Kitakaba. In synovitis. aphrodisiac. white-tomentose beneath. Fr. G. Fl. H. ovate glabrous above. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. Bracteated Birth-wort. white-tomentose L. Soge. Hastivalli. tubular. M. t. COM. long and as broad as long.— Aug. stems. Samudrapatrashoh. Leaves are maturative. prostrate.3-25 cm. tip linear dark purple. anthelmintic. NS. Gandali. stems stout. DISTR. .5-4. (sometimes even larger). Java. LOC. " Kapha" fevers. Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative.—deltoid with cordate base . applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). 1. :—Bengal. CHAR. oblongellipsoid.-Nov. diuretic . M. Samudrashosh. weak.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. Konkan. Ajantri. HABITAT. Kidamari.—Aug. pubescent outside. Ceylon. white-tomentose.—in sub-capitate cymes. Arabia. M.5-30 x 6. Gujarat and S.-Sept.:—Konkan. peduncles stout. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. Samudrashok.5 cm. with revolute margins. chronic ulcers (Yunani). COM. Kitamari. M. absorptive. NS. striate. Adumuttadagida. pedicel with a large bract at the base. Fl. :—Throughout India. long. reniform or broadly ovate. G. tropical Africa. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. Krimighni. infundibuliform. t. Vridhadaraka. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. tube inflated. W. Fl.8-7. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Kidamar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic.— globose apiculate. Fr. long. LOC. gonorrhœa.— 3. Sk. the bands silky pubescent outside. base cordate.— 7. rose purple. Dhuma-patra. H. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. useful in " Vata". K. used in gleet. bracts large . Samudraballi. Fl. glabrous inside. 12-ribbed .5 cm. base cordate with wide sinus . perhaps a native of Bengal.3 cm. Kiramar.3-2 cm. Shyambhuna. Country. :—E. FAM.—Convolvulaceæ. base subglobose.—Aristolochiaceæ. Ganda. Deccan and S. long. Varghoro.. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. K. Samandarka phal. :—A slender perennial. See—Ornamental Plants. Dridhadaru. Sk. Sd. powdered root is given with milk.
Nilpushpa. Bengal. emmenagogue. M. alexiteric. tonic.5x7. Isvara balli beru . 3. The plant contains an alkaloid. COM. Nepal. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. CHAR. Plant is used as an abortifacient. long with globose inflated base. :—Western Peninsula. Sugandha. Nakuli. LOC. Nagdamani. :—A twining shrub. H.—Compositæ. G. leaves and seeds.) FAM. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Nagduna. L. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. base vaiable.:—Konkan and S.. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels.—variable linear oblong. Saraparni. COM. reaching 4. globose-oblong. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Fr. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. The plant contains an alkaloid. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. Isharmula. K. Mother or Mugwort.." pains in the joints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. dyspnoea of children. Country. t. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma.—Aristolochiaceæ. useful in " Tridosha. bitter. Gathona. Fl.8-10 X 1. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. dry cough. Fl.—in few flowered axillary racemes. purgative (Yunani).3-2. 6-valved. slender. also useful in dropsy. H. Arkamula. Arkamula. Dovana.—Nov. Ishvari. LOC. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Ceylon. :—E. entire with undulate margins. :—E. — capsule. Sk. Stem long.—flat. Manjipatri. perianth greenishwhite. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. DISTR. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. joint-pains. biliousness. Indian wormwood. grooved. K. NS. Ruhimula. NS. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Majtari. FAM. obovate oblong 10-12. . (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. PARTS USED :—Roots. Mastaru.5 cm. Sk. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Sapsan. Dona. M. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. winged. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Flea-bane. Seeds useful in inflammation.5 cm. Dhor-davana.5 cm. woody at the base. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. Indian Birth-wort. Sd. bract opposite the pedicel.
L— lower leaves 5. aphrodisiac. base lobed.— achene. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. H.10x2.—Urticaceæ.-Hilly districts. constipating (Ayurveda). Fr. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. diuretic. Sk. deeply pinnatisect.:—A perennial shrub. leprosy.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. oleaginous.5-5 em. DISTR. Phanas. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. cooling. Fl. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. petioled. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—E. upper leaves smaller. stems leafy. Fruit Trees and Dyes. tonic. Ghats. tonic. enriches blood. toothed or again pinnatisect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. fertile. " Vata". appetiser. :—Widely cultivated. NS. Panesa. outer flowers female. Kantakaphala. Java. Jack-fruit tree. Kanara.—heads ovoid or subglobose. but rather difficult to digest. HABITAT. Ceylon. high. minute. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. Kanthal. LOC.6-2. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. ulcers. . Skandaphala. 3-fid or entire. Externally it is used in fomentations. Phanasa. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Kujja. Fl. An infusion is given as a tonic. Panas. fattening. aphrodisiac. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. LOC. 0. :—Throughout hilly districts of India.—Jany. LOC. LOC. involucral bracts villous. deobstruent and antispasmodic. temperate Asia. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. cures "Kapha". fruit and seeds. PARTS USED :—Leaves. hairy. oblong ellipsoid. lobes entire. Thailand (Siam). G. t. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. COM. grown in gardens also.4 m. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. K. Jack-Orange wood. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. :—Konkan. The unripe fruit is astringent.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. Vanas. See—Timbers. often planted along roadsides in N. M. Panos. asthma. lanceolate. " Kapha". Halasina. DISTR. asthma and brain diseases. white tomentose beneath. aphrodisiac. ripe fruit laxative. aromatic. useful in biliousness. alexiteric. Seeds sweet. solitary or 2. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). inner hermaphrodite. although very nutritious. itching (Ayurveda). pubescent above. ovate. FAM. Tage. "Vata". Chakki. The plant contains an essential oil.
MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. spines recurved. solitary. C. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. common in the Deccan. erect. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. thin. white. :—E. t. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. tonic. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific.-Dec. Sk. t.—June-Sept. useful in dysentery.5-5 cm. root-stock tuberous. 0. COM. Indies. NS. Svadurasa. :—Deccan. PARTS USED:—Root. Satamulika.5-10 X 1. PARTS USED:—Root. naturalised in many parts of India. long.3-2. Tropical Africa.. up to 1. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . leaves and flowers. abundant round about Poona.-Feb. high. with coma. segments. Kuraki. Shatavari. Country. curved. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. tumours. lanceolate. Fr. M. valvate in bud. M. A fibre is extracted from the plants. COM. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. Satavari. biliousness. DISTR. 7. cladodes in tufts. oblong.—lobes reflexed in flower. Fl. Svetmuli. FAM.—Liliaceæ. throat complaints. tapering at both ends.—linear with a stout spinous spur. red when ripe. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. PROPERTIES AND LOC. oleaginous. galactogogue. alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. Asual Shatavari. straight.5 cm. L.— follicles. Satavari. undershrub. DISTR.—berry. See—Ornamental Plants.—in simple raceme. CHAR. 2. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha.9-1. :—Introduced from the W.—Asclepiadaceæ.ovoid. :—G. and moist monsoon forests. . H. LOC. astringent to bowels. inflammation. in the Himalayas. thorn. spinous. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. Java and Australia. fragrant. Flower is a good styptic. linear. Var. LOC. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. Sd. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent.—orange in axillary umbels. dark brown. cultivated as ornamental plant. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. :—An erect undershrub. NS. aphrodisiac. Fl. cooling. indigestible. narrowed at both ends. K. :—Extremely scandent. Fr. stomachic.2 m. appetiser. Satavari. CHAR. from Kashmir eastwards. Siprimuli. FAM. blood and eye diseases.000 m. Kaktundi. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. M.5 cm. globose. JAVANICA Baker. Fl. S.—opposite 7. L. Fl.
Sk. upper 2-fid.6-1.) FAM. K. 2 outer large.. dysentery. leaves and seeds.) LOC. Phalaghrita. scalding of urine. ascites.2 cm. and alterative tonic. inflammations. galactogogue. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. gleet. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. Talamkhana. like leaves. 4 inner small. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). stems fasciculate. USES. Ikshura. thirst. aphrodisiac. 0. demulcent. hairy. aphrodisiac. tonic. Leaves good for cough. Kak-Kokilaksha. 18 X 3-3. Seeds cooling. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. M. 3. high. (Yunani. abdominal troubles. Talamkhan. antispasmodic.:—Common throughout the State. . improve blood (Yunani).—sessile. useful in jaundice and anasarca. diuretic. constipation. pointed. abruptly swollen at the top. bracts. aphrodisiac . Talim-khana. Narayana Taila. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. COM. LOC. aphrodisiac. Ekharo. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. HABITAT:—Swampy places. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. Seeds fattening. The root is sweet. subquadrangular. lanceolate. tube.—capsule. erect. tonic.8 cm. Africa. Gokhran.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. ciliate . CHAR. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Fl. :—G. sedative to gravid uterus . applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. Kalavankabija. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea.— purple blue. NS.— Acanthaceæ. thickened at the nodes.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . Vishnu Taila. anæmia. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. widely 2-lipped. Gokhalkanta. L. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Fr. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. Kolavalike. :—Throughout India. hispid with long hairs. Vikhara. and dysentery. tonic. useful in diarrhœa. USES :—The root is refrigerant. :—A stout herb. linear oblong. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. expectorant. Gokshura. gonorrhoea. t.—June-Jany. C. tropical and S. Shrigalghant. lips sub-equal. biliousness. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. eyediseases. lower deeply 3-lobed. hypnotic.5 cm. Vajrakantaka. colic. leprosy. anuria.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. laxative. Konkan and Deccan. H. 4-8 seeded. urinary calculi and discharges. Ceylon. And. long. aphrodisiac . tonic. Fl. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. Used in diarrhœa. DISTR.
:—Throughout India in wet places. Jalneam. axillary. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated.. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . anæmia. Tamarak. Sd. tumours. Carambola apple. creeping herb. K. branches many ascending. Brahmi. Nirbrahmi.5-10 mm. LOC. emetic. H. M. Kamaranga. CHAR. Soumyalata. K. also used in diarrhœa. succulent. Mudgara. digestible. Kirihuli. :—A glabrous. COM. Karmal. pale blue or white. leprosy. M. 6-25 X 2. See—Fruit Trees. Sk. G. decussate. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda).:—Konkan and Deccan. dried fruit is given in fevers. Ceylon and all warm countries. obovate-oblong or spatulate. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. Jany-May. L. rarely wild. found wild near N. pungent. NS. heating. COM. Shiral. C. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay.) FAM. sessile. with shining dots. Manduki. black dotted : entire. Kamarakha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kanara villages. Coromandel gooseberry. Root is given in cases of poisoning.—Oxalidaceæ. perhaps a native of Malaya. ovoid. Sk. inflammations. DISTR. causes biliousness (Yunani). DISTR. Kamarakh. when fresh. NS. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. it is cooling and antiscorbutic.—Scrophulariaceæ. "Vata". Barambhi. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. lobes equal spangled. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. HABITAT :—Damp places. . USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . astringent to bowels . striate. Bama. :—E. Fruits are used in pickles. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. astringent to bowels. pale. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.:—E. enlargement of spleen. stems rooting at the nodes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. causes biliousness. Kamrang. oblong. laxative. Safed-Kammi. Fr. Fruit sour. useful in bad ulcers. Thyme-leaved graticula . sour. solitary. 2-lipped. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. heats the body (Ayurveda). Karmar. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. capsule. Karmare . LOC. ascites. Brahmi. indigestion. H. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). t. Karuka. fruits. Darehuli. Fl. fleshy. FAM. allays thirst. LOC. acute. Brahmi.
:—G. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. K. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Devdhup. wounds. Jamalgota. Guggula. Root and leaves are cathartic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. :—Bihar. capsule. :—A stout undershrub. anaemia. CHAR. Dec. G. Danti. Mukul. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. 0. COM. Danti. often palmately 3-5 lobed. Dantimul. good in scabies. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Danti. is used as a local application in rheumatism. Sd. epilepsy and hoarseness. leucoderma. Leaf-juice. :—E. FAM. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. piles. diseases of skin and abdomen. or in monsoon forests. COM. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Jatala. PARTS USED :—Root. W. K. aphrodisiac . :—Dry open Deccan plains. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. mottled. diuretic. Burma. yellowish. anasarca and jaundice. N.9-1. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Guggula. Guggula. H.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. sinuate. Dantika. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. jaundice (Ayurveda). the lower large. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. LOC. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). t. toothed. Kaduharalu. Danti.. FAM. alexiteric. anthelmintic. Hakum. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. NS. epilepsy and hoarseness. Uddipta. NS. useful in pains. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. in monsoon forests of N. Fr.8 m. LOC. Peninsula. branching from the roots. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leaves and seeds. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f.—Euphorbiaceæ. Seeds are poisonous. syphilis . itching. purgative. LOC. They are used in dropsy. obovoid. useful in insanity. Kanara. inflammations. of three 2-valved cocci. 2-glandular. Gugul. Vishodhini.—Burseraceæ. L. Assam. Sk. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Sk. Chota Nagpur. M. all male or with a few females below. Bengal. Fl. Rechani. enlarged spleen. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. the upper small. smooth. leucoderma. . H. M. Malaya. Fl. ellipsoid. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Guggul. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. purifies blood. hairy. Gum gugul. high. conjoined with petroleum.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
USES :—Root-decoction is given. biliousness. tuberculous glands. Shikhivardhaka. aphrodisiac. Root. appetising. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. dehiscent. Ash pumpkin. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. blood diseases. Sd. Buds—indigestible. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. thirst. Seeds— cooling. LOC. not indigenous. cardiac and general tonic. G. Fl. thirst. anal troubles. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. Kushmanda.8-2. menorrhagia. oil from the seeds. Bhuru-koholu. PARTS USED :—Fruit. in dyspepsia and flatulence. Golkaddu. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. red and white. tonic to liver. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Kudimah. Burma. used as gargle in stomatitis. anthelmintic. cures biliousness.—Cucurbitaceæ. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. cures biliousness. Kohala. Sk. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. it is also anti-fat remedy.-Feb. Tallow-White gourd. LOC. DISTR. removes foul taste from mouth. aphrodisiac. used in dry cough. Fr. China.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. vaginal discharges. :—Cultivated throughout the State. cough. There are two varieties.—pod. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. . urinary discharges and calculi. Kumaon. tonic. enriches blood. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. burning sensation. bark and flowers.10-15. leucoderma. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Budekumbalkai. fever. Bark—astringent to bowels. given' to corpulent persons. blood diseases . leprosy. Timisha. dysmenorrhoea. :—E. Karkutika. Fruit—antiperiodic. K. See—Ornamental Plants. DISTR. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. ulcers. asthma. astringent. biliousness. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. cough.5 cm. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. NS. urethral discharges. eye diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. H. FAM. Koholu. heart tonic (Ayurveda). M.-Apl. tonic. blood impurities. wounds and ulcers. Kondha. Dorokaru. Sikkim. PARTS USED :—Root. tuberculous glands. diuretic. "Kapha". asthma. COM. LOC. " Tridosha". 15-20 X 1. flat. seeds. used in piles. t. HABITAT :—Cultivated. used in strangury. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). cures strangury.
upper subsessile.—Compositæ. Fl. inner bracts with green midrib. Kakarunda. Kanara. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. elliptic-oblong. catarrh. L. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. bitter. base tapered. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. sharply serrate-dentate. Tropical Africa. Kakaronda. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. Jangali-muli. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. M. febrifuge. Kukkurdru. Malaya. Kukurbanda. pubescent. S. not ribbed. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. . oblong. NS. LOC. See—Vegetables. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury.—heads many. Tamrachuda. good in syphilis (Yunani). Country. Ceylon. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. :—Annual herb.-achene. Konkan. cooling.9 m. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. COM. :—Throughout plains of India. pappus white. heart diseases. LOC. :—G.-Apl. etc. FAM. burning sensation. Deccan. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. it is given in bleeding piles. Sk. phthisis. Pilokapurio. thirst. and nutritious tonic. Oil—is soporific. sweetish. LOC. Fl. CHAR. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. good for the brain and liver. anti-pyretic. astringent.:—In plains south of Bombay. pungent. fevers. DISTR. Fr. densely glandular. blood diseases. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. mixed with black pepper. t. high.3—0. Fruit is made into confections. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. laxative. stem erect.—the lower ones petioled. Bhamurdi. Kalhar. 0. China. finely silky pubescent on both sides. haemoptysis. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. M. it is also useful in insanity.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. ash colored. Mriduchhada. Australia. and diuretic. asthma. often incised or lyrate.—Jany. H. with a strong odour of turpentine. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. BLUMEA LACERA DC. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. cures bronchitis.
abdominal pains. Fan Palm. M. Tala. H.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. —Nyctaginaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. Tad. It is used in jaundice. Burma. Brab tree. leaves and seeds. :—E. leucorrhoea. Shothaghni. fusiform. CHAR. K. NS. :—Tropical India. Moto-satodo.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. margins undulate. anæmia. stem prostrate or ascending. Dhvajadruma. Uttar Pradesh. cultivated. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties.—in corymbose umbels. G. very glandular . Africa and America. useful in biliousness. NS. Leaves— appetiser. Plant contains large quantities of pot. inflammations. Kommegida. Baluchistan. DISTR. blood impurities. Madhurasa. G. spleen enlargement.—in unequal pairs at each node. Persian Gulf. "Kapha" heating. Punarnava. whitish beneath. Fl. P. green above. Dholia-saturdo. useful in ophthalmia. astringent to bowels . HABITAT :—A weed. sub-orbicular. HABITAT :—Coastal districts .—Palmæ. Bitter. pinkish. cultivated and self-sown. asthma. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Santhikari. Kolaba and Thana districts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). Asavardu.. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Seeds—tonic. Celyon. gonorrhœa. :—A diffuse herb. Palmyra Palm. Sk. It produces a very marked and persistent. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Sk. Desert Palm. (Ayurveda). purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). Fl. Varshabhu. LOC. carminative. COM. LOC. heart diseases. in pain of joints. LOC. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. M. very small.—clavate. Tad. India. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. alterative. FAM. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. DISTR. useful in lumbago. root large. bluntly 5-ribbed. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. native of tropical Africa.— Nov. cooling . Lekhyapatra. H. Talimara. . scabies. Ghetuli. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Tad. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. "Vata". Ceylon. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. :—E. Hogweed. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. Vasu. alexiteric. t. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. L. tumours.3—2 cm. common in S. 1. generally found in poorer soils. COM. Fr. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. FAM. Indian Archipelago. and dropsy. Raktakanda. expectorant.
G. Sk. astringent to bowels. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. purifies blood. leaves. expectorant. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. expectorant. cures dysentery. purifies blood (Yunani). biliousness. Fruit—aphrodisiac. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. Kundur. Vishesha-dhupa. causes headache. Mukulsalai. Luban. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Salpe. thirst and scalding of urine. invigorating. dry. DISTR. used for boils. strengthens teeth. Gums and Resins. useful in intestinal troubles. bronchitis. Fermented juice—tonic. PARTS USED :—Bark. Salai. asthma. also found in Belgaum District. flowers. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . Guggula. fevers. Gum is of five kinds . "Vata". Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. alexiteric. blood complaints . helps delivery. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). useful in skin and blood diseases.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. Dhupam. FAM. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. COM. Loban. LOC.—Burseraceæ. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. ulcers . Fruit—cooling. fattening. aphrodisiac. Liquors. intoxicating. See—Timbers. laxative. Guggali. :—E. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. aphrodisiac. Gum—hot. cooling. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. if taken regularly acts as laxative. flowers. H. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. tonic. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Salashi. Dup. bitter. Sambrani. with a good flavour. diaphoresis. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). fruits. Moddi. fruit and gum. Bark-decoction. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). " Vata". Salphali. skin diseases. cough. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. fatigue. burning sensation. mouth-sores. may cause vomiting.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. thirst. Salgond. improves taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. allays thirst. antidysenteric. M. fattening. bad throat. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. juice.. antipyretic. antiglycosuretic. causes " Kapha ". removes "Kapha". tonic. vaginal discharges. scabies. diuretic . allays asthma. allays. K. Indian olibanum tree. hot. also used as antiperiodic. heals wounds . Sugars. binding. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. . useful in biliousness. antibilious . with a little salt added. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . LOC. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. intoxicating. convulsions. Dhup.
Sk. dispel fever . Rajika. . USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Kali-rai. :—Cultivated in India. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. rheumatism. biles. India. Black-True mustard.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Kari Sasive . Broach. G. DISTR. and toothache. chiefly in Nasik. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. lessen oedema of body. Dharwar and Belgaum. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. Jwalanti. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. :—E. LOC. anthelmintic . increase bile. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. NS. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. cure enlargement of spleen. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. " Vata".—Cruciferae. spleen. good in cough and for inflammations. See—Timbers. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. bechic. increase appetite . cure skin-dissases. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. Rai. Surat. eye-troubles. kill external parasites. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Seeds act as digestive condiment . ear. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . COM. H. cure nose. appetiser. stomachic. spasmodic. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. Mohori. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. Sarshapa. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. Asuri. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. used with butter in syphilis . cause burning . good for throat complaints. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. Seeds-laxative. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. M. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. K. Seeds— remove cough tumours. Kaira. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. Khandesh. Taramira . The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. See—Condiments and Spices. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. FAM. internal congestions. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Gums and Resins. vermicide.
bitter. :—G. 10-15 cm. :—An annual scandent herb.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Gargumaru. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. NS. subsessile. Shivavalli. Malaya. Sk.—yellowish brown. Fr. 5-lobed. tendrils 2-fid : L. Philippines. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. LOC. Sk. Ishawara-Shivalingi. Tans.—Cucurbitaceæ. Shivlingi. COM. Suviraka. PARTS USED :—Root. bluish green. NS. Country. Mullu-siru Honne.. Ekalkanto. Lingaja. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. It is used in bilious attacks. smooth. of Shivaling shape . 5 cm. Chandra. hemiplegia. southward to Ceylon. K. LOC. hot. :—G. t. See—Timbers.. FAM. 5-partite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. COM. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. corolla as in the male . corolla companulate. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. Kavodi. Garige. bark. :—Deccan. Fl. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Asana. ovate-oblong. alterative. Shivalingi. FAM. .—baccate. Kassi. M. Gauli. female flowers solitary. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. DISTR. 3—2 . The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. lobes oblong lanceolate. or few or many. M. Ekadivi. lumbago. Apastambhini. Sd. Asana.— membranous. Lingini. Australia. S. paler and smooth beneath.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. Goge. useful in "Vata". glabrous . Mahavira. Asana. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). green and scabrid above. and in fevers with flatulence. deeply cordate base. tropical Africa. Mauritius.— Aug-Sept. long. 1 . The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. H.—Euphorbiaceæ. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. globose. Patharphoda. H. DISTR. Kaj.. pungent. margins sinuate denticulate. Asana. CHAR. diam. stem grooved. LOC. streaked with broad vertical lines .:—Throughout India. Manj. M. Fl. Gunjan. Khaja.
buds with root. Panphuti. alexipharmic. :—Hot and drier parts of India. astringent to bowels. Fr. burning sensation on body. t. Charoli. thirst. HABITAT :—Dry.—Jany. LOC. FAM. cooling. younger reddish. crenate or serrate. M. leaflets ovate. L. Char. Country. H. Charpoppu. Priyal. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Roots. COM. seeds. fattening. cures blooddiseases. fruit. Dhanu. S. S. fevers. aphrodisiac. Fl. K. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). when punctured. the Dangs. M. in large panicles. Zakhi-haiyat. K.—small.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Lonnahadakana gida. Sk. leaves. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. It is a disinfectant. Asthibhakshya. deciduous open forests. CHAR. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . carminative. M. ulcers. inflammations. "Vata" and biliousness. Country. NS. Pyalchar.3-1.. Thailand (Siam). decussate. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. allays . bruises. constricted in the middle. with opposite branches . Cambodia. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. also wild. Stems obtusely 4-angled. NS. :—Konkan. smooth. Sd. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. Lalana. Cochin-China. lower usually simple. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Char. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). :—H. COM. elliptic. vomiting. The bark is bitter and poisonous. lobes triangular. laxative. purgative. Gujarat. aphrodisiac. LOC. cardio-tonic. Char. occasionally compound. LOC. purifies blood. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. Rajadana. Kolegeru. Charoli. the older light-coloured.—variable. Murukali. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). analgesic. speckled with white. binding. :—Konkan.2 m. Tapaspriya. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. gum (rarely). Panphui. tonic. reddish purple. Piyal. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. M. DISTR. Snehabija.—Crassulaceæ. Paira. Parnabija. Sk. Leaf-juice digestive.—pendant. DISTR.—swollen and octagonal at the base. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". :—Native of tropical Africa. high. :—G. useful in diarrhœa. boils and bites of venomous insects.—Anacardiaceæ. upper 3-5-7 foliate.) FAM. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. Deccan. expectorant.
Leaves—good for eye diseases. tonic. leprosy. stomachic. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. Yajnika. burning urine. cause headache (Yunani). carminative. astringent. Dyes. cold and cough. aphrodisiac. thirst. Fruit and seed—hot. leaves. Ceylon. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. DISTR. LOC. biliousness. colic. lessens lumbago. aperient used in urinary discharges. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . relieves abnormal thirst. cures excessive perspiration. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. dysmenorrhoea. seeds. pimples. M. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. expectorant. See—Timbers. good in dysentery. LOC. :—E. Kakria. Gum—acrid. good in fevers. Palash. tonic. gout. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. Tripatrak. remove bad humours. Kuntz. Chichra. prickly heat and itch. lessens inflammations. Kinshuk. ascends to 1200 m. digestible. aphrodisiac. piles. cure tumours. eye diseases. inflammations. corneal opacities. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). tumours. worms and piles. H. Leaf—very astringent. cures ulcers and tumours. purifies blood. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). LOC. Bark—appetiser. Kshatadru. cough. in the Khandesh Akrani. Khakda. useful in piles. Gums and Resins. G. anthelmintic. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and .) FAM. Dhak. Oils. useful in bone fractures. useful in elephantiasis. gonorrhœa. Khakhrao. Khakera. bark. diseases of anus. gum. Muttala. lessens biliousness. stomatitis. Bastard teak. Flower—aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. K. topically in piles and hydrocele. flowers. pterygium. Fruit and seeds—oily. Bark—appetiser. laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. hydrocele. COM. fractures. Sk. Palas. emmenagogue. Seeds tonic to body and brain. used in diseases of chest and lungs. India. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. anthelmintic. if chewed. anthelmintic. NS. buboes. useful in syphilis. strangury. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. diuretic .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). gonorrhoea. used in liver disorders. tonic to liver. Muttuga. burning sensation. dysentery. good in biliousness. piles. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. aphrodisiac. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Flowers—cure " Kapha". skindiseases. Gum—astringent to bowels. dry. Palas.
FAM. antiperiodic. anthelmintic .) COM. Fruit—acrid. Gajjige.—1-2 oblong. astringent to bowels. oblong 5-7. LOC. cures inflammation . Gajga. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. H. LOC. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. leprosy (Yunani). Gajaga. Fl. Seed—styptic. Physic nut. Sagargota. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. K. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges.3 cm. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). L. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. Sd. useful in colic. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. .—yellow. leaves. piles. Dyes. malaria. Karanja. prevents contagious diseases . Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. leucorrhcea. Sind.5 cm.5 X 4. act as rubefacient. Flowers are astringent. Tapasi. densely armed on the faces with prickles. :—Throughout India.5 cm. fevers. DISTR. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. long . Kuberakshi. Sk. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles.—pod. etc. :—E.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. t. cures urinary discharges. Fl. long. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. hydrocele. 30-60 cm. G.—abruptly pinnate.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Gum solution is applied to bruises. sprouts useful in tumours. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Katkaranj. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. shortly stalked. elliptic-oblong. asthma and colic. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. Katkaleja. pinnae 6-8 pairs. 5-7. Deccan hills. flowers and fruit. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . lead-colored 1. Fever nut. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. :—An extensive climber.—JulySept. heating. the tropics generally. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. CHAR. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. Kakechika. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Gums and Resins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. petioles prickly. They are applied to orchitis. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. aphrodisiac and diuretic. Leaves contain a glucoside. M. very common near the sea-coast. strongly mucronate. wounds. ringworm. skin-diseases. NS. Fr. leaflets 6-9 pairs.
Surangi. Madar. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn.. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Ekke. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Dholaakdo. . :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. K. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Sk. Br. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Kanara associated with littoral species. Surhonne. Polynesia. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. See—Timbers. Rui. DISTR. 10-20 X3. :—E. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Undi. L. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. LOC. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Australia. Arka.— opposite. very common in N. covered with cottony pubescence. often gregarious. Punnaga. East African Islands. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Shuka-phala. thick. :—Cultivated throughout India. Kshirparni. The gum from wounded branches. Ceylon. Ponne. Tungakeshera. COM. high.. sometimes amplexicaul. sessile. Alexandrian laurel. Madar. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark. H. Oils. LOC. CHAR. Punnag.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. and oil. K. Arka. base cordate. Mandara. used in chronic fevers.—Asclepiadaceæ. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Vuma.. Ak. COM. Purasakeshera. and for its oil. FAM.H. M. lessens appetite. Sk. G.. gum. :—E. NS. both surfaces tomentose. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Gigantic swallow-wort. NS. elliptic or ovate oblong. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet.8-10 cm. Akand. Mandara. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes.4-3 m. branches stout.—Guttiferæ. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. much branched. FAM. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. astringent. M. Undi. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Kshiranga. Ark. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. Surpan. :—A large shrub. mixed with bark strips and leaves. 2. Akdo. Sultanchampa.. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action.
young parts white.—subsessile. across.:—H.— purplish in umbellate cymes. bark corky. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. cures leucoderma. spongy. 9-10 cm. buds globose. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. Malay Islands and S. diaphoretic. catarrh and loss of appetite. cures asthma and syphilis.. LOC. painful joints . green. coughs. Fl. Root-bark is diaphoretic. depilatory. lobes usually erect.-July. usually 5. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. DISTR. COM. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. C. Juice—anthelmintic. rat-bite. heal wounds. Sd:—many. elliptic or obovate. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . dropsy. :—An erect shrub usually 1. asthma. spleen and liver diseases.. tonic and stomachic in action. flattened tomentose. useful in leprosy.—7. swellings. buds ovoid.8-2. apex with two auricles. ellipsoid or ovoid. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. leaves and flowers. ovate oblong. Fr. Milk— caustic. liver and spleen enlargement. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. purgative. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.. India. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. also useful in intestinal worms. See—Fibres. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. ringworm of scalp. Safedak. Fr. cottony. comose. subglobose. elephantiasis.5 cm. ulcers. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). Br. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m.—Asclepiadaceæ. oleaginous. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. Madar. Ceylon.5-10 X 5-7. LOC. cures leprosy. bark. Sd. NS. L. FAM.5-8. Mandara. Rajarka. cures piles and "Kapha". :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . high. cures inflammations. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. Fl. t.—broadly ovate. Mandara.—follicles. acrid . China. back much curved. scabies. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. CHAR. Sk. Flower—analgesic. broad. Ark.4 m. Flowers—digestive. tumours.—in umbellate cymes. ascites and anasarca. alterative and purgative properties. expectorant and anthelmintic. piles. leaves applied to paralysed parts. comose . Ak. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. M. very common. .—lobes deltoid-ovate. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. purplish or white. Milk— heating. eruption on body. astringent. long. very common is S.2 cm. ascites.— Feb. PARTS USED :—Root. C. corona shorter than the column. Flowers—stomachic. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. tumours.—about 2. asthma. used in cough.7—15 X 4. good for liver (Yunani). HABITAT :—Dry waste places.
—segments 2. Kalehu. Kamakshi. Egypt. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Asishimbi. LOC. Gavara. See—Vegetables. spatulate. staminodial segments. Khadsambal. Akalabera. on trees and hedges .:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. 1 linear . veins arching. Sk. G.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. See—Fibres. narrow. M. PARTS USED :—Leaves. H. Devakeli. Sambe. Nilashimbika. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Sarvajaya. (Chopra). Abai. Tamateballi. Waziristan. ulcers (Ayurveda). Gavria. greenish or colored. PARTS USED :—Pods. Afghanistan. Broad—Sword bean. Kadavare. Fl. indigestible. appetiser. Indian shot. Tarvardi. Flowers used as detergent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. bracts oblong. DISTR. FAM. NS. oval or orbicular. hernia and colic. green. Koshaphala.—Scitaminaceae. :—E. Paraholiya. high . M.2 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. long. Sarvajaya. abundant in Sind. COM. P. H. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. membranous.:—Perennial herb . There is an alkaloid present in the pods. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Iran. Kardali. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Kadsambu.. K. Warm leaves used as poultice. root-stock tuberous. acrid. stem 0. Sabbajaya. K. Gigantea. Hudingana. CANNA INDICA Linn. LOC. Shimbi. cooling. LOC. CHAR. tropical Africa. but doubtfully wild. useful in burning sensations. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics.3 cm. Sema. flowers and milky juice.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. 3 sub-erect. Shitarambha. The pods contain vitamin A. Arabia. :—E. G. FAM. tonic. Sk.. lanceolate to ovate. L. they are given in cholera. NS. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. biliousness. DISTR.5 cm. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. COM. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. erect.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).9-1.
Not indigenous.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. intoxication (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy.9-1. causes biliousness. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Female inflorescence is stomachic. dropsy. restlessness. intoxicating. G. excessive use causes indigestion. Fr. causes thirst and biliousness. Vijaya. leprosy. soporific. See—Ornamental Plants. Bhangi. high in its feral state. M. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). CHAR. LOC.—more or less throughout the year. tonic. intoxication. lower 3-8 foliate. Shivapriya. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. H. leaves. Fl. Unmattini. also wild. antidiarrhoeic. Siddhapatri. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). lessen inflammation. Wild in the Himalayas.—small axillary. aphrodisiac. insanity. male fascicled. female perianth hyaline. oil-good for earache. echinulate . shining. alterative . When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered.—achene. Central Asia. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male.—Urticaceæ. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. Bhang. HABITAT :—Cultivated. soporific. dioecious. :—Throughout India. Hemp. stomachic. male flowers. L. cause headache. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Mohini. usually 0. Seeds—carminative. causes thirst. PARTS USED :—Bark. DISTR. Harshini. black. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. COM. Ganja. seeds and resin. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). serrate. globose. They are broken in small pieces. astringent.—many. good for hydrocele. useful in " Kapha". Bhang. piles. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations.—alternate or the lower opposite. Sd. impotence. :—E. female crowded under convolute bracts. Ganja. upper 1-3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Fr. imbricate.5 m. useful in convulsions.—sub-globose or oblong . :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. abortifacient. aphrodisiac. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . Leaves—bitter. LOC. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. (3) Charas. inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . tonic. water extract anthelmintic. Bark—tonic. heating. sepals 5. 3-lobed. PARTS USED :—Roots. melancholia. t. (2) Bhang. DISTR. leaves. :—Widely cultivated in India. flowers and seeds. NS. hot. check vomiting. Fl. LOC. K. flowers. FAM. cough. Ganja. hallucinations.
G. Marchu . expectorant. muscular pains. delirium (Ayurveda). cholera. useful in brain complaints. Madana modak used in cough. and dropsy. :—Cultivated all over India. Ujjvala. asthma. See—Condiments and Spices. Menshinkai. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. loss of consciousness. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. increases biliousness. The fruit contains Capsisin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. M. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. COM. Narcotics.—Solanaceæ. H. See—Gums and Resins. PARTS USED :—Fruit. useful in indigestion. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Lalmirchi. dyspepsia. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. LOC. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). LOC. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. acute mania. Raktamaricha. Country in Deccan. dysuria. often found as an escape. Mirchi. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. increases appetite. Lanka mirchi. Marichiphala. :—Extensively cultivated in S. NS. Sk. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. and is employed by Indian physicians. weakness of body. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. diarrhœa. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. Fibres. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Tikshna. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. K. spermatorrhoea. also in gout. erysipelas. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. in the form of electuary. :—E. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. whooping cough. DISTR. Cayenne-pepper. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. M. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. Tivrashakti. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. It is stomachic. Fruit—pungent. Capsaicin and Solanin. FAM. Vegetables. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. The plant contains cannabinin. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Chillies. . Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Mirchi. and flatulence. chronic ulcers. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. HABITAT :—Cultivated.
leaves. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. FAM. Fruit—acrid. Kalindi. Daddala. " Vata ". Root is considered diaphoretic. Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. flowers and fruits. leaves and seeds. :—E. colic. ultimate segments lanceolate. bronchitis. Ghats. smooth. COM. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. Karolio. Sk. Kumbhi. anthelmintic. Fibres. winged at the angles. piles. :—Throughout India. LOC. skin-diseases. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Ceylon. 2-ternate. leucoderma. bark. Hennumatti. Sk. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. epileptic fits. bladdery .:—Common in hedges throughout the State. LOC. Karnasphota. Gavvahannu. Sind. deltoid. Kangu. See—Timbers. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. dry. Maniju balli. C. NS. DISTR. NS. inciso-serrate. black. PARTS USED :—Root. hot. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests.— alternate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. M. Balloon vine.—Sapindaceæ. alexiteric. Kanphuti. Konkan and W. dyspepsia. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. HABITAT :—In hedges . infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . petals 4. trigonous.—globose.—capsule. urinary discharges. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. :—Most warm countries. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus.—Myrtaceæ. Kumbha. PARTS USED :—Root. M. when moistened. Wild guava . useful in tumours. Kumbi. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Jyotish-mati. Blister creeper. . COM. Kumbhi. aphrodisiac. DISTR. G. stem wiry. very acute apex. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Shaundi. and is administered in fevers. diuretic and aperient. K. Vakambi. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . G.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. LOC. bark. Girikarnika. H. rounded at the apex. common in S. Kapalphodi. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). FAM. The plant contains saponin. it is mucilaginous. Thailand (Siam). CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb.—white. PROPERTIES AND LOC. subglobose. K. Fr. Sakralata. Fl. Agni-erum. Deccan. introduced. :—E. CHAR. abscesses and ulcers. Sd. Malay Peninsula. L. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds.
Agnishikha. Oil—indigestible. Flower—tonic to liver. Papita. Mexico and Brazil. cures inflammation. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. Karada. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. made into curries. Chibda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Papaya. FAM. wounds of urinary track. :— E. cooling. :—Native throughout India. "Kapha". Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. LOC. Sk. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . Karrak. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. laxative. cures insanity (Ayurveda). a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. aphrodisiac. in haemoptysis. Indies. bleeding piles. Papayi. HABITAT :—Cultivated.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. NS. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. Barre. :—E. removes urinary concretions . good for eyes. diuretic. . See—Fruit Trees.—Compositæ. Chirbhita. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. piles. flowers. "Tridosh". hypnotic. appetiser . cause biliousness. Popayi. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. leprosy. carminative. scabies. Pappayi. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. seeds and oil. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. enlargement of spleen. diuretic. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. bronchitis. Kamalottama. Pangi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. of W. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Leaves—hot. used. COM. PARTS USED :—Leaves. M. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). G. expectorant. COM. Dyer's saffron. unripe fruit. H. Kusumbo. Seeds—oleaginous. heating. Safflower. Papaw. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. cure "Vata". FAM. relieves obesity. DISTR. ringworm. Fruit—stomachic. Ahmednagar and Nasik.—Caricaceæ. :—Grown extensively in Poona. bile. appetiser. aphrodisiac. Kardai. diuretic. depilatory. Papaya. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Sk. cures inflammations. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. K. LOC. Kusumba. NS. Nalikadala. it is used to procure abortion. Papaya. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. Guppe. fruit and seeds. G. H. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. M. White thin latex contains Papain. strangury. digestive. Kusumbha. Kusumba. Kusumba. leucoderma. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. LOC. DISTR. removes biliousness . causes burning sensation . cure urinary discharges. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). astringent to bowels.
Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. oblong-obtuse. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. :—E. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. appetiser. pinnate. DISTR. laxative. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. FAM.—Umbelliferæ. atonic dyspepsia. Dipyaka. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. liver. stomachic. paralysis. carminative. COM. Ajamoda. spleen. subsessile. Dwipagasti. See—Vegetables. CASSIA ALATA Linn. Afghanistan. G. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. Sk.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). abdominal pain. CHAR. good for old people. See—Condiments and Spices. aphrodisiac . Ajowan. tonic. good in weakness of limbs. Dadmardan. Iran. Tivragandha. Dadamardana. Leaves contain vitamin A. LOC. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. cure catarrh. :—Cultivated extensively in India. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. kidney troubles. Baluchistan. K. Elgra. Omu . Winged senna. M. give lustre to eyes. emmenagogue and sedative. good for heart and tooth-ache. Dadrughna. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). and diarrhœa. Simyatase. carminative. bechic. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. NS. vomiting. The seeds bitter and hot. Egypt. Datka pat. LOC. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Oils. purgative. aphrodisiac. Owa. inflammation (Yunani). increase biliousness (Ayurveda). Dyes. NS :— E. M. Europe. bitter. L. COM. mucronate. downy beneath. hiccup. Oil—good in all diseases. leaflets 10-12 pairs. chest pains. vomiting. long. Seeds—purgative. pungent. they are used in jaundice . stimulant. K. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. oblique at the base. myrabolans and rock salt. diuretic. Bishops' weed . rachis . dyspepsia. Dodda sagate. improve speech and eyesight. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . Oma. enrich blood. stimulate intestines. good for ear boils. They are administered in flatulence. Ajamo . chest and throat pains. abdominal tumours. piles. H. tonic and carminative properties. carminative. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. strengthening. 30-60 cm. Sk. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. Ajwain. enlargement of spleen. cure ascites. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. and even in cholera. Ringworm shrub. H. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture.
56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.—Jany. M.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric.5 X 10 cm. cure " Vata ". 10-20 X 1. causes flatulence . :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. LOC. good for ulcers. across. pale beneath. Ph. leaflets 8-12 pairs.—pod long. Sk. Fl.—large. :—E. dull green above.—pod.-July. DISTR. useful in vomiting.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. asthma. rachis densely pubescent. NS. obliquely septate.—7. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. thirst. Sd. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. bark smooth. mucronate. along the sea coast in laterite region. pedunculate racemes . useful in thirst. Ceylon. Avarike. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . t. . cures tumours.3-1. rotundate. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. reniform. LOC. Sd. G. and throat troubles. Indies.—bright yellow with darker veins.—30-35. reddish brown. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes.6 cm. Gujarat and S. membranous. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. long. Mukerji). anthelmintic. 20-25. Peninsula. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). Charmaranga. very likely a native of the W. Tarwad. Tanner's cassia. t. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. straight. Tangadi. J. oblong-obovate. Bark has the same properties. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. Tarwad. CHAR. Burma. Fl. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. 28-4-88).. Madhya Pradesh and W. Pitakilaka. " In eczema. Taroda. itching. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). Fl. nocturnal emissions. M. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. H. leaves. flowers. Sakusina. The whole plant. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr.. cough. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. rhombohedral. Fr. Avartki. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. 5 cm. LOC. skin-diseases.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. K. urinary discharges . stipules very large. FAM.-Oct. fruits and seeds. L. skin diseases. DISTR.) COM. Fr. diabetes. leprosy. slightly overlapping.—in spiciform. Mayahari. Awal. N. :—Introduced into India. alexipharmic . yellow with orange veins. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). Ahmed. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. ringworm. asthma . CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. HABITAT :—Planted. PARTS USED :—Root.-50 or more. LOC. C. buds in yellow bracts. cm. vermicide (Ayurveda). Country.
C. Sk.) COM. hard. rheumatism. demulcent. juice given in erysipelas. Kasondi. distinctly torulose. Dodda-tagase. cooling. :—E. Fr. G. transversely septate. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. H. fruit and seeds. Balla. Bahava. See—Timbers. M. Arimarda. syphilis. Suvarnaka. Burma. Ornamental Plants. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. heal ulcers . 10—12. Indian laburnum. Pudding-pipe or stick. DISTR. CASSIA FISTULA Linn.—petals 5. Tans. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. cures burning sensation.—very foetid when bruised. :—E. Seeds— oily. Rechana. Kakka. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Fl. Kasmarda. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. Stinking weed. Kasari. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Amaltas. also planted. Bandartauri. Leaves lessen inflammation. shining dark olive-green.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. eye-diseases. Fruit—digestible. In Konkan. Chimkani.) COM. apex acute. purgative. Rankasvinda. biliousness . juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. griping. Chakinda. long. base somewhat oblique. abortifacient. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Sk. antipyretic. cause flatulence. PARTS USED :—Root. carminative. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. recurved. t. Leaves—anti-periodic . Vyadivata. L. 15-20 cm. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Kasundari. smooth. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Golden shower. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. H. Ane sogate. cooling. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Kasonda.5 cm. Ceylon.— Jany-March. corymbose. branches furrowed. Fruit—antipyretic. Sd. See—Dyes. Fl. FAM. :—Throughout India. Arogyashimbi. NS. Aragina. and Famine Plants. Flowers—purgative. yellow. CHAR. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Kacodari. Kasoda. M.—pods. improve appetite. leaves. leprosy. throat-troubles. purgative. Flowers—improve taste. tuberculous glands. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. FAM. K. LOC. astringent. Hema-puspha. K. ovate-lanceolate. used in rheumatism. flowers. Konde. faintly veined with orange . laxative. lessens inflammation and body-heat. useful in chest and liver complaints.—in few flowered racemes. long. It is a mild laxative. often purplish. NS. safe for children and pregnant women. cure " Kapha ". Rajataru.—20-30. (Ayurveda). leaflets 3-5 pairs. Negro coffee. . Garmala..— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ.
Fr. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. Ran tankala. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. See—Famine Plants. LOC.— Nov. opposite. Kasundari. high. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. cures ascites. LOC.. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Sd. H. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. . the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. fevers. asthma.—in axillary. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). :—A shrub 2.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Seeds used in heat of the blood. alexiteric. cure " Kapha". heals wounds. DISTR. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. t. C. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. in Kutch. mixed with honey. annual or perennial. cough.. few flowered corymbose racemes. tonic and febrifuge. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. At Kotra. See—Famine Plants.—18-23 cm. Baskikasondi. hiccup. FAM. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. LOC. Banar. obtuse. " Vata ". 7. Sk. Fl. leaves and seeds. K.4-3 m. CHAR. are given in diabetes. yellow. NS.510 cm. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. stomachic. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. Kasondi. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). lanceolate. Kasamarda. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). turgid. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. base rounded.Jany. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. L. Kasamarda. and seeds are cathartic. leaves and seeds. The bark. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. with a solitary conical gland near the base . M. Talapota. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. petals 5. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. COM. Leaves—aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Bark. rachis grooved .58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. elephantiasis. The plant contains glucoside emodin. long . septate between the seeds . " tridosha " .—pod. :—G. ovate. LOC. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . slightly recurved.—30-40 broadly ovoid. leaves. dark brown . In many countries root is considered diuretic. leaflets 6-10 pairs.
:—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Panevar. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. Svarnalata. unarmed. Sk. :—E. leaflets 3 pairs.—pod. much curved when young. H. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. The plant contains glucoside emodin. Intellect tree. :—A very common weed all over the State. bitter. H. K. Chagoche.—Celastraceæ. 18 m. branches rough. 6. appetiser. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). powerful brain tonic. upper petal 2-lobed . Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.. X 4. L. Kanguni. Fr. Kangli. base oblique. t. Tarota. Seeds—bitter.5 mm. Kangodi. DISTR. fleshy arillus. Dadrughna. Sk.—pinnate. :—E. Sphutabandhani.. bright yellow. Black-oil tree. 12.5-10 cm. :—Large deciduous climber.—after the rains. Malkakni. Malkamni. Tagache. LOC. 7. Malhangana. Fr. hot. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. FAM. Seeds— acrid. obovate. G.5 cm. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. rachis grooved. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. crenate. stem upto 23 cm. Fl. leaves and seeds. Chakunda.— petals 5. NS.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . Sd. NS. obliquely septate. . brain and liver tonic. M.8-7. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. laxative. 30-90 cm. Malkangoni. Sd. covered with lenticels. Jyotishmati. ovate or obovate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Takala. in drooping panicles. usually unisexual. COM.5-20 cm. Taga.3-10 X 3. expectorant. M. high. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. shining above. reddish brown.. capsule. aphrodisiac. 1-6 completely covered with red. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. Foetid cassia. alternate. pale yellow. LOC. globose. L. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. oblong. Pamad. opposite (lowest smaller). emetic. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. Ceylon. long. CHAR. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. Climbing-staff plant. Dadamari. Velo . Kangani.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. high. C. Madras State. cause burning sensation. cure joint-pains. CHAR. Chakramarda. DISTR.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. in diam. :—An annual foetid herb.) COM. PARTS USED :— Root. small yellowish-green. Taragosi. Burma. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.
spreading star-like .—3 from each node. Vondelaga. K. Seeds are hot. CHAR. orbicular. Lahanchirayat. :—G. COM. LOC. Barmi. NS. Don. Fr. Brahmamanduki. Fl. cauline smaller. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. radical leaves revolute. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. Brahmi. FAM. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Oil stomachic. NS. :—Konkan. base deeply cordate stipulate. DISTR. minute. H.—May-Nov. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. aphrodisiac and stimulant. M. Fr. :— E. paralysis and leprosy. M. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). especially in Bengal. linear-oblong. they are also sudorific. narrowly oblong . ovoid. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. Ekpani. long. stem creeping with long internodes. :—A slender herbaceous plant. hard-rugose. FAM. Vallari .). L. cloves. reniform. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. persistent. C. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. M.—Umbelliferæ. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. good for cough and asthma.—tubular lobes 5. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. rooting at the nodes. Jangli-karayatu. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). used in leprosy. pink.—in fascicled umbels. pink. elliptic.-Apl.—Feb.—opposite. COM. .60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. Brahmamanduki. Deccan and S. Mandukparni.—capsule. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. gout. Fl. t. L. Sk. t. G.—4 mm.). high. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. obovate or oblong. H. :—Throughout India. LOC. Country. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. Jhinkun-kariatum. and is employed for external application. Fl. Mahaushadhi. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. Kheta-Barik-chirayat.—Gentianaceæ. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. Fl.
For external use powder. leaves and seeds). carminative. anæmia. fruit. Kanara. Plant—bitter. " Kapha ". digestible. Sukanu. tonic. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. sedative to nerves. memory. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. :—K. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. improves appetite (Yunani). and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. blood diseases. plaster or bath are used. clears voice and brain. milky juice. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. Leaves are also diuretic. improves appetite. Australia Pacific Islands. bechic. nut is narcotic and poisonous . abundant on the Malabar Coast. FAM. urinary discharges. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. Leaf-powder. scalding of urine. fevers. inflammations. thirst. LOC. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute.—Apocynaceæ. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. laxative. USES :—Bark is purgative. used in insanity (Ayurveda). bitter. Tande. Chanda. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. :—Throughout India near the coast. small-pox. See—Timbers. LOC.) DISTR. :—South Konkan and N. bronchitis. Malay Archipelago. . ointment. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. China. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. Honde. M. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. NS. tonic. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. DISTR. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. cooling. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. nallas. alterative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. COM. voice. spleen enlargement. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. water courses throughout the State. and a bitter substance odollin. cardio-tonic. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. cures leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Bark. soporific. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. stomachic. alexiteric. asthma. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . headache . PROPERTIES AND LOC. biliousness. diuretic. twigs. asthma. bronchitis. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". :—In moist situations (streams. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. cures hiccup.
HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Ksharadala. oleaginous. M. Rayara nelli. G. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). sour . laxative. FAM. G. Chana. COM. Deccan and S. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. acrid. also cultivated as a pot herb. Lavali. Chandanbedu. But. eye-diseases. M. vomiting. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite.—Chenopodiaceæ. aphrodisiac. "Kapha". anthelmintic. piles . Kadale.. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. DISTR. useful in thirst. Rai-avala. NS. urinary concretions. . Country gooseberry. Chalmeri. :—E. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. K. Wild-spinach. useful in biliousness. FAM . tonic. useful in bronchitis. :—E. M. Harparrevdi. "Vata". Harbara. Chanaka. The fruit is acrid and astringent. Pandu. diuretic. root and the seed are cathartic. Chakravarti. tonic to liver. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fruit is very sour . The plant yields an essential oil. H. LOC. biliousness. DISTR. COM. Chick pea. Agralohita. Goose-foot. See—Fruit Trees. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. Balabhojya. Sk. K. diseases of blood.) FAM. Harparauri K. spleen (Ayurveda). improves appetite. Kari-Kempukadale.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Sk. constipation. Skandhaphala. Chania. Bathusag. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Laveni. :—Very common in the Deccan. M. fragrant. H. LOC. Chakravati. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kanchuki.—Euphorbiaceæ.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Sk. CICCA ACIDA Merr. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Tanko. fruit and seeds. throattroubles. LOC. Chana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. Cheel. :— E. NS. COM. LOC. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. abdominal pains. heart. :—Cultivated in India. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. Country. :—Widely distributed. piles. Vajibhakshya. Chillika. H. Bengal—Common-gram. Chunna. Chakwat. USES :— Root is purgative. LOC. NS.
aphrodisiac. causes flatulence. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. Gudatwaka. bronchitis. PARTS USED. flatulence. piles. Lavange-hakke. Leaves—purgative. tonic . Dalchini. anthelmintic. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. leprosy. :—W. strengthens liver. Sk. causes salivation. tonic. :—G. appetiser. Dalchini. Malay Peninsula. Kash. hiccup. heart. useful in bronchitis. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). throat troubles. alexiteric. toothache (Ayurveda). and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. improve taste and appetite. LOC. Seed—indigestible. diarrhœa and dysentery. foul mouth and fever. LOC. Valkala. Dalchini. biliousness. LOC. Oil—carminative.—Lauraceæ. thirst. pains . HABITAT :—Rain-forests. indigestion. refrigerant. etc. tonic to hair. useful in inflammations. FAM. Burma. throat troubles. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. Nisane. bronchitis (Yunani). :— Bark and oil. aphrodisiac. expectorant. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. itching. abdominal pains. Duk. toothache. cure bronchitis. rectum and urinary diseases. causes flatulence. chest complaints. PARTS USED :—Leaves. vomiting. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. aphrodisiac. Seed—stimulant. anthelmintic . good for diseases of liver and spleen. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. abortifacient. It possesses carminative. emmenagogue. seed and acid exudation. carminative. useful in hydrocele. cold in head. See—Food Plants. astringent to bowels . Bark—tonic. enriches blood. M. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. COM. Leaves contain vitamin A. vomiting. heated brain. tonic. indigenous and cultivated. See—Condiments and Spices. K. Kanara district. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. cures thirst and burning. . DISTR. Pulse contains vitamins A and B.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. Peninsula. headache. useful in " Vata ". acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. cures skin diseases. flatulence. It checks nausea and vomiting. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. parched mouth. useful in cold. useful in loss of appetite. Darchini. Oils. Dalchini. biliousness. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. diarrhœa. liver-tonic . Ceylon. very common in the N. anthelmintic. blood troubles. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). H. Oil—styptic. carminative. pungent. aphrodisiac. headache.
Chitraphala. fever. Uthika. also for prolapsus uteri. Fr. i. L. red or yellowish white. L. Indraphal. LOC. cordate at the base. NS. DISTR.— usually margined. Kaduvrindavan.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. male flowers in axillary cymes. axillary racemes . hairy. useful in hemicrania. Venivalli. Paharmul. H.—large. branches more or less pubescent. Tumtikayi. greenish outside. burning. CHAR. tendrils bifid. Fl. M. Africa and America. mucronate.—July-Sept.—Menispermaceæ. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. COM. monœcious. C. somewhat hairy. removes pain. smooth. The active constituent of the drug.8-10 cm. NS. 7. t. upto 25 cm. yellow within.5-20 cm. stem thick. removes intestinal worms. Indrayan. 1949). diam. Fl.—A climbing shrub. diarrhœa. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. subcampanulate. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". compressed. asthma . in conjunction with aromatics. Trapusi. Annual Report. Pavamekke Kayi.-Jany. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Nirbisi.. minute. (Ind. 5-partite. Fr. piles. has been isolated. warm parts of Asia. dropsy and cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste .—Cucurbitaceæ. an alkaloid. :—An extensively climbing annual. K. Bitter apple. diam. :— E. Indruk. FL t. red. G. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. Colocynth. peltate. Sk. LOC.. F. Patha. :—Deccan. leaves. female flowers in elongate. uterine complaints. or twin. Velvet-leaf. Ghorumba. angular . dysentery. itching . young shoots woolly. orbicular or reniform. heart troubles. :—In hills. Mahendravaruni. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. greenish. CHAR. helps parturition. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. G. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. Indrayan. :—E. HABITAT. Katurasa. solitary. Pahadvel. which possibly has a cholinergic action. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. Makal. Kanara. FAM. COM. Sd. waxy coated. H. Indrayana. alleviates vomiting. skin eruptions.—Nov. subglobose. R. Asso. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. margins ciliate. . solitary. drupe. long. flesh juicy. Sk. sub-globose. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. M. 5-nerved. lobes obovateoblong. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. E. FAM. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. Venivel. 3.e. yellowish.
USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. Nagaranga. tuberculous glands of neck. urinary discharges. cooling. purgative. fortifies chest. removes fatigue . :—Konkan. jaundice. Naringi. aphrodisiac . aphrodisiac. Sunthura. LOC. Kirmirtvaka. cures tumours. carminative. ascites. Kittale. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. Narenj. (Poona. :— E. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. DISTR. Fruit—sour. N. epilepsy. removes " Vata ". ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. good in fevers. " Kapha". Narangi. Asia. Deccan. constipation. anthelmintic. K. astringent. :—Widely cultivated in India. laxative. sea-shores. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). sweet and has agreeable flavour. removes biliousness. relieves colds. LOC. and lumbago. Root and fruit cooling. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Also indigenous in Arabia. bronchitis. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. Sukkare-kanji. enlargement of spleen. Sk. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. G. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. elephantiasis . Narange. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). Flower— stimulant. Santra. enlargement of spleen. FAM. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Tvakasugandha. good in vomiting and skin diseases. throat diseases. LOC. Cardiotonic. with or without nux-vomica. COM. NS. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). constipation. Naringa. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. leuco-derma. diuretic. tonic. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. In the Konkan fruit and root. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. dyspepsia.—Rutaceæ. bowel complaints. Doddile. H. LOC. relieves vomiting and retching. M. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. DISTR. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. Ceylon. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. W. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. pain in joints. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. antipyretic. fever and worms. chest troubles. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Rind— anthelmintic. useful in biliousness. anæmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. Gujarat. asthma. anthelmintic . useful in piles.
PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. COM. According to Theophrastus. Motalimbu . Limonum. The fruits contain vitamins A. Balank. Harale. COM. . thirst. Madala. :—Roots. USES. leaves and flowers hot and dry. Mavalunga. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Adam's apple. aphrodisiac. juice refrigerant and astringent. urinary calculus and caries of teeth.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant.—Rutaceæ. flatulence. M. LOC. K. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. H. :—E. tonic and astringent properties. dry and tonic . B and C. Turanj. Bijaura. Mahaphala. the juice allays ear-ache. FAM. H. digestible. asthma. cough. Bijoru. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. Sk. Rusaki. Bera nimbu. though there are no regular plantations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. heating. used in constipation and tumours. See—Fruit Trees. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. removes colic. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. Matunga. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". jaundice. gastric irritability in general and general debility. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. its preserve is used for dysentery. sharp. with a sharp taste. rind of the fruit is bitter. Mahaphala. cures leprosy. Seeds—indigestible. also corrects foetid breath. bark and fruit. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. seeds. stimulant. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Ghats. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. M. oily. Kutla. increase appetite. Ruchaka. PARTS USED. useful in abdominal complaints. Fruit—sweet and sour. NS. Turanj. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. flowers. Devamadala. Bijapurna. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). relieve vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. DoddaGaja-nimba. Idalimbu. Matalunga. Mahalunga. useful in vomiting. Thora-limbu. Amlakeshara. anæmia. NS. :—Citron rind is hot. Mahanimbu. anasarca and chronic fever. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. VAR. fruits and seeds. Jambira. K. the pulp cold and dry. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. Lemon . :— E. Flowers—stimulant. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). G. intoxication. LOC. Matulunga. hiccup. Sk. G. tonic. astringent to bowels . asthma. Paharinimbu .:—Grown in gardens in the State. relieves sore-throat. LOC. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Citron . said to be wild in W. cough.
Lebu. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . with flavour. t. Morhari. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. throat trouble. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. silky villous. H. LOC. M. eyes . successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. Limbu. not good in old age.. Morvel. sepals 4-6. CHAR. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. Amlasara. Khatalimbu. Fl. brain disorders. Sk. Devashreni. appetiser. Limbe. ovoid. bronchitis . Nimbu.—simple or once ternate. Madhulika. white. hairy outside. Murva. loss of appetite. scarletina. constipation. cures abodominal complaints. COM. NS. Oil from rind. relieves vomiting . stimulant . Morata. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. L. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases.—Sept. NS. heart. See—Fruit Trees. Murhari. blades 2-2. measles. :—An extensive climber. leaves (rarely). COM. Churhar. also useful in rheumatism. K. relieves biliousness. . Shodhana. Limpaka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nimbuka. improves liver. but often found trailing amongst grass. Lebu. Nebu. Moravel. Acida.—achenes.—Ranunculaceæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . it helps digestion. plethora. M. Fl. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". hemicrania. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). petioles twinning. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. K. FAM. Snuva. Fruit—sour. :—G. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Ranjai. whole plant tomentose. burning in the chest. Sk. where there is dry skin and much thirst. Acid-Sour lime . from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Fr.5 cm. long ovate or orbicular. :—E. it cures and prevents scurvy. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. H. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. anthelmintic.—in axillary corymbose panicles. Nimbu. Dhantiate. C. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. lobes mucronate. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. VAR. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Nimbe. vomiting. Rochana. fatigue . good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. stomachic.Nov. with long feathery tails . entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. sharp taste. Kagadi limbu. G.—petals O.
:—G. M. laxative. anthelmintic. and dispel intestinal fermentation. NS. externally applied to boils. stomachic. Kanphodi. hairy. Karnasphota. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. NS. Gantubarangi. transversely striate. LOC. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. DISTR. :—W. high. useful in leprosy. Kanphutia. obliquely striate. bitter.—Capparidaceæ. stimulant. Sd. subglobose. :—Annual erect herb. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. . Tinmani. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). COM. :—Common in grass lands.—3-5 foliate. Bharangi. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Plant has penetrating bad smell. LOC. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. K. stems grooved and glandular. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. Bharangi. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Ghats. used internally in thirst. removes " Kapha". K. veined. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Bharang. LOC. DISTR. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. very common in the Deccan. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Vatari. Fl. FAM. HABIT :—A common weed. Sk. H. Hulhul. FAM. hot. COM. Kiritekki. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. reduces tumours and inflammations .—petals 4.—brownish black. 30-90 cm. Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. diuretic. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). laxative. and fevers. Tilparni. CHAR. Juice— cures ear-ache.—Sept-June. astringent. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. yellow. hairy. causes excessive biliousness.—Verbenaceæ.—capsule. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. erect. L. H. Fr.—axillary. Adityabhakta.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. blood diseases. gradually becoming shorter upwards. stimulates secretion of bile. Phanjika. Brahmani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. mixed with oil. M. Tilwan. :—G. Barbara. good in malaria. Nayibela. t. Sk. C. leaflets elliptic-oblong. Konkan. Kasaghni. Jangali-harhar. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. cooling. petioles of lower leaves longer. dryness and urethral discharges. tapering towards both ends . Leaves—favour digestion. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. terminal the largest. oblong-obovate. bitter taste and a strong odour. Bharangi. Harhuria. Sauri. in lax racemes. Talvari.
LOC. anthelmintic. DISTR. 2-2.7-6. tube hairy within. and blue flowered. cures "Tridosha". COM. ulcers (Ayurveda). Ceylon. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. inflammations. leucoderma. headache. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. pains. heating. long . bronchitis. H. Root increases appetite. Sd.:—More or less throughout India. tuberculous glands. hairy. Gokarni. Girikarnika. Malay Peninsula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. Gokarnika. t. stomachic.2 m. PARTS USED :—Root. Garani. leaves and seeds. high.—many. nearly straight. CHAR. Kalina. sharply serrate. smooth.. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills .—axillary.—much exerted. consumption. sometimes opposite.5 X 2-3. also found throughout the State. elephantiasis. Fr.—ternately whorled. Kowa. standard bright blue or white. "Vata". PARTS USED :—Root. C. oblong or elliptic. tonic to the brain. beaked. C. Vishnukranta. Wowatheti..—6-10 yellowish brown. There are two varieties :—white flowered. leaflets 5-7. Fr. burning sensation. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations.9-2. obovoid.-Oct. solitary. fleshy. 3.2 cm. pubescent. spreading. leaves and seeds. showy. tubercular glands. Fl. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. t— June-Jany. Root is purgative and diuretic. asthma. 12. L. L. Koyala..8-5 cm. asthma. wounds (Ayurveda). in lax dichotomous cymes. useful in bronchitis. Girikarniballi.— Aug. 0. collectively forming a terminal panicle. burning sensation. :—A perennial twining herb. Fl. hiccup. FAM. LOC. anthelmintic.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm.. Kajli. stems terete. fevers. :—G. useful in ascites (Yunani). ozœna. fevers (Yunani). ulcers of the cornea. good for eye-diseases. HABITAT :—In hedges. laxative.3 cm. lower one deflexed. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. NS. epilepsy. LOC. DISTR. diuretic.—pale blue. M. Fl.—Shrub. .5-15 X 5. Aparajita. the larger lower lobe dark purple. tumours. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. Fl.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). The plant contains an alkaloid. black. elliptic oblong.—imparipinnate. inflammations. stems bluntly quadrangular. Sk. alexiteric.— drupe. Aparajita. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. flat. biliousness. 4 lobes flat. with an orange centre. lessens expectoration. acrid. useful in inflammation. K. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork.
Parvel. stops vomiting. & A.—Menispermaceæ. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Glum. Kambhoja.:—Cultivated in gardens. M. Vasantitikta. Vasanvel. NS. Oshthi. COM. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Garudi. Hunder. Bimbika. Ceylon. Root bark. Vasandi. useful in ascites and fevers. Sk. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". Konkan. Flowers cure itching. Ink-berry. HABITAT. Bimba. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Tondeballi. a hormone and an alkaloid. Deccan. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). diseases of blood.) FAM. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Vevdi. . Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Broom-creeper. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Ghobe. aphrodisiac. Tundi. Jamtikibel. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Leaves—acrid. COM. Sk. K. wild in hedges. leaves. Faridburti. allays thirst. Gujarat.:—Root cooling. G. The plant contains an enzyme. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. antipyretic . Bimb. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). FAM. biliousness. H. fruit. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). asthma. USES:—In the Konkan. NS. K. COCCINIA INDICA W.—Cucurbitaceæ. flowers. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. galactagogue. " Vata". :—Grown everywhere in gardens. S. Tana. Country. Vevati. given for uterine discharges. LOC. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. Tundika. PARTS USED :—Root. :—G. Bimbi. burning of hands and feet. Kanduri. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. PROPERTIES AND USES.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. H.—E. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Tondali. M. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Fruit— indigestible. LOC. consumption. cures leprosy. astringent to bowels. Galedu. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. Chireta. Dirghvalli. See—Vegetables. tropical Africa. dried and powdered. DISTR :—Throughout India. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Malaya. M. Seeds are purgative and aperient. cause flatulence. urinary losses. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). and jaundice. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania.
female in axillary clusters. G. biliousness. flowers. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. aphrodisiac. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. bark. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . useful in biliousness. Sk. Antipyretic. India and Ceylon.—drupe. it is heating. Nariyal. ovate-oblong. Flower-cooling . aphrodisiac. . K. tonic. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. It is also used as a refrigerant. alexipharmic . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. Cocoanut palm. rugose . as a cure for gonorrhœa. Pegu.8-6. Common in Konkan and N.. 2-8 together. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. it is used for coughs. NS.—Dec. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". tumours. which is taken internally with sugar. aphrodisiac.—Palmæ. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. 3-5 nerved. Naral. HABITAT :—In hedges. China. Narial. Fl. Mad.—dioecious. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root.3-3. mixed with water. Nalivar. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). smells sweetish and pungent. male in small axillary cymose panicles. fattening. size of a small pea.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. with a few heads of pepper. laxative and sudorific. India. Gujarat. indigestible. useful in diabetes. M. cardiotonic. Seed-cooling. lessens bile and burning sensation. Mangalya. tuberculosis. Mahaphala. L. In the Konkan. oleaginous. urinary discharges.3 X 1.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. Konkan.8 cm. t. Deccan.:— A straggling scandent shrub. H. enriches blood. Leaf-juice. also in many places in the interior. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Tengu. tropical Africa. Narikel. Tenginmara. COM. villous .MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. Jataphala. seed. "Kapha" and "Vata". bronchitis. S. dysentery. Milk—cooling. DISTR. oil. Fr. subdeltoid or subhastate. DISTR. Arabia. LOC. fermented juice. fattening. S. good in fractures. causes "Kapha". Dried seed (copra) improves taste. blood diseases. LOC. LOC. ovate. lessens thirst. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. FAM. burning sensation. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. laxative. tonic. thirst. keeled.—3. constipation. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Fl. Toyagarbha. and put on to sore-eyelids. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. useful in leprosy. laxative. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. young parts densely Villous. appetiser. :—E.
—monœcious racemes 2. CHAR. Oil—sweet. promotes hairgrowth. DISTR. :—Himalayas. HABITAT :—Gregarious. sheaths long. 6. Fibres. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. Malaya. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. NS. consumption. rachis within the bract slender. LOC. Fl. H. stem 90-150 cm. Assam. increases body weight. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. bronchitis. tropical Asia-Africa. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Oils. notched at the nodes . FAM. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. spinously serrate margins. Fr. fattening. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Fl. diuretic. enriches blood. China. Oil—indigestible. ulcers (Ayurveda). Sk. midrib stout. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian .3 cm. asthma. G. Bengal.—10-15 x 2.. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm.—Oct. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant.—broadly ovoid to globose. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. polished. LOC. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). t. useful in fever. :—A tall leafy grass. it promotes growth of hair. S. internodes smooth.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. lessens inflammations . it also purifies blood. Madhya Bharat. Gurlu . It is also used for burns. piles . Japan. Ran-jondhala. bluish grey. diuretic . Polynesia. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. India.—Gramineæ COM.5-5 cm. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. liver complaints. tonic. LOC. incipient phthisis and cachexia. Job's tears. It is refreshing and laxative. useful in urinary complaints. smooth. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. long. piles and scabies (Yunani. Gavedhu. useful in lumbar-pain. fermented juice is intoxicating. See—Fruit Trees. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. Jargadi. Dabha. high or more. stout. Rajputana. :—E. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). rooting at the lower nodes.6-10 mm. base cordate. Gojivha. America. polished. M. smooth. abundant in standing water. long. paralysis.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . B and C.5-6. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. above the bract stout. L. Kasai. Madhya Pradesh.
cultivated in most tropical countries. Bhokar. smooth. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. :—Konkan. Sd. Gujarat. Sebesten plum. K. Gondan. not beaked. Resalla.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . Col.2 cm. Mannadike. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd.5-10 X 2-3. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. Pistan. :—E. See—Fibres. acute or acuminate. DISTR. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. diam. Hadige. Chhunchh . See—Fodder Plants. Bhuselu. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. In jutegrowing districts. Chaunchan . 5-valved. and dyspepsia. :—An annual herb. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. . It is also used as a bitter tonic. L. subglobose. leaves and fruit. PARTS USED :—Root.—Tiliaceæ. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. lanceolate. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . CHAR. and intestinal antiseptic. lysin. Patta. carminative. fever. G. Jute . tyrosin. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. LOC. Kalasaka. serrate. astringent. The plant contains leucin. growing very tall under cultivation. Lassora. Fl.— Sept. C. G. COM. Bhukerbudara. buds obovoid. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. stomachic. Fl. M. FAM. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet.—in short cymes. arginine and coicin.:—E. Challa. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. anthelmintic. H. t. Bhokar.—petals 4-5. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Sk.—7. Fr. Rayagundo. Sk. laxative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. wedgeshaped. FAM. also as antiperiodic. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. histidin.— capsule. 12 mm. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value.—few in each cell. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. yellow. NS. COM. brown. ridged and muricated.—Boraginaceæ. Bargund. NS. M.
Vitunnaka. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. piles. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. tooth-ache. vomiting. anthelmintic. also cultivated. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. bechic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. See—Timbers. K. anthelmintic. scabies. Kustumburi. stimulant. bronchitis. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). M. heart and liver. carminative and antispasmodic. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. The plant and fruit— acrid. Fruit—diuretic. Satpudas. tropical Australia. G. useful in hiccup. LOC. Bark is used as a mild tonic. tuberculous glands. Coriander. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stimulant. inflammations. Fruits are used as spice. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). stomachic. . Konphir. vulnerary. tonic to brain. Egypt. LOC. purgative. Fruit is aromatic. eye-pains. diuretic. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. Kanara. aphrodisiac. maturant. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. LOC. used in dry cough. burning of throat. diseases of chest and urethra. Kothambri. LOC. Hivija. Ghats. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. widely known from Palestine. DISTR. FAM. headache. Cochin-China. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. :—Cultivated throughout India. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Fibres. expectorant. gives appetite. diseases of chest. Allaka. laxative. :—Throughout India. Seeds—aphrodisiac.:—Throughout the State in W. antipyretic. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. cooling. cures thirst. pains in joints. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Dhania. Syria. causes suppuration. indigestion. PARTS USED :—Bark. wild and cultivated. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). thirst. stomatitis. gleet. biliousness. chronic fevers. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. anthelmintic. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. Sk. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Kothamir. Kothimbir. removes bad humours. uterus and urethra.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. Mesapotamia and Greece. biliousness. COM. used in syphilis. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. used as an expectorant and astringent.—Umbelliferæ. bleeding gums. highly esteemed in coughs. H. dyspepsia. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). Ceylon. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Dharika.:—E. biliousness. often planted. jaundice. Leaves—hypnotic. analgesic. NS.
USES:—Root is anthelmintic. red. C.-Oct. hiccup (Ayurveda). high. root-stock tuberous. lip white with yellow centre. Penva. sheaths coriaceous . Pakarmula. India. Nervele. COM. LOC. Varvunna. Kashmira. globosely 3-gonous. t. useful in bronchitis. Barna. S. silky-pubescent beneath. Ajapa. By the earliest writers. " Kapha". K. Fl. Sd. lumbago. Vayavarno. Leaves contain vitamins A and C .7-7. subsessile.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Sk. a tonic is prepared from it. See—Condiments and Spices. subequal. Pushkarmula. anæmia. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. It is also astringent and digestive. concave. M. many. dyspepsia. DISTR. H. Karikuttu. LOC. Keu. depurative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Khandala.2-2. PARTS USED:—Root. stem sub-woody at the base . NS. nalas. Var. Kust. Country. oblong. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. K. NS. FAM. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. Hadawarna. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Malay Islands.—Scitamineæ. . Fr. crisped. FAM. Varno.— black with white aril. also planted near Muslim tombs. Shura. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. Mahakapittha. :—Almost all over India (Assam. :—More or less throughout India. :—G. Changalkashta. Var. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. :—An erect plant 1. H. and " Vata".— tube short. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Castle Rock. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Sk. M. in moist and shady places.—15-30 X 5. LOC. Madhya Bharat. :—G. bracts ovate. rheumatism. Kumaraka. Kushtha.5 cm. inflammations.— in very dense spikes. S. Bilpatri. Pinga. Vayavarna. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Fl. Biliana. DISTR. coughs and skin diseases. Kemuka. Pushkarmula. and aphrodisiac. Bitusi.—Aug. bright red. spirally arranged. CHAR. The plant yields an essential oil.—capsule.—Capparidaceæ. China. Varuna. L. COM.7 m.:—Konkan ghats. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. mucronate. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. fever. useful in catarrhal fevers. Varuna. M. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Chikke. Ceylon. lobes ovate-oblong.
CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. vomiting. PARTS USED :—Root. thin. :—Throughout tropical India. Seeds—purgative. FAM. chest and blood diseases. NS. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. HABITAT :—Cultivated. vesicant. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. expectorant. Ceylon. strangury. it promotes appetite. LOC. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. lung and spleen diseases. Nagdavana. also wild. Kanwal. bright green. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. laxative. bark. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin.:—G. removes "Vata". It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. Wild or cultivated. defective vision. Tonic.9-1. Fr. bechic. vulnerary. antilithic. emmenagogue. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). urinary concretions. expectorant. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. See—Timbers. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones.—15-50 in an umbel. Vishamungalli. H. lobes 6. as long as the tube.. beaked. bracts 7. Bark promotes appetite. toothache. L. detergent. antipyretic. leaves. CHAR. linear.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. Sd..5-10 cm. aphrodisiac. fragrant at night. found wild in North and South Konkan. Fl.5 cm. useful in bronchitis.—20-30. diam. diseases of vagina. Chindar. gonorrhœa. The plant contains saponin. Kanda-shalini. . X 12. M. chest. flat. USES:—Root is alterative. K. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). digestive.5-18 cm. "Pitta" and "Kapha". bulb 5-10 cm. Nagadown.—Amaryllidaceæ. flowers and fruits. then sweet. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. with a sheathing base. COM. good in strangury. perianth tube greenish-white. 0. act as rubefacient and vesicant. and seeds. diuretic. increases secretion of bile. tumours. heating. useful in biliousness. Pindar. Visha-Mandalamardini. white. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. linear lanceolate. lumbago. laxative. tuberculous glands. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. :—A herb with tunicated bulb.—subglobose. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. LOC. anthelmintic. anuria. night-blindness. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . anthelmintic. Kanmu. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Nag-damani.—1 (rarely 2). Nag-damani. cylindric. Patra-pushpi. long. stomachic. DISTR. scape 45-90 cm. bitter. urinary discharges. laxative. leaves. carminative. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda).
cathartic. Sk. bark. Jamalgota. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). The plant contains lycorin. expectorant. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. inflammations. naturalised or cultivated. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. etc. G.. Assam to Malacca. carminative. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. nauseant and diaphoretic. Burma. excessive phlegm. LOC. convulsions. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root. Chota-Natpur. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. NS. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. COM. Nepala . LOC. Western Peninsula. good in sore eyes. Japala. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Burma. Jepal. M. insanity. Danti. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Sk. DISTR. :—Bengal. Konkan. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Oil cathartic. Jayapala. China. :—Naturalised in S. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Seeds cause burning sensation. emetic. useful in mental troubles. COM. in small doses. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. Jamalgota .MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Ganasur. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. :—Sylhet. it is in great request. As an application to sprains. See—Timbers. Malay Islands. Ceylon . In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints.—Euphorbiaceæ. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Nepal. Ieucoderma. H. NS. Oil from the seed is purgative. Danti. Madhya Pradesh. :—H. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. . Chucka . abdominal diseases. fever. :—Rare in the State. Purging croton . tonic. bruises and rheumatic swellings. :—E. K. FAM. DISTR.—Euphorbiaceæ. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM. Nepala. leaves and seeds. Ceylon. Bengal. Bhutankusam. bronchitis (Ayurveda). near Junnar (Poona Dist). M. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre.
It is useful in apoplexy. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). laxative. Pathira . gives headache. Sk. may cause skin eruptions and strangury.—Cucurbitaceæ. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. and lock-jaw. Vrittervaru. COM. It is given internally with great caution. obstinate constipation. aphrodisiac. Ripe fruit—sweet. Chibuda. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. H. Kharbuja.:—E. diaphoretic. K. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. fruit and seeds. dropsy. Valaka. oily. Valungi. LOC. allays fatigue. &c. bronchitis. See—Timbers. :—G. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. :—In Deccan. Rind—vulnerary. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. Chibdu Shakarteti. Kachra. MELO Var. Karkati. fattening. . USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. laxative. G. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Shantanu.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Fruit—tonic. Tarkakadi. Kakni. brain and body. LOC. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. ascites. colic. Kakri. Kharbuja. FAM. in ascites and anasarca. H. tonic. M. Said to be truly wild in India. NS. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. ascites. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. cooling. chronic fever. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. Mahanaracha Rasa. DISTR. used in liver and kidney troubles. Karkali. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. urinary discharges. C. cures ophthalmia. galactagogue. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. Lomashi. Melon. COM. They are edible. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. M. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. thirst (Yunani). convulsions. insanity. Sweet melon . Seeds—lachrymatory. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. NS. diuretic. synovitis. Kankadi. diuretic. may cause indigestion. Sk. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. wholesome. Mutrala. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. strengthens heart. Shadrekha. insanity. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Kharbuja. cures " Vata ". nutritive and diuretic. LOC. biliousness. Kalangida. Kakadi. DISTR. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people.
M. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. fatigue. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. good for brain and body. Khira. COM. Cultivated in all parts of India. G. utilissimus (Ayurveda. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. :—A perennial climber. Tansali. Sushitala. Khira. Fr. Seed oil used in fever. Karit. and C. C. Fl. enrich blood. female peduncle longer than male. Sudhavsa.—white. Tavasa. H. causes "Vata". cordate at the base. NS. used in thirst. antipyretic. Sd. fruits. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Santekayi. Mrigadani. Fl. pale yellow when ripe. angled. tendrils simple. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda).—June-Sept. FAM.—yellow segments elliptic. fever. Vishala. cures thirst. . The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. melo var. t. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. See-Fruit Trees. allay thirst. Chitravalli. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). pulp bitter. Hislambhi. purgative. Kumbhakshi.— suborbicular. Trapusha. "Kapha" and flatulence. K. DISTR. Kakdi. CHAR. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. astringent.:—N. lobes obovate. cooling.—monœcious . USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. rigid. cures biliousness. stomachic.—Cucurbitaceæ. hairy. Kakari. FAM. lobulate or dentate . H. biliousness. Takamaki. seeds. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Ripe one tonic.:—E. dry. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. indigestible. Kothiban. L. margined . They are nutritive. strangury. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. LOC. NS. Sk. LOC. Cucumber. M. Seeds possess cooling properties. male in clusters. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. roasted and powdered. Fruit—fattening . PARTS USED :—Leaves. diuretic. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. :—G. India is considered to be the original home. they are also used as diuretic. See—Vegetables.—subglobose or ellipsoid. Sk. LOC. Seeds—diuretic. stem slender.—Cucurbitaceæ. B. COM. are administered in throat affections. Yunani). Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. Kankdi. improve complexion.
Tambda bhopala. B and C. fruits and seeds. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. HABITAT. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. :—Throughout the greater part of India. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. Pumpkin. Dangari. on hedges. See—Vegetables. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). H. N. FAM . FAM. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Australia. Dried fruit indigestible . CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. Punyalata. Ceylon. Pitakushmand. .—Cucurbitaceæ. Sk. indigestible. increases " Vata ". :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. LOC. The plant contains glucoside saponin. K. Kushmand.:—Considered to be a native of America. etc. Kushmand. improves taste (Ayurveda). Red squash gourd. Kumbala. cultivated in many parts of India. increases " Vata" . Sk. tonic. Kadimah. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. astringent to bowels . fruit is used to prevent insanity. carbuncles. G. stomachic. Malaya. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. Mithakaddu. Afghanistan. LOC. H. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. Kaddu. Kumra. DISTR. Safedkaddu . LOC. Karkarn. Kashiphala. : — E. Seeds are used as taeniacide. K. Bhopala. In Malabar. Fruit contains vitamins A. Iran. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Kumbala. NS. DISTR. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. DISTR. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Koron. allays thirst. M. LOC. USES. unhealthy ulcers. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. M. NS. :—E. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Dudia. Melon pumpkin. :—Cultivated.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. Vegetable marrow. cures cough. G.
Neltati gadde. biliousness. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. Seeds are taeniacide. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). DISTR. fever. LOC. Talamulika. beneficial in consumption. allays thirst. uterine stimulant. Fruit yields an essential oil. Kalimusali. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Fruit astringent. cooling. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. Dipaka. ft contains vitamins A and C. astringent. COM. FAM. fattening. :—G. stomachic. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. enlargment of the spleen. Kapha " and " Vata ". laxative. stops epistaxis . M. haematinic. COM. relieves hiccup. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. asthma. H. PARTS USED :—Fruit. See—Vegetables. carminative. :—E. scabies. M. thirst. Gaurajerka. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. Seeds anthelmintic. throat and eyes. purifies blood (Ayurveda). :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. Sk. astringent to bowels. See—Condiments and Spices.—Umbelliferæ. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. also a lactagogue. Seeds—diuretic. bronchitis. and the root for making these more potent. astringent to bowels. heals corneal opacities. diuretic and demulcent. cures leprosy. Ajjika. analgesic. NS. cure haemoptysis. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. vulnerary. LOC. tonic. H. cures haemoptysis. gonorrhœa. fatigue. Dirghaka. Jira. appetiser. Fruit—very cooling. inflammations. tonic to intestine. ulcers. leucoderma. sweet. Neladati. tonic. FAM. . Musali. carminative. emmenagogue. antipyretic. Jirige. increases appetite . USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. Cures " Vata " tumours. leprosy. anthelmintic. antidysenteric. Girautmi. Cumin. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. fever. Leaves—digestible. Jire. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. LOC. fruit and seeds. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. K. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Zira. abortifacient. eye-diseases. Sk. Mushalikand . remove biliousness. Jiru. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Kalimusali. alexipharmic. good for kidney and brain (Yunani).—Amaryllidaceæ. good for teeth. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). belching . carminative. G. Kalimusali.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. NS.
:—Konkan and N. Root—carminative. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac .— May-June. biliousness. LOC. laxative. oblong. Fl. Peninsula. bronchitis. linear or linear-lanceolate . K.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. jaundice. ulcers on penis. tonic. :—Bengal. Amragandha.-Sept. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. Sk. gonorrhœa. Ambahaldi. COM. troubles in the mouth and ear. :—E. " Vata". 1545 X 1. black.—long petioled in tufts.:—W. indigestion. lumbago. during convalescence after acute illness. useful in biliousness. distichous. Java. Fl. DISTR. useful in bronchitis.5-12. piles. appetiser. expectorant.8-5 cm. clavate . sessile. Karpuraharidra.— in autumnal spikes 7. Amhaladi. vomiting. stomatitis (Yunani). alexiteric. G. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. .3-2.5 cm. CHAR. C—white or very pale-yellow. Assam. :—Stemless herb. ophthalmia. maturant. DISTR. root stock large.5 cm. scabies. fattening. causes "Vata". cooling. useful in inflammations. common at the beginning of rains. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. rhizome. Sd.5-15 X 3. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Fr. NS. flowering bract greenish-white. Ambehalad. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . Fl. emollient. M. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. oblong lanceolate. Malay Archipelago. L. alterative. Bitter. hairy on the back. oblong. diarrhœa. tubers thick.— in racemes. pains in joints (Yunani). LOC. diarrhœa. appetising. L. yellow. aphrodisiac.—Scitamineæ. antipyretic. Bengal. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. asthma. scape. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. antipyretic. LOC. t. colic. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES. antipyretic. useful in piles. hydrophobia. :—Konkan and Gujarat. W. gonorrhœa. diuretic. shining . gleet. Mango-ginger. appetiser. Ambahaladara. debility and impotence. Peninsula.. tips sometimes rooting. hiccup. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual.:—Sweet. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. inflammations (Ayurveda). roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. fatigue. often cultivated. FAM. gleet. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. 30-45x7.—grooved. lumbago. pale yellow inside . Kanara. cylindric or ellipsoid. with a beak . :—A small herb. very short. H. alterative and tonic. perianth segments elliptic. Kapurahaldi. all skin-diseases. t.—sessile or petiolate.—capsule.
Haridra. DISTR. Arishina. Fl. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. It is considered tonic and carminative.—Scitamineæ. Sometimes cultivated. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . LOC. Vanarishta. Yellow Zedoary. Turmeric. LOC. Banharidra. rounded at the tips. H. K. :—Stemless herb. G. Sholika.5 cm. CHAR. flowers fragrant. long. lip yellow.—Scitamineæ. M. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. variegated above. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. it is seldom used alone . Aranyaharidra. Halada. COM. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions.—tube 2. NS. in spikes 15-30 cm. upper half funnel-shaped. appetiser . CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Ran-halad. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. Banhaladi. sometimes cultivated. LOC. Vanhaldara.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. lateral lobes oblong. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. NS. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. palmately branched. annulate. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. DISTR. biennial. :—E. See—Condiments and Spices. Sholi. :—E.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. lobes pale-rose. Mangalya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. :—Western Peninsula. base deltoid. COM. Bengal.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. also stomachic. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. .— flowering stem sheathed. long. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. M. Halad. 3lobed. appearing before leafing stem. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Varnadatri. sessile.. Also cultivated in Konkan. pale green. the dorsal longer. H. flowering bracts cymbiform. used as an application for skin-diseases. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. Jayanti. Kapur-kachali. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. Sk. green.-May. Fl. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. FAM. PARTS USED :—Tubers. C. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Halad. G. t. Harita. L. Sk. Indian saffron. forming pouches for the flowers. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). root-stock large. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink.
FAM . long. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. small-pox. "Vata ". vulnerary. Shathi. itches etc. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. bronchitis. Tuber is used as a stimulant.—Scitamineæ. boils. cylindric. laxative. swellings. urinary discharges. The plant contains curcumin. sprains (Ayurveda). lobed . 30-60 cm. Kachuri. appearing before the leaves.— flowering stem 20-25cm. scabies. emollient. diuretic. It contains vitamin A. Kachora. internally administered in blood disorders. Fr. Jatala. Fl. maturant. externally applied to leech-bites. scabies. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. taste bitterish spicy. :—Stemless herb. Karechura. and yields an essential oil. oblong. :—Cultivated in the State. destroys foulness of breath. blood diseases. Zedoary. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. NS. asthma. LOC. appetiser. clothed with sheaths. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. M. anthelmintic. fragrant. vulnerary. oblong-lanceolate. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. used in prurigo. clouded with purple down the middle. useful in " Kapha". root-stock of palmately branched. L. Bitter. fumes are used during hysteric fits . useful in leucoderma. C. coma-bract crimson or purple . jaundice. leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. H. urinary discharges. improves complexion. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. said to be Wild in E.—funnel shaped. deepyellow. heating. Himalayas and Chittagong. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. Gandhamulaka sara. Hakhir. tonic. alexiteric. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. In coryza. Kachora. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. antipyretic. LOC. bitter. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . G. flowers yellow in spikes. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases.—capsule. HABITAT :—Cultivated. 3-gonous. piles. bruises. flowering bract green tinged with red . and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. heating. bruises.—4-6 with long petioles. In small-pox and chicken-pox. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. bruises (Yunani). cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. boils and urticaria. Kachari. long. good for liver affections. alexiteric. . carminative. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. inflammations. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. an alkaloid. anthelmintic.:—E. pale-yellow inside. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . bitter. See—Condiments and Spices. lip 3-lobed. CHAR. odour like camphor. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Sk. Narakachora. annulate tubers. DISTR. COM.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. COM. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. Purhati hullu. emetic. hot. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. and is of great value in cholera.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state.8 m. carminative. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. Externally it is rubefacient. sheaths of the culm tight. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). useful in griping of children. long. neuralgia. H. Putigandha.—Gramineæ. Lilicha. long. . :—A tall perennial. velvety at the nodes. applied to bruises and sprains. LOC. bitter. stimulant and carminative. midrib whitish on the upper side. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. LOC. sharp hot taste.:—E. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. L. alexipharmic. Takratrina. LOC. also used as a tonic and depurative. enlargement of spleen. up to over 1. laxative. tonic to brain and heart. gastric irritability. inflammations. upto over 90 cm. K. Gandhatrina. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—linear tapering upwards to a point. Sk. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. Tubers yield an essential oil. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. culm stout. Bitter. chronic rheumatism. sprains.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. toothache (Yunani). Bhustrina. aphrodisiac. probably of Indian origin. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. pains. tuberculous glands of neck. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. erect. nodding. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. it is stimulant. laxative. sheaths terete . alexipharmic. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. good odour. and other painful affections. it is also a good application for ringworm. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda).. glaucous green. anthelmintic. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. sharp. FAM. Lemon grass. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. epileptic fits. It is also aromatic. carminative. Majjige hullu. others narrow and separating. DISTR. appetiser. useful in bronchitis. of much use in typhoid fevers. It is an excellent stomachic to children. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. NS. emmenagogue. leprosy. high. G.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Ligule very short. Gavati-chaha. CHAR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. furunculosis. M.
The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. long. margins scabrid. Roshdo. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. COM. long. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. pungent. straw coloured. Fl.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Sind. leafy. L. and Ceylon ascending to 3. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. widely creeping. Sk. NS.5-5 cm. fatigue. bitter. skin . those below the inflorescence 23 cm. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant.—grain. M.3 cm. upto 2.—Gramineæ. Rhusghas. soft. Ghats.000 m. H. M. leprosy. Africa to Morocco. useful in fevers. wide below. Bahuvirya. See-Oils. bad taste in the mouth. throat troubles. throughout India. Geramium grass. Rohisha. thirst. M.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. oblique or divaricate. Garikehallu. subcordate or rounded at the base. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. narrowly linear. S. Rohisha. through N. NS. sweet. slender. CHAR. long. K.:—Grows all over the State. LOC. Fr. Shatamula. FAM. CHAR. high. COM.5-2. Harali. Bhutika. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. :—E. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Saugandhika. Durba. carminative. in the Himalayas. prostrate . Afghanistan. DISTR. smooth.—flat. 12-18 mm. particularly the Deccan trap areas. stem. vomiting. Fl. LOC. Konkan. burning sensation. pains. Country. glaucous beneath. high. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems.—Oct. hallucinations. Vasanchullu.4 m. W. Deccan. Roshagavat. Shatagranthi. scabies. Gujarat.t. :—Cosmopolitan . Durva.—spikes 2-nate. Fl.. G.5-30 cm. Baluchistan. Dhro. most warm countries. heart diseases. L.—2-10 cm. Durva.-Nov. bronchitis. Fl. green or purplish. useful in biliousness. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Mirchiagand. finely acute. sheaths tight. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. cooling. t. with erect flowering branches 7. Sk. FAM. :—A perennial grass . K. Mangala. H. 1 mm. DISTR. epileptic fits.—Gramineæ. stem. leprosy. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. 1. G. Burma. Dhoboghas. Kobbar. usually broad. :—Punjab.—throughout the year. LOC. Bujina. :—Sourashtra. long. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. Shyamaka. forming matted tufts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Gharo. X 1 cm.
USES :—Roots are commonly. LOC. dysentery. Fl.—Cyperaceæ. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. vulnerary. Nut—broadly ovoid. Granthi. Mustaka. diaphoretic. pain. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. diarrhœa. :—Throughout India. epilepsy and insanity. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases.. useful in leprosy.. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. epistaxis. thirst. See—Fodder Plants. Kachhola. epilepsy. emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Tubers. pruritis. ophthalmia. erysipelas (Ayurveda). diarrhœa. :—Glabrous herb. it is diuretic. NS. In Ceylon. fever. bruises. FAM. useful for ulcers and sores. dysentery. Nagarmotha. acrid. CHAR. hiccup (Yunani). biliousness. appetiser. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets .— in simple or compound umbel. cooling.—Sept-Nov. K. Bimbal. greyish black. Motha. burning sensation. biliousness. dyspepsia. M. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. . anthelmintic. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. :—G. They are also diuretic and stimulant. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Motha. expectorant. Motha. Mutha. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. DISTR. erysipelas. Tungegaddo. trigonous. astringent. anthelmintic. vulnerary. fevers. Tubers yield an essential oil. fever.—shorter or longer than the stem. L. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. urinary concretions (Yunani). :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. LOC. LOC. Sk Bhadramusta. Root— diuretic. Sugandhi-granthila. juice is used in hysteria. difficult to eradicate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. narrowly linear. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. most hot countries. blood diseases. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. epistaxis (Ayurveda). vomiting.82. t. spikelets 10-50 flowered. stomatitis. Koranarigadde.5 cm. Ceylon. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. useful in vomiting. 0. Fl. Bitterish. blood diseases. very troublesome weed. stolons elongate. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. stomachic. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. COM.
funnel-shapped. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Black-Purple datura. :—Annual shrub. afterwards racemose. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. :—A perennial twining herb. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Sk.:—E. beak long. L.—many.. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. Rajdhattura. covered with straight sharp prickles. Ns.—7. soft spiny.— tubular. diam. green. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. ciliate. Unmatta. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding).—Asclepiadaceæ. Fl.5-15 X 3. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. Fr. .-Jany. G. inner curved high over the staminal column. DISTR. 30-60 cm. glabrous above. Fl. Administered after the third stage of labour. Kariyu-Um-Matta. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. long 10-20. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. COM. spur acute. Kaladhatura. Fl. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K: Dhattura. and sub-involution of the uterus.—Aug. white inside. solitary. Country. ovate.2 cm. e. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals.—thin. :—H. divaricately branched. Utran. acute. broadly ovate or suborbicular. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State.5 cm. Phalakantak.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. across. tubular. M. velvety pubescent beneath. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. CHAR. C. Sk. NS. high. subglobose. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine.—capsule. H. Gujarat. :—Deccan. stem hairy. nodding. lobes spreading. usually pubescent. double. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes.g. M.2-7.5 cm.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. very unequal at the base. packed. Bhranta. outer truncate. LOC. t. Kanaka. S. FAM. yellowish brown. L. long. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. COM. Kanaka. entire or with large teeth or lobes. reflexed. on curved stalk 3. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus .—purple outside. Sd. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABIT :—A common weed. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. Fl. Utarni. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Kaladhatura. t. paralytic ileus. a glucoside. LOC.—Sept-Dec. Kala-dhotara. M. greenish-yellow or dull-white.—Solanaceæ. Ceylon. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. 18 cm. Sd. CHAR. somewhat zigzag.—follicle. FAM. Fr. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". corona outer and inner.
It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. useful in leucoderma. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Gajar. G. Shikkikanda. digestive and heating.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. mumps etc. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. (Ayurveda). and antispasmodic properties. FAM. with curdled milk. leaves and seeds. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Sk. bitter. enlargement of testicles and boils. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. chronic coughs. headache. tonic. in combination with subja. LOC. nodes. Seeds—narcotic. PARTS USED :—Root. skin-diseases. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. Gajra. NS. ganja. to increase their stupefying effect. leaves and seeds. Garjara.—Umbelliferæ COM. black variety is considered to be more powerful.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. Cultivated in many parts of India. febrifuge. aphrodisiac. Gajar. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Gajjari. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. piles. alexiteric. toddy. toxic. :—E. anthelmintic. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. Gajar. painful tumours. PARTS USED :—Roots. emetic. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Leaf-juice is given internally. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. H. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Europe. febrifuge. majum. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. equal in effect to atropine. emetic. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. ulcers. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. anodyne. USES :—Out of the two varieties. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. The whole plant is narcotic. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. jaundice. heating. bronchitis. K. cause headache (Yunani). in gonorrhœa. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. nosetrouble. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. . LOC. relieves pain. Leaf poultice. biliousness. :—Throughout the tropics. Carrot. The plant as a whole has narcotic. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. anthelminitic . black (Kala) and white (Safed). hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. M. DISTR. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. GranthiPinda-Mula.
Salwan. Kitavinashini. chronic affections of chest and lungs. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. hiccup.—onefoliate. DISTR. margins wavy. It is used in fevers. stomachic. Country. they are also diuretic. Salwan. high. pains. green and glabrous above. used in bronchitis. hairy. hooked hairy. LOC. piles. paler and hairy beneath. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. LOC. good for inflammation. China. :— G. throughout India. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. Philippines. cough. Roots contain vitamins A. . joints 6-8. useful in chronic fevers. Murele-honne. Salwan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. B and C. diuretic. Darh. cures leprosy. Fl. stems and branches angled. thirst. antidysenteric. ovate-oblong. biliousness. burning sensation. inflammations. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root.—pod. tropical Africa. USES :—Externally. vomiting. urinary discharges. expectorant. Salparni. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda).—May-July. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. :—A woody undershrub. Malay Peninsula and Islands . cures typhoid. removes " Kapha". prevents death of fœtus in womb . :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. cardiotonic. M. Shaliparni. Salpani. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. chest troubles. FAM. urinary complaints. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. biliousness. boiled with honey and fermented.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. CHAR. Vidarigandha. tonic. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. sub-falcate. aphrodisiac. NS.—in terminal or axillary racemes. indigestible. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. alexipharmic. Burma.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). M. H. Sk. aphrodisiac. 0. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . C—violet or white. Tonic. astringent to bowels. piles. membranous. Ranbhal. Deccan and S. fattening. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. t. :—Konkan and N. L. LOC. carminative. they produce a spirituous liquor. tumours. Ceylon. other fevers.2 m. cures biliousness. standard cuneate at the base . HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. K. thirst. " Vata". Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. nausea (Yunani). Root marmalade is refrigerant.6-1. Dirghamula. good for liver. vomiting. COM. asthma. Kanara . asthma. vomiting and asthma. anthelmintic. Fl. bronchitis. " Tridosha ". Salpan. dysentery . alterative. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. upper edge straight. astringent to bowels. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani).. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables.
M. diuretic. K. Makurkendi. rigid. oleaginous. Egypt. Davoli. astringent to bowels.) FAM.3-3. sedative to pregnant uterus. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—Along the coasts of N. Timbwini. Nubia. :—E. Fruit—oleaginous. thirst.—Ebenaceæ. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Darbha. asthma. sheaths glabrous. CHAR. diseases of bladder. useful in blood diseases. Anilsara. M. :—Perennial tall grass.—Dec. DISTR. vesical calculi. erect pyramidal or columnar. Wild mangosteen.:—Saurashtra. Fl. skin eruptions. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. Pavitra. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Kalaskandh. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Ceylon. stout. Darbha. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places.—Gramineæ. reaching 50 cm. Gale. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Konkan. Kanara and the Konkan. Sacred Plants. Fl. Tumaki Mara. Thailand (Siam). L. diseases of blood. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Durva. See—Fodder Plants. margins hispid. branched from the base. LOC. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Tumari. vomiting. flowers. tufted. Malay Archipelago. NS. Syria. Kusha. jaundice. Sphurjaka. LOC. Zeeberwo. . LOC. cooling. aphrodisiac. covered with shining sheaths. heating. bark. Tendu. Dabha. Banda. in the beds of rivers and streams. COM. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Riber ebony. fruit and seeds. the basal fascicled. PARTS USED :—Wood. Dab. :—Throughout India.. COM. H. interrupted. good for lumbago. stems 30-90 cm. Wood cures biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. cures ulcers and " Vata". stolon very stout. Gujarat. vaginal discharges. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. Gavandu.8 cm. Kalatendu. Tinduka. strangury. creeping. clothed with sessile spikelets. smooth. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). t. -panicle 15-45 X 1. Sk. ligule a hairy line . FAM. branches short crowded.—many. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. NS. high. long. Temburni. G. Sk. H. erect. DISTR.—G. biliousness. rootstock stout. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats.
ovate. asthma. generally on trees and rocks. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. removes stone from kidney. fertile ones long stalked. Hurali. Sitetara. stout. PARTS USED :—Seeds.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. grown to a certain extent in S. COM. bronchitis. eye troubles. causes biliousness (Yunani). Diuretic. NS. Nasik. astringent to bowels. H. Kulithaka. strangury. coughs etc. tumours. Horse-Gram. Sori two in each primary areole.Gahat. :—Tropics of the old world. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. ozoena. NS. hot. It is demulcent in calculus affection. emmenagogue. See—Timbers. diseases of the brain and eyes. densely clothed with red-brown scales. short. DISTR. G. Tans. Kulitha. K. leucoderma.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Bijapur and Dharwar. abdominal complaints. :—Rhizome creeping. LOC. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. Konkan— Ratnagiri. urinary discharges. Ashvakatri. fattening. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. dry. liver troubles. :—E. base decurrent on the stipe. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. inflammation. intestinal colic. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. Basingh. pain in liver. CHAR. hiccup. See-Food Plants. M. piles. :—M. LOC. Kalvrinta. improves complexion. antipyretic. Grains contain vitamin A. cures hiccup. heart-troubles. cures " Kapha". It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. variously lobed. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. Texture membranaceous to leathery. Surfaces naked. enlargement of spleen. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. piles. Wandar bashing. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Jurali. cordate. FAM. Kulathi. . appetiser. Sk. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. acrid. anthelmintic. Kulith. Sk. Kulit. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). M. Kulthi. Kulthi.—Polypodiaceæ. "Vata". FAM. Country—Belgaum.
Bhangra. DISTR. Shulio. Utakatara. Markara. yellowish.:—Throughout India. LOC.—sessile.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. wooly beneath. NS. Pitripriya. biliousness. deeply pinnatifid. oblong. M. M. used in strangury. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. involucre. Fr. thirst. Afghanistan. :—A much branched rigid annual. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. the lobes triangular and oblong. inflammations. Ajagara. urinary discharges. Country. densely villous. Plant stomachic. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). H. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. sinuate and spinescent. bracts 3seriate.-Jany. tonic. bitter. Sk. :—More or less throughout India. Dadhal. It is used in hoarse cough. H. stems and branches strigose and hairy. dyspepsia and cough. Deccan. Kadigga-garaga. LOC.—heads white. Sunilaka. Utanti. spiny. :—G. used in ophthalmia. cooling. FAM. Utkanta. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb.3—0. usually oblong-lanceolate. globose. analgesic. astringent to bowels . long. surrounded by strong white bristles. " Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. hysteria. . Utkatara. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. LOC. CHAR. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). chronic fever. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. Root— abortifacient. increases appetite. strigose and hairy. Bhangra. dyspepsia. Balari. subentire. CHAR. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. stimulates liver. high.— opposite. L. :—Kanara. Kantaphala. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. Fl.5 cm. Maka. Bhangro. hectic fever. cottony pubescent. :—Konkan.— Nov. :—G. t. Seeds—wholesome. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Bhringraj. Garagadasoppu. L. Kadechubak. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. branches widely spreading from the base. COM. also cultivated to a certain extent. cottony.9 m.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. hot. gleet. antipyretic.—Compositæ. Utkanto. Kalobhangro . 0. often rooting at the nodes. NS. COM. diseases of heart. pain in joints.—Compositæ. DISTR. Mochand.—achene obconic. S. Sk. useful in brain-diseases. sessile. improves taste. K. Keshrangana. spines 2. glabrous above. M. pappus short. Utkantaka. Fl. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Konkan. FAM. C. Kantalu.—limb linear. causes " Kapha".
good for complexion. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. alterative. stomatitis. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. See—Sacred Plants. pappus 0. Fr. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. improves colour of hair. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Bahula. cuneate with a narrow wing. eyes. antipyretic. leucoderma. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. good for spleen diseases. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. eye diseases. Elachi. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Gandhkuti. stomachic. fattening. Triputa. fevers. hot. "Kapha". Sind. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). LOC. DISTR. Kanara (Siddapur. a reputed and popular liver tonic. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. It relieves headache when applied with oil. it is powdered and applied externally. Malaya. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. axillary. teeth. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. K. liver pain.— Oct. alexipharmic. Gourangi. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. syphilis. NS. tonic. cures vertigo (Yunani). ray flowers ligulate. W. Peninsula). Madhya Bharat. lustre of eyes.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. Bitter .-Dec. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Scitaminaceæ. Burma. . It is also used as an emetic and purgative. hernia. involucral bracts about 8 . :—E. G. anæmia. bronchitis. Velchi. Karangi. solitary or 2 together. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. anthelmintic. Panjab. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). There are two forms erect and prostrate. expectorant. heart and skin diseases. COM. and for strengthening gums. prevents abortion and miscarriage. night blindness.—achene.:—India (Bengal. disk ones tubular . Choti-Elachi. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. toothache. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Ilaji. LOC. Fl. t. hemi-crania. :—Western valleys of N..—in heads. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . cures inflammations. internal diseases. C—often 4-toothed . Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. Ceylon. hair. FAM. Sk. It is given internally in scalding of urine. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. "Vata". Ela. M. asthma. Veldoda. Yalakki. Chandrabala. H. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . cultivated.
Kanisha. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). DISTR. causes thirst. Nagali. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. stomachic. Rotka. LOC. diuretic. useful in head. LOC. See-Food Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. M. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. kidney. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. useful in biliousness. bitter. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. strangury. cultivated. Vavading. Bhasmaka. Boberang. cooling. Narttaka. Wavrung. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. K. NS. India. Varding. Bidanga. diuretic. Pavaka. brain and mouth. Seed—fragrant. Sk. PARTS USED :—Grain. Vayuvitang. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. chest and throat (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. M. :— G. FAM. rich or poor. K. Rajika. alexiteric . Ragi. most suitable to hard-working classes. FAM. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. pruritus. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. pungent. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. Bavato. stimulant and emmenagogue. cause biliousness . carminative. H..:—G. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn.:—Western and S. lessens inflammation. In S. Nachani. PARTS USED :—Root. clear head. root is laxative and tonic. Makra.—Myrsinaceæ. Jantughna. piles. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Vidariga. ear and tooth ache. stomachic. NS. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. useful in asthma. Marua. fruit is tonic. Vavoding. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). Grains contain vitamin B. LOC. fruit and seeds. laxative. Navalo-nagali. consumption. scabies. Sk. COM. tonic. cooling. bronchitis. diseases of bladder. See—Condiments and Spices. CUM. H. . abortifacient.—Gramineæ. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. tonic to heart. bad humours of liver. It is stomachic. fragrant. It is said to be astringent. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil.
urinary discharges. sour. good appetiser. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. laxative. 42-II-1932). biliousness. Dadi. Dhatriphala. LOC. bark. dyspnoea. Bhoza . Daula . good for plethoric constitution. succulent. alexiteric. dry. PARTS USED :—Root. China. M. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). Gokhale. Adiphala. Nellika . Pharm. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. Amalaka. Arch. K. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. like a pepper corn when dried.—alternate. anthelmintic . et. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. useful in burning sensation. smooth. carminative. Ther.) FAM. elliptic-lanceolate. bronchitis. constipation. with a sharp bitter taste. vulnerary. alterative. Ceylon. DISTR. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. often planted in Konkan. LOC. nearly globose. purgative. jaundice. Fl. :—Hilly parts of the State. sweats. Fr. H. poisoning. HABITAT :—Rain forests. slender. Western Ghats. . alexiteric. Deccan. tonic. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). bark studded with lenticels . alterative. Embelic myrobalan.—Euphorbiaceæ. Amla. Amlika. (Dymock). shining above. Ceylon. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. ascites. useful in asthma. Sk. :— E.—Feb. inflammations. wild or planted. Paranjpe and G. " Tridosha ". Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. carminative. piles. Triphala. leprosy. internodes long. anuria. bronchitis. " Kapha'. hemicrania. Anola. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. LOC. many. Malaya. cures bronchitis . Int. Ambala. diseases of heart. strangury. thirst. NS.—berry. flowers. dries wound discharges . vomiting. cooling. Bitter. paler and silvery beneath. branches long. DISTR. leaves.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Konkan and N. Dhatri. erysipelas. reddens urine. COM. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. Anward. Kanara. aphrodisiac. flexible. :—Throughout India. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. coriaceous. fruit and seeds. Seed— acrid. Amlika. PARTS USED :—Fruit. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. S. anthelminitic. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . :—A large scandent shrub. mental diseases. analgesic. anæmia. antipyretic. Avala. cures tumours. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. t. L. K. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). black when ripe. Malay Islands. laxative. racemes minute.—in lax panicles. G. urinary discharges. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. China. S. greenish yellow.
Garbe. stops nasal hæmorrhage. Malaya. white. anthelmintic. tropical Africa. See—Timbers. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Ind. Tiktapatra. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. LOC. Fl. NS. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. improves appetite. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. M. :—G. USES :—Root. Tans. Fruit Trees. biliousness. COM. diuretic and laxative. LOC. bark and fruit are astringent. Fr. Celyon.— capsule. Nahu. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. liver complaints. in axillary clusters all along the stem.). It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. Dried fruits. tonic. S. Fl. COM. Mamejavo . Sind. rounded apex. Saurashtra. opposite.—Gentianaceæ. high. sub-quadrangular or terete. t. piles.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). M. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. M. Kadvinayi.-Nov.—sessile. L. CHAR. astringent. Gujarat. DISTR. Sk. vulnerary. cooling. West Indies. NS. K. lobes 5. branched from the base. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. Nagajivha. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". stems erect or procumbent. Country. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Hallekayiballi. variable. cold in the nose. Lady nut. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. narrowed at the base. C—infundibuliform. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. H. used as laxative and astringent. Giant's rattle. Madvinashi. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Grey). It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. 10—50 cm. Mabhipaka. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. R. Doddakampi. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. :—Konkan. Unripe fruit is cooling. Tanavadi. LOC.—sessile. sour. . aperient. 3-nerved. Garambi. thirst. purifies body humours (Yunani). Dyes. useful in heart-diseases.—Aug.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. expectorant. :—A perennial glabrous herb. Mackary bean. mid-nerve strong. Fruit—acrid. :—E. ellipsoid. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter).) FAM. eye troubles. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Chhotakirayat.
Planted as support for pepper vines. stomachic. long. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. DISTR. The plant is used as a fish-poison. glabrous. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". LOC. often along river banks. Pangara.7-5x7. anthelmintic. branches terete. t. mixed with spices. .5-5-7 cm. Halivan. dark green. pinnae 2—3 pairs. slightly curved.-May. compressed. shining and brown. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. M. oblong or obovate.. indented between the seeds. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks.S.— Mar. 4. hot. Mullumurige. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . inflammations. Planted as ornament.. Phandra . G. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. Arakan. along sea-coast above high-water. K. the tropics generally. Leaves—bitter. Panderavo. Tennaserim. L. Mandara. ORIENTALIS Merr. Peninsula. COM. Nepal.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. wide and 3-8 cm. orbicular. PARTS USED :—Root.—yellow. 30-90 cm. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. in debility and glandular swellings .5-10 cm.—6-15. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). for grapevines in Nasik district. Fr. LOC.) FAM. Indian coral-tree. Sundribans. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Dadap. :—Konkan and N. DISTR. Mochi-wood. Kantakinshuka. diam. Fl. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. :—Coast forests of Malabar. Hongara. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. stalked. 3. C. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. PARTS USED :—Seeds. :—E.3-2 cm. bark used in dysentery. flowers. cure urinary discharges. W. Andamans and Nicobar. Pangara. Panarvo. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. smooth. Var. Raktapushpa. bark. USES :—Powdered kernel. they are given internally as an emetic. leaves. Pegu. Ceylon. Sk. thick. rigidly coriaceous. Paribhadra. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bangaro. Salaki. Fl. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. Mandara. Sd. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. leaflets 7-5 x 2.—pod. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk.—2pinnate. N. H. long. woody.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. Panjira. Kanara. improve appetite.
) FAM. Sk. Sahud. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—capsule. Mondukalli. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. it is anthelmintic. Pusitoa. Dudhi. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. reddish brown. Ceylon. LOC. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. Sk. M. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. bowel complaints and cough in children. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. base unequal-sided. K. Dudhi. .—ovoid-trigonous. Indian tree spurge. L. Sd. and to relieve pain of the joints. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Nagpur 1931). dark green above. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. high. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Bahukshira. Kodukalli. COM. Dudhi. :— E. :—E. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. erect or ascending. rugose. Fl. pale beneath. t. Govardhan. 18th Ind. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Dandasruha. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. CHAR. Dandalio thora. :—Annual herb. K. G. COM. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. Sc. serrulate or dentate. Milk hedge. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Nevli. Paradeshi thora . EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Dudanali. with or without a limb. 15-50 cm. Sher. Achchegida. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman).—Euphorbiaceæ. globose. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Milk bush. branches often 4-angled. Sendh. Duddi. FAM. The plant contains an alkaloid. NS. —throughout the year. G. Pill-bearing spurge. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Shirthahar. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Bottugalli. M. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. H.—involucres numerous.—Euphorbiaceæ.—opposite. See—Timbers. Australian asthma herb. appressedly hairy. Vajradruma. gland minute. NS. FL. Cong. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC.
silky hairy. Jhinkiphudardi. axillary. useful in biliousness. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. Fr. biliousness. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. L. naturalised in India. thin. FAM. Nilpushpi. useful in abdominal troubles.-light blue. Juice is purgative. . tropical and sub-tropical countries. Fl. Fl.-Sep. stems many. epilepsy. alexiteric. smooth. campanulate.-Aug. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). LOC.— capsule. LOC. elliptic-oblong. about 6 m. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—A small tree. enlargement of spleen. K. peduncles very long. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. solitary or sometimes 2. rootstock woody . useful in gonorrhœa. dropsy. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets.-July-Nov. long (appearing in rainy season) . t. alterative.—Convolvulaceæ. Konkan and Gujarat. asthma.—small. H. thick like quill. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. anthelmintic. Shyamakranta . branches erect. leucoderma. stone in bladder (Yunani). :—Sind. 6-13 mm. polished. DISTR.—ovoid. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. Vishnukranta.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. tonic. employed to raise blisters. The plant contains an alkaloid. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. carminative. high. :—Native of East Africa. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. Vishnukranti. spreading. pungent. Fl. Vishnukranta. and with oil to promote growth of hair. long. linear. also as an alterative. milk is alexiteric. Ceylon. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. jaundice. Fr. smooth. almost leafless. terete. dyspepsia. Sk. brightens intellect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. M. base acute. cocci velvety. Kalisankhavali. leprosy and leucorrhoea. colic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. Vishnugandhi. DISTR. useful in bronchitis. usually clothed with long hairs . :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State.—many. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. teething of infants . leprosy. wiry. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. prostrate. Sd— glabrous. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. :—Throughout the State. tumours. 4valved. carminative. Sd. whooping cough.—capsule. mostly female. more than 5 cm. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. COM. branchlets whorled. t. :—G. LOC. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . CHAR. globose. :—A perennial herb. LOC. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. L.
Arabia. C—lobes 4-5.— ovoid. arising from between the stipules . 1-3 foliate. Deccan hills and S. FL. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. emmenagogue. DISTR. thirst.-Aug. smooth.—solitary. petioles deeply striate. urinary discharges. purifies blood (Ayurveda). FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. . NS. Bark is used in scabies. W. toothache. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. obliquely obovate. Dhamaso .—opposite. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours .—capsule. Maval. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. Dhamasa. root fibrous. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. sessile. Upper Gangetic plains. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. smooth. Dhanavi. lower half white. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. M. COM. Ustarkhar. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers.2 cm. cures dysentery. M.— showy. Sk. deeply 5-partite. quadrangular. small. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. N. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. Punjab. Country. glandular hairy. yellowish brown. Fl.-Dec. Fr. H. shining. FAM. Iran. Waziristan. also used in chronic fevers. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. flattened. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). spitting of blood. elliptic or lanceolate. LOC. pale rose-coloured. Baluchistan. NS. high. the upper blue. FAM. scarcely branched. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Gujarat. L. Mysore. 1-seeded cocci. L. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. reduces tumours. 5-nerved. M. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. Atmamuli. DISTR. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). t.—Gentianaceæ.—very variable in size and form sessile. Ghats. in chronic bronchitis. Cooling. long. t. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. Mediterranean. about 1.). dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. the middle the largest. typhoid. it has got cooling properties. Coimbatore. CHAR.—Zygophyllaceæ. Udichirayat. good for liver troubles. LOC. LOC. leaflets linear. Sd. removes "Vata. Fr. more or less glandular. asthma. in copious terminal cymes . stomatitis. westwards to Afghanistan. Ind." asthma.-Nov. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. ophthalmia. Dusparsha. :— H. of 5. Barachirayat. Hinguna. removes "Vata". stem. reaching 60 cm. :— Sind. fever. CHAR.-Oct. Prabhodhini. :—An erect annual. :—Konkan. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. :—Madras State. erysipelas. cooling. alexipharmic. Circars. Fl. Kashaya. ellipsoid. pyramidal to the apex. Rajasthan. COM. acute. :—G. Fl. vomiting. ovate.
Banian tree. good for throat. NS. common in the Tapi Valley.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. heart diseases. L. Kavath. Leaves—very astringent. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . high. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. acrid. Vad. Nyagrodha. Ghats. often cultivated. ovate to elliptic. Bargat. binding diuretic. Kavit. Bar. Sk. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. FAM. Manmadha. consumption. G. Monkey fruit.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Bargad. Malura. Avaroha. Kotha. blood impurities. Elephant or wood apple. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. leucorrhoea. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Bahupada. India. :—E. with male. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Vat. Vad. tonic to heart. Kapipriya. Jatala. Self-sown. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. with spreading branches. useful in biliousness. M. refrigerant . Java. S. :— E.—coriaceous. Kanara. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. M. removes biliousness. fruit and seeds. . Ceylon. " Vata ".5 cm. asthma. Grahiphala. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. dysentery. Bhringi. cures cough. Vata. Goli. refrigerant. :—Indigenous in S. LOC. LOC.— globose. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Vadlo . USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Seeds—antidote to poison. Kait. shining above. vomiting . Fruit Trees. H. H. about 2 cm.—Rutaceæ. liver and lungs . Sk. ophthalmia. hiccup. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. :—Cultivated all over the State. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). K. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. NS.—Moraceæ. aphrodisiac. " Tridosha". Balin.. COM. COM. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . female. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. Fruit—sour . Fr. Alada. Kathinyaphala. Kathel. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). fatigue. CHAR. Kavitha. Dadhiphala. strengthening to gums . Kapitha. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. Kothun. alexipharmic. LOC. diam. M. G. difficult to digest. cordate or rounded base. Belada. often planted. Byala.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. astringent. tumours. country and N. 10-20 X 5-12. Ala. thirst. See—Timbers. DISTR.
inflammation of liver (Yunani). Cultivated in N. FICUS CARICA Linn. G. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. COM. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. bruises. useful in piles. liver and spleen diseases. maturant. vulnerary. gonorrhœa. Fig. Anjir. India. hill ranges of S. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Bark. Anjir. Seeds are cooling and tonic. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. Anjura. See—Famine Plants. leprosy (Ayurveda). Milky juice— aphrodisiac. seeds and milky juice. Simeyatu . W. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). Fibres. FAM. Dharwar. alexiteric. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Grown scattered elsewhere. diseases of head and blood. diuretic. NS. inflammations. M. LOC. Asia and Mediterranean. useful in leucoderma. erysipelas. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. nose-diseases. nutritive. Sk. fever. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. Anjir. Milky Juice—expectorant. leaves. W. Root—tonic. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. in rheumatism and lumbago. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Bijapur. lithotriptic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. LOC. lessens inflammations. dysentery. Anjir. biliousness. weakness. Sacred Plants. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. vomiting. root-fibres. ringworm. Afghanistan. :—Baluchistan. :— E. paralysis. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). . useful in "Kapha". ulcers. Kakodumbar.—Moraceæ. stimulates hair-growth. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. LOC. India. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. tonic. useful in syphilis. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. useful in "Vata". USES :—Fruit is emollient. biliousness. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. pain in chest cures piles. boils and carbuncles. demulcent. useful in inflammation . leprosy. vaginal complaints. Aerial root is styptic. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. H. DISTR. laxative.
Pippala. FAM. leaves and fruits. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. COM. fatigue. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. DISTR. leaves. Demera. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). :—E. allays thirst. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness. Bark is cooling. diseases of kidney and spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. LOC. Vriksharaj. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. loss of voice. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Bark. tonic. urinary discharges. galactagogue. ulcers. bark. Pipli. latex. Pipers. good for gravid uterus. Bark useful in asthma and piles. K. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. :—Widely spread throughout India. M. blood diseases. K. Pavitraka. NS. styptic. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. leprosy. Shuchidruma. bark. HABITAT :—Planted. Gular-Country fig. :—Throughout the State near villages. Sacred Plants. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Fruit—astringent to bowels. Gular. fruit. burning sensation. Ashvatha. vagina. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. Lalka. useful in "Kapha". Yajnika. menorrhagia. Jari. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. LOC. good for bronchitis. biliousness. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Arani. cummin. Umar. useful. burning sensation. NS. LOC. G. COM. Fruit— useful in dry cough. vulnerary. G. Pipal. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Bark infusion is given in diabetes.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. Sk. leucorrhoea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. nose bleedings. DISTR. uterus . Sk. given in leucorrhoea.—Moraceæ. See—Timbers. Umar. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. (Yunani). In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Pipal. Bodhidruma. Milk—aphrodisiac. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. FAM. is given to cattle in rinderpest. acrid. in diseases of blood. :—E. . Ragi. Pimpal. Umbro. Ashwatha mara. planted all over. M. H. ground with onions. good for foul taste. Hemadugdha. Udumbara. Rumadi. H. Pippala.—Moraceæ. Peepal tree . Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Atti. Umbar.
Finkel. seeds. H. Root good for gout. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. M. Sk. FAM. :—E. Bhanber. M. Ghats. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). S. Bhakal. LOC. Fruit—purgative. SAPIDA Roxb. Variari. checks vomiting (Yunani). Akrani. G. Fodder Plants. LOC. Sacred Plants.—Umbelliferæ. K.—Flacourtiaceæ. HABITAT :—Hills. good for lumbago. Hunmunki. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. FAM. Soupa. H. and produces sterility in women. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. K. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. NS. Satpura. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. Badisoppu. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. M. Country and N. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Root-bark good in stomatitis. Kankod . Katar. Fruits are sweet. Circars. Burma. Gajale. Badishep. cleans ulcers. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Handi Kandai. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Paker. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Potika. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Tambat. appetising and digestive. Sk. gum. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. Kanara Jungles. Swadukantaka. W. :— G. bark. aphrodisiac. Variali. astringent in leucorrhoea. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Bhuripushpa. heart diseases. Khandesh. upper Gangetic plain. Tapaspriya. Shateya. See—Timbers. DISTR. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. The juice is employed in hiccup. Mullutari. Shalina. Hettarimullu. N. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. . COM NS. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Fennel. Bilangra . PARTS USED :—Root. promotes granulations. fruit. See—Timber. COM. common in the Peninsula.
often cultivated. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. galactagogue. :—W. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Ghats. Coorg. causing constipation . kidney. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. lessen inflammations. Fr. DISTR. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. dysentery.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. furrows vittate. . 0. LOC. anthelmintic. Kokam .—in large umbels . dysentery. PARTS USED :—Roots. Konkan and N. demulcent and emollient. anthelmintic. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. Kokam. Wynaad. :—E. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. fever. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. in headache. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Sk. alexiteric. :—Endemic in W. Leaves—improve eyesight. eye-diseases. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. burning sensation.—Guttiferæ. Kokam . Amlabija. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". wounds etc. useful in diseases of chest. leprosy (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". LOC. aromatic and carminative. common in S. wounds. seeds-carminative. Tintidika. G. useful in bleeding piles. LOC.9 m. yellow. LOC.—ellipsoid. :—A tall glabrous. Kanara. improves appetite and allays thirst. It is much used as a nutritive. NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). COM. difficult to digest. Tittidika . cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Bark. :—Apparently a native of S. Ratambi. leaves and seeds. DISTR. FAM. Wild mangosteen. biliousness. See—Condiments and Spices. FL. strengthen eyes (Yunani). spleen. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. high. cardiotonic. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. L. Atyamla. (Mhaskar and Caius). Mulgala. USES :—Bark is astringent. leaves (rarely). dark green. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. " Vata ". Oils. ultimate segments linear. laxative. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. bracts and bracteoles absent. cough and asthma. annual. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. See—Timbers. fruit and seeds. thirst.— decompound. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children.6-0. M. USES :—used as stimulant. carpophore 2-partite. K. cures "Tridosh". amenorrhœa. stimulant. fissures of lips. tumours. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. Ghats south of Bombay. diuretic. ridges prominent. Murjinhalli. stomachic. aphrodisiac.
5-3. Northern ghats of Madras State. Sk. Suvirya. . HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. :—India. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores.-tubular. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Gum. COM. See—Gums and Resins.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . oblong. Fl. C. Western Peninsula. not fragrant. G. all dry districts of Madras State. See—Timbers. lucida (Ayurveda). long.—Rubiaceæ. Dekamari. unarmed. first white then changing to yellow. Pinda. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. HABITAT :—Open situations. buds resinous. PARTS USED:-Gum. LOC. :—India (W. FAM. same as for G. Dikemali. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic.8 cm. Bikke.—Feb. NS. NS. :—A deciduous shrub. Jantuka. Fr. LOC. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. astringent to bowels.5 cm. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. about 1. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. 4. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Dakamali. K. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. relieves pain of bronchitis. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. Cambi resin tree. opaque.8 m. oblong or ellipsoid.-subsessile. Burma. :—E. Gums and Resins. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. :—Common from Konkan southwards.-sessile. Hingu. L. 1-3 together. Peninsula)..—Rubiaceæ. Dikamali. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . t. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. -June. common on laterite in southern parts of N. DISTR. Dikkamalli. shining. M. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. Kanara. high.—2. FAM.5x22. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. CHAR. elliptic-obovate. H. Fl. LOC. COM. As sold in the bazar it is hard. lucida. Dikamari.
Cochin-China. H. t.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. inflammations. Indai. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. ovate lanceolate. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. M. margins wavy. Akkitang hall. Tropical Africa.. alexiteric. LOC. solid. K.—Liliaceæ.5-3. tall. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. stems annual. Linn. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. 7. Sivasaktibalb . PARTS USED :—Tuber. FL. Kathari. Kulhari. Kalikari.3 cm. Agnimukhi. Huliyuguru. orange. linear oblong. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. laxative. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—G. anthelmintic. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). scarlet. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. sometimes whorled. NS. heating. COM. Malay Peninsula.5 cm. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.—large. solitary. useful in chronic ulcers. CHAR. and crimson from blooming to fading. bitter. Karianag. linear-lanceolate. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. abdominal pains.—sessile. Nangulika. given off from young tubers . In Guinea. Ceylon. root-stock of arched. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side.. Languli. . Fr. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. DISTR. :—Herbaceous. Kalihari. branching climber . itching.—capsule. Dudhio vachhonag. In case of retained placenta. Sk. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. The former is supposed to be male. axillary . Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. Garbhapatani. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). L. Khadyanag. used to remove placenta from uterus. LOC. leprosy. leaves and flowers. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. scattered or opposite. changing colours from greenish yellow. piles.2 cm. :—Throughout tropical India. thirst. acrid. Tuber— astringent. expectorant. Fl. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. perianth segments reaching 6.. There are two varieties of the plant. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia.5 X 15 X 2-4.-July-Oct. filaments long spreading. FAM.
USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. G. useful in indigestion. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. :—Throughout the State.—Verbenaceæ. :— E. Nurma . alterative. NS. Gambari. abdominal pains. root is also stomachic and laxative. aphrodisiac. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. useful in fevers . White teak.—Malvaceæ. Shivan . Gupsi. indigestible. Philippines. M. fevers. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in hallucinations. strangury. DISTR. Shiwan. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. K. Cashmere tree. piles. FAM. scalds etc. G. :— Bengal. made into paste. Shivani. Deokapas. common on Satpuda. Mahabhadra. Madhya Bharat.:—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. flowers and fruit. thirst. Khandesh. In the Konkan. consumption. Hanji. Root extract is bitter and tonic. stomachic. Gandhari. the root. Shiwan. :—Throughout India. improves appetite . leaves. . FAM. Root taken with liquorice. K. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. H. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. See—Timbers. DISTR. Coomb teak. LOC. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Rajasthan and N. LOC. anasarca. " Tridosha ". Devkapas. Sk. chronic cystitis. Oils. Ceylon. Shripani. anæmia. Bachanige. gleet. Sind. LOC. Malaya. leaves. anthelmintic . honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Fruit— diuretic. NS. COM. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. flowers and seeds. Provinces. H. tonic. Var. See—Fibres. laxative. COM. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. promotes hair-growth. Gumbhar. scattered in monsoon forests. Karibatti. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Karpasam. useful in "Vata". :—Throughout the State and about temples. ulcers. Devakapus. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. urinary discharges. M. Kumbudi. Flowers—astringent. Savan. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. consumption and some catarrhal affections . Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. Tree cotton. W. Gambhari. Kashmari. catarrh of the bladder etc. burning sensation.
:— Cultivated in N. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. COM. :—Cultivated in the State. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. aphrodisiac. removes " Vata ". Badari. Rui.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Sk. Seeds— ' galactagogue. NS. In India they are used to procure abortion. Sutrapuspha. Parusha. used in orchitis.. good for all kinds of inflammations. Gujarat and S. Karpas. preventing their access to wounds etc. See—Fibres. F. Phalsa. tonic. tonic. sour. Mediterranean. U. Anagnika. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. K. FAM. K. (Yunani). laxative . DISTR. :—Sind. poultice applied to burns' scalds. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . leaves. removes " Vata" and biliousness. cooling. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). W. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Rui. H. enrich blood. fevers and consumption. M. NS. M. Tula. Syria. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Iran. heart and blood disorders. H. East Tropical Africa. Parapera. restore consciousness. Mesapotamia. scabies . Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils.—Malvaceæ. bark. Buttiyu-dippa. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Pharuah. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. COM. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. :—G. expectorant and aphrodisiac. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. increase flow of urine. Ripe fruit—sweet. PARTS USED :—Root. Province (Pakistan). probably in N. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kapas . fruit. Phalsi. Dhamin. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. cures inflammations. Leaves remove " Vata " . acrid. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Baluchistan. Oils. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Kupas. Country.Phalse. DISTR. Seeds are laxative. Seeds—aphrodisiac. FAM. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. in hills near Poona. Tadasala. good for throat . Hatti. :—E. G. extensively in Gujarat. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . Kapus. leaf-juice good in dysentery. fomentation for burning eyes . expectorant. LOC. Arabia and Asia Minor. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. extensively cultivated. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. LOC. wild in Deccan. Roshana. cure all ear-troubles. S. Jana. digestible. analgesic. demulcent. Cotton . Afghanistan. A. in hypochondria. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. Sk. fruits and seeds. Arali. allay thirst. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Karihariyale.—Tiliaceæ. Egypt. LOC..
NS. Tropical Africa. Br. strengthens chest and heart. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. good in heart-diseases. Root and bark used in strangury. Karnasphota. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. The ease of administration. COM. Small Indian ipecacuanha.—in cymes . SK. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. cooling. Fruit—sour. relieves thirst and hiccup. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. See—Fruit Trees. L. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. bronchitis. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. base rounded or cordate . Tilparni. Sk.—follicle. :—A large woody climber. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. LOC. Karalia . :—Throughout the State. asthma. . USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Vakundi. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). LOC. India. common in hedges in Dharwar district. biliousness. young stems densely pubescent. stomachic. DISTR. NS. Pandhari tilwan. t. Fr. CHAR. tonic. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). alterative. Fl. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis.— with thin marginal wing. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. Bastagandha. usually single. inflammations. LOC. sweet. Kavali. Kabari. anthelmintic. :— E. FAM. K. Periploca of the woods. Ugragandha. Churota. Kanphodi.— companulate . Mardashingi. G. alexiteric. S. Meshashingi. much branched. Sati talvani. H. K. cornea. Sanngera. corona of 5 processes . elliptic. Hulhul. lanceolate. Tanmani. ulcers. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. COM. Shrikala. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Vishani. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. FAM. FL.— Apl. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste.—Capparidaceæ. C. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. should not be eaten raw. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). :E. useful in diarrhœa and fevers.-May.— opposite. Mahabaleshwar and N. piles. — Asclepiadaceæ. ovate. yellow . Caravella. Mabli. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. vitreous body) burning sensation. Bedki. Kanara coast. acrid. Sannagerse. H. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Hulhul. helps removal of dead fetus. Sd. :—Western Peninsula. Meshavalli. leucoderma. Merasingi. Arkapuspika. M. Adiyakharan. Gurmar. the stomachic stimulant.
Fl.—petals 4 with long slender claws. FAM.—rather rigid. LOC. FAM. high. Kanara. t. LOC. stomachic . Fl. Mrigashringa. Murdasing. Sd. elliptic-lanceolate. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. :—M. HELICTERES ISORA Linn.5-20 X 3.. dark-brown . C. L. Country. hills in Supa Taluka. Fl. leaves and seeds. Fr. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles .—Rubiaceæ. DISTR. hairy. tapering at both ends. margins crenate-dentate. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. Sk. stipules triangular. Gidesa Jitasai. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. . ulcers. :—An annual erect herb 0. long . Avartant.-Feb.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering.—many. pedicels viscid hairy. long. COM. :—G. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation.—capsule.—Sterculiaceæ. H. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Kewan.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. gynophore 2-2. M. S.12. NS. Murudseng. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. Gujarat. Katraj Ghat. pink . glabrous or pubescent above.—3-5 foliate. (Kirtikar and Basu). USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil.—June. Marosi.2 m. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. producing copious exudation. removes "Vata".. t. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. Sinhgad hills. Kavargi. PARTS USED :—Root.8-9 cm.—in dense bracteate racemes. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. vesicant. pubescent. :—A small deciduous shrub. acute. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . opposite.6—1. hills near Nagothana. good in ascites. hairy.—muricate. Jonkaphal Maraphali. ellipsoid . :—Deccan. earache. Fl. sessile. COM. Edamuri. M. China. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. L. hairy on the nerves beneath. 5-9 cm. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. DISTR. white or blue. tumours. CHAR. stem and branches hairy.—Oct. with divaricate herbaceous branches . PARTS USED :—Root. elliptic-obovate. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). Fr. LOC. pain. K. Sd. Murudi.5 cm. viscid. leaflets subsessile. .—capsule. HABITAT:—Hills.
bark and fruit. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. FL. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). spirally coiled. thirst. blood diseases. L. Durivel. Fl.— very variable. CHAR. common in hedges. purplish inside. Stem lessens inflammation. eye troubles. India. LOC. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. astringent to bowels . stem. lessens griping. Kapurimathuri.— with silvery white coma . alexiteric. M. angular . urinary discharges. paralysis. HABITAT :—In hedges. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. Upalsali.5 X 5-10 cm. ovate orbicular. demulcent. Fr. poisoning. rat-bites. . Konkan. LOC. :—Upper Gangetie plain. Malaya.— in cymes in opposite axils. antidiarrhœal.—Asclepiadaceæ. Country. LOC. Br. bilabiate. diarrhœa. Fl. t — Aug. Sd. asthma. gargle good for toothache (Yunani).—follicle cylindric. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. stems thickened at the nodes . PARTS USED :—Root. foul body odour. cures all skin-diseases. anti-galactagogue. NS. astringent to bowels. Dhaval kashtha. syphilis. scabrous above. joint-pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. long. epileptic fits. often variegated with white above. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. burning sensation. :—Large shrub or small tree. Deccan and S. :—Throughout the State. root-Stock woody . Root useful in hemicrania. Ceylon. "Kapha". fevers. 5-6. tapering . uterine complaints. diaphoretic. Australia and West Indies. useful in gleet. K.—tubular. Magrabu. Upalsari. low appetite. beaked. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). Indian sarsaparilla .-biferous. They are demulcent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. COM. and leaves.3 cm. C. useful in piles. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. diuretic. :— E. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. Sk. DISTR. See—Fibres. G. obliquely cordate. dark-green. Hindisalse.-Dec. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. Utpalashariva. Burma. "Vata' dysentery. “tridosh". M.—numerous. t. H. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Anantmula. mildly astringent.512. Fl. Sugandhi-balli. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub.. DISTR. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs.—follicle of 5-6.Sd. bronchitis. Hamadaberu . Anantmula. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. irregularly crowded. red at first fading to lead colour. L. FAM. leucorrhoea. 7. cough. Kanara ghat forests. asthma.—throughout the greater part of the year. good for brain. Root and stem—laxative. liver and kidney diseases . greenish outside.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . :— E. . red.—Malvaceæ. bark and petals are demulcent.5. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. and as early as 1864. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. urinary discharges. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. cooling. tubular below. syphilis and leucorrhoea. petals thrice as long as the calyx. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. See—Ornamental Plants. magenta. remove burning of body. FAM. t. seminal weakness. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. Japapushpa. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. Fr. LOC. cm. DISTR. demulcent. Jasavand. fevers. Native country probably China. G. Kempupundrika. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India.. leaves.—no fruits produced in India. etc. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. H. flowers. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. K. HABITAT :—Cultivated. skindiseases. and mixed with ghee. Harivallaba. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). Root roasted in plantain leaves. L. LOC. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. C.—7. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). useful in loss of appetite. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. NS. :—A perennial shrub. It is also diuretic. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient.—short petioled. ovate or ovate lanceolate. yellow. solitary. irregularly serrate towards the top. Shoe flower. Fl. diam. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Raktapushpi.—during most of the year.—axillary. PARTS USED :—Root. In the Konkan. tonic. Aruna. COM. astringent. CHAR. Jasut. Dasanihu. Fl. Root is valuable in coughs. It is said to purify blood. Rudrapushpa. piles. uterine and vaginal discharges. entire near the base. Sk. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. involucral bracts 5-7. crimson. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. M. Jasuva. bright red. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Jasum. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). Dasavala. glabrous. pedicel jointed above the middle.
Madhavi. t. 5th petal yellow at the base. covered with minute hairs . (lower leaves sometimes entire).—5-7. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. acuminate. hairy.— Jany.—purple with darker centres. Vasantduti. young parts silky. Patwa. LOC. K. Madmalati. :—An annual. Adimurtte Adirganti. :—E.—axillary. Vasantduti. Kamuka. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. C.2-2 cm. H.3-7. much used in curries. HABITAT.—coriaceous. Kampti. K. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. purple.-Mar. :—G. tropics of the old world. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. involucral bracts 10. M.lobes oblong. stem and branches purple.—Oct. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Lal ambadi. C. Pundi-bija or soppu.) FAM. L.. long. sedative and refrigerant. Madhumalati. 1. FAM. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Madhavi. Rozelle. Atimukta. See—Vegetables. often blotched with purple with darker centre. erect. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Fr. Ragotpiti. Fl. elliptic-oblong. Red sorrel. fringed. mid-lobe the longest. across. CHAR. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. Ceylon. Kanara. G. Atimukta. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. base cuneate. Madhalata. 3-winged.5 cm. Lal ambari. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Deccan. NS.—1-3. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Fl.—capsule. 10-18 X 4. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—large. entire glabrous. fragrant. 3-5 lobed. COM. and adding a little salt. Malati. Sk. Konkan. Madhavi. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. NS. purple. DISTR.5 cm. L. uppermost petal broader. black-brown. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. pepper. globose. fruits and seeds. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub.—Malvaceæ. Chandravalli. Fl. M. beaked. Vasanti. . Kempupundrike. asafoetida and molasses. Lal ambadi. Fl. petioles silky. H. serrate. Sd. calyx fleshy. t.— solitary. LOC. Grows abundantly on the W. Haladvel.—petals 5. :—Cultivated. on the margins. Fr.—in erect racemes. Madhavi. Fibres. ovoid. clawed.—Malpighiaceæ. flowers.-Dec. CHAR. :—Throughout the State. Ghats. Sd. long. orbicular. white. glabrous.
LOC. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. fevers. Fr. Flowers— acrid. Hale. skin and spleen diseases. cylindric. Dudhi. leprosy. Sd. Ceylon. given in chest affections.-June. tonic. :—Throughout the State. styptic. COM. Kuda. strengthens gums. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Sk. Seeds—carminative. Indrayana. tonic. C—tubular.. thirst. t. white. " Kapha". L. astringent to bowels cure pains.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . insecticidal.—follicles 20-48 cm. Veppale. CHAR. Kurchi tree. diuresis (Yunani). lessens inflammations. cures dysentery. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . good in erysipelas. Kaduoindrajav. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. branchlets drooping. long. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Kodasige. Karohi. Malay Peninsula. cough. Kaling. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). cooling. M. Kura. hallucinations (Ayurveda). NS. good in headache. Siwalik. biliousness. PROPERTIES. asthma. G. Thailand (Siam). China. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. remove muscular pains . lumbago. skin diseases. acrid. anthelmintic. fatigue. burning sensation. excessive menstrual flow. ulcers. Kuda.5 cm. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. diarrhœa. boils. good in chronic bronchitis. LOC. acrid. galactagogue. Leavesastringent..—Feb. :—E. Kumaon. Andamans. burning sensation. Karnatak. heating. bitter. LOC. Burma. Seeds—appetiser. Bark—bitter. Hath. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. H. Circars. DISTR. Karuindrayan. appetiser cure blood diseases.—10-20 X 5-11. vulnerary. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. wounds. Fl. smoke good for piles. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. flowers and seeds. Pandhara Kuda. Conessi bark tree. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards.—Apocynaceæ. biliousness. FAM. leprosy. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. FL. urinary discharges. leaves. Mt.— in terminal corymbose cymes . N. Nepal. Madras State. bleeding piles. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. vulnerary. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. main nerves conspicuous . Assam. K. Abu. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. thirst and inflammation. cool the brain. Kutaja. remove "Tridosh". Kudsalu. PARTS USED :—Bark.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. aphrodisiac. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. piles. often dotted with white spots. cause "Vata". throat hairy inside. colic. inodorous. broadly ovate or elliptic. leucoderma . throughout India to Travancore and Malacca.
The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). acrid. improves voice. anæmia. lowers the pulse. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. Suj. stomachic. Germinated barley. demulcent and expectorant. burns. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. DISTR. nor styptic. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. . malt sugar and diastase. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. Tasteless. Satu. See—Food Plants. LOC. COM. febrifuge. Javegodhi. appetiser. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Java. Med. K. Aug. Barley. Hayapriya. nor astringent. The grains contain vitamin B. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). and kurchicine. They are astringent. sweetish. fattening. Ind. Shaktu. Sk. LOC. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. causes constipation. fevers (Yunani). with radicle attached to it. kurchine. (R. asthma. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Jav. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. 1928).—Gramineæ. Jav. useful in biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. India. allays thirst. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. aphrodisiac. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. useful in bronchitis. especially cod-liver oil. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. useful in fevers. good for ulcers. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. headache. —Cultivated chiefly in N. H. Jawa. biliousness. diarrhœa. pains in chest. inflamed gums. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. Yava. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. Gaz. Ymvah. M. NS. dysentery and intestinal worms. Knowles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Divya. They are also used after delivery. widely cultivated in temperate regions. G. PARTS USED :—Seeds. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. :—E. FAM. bronchitis.
Kadukavata.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Dondra. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.5-23 X 3. Common in N. Malabar. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. tomentose. young parts brown pubescent. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers.—Rubiaceæ.—Jany. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. L.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Kastel. Panch Mahals in Gujarat.—berry. Ugragandha. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest.) FAM. Phaldu. Bihar. common in Travancore. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. dioecious . K. Bhoswar. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. Ghats. For scald-head. Sk. C. Betaga. :—W. Amarachala. Bhrijatuaka. pungent. Madhya Pradesh. Bharnarasalya. M. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Fr. globose or ovoid. Peninsula. :—K. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. more or less coriaceous. FAM. Bhorsal.. M. S. t. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot.—solitary or in racemes. . See—Oils. Gandele. COM. 12. flat. LOC. Kowti. Country and Kanara. Niradivittulu. broadly ovate. CHAR. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Garudphala.8-7. camphor and lime-juice.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Garudphala. white. Dondru. H. sometimes along river banks. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch.—numerous. Fl. :—G. Kanara evergreen forests. DISTR. acuminate. Bandaru. size of small apple.—Bixaceæ. PARTS USED :—Seeds. sulphur. good for the throat. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Bhringamallika. Southern and Western India. Doti.—Apl. Sk. Sd. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. high. FL. M. Kshiradru. increases taste and appetite. COM. NS. LOC. NS. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Bhanina. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. bitter. Bhutabi.
5x 3.—capsule. Potuasaga.-Apl. DISTR. t. CHAR. very common in Gujarat. COM. the powdered wood is used for herpes. Fl.-Dec. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. In Indo-China. Kalaka. very slender. prostrate. 10-15 cm. Fl. straight or slightly curved. :—More or less throughout India. biliousness.—Convolvulaceæ. Kanara. cures " Kapha ". cylindric .—4-5-7 X 2-3. Pechuli. Sariva.2 -7. Java. FL. vomiting. Gopini. S. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. Sk. :—Throughout the State. Sk. Karihambu. trailing on mud or floating. Chandangopa.—follicle. young branches finely fulvous tomentose .MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. Ceylon. . fever. FAM. NS. :—Annual or biennial herb. X 4 cm. Sd. Bhadra. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. rooting at the nodes . base rounded. C. Kanara. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. M. throat and tube dull purple . LOC. L.—linear. Fr. stems long.— Nov. elliptic oblong. CHAR. Karmi. Kalambika. Common in the evergreen forests of N.—5-12. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Nadika. NS. Siamalata. Nalichibhaji. middle portion much inflated. LOC. " Vata ".—tube with narrow portion below. Kalidudhi. H. Krishnasariva. lobes obscure . Fr. thirst.—1-5 flowered peduncles . Sd. The outer layer is tasteless. cordate or hastate. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. greenish white. Country. Fodder Plants.—Nov. Shradhashaka. aphrodisiac. rusty pubescent. Kantebhovari. blood diseases. upper constricted. acute. ovoid . LOC. Gorwiballi. :—Konkan. Kalaghantika. Australia.. cooling. thick.—Apocynaceæ.8 cm. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. See—Timbers. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. :—H. Br. :—G. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. COM.—4 or 2. C. numerous . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish.—in axillary and terminal. hollow. K. stalks and leaves. FAM. Nalanibhaji. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. Fl.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). black with white scanty coma. :—A large twining shrub . t. Kalmisag. L. M. trichotomous cymes. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. glabrous above.5 cm. pubescent. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda).
glabrous. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. K. COM. useful in syphilis. useful in leprosy. liver complaints. LOC. Carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. biliousness. anthelmintic . vomiting. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. lobes 5-7. aphrodisiac. diuretic. being regarded as tonic. cures biliousness. flowers (rarely). 3.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. useful in fever. biliousness and fevers. Sd. Fl. t. (Yunani). America. Bilaikand . anthelmintic. thick. alterative. LOC.—in.-July-Sept. NS. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). dry. demulcent and lactagogue. Australia in moist climate. Kanara sea coast. Nila-kumbala. long. ovoid. See—Gums and Resins. improves voice and complexion. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. L. M. pale. (Yunani). Sk. stem long. galactagogue. bronchitis. Fl. stomachic. deeply palmately divided. leaves. leprosy. In Burma. gonorrhœa and inflammation. 4-celled. Fr. (Ayurveda). Giant potato . CHAR. tonic. lessens inflammation. Africa and Australia.3 cm. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. tropical Asia.—Convolvulaceæ. LOC. entire.—10-15 cm. 4-valved. Root—heating. peduncle solitary axillary. twining. Bhumikushmanda. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. useful in leucoderma. Swadu Vidarikand. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. :—Perennial. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. H. PARTS USED :—Root. tropical Asia. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. purple. also useful in liver complaints. carminative. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . blood diseases. burning sensation. FAM. :— E. . Ceylon. root large. " Kapha " .8—6. aphrodisiac. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. near sea coast. Bhuikohala. enclosed in fleshy sepals.—capsule. :—Throughout India. long. stimulant. Leaves enrich blood. DISTR. jaundice. expectorant. galactagogue. Africa. often broader than long. Bhunichahragadde. to children in case of emaciation. debility and want of digestive power. ovate-lanceolate. Flower causes " Vata ". indigestible. alterative. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium.
(IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. creeping and rooting at the nodes. CHAR. Mirchai.5 cm. M. DISTR. M. Africa. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. filiform. axillary. leucoderma. :—Western Peninsula.—Sept. Nilpushpa. See—Ornamental Plants. Musekani. t. stems many. scabies and biliousness. carminative. 3-celled. Indian jalap. deeply three-Iobed. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Sk. sparsely hairy. Kalokumpo. S. Krishna—Shyama-bija. LOC. subglobose. G. Undirkani. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. glabrous . NS. anthelmintic. petioles hairy. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. Ceylon. H.. L. Vrishchikparni. Purgative. H. ovate-cordate. dries the phlegm.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . Undirkani.3-2. E. in the Himalayas. broad. believed to be of American origin. LOC. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. :—G. Kaladana. C.—Convolvulaceæ. K. LOC. COM. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu).:—Throughout India. Ganribij. Bhumichari Mushakaparni.— 4-6. fevers. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois.) FAM. Deccan.8-5 cm. bechic.-Oct. M. pains in joints. Fr. PARTS USED :—Seeds. :—E. subglobose or ovoid.5 cm. :—A herb . Kaladanah. crenate. Country. The plant contains a glucoside. Fl. Nilvel.—1. diam.— yellow. K. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. DISTR. NS. reniform or ovate-cordate. stems twining. diseases of head.-5-12. lobes ovate. Fr.—dark chestnut coloured . Fl. clothed with long hairs. :—Konkan. tropical Africa.—3. Morning glory.—capsule.—capsule. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. abdominal diseases. :—An annual herb. Sd. cures inflammations. bracts linear. Fl. FAM. Sk. CHAR. Shyamala-bijak. surrounded by ciliate sepals. Sd. headache. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses.—Convolvulaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. COM. S. blue tinged with pink. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). . long tubular funnel-shaped.
Trivrit. K. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. :— E. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. Mauritius. lungs. LOC. LOC.—white. uterus. PARTS USED :—Root. Triputi. often pinkish. expectorant. HABITAT :—Wild . urethral discharges. Fl. enclosed in enlarged sepals . Nahatara. Root with bark should be used. much branched.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. removes bad humours. laxative.—Convolvulaceæ. brain diseases. Br. cooling. Rechani. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. fleshy. L. useful in bilious tremors of body. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Nishottara. inflammations and abdominal diseases .—capsule. bechic. H. sometimes cultivated. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Black variety should not be used (Yunani).—Oct. good in pain. useful in loss of consciousness. paralysis. fevers. pedicels thickened upwards. useful in bilious fevers. t. Indian rhubarb. angled and winged. leucoderma. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). anæmia.3-7 cm. :—Throughout India. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun).8-5 cm. DISTR. muscular pains. globose. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). also in the Konkan and N. laxative. twining and twisted together. C. anthelmintic. Sk. Nishoth. when used alone . purgative. tropical Africa and America. M. Fl.—in few flowered cymes. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. Philippines. paralysis.—5-10 X 1. Malay Islands. ovate or oblong. Pithori. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. white variety is a mild cathartic. applied in diseases of eye and gums. Common in southern Gujarat. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. 3. good for weakness. carminative. Nandi. FAM. long. useful in diseases of kidney. bronchitis. Ceylon. heart and abdomen. pungent. inflammations.-Jany. root long. . :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. False-Indian jalap. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. wounds. useful in spleen enlargement. G. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. mucronate. Kanaka. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. LOC. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. Nashotar. burning sensation and intoxication. fistula. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). Kalaparni. pains of chest and joints. Root— bitter. like others of the genus . stems very long. NS. base cordate or truncate . CHAR. Fr. rarely slightly lobed.. COM. Turbith root. bracts large. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. acrid. bladder. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). It is also alterative.
cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub.2-6. white. H. pale when dry. Chambeli. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. sessile. across. :—Cultivated throughout India. :—E. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. of stems and roots. also along river banks. Fl. Raktaka.8 cm. 5-12. Ceylon. :—Western Peninsula.5 cm. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Jajimalle.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.—ripe carpels 2. Fl. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. HABITAT :—Cultivated . CHAR. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. FAM. Jati. Fr. COM. Surabhigandha. coriaceous.—throughout the year. Fl.—July-Sept. K. Priyanvada.—3. DISTR.3 cm. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. pale when dry. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. C. LOC. fleshy. Chambali. Fr. obtuse . COM NS. . often tinged with pink outside. imparipinnate. oblong. sessile. :—E. proximal petiolulate. :—Bombay southwards . Chambeli. smooth. Bandhuka. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Anemallige. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. purple when ripe. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. obtuse. K. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State.—globose. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. very slender . high. :—A large subscandent shrub.—Oleaceæ. FL—numerous. size of a pea. 5-10 X 3. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Parali. M. lobes 4 (rarely). t. Pendgul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. tube long. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. Bakali. FAM. CHAR. IXORA COCCINEA Linn.9 m. Sk. Kepala. L. Jai.—opposite. stipules with a long rigid point. Pankul. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. terminal rather larger. DISTR.— Rubiaceæ...3 coriaceous. NS. Sk.—opposite. petiole and rachis margined. Ajjige. L. Guddedasal. intermediate sessile . Kisukare. wild. G. very common in Konkan and N.—tubular. leaflets 7-11.2-6. 3. See—Ornamental Plants. stipules . t. oblong. M. Flame of the woods . distal pair confluent with the terminal. LOC.
tonic to brain.—white. heating. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge.—opposite. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. Oil—lessens inflammations. headache and weak eyes. Navamallika. Chamba. expectorant. Mogra.—ripe-carpels 1-2. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. COM NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. subglobose. emmenagogue. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . LOC. useful in diseases of eye. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). variable in shape. suppurative. membranous. In Goa. very fragrant. Fr. ulcers. Banmallika. The plant contains an alkaloid. DISTR. scarcely climbing. stomatitis. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Plant—deobstruent. See—Ornamental Plants. paralysis. Fl. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. K. softens skin. biliousness. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. diseases of mouth. Root—purgative. good for pains in joints and ear. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. it is used in cases of insanity. Mogara. rheumatism. anthelmintic. surrounded by calyx-teeth. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Mogro. otorrhoea. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. Ananga-mallika. and for scabies (Yunani). emetic. Flowers—tonic. :—A sub-erect shrub. allays fevers . Leaves are also used in toothache. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. Arabian Lily. Flower has bitter taste . base rounded or subcordate. Tuscan jasmine. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. diuretic. LOC. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed.—Oleaceæ. aphthae. entire. useful in stomatitis. :—E. :—Cultivated throughout India. M. biliousness (Ayurveda). Fl. intoxicating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. abundant in April-May. LOC. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. black. G. . brain tonic . Mallige. H. Motia. head. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. FAM.—more or less throughout the year . stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). leprosy. Iravantige. L. soporific. good in asthma. alexiteric. Pramodini. mouth and skin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. ear. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. flowers and oil. eyes and ear. caries of teeth. t. cures headache. Sambac. given in blood diseases. Vanchandrika. alexiteric. teeth. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. Sk. alexiteric.
:—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. Seeds contain active principle curcin. corolla lobes 5.. long-petioled. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Fl. Sk.—capsule. anaemia. coral-red. herpes.—Euphorbiaceæ. fruits and seeds. garden shrub . 7. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.—E. cordate. Fr. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. 10-15 X 7.— ovoid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. Barbados Physic nut. thirst. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. L. when applied to boils. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. stipules capillary. . CHAR. disk of female flower urceolate. Akhuparnika. Vilayati haralu.— alternate. yellow. K. LOC. urinary discharges. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. Jyotishka. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. Fl. Bhadradanti. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. 7. dull brownish black.5 mm. Sutashreni. LOC. Kananerand. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. :—E. FAM. Jangali erandi.—ovoid oblong. COM. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. H.5-12. Sd. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. diam. across. " Tridosha". :—Native of tropical America. Simeavadala. abdominal complaints. biliousness. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . heartdiseases (Ayurveda). palmately 3 or 5 lobed. French or Small physic nut. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. long. M. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. longer than calyx. K. L.—monœcious. Dundigu.—Euphorbiaceæ. juice sticky opalescent. large. Sk. DISTR.—orbicular. NS. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). broadly ovate.5 cm. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. COM. Fr. villous within. Virechani. Coral plant. NS. multifid. Mogali—Ran-erand. leaves. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. have suppurative effect. subfleshy. Ratanjot. Jangali—Pahari erand. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. fistula.8 cm. 3-lobed. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. 1. PARTS USED :—Wood. The acrid. useful in chronic dysentery. male flowers. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. CHAR:—A handsome. G.—in flat-topped cymes. black. The seeds act as drastic purgative. and also promotes healing.5 cm.5-12.
useful in piles. COM. L. Shindhuka. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. hot. wild in Tenasserim. CHAR. Fl. . bitter. long.—Ghati pitpapda. In Cambodia. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient.—capsule. Kala adulsa. native of N. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic.2 m.5-12.—white spotted.—Acanthaceæ. Leaves are used in scabies. wounds. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. high . :—H. causes " Kapha ". Krishna-nirgundi. Karambal. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. Nachukaddi. dry . LOC. branches subterete with raised lines. America.6-1. LOC. COM. HABITAT :—Shady positions. FAM. Nilmanjari. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. Nilinirgandi. K. M. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Fr. M. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. Bakas. Kalmashi. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. all over the State. :—Bomb. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. fattening tonic . dyspepsia. NS. vaginal discharges. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. Karinchki. purple within. leaves. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). skin-diseases. Sk. clavate glabrous. DISTR. in interrupted spikes.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bhutakeshi.5 cm. 7. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. 5-12. inflammations. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. tympanitis. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.—Acanthaceæ. LOC. enlarged spleen. aphrodisiac. rheumatism and dysentery. NS.5 cm. Seed— oleaginous. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. fevers.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. useful in bronchitis. purgative. FAM. " Vata ' and "Pitta". :—A native of China. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. heating. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. DISTR. pains. often met with in Bengal. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle .
urinary discharges. oblong shortly pointed. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). Panchgani. tired feeling. FAM. removes indigestion. 6. aromatic. pure-white. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. Australia. C. LOC.. purifies blood in skin diseases. K. good in spleen diseases.—2. DISTR. Fl. fever. stomachic. Travancore. fragrant.—Scitaminaceæ. obtuse at both ends. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Tubers yield an essential oil. Ceylon.. Kachchura . elliptic.— June-July. good in leprosy (Ayurveda).5 X 4. diuretic.:—Stemless herb.5-9 cm. NS. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. lower 3-lobed . tube funnel-shaped . LOC. stops vomiting. Malaya. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. burning of body. Plant diuretic.—in cylindric terminal spikes. enriches blood. Sd. t. Konkan. South Konkan.—lobes lanceolate. strengthens lungs. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. spreading horizontally. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. Fr.—capsule. Kachri. PROPERTIES AND LOC. thin. M. :—More or less throughout India. constipating . Fl. oval. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. CHAR. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede).—2-lipped. fugacious. COM. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. round. upper lip notched. deep green. thirst. Sugandhavachai. :—Western Peninsula. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . DISTR. softly pubescent. Chandramulika. Fl. :—Konkan. (Yunani). Sk. ovate or lanceolate. biliousness. diaphoretic. Deccan. wandering of mind. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. increases " Vata ". Maval in the Deccan.—612 from the centre of the plant.—finely tuberculate.—Oct. . Fl. L. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. Malay Islands. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. root-stock tuberous. pale violet pink. Chandramala. petioles channelled.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. lying flat on the ground.—variable.3-12. HABITAT :—Cultivated. P. LOC. gives lustre to eyes. Western Ghats . Kapurkachri. :—N. expectorant. constricted between the seeds . L. teeth. Madras State. :— H.-Mar. Cultivated in gardens. intoxication. vomiting. t. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.
promotes suppuration. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. CHAR. FAM. very poisonous . FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. N. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. Sk. Bhuchampaka. margins undulate. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps.—narrowly oblong. diam.— sweetly fragrant. elliptic-oblong.5 X 5-12. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike.8-5 cm.—15-37. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. Tumbaka. Danta-bija. rootstock reaching 5 cm. oblong. used in the form of poultice. female cylindric. :—Konkan. Bottle-gourd.5 cm. Sk.—Cucurbitaceæ. Travancore. tubular below. :—An aquatic herb. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula..5-10 cm. M. Fl.—globose 3. NS. HABITAT :—Marshy places. —Feb. H. :—M. Dudio Tumbada. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. Fl. simple.—Aroideæ. G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kadu bhopala. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Coorg. K. S. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . midrib very stout. COM. thick. FAM. Malay Islands. Kanara.. Fl. Halagumbala. Calabash. t. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.—30X7. M. petiole as long as blade.— inflorescence.. remedy for itch. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Bhuichampo . . of various shades of purple and white. in many cycles. Vatsanabhi. LOC. inflorescence of many ovaries. DISTR. H. L. Bhuichapha. M. semicylindric. NS. coriaceous. annulate . Nelasampige .—Scitaminaceæ. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is useful to anasarcous swellings.. Fr. entire. Lauka. Ceylon. Kaddu. Labuka. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . CHAR. COM. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.-Apl. :—Mysore. long. anthers crowded. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. Katutumbi. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. COM. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. spathe 7. Dudhi. furrowed.. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. Bhuichampa . Dudhya bhopala. K. :—E. yellow. Alkaddu. Fl. creeping. t. L. Country.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn.-Mar.5-23 cm. crowded in a globose bead . :— G. The whole plant. DISTR. Cochin. :—Stemless plant. Tubers yield an essential oil.
anti-bilious. . refrigerant and anti-bilious. fruits and seeds. Fruit good in bronchitis. USES :— Leaves are purgative. fruits and seeds. cooling. Bark and leaves are purgative. styptic. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. increases "Vata". LOC. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. causes bronchitis. There are two varieties. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. See—Vegetables. wild (rarely). vulnerary. NS. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Nirbendeka: M. In the Andamans. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. muscular pains. lessens inflammations. wholesome to fœtus. Holematti. leaves. Ceylon. brain-tonic. Challa. Bandhara. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. improves taste. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. Malaya. DISTR. PARTS-USED :—Root. Seeds—good for hot constitution. emetic. seeds are narcotic. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. cardiac and general tonic. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. flatulence. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. LOC.) FAM. earache. earache. Taman. pains (Ayurveda). cures leucorrhoea. "Vata". bronchitis. bark. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. cause haemoptysis. Konkan Ghats. Tarul. in many cases only cultivated. leaves. China. ulcers. Flowers cooling. LOC. sweet. Arjuna. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. Arjuna. oleaginous. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. :—H. Ornamental Plants. flowers. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. antipyretic. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. cures asthma. bitter variety is diuretic. fattening. piles. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . inflammations. K. Sk. anti-periodic. alexiteric. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. COM. Seeds emetic (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. aphrodisiac. See—Timbers. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. Assam. scalding of urine. cures blood diseases. bitter.—Lythraceæ. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. fever. LOC:—North Kanara and S. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. laxative. :—Western Peninsula. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. diuretic. dry cough.
N. :—E.8 cm. Mehndi. lameness. cooling. Mendi. Wooly-headed gnidia. :—A much branched large shrub.. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. Madaranga. lobes 4. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—opposite or scattered. LOC. DISTR. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. (Ayurveda). K. :—E. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. silky beneath. Latri. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. Sandika. yellow. Triputi. dense terminal heads 2. Gorantha. COM. D.5-3. swellings etc. burning. Rametha. glabrous above. The bark is used to poison fish. Sk. enclosed in the perianth . Kukurgal.5 cm. bark mottled. M. heart-troubles. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. :—E. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Sk. NS. oblong flat. Kassar. :—Konkan southwards. Lakh. piles and wandering of the mind. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. Yavaneshta. oblong lanceolate. Grains contain vitamin A. Nakharanjaka.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Medi. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic. FAM.5 X 2-2. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division.—ellipsoid-oblong. M. Basu). K. inflammation. Kanara.—Thymelaeaceæ. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. Belgaum hills . diam. Medika. (B.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. pointed. common on the Supa Ghats. COM. Ragangi. Chickling—White vetch. L. common at Mahabaleshwar. causes much flatulence. subsessile. Khesari. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. .—Lythraceæ. perianth-tube densely silky villous . G. Rami. Lang. t. pain.. See—Food Plants. Deccan hills. :—W. but dangerous cathartic. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Country. Fl. FAM. Mukute. Tree mignonette. G. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. H.—Dec-May. CHAR. Fr. 5-7. NS. S. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. COM. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. M.—in erect. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. DISTR. NS. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. Peninsula—Ceylon. Henna plant. M. improves taste.
ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. stomatitis. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. finger nails and hair. Iran and Baluchistan. dysentery. Ragadali. K. mucronate. HABITAT:—Cultivated. FAM. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. boils. LOC. H. useful. Sk. Masura. vulnerary. The plant contains a glucoside. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". cure leucoderma. t. diuretic. Leaves—bitter. Masur. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. scabies. The oil and essence keep the body cool. diuretic. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. PROPERTIES. Gabholika. indigenous in S. bronchitis. useful in headache. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. :—Grown in Nasik. Fr. DISTR. Chanangi. veined outside. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. seeds. many. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. Sd. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Sura. COM. Massur. LOC. allay burning sensation. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . lateral branches 4-gonous. expectorant. E. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. planted as hedge. cure strangury tumours. ulcers. NS. See—Dyes. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. Asia. Masur. favours hair-growth. cure insanity (Ayurveda). They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. Flowers are refrigerant. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. diseases of spleen. white or rose coloured . flowers. Masuridal. in diseases of heart and of . improve appetite. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Europe and in temperate W. Gurubija.—angular. truncate.—in terminal. fragrant. supported by persistent calyx. pyramidal and panicled cymes.—capsule. LOC.). :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . G. often ending in spinous point. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). Fl. M. skin diseases . globose. amenorrhœa. Ceylon. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Lentil.—Apl-July. lumbago. :—E. :—A cold weather crop throughout India.—opposite. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. wild in Arabia. enriches blood. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. L. Belgaum and Poona districts. & Gib. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. Fl. DISTR. syphilitic sores. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections.
Leaves are used as pot-herb. aphrodisiac. :—An erect glabrous annual. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. and muscular pains. Seeds contain fatty oil. Ahaliva.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. Seeds—indigestible. H. Garden cress . blood and skin diseases. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Fl. :—Cultivated throughout India. L. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. affections of spleen. good in inflammations. See-Food Plants. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Sk. useful in diseases of chest.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. Hot and dry. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . constipating. Allibija. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. NS. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. leaves and seeds. bechic. Kurutige. G. The covering is styptic and astringent. stomatitis . C—petals 2-4 or 0. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Chandrika.—Cruciferæ. tumours and injuries. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Fr. LOC. See—Vegetables. Hurfi. white. good for pain in abdomen. M. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. cures dysentery . Asahio. Halim. bronchitis. diuretic. Halim . CHAR. Suvasura. aperient. DISTR. Chavnsar. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). bronchitis. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Ashalika. . Chandrashura. upper sessile. very likely indigenous in W. Raktabija. :—E. tonic. chest complaints. LOC. FAM. bitter. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. Asia. aphrodisiac .—small. COM. enrich blood. rheumatism. the lower petiolate. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. galactagogue. They contain vitamin B. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). often with linear segments . cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. laxative. Grains contain vitamins A and B. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. eye diseases (Ayurveda).
flowers. emmenagogue. base narrowed. lenticellate. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). urinary complaints. glossy dark-green above. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. LOC. Jivanika. :—E. Alsi. Haimwati. aphrodisiac . M.. M. back-ache. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient.—crowded at the ends of branches. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate.— globose. Javas . K. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. hard to digest. Seeds—mucilaginous. NS. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). 8-12 together in heads. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment.—Linaceæ. bronchitis. :—Cultivated throughout India.5 mm. "Pitta". "Kapha". seeds and oil. supported by the thickened pedicel. Tisi. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Tailottama. See—Oils. Alshi. Kanara. Sk. pale beneath. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. good for cough and kidney troubles. PARTS USED :—Bark. leaves. Madagandha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. NS. boils. usually alternate. Country. heal ulcers. COM. Seeds contain vitamin A. HABITAT :—In rain-forests.:—E. H. remove "Vata". Alashi. diam.—Lauraceæ. Fl.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. remove biliousness. Maidelakri. t. used in consumption. Garbijaur. Roasted seeds are astringent. LOC. L. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. DISTR. galactagogue. 7. tonic. COM. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Malina. hot. Alsi. . FAM.:—A small evergreen tree. H. causes loss of appetite. CHAR. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Alashi. FAM. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. Alasi. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. G. gouty and rheumatic swellings.—May-July. M. inflammations. burnt bark styptic and healing. colds and throat complaints. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. Fibres. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. cure leprosy. Sedhavi. urinary discharges . HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Sk. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. bark somewhat corky. LOC. black. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Common tallow laurel. perianth lobes wanting. lead to impotency. branchlets densely tomentose. Linseed. diuretic. aphrodisiac. dysentery. Medini. native country probably Egypt. Fl. bad for eyesight.. Fr. yellowish. Maidalakadi. Common flax.
Narttaka. burning sensation. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. G. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . :—E. Mrityupushpa. Sthulanala. diuretic. Karvituri. finely serrulate. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Wild tobacco. heating. Fl. K. Ghontali. Fr.9 cm. Ridge gourd. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. Devnal. very small. spleen diseases. vagina. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. yellowish brown . stomachic. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Ceylon. Nali.—. M.—alternate. biliousness. Kadudodka. Sd. aphrodisiac. leaves. lanceolate. bitter. G. lobes linear. pains in joints. stem stout. much curved. midrib white. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . LOC. SK. high. L. Kahire. H. Dhamana. DISTR. Sk. long. FAM.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.—Nov. LOC. :—E. Divali. tonic. Devanala. :—Konkan. Deccan and S. branched upwards.100 m. Katukoshataki.-Mar. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. leprosy (Ayurveda). Kalahogesoppu. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Narsala. subglobose. Nal. C—2-lipped. LOC. cure cough. Root—astringent. galactagogue. many. long. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. FAM. . COM. 1. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. K. Australia. erysipelas (Ayurveda). t. all oblong. overheated brains. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". 2. opening by 2 valves. aphrodisiac. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). throat troubles. NS. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice.2-3 m. thirst. Malay Islands. It acts as anodyne. hollow. Jhinga. COM. AMARA Clarke. Bibhishana. useful in inflammations. Kandele. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. acrid. fruits and seeds. uterus. NS. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. Dhaval. consumption. heart. bark. lower much longer. nearly sessile.—Lobeliaceæ. diseases of blood. expectorant. Jalini. "vata". fever. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous.—Cucurbitaceæ. M. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . white. aphrodisiac. paralysis. Leaves are mucilaginous.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. Country. strangury. bronchitis. Ranturai.5-3. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. light green. CHAR. useful in biliousness. 3 usually connate throughout .—numerous. burning sensation. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2.
prefer dry sandy and rocky soils.—obovoid. USES.8 cm. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. LOC. hydrogogue. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. diuretic. Mhowra. C. also in Konkan and N.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. t.53. tendrils usually 3-fid. Mahura. cough. Doddippa. pale green. :—E. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Madhusrava. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. Mahua. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. M. Mahua tree. useful in rat-bite. alexiteric. Madhuka. LOC. base cordate. :—Throughout India. tumours. . G. at first whitish and softly villous. Fl. COM. LOC. bitter. leaves. Mowa. liver complaints. Bengal to the W. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat).:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Root-bark is abortifacient. palmate. leucoderma. females. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. DISTR. Fl. ascites. bitter. 10-ribbed. recommended in splenic enlargement. tonic and diuretic. PARTS USED :—Bark. inflammations. L. piles. Fr. stems 5-angled. W. tonic to intestines. uterine and vaginal tumours . Mahula. Burma. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). Butter tree.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). laxative. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. bronchitis. cures urinary discharges. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman).—monœcious. Hunage. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin.—petals yellow with green veins . Mahuda.—small. Madhya Pradesh.—Sapotaceæ. 5-7 lobed. solitary in the same axil as males. tuberculous glands. Mowda. asthma. long and about 2..—Sept. DISTR. NS. Gudapushpa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. jaundice. H. flowers and fruits.:—A large climber. asthma. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. anæmia. fruit and seeds. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. cathartic. acrid. Moha. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. biliousness. 5-10 cm. Kanara (rare) . Pokka. Fruit cures fever. at length scabrid. carminative. cures "Vata". especially in western Peninsula. haemorrhoids and leprosy. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. thrives in Deccan trap. piles. digestible. obtusely conical at both ends. K. Sk. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. "Kapha". :—Plant is bitter. thick.
tonic and nutritive. Famine Plants. astringent. Kambhal Raini. anthelmintic. Oil is good for skin-diseases. H. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Flower—sweet. yields two important products. Mahuda. Ceylon. consumption. Kesarimavu. causes "Kapha". Hullichillu. G. tonic. COM. Shendri. ulcers. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Flowers—oleaginous. Kapila. leprosy. heals wounds . Mysore. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. Honey tree. PROPERTIES AND LOC. cooling. Oil—emollient (Yunani). Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. See—Timbers. :—Konkan. :—-E. cures biliousness. LOC. K. Mohwa. Oils. Mahuva of S. burning sensation. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. See—Timbers. flowers and oil. USES :—Astringent and emollient. often planted. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. . DISTR. Movaro. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. India . USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. carminative. H. Fruit-tonic . Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Kapilo. There is a trace of alkaloid. Huli. bronchitis. NS. and appetiser (Sushruta). HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests.—Euphorbiaceæ. Karnatic. G. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Oils. Mehua.) FAM. Liquors. K. M. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. aphrodisiac. :—Western peninsula. :—E. PARTS USED :—Bark. fixed oil and a spirit. used in fractures. Moha. flowers act as a mild purgative. good in heart diseases. Madhuka. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. cures blood diseases.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. and Upper Burma. Kapila. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. NS.—Sapotaceæ. Movanuhjad. Sk. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. LOC. expectorant. Kampillaka. fatigue . COM. M. Kamala. Ippe. fattening.. aphrodisiac. and also a remedy for itch. galactagogue. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. thirst. Mohache jhad. FAM. Sk. Monkey-face tree. and Kanara.
PARTS USED —Root (rarely). leaves. thirst. diseases of abdomen. Rasala. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. Ceylon. tonic. Amba. LOC. Mango tree. aphrodisiac. G. detergent. vomiting. urinary discharges. chronic dysentery and gleet. maturant. cooling. Gum . fruits and seeds. Bihar. tonic to body. cultivated throughout the State. :—Tropical Himalayas. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. purgative. good in heart trouble. heals ulcers. "Pitta". it exudes a pink coloured gum. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. Ambo. improve taste and appetite. carminative. appetiser. Dyes. Amra. lessen intestinal pains. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. Australia. diuretic. M. anthelmintic. piles. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. dispels langour and burning of body. hiccup. cause flatulence and constipation. leaves. Kanara. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Chuta. flowers. DISTR. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Sahakara. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. purgative. Malay Islands. "Kapha". In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. :—Throughout tropical India. Bhutan. styptic. improves complexion. alexiteric. bronchitis.—Anacardiaceæ. LOC. vermifuge and. stone in bladder. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. good in dysentery. PARTS USED :—Root. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. China. Cuckoo's Joy. cooling. liver. tumours. wounds. Sikkim. beautifies complexion. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. Burma. useful in bronchitis. stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. K. bad blood. Sk. ulcers. liver pain. Introduced. See—Timbers. Mavu. COM. throat troubles. Fruit—heating. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. laxative. Am. :—E. enriches blood. biliousness. good in cough. H. Amri. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). astringent to bowels. sweet. Sind. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). vaginal troubles. a good collyrium (Yunani). also in the Deccan and Gujarat. Ghats and the Satpudas. useful in skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. used in chronic diarrhœa. improves cough. NS. in "Tridosh". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—-Throughout the State. FAM. fruits and seeds. wild and cultivated. Astringent. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Kamarasa. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). dysentery. LOC. removes bad smell from mouth. vulnerary. clears brain. styptic. cure leucorrhoea. spleen. Mavin-mara. anthelmintic. cure "Vata". USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. sour. Khasia Hills. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic.
H. antipyretic. G. alexiteric. 7.—6. LOC. Fl.) FAM. COM. Madhumalati.—rotate with broad lobes. Java. Assam.3-15 X 4. C.—many. Fr. Kadulimb. if snuffed.—Meliaceæ.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Nimla. Nakchhikni. K. LOC. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. fleshy. It is also anthelmintic. Hemajyoti-valli. Suparnika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic.5-11. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Sk. inflammations.) FAM. Nim. Sk.—follicles. slightly tapering to a very blunt point.—broadly ovate. green or yellowish green. Limbra. Nimba.—Asclepiadaceæ. with lenticels and black dots. DISTR. Paribhadraka. corona lobes large. Harandori. tumours. Fruit Trees. NS. t. H. Balant nimba. Ambri. rugosely striate. Ceylon. coma copious . (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.—Apl. Juice of kernel. Nim or Margosa tree. Kharkhodi. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Khandodi. M. L. Fl.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. Nimba. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. pale yellowish brown. :—-E. See—Timbers. astringent to bowels. overlapping to the right.5 cm. older branches ash coloured. flattened. asthma.. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. :—Deccan and S. :—G. COM. good for dyspepsia. Limbada. useful in diseases of eye. stops nasal bleeding. margined. Hari. rat-bite (Ayurveda). USES.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. long. broadly ovate or suborbicular. biliousness. NS. urinary discharges. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. few glands above the petiole cordate . M. all plains districts of Madras State. Nimbaka. Sd. aphrodisiac. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. :—Bengal. piles. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. :—A large twining shrub. Ripe fruit is laxative. Country. Bevu. Dugdhike . Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Dodi. Juss. K. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. cures "Vata". leucoderma. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic.5-10 cm. Confection made from ripe mango juice. cooling. burning sensation. CHAR. M. useful in bleeding piles. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. . Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic.
The flowers are stimulant. stomachic. alexiteric. Small melilot. tonic. blood complaints. expectorant. biliousness. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. fatigue. fever. earache. Burma. PARTS USED :—Root. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. bruises. flowers. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. cures ulcers and inflammations . useful in consumption (Ayurveda). valuable in consumption. NS. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. antiperiodic. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. H. astringent. carminative.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). tumours. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. tonic and antiperiodic. fruits and seeds. for unhealthy ulcers. leucoderma. thirst. useful in syphilitic sores. and loss of appetite. rheumatism . burning sensation near heart. FAM. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. . convalescence. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. COM. swollen glands. leprosy. :—E. piles. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. M. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. "pittadosh. good in ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sk. LOC. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility." vomiting. refrigerant. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. boils. general debility. pectoral. good for leprosy. insecticidal. chronic leprosy. LOC. Banmethi. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. piles. cough. relieves "Kapha". used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . maturant. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. it is a general vermifuge. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . Ranmethi. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. leaves. resolvant. asthma. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. DISTR. stimulant and stomachic. anthelmintic. lessens inflammation. Vanmethika. maturant. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. anthelmintic. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. urinary discharges. toothache. sprains. Oils. lumbago. Tonic.. skin diseases. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. bad taste in the mouth. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles .
LOC. very hispid . base cordate. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. :—Western Peninsula. Corn-March mint. especially in strained back. Pudina. H. Externally used as a fomentation.—3-foliate. Malaya and Africa. FAM. Chatinmaragu. HABITAT :—In hedges. Fl. truncate at the apex. also in S. tapering at both ends. leaves and seeds.—Cucurbitaceæ. L.—Labiatæ. Agamaki. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. at first green and variegated with yellow. leaflets toothed. COM. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. Fl. NS. t. slightly echinulate. Khasia. PROPERTIES AND LOC.. given as a gruel (Murray). L. Sd.—monœcious . glabrous. . Afghanistan. :—India (tropical zone). north Bengal. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. K. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn.—small. of terminal rather long. oblong-ellipsoid. :—E. Iran.—size of a pea. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. stem angular. LOC. young parts white-hairy.—pale yellow.—pod. Assam. G. CHAR. Fl. oblanceolate. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . M.—variable in size. C. 30-45 cm. brown. rounded. Fr.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. tendrils simple. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). Pudinah. introduced into many other regions. Europe. poultice or plaster for swellings. DISTR. lobes dentate or serrate . glabrous or slightly hairy. standard exceeding the wings and keel. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. high. :—H. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. NS. It has expectorant properties to some extent. finally red. deltoid-ovate entire. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. Fr. male fascicled on short peduncles.—one. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. COM. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. Country and Gujarat. FAM. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. DISTR. Pudina. in spicate close racemes.— Jany. Ceylon. M. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. ellipsoid. females sessile. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. S. :—An erect annual herb. Bilari. :—Common in Deccan. Ghugri. "Sikkim. scabrid.
PARTS USED :—The whole plant. diuretic. cough. smooth. sorethroat. good for fevers. FAM. COM. lilac. digestive. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. :—E. headache. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. Nagakeshara. and stimulant. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Burma Tenasserim. DISTR. stalked. Ceylon. L. In N. cardiotonic. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. China. leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Ceylon Iron-wood. Konkan and N. Fr. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Travancore. LOC. Kashmir. Andamans.—nutlets dry. LOC.—sub-equally 4-lobed. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. useful in liver and spleen diseases. the upper similar and large. Nagkinjalka. Country. lanceolate. Assam. sweats. DISTR. used for cough. NS. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. Suvarna. Nagkesara. Carminative. skin diseases. lined with hairs and hairy outside. M. indigestion and cephalagia. LOC.—Guttiferæ. Naghas. blood and heart troubles. Sk. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. tonic to kidneys . toothed. vomiting. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. alexipharmic. Bengal. E. hiccup. oblong. K. dry. foul breath. flowers and fruits. infusion is given in fevers. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). :—Western Himalayas. :—A perennial erect herb . biliousness. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. Fl. S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. The plant is used in chutneys. See—Timbers. USES :—Root. expectorant. pains in joints (Ayurveda).-narrowed below. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). Flowers are astringent and stomachic. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. stem short. :—E. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. Oils. North and West Asia. LOC. thirst. hairy. Europe. Gums and Resins. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Nagchapha. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. . binding. Assam Iron-wood. MESUA FERREA Linn.—in axillary distant whorls. Nagsampige. good in asthma and sweats. Nagkesara. PARTS USED :—Bark. none at the top. Kanara. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. small tumours. asthma. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. C. H. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. ovate. emmenagogue. Himalayas.
sensative. :—E. pinnae 1-2 pairs. Lajalu.5 cm. Sensitive plant.—Magnoliaceæ. good in leprosy. aphrodisiac. LOC. M. Fruit. Yellow champa . MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. W. it is given with honey to relieve colic. removes worms. Raktamula. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). CHAR. Sonchampo. FAM. hairy beneath. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. :—E. Ghats. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. long. Fl. Flowers-stomachic. Champaka. NS. Fr. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose.—Sept. FAM. Sparshalajja. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. leaves. facilitates micturition. slightly recurved. digitate. high. "Vata". petioles hairy. diuretic. rheumatism. Lajja. Vanamallika. in vertigo. bile.—bipin-nate. useful in cough. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Suvarna champaka. K. COM. Surabhi. 57. Yunnan. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. nausea and fevers .142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. COM. Burma.. DISTR. H. evergreen rain-forest of N. Pivala chapha. 45-90 cm. LOC. S. M. Hem-pushpa.—4-merous. diaphoretic. t. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . L. . stems and branches sparingly prickly. Pilochampo. rheumatism. clothed with glandular hairs . They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. gout. Fl. G. ophthalmia. pink. Champaka. NS.-pod flat. stimulant. G. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Champo.. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. India. destroys poisons. Flowers— expectorant. rachis bristly. blood affections. Risemani. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. Lajalu. Lajjika. H. IndoChina. Humble plant. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . remove biliousness.-Oct. glabrous above. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Champa. bark. Lajari. :—Cultivated all over the State. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. diuretic. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Muthmurika. Sankochini. Lajalu. Champaka. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Nachike-gidda.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). in globose heads. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers and fruits. "Kapha". acrid. Lajjavati. K. :—A diffuse under-shrub. Sampige. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). Dyes. Golden champa. Assam. Sk. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Sk. near temples and in gardens. Sone-chapha. cultivated. also used as purgative. See—Timbers.
Mulsari. Malaya. leucoderma. Bakula. Ranjal. oleaginous. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Kalhala. inflammations. :—G. K. bilious fevers. Borsalli. COM. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. Mukul. Root is resolvent. DISTR. H. anthelmintic. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. Flowers give taste. leprosy. :—Naturalised throughout India. Bakul. burning sensation. It is also resolvent and alterative. Varsuli. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Sk. flowers. teeth and gum diseases. Vovali. bark. cure blood diseases. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. sweet. cures "Kapha". useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. cures biliousness. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. alexipharmic. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. Juice is applied externally. PARTS USED :—Root. vulnerary.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. alexipharmic. dysentery. jaundice. DISTR. Kanara and Konkan. NS. Kanara. In Brazil root is used as emetic. Fruit causes flatulence. probably a native of tropical America.:—Western Peninsula. useful in blood and bile diseases. smallpox (Yunani). See—Ornamental Plants. cure biliousness. cultivated in gardens in pots. flowers and fruits acrid.—Sapotaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. often planted in gardens. headache. Root. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Ceylon. FAM. Mugule. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. LOC. M. nose diseases. blood diseases (Ayurveda). asthma. Sharadika. vaginal and uterine complaints. piles. Bakul. biliousness. fruits and seeds. Baphuli. leprosy. Anangaka. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. stomachic. Flowers—expectorant. fatigue. acrid. Bolsari. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. LOC. in piles and fistula. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. cooling. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. astringent to bowels. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . liver complaints. Bakul. Seeds fix loose teeth. alterative. LOC. ulcers. cultivated in the tropics. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. good for gonorrhœa. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. cooling. Bark cardiotonic. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk.
Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Gulbasa . MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Guleaabbas . It is also tonic and febrifuge. Karavalli. Sk. good for syphilitic sores. See—Timbers. Fruit Trees. FAM. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Hagala. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Krishnakali. COM. H. Sk. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves.—Nyctaginaceæ. DISTR. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Oils. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. Leaves are maturant.—continually in bloom.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal.—E. :—A herbaceous plant. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. .144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Sandhya-kali or Raga. high with large perennial tuberous roots. :—Grown throughout India. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. COM. FAM. Karela. Kandura. Karelo. each one surrounded by an involucre. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. K. Fl. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . LOC. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. native of tropical America. See—Ornamental Plants. G. Chandra—Sanjimallige. CHAR.—Cucurbitaceæ. Hagalkai. L. Carella fruit. Karli. HABITAT -Cultivated. Four o'clock plant. M. Karala. t. H. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. often ribbed or rugose. and rather fleshy stems . Kareli. Fl. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. :—E. 30-75 cm. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. K. NS. LOC. Marvel of Peru.—membranous. cordate. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. lessen inflammations (Yunani). In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. yellow. M. Fr. it is applied to relieve headache. Karela.—large. NS. blackish. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions.
Fruit is tonic. LOC. cure "Vata". laxative. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative .—Cucurbitaceæ. Fruit—very bitter. cooling. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. and externally in ague as an absorbent. Country and Gujarat. carminative. Karehiballi. Gid-hagalu. PARTS USED :—Root.'. blood diseases. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. M. :—G. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. Fruit—bitter. asthma. and America. Fruit— bitter. Vandhya. cures biliousness. See—Vegetables. S. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). tropical Africa. fever consumption. sparingly in Konkan. Vishakankini. Leaves act as galactagogue. lessens expectoration . DISTR. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. :—Cultivated throughout India. digestible. stomachic. stomachic. Beksa. Kanta. :—Throughout India. Kartoli. erysipelas (Ayurveda). antipyretic. etc. Karkotaki. anthelmintic. B and C. tonic. excessive salivation. leprosy. piles. Kantolan. tumours. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. FAM. Fruits contain vitamins A. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. Golkandra. hiccup. longpepper. rheumatism. Malaya. Leaves—aphrodisiac. H. aphrodisiac. all kinds of poisoning. antibilious. China. hearttroubles. urinary discharges. COM. laxative and authelmintic. NS. urinary calculi. laxative. Plant cures diseases of blood. jaundice etc. DISTR. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. Kantoli. urinary discharges. eye and heart. Ceylon. asthma. cure "Tridosh". in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. leaves and fruit. Nagarali. hot alexiteric. piles. It is useful in gout. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. stomachic. used in syphilis. bronchitis. boils. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. ulcers. bronchitis. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. leaves and fruit. LOC. burns. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. anthelmintic. . Sk. also in Malaya. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. LOC. appetiser. M. diseases of spleen and liver. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. anæmia. PARTS USED :—Root. rheumatism. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). "Kapha".MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. anthelmintic. K.
See—Vegetables. Shevaga. Haladipavate. Root-tonic to body and lungs. Munigha. "Kapha". China. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tagase . H. tumours. anthelmintic. Bartondi. DISTR. fruits and seeds. leaves and fruits. Nuggi. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. eye diseases. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. removes all kinds of pains.—Rubiaceæ. useful in heart-complaints. Burma. "Vata". flowers. fattening. G. inflammations. Ak. improves appetite. makes blood impure . Formosa. Achchuka. Sargavo. Famine Plants. LOC. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. K. G. See—Dyes. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Ashyuka. Achi. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. Rochana. NS. tuberculous glands in neck. Drum-stick Tree. Mochaka. COM. emmenagogue. leaves. DISTR. Aal. spleen enlargement. also in the Oudh forests. PARTS USED :—Root. bark. H. alexiteric. also wild. analgesic. ulcers. Seglo. astringent to bowels. Sk. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Ab. Sk. biliousness .—Moringaceæ. causes burning sensation. all "tridosha" fevers. PARTS USED :—Root. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. Segua. LOC. stuttering. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Saraoji. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Guggala. Mulgule. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. M. :—E. Indian horse radish . USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. COM. cultivated throughout India and Burma. Ugra. :—E. Tikshnamula. HABITAT :—Cultivated . aphrodisiac. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. earache. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. M. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. digestible. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Ainshi. dyspepsia. Mochaka. Murangi. . Sajina. FAM. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. FAM. NS. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Indian mulberry. K.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Al. Introduced var.
Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. . spleen. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. with garlic. wounds. Fibres. Leaf paste. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. lumbago. aphrodisiac. enriches blood. useful in small-pox. gout. Kanara. K. ulcerated intestines. obstinate asthma. enriches blood. biliousness. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. Tuta. Siahtut. appetiser. urinary discharges. good for inflammations of throat and chest. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). Peninsula. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. bronchitis. stomatitis. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. G. expectorant. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. cures gleet. Tut. B and C. Tutri. epilepsy and hysteria. diuretic. fattening. anthelmintic. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. NS. common about villages in N. Karihannu. burning sensation (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. bark. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Madhu pippali. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. diuretic. expectorant. enlarged spleen or liver. heart. Shetur. diarrhœa. Ambat. laxative. LOC. M. it is cooling laxative. H. good for brain. Root is purgative. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan.—Moraceæ. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. lumbago. leaves and fruit. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. MORUS INDICA Linn. Fruit—tonic. The plant contains an alkaloid. LOC. piles. sweetish. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. DISTR. rheumatism. Oils. See—Fruit Trees. See—Vegetables. Fruits contain vitamins A. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. Seeds yield a fixed oil. Tuda. Kambali. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. sour. salt and pepper. Gums and Resins. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. White mulberry. FAM. carminative. Sk. cooling. increases biliousness. Tut. loss of appetite. internal inflammations and calculous affections. aromatic and acid flavour. turmeric. COM. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W.
lateral very unequal sided. Tikshna. LOC. Kadvare. M. LOC. Himalaya up to 1200 m. Fruit— aphrodisiac. Nayi songuballi. :—An annual twiner. HABITAT :—In hedges. HABITAT :—Humid areas . useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). CHAR. Vanari. Havanch. spermatorrhoea etc. Hasaguni. SAPIENTUM O. long. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. DISTR. Rambha. M.—pod. K. juice given for headache. tonic. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . MUSA PARADISIACA L. K. Kuhili. NS. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. COM. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cures blood diseases. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. sometimes cultivated. Fl. Urustambha. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. biliousness . H. L. Turashi. 5-7. Sd. Sk.2 cm. Fr. Maoz kela. Root—emmenagogue. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. tonic. flowers and fruit. . COM. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics.—Oct-Nov. G.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. :—Punjab plains. Kapikachu. Sk. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. terminal smaller. Atmagupta. Kivanch. LOC. Strong root infusion. Fl. leaves. FAM. dark-purple. Kavach. :—E. Kavatch. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak.. stem.—3-foliate. laxative. consumption.—Scitaminaceæ. :—E. turgid-shaped. Plantain. They are used as anthelmintic. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). 6-30 flowered..—in drooping racemes. Kivanchha. Kela. Bale. leaflets membranous.3 cm. Kunth. Adam's Fig. PARTS USED :—Root.5x1.3-11. Kela. Cowhage. Ceylon. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Dirghapatra. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. Var. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. with honey is given in cholera. improves blood. PARTS USED :—Root. petioles 6. common in hedges. Banana. Kela.—5-6 small. H.) FAM. silky. pods and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. cultivated. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Seeds— alexipharmic. t. Goncha. Kadali. covered with tawny stinging hairs. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. grey-silky beneath. " Vata ". NS. G. which produce intensa irritation of skin. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland.
Andamans.—tubular. astringent to bowels..— berry. DISTR. C. Bellotti. Fruit—sweet. leprosy. dyspepsia. Lawsat.—Rubiaceæ. very hairy outside. kidney troubles (Yunani). and are used in acidity. M. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. Root-juice. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. buds densely hairy. FAM. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . PARTS USES :—Root. LOC. diabetes. COM. urinary discharges. Burnt stem is vulnerary. Ipparati. Fibres. tonic. :—H. stipules twin. broad at base. blood diseases. sore-throat. lobes broadly ovate. in " Vata".MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. consumption and bronchitis. Serwadh. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. heart-burn and colic. appetiser. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. Root-juice is anthelmintic. thickens blood. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Hastygida. aphrodisiac. Fr. increases appetite. LOC. indigestible . . broadly elliptic. flowers and fruit. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. t. linear. tube slender. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. useful in "Kapha". B and C. good for dry bronchitis. biliousness. causes bronchitis . Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. aphrodisiac. improves complexion (Ayurveda). :—S. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. :—A rambling shrub. Tropical Himalayas. menstrual disorders.—opposite or 8nately whorled. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. anthelmintic. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . K. hairy.— July-Oct. Assam. Bedina. L. diseases of uterus and vagina. in thirst. Sk. Bhutakes. tonic. NS. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. :—Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Kanara. Nagavalli. CHAR. leaves. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. ear-pain. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. subglobose. deep golden yellow. strangury. antidysenteric. Fl. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. astringent to bowels. Fl. See—Fruit Trees. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. pubescent. Shrivalli.--in terminal cymes.
— Myristicaceæ. emmenagogue.—Myrtaceæ. FAM. FAM. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. :—Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Leaves. It is used as a substitute for true mace. Murad. is regarded as. smoke beneficial to piles. all over the State. M. axillary on slender peduncles. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. used in stopping vomiting. promotes growth of hair. intermittent fevers and dropsy.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. especially epilepsy.—berry. Condiments and Spices. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Fr. Ram-patri. Fl. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. DISTR. Malabar.—small. It is credited with opposite qualities. K. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . very sweet smelling. LOC. LOC. See—Timbers. LOC. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. H. Habules. black when ripe. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. fruits and oil. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. They are given in asthma. applied locally to relieve pain. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. Kamuka. DISTR. W. A decoction is employed. L. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. cures headache. Sk. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. as . Kanage. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. ovate to lanceolate. Myrtle. COM. Malati. PARTS USED:—Seeds. :—Konkan and N. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. :—E. enriches blood. Dioscorides. Himalayas. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). small. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. allaying pain. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. white. Kaiphal. False nutmeg. diuretic. ellipsoid. CHAR. COM. Galen and the Arabian writers. :—A shrub. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. NS. :— E. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. Pliny. common in the Kumta taluka.— solitary. M. Malati. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Vilayantimendhi. Kanara Ghats .
Fr. ulcers (Ayurveda).—pendulous. Aravinda. Pundarika. DISTR. 10-25 cm. dysentery.. Fl.-Nov. petioles very long.-Dec. & A. ovoid. Padma. ovoidglobose. LOC. Ambuj. from Iran eastwards to Australia.—alternate. vulnerary. FAM.. radiately nerved. 3-foliate. G. Timpani. peltate. Indian sacred lotus. spongy. cells 2-seeded. solitary or 2 together. Suriyakamal. Belakanji. 3-valved. long. Kapurbhendi.—petals many 5-12. elongate. H. LOC. Sd. :—W. erect. biliousness. bronchitis. .:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. fleshy. L. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. high. Sk. :—A small branching undershrub. PARTS USED :—Root. glabrous. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. cures asthma. in diam. L. M. Fl. NAREGAMIA ALATA W.—white. K.—Meliaceæ. Amlavalli.3-0. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. COM. :—E. stem. t. Kandalu. Kamala.—solitary. Kandabahula. alexiteric. 0. Kamal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. M. Papra-vel. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. Pankaja. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Kanara. Goanese ipecacuanha. linear spathulate. Chinese water-lily.—capsule. DISTR. hæmorrhage. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. petiole winged. top flat. C. white or rosy. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. NS. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. muricate. Fl. K. Sarasija. Tavari-bija or gadde. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. curved. Padam. :—A large aquatic herb. :—Konkan. See—Ornamental Plants. Nelanaringa . The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. concave or cupped. Ripe carpels. Pitmari. Kamal. CHAR. :—E. t. diam. torus 18 mm. leaves. with slender. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Fl.6 m. anthers with clavate appendages.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. elliptic. CHAR. petals 5. free. entire.5 cm. NS.—membranous. orbicular. LOC.) FAM.—July.—Nymphæaceæ. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. axillary. Sk. disk annular. Kamal. Ambuja. COM. rough with distant prickles .
aphrodisiac. useful in fevers . strangury. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Kanel. stem. L. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. leaves. heart and brain tonic . Sk. Upper Gangetic Plains. G. allays thirst. dark green and shining above. Sweet scented oleander. LOC. honey. diuretic. chest-pains. also recommended as cardiac tonic. useful in burning sensation of the body. ulcers and sores of mouth. Ashwa-marak. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. Karvira. seeds. K. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. leaves. fever. tapering into short petiole. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . fragrant. rose or white. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. Kaner. fruit. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. gives tone to breast. Baluchistan. Sind. diseases of skin and eye . planted in gardens throughout the State.—red. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . in fever and liverdiseases. Vishavrikshanka. COM. DISTR. Fr. allays thirst. long. coriaceous. H. small-pox. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. flowers.—flowers more or less throughout the year. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . slightly bitter. . Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. :—Madhya Bharat. leucoderma. Fl. India. LOC. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections .152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Ornamental Plants. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. Salt Range.—funnel-shaped.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Karber. CHAR. :—E. Filaments are astringent and cooling. astringent to taste . lobes rounded. vomiting. 10-15 cm. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Kaner. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . improves watery eyes (Yunani). inflammations and poisoning. Karvira. Cool. FAM. useful in piles. t. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. rigid.—Apocynaceæ. removes worms. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. throat scaly. In China and Malaya dried red petals. Pratihasa. Kanher. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. at length separating. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison.—in threes. long. Waziristan. Cool. linear-lanceolate. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". Fl. spermatorrhoea. flowers. 15-23 cm. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. menorrhagia. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. good in throat-troubles. C. good in blood-complaints. NS. Kanagile. also as a hedge plant. also cholera. S. Paddali. Sd. biliousness. M.—follicles. cures cough.
headache. FAM. LOC. large (especially lower ones). K. tonic.—capsule.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). skin diseases. useful in bronchitis. An ointment made . tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. water from hookha is diuretic.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. :—E. Tobacco. wounds.—pink or white. inflammations. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). smoke constipating. Tamarakuthika. Poisonous to fish. conical. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. inflammations. H. Tambakhu. See—Ornamental Plants. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. HABITAT :—Cultivated. NS. C. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). Tambak. CHAR. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. Krimighni. base wedgeshaped . good for lumbago. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. DISTR. emetic. disinfectant. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. bronchitis. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. tonic. LOC. Tabak. G. Root—aphrodisiac. USES :—All parts of plant.—alternate. also applied in leprosy. caries of teeth. Flowers— aphrodisiac. very poisonous. sedative and emetic. asthma. The plant contains a glucoside. Tamakhu. Hoge soppu. nervous depression and sleeplessness. L. dimness of sight. Fr. useful in caries of teeth.8 cm. the surface is plain or bullate. laxative. COM. a mental stimulant. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. especially root. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. lobes spreading. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. foul nose. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. are poisonous and are used externally. Dhumrapatrika. across. tubercular glands of neck. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. Fl. M. M. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Leaves. funnel-shaped. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. scabies (Yunani). anthelmintic. cultivated in all tropical countries. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Kalanja. carminative.—in open corymbose panicles . :—Native of America. Sk. Tamaku. about 1.—Solanaceæ. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. oblong or elliptic. scabies. LOC. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Bujjarbhang. sores.
found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Bengal. DISTR. Prajakta. Nyadale huvu . M.—opposite 5-10x2.. flowers and seeds. HABITAT :-Cultivated. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Kanval. Aravind. Cultivated in many parts of India. Nalkumkuma. scalp affections etc. Chotakanwal. a decoction of root.—Oleaceæ. Parijataka. rough above with bulbous hairs. Lotus. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . compressed. useful in bilious fevers. Fl. Parijata. CHAR. Sk. COM. Buds are tonic. Prajakta. LOC. Fl. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. cures fevers. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. NS. LOC. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye.— fragrant. Parijata . Bark cures bronchitis. young branches quadrangular. M. lessen inflammation. COM. Indian Mourner : G. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic.5-6. peduncles 4angled. It is used with honey in chronic fever. hairy. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Sk. :—E. southwards to the Godavari. bark. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. axillary. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Bilitavarai. Jayaparvati. ovate acute. Har-singhar. Burma. :—E. (Ayurveda).) FAM.3 cm. tube orange-coloured.—capsule. Sephalika. densely pubescent beneath. Kharapatraka. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . Madhya Bharat. abundant July-Sept. Shonapadma. H. Assam. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. tonic to hair. Harsing. carminative. leaves. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. 2-celled. t. See—Ornamental Plants. Sephali. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). K. PARTS USED :—Root. Har. H. . Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. G.— more or less throughout the year. astringent-to bowels. Alipriya. solitary. NS. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. Kumuda. L. K.—lobes white. C. :—A large shrub or a small tree. Nilophhal. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Kanwal.—Nymphæaceæ. obcordate or merely orbicular. Lalkamal. Fr. stomachic. FAM. bark.
:—An erect herb 0. febrifuge.6-0. bracts stalked. erect. "Kapha". Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). Plant has a sharp. :—E. ripening beneath the water. :—Var. diameter. PARTS USED :—Roots. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. oblong.. "Vata". acute. hot taste. Fl. long. H. L. stamens about 40. black and pitted. COM.5-20 cm. deeply cordate at the base. glabrous or pubescent. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). pubescent and prominently veined beneath . 8-13 mm. useful in diseases of heart and brain. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. emmenagogue. juice gives lustre to . 7. improves taste . obtuse. Surasa.9 m. LOC. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. purple stem. CHAR. Manjarki. Hungary. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. Bahari. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in diseases of heart and blood. Barbar. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. 15-25 cm. K. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. rough.—peltate. PARTS USED :—Root-stock.—2-lipped. entire. Surabhi. fleshy. Sajjebija. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia.—nutlets about 2 mm. causes burning sensation. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. diarrhœa and piles . NS. Tukhamariya .—Labiatæ. glabrous. DISTR. Ceylon. Sd. enlarged spleen. long. t. lessens bile. inflammations. diuretic. Fr. green. Common sweet basil. thyrsiflora. open in the morning only. Nasabo. Fl. stomachic. short. LOC. and nigropunctate above. leaves. ellipsoid. antipyretic . biliousness. alexipharmic. Ajagandhika. Fr. Damaro. Burma. Tungi.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. globose. Fl. cultivated throughout the greater part of India.— in whorled racemes . leucoderma.— ovoid. itch. Sabja. removes impurities from blood . red. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). L. petioles very long. root stock tuberous. FAM. allays thirst. roundish.—petals about 12.—3 cm.—solitary. asthma. G. submerged . bitter taste. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. across. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts.—ovate.—all the year. Java.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. Sabzah. Barbar. chronic pain in joints. " Kapha". C. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. aphrodisiac . diam. Sabja. bitter. Ramkasturi. LOC. Africa. M. Var. high. toothed or lobed. pale rose or white. irregularly sinuate-dentate. flowers and seeds. Philippines. filaments dilated at the base . DISTR. pink or purplish. Rihan. leaves and flower. stems and branches green or purplish. white. cooling . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. Sk. cylindric. C. peduncles very long . :—Large aquatic herb . anthelmintic. "Vata".
—6. The flowers possess. heating.. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. useful in diseases of brain. C. During fever when the extremities are cold. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. woody below . given in infusion in gonorrhœa. :—A perennial shrub.8 m. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). alexiteric. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. pale greenish yellow. Rantulasi. Fl. useful in vomiting. coarsely crenate-serrate. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. NS. H.7 cm. Large basil. :—Konkan. Plant has bitter. Ram Tulasi.5 X 3. carminative. diuretic and demulcent properties. good for toothache. headache. Fr. removes foul breath. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. M. LOC. inflammations. Gujarat. Java. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. . BanMal tulasi. M. good for griping and piles (Yunani). skin diseases. G.—Labiatæ. rugose.— in simple or branched racemes.—nutlets subglobose. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. COM.3—12. branched. they are also aphrodisiac. DISTR. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. strengthens gums. in close whorls . Sumukha. fits. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. high. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. Rama-Ran tulasi. S. Fl. elliptic-lanceolate. often cultivated : Ceylon. diuretic and stimulant. liver and spleen.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. Deccan. gland-dotted. heart. LOC. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. Ajaka. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Sk. 1. brown. t. " Vata". L. lower lip longer. strangury . Country. stimulant. :—Throughout India. :—E. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. Lemon—shrubby basil. sharp taste . earache. LOC. young ones pubescent. pubescent.—2-lipped. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. " Kapha". aphrodisiac .8—5. It is also styptic. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. stems and branches subquadrangular . CHAR. Avachi-bavachi. FAM. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. rachis quadrangular .2—1. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin.-July-Oct. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women.
:—An annual plant. Damanpaper. Sd.—on filiform pedicels. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Labiatæ. elliptic-oblong. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. L. Sk. Fr. Country. COM. leucoderma. Fl. L. NS. Phapti. M. PARTS USED :—Root. angular. asthma. NS.6— 3. especially in children. H. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. DISTR.:—E. yellow with black marking. LOC. Tulasa. Deccan and S.5—38 cm.—2-lipped. stipules with bristles . entire or serrate.—Rubiaceæ. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts)..—2. Vranda. Krishna tulasi. M. Arabia. Papli. t. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. useful in heart and blood diseases. G. Suravallari. CHAR. obtuse or acute. Malay Archipelago. HABIT :—A common weed. Fl. " Kapha". 30-60 cm. strangury. :—Throughout India. COM. Tropical E. FAM. Ceylon. Parapate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. purplish. stems and branches subquadrangular. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . minutely gland-dotted. Kala tulasi. West Asia. heating. hiccup. DISTR. Australia. :—An annual herb. FAM. high. Tulasi. antipyretic. alexiteric. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. varying from 7. See—Sacred Plants. LOC. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. margins recurved and scabrous.— nutlets. LOC. pubescent.5-5 X 1. Vishnuvallabha. painful eye. :—Konkan. high. Fr. used in catarrh and bronchitis . K. smooth. purulent discharge of ear. stomachic. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. cholagogue. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . leaves and seeds. Sk.— in racemes 15-20 cm. stems numerous. lumbago pains. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. long. usually 2-3 cm. M. Parpat. CHAR. Manjari. vomiting. of children and in hepatic affections . Vrinda. anthelmintic. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). upper lip pubescent on the back. Fl. purplish. lobes acute. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. Tulasi. globose or pyriform .—Sept-Nov. Pavitra. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. and are given with honey. bitter. Asia to Java and the Philippines. bronchitis.—pale brown. linear or linear-lanceolate. " Vata".— capsule.—subsessile. Tulasi. H.2 cm. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. clothed with soft hairs .MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. foul smells. C. long in close whorls . . :—G.
cures biliousness. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. inner spathulate. ulcers. " Vata". long. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). or more high. Slipper thorn. ascites. Plant juice—heating. Nagaphana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . reddish purple when ripe. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. Nagaphani. obovate or elliptic. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Fr. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. rather thin. diuretic.— berry. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. Mullugalli. used in ophthalmia. antipyretic. long. carminative. Sk. Grown as hedge. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration.5 mm. carminative. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. spleen enlargement. laxative. . xerophyte. Zhoratheylo. L. Sher. Hathathoria. loss of consciousness. CHAR. Prickly pear. digestive. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. leucoderma. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. dull bluish-green. anæmia. Chorhothalo. yellow or orange. urinary complaints. lumbago.—Cactaceæ. spleen enlargement. Phadyanivdung. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. Fl. LOC. K.—5 cm. Snuka.5 cm. angular or warty. burning. NS.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. introduced into India. DISTR. G. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. tumours. recurved. cures inflammations. subulate. liver complaints. alexiteric. it is also used in liver complaints. stomachic. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. Vajrakantaka. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. piles. largest 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. H. Nagdali. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). pyriform. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. flowers and fruits. FAM. perianth rotate.—7. good for leucoderma. purgative. inflammations. vesicular calculi. 3 m. Joints variable in size. yellow at the edges. cures bronchitis in children. COM. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. rusty brown. reddish at the tips. juice cures earache (Yunani). M. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. LOC. Nagadru. :—E. across. Nagaphana. Plant bitter.
piles. COM. Bagi. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Tetu. Vrihi. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. anal troubles. anthelmintic. COM. bronchitis (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. appetiser. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Bhat. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. NS. Dyes. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Podval. useful in " Vata". :—E. Tetu. tonic. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). :—Widely cultivated.S. LOC. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. K. Kanara ghats . Malaya. PARTS USED :—Grain. fattening. intestinal worms. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. R. diuretic. Sk. Arlu. Chokha. stomachic. Ullu. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. aphrodisiac. Araluka. tonic. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. Cochin-China. Sk. LOC.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. useful in biliousness . FAM. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Mayarjangha. Tuntaka. Mokka. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W.—Bignoniaceæ. leucoderma. astringent to bowels . fevers. bronchitis. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Alangi. sweet. Tandula. Dirghavrinta. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Ava. :—The Konkan and the N. Rice . Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. M. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Ghats. G. G. aphrodisiac. NS. improves taste. M. Tetu.). Shyonaka. Ceylon. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. LOC. M. FAM. Indian trumpet flower. good in heart and throat diseases. Tandula. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Aquatic. H. LOC. K. Tans. oleaginous. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Akki. Chaval. inflammations. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. Shali. improves appetite. asthma. cooling. dysentery.—Gramineæ. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. vomiting. DISTR. biliousness. Seeds are purgative. DISTR. K. Fruit—acrid. It is astringent and tonic. Rice. H. Pharri. Nivara. Fruit—expectorant.
— Oct-May. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. petioles very slender. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache.— capsule. gives great relief. Ambuti. LOC. Ceylon. Dudhari. :—G. buboes. oblong. Amrul. Amlalonika. Kyirin . Fl. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m.—petals 5. Shuklika. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Dudhatani. transversely striate. PARTS USED :—Leaves. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Sk. . NS.—Oxalidaceæ. C. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). stems rooting. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu.5 cm. Dugdhica. DISTR. Sd. It is a pleasant.—palmately 3-foliate. See—Food Plants. Changeri. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Fl.— many. bowels or kidneys. base cuneate subsessile. boils. It is an excellent application to abscesses. LOC. Ambastha. sub-umbellate . taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. beaked. Dugdhike. 5-angled. M. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. measles. L. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. K. H. used externally. inflamed piles. :—Throughout the State. Indian Sorrel. rounded at the apex. easy to digest. removes " Kapha ". t. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. leaflets 1. scarlet fever. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . FAM. " Vata " and piles. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. :—E. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. small-pox. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda).—Asclepiadaceæ. astringent. Dudhialata. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. Dudhani. linear-oblong. margins ciliate. pubescent. Chukrita. Kshiravi. H. Rice water. good appetiser . FAM. Sk. M. CHAR. ulcers. cures dysentery. ovoid. Dudhialata. also in burns and scalds. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. In dysentery. Br. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. bruised. K. brown.—axillary. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . yellow. NS.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. Marudbhava. COM. The grains contain vitamin C. Jaladudhi. Fr.2—2. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Dugdhika. long. diarrhœa. if applied to chest. dysentery and scurvy. to which a little lemon juice is added. obcordate. COM.
—Pandanaceæ. female flower spadix solitary. stem supported by aerial roots . HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. :—A shrub up to 6 m. much branched. leaves. G. DISTR. palegreen. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. S. Keora. Screw pine. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. 4. Kanara. bitter. Java. H. FAM. Fr. Burma. aphrodisiac. Umbrella Tree. :—E.—dioecious. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Ceylon. Fr. M. expectorant. Kewoda. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. useful in strangury and tumours.—oblong or globose. pain. scabies. pain in the muscles. anthelmintic. lobes ciliate. :—Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Usually near water.. milky juice. high. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. linear or linear-lanceolate. L. stems many. " Kapha ". male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. aphrodisiac. Fl. laxative. LOC. given to children as an astringent (Yunani).—glaucous green. fruit and oil from bracts. PARTS USED :—Plant.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. causes flatulence. diuretic. Ketaki. Kevada.5 m. long.—Dec. NS. somniferous. X 3. gonorrhœa. black.5-9 cm. DISTR. strikingly handsome. heat of body. corona staminal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. often planted. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice.—very numerous. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. PARTS USED :-Root. coriaceous ensiform. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". Sk. Andamans. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. Ketgi. margins and midrib spiny. COM. syphilis. yellow or red. Ketaka. Sundarbans. Fl. LOC.8-6. LOC. with flavour. Kanara. purple veined. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. C. long. Fruit—tonic. Country— Belgaum. t. rarely erect. M. Deccan. Sd. Dhulipushpika. :—Konkan. Kedige.8 mm. fruit. diseases of heart and brain.—deciduous. Chama-pushpa. leucoderma. L. Leaves are useful in leprosy. Fl. Poona Sangam. Gandha-pushpa. Giripriya. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . Flowers improve complexion.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. cough. small-pox. 3. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). root. juice is used in gleet. aphrodisiac. dry.9—1. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Gogandhul. K. CHAR. Mundige. thin.3 cm. anthers. coma present. pale rose or white. tonic. 0. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. Anthers useful in pruritus. mouth with pubescent ring. . indigestible.— large.—follicles.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
astringent to bowels. Deccan and Gujarat. thirst. Ranmug. Vanmudga. " Tridosh". dysentery. M. laxative. Swadi. Ichela-mara.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. straight subcylindric. wiry. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. gout.3—2. :—Annual or perennial. peduncles 10-23 cm. Satara. The grains contain vitamins A and B. Afghanistan.5—5 cm. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. aphrodisiac. 2. good in fevers. Trianguli. eye troubles. good for the eyes . It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. Khaji. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. :—Largely grown in. mugawana. nose complaints. styptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. H. Magavala. K. DISTR. Fl. and southwards to Ceylon. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Adabanmagi. anthelmintic. NS. FAM. Sd. glabrous or hairy. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kherk. Fr. Ranmath. astringent. See—Food Plants. slightly recurved.:—Very common throughout the State. few flowered racemes.— pod. Kallu. Siyindu.—6-12. Khandesh. Kharjurika. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. long. good for eyes. petioles grooved. H. light and astringent. bronchitis. Ahmedabad. LOC. cure biliousness. burning sensation. Kurangika. Date sugar palm. Konkan. Seeds— tonic. Khajuri. Fl. DISTR. Mugani. prostrate. .—Palmæ. Kapila. dry. Kohesaru.5 cm. L. G. enrich blood. COM. blood diseases.—3-foliate. Koshila. LOC. t. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Belgaum. NS. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Kalli-chalu. Tadi. Sind. Shindi. Sk.—in sub-capitate. Dharwar. Kashayi. headache. yellow. COM. Kajuri. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. cough. Adavada. M. Shimbiparni. :—G. piles. biliousness. :—Largely cultivated throughout India.—Oct. Burma. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. cures consumption. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. Boichand. broadly spathulate. Sendhi. leaflets 1. Indian wine palm. throat inflammations. FAM. layer. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Kolaba and Kanara. :—E. " Kapha". long. Kidney diseases. membranous. wild date palm. antipyretic. Malay Islands. LOC. K. inflammations. long. Ahmednagar. Abyssinia. as a kharif crop. Kharjuri. bitter. digestible. Sk. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). CHAR.
Bengal.—rounded at the ends. fruit and juice of the tree. Jalpippali. :—A tall graceful palm. LOC. scented. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). roundish.—opposite. fevers. :—A creeping perennial herb. flowers very many.—globose. Fl. and in beds of streams and water courses. This is called neera. 15-45x2-2. :—Found fairly in Surat. rigid. good in heart and abdominal complaints. Baluchistan. Ratoliya. oblique. densely fascicled. deeply grooved on one side. H. Vashira. Poona and Belgaum districts. sharply serrate in upper part. cooling.5 m. C. Toyavallari.5—3. usually along banks. Africa. COM. Jalapipali. Mysore. cardiotonic. wild or more often cultivated. outer Himalayas. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. Langali. . high. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. erect. stems rooting at the nodes. t. Okra. Ratuliyo. Jalapimpli. petioles compressed towards the apex. Fl. :—Throughout India. LOC. 3-4. Sd.—Verbenaceæ. oblong.—more or less all the year. spiny at the base. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. Bhuiokra. ensiform. CHAR. Fl. M. constipating. Sholapur. blood and eye.5 m. Sk. large and thick. upper 2-lobed. Fr. Agnijwala. long. DISTR. L. Siwalik. 2-lipped. subsessile. rounded at the apex. Coromandel Coast. much branched. flowers distant. alexiteric. Bihar. DISTR. oleaginous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR.) FAM. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. male white. :—G. pointed. crown hemispherical. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. t. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. spatulate. Fl. spadix 60-90 cm. :—Tolerably common throughout India. lower 3-lobed.—white or pale-pink.— dioecious.—pinnate. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. 9-15 m. wandering of mind. long. aphrodisiac. clothed with appressed white hairs . loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. Ceylon.. greyish-green.—2. female spadix and spathe as in the male. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . Rohilkhand. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. orange-yellow. spinous. pinnules many. oblong-ellipsoid. LOC. fattening. Sharadi. Ratoliya.—Fibres.—sessile. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Famine Plants. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. See. angular. cooling.2 cm.—Jan-Feb. vomiting. triangular. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. L. NS. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. long. useful in diseases of heart.
stem branched at the base. LOC. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. elliptic-oblong.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. asthma. anæmia. Sk. angular. Vituntika. t. FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. ringworm (Yunani). USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. sores. bronchitis. asthma. lobed. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. disk of the male of minute glands. K. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. Bhumyamali. Bhuianvalah. Leaves are stomachic. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . :—Throughout India. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. wounds. Fl.. Ceylon. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Sukshmadala. axillary. annular. Infusion is a good tonic.— July-Aug. The whole plant. Sadahazurmani. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. NS. and without salt may be applied to bruises. Tropics generally. PARTS USED :—Root. bronchitis. H. hiccup. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. CHAR :—An annual herb. except Australia. 30-60 cm. milky-juice. Bhumyamali. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). scarcely lobed. It is valuable in scurvy. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. alexipharmic . Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. :—G. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). of female. scabies. M. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Jaramla. burning sensation. very numerous. males 1-3. Stomachic. Plant—hot. Ajata. COM. Amala.useful in fevers. LOC. leprosy. Fr. high . thirst. biliousness. maturant.—capsule. globose. Bhuiavli. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract.—3-gonous. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. diuretic. very small. Sd.—yellowish. useful in thirst. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin.— numerous. DISTR. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. females solitary. L. Fl. leaves. monœcious. good for ulcers. cooling. Kiranelligida. distichous. LOC. anuria. . dry. urinary discharges. wounds. longitudinally ribbed on the back. fruit. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—Konkan and Deccan. Bhumyamalaki.
foul smell in the mouth. Kalamirich. Kalimiri. :—E. Betel pepper. FAM. useful in toothache. LOC. It sweetens breath. Kalaka. hot. vulnerary. and fruits (rarely). leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. Tikshna. piles. tonic to brain. Sk. anthelmintic. Linn. M. Malimirich . throat diseases. Kalamiri. bronchitis. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. pains. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. useful in "Kapha". USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Menasu. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. laxative. Fresh leaves. carminative. elephantiasis . Thana and Kanara districts of the State. improves voice. FAM. Betelleaf. Golmirch . tonic. tonic and digestive. Tambola. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. H. Mensinballi. alterative. DISTR. strengthens teeth . satyriasis and to allay thirst.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. " Kapha ". Kanara forests. NS. generally in Konkan. K. useful in "Vata". acrid. Betel leaf vine. Saptashira. improves appetite (Ayurveda). styptic (Yunani). M. Satara. It increases saliva. Sk. Tambulavalli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. heating. Poona. LOC. See—Condiments and Spices. Pan. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. heart and liver. carminative. bechic. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. G. Menasin-kallu . Pan. ozœna. Vileyad-ele. Black-pepper. asthma. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. clears throat. Sholapur. carminative and astringent. stomachic. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. COM. Nagavalli. Vata". :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. Vidyache-pan. Kanara. alexipharmic.—Piperaceæ. DISTR. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. cultivated in Konkan and N. . purgative. G. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. given with milk in hysteria. ozoena. Marich. Kaphavirodhi. increases biliousness. Warm leaves. smeared with oil. COM. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Pan.—Piperaceæ. Eleballi. K. spleen diseases. night blindness. :—E. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. urinary discharges. LOC. liver and muscular pains. H. :—Wild in the N. aphrodisiac. removes all foulness from mouth. :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. inflammations. It contains an aromatic essential oil. leavs. NS. Panu. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Fruits. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Bhakshyapatra.
paralysis . piles and some skin-diseases . N. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. FAM. coma. and possesses narcotic properties . hills of S. long. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. :—E. Deccan. In physiological action. Externally it is rubefacient. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. Kanara in ghat forests. Lahuriya. entire or toothed. L. piperidine and an essential oil. ophthalmia and phthisis. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. petiole longer than leaf-blade. FAM. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations.—Plantaginaceæ. Burma. LOC. leprosy. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. COM. NS. Khandala (pretty common). W. CHAR. Fl. ovate or oblong. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. NS.— alternate. base tapering into petiole. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. sciatica. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . See—Timbers. It is a good expectorant. H. ovoid. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence.5-12.—Pittosporaceæ. It yields an essential oil. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. Bartang. Fr. used as febrifuge. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. weakness following fevers. tonic and a local stimulant. used in chronic bronchitis. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. & A. M. the oil is alterative. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Arcot and Salem. sprains. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Khasia Hills. facilitates menstruation. DISTR. lumbago.5 cm. chronic fevers. variable in width.—capsule. lanceolate or greenish . It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. :—K. Konkan. various forms of cutaneous diseases. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. Bark contains a glucoside. LOC. radial 2. vertigo. C. . Vehkali. Tammata. Greater plantain .—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long .—lobes 4. See—Condiments and Spices. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. chest affections. dries body humours (Yunani). Vikhari. COM. bruises. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn.
Sd. Lalchita. exauriculate petiole. G. DISTR. K. rosy scarlet. Fl. Chitraka. H. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . :—Konkan : Deccan. dull-black. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. W. stems herbaceous. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. Fire plant. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. PARTS USED :—Roots.—3-5 cm. striate .-Feb. Chitra. LOC.—Plumbaginaceæ. COM. Fl. Malaya. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. t. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. LOC.—large. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. alterative. Lalchitrak. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. Ratochatro. M. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . HABITAT :—Along river banks. PARTS USED :—Roots. Mahang. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. attenuate. erect. NS. angled. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Ceylon. Rosy-coloured leadwort.—throughout the year. Raktachitraka. DISTR. Fattening. long in long terminal axillary. top coming off as a conical lid.Sept. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). L. leaves. Fl. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Palni hills. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery.—tube slender. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). LOC. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. LOC. Lead-wort. Nilgiris. :—Cultivated throughout India. CHAR. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Lalachitraka. high.. :—Temperate Himalayas. zeylanica. obtuse. Burma. C. lax spikes. Assam. Lalchitrak. :— E. afford relief. Sk. Ghats.Kempuchitramula. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). t. limb wide. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels.. base passing into amplexicaul. oblong. Baluchistan. and seeds. FAM.-4-8. Agnishikha. alterative and diuretic.
useful in laryngitis. leprosy. :—Throughout India. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. Tropics of the old world. skin disease. Chitranga. K. Chitra.—Plumbaginaceæ. rheumatism. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. bronchitis. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. C. lobes 5. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. Chitrak. Chitramula. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. G. juice. January 1933). tonic. expectorant. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. diseases of liver. t. ring-worm. oblong. cultivated . diseases of spleen.—Aug. inflammations. leucoderma. " Tridosha" . Fl.-Sept. :—E. long. alterative . vesicant. consumption. terete. Jyotishka. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Fl. and in leucoderma. LOC. wild in Western Peninsula. Journ. Malay Peninsula. rachis glandular . M. diarrhœa. leaves are caustic. ascites. Chitra . See—Ornamental Plants. itching. cure intestinal troubles. The use of Pl. hot.6-1. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. FAM.—capsule. NS. attenuated into a short petiole. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. a paste is made with milk. dysentery. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin.—thin. Agnishikha. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Ceylon. astringent to bowels. carminative. laxative. In S. Fr. piles. anasarca. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. aborti-facient. appetiser. pointed.—in elongate spikes. stomachic. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. " Vata" and " Kapha". Bile-Chitra-mula. piles. Medi. Vahni.5 m. ovate. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). Res. DISTR. Bengal. stems 0. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. Vallari. leaves. scabies. stomachic. leucoderma. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). it is useful in dyspepsia. . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. root-bark. bechic. It is used in procuring abortion. LOC. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. COM. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. striate. Chitra .—white.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. H. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. Ind. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. PARTS USED :—Root. a favourite medicine for flatulence. entire. spreading. alexipharmic. L. anthelmintic. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. woody. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Root—bitter. Chitaro Chitrak. Chitraka.
Golainchi. 4-lobed. divaricate.5-18x3. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. broadly ovate. :—A small shrub 1. NS. Kanara. Mahabaleshwar. :—All throughout the State. 7. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion.—salver-shaped. t. :—M. L. Fl. entire. ulcers. DISTR. H. leaves and milky juice. FAM. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. shining.-Feb. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. FAM. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. COM. urinary discharges. C. Champakam. 3-lobed. S. Belchampaka. rounded. Rhuruchapha.2—1. C. :—Native of tropical America.—follicles.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. LOC. Frangipani.—Apocynaceæ. laxative . useful in leprosy.-nutlets ellipsoid. 15-30 cm. useful in gleet. Fl. abundant from Mar. Phangla.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. Pagoda tree.—Labiatæ. common.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. smooth. oblong-lanceolate.8 m. irregularly doubly toothed.8-9 cm. long. very fragrant. shining black.—Dec. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fr. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. Fl. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. heating. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. with an intra-marginal vein. long. .. Goleurchampa. COM.:—More or less throughout India. cylindrical. lower lip white. Radha-champo. high. Root-bark is purgative. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. Fl. Pangli.-May. NS. many flowered.—practically throughout the year. upper lip white shot with purple.— large. DISTR. M. CHAR. G. See—Ornamental Plants. Country. LOC. pungent. acrid. purple. CHAR. spirally arranged. rarely maturing. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. LOC. acute at both ends. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. :—Konkan. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. stems and branches quadrangular. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. M. L. whorls close. Kadu-sampige. venereal sores.—2-lipped. K. Sk. itching. abundant. bark. carminative. ascites (Ayurveda). white with a pale yellow centre. :—E. Devagangile. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. pains. 12 cm. cultivated. Khairchapha. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. inner face angular. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. t.
itching. purify and enrich blood. Sk. COM. " Kapha ". Agnimandha. In Satara. flowers. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. COM. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. wounds (Ayurveda). useful in diseases of eye. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. skin and in keratitis . lumbago.) FAM.—Verbenaceæ. Aran. cure earache. Jayanti. Oil—anthelmintic. Pavaka. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. K. Chamari. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. lumbago. Karanja. juice is given in colic and fever. G. leaves. good in scabies. chest complaints. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. Oil—styptic. DISTR. carminative. fruits and seeds. relieves inflammation. Naktamala. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Gracie). they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. M. J. PARTS USED :—Root. Ustabunda . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. leprosy. Arand. chronic fever. NS. Oils. good for tumour. rheumatic pains. . leucoderma. See—Timbers. Agetha. Sk. LOC. alexipharmic . K. anthelmintic. cures biliousness.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Arni. head and brain diseases. Gaura. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. urinary discharges . piles. LOC. liver pain. along Deccan rivers . :—G. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. skin diseases. Kanaji. M. Arni. Indian beech. Kirmal. wounds. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. bruised. Karanj. chronic fever and hydrocele. Huligili. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). H. Kanja. cures eye diseases. Karanjmara. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. vagina. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Karanj. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Karanja. :—E. NS. " Vata ". also planted. Ichu. Seeds—acrid . Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. ulcers. USES :—The fresh leaves. Honge. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). ascites. FAM. F. H. bark. piles. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). Kanika. Agnibijaka.
causes "Kapha". sour. Perala. hairy in the throat. Anthers—dry wound. Flowers cool body. Fr.—tubular.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). chyluria. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid.—5-9 X 3. Peru. blue-black. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. entire or upper part dentate.3 cm. dyspepsia. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. Root is laxative. Jamb. See—Famine Plants. cylindric. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. Guava tree. G. high. pungent. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. FAM. stomachic. Fruit—tonic. COM. . Gova. Young leaves are tonic in the ."Vata". cool heated brain. fruits and gum. Gum is tonic. It is also employed in scurvy. Vastula. Sk. flowers. applied to sore eyes. Amrut. LOC. bark yellowish. :—E. cooling. heating.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. greenish yellow. Ceylon. small. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). piles. constipation. laxative after food. useful in anaemia. Piyara. good for liver complaints (Yunani). as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. laxative. It is given in the form of decoction. seated on the calyx . preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. LOC. Peru . Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. broadly elliptic. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. cooling. K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. aphrodisiac . HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. LOC. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Jamphal. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. Jamud-rukh. smooth. bronchitis. M. as an astringent to bowels. diabetes. good in colic and for bleeding gums. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. common about Karwar.— June-July. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. H. DISTR. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. used in bronchitis. DISTR.—Myrtaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Sd. fever. stomachic. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.— globose. Peruka. t.2-6. Andamans. Safedsafari. rough-tubercled . C.—hard. Perala.. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—Cultivated all over the State. Kanara. lobes 4. L. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. Dridhabija. Nicobars and Malaya. Fl. Fl. for unhealthy ulcers. PARTS USED :—Leaves. NS.
—pod.8 X 2. stimulant. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Bakuchi. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Kalameshi. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins.—in dense axillary. stomachic. vulnerary. scabies. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Bavachi. ovoidoblong. raw one is used in diarrhœa. diuretic. Konkan and S. Vanguji. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. alterative. good for leucoderma. Bowach-chi. anthelmintic. See—Fruit Trees. 10-30 flowered racemes . t. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. Fruits and seeds cure asthma.—one.—simple. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Seeds— refrigerant. Seed—purgative. good for heart troubles. alexiteric. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. antipyretic. . M. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea.6-1. mucronate. Babachi. smooth. Chandralekha.5—5 cm. heals ulcers. laxative. anæmia. Fl. stem and branches grooved. HABITAT :—Waste places. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. bronchitis. DISTR. studded with glands and white hairs. M. CHAR. G. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". nigro-punctate. improves appetite. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. COM. " Rakta-pitta". Kushtaghni.—bluish purple . Bavachi. FAM. leprosy.2 m. NS. skin diseases. inflammation. bitter taste. anthelmintic. clawed. high. cures "Vata". Country. LOC. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. difficulty in micturition. rounded and mucronate at the apex. LOC. causes biliousness. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. Sd. leaves. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. :—An erect annual. Sk. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). C. standard orbicular. H. black. aphrodisiac. urinary dis charges.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. :—E. 0. vomiting. nephrites and cachexia. piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. improves hair and complexion. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. biliousness. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. PARTS USED :—Root. solitary. L. cures blood diseases . They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). Fruit—diuretic. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Fl.—Aug-Dec. white hairy. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Bukchi. fruit and seeds. Bhavanj. K. Fr. closely-pitted. Babachi.
called kino. diuretic. ascends to 1100 m. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. :—Western Peninsula and S. chest troubles. anthelmintic. Gum. useful in vomiting. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. :—E. griping. See—Timbers. sore-throat. useful in biliousness. fever. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Honi. M. bark. Hirdokhi. Raktabija-pushpa. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. tonic. Indian kino-tree. FAM. .—Punicaceæ. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. K. Flowers— improve appetite. antipyretic. allays thirst. tonic. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. leprosy. Malabar kino-tree. laxative. Dadam. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Dalimba. used in sore throat. Gums and Resins. heart-disease. :—Wild in Iran. COM. LOC. in Akrani. cures " Vata ". thirst. somewhat milder in action than catechu. NS. spleen complaints. Sk. Sk. DISTR. scabies. Bark—astringent. elephantiasis. also in Konkan. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Valka-phala. Khandesh and Dangs. alterative . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. Anar. used in piles. fattening. Dalimb . Gum—bitter. Bigsah. Fruit-appetiser. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. burning sensation. urinary discharges. NS. Kabul and Baluchistan. flowers and gum. gleet. PARTS USED. colic. Kanara. enriches blood. stomatitis. body eruptions. LOC. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. M. ulcers. India. ophthalmia. flowers and fruits. Dadima. prolapsus ani. Dharimb . useful in all body diseases. blood diseases. sore eyes brain diseases. anal troubles. H. liver tonic. strengthens gums. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. " Kapha ". boils. Mahakutaj. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). Bibla. " Tridosh". applied to hydrocele. PARTS USED:—Root. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. anthelmintic. Dhalim. Bija. cultivated in many parts of India. useful in eye troubles. Bibla. urinary discharges (Yunani). Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. Bio. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). :—Leaves. biliousness. DISTR. Bia. Dadima. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. K. Sunila. Honne. Pomegranate tree. COM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). styptic. Pitasar. good for biliousness. G. laxative. :—E. FAM. Bijak. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). Hulidalimb . LOC. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Dadimba. Flowers—check vomiting. Common in N. erysipelas. Bibla. earache. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. Benga. leucoderma. scattered but not gregarious . Ceylon. G. vulnerary.
LOC. acutely 5-angled. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. lanceolate . LOC. calyx tube long. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. NS. elliptic. M. C—petals 5. :—E. Midhola. HABITAT :—Cultivated. glabrous above. FAM. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. Karhar Mainphal. Karigidda. Pinditak.5 cm. NS. Konkan. FAM. Chinese honeysuckle. H. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.—opposite. hairy beneath. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. acuminate.-Aug. Mangari-kai. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. M. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. Rangoon creeper. Madana. CHAR. L.—Mar. Sk. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . It is given in the form of decoction. Malaya. Mindhola. S. Gela. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. H. M. numerous.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. pendant. The rind of the fruit. t. Barmasinivel. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. See—Ornamental Plants. Rangoonkibel. COM. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Fl. 7. Rangoonchavel. Fl. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. dark green. :—A strong climber. G. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. at first white then deep red . nearly 6 cm. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. USES :—In Amboyana. . long. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. :—E. Gelphal. base rounded. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn.—Rubiaceæ. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. In China. DISTR.— ellipsoid. Fruit contains vitamin C. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Minkare. Annam. K. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. widely cultivated all over India. Lalchameli.—Combretaceæ. Country and Kanara. LOC. Dharaphal. Fr. jasmine . Emetic nut. G. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. COM. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen.—in axillary and terminal spikes.
Mura. LOC. M. fruit and seeds. piles (Ayurveda). bitter. See—Timber. ulcers. eruptions. LOC. emetic. Radish. Ceylon. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. laxative. leucoderma (Yunani). Bili Mulangi. useful in chronic bronchitis. carminative. cholera. and all inflammations . anthelmintic. Java. G. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. good in tumours. stomachic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. The plant contains glucoside saponin. alexiteric. It also contains an essential oil. produce alopecia (Yunani). sweet. asthma. its action is very safe. antipyretic. bad taste. muscular pains. flowers. purgative.—Cruciferæ. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. :—E. DISTR. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . tonic. leprosy. COM. Ksharmula. China.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. paralysis. Mula. H. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. Muri. destroys "Vata". It is also used to poison fish. amenorrhœa. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. juice relieves earache. inflammations. Mulak. Juice of . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Tropical Africa. certain and regular. skin-diseases. K. useful in diseases of heart. Bitter. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. heating. carminative. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout India. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. good for spleen and in paralysis. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. inflammations. Ruchira. boils. used in diseases of the brain. emmenagogue. Mula. piles. leprosy. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. S. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. Mali. Hastidanta. FAM. tumours. binding. cures abscesses. carminative. DISTR. it is equal to it in every respect. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . Seeds-sharp. E. " Vata" and " Kapha". Sk. Muro. emetic. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. leaves. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Sumatra.
Palakjuhi. used in hyperpiesis . LOC. Fl. Ceylon. COM. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. white. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. ajmalicine. . cures " Tridosha ". pungent.3 cm.—in irregular corymbose cymes. bright red . leaves (rarely). Sarpagandha. Chhotachand. HABITAT :—Moist forests. ginger. M. LOC. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. Nai. B and C.5-18 X 2. Nakulikand. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. See—Vegetables. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. often tinged with violet..180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. nodular.—Acanthaceæ. laxative. Western Peninsula. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Harkaichand. shady open places near rain-forests.—drupe.—Apocynaceæ. Chandrika. and black salt. lanceolate. 7. K. K. sedative. Fr. It is hypnotic. In the Konkan. Andamans. Root contains vitamins A. sharp. Gaja-karni. bright green above. irregularly. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Mungusavel.9 m. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. specific for insanity. swollen a little above the middle.-in whorls of 3. Chandrika. acrid. Sk. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. yellowish root stock. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. Group B — Serpentine. pale beneath. Sk. single or didymous. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. with a long.—tubular.-May. ulcers (Ayurveda). ajamalinine. NS. M. DISTR. Garudpatala. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. :—An erect perennial shrub.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. diuretic. thin. Harki. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis.— Mar. serpentinine. black shining. Yuthikaparni. C. COM. Doddapatike. :—H. Sivanabhi. acute. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil.5-6... Kanara. CHAR. NS. Sarpakshi. Fl. anthelminitic . L. expectorant. t. :—H. seeds are considered peptic. carminative. Java. Juipani. corrective and emmenagogue. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth.) FAM. FAM. heating.
white. generally cultivated. asthma. FAM. :—Probably of African origin. useful in pains. Palma christi. black. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. velvety hairy Sd. tumours. solitary. increases "Kapha". inflammations. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". bracts ovate lanceolate. Very little in other districts of the State. some fevers. lumbago.—lipped. Divaligo. good for burns. pains. boils. increase biliousness. anal troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. night-blindness.. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica.—Euphorbiaceæ. Belgaum. tropical Africa. Cattle are fed with leaves for . leaves. Sholapur). HABITAT :—Hills. Vardhamana. carminative . or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. Sk. elliptic lanceolate. pubescent: C. eructations. Leaves—galactagogue. LOC. purgative. Country. lumbago. L. Fl. COM. LOC. :—Undershrub. Root-bark—purgative. piles. Erand. amenorrhœa (Yunani). NS. ascites. S. Seed and oil—cathartic. Java. leaves and seeds. rheumatism. bronchitis. M. G. narrow. aphrodisiac. Arand. Haralu. H. Chitrabija. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. Madagascar (cultivated). alterative. dropsy. M. useful in skin-disease.-Jany. intestinal worms. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Fr. glandular.—nearly sessile. paralysis. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. typhoid. Ceylon (wild) . earache. vaginal pains. hairy outside . Erand.— tuberculate. Fruit— appetiser. :—E. Divald. inflammations. body pains. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. useful in inflammations. Mahabaleshwar. useful in heart diseases. K. upper lip bifid . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. :—Throughout India. fevers. M. convulsions. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. Fl. ascites. Country (Dharwar.9—1. piles. DISTR. high. LOC. DISTR. oil—anthelmintic. stems obscurely angled. Eranda.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. leprosy. useful in liver troubles. diseases of rectum and head. hills near Belgaum. pointed. ascites. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. asthma. Straits-Settlements. widely cultivated in tropical countries. alterative. glands.—capsule.5 m. Vardhaman. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Triputiphala. liver and spleen diseases. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. leprosy. t. Tirki. Erand. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Castor oil plant. Khandala. :—Deccan. elephantiasis. ring-worm.—Oct. 0. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). cultivated. flowers and seeds. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. entire. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. strangury. pain in back.—5-10 X2-5 cm.
In constipation it is used as an enema. sometimes glandular. laxative. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. LOC. sweetish. Fr. improves appetite (Ayurveda). t. aperient removing bile and cold humours. Tarana. serrate. . Oil from seed is a non-irritant. COM. cultivated all over India. liver. Fl. used in heat of body. pink or white.—obovate . intestinal affections. acrid. attaining 1. Ghazipur is a chief centre. cardiotonic. Pannira. good for eyes. Sk. Greece and Germany.. stipules scarcely dilated. P. with a good odour. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. burning sensation. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . FAM. " Vata". leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7).5-6. Flower—bitter. kidneys. much used in lotions and collyria . head-ache. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. Gulab. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria.— usually corymbose. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. LOC. Gulab . inflammations. ovate oblong. long. biliousness. See—Ornamental Plants. they are cold. :—E. H. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. K. M. expectorant. Fl.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . stomatitis. 2.5 m. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. sometimes striped . DISTR.—Rosaceæ. CHAR. Gulab. benefits lungs.— all the year. etc. antipyretic. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. chronic fevers. :—A perennial shrub. removes bad odour from mouth. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. which is a powerful poison. dry. mild and safe purgative. PARTS USED :—Flowers. Shatadala. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. NS. G. cardiotonic.3 cm. seldom griping or causing flatulency. stems with stout and hooked prickles. :—Origin unknown. Sudburj. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . Italy. cures leprosy. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. tooth-ache. laxative. double. adults. See—Oils. excessive perspiration. They are also applied to painful joints. Punjab and U. hairy. tonic. petioles prickly. France. astringent when dry (Yunani). Soumyagandha. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. L. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. cooling. Ati-manjula. red. aphrodisiac. cephalic. Lakshmipushpa.—pinnate.
Dock. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. Malay Peninsula. COM. emmenagogue. :—E. anthelmintic. Leaves-sweet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. oleaginous . Fl. eye. L.—in whorls of 4. Manjit. dysentery.—didymous or globose. leaves and fruit.—white or pink. :—E. inflammations.. Aruna. branched from the root. PARTS USED. cylindric. . Root—bitter. elliptic. cordate or hastate. leucorrhoea.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . tropical Africa. greenish. 15-30 cm. prickly. COM. H. Decoction tinges blood. FAM. Ambat Chuka. Java. Manjishtha. erect glabrous herb. Chukra. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. lower leaves larger. Rohini.—Polygonaceæ. orbicular . bitter. lethargy. M. LOC.5 cm. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. one pair with longer petioles ovate. spleen-enlargement. obtuse. branches quadrangular . used in eye-sores. liver complaints.—in terminal panicled cymes.-Jany. Fl. Raktasara. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. erysipelas. diseases of uterus. :—Root. pains in joints. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. t-Oct. urine and even bones red. alexiteric. DISTR. and was much used in dropsy. NS. FAM. leucoderma. petioles triangular. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. shining. uterine pains (Yunani). five-nerved. antipyretic. Manjishtha. ulcers and skin-diseases. LOC. the Konkan and S. with a thin red bark. Fl. urinary discharges. L. NS. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. analgestic. CHAR. diuretic. M.5—7. :—Perennial climbing herb. all scabrous with white prickles. H. smooth. K. leucoderma. improves voice and complexion . Fr. :—Annual. ear. blood. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. vagina. lactagogue. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. Indian Madder. grooved. Country. antidysenteric. Fr. paralysis. Chitralata. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). cures " Kapha ".—Rubiaceæ. jaundice. base cuneate. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Gulmketu. analgesic. Chuka. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. jaundice. Amlavetasa. Bladder. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. laxative.—2. Ceylon. M. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. it powerfully affects the nervous system. Sk. rheumatism. ovate. acrid. Japan. heating. piles. increase appetite. stems very long. Majit. Sorrel. roots very long. purplish black when ripe. ulcers. valves hyaline. paralysis. Tamravalli. high. Sk. inner perianth-segments membranous. Manjishha.
HABITAT :—Common everywhere. laxative. analgesic. Cooling. hiccup. generally in the Deccan. while fresh they are bruised. lower shortly 3-lobed. then erect. K. Sk. roasted. M. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. Fl. Afghanistan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Kharmor. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. Khatselio . NS. :—A herb . COM. See—Vegetables. vomiting. H. dyspepsia.—capsule.—Nov. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. Fl. bronchitis. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Ceylon. 2-lipped. upper emarginate. they are prescribed. acute . rugose with furrow. LOC. G. leucoderma. COM. Vishapaha. N. Sadabu.— subsessile. :—G. constipation. oblong lanceolate. pains. L. with darker spots. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. Havananju. FAM. Nagadali. asthma. in dysentery. bracts elliptic. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). tonic. C.-Jany. ciliate.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. stems usually decumbent. DISTR. DISTR. The seeds have the same properties . NS. tumours.—Rutaceæ. LOC. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. useful in heart troubles. checks nausea and promotes appetite. useful in scabies. aperient and diuretic. LOC. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Sd. blue or pink.—suborbicular.—white. toothache. Common—Garden-rue .—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Sk. alcoholism. M. Persia. Satap. Fr. Ghati pittapapada . H. USES :—Leaves are cooling. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. piles. ovoid oblong.—Acanthaceæ. FAM. :—Common throughout the State. diseases of the spleen. flatulence. Trans-Indus Hills. Pismarum Sadab. Kanara. :—E. acute. Parpatha. Sadapaha. Satri. t. Country. Konkan. Satapa . Africa. :—Western Punjab. stomachic. . CHAR. Deccan. M. often rooting near the base. S. pale brown. also considered as a vermifuge. bites and stings of poisonous animals. The juice allays tooth-pain.
Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. segments cuneate. Rasala. Sk. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. laxative. obtuse . The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). M.—angled. LOC. yellowish. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. Poona. indigestible. HABIT :—Cultivated. Ingotu.. Sherdi. digestive. LOC. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. amenorrhœa. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. heating to body . The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Sd. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. LOC. DISTR. garden. The plant contains glucoside glutin. flatulence. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. and externally used as a rubefacient. Tanigarbu . The herb and the oil act as stimulant. Powdered and combined with aromatics. anti-aphrodisiac . M. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. L. Gudatrina. Ikshu. cultivated throughout India. aphrodisiac.—capsule. forest and mountain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. Gudakastha. Fl. Ganna. Fr. oblong-obovate. all over the State. particularly Deccan.—Gramineæ. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. leprosy. cooling. COM. FAM. oleaginous. tonic. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Kabbu. Kumad. Sugarcane. epilepsy. flawed. NS :—E. etc. Satara. glandulose punctate. Us . S. heats body. diuretic. G. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). . dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. Naisakar. emmenagogue. S. increases mental activity. it may be given internally in hysteria. The plant is tonic. thirst. Rikhu. petioled.—petals 4.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). There are three varieties . abortifacient. Ukh . useful in fatigue. Madhuyashti. colic.-alternate. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. C. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. in pots. H. grown in gardens. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). diuretic. :—A strong smelling herb . decompound. :—Egypt and Algeria. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. spathulate or linear-oblong . The oil is the best form for administration. :—Grown everywhere in India. See—Ornamental Plants.
In cases of poisoning by copper. diam. tonic to liver. finely striate. useful in nosetroubles. dry regions of W. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. lessen inflammation . pectoral and aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. Pilu. strengthen teeth. sometimes it raises blisters. fattening. Fruits are deobstruent.—Salvadoraceæ.". SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. Kharijal. analgesic. lobes much reflexed. improve diuresis (Yunani). carminative and diuretic. H. ulcers. near the coasts of Gujarat . shining. Khakan Mirjoli. Pilu. fleshy. laxative. stomachic . red when ripe. globose. Asia. inflammations. diuretic. white. improves appetite. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. leucoderma. . :—E. useful in heat. disorders and wind. delirium. Ceylon. useful in biliousness. diuretic. branches numerous. COM. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Leaves—bitter. drooping. greenish-yellow. leaves. the Konkan and N. Sugar causes " Kapha". Tooth-brush tree. Fl. Seeds—purgative. tonic and aperient. sugar is considered heavy. oil is digestible. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism.—Nov. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. Jal. erysipelas. often planted near Muslim tombs. Pilu. anthelmintic. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Cane—sweet. Abyssinia. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine.—drupe.—very thin. bad for liver (Yunani). applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. Brihat madhu pilu. K. L.-Feb. Egypt. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. See—Food Plants. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mahaphala. 3 mm. causes " Kapha. bile. anæmia. scabies. opposite. useful in biliousness.. The juice contains vitamins A and B. Goni. It is good in calculous complaints. fruits seeds and oil. LOC. Piludi. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. Kanara in littoral forests. alexiteric. :—Drier parts of India. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). Pilu. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. corrective. smooth. carminative. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. Fr. deeply cleft.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. aphrodisiac . Sk. Fl. numerous. t. often mucronate at the apex.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. M. C. LOC. good for lungs . G. purifies blood . white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. DISTR. :—Dry districts of the State. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . Sind. Fruit—aphrodisiac. LOC. In the Punjab. piles. deobstruent. FAM. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate.
H. laxative. Malayaja. Rishta. Kumblabijaka. biliousness. small-pox (Ayurveda). Oil. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Sk. alexipharmic. emetic. useful in chronic dysentery.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. useful in inflammations. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . to temples in fever. Agarugandha. K. Arithan . Ritha. Phenila. paralysis. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. Shrigandhalmara. FAM. Bhogivallabha. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in diseases of heart. See—Timbers. burning sensation. Chandan. Sandal. much cultivated. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. alexiteric. Chandan. Sk. to allay heat and pruritus. ground. in skin-diseases. Country and N. lumbago. LOC. diarrhœa. often planted. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. antipyretic. cold in head. :—Indian Peninsula. Ritha . is applied to local inflammations. cures "Tridosha". LOC. :—E. acts as diaphoretic. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. Oils. epileptic fits of children. Soap-Nut tree. astringent to bowels . Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. K. G. DISTR. Mangalya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. exhilarating. vaginal discharges.. :—E. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Sandal-wood Tree. thirst. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Aritha. Sukhad . bronchitis. India. tonic. " Kapha ". Burugukayi. strangury. Kugale. Cultivated elsewhere. Bhadrasri. cholera. COM. M. M. COM. Root—expectorant. S. abortifacient. FAM. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. Chandal. Chandan. head-ache (Yunani). NS. USES :—Wood. gonorrhœa. Arishtaka. LOC. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Kanara. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. PARTS USED:—Wood. aphrodisiac. allays uterine pains. Bhadrasara. Ceylon. M. Phenilu. chiefly in S. gleet. :—Western Peninsula.—Sapindaceæ. aphrodisiac. . G. up with water into a paste. Fruit—bitter. stomachic. Antharalo. H. Ringni. hemicrania. tubercular glands. fruit and seed. NS. Anthuvala. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. Mysore and parts of Madras State. DISTR. Suket. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling.—Santalaceæ.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
Rasin. in height. septate between the seeds. CHAR. lung diseases. aphrodisiac. carminative. Baluchistan. oil. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. hair-tonic. such as dysentery etc. Jayanti. FAM. strengthening. PARTS USED :—Root. removes "Kapha". Jayat. See—Oils. COM.—pod.—20-30. astringent to bowels. Black variety is common. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. LOC. pendulous. DISTR. syphilitic ulcers. of eye and ear. few flowered axillary racemes. leaves. Fl. indigestible . Fr. They are nourishing. Seeds contain vitamin A. strangury. inflammations. :—G. eye diseases . tonic.5-15 cm. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. cure menorrhagia. galactagogue. and as an oildressing for ulcers. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets .—standard as broad as long. They have been used to procure abortion. applied to gouty joints. Jayanti. :—Cultivated all over India. applied to ulcers and piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). NS. PARTS USED :—Root. Waziristan.—in lax. suppurating wounds. biliousness. useful in sorethroat. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). opposite. bark. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. white and red. useful in dry cough. LOC. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. oleaginous. leaves. C. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. :—A soft-wooded shrub. 15-23 cm. Jaya. inflammations. linear-oblong. useful in diarrhœa. seeds. probably a native of tropical Africa. spleen troubles. bleeding piles. seeds. diuretic and lactagogue. They are also emmenagogue. Jayanti. small-pox. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. promote hair growth. L. yellow. branches striate. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. Seed-oil—fattening. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. diseases. etc. K. There are three varieties of seeds : black. into claw. anthelmintic. slightly torulose. Sd. Raysingani. enrich blood. diuretic.— abruptly pinnate. leaflets 914 pairs. tonic. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. 7. Nadeyi. long. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. inflammations (Yunani). cures . Sk. Janjhan.. mottled with purple on the outside. Shewari. scabies. burning sensation. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. urinary concretions. gouty joints. alterative. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. 4-5 m. Jinangi. Jayantika. an emollient poultice is also made from them. beaked. long. obscurely angled . HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. cooling. H. M. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac.
maturant. 6-9 m. Agusta. anthelmintic. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). 15-30-cm.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).5-8. relieves throat-troubles. L. useful in ozœna. Dirghashimbi. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. Agase. Munidruma. NS. Bark—astringent. anaemia. Seeds—emmenagogue. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. LOC. Ornamental Plants. useful In diseases of spleen. . Vranari. diarrhœa. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. CHAR. Fl. "Kapha" and inflammation. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . demulcent. Sk. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. K. Hatiya . night-blindness.—in racemes . tumours . cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). flowers. diabetes. HABITAT :—Cultivated. long. anthelmintic. Kanali. very showy. t. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata".— pinnate. leaves. 2-4 white or red. is applied in painful swellings. The plant contains vitamin A. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). fruits. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. alexiteric. long. :—A soft wooded tree . brightens intellect (Ayurveda). long. biliousness. See—Fodder Plants. C. bronchitis. is applied in rheumatism. :—G. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. cures " Tridosh " pains. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. Indigenous from Malaya to N. 50 cm. Leaves—purgative. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. high. gout. Bak. allays thirst. stimulant. Agasti. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. Fr. DISTR. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. rubbed into a paste with water. Fruit—laxative . gout .— pod. Basna. improves taste. ulcers. Agasta. Agathio. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. cure quartan fever. Kempagase.— flowers at various times. cure itching. dysentery and paludism. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. An infusion is given in small-pox. M. Fl. leprosy. improve appetite . Leaves—indigestible. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. Bark— astringent. Flowers—cooling. linear oblong. FAM. Australia. H. leucoderma. LOC. epilepsy. Agati. fevers. Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. PARTS USED :—Root.8 cm. astringent. useful in ophthalmia. LOC.—7. See—Vegetables.
cordate. :—G. K. Bala. Kherati. base rounded.-Nov. Fr. FAM.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. with ginger.3 cm.—Nov. astringent. scabrid-hairy. branches slender. Rajbala.—2. diam. :—Konkan (common). Fl. Country Mallow. decoction. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. pedicel jointed about the middle. black. LOC. Country. M. bark. LOC.—smooth. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic..5-6. Chittuharatu. linear . Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. G. diuretic. :—E. C. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. bleeding piles. LOC. Sk. emollient. Pata. softly hairy all over. ovate-oblong. lanceolate. puberulous. L. HABITAT :—Moist places . a weed. strongly reticulated.—2.—1-2 in each axil. K. digestive. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . FAM. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). L. H. awns 2. aphrodisiac . removes " Vata ". t. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. sharply serrate. H. Samanga.—Malvaceæ. Root—cooling. glabrous. Kharanti. linear.5-5 cm. Hettutti-gida. diam. M. is given . Jayanti.—Malvaceæ. Bariara. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. Chikna. Kisangi. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. dorsal scabrid. Fl. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. " Kapha " . strongly reticulated . pedicel jointed much above the middle.Dec. LOC. Chikna. Gujarat and S. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. DISTR. Tukti. Barial. Baladana. useful in blood and throat diseases. long. Prahasa. crenate. obtuse.— yellow.-Oct. leaves and seeds. carpels 7-10. M. minutely hairy. useful in fever.—5-6 mm. Pata. Bala. M. Fl. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. COM. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). NS. :—Konkan. Vatyapushpi. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges.—solitary or few together. cooling.. Sd. t. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. " Pitta ". carpels 5-9. Khareti. Kumghi. CHAR. dorsal margins toothed. Deccan and S. NS. yellow. PARTS USED :—Root.—6-8 mm. upper margins ciliate. COM. :—A shrub. Kareta. Bala. Fl. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.. Country. Batyalaka. Fr. DISTR. stomachic and tonic. long. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. :—Hotter parts of India. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). astringent. awns 2.
facial paralysis. 5 outer clavate. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. diaphoretic. It is also used to favour menstruation. 0. stiff-neck. 5 inner boat-shaped. those of the ray red beneath. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". COM.—heads small in leafy panicles . Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. tinged with purple. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. erect. M. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. :—Throughout India. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Katampu. CHAR. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative.2 m. pappus 0. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. Externally. Ceylon. M. and head-ache. LOC. involucral bracts 2 rows. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased.—achene. high. t. Linn. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. PROPERTIES AND LOC. triangular-ovate. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". FAM. L. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. Fr. Fl. black. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Country. also in colic and tenesmus. juice is used for healing wounds. :—G. Bala—Sida cordifolia. :—Deccan.—Nov.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. stem stiff. S. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. Pilibadkadi. slightly rough. DISTR. Fl.-Dec.—Compositæ. deeply and irregularly toothed. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea.—yellow. cystitis. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. . rhomboides Roxb. all running down wing-like into petiole. noise in ears. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. common. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. administered in hemiplegia.6—1. NS.—opposite. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. :—A large annual herb.
The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. asthma.. Vrittaphala. :—E. stem stout. PARTS USED :—Root. M. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. G. eye diseases (Ayurveda). Barhanta. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. HABITAT :—Cultivated. subentire.5 cm. cardiotonic. aphrodisiac. petiole prickly. H. Kattarta. Kadusonde. leaves (rarely) and fruits.-Oct. pruritus ani. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. K. Ceylon. M. lessens inflammations.3—1. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. useful in leucoderma. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. leaves. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting.—5—15 X 2. :—E. COM. Ubhi-bhuringni. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. analgesic. Habba-Kirigulla. bad for piles if taken internally. 8 mm. Indian Nightshade. Rigana. 0. " Kapha". Vantak. loss of appetite. LOC. Sk. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. L. Bhanta. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating.. Vengni. G. Dorli. astringent to bowels. C. Hinguli.5 m. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). " Vata". very. fruit and seeds. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides.—Solanaceæ. Fl. Vange. It is seldom used alone. t. diam.—pale-purple. maturant. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. dark-yellow when ripe. pain. recurved. prickles large. NS. rarely wild. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. enriches blood. sharp. Vayase. FAM. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". bronchitis. Vartaki. Brinjal. :—Throughout tropical India. Bhantaki. covered with stellate hairs. Egg Plant. ovate. anthelmintic. improves appetite. COM. Malpya.5—7.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. Fr. Baingan. lobed. clothed outside with purple hairs . base unequal-sided. or triangular-ovate.—minutely pitted: Fl. Sk. Root is applied to lessen pain. LOC. FAM.— berry. H. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. Hinguli. Bhantaki. digestive. Ranringni. LOC. Vadikadheri. Nilaphala. DISTR.-Aug. removes foulness of the mouth. Brihati. China. Mahotika. . Philippines. NS. high. Badanikai. vomiting. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani).—Solanaceæ. globose. fever. Sd. laxative. prickly. Mhotiringni. beneficial in cardiac troubles . SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Widely cultivated in India.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes.. Fruit—cardiotonic. causes biliousness.
taste. diarrhœa. C. Fl. Fruit contains vitamins A. minutely pitted . urinary discharges.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. ovatelanceolate. leaves and fruit. itch. Seeds—laxative. Katuphala. B and C. fever. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. etc. Hound's Berry. 3-8 flowered cymes . gonorrhœa (Yunani). ear and nose . diam.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . Kakamachi.— berry. much divaricately-branched . eye-diseases hydrophobia. bronchitis. Makoi. worms in ear. NS. FAM. leucoderma.—many. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis.—Solanaceæ. dysuria and asthma. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). 6 mm. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. asthma. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. Kakamachi. piles. :—E. Kamoni. COM. dysentery. alterative. Ceylon. LOC. Piludi. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. .—discoid. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. griping. Vayasi. diuretic. and used with success in psoriasis. Kakamunchi. hiccup. :—A variable annual herb . inflammation. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. useful in heart and eye-diseases. entire or sinuate toothed. bark. K. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. laxative. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). LOC. subumbellate. DISTR. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. liver inflammation. PARTS USED :—Root. Black Night-shade. G. shining. t. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. in pains. cathartic and diuretic. The seeds are used as a stimulant. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. bronchitis. Root-bark—laxative . Fr. improves voice . Tiktika. Sd. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. It acts as a hydrogogue. in extra-axillary. See—Vegetables. chronic fever. M. useful in giddiness. inflammation. yellow. L. " Tridosha". tapering into petioles. vomiting. Morellel.—Sept. not to be given to pregnant women. stem erect. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. In S. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. H. good for neck ulcers.-Jany. Fl. throat burning. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. Sk. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. Gurkamai. smooth. CHAR. heating. Kabaiya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. useful in diseases of eye. tonic. improves appetite. aphrodisiac. fever. :—Throughout India.—small. bitter.. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever.
flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. laxative. FAM. Bhui-Kate-ringni. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). 3-2 cm. often exceeding 1. M. Leaves—good application for piles. prickles compressed. H.—Solanaceæ. Dirghashara. NS. LOC. Bhoyaringni. :—E. Seeds—anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. urinary concretions. petiole prickly. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Kantakini. E. Ikshupatraka. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. :—Throughout India. pruritus . In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. pains. sterility in women. muscular pains. & Wendl.— June. C. diam. :—G. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Sorgho. expectorant and febrifuge. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. Jondhala. sinuate or subpinnatifid. Root—aphrodisiac.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Ringni. Kenjal. thirst. Kantakari. Yengara .3 cm. Fl. Basu).-5-10 X 2. hairy on both sides.—berry. catarrhal fever and chest pain. aphrodisiac. LOC. heating. base unequal-sided. Jolah. straight. Africa. PARTS USED :—Root. Jowar. Katai. Great Indian millet. It is used in asthma. :—Common in the Deccan . Jonera. stomachic. hairy outside. yellow or white with green veins.—Gramineæ. K. LOC. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Sk. D. K. Nele-Rama-gulla . fruits and seeds.5-5. Fr. Vrittatandula. useful in bronchitis. G. :—A very prickly diffuse. biliousness. piles. lumbago. they are used in the burning of feet. stem zig-zag. tropical Australia. CHAR. M. Jundri. yellow and shining. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Shalu. stone in bladder. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. FAM. asthma. Sind.—purple. Durrah. asthma. Konkan. Brihati. Sundia . bright green perennial herb . leaves. H. Nidigdhika. Sholapur. Sk. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. ovate or elliptic. Jowari. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. COM. Dhavani.7 cm. dysuria. flowers. L. good in inflammation. ozoena. "Vata" and " Kapha". Bijapur and E. Kateli. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . long. heart disease.. COM. S.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . strangury. Fruit—laxative. DISTR. t. Chikka-sonde. anthelmintic . Ceylon. Yuvanala. fevers. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. stems. fever. chronic bronchitis. Fl. Malaya.. Nirgol. appetiser. surrounded by enlarged calyx . NS. lobes deltoid.
Ruhin. Grains contain vitamin B. G. Kumbhala. See—Timbers. Khandesh and S. CHAR. Rohini. :—The grain is cooling. Bijapur and E. Gorakhmundi. Poona. HABITAT :—Open situations. NS. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. aphrodisiac. FAM. Rohani.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. Tans. Munditika. Country. tumours (Ayurveda). Asia and Africa. Rawtarohan. bladder and kidney complaints. piles. LOC. DISTR. on dry stony hills. H. Pravrajita. Vritta. Ahmedabad. M. :—G. Dharwar. high. while Belgaum. introduced into America and Australia. biliousness. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. Sk. PARTS USED. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Mahamundi. fevers. NS. :—Dry forests of W. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. good for sore-throat. LOC. aphrodisiac. L. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. with toothed wings. :—Widely cultivated in India. glandular. tonic and antiperiodic . POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Bastard Cedar. Agniruha. ulcers. indigestible. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. diseases of blood. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). COM. vaginal injections and enemas. refrigerant. hairy. PARTS USED. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. stem and branches cylindric. Gorakhamundi.—Meliaceæ. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . Karanda-gida. ulcers. general debility. useful in " Kapha". H. Rohun. See—Food Plants. Sumbi. Gorakmundi. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. Fibres. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. :— E. FAM: —Compositæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Seeds. improves appetite and taste. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. M. Juss. M. COM. Sk. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Swami-mara. anthelmintic. DISTR. cures " Tridosha ". leprosy and dysentery . hence used in intermittent fevers. Ceylon. Indian Red-Wood. Rohina. common in Gujarat. Bodiakalara. laxative.—sessile. Aruna. Some. K. :—Bark-acrid. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gums and Resins. K. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. . constipating. :—Bark.
—opposite. stalked. Africa. LOC. solitary or subpanicled. asthma. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. CHAR. DISTR. They are chewed to relieve toothache. Fl. flowers and seeds. Fl.. It is also used as fish and crab poison. NS. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. Celyon. :—Root. :—Root. spleen diseases. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. biliousness. with honey they are given in cough. vomiting. stem and branches hairy. ring-worm of waist. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . Fl. S. :—Common in the Konkan. oblong. indigestion. :—Annual herb. tonic. Fr. gives lustre to eyes . ray flowers and ligules very often absent. :—Hot. chest diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Throughout India. leucoderma. leaves. serrate or dentate. :—E. laxative. emmenagogue. gleet. sometimes grown in gardens. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. glandular hairy. compressed . hemicrania (Ayurveda). anæmia. bronchitis. elephantiasis. :—Wild and cultivated. useful in skin diseases. base usually acute. Dharwar and Belgaum districts.—Compositæ. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. used also for local application. t. enriches blood . Pellitary . Sk. :—Throughout India. peduncles with toothed wings. in cases of worms and indigestion.—Nov-Jany. involucre bracts linear. They are given in powder form. USES. bark. and tonic (Stewart) .—Nov. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). dysentery. urinary discharges. digestible. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. Ceylon. all warm countries. Akkalkara . involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate.—compound heads. depurative.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. Pappuso. laxative. fattening. jaundice. Akarakara . glaborous. irregularly crenateserrate. leaves and flower-heads. M. scabies. good for eyesore. Tonic. PARTS USED. Powdered root is given as tonic. DISTR. COM. LOC..—purple. used in insanity. M. biliousness. peduncles reaching 10 cm. . lessens inflammations . LOC. alterative. t. ciliate near the ends . looseness of breasts. Malay Islands. alexipharmic. HABITAT. truncate. rectal pain. :—Common in rice-fields. HABITAT. Akara-karava. globose ovoid. boils. scalding of urine.—in heads ovoid. urethral discharges and jaundice. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. L. the latter when present minute. Fl. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. cools brain. epileptic convulsions. :—Deccan. tuberculous glands. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. PARTS USED. increases appetite. FAM. piles. pain in uterus and vagina. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. strangury. Australia. cooling. Fr. ovate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. C. Country and Kanara.— achene. ovate-oblong. long.—Achene. H.
. Country. COM. :—Cultivated. Ran-amba . trunk straight. Ambada. Kapichuta. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. Padiala. long. :—A tree 9-10. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. Avatekayi. Indian Archipelago. ovoid. C. Pahad. Hulave. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic.. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. Ambodha. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. Amra. Fr. Dr. H.—Bignoniaceæ. leaves and fruit. Sk. LOC. t. Gum is demulcent. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Kalavrinta. round with furrows and cavities. S. Parur.Feb. burning sensation. M. L. refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES. high. Padal. Marahunise. Sk. :—H. Gujarat.-usually 1. Hongkong.5-18 x 3. enriches blood . CHAR. widely planted. hard. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. Giri Hadari. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. Kumbhi. Western Peninsula. Patala. Pitana. oblique. aphrodisiac. biliousness. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). See—Gums and Resins. Hude. destroys " Vata ". stone woody.. pinkish green.. Fl.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles.-Apl. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. It has been found useful in dysentery. COM. astringent. branches nearly horizontal. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching.8-7.— petals 4-5. DISTR. Tungi. :—Often planted throughout the State. long. K. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Toyadhivasini. HABITAT. oblong. Amrataka. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Burma. Ali-vallabha. Fl. FAM. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Salt Range.—Anacardiaceæ. ash-coloured . Konkan. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. ovate oblong. Kariguddada. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Wild Mango. Ceylon. yellow. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. NS. entire. :—Bark. PARTS USED. ulcers. tonic.8 cm. :—Leaves-tasty. Andamans. Patala. NS. Sd. appetising. M. cures rheumatism. blood complaints . bark smooth.5 cm. phthisis. Pandri. Padal.5 m. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. LOC. M. Amate. Indian Hog-Plum. good for sore-throat. Bile Tree.—drupe. Kanara. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. :—E. K. W. Kamduti. Fruit—indigestible. 3. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache.
:—Fruit-acrid. Kangira. DISTR. burning sensation. :—Root-bitter. lumbago. Kajra. Kuchla. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. PARTS USED. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. pungent. Kachita. Poison Nut. Travancore . Circars. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Ittangi. west coast of Madras State. appetiser. It is regarded as cooling. useful in bilious diarrhœa. fruit. blood diseases. ulcers. antipyretic. Kanara. NS. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. :—Wood (rarely). anæmia. Nirmal. COM. fruit. Kajra. Visha-druma. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. :—Root. Kelakutaka. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). :—Very common in Konkan and N. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. vomiting. piles. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . :—In forests south of Bombay. seeds. FAM. bitter. leaves. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. jaundice. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Kupaka. Kakatinduka. Kajavara. M. thirst. flowers. N. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. tonic. Karaskara.—Loganiaceæ. Crow Fig. heating. eructations. sub-Himalaya. :—More or less throughout tropical India. loss of taste. ring-worm. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. Ceylon. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Planted in Ceylon.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT.. diuretic. Karnatak. heating. See—Timbers. asthma. Travancore. "Kapha". LOC. fevers. :—E. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. itching. Vishamushti. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. cures leucoderma. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . from Kashmir to Sikkim . leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Indo-China. Hemushti. LOC. Fruit—bitter. Kuchala. astringent to bowels. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Flowers— acrid . tonic. "Vata". emmenagogue . G. Burma. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Sk. LOC. inflammation. Laos. LOC. Kuchla. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. diuretic. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. piles . H. Kanara. blood diseases. :—Monsoon-forests. cures pains in joints. poisonous. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). DISTR. tonic.
H. fruit and seeds. HABITAT. M.. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. urinary discharges. :—E. also in Konkan. poisoning. Nirmali. Seeds—acrid. good for liver. jaundice. Seeds—bitter. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. :—Western Peninsula. aphrodisiac. Kataka. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Shodhanatmaka. See—Timbers. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. Madhya Bharat. diuretic. cure strangury. thirst. gonorrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES. Nelmal. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. LOC. :—Sand-stone hills of S. DISTR. diaphoretic. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. :—Deciduous dry forests. anæmia. Ceylon. (Rasendrasarasangraha). :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. increases "Vata". Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. Nivali. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. alexipharmic. K. Ambuprasadini. . If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. Country. emetic. :—Root cures leucoderma. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. lithotriptic. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. :—Root (rarely). NS. cures inflammations. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Clearing Nut Tree. COM. LOC. alexiteric. tonic. FAM. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Chittu bija. causes biliousness. M. head-diseases (Ayurveda). hallucinations. astringent to bowels.—Loganiaceæ. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. kidney complaints. relieve colic (Yunani). improve eye-sight. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Aduguchali-bija. PARTS USED. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Burma. Kanara and Khandesh. Sk. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Fruit useful in eye diseases.
useful in eye-diseases. LOC. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). COM. . HABITAT. Fl. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling.— sessile.. Balaloddujinamara. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. FAM. China Nora. NS. LOC. Lodhraka. vaginal discharges. diseases of blood. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). Fl. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. C.—Gentianaceæ.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . t. Lodh Tree. :—W.3-0. Shavaraka. 4-winged. Lodhra . Country. leprosy. NS. :—The whole plant is bitter. dysentery. S. Loder. FAM. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. Peninsula. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . etc. COM. :—M. bleeding gums . :— E. :—India (W. LOC. Torna fort. :—Hilly parts. :—Root. 2-valved. in powder or in fresh decoction. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. broadly ovate. Bose). See—Timbers. digestible. Burma. emmenagogue. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in abortions . Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . M.— lobes 4-5. ovoid or oblong. Peninsula). PROPERTIES AND USES. cooling. :—An erect herb. stem densely leafy. E. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb.—Symplocaceæ. :—Bark. Chota Nagpur. alexiteric.-Jany. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. astringent to bowels.9 m. PARTS USED. Deccan . Bark—bitter. inflammations. quadrangular. aphrodisiac. DISTR. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. Fr. C.—capsule. Lodh . 0. H. white with blue veins. CHAR. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. flowers (rarely). Sd. winged . 5-nerved . :—Western Ghats . Tiritaka.—many. Bhilli. Broughton).. PARTS USED. Lodh is used in raw condition. Californian Cinchona. Tillaka. L. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Deccan. :—Bark-acrid. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. K.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. M. Dyes. Lodh. high. C. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani.— Oct. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. :—Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". eye-diseases and ulcers . colloturine and loturiaine. Mahabaleshwar. DISTR. decussate. Lodhra. biliousness. acrid. Kadu. throughout N. cures cough.
Jambu-Nayinerale. Kokileshta. DISTR. Fruit Trees. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. sweet. Jambu. . Australia. biliousness. Sk. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Gulabjaman. Nilphala. ulcers. :—Throughout India. Jamen. common along river banks. sprouts. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Pannerali. :—Bark-acrid. both wild and cultivated. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. M. useful in spleen diseases. M. Jambula. Jam. :-Black-Java Plum. NS. gargles and washes .MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. COM. :—Bark. Malaya. common at Mahabaleshwar. Jamburaj. See—Timbers. also used in spongy and painful gums. COM. increases "Vata".) FAM. Nerate. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). Jambu. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Jambu. astringent to bowels. LOC. good for sore-throat. :—Throughout the State. :—E. carminative and diuretic. Malay—Rose apple. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar.—Myrtaceæ. Jambul. Fruit—acrid. Shukapriya. asthma. Jambura. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. cooling. Gulab-Jamb. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). Shukapriya. dry. bronchitis. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. blood impurities. strengthens gums and teeth. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children.) FAM. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. anthelmintic. etc. H. Seeds—diuretic. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Nenda. H. NS. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. removes bad smell from mouth. Pharenda. Ceylon. astringent to bowels. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. LOC.—Myrtaceæ. fruit vinegar is tonic. digestive. Jambu. Sk. G. very often planted. LOC. thirst. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. dysentery. K. fruits and seeds. astringent. Jambudi. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. K. good gargle for sore-throat. PROPERTIES AND USES. Jambul. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. PARTS USED. Neralu. also wild. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Surabhipriya. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. carminative . enriches blood.
The fruit is sweet with a flavour. tonic. Khasia Hills. HABITAT. :—Cultivated in gardens. hot. Tagara. indigestible. with milky juice . in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. PROPERTIES AND USES. thirst. Kottuhale. DISTR.5-5 cm. Bengal. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. H. lessens pains in limbs and joints . Yunnan to Australia. astringent to bowels. alexipharmic. pale beneath. fruit and seeds. glossy green above. COM. cultivated in many parts. inodorous during the day. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. CHAR. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. . used in asthma. Seeds are astringent to bowels. Burma. liver and spleen . double. G.5-15 X 2. Garhwal. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. PARTS USED. Wax flower. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. acrid. Br. :—Root is acrid. fragrant at night. Nandi. fatigue. :—Sikkim Terai. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). Ananta.) FAM. Sk. Trinidad . elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. E. Assam. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. Ashvathabheda. Root chewed relieves toothache . used in liver complaints. LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. Fl. weakness of limbs. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. improves voice. bronchitis. indigestible. C—lobes overlapping to the left. tonic to brain. Tagar . Fl. Tagar. and an essential oil. PARTS USED. purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent to bowels. useful in "Kapha. cures epilepsy. :—Root. NS. Maddarasa gida . Hills of Visakhapatanam. Chandani. . strangury. heating. 7. used in syphilis (Yunani). K. 1-3 ribbed. The plant contains an alkaloid. Taggar. t. :—E. LOC. astringent to bowels. heavy speech.. Cultivated in many places. digestible. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). salver-shaped. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. divaricate.—Apocynaceæ." biliousness. Fruit—sweet and tasty.—snow-white. aphrodisiac.5-5 cm. useful in paralysis. :—Bark. Fr. orange within. M. dysentery.— opposite.—rainy season. bitter. emmenagogue. tonic to brain. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. LOC. lobes 5 in single. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. See—Timbers. :—Bark is sweet. wood and oil. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd.—follicles. margins wavy. Root—bitter . :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. L. removes bad humours. across.
oblong lanceolate . wood. LOC. Nagaskuda. G. high. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. t. useful in scabies. Sk. Kanara. Amli. :—Native of Mexico. H. their juice is given in ear-ache. Sandu. Gultora. kidney troubles. Amlike. 2. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn.—Compositæ.4-4. Zendu. Nagakuda. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Guljharo. Maddarssa. stomachic. yellow when ripe. lessens inflammation .—Apocynaceæ. FAM. :—Malabar. Flower—bitter. Amala. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. Chinchika. grown in gardens all over India. :—Rain-forests. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . :—E. good for teeth . HABITAT. somewhat boat-shaped. Makhamala. Leaves—good for piles. :—E. LOC.2-7. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State.5 cm. Fr. rough.5 m. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.. Chinch. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. Fl. common in rain-forests.—follicle. bitter. K. :—Flower-pungent. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. Zanduga. FAM. French Marigold. C. Makhamal. COM. Amlika. oil. Tintidika. :—Root. throughout the Konkan and N. :—Cultivated. M. Pandarakuda.—opposite. :—Same as T. acrid. NS. Teter. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). COM. Chinch. HABITAT. Genda. . with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. FAM. Sk. Halmeti. HABITAT.— Mar-Apl.5 cm. Fl.. Makhamali. H.. : K. CHAR.000 m. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . across in pedunculate cymes . Imli. M. astringent. See—Ornamental Plants.—white. Tamarind. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). Sd. 7. bark grey. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. DISTR. Kalaga. internally they are said to purify blood. Nuli. L. G. Sthulapushpa. Travancore up to 7. PROPERTIES AND USES. Amla. carminative.. Tintrani.— tube inflated near the top. muscular pains. NS. Amli. divaricata.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). PARTS USED.—surrounded by red pulp. M. :—Leaves and flowers. LOC. belching. DISTR.5-20 X 3. PARTS USED. coriaceous.
Sk. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Circars. Sag. sweetish. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Kanara. Sagun. Malay Peninsula. scabies. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. DISTR. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". laxative. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. Burma. . PARTS USED.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. tonic to heart. digestive.. tasty. bark. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Sagwan. leaves. :—Throughout India. anthelmintic. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. abundant all along the slopes of W. eye-diseases. indigestible. Tega. See—Timbers. M. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Madhya Bharat. Sag. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. heals wounds and fractures. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. Condiments and Spices. tumours. Anil. such as body-burning. NS. flowers and seeds. heals ulcers. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. urinary discharges. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. LOC. biliousness. carminative. vomiting. intoxication &c. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. wood. G. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Teka. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Mahapatra. and laxative. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Sumatra and Java. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). heating. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). boiled they are used as a poultice. causes cough. Teak.. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Tropics generally. useful in liver-complaints. Flowers— appetising . DISTR. Sagach. Kanara. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Tegu. laxative. astringent to bowels. Sagwan. :—Bark. thirst. COM. Fruit-sour. Cultivated also. Fruit—sour. small-pox. costiveness. Seeds are good astringent. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. Seeds astringent. sore-throat. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. K. fruit and seeds. stomatitis. Bark—astringent. tonic. Arna. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. FAM. H. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. and for sizing materials. aphrodisiac. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. earache. flowers.—Verbenaceæ.
Leaves—tonic to intestines . M. asthma. Sharapunkha. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. cooling. HABITAT:—Open situations. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . NS. cultivated lands and roadsides. high. :-G. :—The whole plant. pubescent on the back. allays thirst. anthelmintic. t. silkyhairy beneath. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. increase "Vata". Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. Sd. long. Phanike. heart. Ghodakan. enriches Blood . It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. useful in piles. along forest borders. it acts also as a vermifuge. asthma. ground and made into a pill. oblanceolate. COM. LOC.2 cm.-June. mucronate.8—1. burning pain over the region of liver. leaves and seeds. S. LOC. suborbicular. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. M. root. expectorant. alexiteric. anthelmintic. cures diseases of liver. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. cures diarrhœa . Kogge. branches spreading. useful in bronchitis. Plihari.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. C. red.—petals clawed. Sarpankho. fresh root-bark. good in piles. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). syphilis. Fl. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. laxative.8 X 0. LOC.5 cm. 30—60 cm. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). ulcers. leaflets 11—21. Kalika. Wood—acrid. gonorrhœa (Yunani).. spleen. liver. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. bitter. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. biliousness. Sarphoka.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). alterative. biliousness. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . Udhadi. Empali. blood.—pod 3—4. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. Fl.—Oct. Flowers—acrid. tumours. spleen diseases. Country. Deccan. poisoning. Fr. . improve appetite. H. mucronate. glabrous above. K. boils and pimples. Sk. Wood good for head ache. Malay Peninsula. Bark is an astringent. allays thirst. Konkan. leprosy. long. sedative to gravid uterus. useful in lung and chest diseases. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). antipyretic. useful in bronchitis. FAM. Sarphonka. :—All over India. standard. :—A perennial herb. L. PARTS USED. Jhila. CHAR. slightly curved. See—Timbers. Unhali. linear. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sharapunkha.. inflammations. :—Plant-digestible. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. dry. DISTR.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. useful in scabies. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. urinary discharges. "Root—diuretic.—5-6 .—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. 2—2. Gujarat.
aphrodisiac. Madras State. PROPERTIES AND USES. anthelmintic. Madhya-Pradesh.. intoxication. Behada. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. " Kapha". Tara. useful in biliousness. DISTR. Kahu. useful in bronchitis. Arjuna. LOC. Fruit-pungent. See—Timbers. blood-diseases. Kushika. LOC. Aksha. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Sk. leucoderma. Dhanvi. :—Konkan and Deccan. Bedda Nut. PARTS USED. Bera. :—Bark. fruit (rarely). in the sub-Himalayan tract. sore-throat. Arjuna. DISTR. tonic. NS. with milk. except in dry arid regions. :—E. Madhya-Bharat. asthma. biliousness. Arjuna. :—Bark. Chota-Nagpur. Arjan. acrid. Sadura. heart disease. :—Alexiteric. Buhura. K. digestible. in Khandesh Akrani. Koha. externally in wounds and fractures. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. tumours. urinary discharges. . ulcers.—Combretaceæ. excessive perspiration. Sadado. Vibhitika. PARTS USED. H. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani).. very common in South Konkan. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Shantimara. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. LOC.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. COM. Karshaphala. FAM. leaves. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. FAM. Hela. Baire. Arjun Sadada. Sk. biliousness. Karvirak. :—Throughout the forests of India. diuretic. M. inflammation. fruit and seed. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. G. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. tonic. Ceylon. laxative. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. M. Bastard Myrobalan. Kalidrum. Indradruma.—Combretaceæ. styptic. strangury. Expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES. G. Rajastan and Sind. anthelmintic . Sagona. anæmia. Vibhata. White Marudah. COM. Tari. strangury. K. Bahaza. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. H. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m.. Kakubha. Belleric Myrobalan. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Beheduk. false presentation of fœtus. Bibhitiki. Arjun-Sadada. Bahara. & A. useful in fractures. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Burma. Behedo. :—E. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. NS. Voting.
In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gums and Resins. gout. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. DISTR. dyspepsia. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Haritaki. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. bleeding and ulceration of gums. diseases of eye. —E. Abhaya. gums. PARTS USED. carminative. heart and bladder. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. Kanara. vomiting. K. useful in caries of teeth. enriches blood. Seed—acrid. intoxicating. common in Khandesh Akrani. good in ophthalmia. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". tonic. inflammations. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. anthelmintic. Jivantika. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. LOC. carminative. NS. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. Har. Fruit-astringent. LOC. H. strengthens brain. Dyes. diseases of eye. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. bleeding piles. bilious headache. See—Timbers. piles. :—Fruit-dry. :—Bark and fruit. Hirda. sore-throat. corneal ulcers. urinary discharges. hiccup. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. used in paralysis (Yunani). eyes. itching pain. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. anaemia. antidysenteric. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. which is considered a good digestive. M. alterative . Jivanti. biliousness. Burma. in Travancore. ascites. piles and diarrhœa. diarrhœa. Sk.—Combretaceæ.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. Ceylon. useful in thirst. strangury. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. tonic. leucoderma. G. Hirdo . useful in dyspepsia. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . Kernel has narcotic properties. heating. hoarseness. nose. tumours. attenuant. vesicular calculi. Harade. Alate. useful in asthma. constipation. Haritaki. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. cold in head. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Harara. elephantiasis. tonic. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. COM. FAM. diseases of spleen. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). mixed with honey. Chebulic myrobalan. antipyretic. stomachic. LOC. vomiting. Black myrobalan. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. Haria. brain tonic (Yunani). thirst. applied to eyes. the fully ripe or dried fruit. typhoid fever. expectorant. eye diseases etc. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. Ripe fruit—purgative. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. aperient. USES. heart and bladder. is used as an application in ophthalmia. delirium (Ayurveda). piles. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash.
Paras-piper. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. Gandarati. produces worms in intestines . See—Timbers. especially centipedes. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. Burma. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. leaves. Sacred Plants. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. It is also used in chronic dysentery. Ranbhendi. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Bhandi. Bengal. Jogiyarale. Bugari. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Suparshuakan. Kanara. Gajadanta. Parisha. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). Hucerasi. Fibres. Arasi. K. Paraspipal. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". increases " Kapha " . Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. See—Timbers. acrid . :—Fruit-sour. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. :—E. Dyes. Bhend. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. NS. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. Sk. :—Coast forests of India. Kandarala. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Malvaceæ. Parasipu. FAM. Tans. Mhaskar and Issac). COM. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Phalisha. H. LOC. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases.. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. Tulip Tree. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). flowers and fruit. DISTR. M. burning of body . . Portia Tree. profuse discharge. Paraspiplo. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. PARTS USED. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. :—Bark. G. aphrodisiac . Kuberaksha. difficult to digest. also planted as roadside tree. Bhindi. LOC.
:—Often planted. Fr. yellow. bright green and shining above. Fr. dorsally convex. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. LOC. Shatakumbha. yellow. bladder.. 5—10 cm. but its use is attended with considerable danger. :—An extensive climber. mesocarp bony. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine.. astringent to bowels. virgin uterus. skin diseases. Gulvel. frequently planted. NS.—Apocynaceæ. G.—membranous. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). cures " Vata " . CHAR. Amrita-Valli. CHAR. wounds.—in terminal cymes. often planted in India. K. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. :—Native of S. red.—generally 4. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . t. C. H..—in axillary and terminal racemes. See—Ornamental Plants. Sk. pungent. Ashvaghna. Gulvel.—broadly obovate. Haripriya. throat campanulate. NS. long. bark corky. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. growing on mango and other trees. root. LOC.—Menispermaceæ. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. . 5 cm. Karvira. worms. DISTR. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. across. Fl. PARTS USED. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. eye-troubles. Gurch. hot. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. Gulhel. Pila kaner. Indies . :—Stem. Gulo. HABIT :—In thickets. L. Andamans and Ceylon. COM.—drupes. male fascicled. M. females solitary. very poisonous (Ayurveda). crowded . :—Throughout tropical India. fevers. FAM. Gado. America and W. :—Bark. ventrally flat. HABITAT. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. :—E. Burma. Heart-leaved moonseed. Zard kunel. seeds and milky juice. endocarp corky. Amarvel. Fl. Uganiballi. Exile or yellow Oleander. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. lobes 5.5—12. Pivali kanher. Pila kanir. Sk. and blood vessels . acrid. Fl. leucoderma. elliptic. 7—9 nerved. grooved . COM. DISTR. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. Pittaghni. Sd.-spirally arranged. PARTS USED. Vatsadani. FAM. 1—3. H. Gulancha. piles. with milky juice. tubular. L. size of a pea . Jwaranashini. M. 7. bronchitis . linear. it has no action on digestive enzymes .5 cm. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. exocarp fleshy. G. LOC. corona in the throat. Amritvalli.—Apl. useful in urethral discharges.
—Dehan. size of a large pea. :—Rain-forests. :—E. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. . juice useful in diabetes. Dahan. Khasia Hills. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. Ceylon. vaginal and urethral discharges. common in S. tonic. bark. renews blood. CHAR. leaflets sessile. fever. stomachic. USES. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. also in the Deccan hills. diarrhœa. Gangalaki. Java. stimulates bile secretion.-Jany. Philippines. Forest Pepper.8. piles. FAM. high. Root and stem are bitter. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. antipyretic. stomachic . Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. Manger. 15 m. fruits. Fl. chronic fever. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State.—Aug. Macimullu. Fl. coriaceous. Sk. orange coloured. armed with small hooked prickles . oblong. expectorant. unisexual. H. Limri. female flower buds oblong. Root-bark is aromatic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. Kaduhakukare. leaves. stigma sessile. Jangali-Mirchi. enriches blood. digitately trifoliate. Konkan and Kanara. COM. (Kirtikar). It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. Mirchi. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. dark shining green above.8-3. Stem-bitter. M. LOC. giddiness. FT. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. good in cough. ovary rudimentary. 3-5 grooved. Kadu-menasu. 5-7 lobed. anæmia.—globose. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. tropical Africa. crenulate. PARTS USED. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). NS. HABITAT. Lopezroot Tree. tonic appetiser. t. DISTR. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases.— alternate. K. stimulant and anti-periodic. Kumaon to Bhutan. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. :—All over the Madras State . allays thirst. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). Sumatra. pitted on the rind. vomiting. China. vomiting. causes constipation. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. burning sensation. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Stem-bitter.. diuretic. jaundice.—in axillary cymes. L.—Rutaceæ. LOC. cures jaundice. useful in skin diseases. white. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. male flower bud globose. 5-10 X 1. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. especially acid. :—Root.
NS. anthelmintic. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Kuruk. DISTR. Trikone-phala. indigestible. See—Timbers. Tuni. cures leprosy. blood diseases. causes " Vata " . PARTS USED. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb.) FAM. leprosy. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. DISTR. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. PARTS USED. burning sensation. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. :—Fruit. :—Bark and flowers. astringent to bowels.—Onagraceæ. Shringa-kanda-taka. headache. and blood complaints (Ayurveda).. Indian Mahogany. useful in . Waitz). Sk. Garige. Kanara. Lud. :—E. Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES. expectorant. LOC. Singodi. G. :—Bark-acrid. COM. useful in ulcers. cooling. Trikota. Mahalimbu. Apina. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. biliousness. Nand-vriksha. K. :—Cooling . LOC. "Tridosha". Singhara. Malaya. often cultivated. M. Burma. Kalingi. good for scabies and gleet. urinary discharges. H. itching. fattening. FAM. Kuberaka. Sk. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. tropical Africa. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. LOC. Mandurike. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. COM. fatigue. :—Throughout India. Ceylon. astringent to bowels. :—E. antipyretic . Lim. Gandhagarige. PROPERTIES AND USES. digestible. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. removes " Tridosha". aphrodisiac. Kaechaka. astringent to bowels. HABIT. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. aphrodisiac. Gums and Resins. Water-chestnut. Shingada. Tundu. Toon. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). removes " Kapha ". Deodari. biliousness. tonic. Jalakantaka-valli. Chittagong. H. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Sandal Neem. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Assam.—Meliaceæ. Tunika. of India). :—Throughout the State in tanks. Chota-Nagpur.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. NS. inflammation. Shingoda. Tun. cardio-tonic. strangury. cures fevers. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. Bark—bitter. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. :—Aquatic (in tanks). M. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb.
The plant contains an alkaloid. CHAR. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence.—several in each coccus .—opposite. bad-teeth (Yunani). Negalu .—throughout the year. Fr.—Zygophyllaceæ. Pindara.—globose. Gokharu. Fibres. improves taste . USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. lumbago. . NS.. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Kadu Kange Kumbala. L. used as food. They are also used in the form of poultice. one of each pair smaller than the other. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. M. sore-throat. Gokshri. Pindara. Kanara. Sd. pain. Malay Peninsula. COM. sharp spines.—Euphorbiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. Gamhar. Gokhru. K. Petari .. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. DISTR. a common weed of the drier parts. leaflets 3—6 pairs . :—A procumbent herb. Calthrope. K. young parts silky. Sk. :—E. Sarata. Hussuk. base oblique. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Country. LOC. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Java. alexiteric. FAM. Kere Padye. Deccan and S. yellow. Fl. Ceylon. considered cool and sweet. Assam. H. DISTR. Kurangaha. along nalas and in swampy localities.:—Saurashtra. Kantaphala. one pair longer than the other . Gujarat. solitary. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. :—H. FAM. mucronate. Chhota gokhru. useful in chronic fevers. each with 2 pairs of hard. See—Food Plants. NS. abruptly pinnate. Karahate. G. Gokhura. t. Ceylon. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Sumatra.. hairy. upto 3300 m. Aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. Seeds abound in starch. LOC. Trikantaka. :—Plant is cooling tonic. See—Timbers. M. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Shadanga. bile and phlegm. Gokshura. M. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . appetiser. :—The whole plant. biliousness. Tumri. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. COM. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. thirst. LOC. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Gokhru. bronchitis. stems and branches pilose. LOC. :—Throughout India.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). Sk. in Kashmir. of 5 woody cocci. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. oblong. antipyretic.
reduces inflammation. LOC. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. increases menstrual flow. linear-oblong or lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES. fattening. Kanara. NS. leaves. gonorrhœa. :—Cooling . bitter. purifies blood . Physiaran. fruits. aphrodisiac. stem erect. Kanara. Kantapatraphala. t. tonic . K. lumbago . removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. M. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. gleet. USES :—Fruits are cooling. bloody urine. improves appetite . reduces inflammation .—sessile. useful in strangury. Brahmadandi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. appetiser. copious. "Vata". tonic. enriches blood . removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). COM. leprosy . :—Western Peninsula. Konkan. Brahmadandi. :—Root. Fl. branches angled and ribbed. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. cures strangury. yellowish brown. :—A glabrous herb. urinary discharges. urinary disorders and impotence. ciliate. tonic. asthma. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). :—The whole plant. Brahma-dandi. M. . seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES. pain . ovoid.— Dec. DISTR. which is taken in large quantities. cough. Fl. Talakanto. faintly ribbed. pappus shorter than the achenes. Coorg and the hills of Mysore.— purple. HABITAT. FAM. pruritus ani. piles. Brahmadandi. inflammations. : — G. —achene. emmenagogue (Yunani). TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. Country. Fr. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. diuretic. vesicular calculi. CHAR. C. Aja-dandi. spinous toothed or serrate. West Rajastan. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. H. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. S. removes " Tridosha ". alleviating burning sensation. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). :—Wild in places. Diuretic. diuretic. cures "Kapha". slender. Sk. Mt. stomachic. alterative . Abu. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. cures skin and heart diseases. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Mota-Motachor. S.—heads 6—8 mm. LOC. suppression of urine. the Deccan. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. LOC. S. Brahmadandi.—Compositæ. PARTS USED. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). :—Hot. long. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). oblong. Central India.
long.—July-Oct. green with white stripes when raw. :—A scandent annual. Sd. deeply 5-lobed. laxative. Fr. fruit. burning sensation. Sk. :—E. reniform or broadly ovate. the Deccan. lobes ovate-oblong. Indrayan. L.-5-12. asthma. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. —G. long as well as broad.5 m. leaf-juice is emetic. palmately 3-5 lobed. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. N. The seeds are good for stomach disorders .5 cm.5 cm. cures itching. Makal. PARTS USED. leprosy. Fl. Kiripodla. variable. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.6—4. :—Root. Kaundal. eye diseases. Ceylon..218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. Mukal. Mahakala. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. Patola. t. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. alterative. COM. :—Throughout India. useful for boils and intestinal worms. CHAR.. furrowed. stem robust. NS. M. L. ovoid-fusiform. leaves.—Cucurbitaceæ. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. COM. Betlada padaval. Sk. long. NS. headache and boils. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). cures bronchitis. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. FAM . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. antipyretic. base cordate . females solitary. ulcers. oil. tendrils 3 cleft. dentate or serrate. leucoderma. LOC.3 cm. axillary. chireta and honey. K. it is given in decoction with ginger. — surrounded with red-pulp . Fl. scarlet when ripe. stomachic. H. Ratan-indrayan. alexiteric. HABITAT:-In hedges. Root-juice is very purgative.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kadvi-padyal or patola . Lal-indrayan.-male in axillary . pungent. paler beneath. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. In Bombay. K. slightly hairy. Avagude-hannu. Fruit—hot. orbicular. DISTR. dark-green above. G.. stems 3. CHAR. Jyotsna. Wild Snake-gourd.-6. Leaves—good for biliousness. slender. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. Fl. tendrils 3-fid. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). allays thirst. Perula. blood diseases.—monœcious.—2. M. base deeply cordate. antipyretic. erysipelas.3-12. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Malay Peninsula. distantly denticulate. with a long sharp beak. woody below. male in axillary racemes. anasarca and ascites. H. Jangali chichonda. :—Root-cathartic . Panduka. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. bitter. Jangli— Kadu padval. long. white. FAM.5—7. Malaya. Australia. Katuka.
. :—Wild in hilly parts. sparsely white hairy. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Ceylon. Ekdandi.-July. Sd. fringed. Malaya.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. . ovate-elliptic. diam.— achene. Juice of fruit or root-bark.5 cm. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. Fl. petioles densely hairy. bruises and wounds. outer involucral bracts ovate. DISTR.—throughout the year. :— Wild in Konkan. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles.75-1 in. 30-60 cm. Country. COM.—Compositæ. LOC. :—A perennial straggling herb. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . t.—head solitary. NS. stem and branches hairy. LOC.—many . abortifacient. heat of brain. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. which is found abundantly all over the country. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. middle lobe smallest. glandular. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. Fruit—carminative. China. Fr. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m..—petals wedge-shaped. PARTS USED. Fl. N. lessens inflammations . Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. on the Himalayas. bracts large. inner slightly longer than outer. limbweakness. CHAR. high. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. :—M.75 X . PARTS USED. slender. FAM. :—Root and fruit. HABITAT. Kirkee. ophthalmia. densely silky hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna.—1. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. Ray flowers ligulate. Australia. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn.— Apl. Fr. purgative. black. rheumatism. used in epilepsy. Fl. M. hairy. :—Throughout India. acute. :—Abundant in the Deccan. boiled with gingelly oil. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. t. Deccan and S. axillary. all over the State. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. peduncles very long. leprosy. 3-partite.. gargle good for toothache. white. :—Leaves. very hairy. Japan. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. cures hemicrania. female solitary. many years ago. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda).. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. LOC. ligules yellow. C.—globose 3-8. L.
Pitabija Vedhini.—Aug. FAM. large for the genus. Fenugreek . Methini. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice.5—10 cm. ovate or elliptic oblong. Nepala . Sk. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. tonic. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. :—South of Bombay. PROPERTIES AND USES. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. H. vomiting. K. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). greenish-yellow outside. G. "Vata". :—H. appetiser. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. Konkan. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. COM.—in umbellate cymes . NS.. COM. Fl. Methi. cures leprosy. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. :—A twining perennial. long. chronic cough. with coma . Antamul. diarrhœa. HABITAT. purplish within. 7. Kashmir. also in low and sandy localities. astringent to bowels. anthelmintic.—deeply lobed. base cordate. K. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State.— broadly ovate. corona gibbous below. tonic and carminative. cultivated in many parts of India. Pitakari (Pitamari). :—E. and the seeds contain vitamin A.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. LOC. t. Menthe—palle. Jyoti. See—Vegetables. roots many. Methi. Fl. Kanara. dysentery. dropsy. DISTR. :—Leaves and seeds. useful in dropsy. Methi . aperient. LOC. M. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. enlargement of spleen and liver. fleshy.-Nov. L. :—Punjab. M. Country. M. Chandrika. 5-10 x 2. tapering to a fine point at the apex.—Asclepiadaceæ. enlargement of spleen and liver. LOC. bronchitis. diuretic. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. Janglipikvan. CHAR. The leaves contain vitamins A and B.5-5. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. emmenagogue. C. Sd. they are also aphrodisiac. FN.7 cm. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk.—follicles. narrowed at the apex to a free point. antipyretic. ..—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). removes bad taste from mouth. PARTS USED. Methi. :—Cultivated. S. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). NS. Hot and dry. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. long. Muthi. piles.—opposite. flatulence. :—Hot. FAM. suppurative. much used in colic.
. perianth campanulate. Fr. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. :—Throughout the plains of India.—appearing after the flowers. scape erect 30-45 cm. 10-20 cm. Pitavan . flat. Chitra—Prishthi-parni.. diaphoretic and expectorant. polished. COM. found useful in dysentery. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). black. Thailand (Siam). M.-Sept. W. CHAR. Panjala. H.9-1. DISTR.— flattened. FAM. Shankaraja . :—Western Himalayas. :—Bulb. Vanapalandu. linear. pale lead-colored. Pithavan. URARIA PICTA Desv. . Rankanda. Ceylon. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. DISTR. Bihar. CHAR. Malay Islands. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. tropical Africa. L.— pod. :—Sandy places. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND LOC..—in racemes 15-30 cm. LOC. G. Fl. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Malay Islands. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed.— Liliaceæ. long. Jangli-Ran-khanda. M.5 cm. white. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman).—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. tropical Africa. stalks long. H. Fl.3-2. stems downy with hooked hairs.. USES. Prishna-parni. :—Konkan. Pitvan. :—G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. C. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Wild. C. :—Common on sandy shores. Burma.. Ranganja . FAM. Sk. :—E.. :—A perennial shrub. :—Roots and leaves. L. :—A herb. Chota-Nagpur. Indian Squill. Sk. NS. USES.— petals lanceolate. linear-oblong. LOC. blotched with white above. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. Fl.—Aug. Borneo. 5-7 (rarely 9). long. Dried leaves are emetic. Dabra. glabrous. joints 3-6. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Ceylon. PARTS USED. Peninsula. KolaPutakand. 0. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. :—Throughout India.— imparipinnate. Sd. Philippines. 20-30 cm. PARTS USED. high. long. Fr. Jaglipiaz.—capsule. COM. t. light-brown . ellipsoid. HABITAT. hairy beneath. 15-45 x 1. folded on one another. NS.8 m. tapering to both ends . drooping.—purple.
boils in the scalp. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda).. A. heals fractures (Yunani). S. M. DISTR. Root is bitter. purgative. anthelmintic. Rasna. Vanda. tonic to brain and liver. 1931. scandent by simple or branching roots . alexiteric. heating. renal calculi. tremors (Ayurveda). long. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. useful in dyspepsia. acute. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES. FAM. USES :—Expectorant. inflammations. Vriksharuha. diseases of the abdomen. :—Root and leaves.— July.—capsule. Madhya-Pradesh. and U. maritima of U. emmenagogue. t. stem 30-60 cm. good for piles. stimulant and diuretic. lip bluish dotted with purple. COM. lessens inflammations . scilla of Great Britain. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. Bandanike. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. alexiteric. complicate. cardiac. long.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. NS. praemorse. Ceylon. long. toothache. LOC. LOC. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. column very short. lumbago.. Persara. Sk. Peninsula. useful in paralysis. and was found useful (Koman). LOC. bronchitis. Chota-Nagpur. :—Epiphyte. stout. erect. Rasno. CHAR. diuretic. skin diseases. PARTS USED. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. Fl.. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. tip. W. bronchitis. Bihar. Atiras. dropsy.5—9 cm. Rasna. internal pains (Yunani).3-2 cm. Banda. rheumatic pains. diseases of nose. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. obtusely keeled. hiccup. HABIT.—Orchidaceæ. pollinia ellipsoid. Sarpagandha. heating. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. rheumatism.—thickly coriaceous. Gujarat and Kanara. L. K. recurved. bronchitis. :—Root is bitter. Gaz. Br. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. . sepals and petals yellow with brown lines .222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. The plant contains an alkaloid. (In Med. 2-lobed.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. :—Konkan. Travancore. H. and an acute interposed one. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Fr. :—The bulb is pungent. Nakula. The bulb is stomachic. :—Bengal. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. Rasna. anthelmintic. laxative. antipyretic. :—G. asthma. :—An epiphyte. 15-20 X 1. Fl.
Country. amenorrhœa. Malamaitra. alexipharmic. tonic and stimulant. Sarjaka. fruit. Sk. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. useful in atonic dyspepsia. resin. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. G. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. CHAR. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). eardiseases. diarrhœa. ulcers and wounds.—5-10 X 2. useful in leprosy. greenish. skin eruptions. t. PARTS USED. tuberculous glands. bechic. C. :—Western India. deciduous and monsoon-forests. USES. stomachic..—Dipterocarpaceæ. M. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. H. boils and ringworm. Safed-damar. :—E. good for sore-throat. buds 5-angled. Kanara and S.-Jany. abundant in S. young branches and panicles pubescent. Travancore. also in N. itch (Ayurveda). Mysore. Sk. Tenasserim. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S.8 cm.-nut about 5 mm. tonic. globular. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . Kubbila.. alexipharmic. DISTR. 1-nerved wing. FAM. Kaharub. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). with an offensive odour. Shandike. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Fr. Lokhandi. Ceylon. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. entire or crenate. Bilidhupa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. Dhupa. K. Oils. Pitti. :—A large much branched woody climber.—petals 5. carminative. :—Bark. in chronic bronchitis. Red Creeper. L. Gums and Resins. PARTS USED. . LOC.—in large drooping terminal panicles. dysentery. cures cough. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. expectorant. LOC. rheumatism. Madidhupa. Haruge. COM. H. Kundura. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. Poppli. Sandras.5-3. Sekalyel. See—Timbers. whitish). LOC. Coorg in Ghats.—Dec. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. Kanara. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. debility and slight cases of fever. K. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. anæmia. :—Bark. NS. FAM. Khandvel. :—Madras State. detergent. prolonged into a linear-oblong. COM. NS. :—North Kanara. :—E. Dhupa. (T. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. also planted. acrid. Fl. Ragatarshado. Fl. Raktavalli. diam. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. :—Bark-hot. yellowish. dark.—Rhamnaceæ. DISTR. M. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. piles.. Shala. urinary discharges. hemicrania. PROPERTIES AND USES.
) FAM. Kadvojiri.—heads subcorymbose. :—Plant. Fl. leafy herb .8 cm. Kalizhiri. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. Fl. Ceylon. :—Throughout India . cure ulcers. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda).. Gadar-tambaku.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. M. LOC. 5—9 x 2.. Sd.—capsule. involucre bracts linear.2 cm. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. high . G. Country. Vishamushti.. anthelmintic. Vanajiraka. Fr. H. t. Kalijiri. Bhutakeshi. Somaraj. stems 60—90 cm. squeezed out by pounding. rachis glandular pubescent. :—G. stem 0. Kalejire. Java . :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. truncate. L. often cultivated. LOC. HABITAT:-Waste places. K. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). The juice mixed with mustard oil. "Vata" and "Kapha". Sk. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent to bowels. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. CHAR. Fr. Bakchi. lyrate.—oblong. NS. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. DISTR. :—E. Sundika.. CHAR. hairy. on long petioles. branched near the top. Ceylon . Kadu-Kala Jiriga. FAM. Afghanistan. ofter cultivated. The juice of the whole plant.-May. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. warted. COM. Kalhara. Somaraj. M. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. innermost the longest. Kutki. NS.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. PARTS USED.6-0.-rotate. used in skin-diseases. :—Konkan . M. :—Annual. Fl. China. :—Throughout India.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. yellow. high. hairy on both sides. :—Seeds-acrid. coarsely serrate.—Dec. PARTS USED. L. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.-achene oblong cylindric.9 m. Vapehi. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. robust. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. H. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. Deccan . Gujarat. COM. rounded. :—An annual herb. all coarsely dentate. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. 10-ribbed. Kulhala. Fl. Purple Fleabane. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. Kulara. . hairy. erect. pappus reddish.—Scrophulariaceæ. in equal proportions. t— Jany.—Compositæ. with purple tips . lobes 5. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. DISTR. sub-globose. hairy.—alternate. Seeds— anthelmintic. LOC. Agnibija. about 40-flowered.Feb.5—3. lanceolate. compound or pinnatisect. C. and leaves.
are used in destroying pediculi. FAM. astringent. PARTS USED. Bala. Devika. The plant with quinine. :—A common weed throughout the State. high. bronchitis . consumption. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. K. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. Ash-coloured Fleabane . Osari. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. tropical Asia. LOC. Sk. LOC. Sind. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. applied in inflammatory swellings . stem stiff. M. seeds. Mudivala. Panni. Vecrnam. asthma. Lavancha. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). They are also used as tonic. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Sadori. G. :—Annual. alternate. Sahadevi.—achene. The expressed juice is given in piles. awned. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. Africa .—Jan. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. used for asthma. striate. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Koosa. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. flowers. Fl. 15—75 cm. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. tonic. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. Kuruvelu. Australia. COM. Vala.—simple. Valo . NS. t. COM. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. H. H. Cuscus grass. Dandotpala.. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). NS. cold. :—E. made into a bolus with lime-juice. Ardhaprasadana. . stomachic. In Ceylon. stomachic and diuretic. Sahadevi. remove blood from liver. Ushira. hiccup . Sk. Fr. M. clothed with white hairs . :—Throughout India. heads small. Bena. pubescent. K. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. erect herb. Fl. LOC. silky on the back. DISTR. FAM.-Feb. pappus white. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. a depilatory (Yunani). CHAR. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. Sadodi. Sedardi. :—Plant. with lime-juice. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. good for sores and itching of eyes. oblong. :—E. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. plant is used in fever convulsions. Khas. L.—Gramineæ. cures "Tridosha".— pinkish violet. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). kidney troubles.—Compositæ. Sahadevi. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses.
Nigod. up to over 1. strangury. bitter. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. bronchitis.-leaf sheaths compressed. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. thirst. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. promotes hair-growth. H. useful in spermatorrhoea. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. inflammations. tonic and vermifuge. blood diseases (Yunani). HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. stomachic. throughout the Malayan regions. foul breath. inflammations and irritability of stomach. head-ache. expectorant and diuretic. :—Roots. DISTR. Philippine Islands. anthelmintic. also cultivated. Nilpushpi. Nirgundi. lower ones keeled and fan-like. Cooling to brain. Leaves are aromatic. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). LOC. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Nirgundi. consumption. febrifuge. USES :—Root is tonic. LOC. usually sheathed all along. long. high. Sinduvara. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. Konkan and Deccan. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). pale green. Sk. refrigerant. heating. K. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. Indrani. :—Root. slender.—Verbenaceæ. :—Throughout the State. Sessile spikelets. :—Common in Gujarat and N. useful in eye diseases. spleen enlargement. margin spinously rough. The otto is used as a tonic.8 m. soporific. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. astringent.. biliousness. diuretic. NS. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . sweats. PROPERTIES AND USES. alexiteric. Fl. :—Cooling. bitter. Sind. colour varying from yellowish to black. L. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. bilious fevers. Sambhalu. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. leaves. Ceylon. Kanara in damp places. Bilenekki. stomachic. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. Nukki. stimulant and tonic. leucoderma. long. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. asthma. cephalic. Nirgari. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Nirgud. :—G. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. bitter. Nirgundi. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. useful in burning sensation. PARTS USED. Afghanistan. Lakki. Culms stout. FAM. COM. PARTS USED. racemes up to 5 cm. DISTR.. rachis stout. West-Indies and Brazil. The roots contain an essential oil. M.—panicle up to 30 cm. :—Throughout India. astringent. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. erect.
produces alopecia. Draksha. a remedy for skin diseases. M. useful in old fevers. fattening. Darakh. stomachic. :—Fruit-acrid. cooling useful in thirst. India. fever. emmenagogue. :—Deccan. stones in bladder. laxative. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. fever. causes gases in the stomach. liver and kidney. tonic to liver. astringent to bowels. flowers. NS. Yakshmaghni. strangury. asthma. Ahmednagar. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. seeds. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. diarrhœa. blood diseases. Seeds—aphrodisiac. :—E. applied in scabies. cooling . Guchaphala. cough. Draksha. emmenagogue. expectorant. good in chronic bronchitis . sweet. fruits.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. sparingly in Poona. bad effects of drinking. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. See—Timbers. COM. LOC. syphilis. H. good for lungs. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache.. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. good for eyes and throat. Grape-vine. spleen inflammation. PARTS USED :—Stem. Madhurasa. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Fruit is nervine. . aperient. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. skin should not be eaten. :—Cultivated. Sap of young branches. fattening . Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Khandesh. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Country. and traces of vitamins B and C. K. heat of body. M. testicle swellings and piles. :—A native of western Asia. stops bleeding from mouth. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. diuretic. jaundice. G. HABITAT. cures thirst. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. allays vomiting. allays vomiting. Angur. Draksha. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. appetiser. Drakh . hoarseness and consumption. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. diuretic . aphrodisiac. DISTR. produces constipation. cooling. The fruits contain vitamin A. burning. Draksha. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. difficult to digest. Sk. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). catarrh and jaundice. leaves. Flowers—expectorant. laxative. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. purifies and enriches blood . Fruit— digestive. Angura. and given in coughs. The plant contains an alkaloid. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". LOC. Gujarat and S. FAM-—Vitaceæ. W.
. senile debility. red. M. enclosed in inflated calyx. Balada. pretty common in the ghats. CHAR.5-5 cm. FAM. long. rachis grooved with soft hairs.3-1. calyx-tube. armed with prickles . leaflets 5-7 pairs. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). alterative. good in asthma. L. long. :—E.5 cm. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . M. Ghodasoda. COM. useful in "Vata". heating. oblong. aphrosidiac. acrid. Fl. Fl. dark-orange. :—K. slightly 5-angled. Wagati. aphrodisiac. G. Gandhpatri. leucoderma. USES. hard. constricted between them. tonic. Asgundh. t. emmenagogue . :—Root and bark. abundant in Sind . :—Tubers-bitter. scabies. coriaceous.—berry. Ashvagandha. leaves. bony Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sogada-beru. dark-green. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. :—Deccan. obovate. Amangura. oblong.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. Fl. Drakshasava—used as tonic. ulcers. DISTR. Asgund. Hooliganji. Sd. Canaries. bronchitis. NS. t. branches terete. Wakeri. CHAR. insomnia.—3-4. spathulate.—greenish or lurid yellow. Wagati. base dentate.-Feb. green berries. "Kapha". 7. chest troubles etc. inserted on the top of. linear oblong.—Solanaceæ. :—Drier regions. Ceylon. branches armed with recurved prickles . Fr. Tuber—bitter. long. entire. consumption. Deccan. See—Fruit Trees. K. favours constipation (Yunani). . ovate. LOC. anthelmintic. H. Cape of Good Hope. anthritis.5 m. :—A robust woody climber. COM. swollen above the seeds. main rachis armed with prickles.—pod. :—A branched erect undershrub.—petals 5. (not common. PROPERTIES AND LOC. lumbago.. NS. 0. L. Asoda. Kanara.5-12. Gujarat. somewhat scurfy.—yellow. marasmus of children. 23-30 cm. pinnae 4-6 pairs. Kamrupini.. Hirimaddina-gadde. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. alexipharmic. Mediterranean regions. inflammations. LOC. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . ghats near Mahabaleshwar. smooth. Fr.—2-pinnate. minutely hairy. hoary tomentose . C. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. diam.) DISTR. bronchitis. Vajini. Sk. 6 mm. :—Konkan jungles. inflammations. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests.-Jany. tonic. Kanchuki. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. psoriasis. PARTS USED. asthma.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Punir.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. HABITAT. Sd. Asan. :—In the drier regions of India . Winter-cherry.—5-10 X 2. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. seeds. high.— Sept.
COM.5 cm. Dhaw. Dudhi. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. alterative. tropical Africa. Sk.—mostly opposite. leprosy. simple. Indrajav. Dhawai. in 2-15 flowered cymes. Ornamental Plants. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. LOC. K.—capsule. LOC. Dec. Dhaiti. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). :—G. long. toxic. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. on trap in the Akrani. Vanhishikha.3-2. Kanara near the sea-coast. t. Kodamurki. :—Throughout India. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Phulsatti. lumbar pains. Ceylon. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Khirni. wedge-shaped. H. diuretic and deobstruent. 5-9X 1. 1 cm.-May.— numerous. Swetakutaj. common in the Konkan and N. Madagascar. velvety above. COM. Bela. :—Monsoon-forests. erysipelas. H. K. Kalikari. FAM. :—G. ovate-lanceolate. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. NS. blood diseases. Baluchistan. scarlet. rheumatism. useful in leucorrhoea. Sumatra.—numerous. See—Tans. alexiteric. Fl. Dhavani. L. M. . uterine sedative. USES. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. ulcers and painful swellings . Indrajav. and in derangement of liver . Tamrapushpi. leaf-infusion is given in fever. DISTR. dysentery. acrid. :—Bark and flowers. haemorrhoids. Japan. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. irregularly dehiscent. cooling. Fr. Sd. Br. emaciation of children. It is narcotic. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. China.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. used in thirst. :—Root is regarded as tonic. :—Pungent. Fl. Indrajav. NS. Sk. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Santha. Hayamaraka.—Lythraceæ. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Hale. Dhawadina.) FAM. M. Dyes. PROPERTIES AND USES.. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . debility from old age. branches long. Kalakuda.—Apocynaceæ. Hallunova. The plant contains an alkaloid. Java. Madhuindrayava. Madhavasini. Dhateki. Are. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Kuda. PARTS USED. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. nigro-punctate beneath. Dhavani. brown. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. anthelmintic . smooth. HABITAT.
long and broad. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H.Feb. antidysenterica (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. all over the State.—Compositæ. Dumundi.—many. tonic. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . alexiteric. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. PARTS USED. 3-lobed.. Sankeshwar. Khandesh at 1050 m. PROPERTIES AND USES. DISTR. improves appetite. Kambu-Vanamalini. t. Bur-Weed. FAM. long. barren heads many. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. anthelmintic. Itara.5 cm. fertile heads few. Gadrian. in W.. Sk. poisonous bites of insects. :—Bark and seeds. CHAR.achene. Fr. with 2 erect beaks. Ceylon. fattening.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes.-E. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. oblong ovoid. complexion. PROPERTIES AND USES. axillary. Dutundi. epilepsy. See—Timbers. biliousness. COM. Timor. tonic. G.—Jany. :— Throughout India. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. hairy on both sides.1-6. L. ovoid in fruit. at the top.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. rough with short hairs . fever. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. West-Peninsula. hard and tough. LOC. LOC. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. In S. salivation. 5-7. Clot-Cockle-bur. :—Annual herb . :—Cooling. memory. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . antipyretic. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. M. digestive. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). irregularly incisoserrate . Banokra. Madhya Pradesh. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). 1-3 cm. Shankhahuli. involucre of fertile head. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. DISTR. :—Rajastan. Aristha. . USES :—Root is bitter.. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. :—The whole plant. especially root and fruit. Fl. cures leucoderma. compressed . Sarpakshi. LOC. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. stout. laxative. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. NS. the bark is specially useful in piles. Fl. voice. stem short. H.
on poor soil and in rocky places. inflammations. it is also given in the form of infusion. FAM. Alla Adrak. pains. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. Ipanji. G. :—Rhizome. :—E. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. G. Gulmmula. Bor. M. vomiting. vomiting. H. "Kapha". K. H. aphrodisiac. Dridhabija. pains (Yunani). colic. Alen. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in elephantiasis. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. and dry situations. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Indian Cherry. Boyedi. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . Rhizome—pungent. NS. See—Condiments and Spices. Ajapriya. Shringavera. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Adrate. Badari. eructations. appetiser. K. Kuvali. alexiteric. Beri. HABITAT. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. COM. Anupama. tonic. LOC. PARTS USED. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. :—Rhizome-pungent. to prevent nausea and griping. Bor. Bordi. piles. expectorant. Alen. Bogari. :—E. Ardraka. good in piles. NS. DISTR. Bore. "Vata". removes pain due to cold. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. bronchitis. :—Cultivated. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. Egasi. Sk.. Chinese Date. dyspepsia. heating. asthma. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). gives lustre to eye. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. tongue and increases appetite. loss of appetite and piles. Koli. It is stimulant. Ada. flatulence. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). lumbago. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. stomachic. aphrodisiac. LOC. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. FAM.—Scitaminaceæ. anthelmintic. it cleans throat. carminative. Ber. head-ache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. Plum. Kandara. Ginger. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. rheumatism. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache.—Rhamnaceæ. Hasisunthi. stomachic. . carminative. Ber. M. Sk. useful in heart and throat diseases. laxative. COM.
burning sensation. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . good in liver complaints. cooling. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. Seed—astringent. Root and Bark tonic. tonic to heart and brain . good in consumption and blood-diseases. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Fruit—sweet and sour. aphrodisiac. biliousness. PARTS USED. Leaves—anthelmintic. Africa. causes cough. PROPERTIES AND USES. abundant in the Deccan. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. :—Root. Kanara. indigestible. cure asthma. removes biliousness. leaves. Bark—causes boils . head-ache. tonic. Fruit— cooling. Burma. bark. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . thirst. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). allays thirst (Yunani). laxative. LOC. Leaves form a plaster to boils. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. fruit. causes diarrhœa in large doses . reduce obesity. Fruits contains vitamin A. . Fruit Trees. See—Timbers. on the laterite near the coast in N. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. China. wounds and ulcers. Australia.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC.. Afghanistan. frequently planted as a fruit tree. Leaves antipyretic. Ceylon. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. :—Root-bitter. useful in fevers. DISTR. seeds. vomiting.
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