SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

erysipelas. Phena. Soap-pod tree. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. psoriasis. Fl. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. See—Timbers. cooling. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Chikakai.-6-10 . boils.8 cm. LOC. NS. mouth troubles. tonic..-Mar. It is given in diarrhœa. Dantadhavan.-July. Burma. Kath-bole. CHAR. L. gums. sore-throat and tooth-ache. 5-10 cm. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). M. Dyes.-t. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. :—Common in the Konkan and N. Kanara forests. inflammations. Kushthari. astringent to bowels. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils.—pod. Saptata. 7.—bipinnate. FAM. anti-pyretic. Khair. Sk. bronchitis. " Vata ". prurigo. throat diseases. Khadira. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). COM. :—Rajastan. . Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). Sikkim. yellow. LOC. urinary and vaginal discharges. Charmakusha. H. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. fleshy when green.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). anthelmintic. along the coasts of Konkan and N. linear-oblong. Yajnika.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. Deccan. given in elephantiasis. LOC. Manda-otte. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Sk. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Lalkhair. Sd. :—Common throughout the Stale . (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. M. antidysenteric. Vidula. Western Peninsula. aphrodisiac. Khandesh Akrani S. In ulceration of the gums. DISTR.—in fascicled globose heads. Dipta. Kanara (often on laterite). Ritha. Country and Gujarat. K. heaviness. piles. Kochi. relaxation of the uvula.5X2-2. :—Throughout India. G.5-12. hypertrophy of tonsils. leprosy. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. China. " Kapha ". wrinkled when dry . strengthens teeth. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. acrid.. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. DISTR. Shige. Tans. long. Fr. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). leucorrhoea. cures itching. Malay Islands. indigestion. ulcers. M. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . Saradruma. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. Shikekai. :—E. measles and other skindiseases. :—An extensive woody climber. Pegu. overlapping. Sige-balli or kai. Bhuriphena. Himalayas up to 1700 m.

6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. blood diseases. M. Kari jali. often cultivated. piles. LOC. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. Jali. In Philippines decoction. prurigo. digestible. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Sauna jali. NS. cures " Kapha. purgative. leucoderma. Gandhelo khair . alexiteric. Stinking acacia. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections.pungent. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. detergent. :—E. cardio-tonic. anthelmintic. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). expectorant and good emetic. anti-dysenteric. LOC. K. anthelmintic. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State .—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). HABITAT :—Moist situations. Pissibabul. . buboes. Arimeda. Sind. leaves and gum. not indigenous but naturalised.. H. Vilavati kikar. FAM. G. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. Internally they are aperient. erysipelas. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter. deobstruent. erysipelas. bronchitis. Gums and Resins. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. COM. Girimeda. See—Timbers. Gum—sweetish. ulcers. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Marudruma. inflammations. DISTR. stomatitis. Jheri baval. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. causes " Vata". anti-diarrhoeal. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. Sponge tree. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. Kankri. often planted . externally they are applied to leprous patches. tonic. caries of teeth. improves appetite. ascites. leucoderma. Gandhbabul. cooling. biliousness. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . Sk. eczema. cures stomatitis. Devababhul. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. Cassia flower. blood-diseases. itching.

A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. axillary spikes . :—Common in the Deccan and S. Var.—monœcious. Fr. DISTR. It is used in congestive headache.—utricle. Fl. scattered.—Amarantaceæ. Utranigida. 30-75 cm. K. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. elongate. females. many. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. t. Vanchhikanto. M. L. hispid. Apang. Kuppi. CHAR. about 50 cm. asthma. Merkati. softly hairy. Ceylon. rounded at base. LOC.—opposite. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. Latjira . 2.3 X 2. one-seeded. FAM. erect..—June-Sept. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms. Country. brown. Prickly chaff-flower. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. enclosed in perianth smooth. K. perianth 4-5 segments.57.— ovoid. Fl. Sk.5x2-4. Ksharamadhya. CHAR. erect herb. Fl. small. stem stiff. :—E.—Euphorbiaceæ. Philippines. The plant contains acalyphin.5 cm. :—An erect herb 0. NS. Fr. in lax. Arittamanjaria. branches terete or quadrangular striate. in elongate terminal spikes. COM. few. FAM. Chichra. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. minute. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. G. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. high. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. H. ascending. pale-brown. PROPERTIES AND LOC. L.8-6. Khokali. :—Annual. long in fruit. NS. M. COM.. brown.—truncate at apex. elliptic obovate. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Fl. :—G. Apamarga.5-4. branches long.—capsule.—Nov. Khokla. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Vasira. 3. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic.3-0. Sd. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. Khajoti.9 m. high. tropical Africa. :—Throughout India.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. Kantarika. Sd. t. Chirchira.5 cm. clustered near the summit of spike. crenate-serrate. M. . leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. pneumonia and rheumatism. LOC. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic.-Jany. H. Kharamanjiri. oblong-cylindric. Aghada . Uttrane . males. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn.—greenish white. Kuppi-gida. Sk. somewhat 3-nerved. Agheda-di. smooth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. angular. Chalmari.

useful in vomiting. COM. LOC. heating. PARTS USED :—Root. 5-10 cm. voice. G. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. anthelmintic. dysentery. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects.—Araceæ. Bitter. inflammations. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. Ugragandha. CHAR. epilepsy. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. heart diseases. flatulence. Fr. emetic. hysteria. stomachic. LOC. dysentery. H. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. America. "Vata". toothache. See—Sacred Plants. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Sk. good for mouth diseases. Sikkim. flowers and seeds. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. useful in dyspepsia. expectorant. Jatila. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. stomatitis. kidney troubles. Africa.. laxative.7-3. HABITAT :—Marshy places. Vacha. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). :—An aromatic herb . 0. skin eruption etc. useful in abdominal pains. top pyramidal. Australia. fevers. and is considered useful in dropsy. anthers yellow. improves appetite. leaves. alexiterie. Vekhand. rat-bite.8 X 1.—turbinate. piles. etc. Ceylon. Throughout Asia. thirst. delirium. obtuse. long. Europe and N. useful in general weakness. spadix. America. Baja . itching. L. NS. bronchitis.8 cm. Godavaj. sepals scarious. liver and chest pains. Gorbach . prismatic. Tropical Asia. FAM. boils. throat. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. loss of memory. carminative. Gandhilovaj. M. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. DISTR. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. dyspepsia. piles. laxative. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. bronchitis. long.. diuretic. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. green . abdominal pains. brain-tonic. blood diseases (Ayurveda). acute. LOC. improves appetite. carminative.9-1. margins wavy. Vekhand . emmenagogue . thickened in the middle. laxative. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. K. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. . :—Throughout India. slightly curved. ascites. Bach. creeping and branching. bright-green. :—E. pungent. leucoderma (Yunani). wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sweet flag . Bhutnashini. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. carminative. PARTS USED : —Root. spathe 15-75 cm.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. bitter. Baluchistan. inflammations. tumours.

Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. :—Grown in many places in India . LOC. FAM. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. Gorakhaamli. etc. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. fever. :—E. dysentery. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. DISTR. PARTS USED : —Root. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . Baobab. NS. COM. Panch-parnika. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Gopali. Gorakhchinch. bark. Tudgensu . Gorakamali. indigenous in tropical Africa. FAM. :—K. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Powder is very effective insecticide. leaf and fruit. useful in biliousness. N. It is a good remedy in asthma. Gorakshi.—Bombacaceæ. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . See—Timbers. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine.:—Konkan. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Pichli. fevers and other maladies. LOC. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. G. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. Kanara evergreen forests. Monkey-bread tree. African calabash. Goremlichora . anti-pyretic. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. Brahmamlika. Pisa. M. :—Western Peninsula. Haggodgimara. in children. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. K. DISTR. LOC. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. colic. Bukha.—Lauraceæ. COM. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. aerial parts yield a volatile oil.. Gujarat. NS. M. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Sk. Rukhdo . vomiting. H. HABITAT':—Cultivated.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). COM. pungent. COM. Tamraphala. alexiteric. Vamaka. wasting diseases. Uddanaka. Krishnashirisha. Ankola. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. DISTR. Asroli. Kalosadasado. FAM. S. :—Throughout the State. burning of body. Anedhera. Shirisha. Chinchola. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. Gudhapatra. :—E. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. . Malaya. Ankola. indigestible. it is said to stop after-pains. colic. M. acute fever. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. poisonous bites. " Vata "-pain. Ankota. dysentery. stem. Akoly. Piloshirish. Kalshish. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Kullumavu. blood diseases. inflammations. G. Sirsul. See—Timbers. Philippines. LOC. Sirisa. Tantia. NS. Ankoli.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. commonly planted along roadsides. blood diseases. aromatics or honey. Juice—emetic. lumbago (Yunani). Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. cures erysipelas. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. :—E. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Onkla. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. Ankoli. hydrophobia. Sage-leaved alangium.—Alangiaceæ. Sk. heating. rat-bite. :—Throughout India. useful in inflammations. Dodda-Hombage. Fruit—laxative. K. biliousness. H. cures " Kapha". :—Common throughout the State in dry places . LOC. Ankora. tonic.) FAM. Dridhakantaka. Karnapura. China. Root-bark poisonous. M. Ceylon. gleet.—Leguminosæ. Kalashirish. Root-bark— used in piles. G. leaves (rarely). lumbago. and fruit. (Mimosaceæ). Kathora. Garso. Ankol. expectorant. useful in worms. Shankiniphala. Shirish. Kaloshirish. Sk. Kanara. alterative. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. inflammations. often along banks of nalas in N. Shirish. K. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). fish-poison. Seeds—cooling. NS. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. aphrodisiac. Sirai. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). spermatorrhoea. LOO. anthelmintic. diarrhœa. Shyamala. H. carminative. Ankola. alexipharmic . Ankotha.

. epistaxis. relieves tooth-ache. FAM. bronchitis. piles. excessive perspiration. dropsy. body pains. spleen diseases. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Seeds—tonic to brain. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. Kanda.: —Throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root. maturant. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. deafness. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). useful in malaria. useful in vomiting. Bengal. and also in skin diseases . Bark and seeds are astringent. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils.—Liliaceæ. COM. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. weakness. good in rat-bite. LOC. syphilis. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. Ulageddi. It is an important garden crop. their smell useful in hemicrania. itching. boils. ear-ache. seeds. occasionally used in fever. bleeding piles. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). leucoderma. scabies. Seeds—fattening.:—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. Leaves—good in night blindness. strengthens gums and teeth. Rajapriya. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. eruptions and swellings. inflammations. cooling. Palandu. biliousness. Ceylon. anthelmintic. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). :—Native country probably Persia. which acts as a diuretic. enriches blood. asthma. emollient. tumours. LOC. Bark-bitter. Burma. blood diseases. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. Sk. Dungari. paralysis. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Onion. The plant contains vitamins A. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). B & C. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. Piyaz. skin-diseases. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. erysipelas. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. leaves. M. improves taste. stomachic. bark. volatile oil.. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. stimulant and expectorant. Bark— anthelmintic. cultivated everywhere..K. scabies. DISTR. ophthalmia. flowers. Oil is used in leprosy. See—Vegetables. cures "Vata". Rochaka. prescribed in ophthalmia. aphrodisiac. seeds. alexiteric. catarrh. See—Timbers. and chronic bronchitis . given in piles. vomiting. NS. Bulb—tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. LOC. H. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. piles. Flowers—aphrodisiac. G. used in leprosy. Root—astringent. tonic. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. appetiser. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. usually planted. etc. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. etc.

G. Kattali. NS. Kapila. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. Bellulli.—Liliaceæ. digestive. LOC. sciatica. ALŒ VERA Linn. Lashuna. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. epileptic fits. :—E. piles. low fevers. improves appetite. Lasan. fattening. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Kumari. LOC. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Kumari. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields.—Liliaceæ. FAM. body and joint pains. thins the blood (Yunani). alexipharmic. M. H. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. Sk. caries of teeth. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. COM. Kuvarpatha. G. clears voice. heating. troubles of spleen. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. Ghi-kumari. " Vata ". FAM. NS. lumbago. bronchitis. K. anthelmintic. H. M. . the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. leucoderma. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Country. In Cambodia. oleaginous . Lasan.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. inflammation. COM. :—E. thirst. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. Diuretic. In pulmonary phthisis. chronic fevers. useful in inflammations. Korkand. Lasun. carminative. K. Ugragandha. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. tumours. Korphad. hemiplegia. Kanya. asthma. leucoderma. voice. See—Vegetables. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. coughs and other debilitating conditions. thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Lahsan. PARTS USED :—Bulb. The plant contains vitamin C. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. aphrodisiac. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Rasonaka. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. It is an important garden crop. aphrodisiac. useful in diseases of eye and heart. Sk. paralysis. tonic. Lolisara. Garlic. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. good for lumbago. Indian aloe. Ikshurmallika. In cases of diphtheria. complexion. liver and lungs . M.

Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. somewhat divided. stem short thick. ophthalmia. Kanara. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. biliousness. West Indian Islands. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. alexiteric. :—A perennial herb . inflammations. cooling. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. isobarbaloin and emodin. H. Saptaparna. biliousness (Yunani). L. Hale. lanceolate. also cultivated. asthma. LOC. Saptachhada. It also acts as a mild purgative. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. bronchitis. Ceylon. used in fevers. planted in Indian gardens . LOC. scape longer than the leaves. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. gonorrhœa. Dita bark tree. fattening. and it is largely imported into India. purgative. NS. Chatian. milky juice. pale-green. PARTS USED :—Leaves. bark. C. margins spiny. ulcers (Ayurveda). K.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. wild along the coast. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. Kaduhale. :—Wild along the coast in S. Bitter . Sk. tropical Africa. alterative. perianth cylindric . ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Root. PARTS USED :— . also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. Satwin. Fl. piles. M. crowded. strangury. Kadusale.—sessile. E. tonic. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. Br.—Apocynaceæ. liver troubles. anthelmintic. emollient and demulcent. DISTR. Satwin. lumbago. methritis. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. :—Throughout India. Satian. useful in splean inflammation. aphrodisiac. useful in eye-diseases. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. pendulous. common in the rain-forests of N. used in form of paste in pleurisy.—in dense racemes . Mediterranean. FAM. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. Jamaica. leaves. Australia. Native of S. tonic. LOC. digestive. skin diseases. tumours. India. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. liver complaints. Java. pain in muscles. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. carminative. :—E. Africa. spleen enlargement. DISTR. scaly. The plant contains aloin. Barbados. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. purgative. COM. fleshy. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. jaundice. yellow. vomiting. simple or branched.

It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. Sk. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). obtuse. rat-bite. L. diseases of the blood. ulcers. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. H. ovoid. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. anthelmintic. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. obtuse. DISTR. rubbish heaps . Mullarave-soppu. lanceolate. blood diseases. bristles pointed. heating. LOC.. appetiser. often reddish. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. unisexual. Kantanu-dant.— capsule. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. Kante math.—Amarantaceæ. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. rugose. alexiteric. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. M. LOC. Kantalo dambho. 30-60 cm. Prickly amaranth. bronchitis. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. See—Vegetables.8 cm. " tridosha " pain. antipyretic. Fr. Ceylon. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). biliousness. male calyx acute.5 X 1. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. female calyx oblong.2—7. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. . hallucination. boils and burns. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Tandulaja. also useful in catarrhal fever. rubbish heaps and fields. bitter. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. burning sensation. entire. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. leucorrhoea. good in diseases of the heart. Kantanatia. Cholai. Fl. FAM. :—An erect glabrous herb. laxative. Apamarisha. See—Timbers. tropical countries. NS. Tandulibija.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. leprosy. COM.— 3. antiperiodic and febrifuge. leucoderma. Drug Com. stomachic. also in fields. thickened at the top. high. asthma. K.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain. digestible. long. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. laxative. oleaginous. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . CHAR. numerous. piles. Bark—acrid. useful in " Kapha ". LOC.3—3. :—E. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Pathyashaka. :—Throughout India. Root—heating expectorant. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. Mulladantu. ovate. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. galactogogue. sudorific and febrifuge.). tumours. Tandulja. diuretic. apiculate. HABITAT :—In waste places. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. G.

Vatari. FAM. :—Throughout India in moist places." blood troubles.—opposite. appetiser. 8-65 cm. globose. Fl. used as an appetiser (Yunani). when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. Kandala. H. LOC. red. Jalavgiyo. much narrowed at the base. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils.—capsule. asthma. CHAR. Sukaranda. FAM. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. LOC. Jangli mehandi. :—Cultivated widely in the State. Malaya. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Australia. Ceylon. harmful in "Kapha". Kurendika. :—E. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. Blistering ammania. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. laxative. NS. Kanthalla. " Vata. NS. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. G. Grows wild on the banks of S. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Arshaghna. Sk. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Gujarat and Kanara. high. DISTR. :—An annual. Sd. Fr. bronchitis. tumours.—Araceæ. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. L. M. branches usually opposite. fevers etc. Sk. Bharajambhul. Tropical Africa. blood diseases. acrid. depressed. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). Deccan. Elephant's foot. vomiting. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. COM. erect or subscandent herb. corm. Fl. the plant. COM. Suran. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent.:— Konkan. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Suran.—Lythraceæ. stomachic. sessile. . M. Kuranda. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. constipating. Afghanistan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Dadmari. elephantiasis . AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. PARTS USED :—Root. t. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. China. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter .—Nov. H. Kandavardhan. Konkan rivers. fresh or dried. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Vikata. useful in piles. stomachic. strangury .MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. increases appetite and taste. causes itching sensation. abdominal pains. Suran. Bitter and acrid . Kuranti. pungent. Suran . It is also used as an emmenagogue. enlargement of the spleen. G. In the Konkan. K. LOC. removes " Kapha ".

Sophara. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. 5-nerved. LOC. and trace of C. . digestible. Corm is poisonous. Upapushpika. Kakamari. The plant contains Vitamins A. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. :—E. equal to almond oil. Kakamari.—Anacardiaceæ. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. Sk.5 cm. sweet. Gerubi. The seed contains vitamin A. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. COM. also cultivated. See—Vegetables. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). cures "Vata" and " Kapha". tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . bark vertically furrowed . Kakamari. :—E. COM. tumours. B. Kaju. which is nutritious and emollient. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. Kajutaka. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy.— subcoriaceous. Govamba. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. cordate or truncate. Kempu— Turkaka geru . broadly ovate. corns and obstinate ulcers. piles. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Kakaphal.—Menispermaceæ. dysentery. H. PARTS USED :—Bark.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. DISTR. FAM. Kakamari. L. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. Kakanashika. hot. Fish-Louse Berry. Oils. aphrodisiac. skin diseases. USES :—Bark is alterative. Crow-Fish Killer. Sk. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. M. See—Timbers. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. Prithagbija.5-12. Kaju. Kakkisoppugida . Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. fever. It is supposed to have restorative power. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. leucoderma. Gova.—in panicles 25-35 cm. G. Cashew apple-nut. flowers. swollen peduncle of fruit. & A. M. ascites. :—A native of tropical America. . K. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. LOC. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. Kaju . long. Fl. many flowered. NS. Kanara. 10-12 X 7. CHAR. ringworm. NS. Agni-krita. FAM. H. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. Jermic. Garalaphala. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. leaves. ulcers.. K. Kakamari. G.

M. Ananas . Nelabevu gida.-Oct. Kantak sanjika. Parvati. Bengal.) LOC. Ananas . FAM. diaphoretic and refrigerant. petals absent. It acts also as diuretic. Ananasa. Fl. :—E. causes cough and biliousness. native of Brazil (tropical America). Assam. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). :—Khasia Hills. removes gases from the intestines . PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). DISTR. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. PARTS USED :—Roots. E.—Acanthaceæ. FAM. LOC. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. from Orissa to Ceylon. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. a poison to fish (Yunani). See—Fruit Trees. leaves and fruits. Olen kirayat. DISTR. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. it is useful in jaundice. fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . LOC. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. :—E. Ananas. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. K. Kiriyata.—Sept. to a certain extent in Gujarat. N. LOC. H. black . Creat. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. Olikiriyat. Mahatit.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. smooth. Ananas. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. dioecious. Ananas hannu. Sk. Kirata. G. Kanara. K. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. good expectorant. :—Konkan. Bhuinimba. Pine-apple . The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. NS. also acts as a purgative. COM. Ama. COM. M. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. H. . Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). cultivated. Kiryat. t. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees.—Bromeliaceæ. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. Mahateet. G.

and certain forms of dyspepsia. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. alterative.—lanceolate. G. white below.-Nov. Karnatak. PROPERTIES AND LOC. smooth. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. .—nutlets. Sk. L. solitary. L. Ceylon. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Green leaves. CHAR. dysentery. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. Sundara. HABITAT.-Oct. acute. 6. 1. pale beneath.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.9 m. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. NS. Fl. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children.2-1. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. made into an electuary. Oshthaphala.5 cm. M. rose coloured. tonic. Fl.8 m.3-0. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. K. :—S. and anthelmintic. high. Fl. :—E. Gojivana. Roots and leaves are febrifuge. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. COM. :—Deccan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic.—in dense whorls . distant. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. thickly woolly. lower lip very large and broad . pale above.—Labiatæ. forming a spicate inflorescence. high. oblong-lanceolate. t. Alamoda. LOC. t. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. approximate above.. clothed with woolly hairs . stomachic. crenate-serrate. :—Throughout India. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. Kanara. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. sometimes cultivated. C—2-lipped. :—An erect shrub. Karitumbe. ellipsoid. undulate. LOC. FAM. stem quadrangular. polished brown. very small. Br. :—Konkan and Kanara.— capsule. bracts lanceolate. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Sundraphul. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. Fr. lateral lobes small. lower 3lobed.—Dec. yellowish brown. acute at both ends . catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. Malabar Catmint. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. distant. Malay Peninsula. Vaikunth. Sd. linear-oblong. C—2-lipped.3-10 X 2-4. and N. purple. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Plant is useful in general debility. DISTR. dyspepsia and fever from teething. upper lip 2-toothed. extensively used in Bengal. Chodhara. Fr.—Ghats.—many. rugosely pitted.—small. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels.—very thick. DISTR. Fl. :—An erect branched annual 0.

FAM. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Dhava. COM. abortifacient. cooling. DISTR. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. :—A native of West Indies .—Combretaceæ. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. leaves. (Yunani). good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Dindiga. Sweet-sop. Sitaphal. H. produce ulcers in the eye. Dohu. bark. sedative to heart. Ata. G.—Anonaceæ. H. Dhamora. Sk. causes fever and furunculosis . useful in anaemia. :—Throughout the greater part of India. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). Shushkanga. Bahubijika. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. good tonic. tasty. Bejjalu. G. astringent to the bowels. NS. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Root—cathartic. leaves and fruits. Sitaphala. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Fruit—sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. applied to skin-diseases. Sk. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. :—E. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Dhavada. K. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". NS. increases muscular strength. and eyesores. Durangi. Seeds—difficult to digest. Anuram. :—E. bark. Dabria. discharges. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. Sharipha. LOC. flavoury. Dindala. Button Tree. enriches blood . cooling . Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. improves taste and appetite . LOC. Bark is a powerful astringent. Bark is bitter. Dhavada. DISTR. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). now cultivated throughout India. Bakla. COM. M. FAM. Sitaphala. K. LOC. Kanara border. M. chronic diarrhœa. Dhava. PARTS USED :—Root. expectorant. stimulant. fruit and seeds. Dhavala. See—Timbers. Damora. Anan. Amritphala. domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. Sitaphala. enriches blood. increases biliousness . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. useful in liver complaints. Custard apple. Krishnabija. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . erysipelas. Dyes. PARTS USED :—Root. Sugar apple. Sitaphala. Pitaphala. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. Ceylon. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . LOC.

from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Ajjanpatte. stomachic. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. LOC. Niv. " Kapha". Kadamb. biliousness. PARTS USED:—Bark. :—G. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. :—W. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Jajpugri. DISTR. NS. Seeds yield an oil and resin. PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. Nadija. Upas Tree. Kadamb . ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Kadam. Burma. Chandala. It is generally considered tonic. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). alexiteric. :—E. In eye inflammations. Tennaserim. Kadubale. LOC. COM. Karnapuraka. bitter. sap of the tree. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. Kadamb . Malayan Peninsula. M. saline. Kadamba. Fruit—heating. Fodder Plants. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. sweet. aphrodisiac. " Vata". Sacred Plants. Ashokari. Kadamb. Malay Islands. indigestible. Chandkuda. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. Surabhi. K. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Sk. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Nipa. Chandkuda. good in uterine complaints. H. :—Throughout India. See—Timbers. blood diseases. Pegu. LOC. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. sprouts and fruits. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. COM NS. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. common near Yellapur. DISTR. vulnerary. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. Kaduve. See—Fruit Trees. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. FAM. FAM. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . astringent to bowels. is a good hairwash. cooling. Sk. They are detergent and their powder. K. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery.—Moraceæ. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. Valkala. burning sensation. M. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. wild or cultivated. USES:—In the Konkan. Peninsula. . galactagogue. Bairi. Kanara . mixed with gram-flour. acrid. strangury. causes biliousness when ripe.—Rubiaceæ. often cultivated. Sprouts—acrid.

Moda. Markati. Ajmud. Fr. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. :—E. Wild celery. Ground-Pea-nut. COM. used in anasarca and colic. Bhuimug-chana. Shimbika. LOC. cure asthma.— in umbels. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Nelkadle.— radial. Ajmoda . Mungphali. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. Asia. M. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. L. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. vomiting. Bori ajmud. laxative. The plant contains vitamins A. Sk. amenorrhœa. See—Timbers. inflammations. NS. 0. branching.5-2 mm. Sk. . FAM. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. Bodi ajomoda. H. pedicels 6-16 . Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. bronchitis. Africa. rectal troubles. :—A biennial plant.—Umbelliferæ. LOC. rheumatism. Ugragandha. Afghanistan. Fl. W. useful in ophthalmia. Abyssinia. See—Vegetables. " Vata " . and γ-antiarin. improve appetite . scorpion and other stings. β-antiarin. Monkey-nut. Europe. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. Ajamoda. scabies. heart and spleen diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). W. COM NS. erect. H.3-2. vomiting. ridges narrow.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. Seeds—carminative. cure " Kapha ". G. Fibres. Brahmakoshi.:—Foot of the N. Snehabijaka. Chinimung. cauline 3-partite. abdominal pain. M. chest-pains. Bhuchanak. DISTR. tooth-ache. Glucoside apiin is present. G. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. N. :—E. aphrodisiac. K. appetiser. tonic. vittae broad. Bhuimug. good for heart. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Mandapi. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. specially near large cities. segments once or twice trifid. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. good in ophthalmia.—1. Java and Malaya. rays 5-10. Karafs. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. abortifacient. Celery. high. Bhuimug. astringent to bowels . apex toothed . nasal catarrh (Yunani).4 m. anthelmintic. fever with cough. traces of B and C. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. ascites.. hiccup. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. CHAR. urinary discharges.

fairly largely in the Konkan. COM. cooling.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Pugiphal. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Gum pungent. NS. LOC. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. Kaungu. gleet. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Malabar. Areca palm. M. G. DISTR. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Suppiyari. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. K. improves appetite and taste. Burma. useful in urinary disorders. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. See—Food Plants. removes pus (Yunani). :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. Bengal. emmenagogue. diuretic. Supari. indigestible. used for eye-inflammations. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Pophal. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Siam.—Palmæ. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. laxative. giddiness. Chikka. Sk. FAM. Chikkan. In French Guinea. Seed cooling. removes foul breath.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. cardiotonic. Chhataphala. . Oils. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. seeds. bleeding gums. aphrodisiac. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Hopari. M. Areca-nut palm. Deccan. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Akota. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. DISTR. Betta. Kanara. Supari. Poga. H. Betel-nut palm. PARTS USED :—Root. Gujarat and S. Mysore. LOC. Country.:—Extensively grown in N. Tantusara. gum. :—E. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Adki. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. leaves (rarely). Nut astringent. Assam. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. USES. Indo-Malaya. LOC. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. digestive. :—Madras. Sopari. LOC.

ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. Pirangi datturi. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Indigenous in tropical America. stem clasping. purgative. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. spinous. Juice—used as a collyrium. Balurakkisa. Seeds—purgative. . NS.3-0. Shialkanta. yellow. 7. and in pertussis and asthma. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. arecoline. FAM. M. Bharbhand. relieves blisters. Mexican prickly poppy . Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. This is said to bring the worm out at once.—thistlelike. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap.—Papaveraceæ. Brahma dandi. Svarnakshiri. prickly. jaundice and cutaneous affections. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic.—capsule. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. nauseant.). CHAR. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. See—Timbers. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient.— terminal. Plant enriches blood. Srigalkanta. arecaidine. Fr. oblong-ovoid 2. L. high. destroys worms . It is also diuretic. and guvacine. Fl. :—A glabrous. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. various skin-diseases.5-3. emetic. USES :—Root is an alterative.12 m. LOC. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. Fl. prickly.5-18 cm. DISTR. Darudi. expectorant and demulcent. opening by 4-6 valves. stem 0. H. Sk. COM. globose.—numerous. branching. Bila dhatura. useful is strangury. cures leprosy. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. G. sedative. diam. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). Daruri. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. 2. India. Datturi. juice yellow. Ind.—all the year. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. antidote to various poisons. :—E. Sd. Seeds are laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. Pita-pushpa. oblong. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. LOC. veins white. Root anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. netted. brownish black. seeds and yellow juice. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. K. sinuately pinnatifid. glaucous herb . Fruit Trees.5-5 cm. t. inflammations and bilious fevers. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani).8 cm.

H. K. base cordate with wide sinus .3 cm. Bracteated Birth-wort. Ganda. ovate glabrous above. COM. :—E. absorptive. Samardar sokh. FAM. Samudrashok.—solitary. Hastivalli. powdered root is given with milk. Country. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. Konkan.3-25 cm. long. tubular.—deltoid with cordate base . Sk. NS. L. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. stems stout. Fl. Kiramar. Kitamari. anthelmintic. tip linear dark purple. LOC. white-tomentose beneath.-Nov. diuretic . In synovitis. Fr.— Aug. G. long. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases.-Sept. glabrous inside. 12-ribbed . Fl. Vridhadaraka. useful in " Vata".5 cm. Gandali. Fr. reniform or broadly ovate. Leaves are maturative. Soge.8-7. Varghoro. tube inflated. t. Ajantri.5-30 x 6. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. base cordate.5-4. strangury. Fl. Arabia. :—Bengal. (sometimes even larger). chronic ulcers (Yunani). white-tomentose L. Deccan and S. HABITAT. NS. . COM.— 7. infundibuliform. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. t. long and as broad as long. pedicel with a large bract at the base. :—Throughout India. M. weak. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. white-tomentose. :—E. K.. Dridhadaru. Samudrapatrashoh. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. :—A very large climber. 1. G. Kidamar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. Shyambhuna. striate.—capsule. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. Sk. FAM.— 3. C—5-6. LOC. Gujarat and S. M.—Convolvulaceæ. peduncles stout. H. DISTR. pubescent outside. :—A slender perennial.—Aristolochiaceæ. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. used in gleet.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. Samandarka phal. tropical Africa.— globose apiculate. Krimighni. CHAR. perhaps a native of Bengal. Elephant Creeper. perianth 2.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. with revolute margins. LOC. Fl. " Kapha" fevers. Country. oblongellipsoid. W. painful joints.3-2 cm. cultivated. Dhuma-patra. Adumuttadagida. stems. long. Samudraballi.—in sub-capitate cymes. gonorrhœa. prostrate. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. base subglobose. Samudrashosh. DISTR. bracts large . rose purple.:—Konkan. M. CHAR. Java.—Aug. Kitakaba. Peninsula. Sd. the bands silky pubescent outside. Kidamari. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda).5 cm.

L.. FAM. DISTR. K. Majtari. PARTS USED :—Roots. Mastaru.—in few flowered axillary racemes. Dovana. purgative (Yunani). LOC.:—Konkan and S. LOC. reaching 4. emmenagogue. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Ruhimula. The plant contains an alkaloid. Ishvari. leaves and seeds. Country.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC.) FAM. 6-valved.5 cm. Sk. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Dona. Dhor-davana. :—E. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp.5 cm.. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. . grooved.—flat. biliousness. obovate oblong 10-12. slender. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. tonic. Indian Birth-wort. NS. Seeds useful in inflammation. — capsule.3-2. Plant is used as an abortifacient. :—A twining shrub. Isharmula. also useful in dropsy. :—Western Peninsula. Manjipatri. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. Nagdamani. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. Nagduna.—Compositæ. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. M.—variable linear oblong. winged. base vaiable. woody at the base. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. COM. Nilpushpa. Sd. G. long with globose inflated base. bract opposite the pedicel. Sk. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). M. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. CHAR. perianth greenishwhite. Stem long. Flea-bane. H. M. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. Isvara balli beru . In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children.—Nov. Mother or Mugwort. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Nakuli.8-10 X 1. COM. The plant contains an alkaloid. dry cough. Fl. Bengal.5 cm. Fl. joint-pains. useful in " Tridosha. Ceylon.5x7. :—E. Indian wormwood. entire with undulate margins. 3. Sapsan. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. K. Sugandha. Arkamula. t. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Arkamula. Nepal. NS." pains in the joints.—Aristolochiaceæ. Gathona. Saraparni. alexiteric. dyspnoea of children. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections. Fr. bitter. globose-oblong.

—Jany. FAM. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. Kanthal. oblong ellipsoid. diuretic. 3-fid or entire. petioled. itching (Ayurveda). upper leaves smaller. inner hermaphrodite. aphrodisiac. Kujja. COM. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Java. DISTR.—Urticaceæ. enriches blood. PARTS USED :—Leaves. base lobed. Ghats. grown in gardens also. Seeds sweet. cures "Kapha". The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. ovate. constipating (Ayurveda). Kantakaphala.:—A perennial shrub. high. hairy.10x2. Fr.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall.4 m. Vanas. fattening. ulcers. " Kapha".—heads ovoid or subglobose. ripe fruit laxative. appetiser. LOC. 0. LOC. tonic. Halasina. Chakki. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W.6-2. asthma and brain diseases. but rather difficult to digest. oleaginous. Jack-fruit tree. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. Thailand (Siam). Phanasa. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. Fl. alexiteric. minute. . Panas. aromatic. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. The plant contains an essential oil. :—Widely cultivated. NS. See—Timbers. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. stems leafy. DISTR. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. tonic. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Kanara. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. useful in biliousness. deeply pinnatisect. Fruit Trees and Dyes. L— lower leaves 5. asthma. Fl. LOC.-Hilly districts. fertile. aphrodisiac. although very nutritious. G. fruit and seeds. HABITAT. aphrodisiac. :—Throughout hilly districts of India. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. t. Skandaphala. M. Phanas. pubescent above. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. cooling. LOC. Externally it is used in fomentations. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. Tage. toothed or again pinnatisect. solitary or 2. involucral bracts villous.— achene. leprosy. K. Jack-Orange wood. " Vata". 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. Panos. lobes entire. The unripe fruit is astringent. H. temperate Asia. outer flowers female. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. often planted along roadsides in N. "Vata". An infusion is given as a tonic. :—E. Sk. lanceolate. Panesa. Ceylon. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani).5-5 em. white tomentose beneath. :—Konkan.

CHAR. JAVANICA Baker. PARTS USED:—Root. Sd. NS. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic.9-1. indigestible. tonic. Sk. LOC. galactogogue. root-stock tuberous. high. spines recurved. t. COM. Satavari. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. :—An erect undershrub.5 cm. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . tumours. A fibre is extracted from the plants. thin. lanceolate.2 m. and moist monsoon forests.—opposite 7. astringent to bowels. LOC. Shatavari. PARTS USED:—Root. with coma.—Asclepiadaceæ. M. appetiser. tapering at both ends. curved. biliousness.000 m. linear.—Liliaceæ. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. :—Deccan. Svetmuli. Indies. t. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd.. 7. S. oblong. spinous. aphrodisiac. leaves and flowers. narrowed at both ends. globose. :—Introduced from the W. FAM. Fl. thorn. naturalised in many parts of India. from Kashmir eastwards. in the Himalayas. Svadurasa. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds.3-2. DISTR. Satavari. Siprimuli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. erect. valvate in bud. cultivated as ornamental plant. Java and Australia. C. :—Extremely scandent. long. K.—orange in axillary umbels. Fl. stomachic. Fl. cooling. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon.—in simple raceme. Fr.—berry. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. cladodes in tufts. NS. M. straight.-Dec.5-5 cm.—linear with a stout spinous spur. Satavari. Kuraki. white. useful in dysentery. M. Country. alterative. 2. Var. COM. Tropical Africa.5 cm. undershrub. DISTR. common in the Deccan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn.— follicles. 0. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—June-Sept. H. CHAR. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM. Fl. blood and eye diseases. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. :—G. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. Kaktundi. Asual Shatavari. L. abundant round about Poona. red when ripe. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin.—lobes reflexed in flower. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. solitary. oleaginous. . USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. segments. Satamulika. :—E.ovoid.5-10 X 1. Flower is a good styptic. dark brown. L. fragrant. throat complaints. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha.-Feb. inflammation. up to 1.

diuretic. 4 inner small. Leaves good for cough. ascites. LOC. widely 2-lipped. COM.:—Common throughout the State. (Yunani. 3. aphrodisiac. Ikshura.—June-Jany. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. Talamkhan. expectorant. Africa. leprosy. galactogogue. Narayana Taila. aphrodisiac. high.—sessile. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. pointed. hispid with long hairs. K. useful in diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. aphrodisiac. M. Fl. Talamkhana. Seeds fattening. Kolavalike. and alterative tonic. bracts.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . dysentery. thirst. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. upper 2-fid. Konkan and Deccan. Used in diarrhœa. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. lips sub-equal. DISTR. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. The root is sweet. Vishnu Taila.6-1. Phalaghrita. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine.) FAM. And. stems fasciculate. demulcent. :—G. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita.. ciliate . leaves and seeds. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. Ekharo. 0. L. long. eyediseases. Kak-Kokilaksha. constipation. gleet. Prameha-Mihira-Taila.—capsule. USES :—The root is refrigerant. 2 outer large. hairy. LOC. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. inflammations. aphrodisiac . tube. Fl. Gokshura. Fr.2 cm. H. scalding of urine. Talim-khana. . tonic. tonic. gonorrhoea. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. anæmia. night-blindness (Ayurveda). lanceolate. C. Shrigalghant. useful in jaundice and anasarca. antispasmodic. like leaves. tropical and S. lower deeply 3-lobed. erect. subquadrangular. :—A stout herb. tonic. PARTS USED :—Root.— Acanthaceæ. t. USES. colic.8 cm.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. NS. anuria.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. HABITAT:—Swampy places. improve blood (Yunani). abdominal troubles. biliousness. Seeds cooling. CHAR. 4-8 seeded. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. Vikhara. Kalavankabija. Ceylon.5 cm. tonic. and dysentery. urinary calculi and discharges. hypnotic.— purple blue. :—Throughout India. Gokhran. Sk. laxative. abruptly swollen at the top. sedative to gravid uterus . useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). Gokhalkanta. Vajrakantaka. thickened at the nodes. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. linear oblong.) LOC. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. aphrodisiac . 18 X 3-3.

—Scrophulariaceæ. inflammations. Root is given in cases of poisoning. also used in diarrhœa. anæmia. axillary. Coromandel gooseberry. capsule. Sk. "Vata". Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation.:—E. COM. See—Fruit Trees. solitary. Fl. Karmal. Darehuli. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. Kamarakha. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. Kamarakh. found wild near N. Mudgara. Karuka. Brahmi. sessile. :—E. Brahmi. Fruit sour. Jalneam. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC.5-10 mm. pale blue or white. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Karmare . LOC. CHAR. allays thirst. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. M. heating. Jany-May. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. creeping herb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. perhaps a native of Malaya. astringent to bowels . Fr. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . fruits. indigestion. FAM. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. Soumyalata. K. Bama. decussate. H. :—A glabrous. branches many ascending. K. Ceylon and all warm countries. useful in bad ulcers.:—Konkan and Deccan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Barambhi. H. COM. laxative. digestible. oblong.. . heats the body (Ayurveda).) FAM.—Oxalidaceæ. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). Nirbrahmi. rarely wild. Kamaranga. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. NS. astringent to bowels. Kirihuli. Kamrang. Tamarak. Carambola apple. Sk. striate. 2-lipped. stems rooting at the nodes. pale.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. obovate-oblong or spatulate. HABITAT :—Damp places. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. causes biliousness (Yunani). tonic. Karmar. fleshy. black dotted : entire. leprosy. M. emetic. C. t. Manduki. acute. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. Safed-Kammi. DISTR. tumours. DISTR. with shining dots. pungent. Shiral. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. 6-25 X 2. Fruits are used in pickles. ovoid. L. G. Thyme-leaved graticula . Kanara villages. sour. Brahmi. lobes equal spangled. dried fruit is given in fevers. Sd. when fresh. succulent. Fl. NS.:—Throughout India in wet places. ascites. enlargement of spleen. LOC. causes biliousness.

G. Guggula.—Burseraceæ. often palmately 3-5 lobed.9-1. M. sinuate. in monsoon forests of N. NS. Seeds are poisonous. wounds. piles. Dantimul. diuretic. :—G.8 m. abundant on the hills of Karanja. Mukul. M. useful in pains. mottled. Root and leaves are cathartic. leucoderma. Chota Nagpur. capsule. Guggul. yellowish. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. purgative. FAM. high. Fr. useful in insanity. Assam. Danti. Vishodhini. Danti. anasarca and jaundice.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. :—A stout undershrub. aphrodisiac . Kaduharalu. Rechani. obovoid. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. Burma. toothed. Jamalgota. hairy. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. the lower large. leaves and seeds. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. good in scabies. all male or with a few females below. DISTR. epilepsy and hoarseness. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. Leaf-juice. Guggula. the upper small. Sd.. leucoderma. of three 2-valved cocci. syphilis . Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. LOC. FAM. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. is used as a local application in rheumatism. LOC. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. L. Peninsula. H. Malaya. t. smooth. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. Gum gugul. 2-glandular. Sk. alexiteric. itching. anthelmintic. Gugul. Danti. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. :—E. Jatala. . PARTS USED :—Root. or in monsoon forests. branching from the roots. N. They are used in dropsy. anaemia. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Fl. NS. 0. LOC. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. Bengal. purifies blood. COM. Danti. Devdhup. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. epilepsy and hoarseness. CHAR. Fl. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. :—Bihar. Hakum. Kanara. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Dec. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. enlarged spleen. Guggula. diseases of skin and abdomen. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. :—Dry open Deccan plains. ellipsoid. K. W. Dantika. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. jaundice (Ayurveda). K. H. inflammations.—Euphorbiaceæ. Uddipta. COM. conjoined with petroleum.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

DISTR.10-15. LOC. enriches blood. urinary discharges and calculi. G. flat. DISTR. aphrodisiac. LOC. Kondha. There are two varieties. Buds—indigestible. used as gargle in stomatitis. cures strangury. 15-20 X 1. NS. :—Cultivated throughout the State. used in dry cough. vaginal discharges. Fl. Dorokaru. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. Burma. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. used in strangury. M. Timisha. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. " Tridosha". blood diseases. burning sensation. anthelmintic. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. Seeds— cooling. Kushmanda. Fruit—antiperiodic. PARTS USED :—Fruit. given' to corpulent persons. asthma. leprosy. it is also anti-fat remedy. USES :—Root-decoction is given. Ash pumpkin. . asthma. oil from the seeds. Tallow-White gourd.—pod. not indigenous. red and white. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. in dyspepsia and flatulence. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries.—Cucurbitaceæ. FAM. tuberculous glands. fever. cardiac and general tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. diuretic. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). cures biliousness. Root. dysmenorrhoea. anal troubles. "Kapha". thirst.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. PARTS USED :—Root. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. wounds and ulcers. tuberculous glands. Golkaddu. China. Karkutika.-Feb. Kohala. eye diseases. Bark—astringent to bowels. biliousness. blood diseases .8-2. urethral discharges. astringent. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. cough. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. ulcers. seeds. used in piles. Shikhivardhaka. leprosy. bark and flowers. Sk. See—Ornamental Plants. K. :—E.-Apl. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). H. Fr. Budekumbalkai. dehiscent. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. heart tonic (Ayurveda). Bhuru-koholu. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Sikkim. menorrhagia. tonic. removes foul taste from mouth. Kudimah. t. thirst. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. appetising. COM. LOC. blood impurities. Kumaon. tonic to liver. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. aphrodisiac. cures biliousness. Koholu. tonic. leucoderma. biliousness. cough.

phthisis. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. Bhamurdi. M. with a strong odour of turpentine. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. H. M. it is also useful in insanity. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. pungent. haemoptysis. FAM. Kakaronda. sharply serrate-dentate. LOC. China. Ceylon. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. NS. Tamrachuda. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. Kalhar. :—Throughout plains of India. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial.—Compositæ. Kakarunda. and diuretic. heart diseases. bitter. Fruit is made into confections.-achene. mixed with black pepper. Pilokapurio. densely glandular. not ribbed. sweetish. oblong.3—0. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. t. Fl. LOC.—Jany. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). fevers. Jangali-muli. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Fl. base tapered. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. astringent. elliptic-oblong. S. often incised or lyrate. Kanara. Kukurbanda. good in syphilis (Yunani). Mriduchhada. Tropical Africa. inner bracts with green midrib. Deccan. LOC. blood diseases. DISTR. and nutritious tonic. Malaya. high. Sk. ash colored. Australia. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. asthma. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. burning sensation. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. Country. BLUMEA LACERA DC.—heads many. See—Vegetables. :—G. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. it is given in bleeding piles. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. laxative. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. finely silky pubescent on both sides. febrifuge. cures bronchitis. Oil—is soporific. CHAR. thirst. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. pubescent.9 m. pappus white. anti-pyretic. Fr. Kukkurdru. . :—Annual herb. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. L. catarrh. etc. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. cooling.—the lower ones petioled. stem erect.-Apl. 0. good for the brain and liver. COM.:—In plains south of Bombay. Konkan. upper subsessile.

(Ayurveda). Dholia-saturdo. LOC. "Vata". INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. Africa and America. M. Brab tree.—Palmæ. useful in ophthalmia. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. PARTS USED :—Root.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. spleen enlargement. Ceylon. Indian Archipelago. COM. NS. 1. Desert Palm. Varshabhu. Moto-satodo. Tad. alterative. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Punarnava. pinkish.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. :—A diffuse herb. common in S. Hogweed. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. abdominal pains. DISTR. Persian Gulf. Burma. Celyon. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). green above. alexiteric. G. Fl. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . Leaves— appetiser. Dhvajadruma. bluntly 5-ribbed. very small. whitish beneath. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial.. FAM. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. :—Tropical India. Raktakanda. Talimara. K. astringent to bowels . It is used in jaundice. Fl.3—2 cm. Tad. Seeds—tonic. CHAR. India. Palmyra Palm. FAM. Sk. "Kapha" heating. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. Kommegida. Madhurasa. sub-orbicular. Tala. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. Kolaba and Thana districts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). useful in biliousness. Fr. useful in lumbago.—in corymbose umbels. native of tropical Africa. Bitter. cultivated. tumours. NS. Vasu. inflammations. stem prostrate or ascending. LOC. asthma. —Nyctaginaceæ. expectorant. leucorrhoea. K. H. Ghetuli. anæmia. .:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. margins undulate.—in unequal pairs at each node. cultivated and self-sown. HABITAT :—A weed.— Nov. G. root large. Sk. gonorrhœa. Plant contains large quantities of pot. scabies. LOC. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. :—E. Lekhyapatra. Tad. H. generally found in poorer soils. blood impurities. Asavardu. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. Baluchistan.—clavate. COM. P. M. fusiform. very glandular . Uttar Pradesh. L. heart diseases. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. It produces a very marked and persistent. carminative. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. cooling . :—E. leaves and seeds. t. in pain of joints. DISTR. Fan Palm. and dropsy. Shothaghni. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Santhikari.

biliousness. fruits. dry. Dhupam. FAM. expectorant. PARTS USED :—Bark. Sugars. Liquors. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). thirst and scalding of urine. fevers. DISTR. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. Fruit—cooling. strengthens teeth. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Kundur. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. invigorating. leaves. Bark-decoction. flowers. Dup. alexiteric. NS. Guggali. Sambrani. Salpe. Indian olibanum tree. LOC. COM. Luban. also found in Belgaum District. Loban. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. :—E. mouth-sores. helps delivery. aphrodisiac. Salgond. Salai. useful in skin and blood diseases. Fruit—aphrodisiac.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. tonic. purifies blood (Yunani). used for boils. removes "Kapha". Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . Fermented juice—tonic.. Gums and Resins. scabies. may cause vomiting. See—Timbers. diuretic . cough. antiglycosuretic. Mukulsalai. . Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. " Vata". antidysenteric. with a good flavour. causes headache. Dhup. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. thirst. K. burning sensation. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). expectorant. Gum—hot. allays thirst. allays asthma. vaginal discharges. astringent to bowels. M. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Gum is of five kinds . Salphali. improves taste. asthma. useful in intestinal troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Vishesha-dhupa. purifies blood. causes " Kapha ". allays. antibilious . It is a good antiacid in heart burns. G. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. flowers. antipyretic. convulsions. "Vata". cooling. bitter. also used as antiperiodic.—Burseraceæ. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. hot. Salashi. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. heals wounds . fattening. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. binding. bronchitis. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. tonic. Guggula. Sk. aphrodisiac. intoxicating. intoxicating. laxative. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. juice.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. bad throat. Moddi. LOC. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. skin diseases. fruit and gum. fattening. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). fatigue. blood complaints . with a little salt added. cures dysentery. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . useful in biliousness. diaphoresis. H. ulcers .

K. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . Kunder or Mhashaguggula. internal congestions. Seeds-laxative. spleen. spasmodic. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. See—Timbers. H. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. vermicide. . Khandesh. Surat.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. cause burning . eye-troubles. LOC. if swallowed whole they are laxative. DISTR. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. increase appetite . It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. cure nose. FAM. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. ear. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. good for throat complaints. G. NS. LOC. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. Taramira . and toothache. dispel fever . USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. stomachic. appetiser. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. biles. good in cough and for inflammations. See—Condiments and Spices. Asuri. Jwalanti. Mohori. :—Cultivated in India. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Kali-rai. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. Kaira. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Gums and Resins. cure enlargement of spleen. COM. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). anthelmintic . India. bechic. chiefly in Nasik. kill external parasites. Seeds— remove cough tumours. increase bile. rheumatism. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Sarshapa. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). :—E. Rajika. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. Kari Sasive . Dharwar and Belgaum. Sk. Black-True mustard. lessen oedema of body. " Vata". smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). Broach. used with butter in syphilis . cure skin-dissases. Rai. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic.—Cruciferae. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. M. Seeds act as digestive condiment . :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body.

K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. LOC. Lingini. LOC. southward to Ceylon. Kassi. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda).. paler and smooth beneath. Gargumaru. Fl. . 5-partite. diam. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. Asana. NS. 5-lobed. stem grooved. M. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. tendrils 2-fid : L. Kavodi. Goge. corolla as in the male . Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda).— membranous. Gauli. Mauritius. Asana. Fr. Manj. 1 . subsessile. margins sinuate denticulate. useful in "Vata". It is used in bilious attacks. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves.—Euphorbiaceæ. See—Timbers. of Shivaling shape . glabrous . LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. M. heating.:—Throughout India. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. Ekadivi. Shivavalli. Australia. 5 cm. Malaya. Apastambhini. Kaj. Shivalingi. bark. or few or many. Garige. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. FAM.—yellowish brown. ovate-oblong. H. Asana. Sk. Patharphoda. NS. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. COM. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. Mahavira. DISTR. t. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. :—G. female flowers solitary. long. lumbago.. :—An annual scandent herb. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. Asana. Gunjan. Fl. Sd.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. globose. Lingaja. Shivlingi. Chandra. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. streaked with broad vertical lines . :—Deccan. CHAR. Sk. Ekalkanto. bluish green. S. FAM. deeply cordate base. H. Mullu-siru Honne. PARTS USED :—Root. smooth. and in fevers with flatulence. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. DISTR. M. hot. pungent.—Cucurbitaceæ.— Aug-Sept. green and scabrid above. hemiplegia. Suviraka. 10-15 cm. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. :—G. Ishawara-Shivalingi. COM. 3—2 . Philippines.—baccate. bitter. corolla companulate. LOC. tropical Africa. Khaja. alterative. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Tans. Country. lobes oblong lanceolate..

purifies blood. K. carminative. Burma. CHAR. bruises. ulcers. purgative. Piyal. laxative.2 m. lower usually simple.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. L. cooling. Dhanu. Lonnahadakana gida. Sd. constricted in the middle. :—Native of tropical Africa.—pendant. t. S. LOC.) FAM. decussate. cardio-tonic. FAM. M. M. DISTR. thirst. Charoli. Leaf-juice digestive. Panphuti. Char.—Anacardiaceæ. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. speckled with white. Stems obtusely 4-angled. alexipharmic. Country. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. Parnabija. PARTS USED :—Roots. C. Charpoppu.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. Sk. cures blooddiseases.3-1. tonic. It is a disinfectant. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Priyal. Char. aphrodisiac. S. vomiting. fruit. Char. analgesic. high. boils and bites of venomous insects. Thailand (Siam). Panphui. Fl. younger reddish. Cambodia. Country. NS. with opposite branches . NS. M. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). Charoli. Zakhi-haiyat. burning sensation on body. expectorant. reddish purple. H. :—H. Gujarat. Kolegeru.—Jany. Pyalchar. allays . HABITAT :—Dry. leaves. also wild. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". upper 3-5-7 foliate. smooth. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. LOC. Deccan. when punctured. aphrodisiac. :—Konkan. buds with root. "Vata" and biliousness. Snehabija. :—Konkan. occasionally compound. crenate or serrate. inflammations. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. Sk.—variable. Lalana. the older light-coloured. Deccan. deciduous open forests. lobes triangular. COM. leaflets ovate. Asthibhakshya. The bark is bitter and poisonous. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda).—swollen and octagonal at the base. fevers. :—G. DISTR. Tapaspriya.—small. Rajadana. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. the Dangs. :—Hot and drier parts of India.—Crassulaceæ. Paira. fattening. M. elliptic. COM. Murukali. Cochin-China. in large panicles. See—Ornamental Plants. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. seeds. LOC. gum (rarely).. astringent to bowels. binding. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. K. Fl. useful in diarrhœa. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants .

Kinshuk. stomatitis. useful in syphilis. astringent. cures excessive perspiration. Yajnika. corneal opacities. pterygium. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. laxative. Palas. Kakria. Ceylon. aphrodisiac. COM. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. LOC. Tripatrak. flowers. Flower—aphrodisiac. M. NS. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. Bastard teak. digestible. gonorrhoea. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. useful in piles. tonic. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. cold and cough. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. DISTR. in the Khandesh Akrani. Sk. leaves. bark. Gums and Resins. lessens inflammations. India. burning urine. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. Khakhrao. pimples. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. anthelmintic. Muttala. cause headache (Yunani). burning sensation. Flowers—cure " Kapha". Seeds tonic to body and brain. strangury. used in diseases of chest and lungs. prickly heat and itch. cures ulcers and tumours. anthelmintic. Fruit and seed—hot. aphrodisiac. biliousness. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. gout. Khakera. Kshatadru. LOC. Khakda. Bark—appetiser. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum—astringent to bowels. seeds. if chewed. skindiseases. Dhak. buboes. diseases of anus. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. Oils. Dyes. Gum—acrid. Palas. Fruit and seeds—oily. Muttuga. worms and piles. hydrocele. expectorant. diuretic . PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves—good for eye diseases. colic. cough. tonic to liver. gum. stomachic. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. carminative. Palash. tumours. Chichra. good in dysentery. thirst. dysentery. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. K. remove bad humours. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). H. anthelmintic. lessens lumbago. relieves abnormal thirst. useful in elephantiasis. :—E. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . emmenagogue. tonic. aphrodisiac. purifies blood. aperient used in urinary discharges. LOC. ascends to 1200 m.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. used in liver disorders. topically in piles and hydrocele. inflammations. Kuntz. anthelmintic. fractures. piles.) FAM. G. cure tumours. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . leprosy. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. Bark—appetiser. lessens biliousness. dysmenorrhoea. useful in bone fractures. good in fevers. eye diseases. See—Timbers. gonorrhœa. good in biliousness. Leaf—very astringent. dry. piles.

cures inflammation .—yellow. Sk. leucorrhcea. H. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. oblong 5-7. leaflets 6-9 pairs. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. t. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Gum solution is applied to bruises. etc. aphrodisiac and diuretic. 5-7. pinnae 6-8 pairs. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Seed—styptic. antiperiodic. strongly mucronate.3 cm. Dyes. :—Throughout India. G. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. sprouts useful in tumours. Fl. anthelmintic . heating. the tropics generally. See—Timbers. DISTR. flowers and fruit. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. Gajaga. Gajjige. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. act as rubefacient. LOC. Kuberakshi. piles. long. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. . Gajga. asthma and colic. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic.5 cm.5 cm. densely armed on the faces with prickles. Sagargota. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. leaves. leprosy (Yunani). Fl. long . HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places.) COM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. Leaves contain a glucoside.5 X 4. cures urinary discharges. Fruit—acrid. shortly stalked. NS. fevers. Deccan hills. anthelmintic. useful in colic. astringent to bowels.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. FAM. CHAR. Fr. hydrocele. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta .—JulySept. They are applied to orchitis. Flowers are astringent. skin-diseases. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic .—abruptly pinnate. Physic nut. :—E. M. Katkaranj. Katkaleja. Gums and Resins. very common near the sea-coast. petioles prickly. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Karanja. :—An extensive climber. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. ringworm.—1-2 oblong. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. aphrodisiac. 30-60 cm. lead-colored 1.—pod. L. elliptic-oblong. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. K. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. malaria. Sind. wounds. Tapasi. prevents contagious diseases . LOC. Sd. Kakechika. Fever nut.

both surfaces tomentose. Gigantic swallow-wort.— opposite. Ponne.. Akand. much branched.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—E. Surangi. lessens appetite. L. NS. thick. NS. base cordate. PARTS USED :—Bark. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. M. 2. The gum from wounded branches. Rui. COM. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Undi. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. Shuka-phala. Surhonne. K.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. G. Kanara associated with littoral species. K. Br. Mandara. covered with cottony pubescence. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede).8-10 cm. used in chronic fevers. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Ark. and for its oil. Sk. gum. LOC.. M. COM. :—Cultivated throughout India. See—Timbers. Akdo. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Dholaakdo. Purasakeshera. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. very common in N. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. Mandara. Tungakeshera. . Surpan. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. Malaya. DISTR. LOC. Ceylon. FAM. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. 10-20 X3. Kshirparni. improves complexion (Ayurveda).. Oils. Undi. :—A large shrub. Polynesia. astringent. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers.4-3 m. and oil. Sk. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata".—Guttiferæ. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. elliptic or ovate oblong. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Arka. Punnaga. Sultanchampa. branches stout. FAM. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. sessile. Ak. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Madar. Vuma. Arka. high. Kshiranga. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Australia. Punnag. Ekke. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums.H. H. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R.. CHAR. Alexandrian laurel. sometimes amplexicaul. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. :—E. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. Madar. East African Islands. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma.. often gregarious.

—about 2. Flowers—stomachic. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. NS. purplish or white. diaphoretic.—Asclepiadaceæ. purgative. CHAR. astringent. apex with two auricles. M. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m.4 m. DISTR. Ceylon.. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. also useful in intestinal worms. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. Fr. cures asthma and syphilis. PARTS USED :—Root. acrid . good for liver (Yunani). Flowers—digestive. spongy. dropsy.2 cm. Fr.5 cm. L.—subsessile.—in umbellate cymes. usually 5. t. C. catarrh and loss of appetite. expectorant and anthelmintic. subglobose. green. . liver and spleen enlargement. rat-bite.—follicles. long. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. very common. LOC. corona shorter than the column. swellings. Milk— heating. bark. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. Fl.7—15 X 4. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . LOC. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. tumours. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. oleaginous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. China. across. piles. leaves and flowers.:—H. ellipsoid or ovoid. eruption on body. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action.5 cm. coughs. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. COM.—lobes deltoid-ovate. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). tonic and stomachic in action. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . broad. Br. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. cures leucoderma. depilatory. ovate oblong. cures inflammations. Milk— caustic. tumours. flattened tomentose. Juice—anthelmintic. young parts white. lobes usually erect. elliptic or obovate. leaves applied to paralysed parts. See—Fibres. ulcers. :—An erect shrub usually 1. cottony. India. back much curved. spleen and liver diseases. Sd. buds ovoid. buds globose. Flower—analgesic. used in cough.5-8. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache.-July. scabies. ringworm of scalp. Safedak. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. C.5-10 X 5-7. cures leprosy. useful in leprosy. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera.8-2. comose. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. painful joints . bark corky. asthma. cures piles and "Kapha". very common is S.— purplish in umbellate cymes. Fl. ascites and anasarca.— Feb. Sk. 9-10 cm. Ark. Madar.—broadly ovate. comose . high. ascites. asthma. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. laxative.—7. Rajarka. Ak. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. Malay Islands and S. Mandara. alterative and purgative properties. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. Sd:—many.. Mandara. elephantiasis. Root-bark is diaphoretic. FAM.. heal wounds.

Iran.—segments 2. useful in burning sensations. but doubtfully wild. See—Fibres. 3 sub-erect. Kamakshi. Sarvajaya. Shimbi. Hudingana. LOC. Kardali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish.2 m. hernia and colic. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. NS. lanceolate to ovate. FAM.—Scitaminaceae. green. veins arching. K. Nilashimbika. indigestible. :—E. Waziristan. L. tonic. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. appetiser. (Chopra). Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. CHAR. Gavara. :—E. bracts oblong. Fl. Asishimbi... Kadsambu. on trees and hedges .3 cm. M. COM.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. 1 linear . There is an alkaloid present in the pods. Afghanistan. Khadsambal. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. The pods contain vitamin A.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). K. tropical Africa. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Shitarambha. spatulate. narrow. Sarvajaya. stem 0. Sk. DISTR. G. membranous. NS. LOC. flowers and milky juice. high . root-stock tuberous. Indian shot. See—Vegetables. Warm leaves used as poultice. H. long. Sema.:—Perennial herb .:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Broad—Sword bean. ulcers (Ayurveda). oval or orbicular. P. Sk. Kalehu. they are given in cholera. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. greenish or colored.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. Paraholiya. FAM.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. Sabbajaya.9-1. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. Devakeli. Akalabera. PARTS USED :—Leaves.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. Sambe. COM. cooling. Abai. Arabia. erect. Gavria. PARTS USED :—Pods. abundant in Sind. acrid. Tarvardi. Egypt. Tamateballi. Kadavare. Flowers used as detergent. LOC. H. biliousness. Gigantea.5 cm. Koshaphala. M. staminodial segments. G. CANNA INDICA Linn. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. DISTR. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated.

lessen inflammation. tonic. L. CHAR. male fascicled. t. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. astringent. Vijaya. check vomiting. female perianth hyaline. stomachic. Fl. Siddhapatri. black. Bhangi. Seeds—carminative.9-1. also wild. NS. astringent to bowels. H. Bhang. restlessness. female crowded under convolute bracts. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . sepals 5. aphrodisiac. hallucinations. 3-lobed. impotence. male flowers. echinulate . FAM. Not indigenous. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. Fr. Leaves—bitter. (3) Charas. Sd. PARTS USED :—Roots. (2) Bhang. hot. DISTR. globose.—small axillary. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. useful in convulsions.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . leprosy. intoxication. :—Widely cultivated in India. Shivapriya. water extract anthelmintic. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). excessive use causes indigestion. G. antidiarrhoeic.—Urticaceæ. M. high in its feral state. See—Ornamental Plants. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). alterative . CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. Fr. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. causes biliousness. melancholia. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. LOC. abortifacient. HABITAT :—Cultivated. usually 0. Fl. Wild in the Himalayas. flowers. Central Asia. PARTS USED :—Bark. Bhang. lower 3-8 foliate. causes thirst and biliousness.—many. Harshini. K. cough. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. tonic. Mohini. dropsy. LOC. aphrodisiac. COM.—alternate or the lower opposite.5 m. LOC. useful in " Kapha". seeds and resin. oil-good for earache. leaves. dioecious. imbricate. Unmattini. inflammations. insanity. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Bark—tonic. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell).—more or less throughout the year. cause headache. heating. Sk. :—E. Ganja.—sub-globose or oblong . serrate.—achene.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. flowers and seeds. upper 1-3. causes thirst. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. leaves. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. They are broken in small pieces. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. Female inflorescence is stomachic. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Ganja. piles. DISTR. shining. intoxication (Ayurveda). soporific. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. intoxicating. soporific. good for hydrocele. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Hemp. Ganja.

M. increases appetite. . The plant contains cannabinin. delirium (Ayurveda). NS. It is stomachic. Sk. asthma. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain.—Solanaceæ. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. chronic ulcers. Narcotics. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). also in gout. muscular pains. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. :—E. Tikshna. Mirchi. See—Gums and Resins. spermatorrhoea. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. cholera. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Mirchi. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. Chillies. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. G. increases biliousness. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. :—Extensively cultivated in S. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. :—Cultivated all over India. Fruit—pungent. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. dysuria. Raktamaricha. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. HABITAT :—Cultivated. loss of consciousness. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. acute mania. Tivrashakti. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Cayenne-pepper. H. and flatulence. Ujjvala. Marichiphala. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. See—Condiments and Spices. in the form of electuary. The fruit contains Capsisin. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Lalmirchi. useful in brain complaints. M. whooping cough. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Madana modak used in cough. expectorant. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. and dropsy. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. Vegetables. Menshinkai. erysipelas. FAM. Capsaicin and Solanin. LOC. Country in Deccan. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. dyspepsia. COM. K.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. LOC. Marchu . diarrhœa. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Lanka mirchi. and is employed by Indian physicians. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. useful in indigestion. often found as an escape. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. weakness of body. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Fibres.

very acute apex. smooth. COM.—white. rounded at the apex. :—Throughout India. Konkan and W. Kapalphodi. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. HABITAT :—In hedges . Root. " Vata ". skin-diseases. Agni-erum. COM. Karnasphota. 2-ternate.—Sapindaceæ. aphrodisiac. when moistened. deltoid. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. Thailand (Siam). FAM. Kangu.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. introduced. Girikarnika. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Sk. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. piles. Sk. inciso-serrate. Kumbhi. Ceylon. K. H. Jyotish-mati. bark. :—E. Fl. hot. . bladdery . NS. diuretic and aperient. Malay Peninsula. ultimate segments lanceolate. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. Shaundi.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. FAM. leucoderma. and is administered in fevers. Root is considered diaphoretic. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. M. K. Gavvahannu. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. stem wiry. flowers and fruits. abscesses and ulcers. G. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. LOC. black. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. Deccan. DISTR. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . PARTS USED :—Root. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. urinary discharges. Kumbi. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Myrtaceæ. bronchitis. Wild guava .— alternate. useful in tumours. Kumbha. bark. Kalindi. dyspepsia. petals 4. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . trigonous. dry. Sd.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. :—Most warm countries. leaves. LOC. Balloon vine. Sind. subglobose. colic. NS. Fibres. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. it is mucilaginous. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests.—globose. G. DISTR. M. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Kanphuti. Vakambi. Blister creeper. alexiteric. common in S. L. C. Maniju balli. :—E. Karolio. Sakralata. The plant contains saponin.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. leaves and seeds. Ghats. anthelmintic. Hennumatti. Daddala. winged at the angles. See—Timbers. epileptic fits. Kumbhi. LOC. Fruit—acrid.

Popayi. flowers. Papaw. :—Grown extensively in Poona. ringworm. unripe fruit. Kusumba. Karada. Leaves—hot. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. Papaya. NS. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. fruit and seeds. Pappayi. seeds and oil. cures inflammations. Seeds—oleaginous. Kusumbo. White thin latex contains Papain. :—E. :—Native throughout India. Safflower. Guppe. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Indies. LOC. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. wounds of urinary track. cures insanity (Ayurveda). appetiser. Papaya. K. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). Dyer's saffron. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. expectorant. Kusumba. aphrodisiac. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. M. Papayi. :— E. cure urinary discharges. Kusumba. made into curries. Oil—indigestible. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM. FAM. cures inflammation. cure "Vata". a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. heating.—Caricaceæ. Chirbhita. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. Kamalottama. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. of W. K. Kusumbha. diuretic. appetiser . diuretic. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. Sk. scabies. Fruit—stomachic. G. Papita. aphrodisiac. "Tridosh". COM. Papaya. "Kapha". DISTR. removes biliousness . dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. it is used to procure abortion. diuretic. See—Fruit Trees. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Pangi. LOC. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. in haemoptysis. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. Chibda. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. . Sk. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. NS. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). COM. hypnotic. leprosy. strangury. bronchitis. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. cause biliousness. bile. Ahmednagar and Nasik. enlargement of spleen. Mexico and Brazil. H. H. Barre. Flower—tonic to liver. removes urinary concretions . causes burning sensation . LOC. carminative. Karrak. leucoderma. depilatory. good for eyes. digestive. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Nalikadala. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Agnishikha.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. cooling. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . G. laxative. used.—Compositæ. piles. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. bleeding piles. relieves obesity. astringent to bowels. Kardai.

H. bechic. Dadmardan. give lustre to eyes. good in weakness of limbs. aphrodisiac. Sk. 30-60 cm. vomiting. stomachic. Elgra. rachis . Ajwain. stimulate intestines. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. aphrodisiac . See—Vegetables. Dwipagasti. FAM. The seeds bitter and hot. Simyatase. Ajamoda. they are used in jaundice . COM. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. Seeds—purgative. purgative. diuretic. Oil—good in all diseases. carminative. oblique at the base. CHAR. H. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. Owa. M. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). NS :— E. Afghanistan. chest pains. dyspepsia. abdominal pain. Dyes. appetiser. LOC. myrabolans and rock salt. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. paralysis. Ringworm shrub. hiccup. DISTR. NS. laxative. Oma. Dipyaka. cure catarrh. Omu . it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. Leaves contain vitamin A. FAM. Ajamo . abdominal tumours. enrich blood. good for old people. CASSIA ALATA Linn. kidney troubles. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). Egypt. K. downy beneath. atonic dyspepsia. :—E. Tivragandha. bitter. M. and diarrhœa. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. and even in cholera. K. Europe. carminative. cure ascites. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. anthelmintic. good for ear boils. Dadrughna. Datka pat. improve speech and eyesight. Ajowan.—Umbelliferæ. COM. long. tonic and carminative properties. Sk. Dodda sagate. Oils. G. pungent. emmenagogue and sedative. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. subsessile. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. piles. enlargement of spleen. spleen. Iran. LOC. oblong-obtuse. good for heart and tooth-ache. chest and throat pains. Winged senna. mucronate. tonic. leaflets 10-12 pairs. pinnate. Baluchistan. inflammation (Yunani). :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. :—Cultivated extensively in India. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. carminative. strengthening.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). vomiting. liver. Bishops' weed . L. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. They are administered in flatulence. Dadamardana. stimulant. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . See—Condiments and Spices.

Taroda. LOC. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. cure " Vata ". useful in vomiting. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. rachis densely pubescent. Sk.—pod. Tangadi. Ahmed. :—Introduced into India. along the sea coast in laterite region. Fl. Avartki. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve.—large. itching. skin-diseases. very likely a native of the W. Ph. causes flatulence . The whole plant. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . stipules very large. asthma. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). bark smooth. . useful in thirst. FAM.. Mayahari.:—Dry regions of Rajputana. oblong-obovate.—in spiciform. nocturnal emissions. t. Sd. long. skin diseases. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb). urinary discharges . PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). dull green above.-July. leaves. Mukerji).56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.-Oct.) COM. t. Charmaranga. NS. 20-25. J. M. alexipharmic . Tanner's cassia. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). cough. Fl. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground.—7. N. leaflets 8-12 pairs.-50 or more. Fl. Peninsula... good for ulcers. reniform. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. cures tumours. DISTR. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. L. Pitakilaka. Tarwad. fruits and seeds. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. Tarwad.—bright yellow with darker veins. Madhya Pradesh and W. and throat troubles.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. PARTS USED :—Root. reddish brown.—pod long. membranous.6 cm. K. asthma . Indies. leprosy. 10-20 X 1. pedunculate racemes . Awal. :—E. HABITAT :—Planted.3-1. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. slightly overlapping. DISTR. C. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. vermicide (Ayurveda). LOC. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. straight. G. H. obliquely septate. buds in yellow bracts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. ringworm. 28-4-88). Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. LOC. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan.—Jany. 5 cm. Fr. Avarike. CHAR. " In eczema.—30-35. rotundate. Country. Sd. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. flowers.5 X 10 cm. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. pale beneath. Bark has the same properties. diabetes. LOC. anthelmintic. mucronate. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. across. Fr. rhombohedral. cm. yellow with orange veins. Fl. thirst. Ceylon. Gujarat and S. M. Sakusina.

cooling. cooling. It is a mild laxative. Sk. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. M. FAM. long. rheumatism. Fl. Ane sogate. H.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. ovate-lanceolate. tuberculous glands. cures burning sensation.—petals 5. hard. transversely septate. Amaltas. flowers. Fr. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. K. branches furrowed. PARTS USED :—Root. Chimkani. Kacodari. faintly veined with orange . also planted. M. biliousness . L. cause flatulence. useful in chest and liver complaints.) COM. astringent. Burma. Flowers—purgative. :—E. Fruit—antipyretic.— Jany-March. smooth. Chakinda. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. LOC. Vyadivata. Konde. distinctly torulose. Leaves—anti-periodic . shining dark olive-green. Golden shower. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. Hema-puspha. throat-troubles. Ornamental Plants. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. Fl. C. Aragina. antipyretic.5 cm. CHAR. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Bandartauri. Stinking weed. Balla. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Pudding-pipe or stick. Leaves lessen inflammation. Garmala. purgative. Ceylon. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. leprosy. Arimarda. :—Throughout India. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. In Konkan. Kasundari. leaflets 3-5 pairs. Kasonda. fruit and seeds. often purplish. Flowers—improve taste. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. Kasoda. purgative. corymbose. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. (Ayurveda). 10—12. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). carminative. yellow. heal ulcers . Fruit—digestible. safe for children and pregnant women. H. Indian laburnum. Rajataru. syphilis. . DISTR. Sd. Kasmarda. leaves. laxative. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Rankasvinda. Negro coffee. Dodda-tagase. Kasari. Tans. Arogyashimbi. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Suvarnaka.—very foetid when bruised. NS. apex acute. t. G.) COM. Sk. See—Timbers. G. eye-diseases. :—E. Rechana.. base somewhat oblique. Kasondi. K. FAM.—in few flowered racemes. abortifacient. griping. See—Dyes. Bahava.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Kakka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. NS. 15-20 cm. improve appetite.—20-30. cure " Kapha ". rachis with a single sessile gland near its base.—pods. Seeds— oily. LOC. juice given in erysipelas. used in rheumatism. recurved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. long. demulcent. and Famine Plants.

Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. rachis grooved . Leaves—aphrodisiac. cures ascites. turgid. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. Sk.510 cm. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. " tridosha " . leaflets 6-10 pairs. PARTS USED :—Bark.—18-23 cm. LOC. high. cough. leaves. A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant.. elephantiasis. opposite. H. Talapota. with a solitary conical gland near the base . Kasondi. petals 5. stomachic. CHAR. alexiteric. Banar. LOC. C. L. ovate. cure " Kapha". are given in diabetes. hiccup. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller).—pod. DISTR. 7. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). and seeds are cathartic. asthma. The bark. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. long . for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). mixed with honey. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. Kasundari. Baskikasondi. yellow. Kasamarda. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. In many countries root is considered diuretic. lanceolate. Fr. Seeds used in heat of the blood. See—Famine Plants. base rounded.Jany. leaves and seeds. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).—in axillary. slightly recurved. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. in Kutch. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. " Vata ". USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. COM. fevers. M. Sd.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. t. dark brown . See—Famine Plants.— Nov. FAM. K. obtuse. NS. . few flowered corymbose racemes. Fl. annual or perennial. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. At Kotra. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. septate between the seeds . Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. leaves and seeds. LOC. Ran tankala. PARTS USED :—Root. tonic and febrifuge. :—A shrub 2. LOC. heals wounds. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. The plant contains glucoside emodin. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children. DISTR.4-3 m. Fl. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State.. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn.—30-40 broadly ovoid. Kasamarda.

Seeds—bitter. Tarota.—Celastraceæ. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". Fl. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. globose. Fr. crenate. PARTS USED :— Root. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. much curved when young.. Sd. Ceylon. Malhangana. leaflets 3 pairs. 6. fleshy arillus. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. :—Large deciduous climber. Black-oil tree. Tagache.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. ovate or obovate. H. Dadrughna. Chakramarda. Kanguni. Foetid cassia. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat. Climbing-staff plant. Taga. unarmed. high. DISTR. Kangani. Malkamni. L. M. in drooping panicles. COM. Burma.3-10 X 3. 18 m. NS. :—A very common weed all over the State. laxative. brain and liver tonic. stem upto 23 cm. bright yellow. shining above. alternate. LOC. rachis grooved. Sd. long. capsule. 30-90 cm. opposite (lowest smaller). cause burning sensation. X 4. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. expectorant. Fl. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. emetic. L.5 cm. usually unisexual. Takala. Dadamari. Malkangoni. DISTR.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. small yellowish-green. Madras State. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally.5-20 cm.8-7. t. The plant contains glucoside emodin. :—E. Seeds— acrid. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. NS. bitter. 12.5-10 cm. LOC. Chakunda. base oblique. Kangodi. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. CHAR. Sphutabandhani. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr.—pod. Jyotishmati. Malkakni. Taragosi.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl.—pinnate. Sk. oblong. CHAR. Velo . Panevar. Chagoche. high. obliquely septate.) COM. obovate. upper petal 2-lobed . G.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . Intellect tree. FAM. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. 1-6 completely covered with red. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. hot. C. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. Kangli. cure joint-pains. H. K.5 mm. pale yellow. M. leaves and seeds. FAM.. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. :—E. branches rough. appetiser. Svarnalata. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.—after the rains.— petals 5. powerful brain tonic. reddish brown. covered with lenticels. :—An annual foetid herb. Sk. K. aphrodisiac. Pamad. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. 7.. in diam.

M.—in fascicled umbels. linear-oblong. H. NS. Jangli-karayatu. Deccan and S.—Gentianaceæ. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. gout. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn.—Feb. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Lahanchirayat. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. t. stem creeping with long internodes. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. they are also sudorific. spreading star-like . long. aphrodisiac and stimulant. Mandukparni.—May-Nov. radical leaves revolute. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Vondelaga. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. M. :—G. FAM. Brahmi. Oil stomachic. CHAR. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. Sk. paralysis and leprosy. C. elliptic. rooting at the nodes. good for cough and asthma.—tubular lobes 5. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. ovoid. Fr. Seeds are hot. narrowly oblong . Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. Brahmamanduki. t.). Mahaushadhi.). H. CHAR. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. FAM.—3 from each node. base deeply cordate stipulate.—capsule. pink. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Fr.—opposite. LOC. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri. Fl. NS. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). Fl. Fl. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. :—Konkan. G. Fl.—4 mm. persistent. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. tonic.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. Vallari . L. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. reniform. especially in Bengal. COM. :—Throughout India. high. L. :— E. :—A slender herbaceous plant. hard-rugose. obovate or oblong.—Umbelliferæ. Barmi. LOC. Ekpani. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. K. pink. minute. and is employed for external application. Brahmamanduki. COM. M. used in leprosy. Don. cloves. Country. Jhinkun-kariatum. orbicular.-Apl. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. DISTR. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell). cauline smaller.

spleen enlargement. asthma. nut is narcotic and poisonous . Kanara. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. Leaf-powder. Sukanu. blood diseases. plaster or bath are used. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. NS. Chanda. fruit. . PROPERTIES AND LOC. bitter. laxative. DISTR. COM. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. For external use powder.) DISTR. clears voice and brain. fevers. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Bark. ointment. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. diuretic. carminative.—Apocynaceæ. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. leaves and seeds). voice. Plant—bitter. nallas. water courses throughout the State. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. small-pox. alterative. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. :—South Konkan and N. antipyretic. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. used in insanity (Ayurveda). bronchitis. milky juice. bechic. soporific. :—In moist situations (streams. See—Timbers. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. FAM. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Australia Pacific Islands. Honde. cardio-tonic. urinary discharges. Leaves are also diuretic. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. :—K. tonic. tonic. bronchitis. cures hiccup. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. sedative to nerves. " Kapha ". Malay Archipelago. Tande. scalding of urine. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". China. headache . USES :—Bark is purgative. anæmia. improves appetite (Yunani). biliousness. thirst. and a bitter substance odollin. digestible. :—Throughout India near the coast. LOC. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. cooling. asthma. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. inflammations. cures leucoderma. abundant on the Malabar Coast. M. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. LOC. twigs. improves appetite. LOC. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . memory.

fragrant. LOC. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). See—Fruit Trees. Bathusag. H. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. root and the seed are cathartic. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. :—E. also cultivated as a pot herb. COM. K. Lavali. Harbara. vomiting. Kanchuki. oleaginous. Sk. Chakravarti. Agralohita. tonic to liver. Chakravati. useful in bronchitis. improves appetite. Vajibhakshya. LOC. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. "Kapha". Laveni. M. Pandu. DISTR. Chandanbedu. Chania. NS.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Wild-spinach. Country.. acrid. :—Cultivated in India. tonic. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). Chick pea. Country gooseberry. piles.62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Fruit is very sour . PARTS USED :—Root. :— E. piles . :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. throattroubles. eye-diseases. USES :— Root is purgative. Skandhaphala. Bengal—Common-gram. FAM. FAM . NS. "Vata". Rayara nelli. Chunna. useful in biliousness. :—Widely distributed. biliousness. G. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. HABITAT :—Cultivated. spleen (Ayurveda). Kadale. urinary concretions. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. M. heart. Chalmeri. Cheel. Sk. H. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Chana. LOC. Sk. :—E. Kari-Kempukadale. biliousness. Balabhojya. Chana. But.—Chenopodiaceæ. constipation. Goose-foot. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in thirst. Harparauri K. sour . The plant yields an essential oil. M. COM. Harparrevdi. Deccan and S. Ksharadala. laxative. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Tanko. Chillika. K. abdominal pains. aphrodisiac. diseases of blood.—Euphorbiaceæ. . native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Very common in the Deccan. Chanaka. NS. Chakwat. CICCA ACIDA Merr. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. LOC. The fruit is acrid and astringent. DISTR. COM. H. diuretic. Rai-avala. LOC. M.) FAM. G.

aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. tonic. cures thirst and burning. Dalchini. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. heated brain. useful in bronchitis. aphrodisiac. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. cold in head. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. It possesses carminative. See—Condiments and Spices. foul mouth and fever. bronchitis (Yunani). indigestion. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. abortifacient. aphrodisiac. cures skin diseases. appetiser. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). Oil—carminative. useful in loss of appetite. It checks nausea and vomiting. LOC. anthelmintic. toothache. blood troubles. K. pains . abdominal pains. . NS. vomiting. heart. biliousness. Leaves—purgative. useful in cold. :—G. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). LOC. Darchini. aphrodisiac. causes flatulence. anthelmintic. alexiteric. Kash. tonic. expectorant. causes flatulence. Duk. Valkala. anthelmintic . astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. indigenous and cultivated. very common in the N. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. leprosy. Sk. etc. improve taste and appetite. Oil—styptic. headache. pungent. carminative. Malay Peninsula. good for diseases of liver and spleen. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. headache. FAM. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. DISTR. itching. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. Gudatwaka. vomiting. COM. flatulence. diarrhœa. Seed—indigestible. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. PARTS USED. tonic . PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. causes salivation. Kanara district. LOC. Seed—stimulant. diarrhœa and dysentery. throat troubles. seed and acid exudation. bronchitis. piles. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. astringent to bowels .MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. liver-tonic . rectum and urinary diseases. cure bronchitis. useful in " Vata ". carminative. Leaves contain vitamin A. strengthens liver. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :— Bark and oil. refrigerant. Lavange-hakke. Dalchini. biliousness. throat troubles. parched mouth. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. Ceylon. :—W. Peninsula. useful in inflammations. toothache (Ayurveda). Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. thirst. Oils. enriches blood. tonic to hair. Dalchini.—Lauraceæ. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. Nisane. Burma. emmenagogue. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Dalchini. chest complaints. flatulence. M. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. hiccup. H. See—Food Plants. useful in hydrocele. Bark—tonic.

Annual Report. Pahadvel. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. L. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. solitary. yellowish. CHAR. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Trapusi. which possibly has a cholinergic action. burning. itching . CHAR. i. Asso. helps parturition. heart troubles. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. diarrhœa. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. diam. flesh juicy. t. F. monœcious. Africa and America. 3. or twin. G. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. smooth. subglobose. Indrayan. :— E. mucronate. Indrayana. fever. FL t. Fl. tendrils bifid. branches more or less pubescent. orbicular or reniform. FAM. Chitraphala. Uthika. upto 25 cm. Katurasa. Fl. 5-partite. The active constituent of the drug. warm parts of Asia. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). HABITAT. compressed. greenish. (Ind. uterine complaints. Venivalli. margins ciliate. hairy. Colocynth. Fl.—large. Indraphal. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Kaduvrindavan.—Nov. red.5-20 cm. skin eruptions.. Velvet-leaf. C. somewhat hairy. an alkaloid. has been isolated. Tumtikayi. 5-nerved. Kanara. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". Sk. dysentery. M. Paharmul. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. asthma . E. piles. Sk. removes intestinal worms. 7. :—In hills. Sd. Fr.—Menispermaceæ. Ghorumba. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. Pavamekke Kayi. red or yellowish white. K. NS.e. long. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. Fr. alleviates vomiting. Nirbisi. removes pain. M. minute. male flowers in axillary cymes. COM. L. Makal. LOC. young shoots woolly. Patha. 1949). angular . It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. Indrayan. LOC. :—E. female flowers in elongate. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. COM. R.—A climbing shrub.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. leaves. Mahendravaruni.8-10 cm. G. H. NS.. also for prolapsus uteri. lobes obovateoblong. sub-globose. FAM. in conjunction with aromatics. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . yellow within. greenish outside.—Cucurbitaceæ. H. drupe.-Jany. stem thick. axillary racemes . . cordate at the base. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. :—An extensively climbing annual. PARTS USED :—Root. waxy coated. solitary. diam. Bitter apple. Indruk. dropsy and cough. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. :—Deccan. useful in hemicrania.—July-Sept.— usually margined. subcampanulate. DISTR. peltate. Venivel.

Deccan. ascites. Santra. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). dyspepsia. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. anthelmintic. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. with or without nux-vomica. chest troubles. Gujarat. Doddile. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Rind— anthelmintic. constipation. Ceylon. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). Kittale. Naringi. laxative. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). Sunthura. elephantiasis . USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. sweet and has agreeable flavour. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. NS. N. Also indigenous in Arabia. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. LOC. M. removes " Vata ". relieves vomiting and retching. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. anæmia. fever and worms. removes biliousness. COM. asthma. In the Konkan fruit and root. K. useful in piles. LOC. cures tumours. and lumbago. aphrodisiac . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. :—Widely cultivated in India. removes fatigue . Tvakasugandha. Nagaranga. anthelmintic . Kirmirtvaka. diuretic. tonic. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. DISTR. cooling. Naringa. Cardiotonic. Narangi. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. (Poona. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. purgative. Sukkare-kanji. good in vomiting and skin diseases. carminative. G. Flower— stimulant. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. fortifies chest. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. Sk. pain in joints. W. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. DISTR. antipyretic. enlargement of spleen. astringent. H. Asia. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. Narange. Narenj.—Rutaceæ. tuberculous glands of neck. It is considered to be alexipharmic and . enlargement of spleen. LOC. urinary discharges. " Kapha". FAM. throat diseases. jaundice. :—Konkan. leuco-derma. relieves colds. tonic. useful in biliousness. Fruit—sour. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. bronchitis. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. LOC. epilepsy. Root and fruit cooling. constipation. ulcers. bowel complaints. sea-shores. :— E. good in fevers.

DoddaGaja-nimba. LOC. cures leprosy. Flowers—stimulant. PARTS USED. B and C. :— E. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. astringent to bowels . Idalimbu. though there are no regular plantations. Mahaphala. tonic and astringent properties. NS. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Limonum. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. Bijoru. gastric irritability in general and general debility. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. stimulant. Sk. Turanj. Lemon . Bera nimbu. sharp. Citron . Turanj. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. COM. Adam's apple. PARTS USED :—Root. Matunga. HABITAT :—Cultivated. seeds. Fruit—sweet and sour. the juice allays ear-ache. Matulunga. According to Theophrastus. LOC. See—Fruit Trees. said to be wild in W. Motalimbu . tonic. removes colic. M. H. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. jaundice. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). thirst. flatulence. Balank. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. intoxication. Mavalunga. The fruits contain vitamins A. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. Harale. fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. K. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mahalunga. USES. dry and tonic . the pulp cold and dry. Bijapurna. relieve vomiting. also corrects foetid breath. NS. flowers. asthma. Seeds—indigestible. Rusaki. LOC. anthelmintic. useful in abdominal complaints. :—E. heating. G.—Rutaceæ. digestible. leaves and flowers hot and dry. Bijaura. Paharinimbu . Amlakeshara. anæmia. Devamadala. used in constipation and tumours. aphrodisiac. Mahaphala. with a sharp taste. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. increase appetite. Thora-limbu. its preserve is used for dysentery. asthma.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Matalunga. hiccup. VAR. :—Citron rind is hot. COM. . :—Roots. Jambira. Mahanimbu. Sk. useful in vomiting. juice refrigerant and astringent. Ghats. cough. G. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. relieves sore-throat. rind of the fruit is bitter. anasarca and chronic fever. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). K. Ruchaka. M. oily. Kutla. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . the fruit is an expellent of poisons. bark and fruit. H. cough. Madala.

Fruit—sour. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Nimbe. Churhar. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. COM. with flavour. See—Fruit Trees. COM. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites.—in axillary corymbose panicles. constipation. Rochana. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox.. whole plant tomentose. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. Oil from rind. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. Khatalimbu. Fl. silky villous. Fr. K. throat trouble. sepals 4-6. hemicrania. Nebu. scarletina. Devashreni. H. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. it cures and prevents scurvy. brain disorders. vomiting. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . with long feathery tails . Limbe. eyes . M. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". NS. Ranjai. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. cures abodominal complaints.—petals O. measles. ovoid. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. not good in old age. VAR. Murva. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). :—E. fatigue . leaves (rarely). Limbu.—Sept. sharp taste. Morata. C. appetiser. :—An extensive climber. Nimbuka. Lebu.5 cm. FAM. improves liver. Acid-Sour lime . Morvel. Shodhana. NS. Murhari. Madhulika. anthelmintic.—achenes. relieves biliousness. t. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. hairy outside. burning in the chest. white.—simple or once ternate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. :—G. but often found trailing amongst grass. Snuva. blades 2-2. heart. bronchitis . it helps digestion. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). petioles twinning. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. Acida. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Lebu. plethora.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. Limpaka. stimulant . relieves vomiting . . also useful in rheumatism. Sk. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. Sk. stomachic. LOC. Nimbu. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. Kagadi limbu. Amlasara. Morhari. L. lobes mucronate. K.Nov. Moravel. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. PROPERTIES AND LOC. loss of appetite. CHAR. Nimbu. G. Dhantiate. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. where there is dry skin and much thirst. H. long ovate or orbicular.—Ranunculaceæ. Fl. PARTS USED :—Fruit. M.

leaflets elliptic-oblong. C.—petals 4. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. high. stems grooved and glandular. yellow. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Brahmani. Bharangi. hot. FAM. in lax racemes. Sd. CHAR. very common in the Deccan. :—G. Jangali-harhar. terminal the largest. laxative. t. veined. useful in leprosy. LOC. Plant has penetrating bad smell. used internally in thirst. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. H. Leaves—favour digestion. Bharangi. .—Capparidaceæ. DISTR. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Hulhul. L. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. removes " Kapha". useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. and fevers. Fl. :—W. mixed with oil. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. stimulant. NS. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). Kasaghni. Juice— cures ear-ache. Fl. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. obliquely striate. externally applied to boils. HABIT :—A common weed. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. stimulates secretion of bile. Karnasphota. :—G. K. Adityabhakta. Bharang. petioles of lower leaves longer. Bharangi. causes excessive biliousness. Kanphodi. Sk. M. hairy. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. LOC. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. good in malaria. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. gradually becoming shorter upwards. H.—brownish black. Vatari. Tilparni.—capsule. cooling. Harhuria. M. astringent. Fr. subglobose. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. FAM. erect. Kiritekki. oblong-obovate. blood diseases. transversely striate. LOC. Gantubarangi. :—Annual erect herb.—axillary. reduces tumours and inflammations . Nayibela.—Verbenaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. dryness and urethral discharges. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. Sauri. Phanjika. hairy. bitter. Ghats. and dispel intestinal fermentation. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. tapering towards both ends . Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani).—3-5 foliate. Barbara. Talvari. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Tinmani. anthelmintic.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. laxative. K. 30-90 cm.—Sept-June. Konkan. Kanphutia. Sk. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. stomachic. :—Common in grass lands. COM. bitter taste and a strong odour. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. DISTR. Tilwan. NS.

— drupe. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. stems terete. Fr. alexiteric. Ceylon.—Shrub. tube hairy within. tubercular glands. Girikarnika.. flat. Gokarnika. burning sensation.—much exerted. tuberculous glands. 12.:—More or less throughout India. "Vata". also found throughout the State.. laxative. inflammations. sharply serrate. with an orange centre. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers of the cornea.7-6. pains. good for eye-diseases. oblong or elliptic. There are two varieties :—white flowered. K. headache. Wowatheti. cures "Tridosha". stems bluntly quadrangular. obovoid. asthma. the larger lower lobe dark purple. Kalina. . inflammations. Root is purgative and diuretic. spreading. wounds (Ayurveda). leaves and seeds. anthelmintic. LOC. ulcers (Ayurveda).. fevers (Yunani). and blue flowered. fleshy. sometimes opposite.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. LOC. 4 lobes flat. leucoderma. FAM. biliousness. 3. DISTR. L. collectively forming a terminal panicle. blood diseases.5 X 2-3. beaked. standard bright blue or white. bronchitis.3 cm. long . Sk. useful in inflammation. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. t. leaflets 5-7. C. Koyala. COM. burning sensation.. tumours. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections.9-2. elliptic oblong.5-15 X 5. Fl.2 cm. NS. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. DISTR. HABITAT :—In hedges. Garani. :—G. epilepsy. :—A perennial twining herb. asthma. useful in ascites (Yunani). lower one deflexed.—6-10 yellowish brown. elephantiasis. high. hiccup. t— June-Jany. tonic to the brain.8-5 cm. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. stomachic. CHAR. showy. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root.—ternately whorled. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR.2 m.—imparipinnate. nearly straight.—axillary. Gokarni. Kajli. leaves and seeds. ozœna. C. Fl. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. solitary. useful in bronchitis. Vishnukranta. Fl. Aparajita. Kowa. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. acrid. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. 2-2. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. lessens expectoration.-Oct. consumption. M. Root increases appetite. heating. hairy. black. anthelmintic. Fl.—pale blue. L. Malay Peninsula. 0. Aparajita. Girikarniballi.— Aug. fevers. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork.—many. Fr. The plant contains an alkaloid. pubescent. smooth. in lax dichotomous cymes.

and jaundice. & A. S.—Cucurbitaceæ. dried and powdered. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—G. Ghobe. Tana.:—Cultivated in gardens. Ink-berry. FAM. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. M. " Vata".) FAM. given for uterine discharges. HABITAT. Ceylon. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions.:—Root cooling.—Menispermaceæ. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. Kanduri. The plant contains an enzyme. Kambhoja. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. M. LOC. DISTR :—Throughout India. galactagogue. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. COCCINIA INDICA W. diseases of blood. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. fruit. useful in ascites and fevers. consumption. NS. Jamtikibel. flowers. Dirghvalli. astringent to bowels. Country. Gujarat. wild in hedges. H. Leaves—acrid. Bimb. Fruit is aphrodisiac. G. Vasanvel. Vevdi. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Tundika. H. aphrodisiac. Bimbi. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Oshthi. Garudi. stops vomiting. allays thirst. COM. burning of hands and feet. Tundi. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose). Parvel. K. Tondeballi. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. cures leprosy. Faridburti. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Malaya. . biliousness. M. Galedu. See—Vegetables. Tondali. Glum. cause flatulence.—E. Flowers cure itching. NS. urinary losses. Fruit— indigestible. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. asthma. Deccan. antipyretic . Vasandi. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". COM. Konkan. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. Vevati. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. Seeds are purgative and aperient. Broom-creeper. K. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. USES:—In the Konkan. Sk. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. tropical Africa. Root bark. Sk. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Chireta. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. a hormone and an alkaloid. Bimba. Hunder. LOC. Bimbika. Vasantitikta.

PARTS USED :—Root. Antipyretic. Cocoanut palm. alexipharmic . Narikel. China. LOC. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. Seed-cooling. LOC. indigestible.—dioecious. villous . aphrodisiac. Mad.3 X 1. young parts densely Villous.—3. female in axillary clusters. laxative and sudorific. Deccan. tonic. smells sweetish and pungent. fermented juice. biliousness. with a few heads of pepper. as a cure for gonorrhœa. USES :—A decoction of fresh root.. male in small axillary cymose panicles. good in fractures. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. S. keeled. aphrodisiac. tropical Africa. Mangalya. it is heating. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. Leaf-juice. rugose .—drupe. Tenginmara.—Dec.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). Common in Konkan and N. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Dried seed (copra) improves taste.—Palmæ.:— A straggling scandent shrub. lessens bile and burning sensation. tuberculosis. India and Ceylon. NS. It is also used as a refrigerant. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains .:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. useful in leprosy. S. fattening. DISTR. subdeltoid or subhastate. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). causes "Kapha". In the Konkan. bronchitis. burning sensation. DISTR. Toyagarbha. bark.8 cm. cardiotonic. 3-5 nerved. Naral. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. Gujarat. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Fl. useful in diabetes. mixed with water. FAM.3-3. enriches blood. t. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. Nariyal. G. aphrodisiac. blood diseases. Milk—cooling. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. HABITAT :—In hedges. . 2-8 together. Nalivar. LOC. Mahaphala. which is taken internally with sugar. ovate-oblong. H. it is used for coughs. seed. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. urinary discharges. K. :—E. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. size of a small pea. Kanara. Konkan. ovate. dysentery. also in many places in the interior. appetiser. and put on to sore-eyelids. Tengu. "Kapha" and "Vata". India. useful in biliousness. M. L. Flower-cooling . Pegu. oil. laxative. thirst. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. flowers. fattening. oleaginous. Sk. tonic. constipation.8-6. tumours. Jataphala. Fr. lessens thirst. Arabia. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda).:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Narial.

—monœcious racemes 2. China. Bengal. Gojivha. ulcers (Ayurveda). USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. Madhya Pradesh. bronchitis. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. notched at the nodes . Ran-jondhala. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. Kasai. it also purifies blood. fattening. tropical Asia-Africa. t. H. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. rachis within the bract slender. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. NS. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. S. Gavedhu. Dabha. Fl. LOC.—Oct. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. 6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. HABITAT :—Gregarious. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant.5-6. spinously serrate margins. internodes smooth. Oils.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. :—E. L. midrib stout. polished. Oil—sweet. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. FAM. stem 90-150 cm. useful in fever. abundant in standing water. It is refreshing and laxative. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. America. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). long. Fl. smooth. promotes hairgrowth. polished. Japan. it promotes growth of hair. long. tonic. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. consumption. G. stout. asthma. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm.3 cm. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Job's tears. See—Fruit Trees. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . useful in urinary complaints. enriches blood. increases body weight. piles and scabies (Yunani. diuretic . Oil—indigestible. diuretic. bluish grey. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. piles .—broadly ovoid to globose. Sk.. paralysis. It is also used for burns. Jargadi. LOC.5-5 cm. smooth. India. CHAR. Rajputana. useful in lumbar-pain. Polynesia. rooting at the lower nodes. incipient phthisis and cachexia.6-10 mm. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. sheaths long. LOC. liver complaints. Madhya Bharat.—10-15 x 2. DISTR. B and C. Assam. Gurlu . The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. :—Himalayas.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. :—A tall leafy grass. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). above the bract stout.—Gramineæ COM. fermented juice is intoxicating. Fr. base cordate. lessens inflammations . Malaya. high or more. Fibres. M.

and intestinal antiseptic. lanceolate. Bhukerbudara. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. M. Chaunchan . C. leaves and fruit. G. 12 mm. Bhokar. Gondan.—7. diam. Resalla. CHAR. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. histidin. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver.—few in each cell. K. . See—Fibres. stomachic. also as antiperiodic. DISTR. Fl. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . In jutegrowing districts. ridged and muricated. Pistan. acute or acuminate.:—E. G. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier.—petals 4-5. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. t. Chhunchh . FAM. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. PARTS USED :—Root. brown. not beaked. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. and dyspepsia. arginine and coicin. Sd.—Tiliaceæ. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. wedgeshaped.—in short cymes. NS. Sebesten plum. Bhokar. buds obovoid. Fr.5-10 X 2-3. tyrosin.—Boraginaceæ. subglobose. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. Jute . The plant contains leucin. 5-valved. M. Col. Gujarat. cultivated in most tropical countries. Lassora. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. LOC. COM. growing very tall under cultivation. also efficacious in skin-diseases. Patta. fever. Challa. lysin.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . laxative. H. Mannadike.2 cm. Kalasaka. Rayagundo. PROPERTIES AND LOC. astringent. serrate. smooth. Bargund. anthelmintic. Fl. L. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. NS. See—Fodder Plants. Sk. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Hadige. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Bhuselu. carminative.— capsule. FAM. Sk. :—Konkan. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. :—E.— Sept. It is also used as a bitter tonic. :—An annual herb. COM. yellow.

prevents coryza and bronchitis. highly esteemed in coughs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. cures thirst. tropical Australia. biliousness. vomiting. Kustumburi. Fibres. jaundice.:—E. laxative. Mesapotamia and Greece. COM. burning of throat. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. diseases of chest. Kothimbir. biliousness. Fruits are used as spice. heart and liver. uterus and urethra. used in dry cough. LOC. antipyretic. tonic to brain. purgative. G. . diuretic. stimulant. leaves (rarely) and fruit. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. anthelmintic. Coriander. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Cochin-China. thirst. piles. indigestion. Dhania. analgesic. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. Fruit—diuretic. bechic. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. NS. DISTR. scabies. useful in hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. diseases of chest and urethra. :—Throughout India. inflammations. causes suppuration. M. Egypt. HABITAT :—Cultivated. used in syphilis. Allaka. biliousness. stimulant. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Leaves—hypnotic. widely known from Palestine. Kothambri. FAM. gleet. tooth-ache. wild and cultivated. expectorant. H.:—Throughout the State in W. The plant and fruit— acrid. stomatitis.—Umbelliferæ. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. carminative and antispasmodic. K. LOC. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. anthelmintic. See—Timbers. gives appetite. Ceylon. chronic fevers. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Seeds—aphrodisiac.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. dyspepsia. Syria. Konphir. Kanara. Ghats. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. used as an expectorant and astringent. vulnerary. Fruit is aromatic. Vitunnaka. Kothamir. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. aphrodisiac. stomachic. bleeding gums. Dharika. bronchitis. Hivija. pains in joints. maturant. removes bad humours. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Bark. LOC. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. headache. :—Cultivated throughout India. Sk. anthelmintic. eye-pains. tuberculous glands. DISTR. LOC. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). Satpudas. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. also cultivated. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). cooling. often planted.

crisped. Khandala. . red. Malay Islands.— tube short. Changalkashta. Bitusi. C. bracts ovate. Varvunna. LOC. Pinga. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. coughs and skin diseases.7-7. M. a tonic is prepared from it.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. Vayavarno. stem sub-woody at the base . HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. concave. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. China.—Aug. Ceylon. PARTS USED:—Root. " Kapha". sheaths coriaceous . nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Sk. lip white with yellow centre.-Oct. Nervele. lumbago. useful in catarrhal fevers.—15-30 X 5. H. hiccup (Ayurveda). India. Kumaraka. Fl. lobes ovate-oblong. Var. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. H. Pakarmula. mucronate. Vayavarna. spirally arranged. The plant yields an essential oil. Kashmira.—capsule. DISTR. S. useful in bronchitis. rheumatism. :—An erect plant 1. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm.— in very dense spikes. subequal. Kust. Chikke. :—Almost all over India (Assam. M. DISTR. root-stock tuberous. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Kemuka. and " Vata". Sd.7 m. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Shura. M. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Ajapa. Kushtha. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. S. Hadawarna. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. oblong. nalas. It is also astringent and digestive. subsessile. Mahakapittha. Pushkarmula. Karikuttu. CHAR. NS.:—Konkan ghats. LOC. :—More or less throughout India. Varno.2-2. See—Condiments and Spices. Fl. Varuna. FAM. globosely 3-gonous. COM. Country.—Capparidaceæ. Barna. L. also planted near Muslim tombs.5 cm. NS. inflammations. Var. COM. LOC. depurative. :—G. many. anæmia. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Sk. high. Varuna. t. Pushkarmula. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. in moist and shady places. silky-pubescent beneath. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Keu. Fr. fever. and aphrodisiac. Penva. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. Madhya Bharat. K. By the earliest writers. Castle Rock. K.— black with white aril. bright red. dyspepsia. FAM. Biliana. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. Bilpatri.—Scitamineæ.

act as rubefacient and vesicant. vesicant.9-1. strangury. anthelmintic. diseases of vagina. laxative. laxative. chest and blood diseases. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. linear lanceolate. Patra-pushpi. as long as the tube. it promotes appetite. laxative. carminative. NS. detergent. toothache. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). The plant contains saponin. Sk.5-18 cm. See—Timbers. perianth tube greenish-white. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Nag-damani. flat. emmenagogue. lung and spleen diseases.—Amaryllidaceæ. K. chest. 0. bright green. Pindar. tumours. linear. useful in biliousness. H. Fr. Bark promotes appetite. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. anthelmintic. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. Nagdavana. gonorrhœa. then sweet. . thin. diam. leaves. Sd. urinary discharges.. with a sheathing base. PARTS USED :—Root. tuberculous glands. Ceylon. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.—subglobose. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. useful in bronchitis. scape 45-90 cm. Kanwal. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. diuretic. vomiting. also wild. :—Throughout tropical India. good in strangury. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. Vishamungalli. Seeds—purgative. bracts 7. Nag-damani. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. Kanda-shalini. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used.—1 (rarely 2). In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. night-blindness. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. lumbago. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. FAM. long. bark. CHAR. antipyretic.—20-30. flowers and fruits.—15-50 in an umbel. bitter.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. cylindric. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. Chindar. increases secretion of bile. Tonic. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). LOC. USES:—Root is alterative. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . removes "Vata". Fl. Wild or cultivated. vulnerary.. Visha-Mandalamardini. leaves. aphrodisiac. COM. expectorant. white. stomachic. X 12. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. antilithic. bulb 5-10 cm. defective vision. and seeds.5 cm. found wild in North and South Konkan. Kanmu. M.:—G. digestive. Nagadown. heating. LOC. anuria. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. bechic. fragrant at night. urinary concretions. "Pitta" and "Kapha".5-10 cm. expectorant. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. beaked. DISTR. lobes 6. L.

USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Seeds contain an alkaloid. bark. LOC. Burma. Jamalgota . Sk. See—Timbers. Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. nauseant and diaphoretic. Konkan. Ganasur. Chota-Natpur. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. :—Naturalised in S. insanity. COM. :—H. NS. abdominal diseases. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. cathartic. LOC. fever. Burma. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. etc. near Junnar (Poona Dist). CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. good in sore eyes. Nepal. emetic. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. Oil from the seed is purgative. DISTR. Danti. Malay Islands. :—Sylhet. bruises and rheumatic swellings. excessive phlegm. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. China. tonic. Ceylon. G. As an application to sprains. The plant contains lycorin. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. K. COM. Chucka . Madhya Pradesh. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes.—Euphorbiaceæ. naturalised or cultivated. Bengal. carminative. See—Ornamental Plants. it is in great request. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani).—Euphorbiaceæ. inflammations. convulsions. Western Peninsula. in small doses. NS. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Jepal. leaves and seeds. . Jayapala.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. expectorant. Jamalgota. Ieucoderma. Oil cathartic. Sk. FAM. Nepala . Ceylon . :—Bengal. bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—E. M. Seeds cause burning sensation.. Japala. Assam to Malacca. H. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. Danti. :—Rare in the State. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Nepala. M. useful in mental troubles. Bhutankusam. Purging croton .

in ascites and anasarca. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. Chibdu Shakarteti. aphrodisiac. insanity. NS. Said to be truly wild in India. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. chronic fever. PARTS USED :—Root. Karkati. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. COM. oily.—Cucurbitaceæ. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. M. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. Valaka. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. fattening. Kakni. wholesome. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. fruit and seeds. insanity. See—Timbers. :—G. cures " Vata ". G. brain and body. Rind—vulnerary. Tarkakadi. Sk. bronchitis. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. COM. tonic. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. urinary discharges. convulsions. diaphoretic. K. &c. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. M. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. gives headache. galactagogue. FAM. LOC. Sweet melon . nutritive and diuretic. and lock-jaw. H. Chibuda. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. H. strengthens heart. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. ascites. laxative. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. Mutrala. Kharbuja. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. biliousness. Lomashi. dropsy. may cause indigestion. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—In Deccan. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). LOC. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. They are edible. ascites. It is given internally with great caution. NS. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. Sk. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. It is useful in apoplexy. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. MELO Var. Valungi. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds.:—E. Kakadi. Kharbuja. . Karkali. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. laxative. Ripe fruit—sweet. cooling. Kharbuja. Fruit—tonic. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. Kalangida. Mahanaracha Rasa. Melon. diuretic. obstinate constipation. Vrittervaru. allays fatigue. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. used in liver and kidney troubles. Shadrekha. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. synovitis. LOC. cures ophthalmia. Kakri. Pathira . Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. DISTR. Seeds—lachrymatory.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. thirst (Yunani). Shantanu. Kankadi. colic. Kachra. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. C. DISTR. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller.

— suborbicular. good for brain and body. allay thirst. Tansali. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). Seeds—diuretic. cooling. Chitravalli. Takamaki. Khira. Trapusha. hairy. antipyretic. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds. enrich blood. K. used in thirst. Mrigadani. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). strangury. NS. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Khira. Ripe one tonic. DISTR. fruits.—subglobose or ellipsoid. Kumbhakshi. stem slender. Santekayi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. Kothiban. indigestible. seeds.:—N. astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. LOC. Sk. rigid. Sk. biliousness. Fruit—fattening . male in clusters. CHAR. H. margined . stomachic. diuretic. H. lobes obovate. cures thirst. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. "Kapha" and flatulence. Cucumber. LOC. fatigue. pulp bitter. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). with 10 green longitudinal stripes. Fr. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. L. G. fever. Tavasa. Seeds possess cooling properties. angled.—June-Sept. They are nutritive. NS.—white. lobulate or dentate . Sudhavsa. Karit. dry. Sd.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. See—Vegetables. COM. Kakdi. Yunani). Sushitala. M.:—E. C. See-Fruit Trees. FAM. Hislambhi. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. roasted and powdered. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. Vishala. are administered in throat affections. B. :—G. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. cordate at the base. they are also used as diuretic. tendrils simple. India is considered to be the original home. causes "Vata". pale yellow when ripe.—Cucurbitaceæ. t. Fl. and C. . COM. female peduncle longer than male. FAM. purgative. Kankdi. melo var. :—A perennial climber. Seed oil used in fever.—yellow segments elliptic. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. utilissimus (Ayurveda. cures biliousness. LOC. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kakari. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. M. improve complexion.—monœcious . Cultivated in all parts of India.

DISTR. improves taste (Ayurveda). It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. See—Vegetables.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. NS. . LOC.—Cucurbitaceæ. Tambda bhopala. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. NS. In Malabar. :—Cultivated.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. unhealthy ulcers. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . cultivated in many parts of India. Kadimah. Afghanistan.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. Seeds are used as taeniacide. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Mithakaddu. allays thirst. stomachic. G. Kushmand. N. Ceylon. :—Throughout the greater part of India. B and C. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Dudia. Kashiphala. cures cough. HABITAT. DISTR. M. Fruit contains vitamins A. FAM. COM. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. LOC. : — E. Sk. Kumra. FAM . Dangari. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. increases " Vata" . Koron.:—Considered to be a native of America. fruit is used to prevent insanity. H. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. DISTR. H. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. astringent to bowels . Malaya. Dried fruit indigestible . Iran. etc. K. Australia. Vegetable marrow. LOC. Punyalata. USES. Red squash gourd. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. M. Melon pumpkin. LOC. indigestible. Bhopala. Kumbala. fruits and seeds. carbuncles. Safedkaddu . on hedges. COM. :—E. Pumpkin. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. G. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Kaddu. K. PARTS USED :—Root. Kushmand. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. Kumbala.—Cucurbitaceæ. Pitakushmand. increases " Vata ". PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. tonic. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Karkarn.

appetiser. LOC. M. emmenagogue. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. purifies blood (Ayurveda). beneficial in consumption. Dipaka. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. tonic. anthelmintic. thirst. and the root for making these more potent. relieves hiccup. biliousness.—Umbelliferæ. antidysenteric. tonic. Sk. COM. :—E. See—Condiments and Spices. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. carminative. cooling. NS. See—Vegetables. Ajjika. astringent to bowels. M. analgesic. fever. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. COM. carminative. allays thirst. also a lactagogue. PARTS USED :—Fruit. stomachic. LOC. Mushalikand . Jire. Leaves—digestible. Kalimusali. diuretic and demulcent. Jiru. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. leucoderma. DISTR. bronchitis. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. uterine stimulant. Sk. fruit and seeds. tonic to intestine. enlargment of the spleen. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. asthma. Jirige. Talamulika. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Girautmi. Jira. ft contains vitamins A and C. Kapha " and " Vata ". Musali. FAM. increases appetite . applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. Kalimusali. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. K. carminative. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. throat and eyes. inflammations. astringent to bowels. leprosy.—Amaryllidaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. abortifacient. cures haemoptysis. H. . Kalimusali. stops epistaxis . gonorrhœa. cures leprosy. cure haemoptysis. heals corneal opacities. fever. Cumin. Dirghaka. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. fattening. G. Seeds anthelmintic. Neladati. :—G. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). laxative. astringent. vulnerary. good for teeth. K. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Zira. sweet. FAM. Neltati gadde.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. Gaurajerka. Fruit—very cooling. scabies. antipyretic. H. remove biliousness. Fruit yields an essential oil. fatigue. Seeds—diuretic. NS. Cures " Vata " tumours. Fruit astringent. ulcers. eye-diseases. belching . Seeds are taeniacide. haematinic. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. aphrodisiac. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. alexipharmic.

LOC.5 cm. gonorrhœa.3-2. Root—carminative. LOC. . Peninsula. Fl.—sessile or petiolate. hiccup. during convalescence after acute illness.:—Sweet. fatigue. :—Bengal. asthma. COM. emollient. antipyretic. Bengal. Fl. L. G. distichous. flowering bract greenish-white.8-5 cm. useful in bronchitis. alterative. Java. gleet. Mango-ginger. :—Stemless herb. 30-45x7. K. t. rhizome. t. cylindric or ellipsoid. Malay Archipelago. :—Konkan and Gujarat.:—W. pale yellow inside . colic. Bitter. Karpuraharidra. L. scabies. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. shining . HABITAT :—Hotter regions. linear or linear-lanceolate . Kanara. vomiting. Fr. Fl. appetising. piles. indigestion. often cultivated. fattening. NS. W. antipyretic. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. tubers thick. PROPERTIES AND USES. Assam. sessile. all skin-diseases. DISTR. hydrophobia. bronchitis. gonorrhœa. useful in biliousness. Ambahaldi. tips sometimes rooting. jaundice. lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. oblong. M. causes "Vata". Ambehalad. cooling. :—E. Amhaladi. useful in inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers.— May-June. pains in joints (Yunani). hairy on the back. laxative. very short. C—white or very pale-yellow. lumbago. scape. Sd. oblong.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar .-Sept. oblong lanceolate. diarrhœa.— in autumnal spikes 7..— in racemes. DISTR. CHAR. aphrodisiac. Amragandha. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. perianth segments elliptic. :—Konkan and N. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. stomatitis (Yunani).—capsule.—grooved. tonic. expectorant. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac .5-15 X 3. troubles in the mouth and ear.—long petioled in tufts. FAM. maturant.5-12. H. antipyretic. diarrhœa. ophthalmia. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). ulcers on penis. with a beak . Ambahaladara. useful in piles. Fl. Kapurahaldi. " Vata". Sk. bitter. 1545 X 1. aphrodisiac. alterative and tonic. common at the beginning of rains. clavate . gleet. biliousness.5 cm. lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. root stock large. appetiser. appetiser. PARTS USED :—Root. debility and impotence. aphrodisiac. alexiteric. black. :—A small herb. yellow. diuretic.—Scitamineæ. inflammations (Ayurveda). LOC. Peninsula. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma.

Halad. . variegated above. H. lobes pale-rose. L. Jayanti. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Mangalya. NS. M. :—E. appetiser . annulate. Halad. Varnadatri. flowering bracts cymbiform. Sk. Banhaladi. lip yellow. palmately branched.—Scitamineæ. flowers fragrant. Halada. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. sessile. Turmeric.-May. used as an application for skin-diseases. 3lobed. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). :—Stemless herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC.—tube 2. Fl. G. Vanarishta. long. also stomachic. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. Sometimes cultivated. LOC. Ran-halad. DISTR. CHAR. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. long. biennial. LOC.. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. DISTR.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. Arishina. sometimes cultivated.5 cm. It is considered tonic and carminative. Vanhaldara. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . PARTS USED :—Tubers. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. Indian saffron. green. t. LOC. C. appearing before leafing stem. Aranyaharidra.—Scitamineæ. Kapur-kachali. Also cultivated in Konkan. CURCUMA LONGA Linn. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Sholi. pale green. FAM. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Yellow Zedoary. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo.— flowering stem sheathed. K. NS. Sk. COM. Fl. forming pouches for the flowers. rounded at the tips. upper half funnel-shaped. Harita. M. base deltoid. Haridra. COM. :—E. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. Sholika. See—Condiments and Spices. Bengal. it is seldom used alone . H. root-stock large. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. the dorsal longer. in spikes 15-30 cm. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. :—Western Peninsula. lateral lobes oblong. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. oblong elliptic or lanceolate. G. Banharidra. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.

K. flowers yellow in spikes. bitter. piles. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing.—funnel shaped. 3-gonous. L. Kachuri. cylindric. In small-pox and chicken-pox. oblong. urinary discharges. urinary discharges.—4-6 with long petioles. blood diseases. externally applied to leech-bites. odour like camphor. long.—capsule. C. an alkaloid. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. alexiteric. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. Karechura. bruises. bruises.—Scitamineæ. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. sprains (Ayurveda). emollient. heating. useful in leucoderma. scabies. vulnerary. said to be Wild in E. The plant contains curcumin. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. destroys foulness of breath. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. Zedoary. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment.:—E. DISTR. CHAR. lobed . swellings. Sk. bronchitis. Narakachora. bruises (Yunani). Kachora. Fl. alexiteric. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. Hakhir. jaundice. Fr. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. appearing before the leaves. used in prurigo. useful in " Kapha". small-pox. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. bitter. Bitter. long. itches etc. H. fumes are used during hysteric fits . lip 3-lobed. COM. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. "Vata ". leucoderma. and yields an essential oil. root-stock of palmately branched. good for liver affections. Shathi. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. internally administered in blood disorders. heating. Gandhamulaka sara. 30-60 cm. LOC. fragrant. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. inflammations. appetiser. scabies. boils and urticaria. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . taste bitterish spicy. It contains vitamin A. oblong-lanceolate. pale-yellow inside. LOC. coma-bract crimson or purple . Jatala. anthelmintic. In coryza. M. anthelmintic. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. diuretic. Tuber is used as a stimulant. :—Cultivated in the State. clothed with sheaths. laxative. G. Kachora. deepyellow. HABITAT :—Cultivated. FAM . vulnerary. improves complexion. NS. :—Stemless herb. Himalayas and Chittagong. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. boils. flowering bract green tinged with red . carminative. annulate tubers. See—Condiments and Spices.— flowering stem 20-25cm. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . Kachari. asthma. maturant. . clouded with purple down the middle.

emmenagogue. H. and is of great value in cholera. leprosy. Takratrina. Lemon grass. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. alexipharmic. midrib whitish on the upper side. It is an excellent stomachic to children. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. G. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). applied to bruises and sprains. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. laxative. Purhati hullu. gastric irritability. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. bitter. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. LOC. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. tuberculous glands of neck. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. alexipharmic. erect. appetiser. expectorant. neuralgia. glaucous green. toothache (Yunani). it is also a good application for ringworm. M. LOC. Majjige hullu. DISTR. upto over 90 cm. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. CHAR. probably of Indian origin. epileptic fits. LOC. anthelmintic. sheaths of the culm tight. laxative. inflammations. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. Externally it is rubefacient. Bhustrina. good odour. hot. stimulant and carminative. Ligule very short. Gavati-chaha. Gandhatrina. L. Sk. Bitter. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. pains. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. tonic to brain and heart. sharp. furunculosis. emetic. also used as a tonic and depurative. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins.. carminative. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice is given in leprosy.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Lilicha.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state.8 m. It is also aromatic. aphrodisiac. sheaths terete . of much use in typhoid fevers. long. sharp hot taste. culm stout. useful in bronchitis. chronic rheumatism. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. nodding.—Gramineæ. sprains. FAM. Tubers yield an essential oil. . and other painful affections. enlargement of spleen. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. high. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic.—linear tapering upwards to a point. others narrow and separating. Putigandha. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. :—A tall perennial. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels.:—E. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. long. up to over 1. it is stimulant. PARTS USED :—Leaves. K. velvety at the nodes. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. NS. carminative. useful in griping of children. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane.

narrowly linear. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. Fr. Rhusghas. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Sk. slender. Saugandhika.—throughout the year. green or purplish. S. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass. Bahuvirya. vomiting. Durva. Mangala.—Gramineæ. Shatagranthi. Fl. high. 1 mm. sheaths tight. LOC. W. glaucous beneath. Roshagavat. long. soft. 12-18 mm.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. thirst. finely acute.000 m. CHAR. stem. Africa to Morocco. L. COM.—Oct.—2-10 cm.5-5 cm. Vasanchullu. G. Fl. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. epileptic fits. Garikehallu. leafy. with erect flowering branches 7. through N. upto 2. Ghats. Konkan. M. heart diseases. long. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Shyamaka.—grain. pains. oblique or divaricate.. stem.5-2. :—E.—spikes 2-nate. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. sweet. Rohisha. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. Burma. FAM. bad taste in the mouth. L. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. :—Cosmopolitan . high.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Sind. useful in fevers. DISTR. usually broad. LOC. Dhoboghas. leprosy. DISTR. Gujarat.4 m. long. long. Bhutika. Deccan. Harali. Dhro. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. M. bronchitis. COM. :—Punjab. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. forming matted tufts. K. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. See-Oils. Baluchistan. straw coloured. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. burning sensation. X 1 cm.:—Grows all over the State.5-30 cm. subcordate or rounded at the base.t. H. Roshdo. G. Fl. 1. prostrate . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. NS. LOC.-Nov. skin . Bujina. hallucinations. Durba. throat troubles. Mirchiagand. scabies. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). particularly the Deccan trap areas. Fl. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. cooling. t. Afghanistan. CHAR.3 cm. Gharo. carminative. Durva. smooth. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. pungent. Country. :—Sourashtra. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Rohisha. :—E. bitter.—Gramineæ. K. most warm countries. FAM. Kobbar. Sk. H. in the Himalayas. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. throughout India. widely creeping. wide below.—flat. Geramium grass. :—A perennial grass . NS. leprosy. fatigue. Shatamula. useful in biliousness. margins scabrid.

t.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. acrid. diaphoretic. :—Throughout India. stomatitis. juice is used in hysteria. cooling. urinary concretions (Yunani). trigonous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. diarrhœa. expectorant. . A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. Fl. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. Tungegaddo. it is diuretic. LOC. Granthi. useful for ulcers and sores.. anthelmintic. Motha. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. fevers. blood diseases. Bimbal. diarrhœa. Koranarigadde. most hot countries. They are also diuretic and stimulant. Mustaka. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. astringent.5 cm.—Cyperaceæ. dysentery. vomiting. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. useful in vomiting. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. Tubers yield an essential oil. :—G. Fl. epistaxis. FAM. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. K. burning sensation. greyish black. M. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. narrowly linear. stolons elongate. Bitterish. Nut—broadly ovoid. difficult to eradicate. vulnerary. epilepsy and insanity. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Mutha. NS. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. vulnerary. See—Fodder Plants. epilepsy. bruises. Motha. emmenagogue. biliousness. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers.82.— in simple or compound umbel. hiccup (Yunani). very troublesome weed.. fever. thirst. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. PARTS USED :—Tubers. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. anthelmintic. COM. DISTR. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. Motha. :—Glabrous herb. LOC. dysentery. Kachhola. H.—shorter or longer than the stem. blood diseases. stomachic. ophthalmia. Ceylon. Sk Bhadramusta. 0. L. CHAR. In Ceylon. LOC. dyspepsia. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. Root— diuretic. fever. useful in leprosy. pain. epistaxis (Ayurveda).—Sept-Nov. Sugandhi-granthila. erysipelas. biliousness. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. USES :—Roots are commonly. appetiser. spikelets 10-50 flowered. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . Nagarmotha. pruritis.

double. Gujarat. COM. paralytic ileus. Sd. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . Sk. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. spur acute. Sd. and sub-involution of the uterus. G. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Kariyu-Um-Matta. LOC. diam. e.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. NS. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals.g. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. S. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. across. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". CHAR. usually pubescent. a glucoside. subglobose.5 cm. Unmatta. M.—7. Phalakantak. t. Kanaka.—purple outside. Fl.—follicle. Fl.—Aug. Ns.:—E. broadly ovate or suborbicular. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle. Fr.—Solanaceæ. L. outer truncate. 18 cm. Fl. Country.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. white inside. Black-Purple datura. L. tubular. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. nodding. COM.-Jany.5 cm. yellowish brown. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. glabrous above. inner curved high over the staminal column.—thin. M. on curved stalk 3. Rajdhattura. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. Bhranta. stem hairy. Kala-dhotara.5-15 X 3. ciliate. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. entire or with large teeth or lobes. ovate. Fl. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. soft spiny. green. afterwards racemose.—Sept-Dec. covered with straight sharp prickles. Fr. Ceylon. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes.—many. beak long. divaricately branched. FAM. long. .—capsule. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. reflexed. lobes spreading. Administered after the third stage of labour. LOC. t. velvety pubescent beneath.—Asclepiadaceæ. funnel-shapped. :—Annual shrub. :—H. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. solitary. Sk. long 10-20.2-7. Kaladhatura. Utran. somewhat zigzag. greenish-yellow or dull-white. packed.— tubular. very unequal at the base. acute. HABIT :—A common weed. CHAR. Utarni.2 cm. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. DISTR. :—A perennial twining herb. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. high. C. Kanaka. FAM. :—Deccan. corona outer and inner. Kaladhatura. 30-60 cm. K: Dhattura..

Gajra. PARTS USED :—Root. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. chronic coughs. black variety is considered to be more powerful. cause headache (Yunani). painful tumours. heating.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. bronchitis. Leaf-juice is given internally. G. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. Cultivated in many parts of India. relieves pain. bitter.—Umbelliferæ COM. Gajar. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. jaundice. Carrot. useful in leucoderma. and antispasmodic properties. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. leaves and seeds. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. LOC. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. biliousness. febrifuge. emetic. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. FAM. H. :—E. Leaf poultice. . toddy. Shikkikanda. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. Garjara. digestive and heating. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. headache. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. anthelmintic. mumps etc. GranthiPinda-Mula. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. USES :—Out of the two varieties. M. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. HABITAT :—Cultivated. equal in effect to atropine. :—Throughout the tropics. leaves and seeds. with curdled milk. Europe.. ganja. Gajjari. nodes. LOC. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. to increase their stupefying effect. black (Kala) and white (Safed). Seeds—narcotic. skin-diseases. nosetrouble. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. enlargement of testicles and boils. toxic. piles. K. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. Gajar. emetic. Sk. anodyne. NS. aphrodisiac. majum. PARTS USED :—Roots. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. tonic. (Ayurveda). ulcers. DISTR. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. in combination with subja. febrifuge. alexiteric. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. in gonorrhœa. anthelminitic . The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. Gajar. The plant as a whole has narcotic. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. The whole plant is narcotic. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache.

asthma. Salpani. pains. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). cough. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. joints 6-8. Dirghamula. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. See—Vegetables.2 m. L.. " Vata". It is used in fevers. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. biliousness. hiccup. used in bronchitis. bronchitis. B and C. Malay Peninsula and Islands . good for liver. K. Darh. anthelmintic. good for inflammation. M. Salwan. Philippines. alterative. :—A woody undershrub. USES :—Externally. stomachic. paler and hairy beneath. PARTS USED :—Root. hairy. fattening. cures biliousness. M. biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic.—in terminal or axillary racemes. removes " Kapha". " Tridosha ". piles. Fr. t. inflammations. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. Kanara . high. Root marmalade is refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. LOC. thirst. hooked hairy. aphrodisiac. piles. H. LOC. Salwan. Sk. astringent to bowels. tumours. antidysenteric. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . Salwan. Roots contain vitamins A. Salpan. sub-falcate. vomiting and asthma. CHAR. DISTR. boiled with honey and fermented. diuretic. Ceylon. upper edge straight. urinary complaints. asthma.—pod. expectorant.—May-July. NS. Fl. alexipharmic. they produce a spirituous liquor. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. dysentery . :—Konkan and N.—onefoliate. Burma. burning sensation. astringent to bowels. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani).6-1. they are also diuretic. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. prevents death of fœtus in womb . throughout India. ovate-oblong. COM. Deccan and S. cardiotonic. tropical Africa. Fl. membranous. carminative. thirst. 0. FAM. LOC. Vidarigandha. margins wavy. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. cures leprosy. urinary discharges. Salparni. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. green and glabrous above. cures typhoid. stems and branches angled. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. Tonic. Country. vomiting. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. . indigestible. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). chronic affections of chest and lungs. tonic. useful in chronic fevers. Kitavinashini. other fevers. chest troubles. China. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. nausea (Yunani). Ranbhal. Murele-honne.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. vomiting. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. :— G. aphrodisiac. Shaliparni. C—violet or white. standard cuneate at the base .

useful in blood diseases. stems 30-90 cm. stolon very stout. Sacred Plants. Tendu. Syria. Makurkendi. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda).) FAM.—G. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). L. DISTR. Sk. Gujarat. Sk. :—Perennial tall grass. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Wild mangosteen. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. -panicle 15-45 X 1. LOC. fruit and seeds. Anilsara. reaching 50 cm. NS. H. Egypt.—Dec. high. branches short crowded. biliousness. bark. stout. . diuretic.3-3. diseases of blood. Tumari. thirst. strangury. Gavandu. oleaginous. M. LOC. LOC. rigid. vesical calculi. Kalatendu.8 cm. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Thailand (Siam). Gale. Timbwini. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. FAM. NS. the basal fascicled. rootstock stout. Pavitra. margins hispid. Fruit—oleaginous. K. Fl. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. diseases of bladder. interrupted. Sphurjaka. creeping. in the beds of rivers and streams. :—Throughout India. Wood cures biliousness. cures ulcers and " Vata". clothed with sessile spikelets. Darbha. :—Along the coasts of N. G. jaundice. Darbha. Tinduka. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. DISTR. M. ligule a hairy line . skin eruptions. H. Tumaki Mara. smooth. Kusha. Davoli. Malay Archipelago. tufted.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. used in biliousness and blood diseases. erect.—Gramineæ. Nubia. COM. Zeeberwo.—many. flowers. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Wood. Dabha.. covered with shining sheaths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. aphrodisiac. Temburni. astringent to bowels. t. sheaths glabrous. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Banda. asthma. CHAR. :—E. COM.—Ebenaceæ. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. sedative to pregnant uterus. Kanara and the Konkan. Kalaskandh. Dab. heating. Riber ebony.:—Saurashtra. cooling. good for lumbago. Fl. Konkan. Durva. vomiting. vaginal discharges. Flowers—aphrodisiac. erect pyramidal or columnar. branched from the base. See—Fodder Plants. long.

Country—Belgaum. fattening. :—Rhizome creeping. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. hot. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. pain in liver. tumours. strangury. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Surfaces naked. piles. :—M. Kulathi. ovate. NS. :—E. CHAR. Sk. eye troubles. abdominal complaints. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Kulthi. Sk. Ashvakatri. G.—Polypodiaceæ. Kulit. LOC. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. Tans. cures " Kapha". DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. bronchitis.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. M. K. Wandar bashing. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. enlargement of spleen. PARTS USED :—Seeds. FAM. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. Konkan— Ratnagiri. Horse-Gram. Jurali. leucoderma. Kulith. Hurali. intestinal colic. removes stone from kidney. "Vata". Sori two in each primary areole. . Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. causes biliousness (Yunani). M. cordate. stout. short. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements.Gahat. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. HABITAT :—Cultivated. generally on trees and rocks. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Kalvrinta. cures hiccup. Basingh. astringent to bowels. Kulitha. H. See-Food Plants. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. antipyretic. Bijapur and Dharwar. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Kulithaka. piles. grown to a certain extent in S. Diuretic. FAM. Sitetara. It is demulcent in calculus affection. NS. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. acrid. emmenagogue. DISTR. inflammation. :—Tropics of the old world. improves complexion. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. heart-troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. variously lobed. diseases of the brain and eyes. coughs etc. Texture membranaceous to leathery. ozoena. COM. asthma. appetiser. liver troubles. dry. base decurrent on the stipe. urinary discharges. Grains contain vitamin A. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. COM. Kulthi. densely clothed with red-brown scales. anthelmintic. Nasik. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. hiccup. fertile ones long stalked.

PARTS USED :—Root and plant. wooly beneath. antipyretic. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. thirst. hectic fever. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb.—Compositæ. Konkan. urinary discharges. Ajagara. Bhringraj. Deccan. . C. L. pappus short. L. H. FAM. densely villous. Utakatara. M. Plant stomachic.—sessile. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. cooling. :—Kanara. oblong. t. Utkanta. involucre. Kantaphala. FAM. increases appetite. stems and branches strigose and hairy. Fl. improves taste. Utkantaka. LOC. dyspepsia and cough. :—G. Dadhal.3—0. chronic fever. M. diseases of heart. astringent to bowels . Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). cottony. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Fr. high. dyspepsia. long. CHAR. Afghanistan.—heads white. analgesic. globose. DISTR. strigose and hairy. gleet. spiny. the lobes triangular and oblong.— Nov. Maka. H. sinuate and spinescent. Keshrangana. Markara.5 cm. sessile.:—Throughout India. M. K. inflammations. " Vata". aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). also cultivated to a certain extent. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. NS. Garagadasoppu. used in ophthalmia. LOC. glabrous above. usually oblong-lanceolate. 0. hysteria. Utkatara. Sk. Root— abortifacient. spines 2. subentire. Kalobhangro . Bhangra. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. Kadechubak. :—More or less throughout India. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. tonic. DISTR. pain in joints. Bhangro.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. Shulio. Sunilaka. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. S. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. COM. yellowish. often rooting at the nodes.-Jany. useful in brain-diseases. bitter.— opposite. causes " Kapha".—Compositæ. Sk. Balari.9 m. Mochand.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Seeds—wholesome. Kadigga-garaga. bracts 3seriate. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. hot. Bhangra. surrounded by strong white bristles. It is used in hoarse cough. Utanti.—achene obconic. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Country. COM. used in strangury. :—A much branched rigid annual. stimulates liver. Pitripriya. CHAR.—limb linear. cottony pubescent. Fl. LOC. NS. branches widely spreading from the base. Utkanto. :—G. deeply pinnatifid. Kantalu.

cultivated. Bitter . prevents abortion and miscarriage. t. Fl. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. C—often 4-toothed . In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. fevers. a reputed and popular liver tonic. Malaya. Gourangi. Bahula. anthelmintic. Ela. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. good for complexion. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. Yalakki. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). Panjab. See—Sacred Plants. Kanara (Siddapur. expectorant. good for spleen diseases. eyes.—Scitaminaceæ. night blindness. hot. Karangi. Sk. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. liver pain. cures vertigo (Yunani). "Vata". Fr. . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. bronchitis. :—E. NS. improves colour of hair. Peninsula). M. hemi-crania. Burma. :—Western valleys of N. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. it is powdered and applied externally. hair.:—India (Bengal. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. pappus 0. toothache. LOC. alexipharmic. hernia. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis.—in heads. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. There are two forms erect and prostrate.-Dec. H. "Kapha". and for strengthening gums. Triputa. lustre of eyes.. internal diseases. LOC. Sind. stomatitis. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. DISTR. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. disk ones tubular . Veldoda. syphilis. involucral bracts about 8 . cuneate with a narrow wing. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. K. alterative. ray flowers ligulate.—achene. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . Ilaji. Elachi. Ceylon. Velchi. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. fattening. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). W. Choti-Elachi. anæmia. axillary. Madhya Bharat. stomachic. teeth. G. heart and skin diseases. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. COM. Gandhkuti. It is given internally in scalding of urine. eye diseases.— Oct. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. tonic. cures inflammations. antipyretic. solitary or 2 together. Chandrabala. FAM. leucoderma.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. asthma. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. It relieves headache when applied with oil.

useful in head. cause biliousness . clear head. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. pungent. Jantughna. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. FAM. Vidariga. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). fragrant. COM. alexiteric . India. useful in asthma. most suitable to hard-working classes. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. H. Pavaka. stomachic. bad humours of liver. LOC. Makra. K. chest and throat (Yunani). It is said to be astringent. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. Grains contain vitamin B. M. Bhasmaka. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. scabies. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Condiments and Spices. fruit is tonic. Boberang. ear and tooth ache. Vayuvitang. carminative. diuretic. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). rich or poor. FAM. DISTR. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. cooling. H. diseases of bladder. Rotka.:—G. laxative. piles. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. Bidanga. Ragi. root is laxative and tonic. tonic. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. Varding. LOC. causes thirst. Marua. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. It is stomachic. bitter. Vavading. In S. abortifacient.—Gramineæ. Nagali. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. Kanisha. kidney.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. stimulant and emmenagogue. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. fruit and seeds. cooling. lessens inflammation. . diuretic. Narttaka. :— G. K. NS. Vavoding. useful in biliousness. strangury. cultivated. consumption.. bronchitis. Navalo-nagali. Nachani. LOC.:—Western and S. PARTS USED :—Grain. stomachic. brain and mouth. See-Food Plants. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Sk. pruritus. CUM. Rajika. NS.—Myrsinaceæ. Bavato. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. tonic to heart. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. Wavrung. Seed—fragrant. Sk.

sour. nearly globose. shining above. Amlika. Anola. greenish yellow. Dhatriphala. Seed— acrid. H. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. K.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ambala. :—Throughout India. Fr. like a pepper corn when dried. coriaceous. diseases of heart. S. fruit and seeds. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. carminative. with a sharp bitter taste. Avala. COM. (Dymock). erysipelas. carminative. . poisoning. bronchitis. Ceylon. leprosy. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. Fl. Ceylon. cures tumours. smooth. often planted in Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—A large scandent shrub. alterative. hemicrania. dry. Daula . fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. Konkan and N. Dadi. M. purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. bark studded with lenticels .—Feb. Amla. cures bronchitis . alexiteric. good for plethoric constitution. Deccan. Western Ghats. inflammations. aphrodisiac. Malaya. Adiphala. removes bad humours from body (Yunani).—berry. G. elliptic-lanceolate. vulnerary. useful in burning sensation. many. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. slender. black when ripe. anthelmintic .96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. anthelminitic. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . racemes minute. bronchitis. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. t. mental diseases. Embelic myrobalan. Anward. alterative. Dhatri. alexiteric. Sk. LOC. NS. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. S. LOC. " Tridosha ". L. biliousness. antipyretic. dyspnoea. HABITAT :—Rain forests. analgesic. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). succulent. :— E. Fl. branches long. useful in asthma. wild or planted. Int. anuria. Bitter. Bhoza . ascites. et. DISTR.) FAM. Pharm. tonic. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. internodes long. Triphala. jaundice. Paranjpe and G. flexible. Nellika . It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. Ther. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. thirst. strangury. " Kapha'. paler and silvery beneath. DISTR.—in lax panicles. urinary discharges. good appetiser. Kanara. leaves. Malay Islands. piles. constipation. 42-II-1932). Amalaka. K. sweats. anæmia. PARTS USED :—Fruit. PARTS USED :—Root. urinary discharges. China. :—Hilly parts of the State. dries wound discharges . Arch. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). LOC. flowers. laxative. bark. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). vomiting. Gokhale. laxative. reddens urine. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. cooling. China.—alternate. Amlika.

Chhotakirayat.— capsule. Grey). Country. R. diuretic and laxative. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Tanavadi. DISTR. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. Fruit—acrid. Fl. L. Dyes. expectorant. aperient. narrowed at the base. Malaya. Tans. cold in the nose. Doddakampi. cooling. West Indies. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". :—A perennial glabrous herb. Unripe fruit is cooling. LOC. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. Nagajivha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. tonic. opposite. branched from the base. Mabhipaka. Garambi. stems erect or procumbent. Kadvinayi. :—G. used as laxative and astringent.). stops nasal hæmorrhage. S. sour. astringent. :—E.—sessile.-Nov. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. Fruit Trees. LOC. See—Timbers. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. M. K. Saurashtra. Lady nut. bark and fruit are astringent. liver complaints. tropical Africa. M. sub-quadrangular or terete. COM. Garbe. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Mamejavo . anthelmintic. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. H. eye troubles. M. Sind. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. :—Konkan.—sessile. biliousness. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Fr. 3-nerved. Ind.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). 10—50 cm. Tiktapatra. high.—Aug. lobes 5. Gujarat. LOC. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. vulnerary. Mackary bean. C—infundibuliform. COM. mid-nerve strong. Giant's rattle. Hallekayiballi. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. Nahu. Fl. CHAR. thirst. :—Throughout the greater part of India. piles.—Gentianaceæ. white. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. Celyon. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. FAM. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. ellipsoid. t. NS. Madvinashi. improves appetite. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). useful in heart-diseases. purifies body humours (Yunani). USES :—Root. Sk. rounded apex. Dried fruits. variable. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation.) FAM. . NS.

in debility and glandular swellings . Pangara. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. dark green. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. slightly curved. Salaki.—yellow. Mochi-wood. leaflets 7-5 x 2. L. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Pangara. Nepal. branches terete. W. 30-90 cm. N. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. shining and brown. indented between the seeds. Fl. Ceylon. stalked. Bangaro. Phandra . long. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). along sea-coast above high-water. C. they are given internally as an emetic. 4. G. LOC. Planted as support for pepper vines. oblong or obovate. Peninsula. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. thick. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. diam.) FAM. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Indian coral-tree. Arakan. Panjira. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). Sk. t. . 3. Sd. cure urinary discharges. Tennaserim.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm.3-2 cm.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.. K. Panderavo.. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. Pegu. improve appetite. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril.5-5-7 cm. Mandara. COM. for grapevines in Nasik district. Mullumurige. Fl. Dadap.5-10 cm.S. The plant is used as a fish-poison. long. Mandara. Sundribans. rigidly coriaceous. anthelmintic. M. bark used in dysentery. Kantakinshuka. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. stomachic. :—E. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. glabrous. the tropics generally. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. inflammations. Planted as ornament.—6-15. Andamans and Nicobar. flowers. hot. orbicular. Raktapushpa. DISTR. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. Kanara. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". LOC.-May. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Panarvo. Hongara.. mixed with spices. Fr. Var. :—Coast forests of Malabar. pinnae 2—3 pairs. H.—2pinnate. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. PARTS USED :—Root. bark.—pod. Leaves—bitter. woody. :—Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. often along river banks. wide and 3-8 cm. compressed. smooth. leaves. Paribhadra. DISTR. ORIENTALIS Merr. Halivan. USES :—Powdered kernel.— Mar.7-5x7.

t. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. Vajradruma. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. Sahud. branches often 4-angled. H. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections.—Euphorbiaceæ. gland minute. Sc. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. :— E. bowel complaints and cough in children. M. Dudhi. Dudanali. dark green above. The plant contains an alkaloid. H. Milk hedge. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . Sendh. —throughout the year.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. G. reddish brown. Indian tree spurge. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. serrulate or dentate. Sher. Achchegida.—involucres numerous. Australian asthma herb.—capsule. Pusitoa. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Fr. Govardhan. pale beneath.—Euphorbiaceæ. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Sd. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. base unequal-sided. Dandasruha. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. L. Nagpur 1931). FAM. 15-50 cm. Bahukshira. NS. appressedly hairy. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Kodukalli. 18th Ind. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dudhi. erect or ascending. Dandalio thora. COM. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. See—Timbers. Bottugalli. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. K. Milk bush. Ceylon. LOC. K. with or without a limb. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Sk. FL.) FAM. . EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. G. CHAR. Sk.—opposite. high. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Duddi. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. M. Pill-bearing spurge. NS. and to relieve pain of the joints. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Nevli. Cong. :—Annual herb. Mondukalli. Dudhi. COM. rugose.—ovoid-trigonous. it is anthelmintic. globose. Fl. Paradeshi thora . Shirthahar. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. :—E. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.

LOC. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. t. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils.—ovoid. long. stems many. useful in bronchitis. axillary. LOC. Sd. branchlets whorled. jaundice. terete. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. Juice is purgative. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. smooth. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. Kalisankhavali. useful in abdominal troubles. cocci velvety. brightens intellect. :—A perennial herb. K. tonic. mostly female. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. dyspepsia. carminative. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . biliousness. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk.—many. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). long (appearing in rainy season) . leprosy. and with oil to promote growth of hair. tropical and sub-tropical countries. usually clothed with long hairs . branches erect. about 6 m. Fl. spreading. asthma. polished. Vishnukranti. thick like quill. silky hairy. Vishnukranta. :—Sind. smooth. Sk. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. The plant contains an alkaloid. Fr. useful in gonorrhœa. DISTR. :—G. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. stone in bladder (Yunani). :—A small tree. leprosy and leucorrhoea. FAM. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. alexiteric. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. DISTR. solitary or sometimes 2. employed to raise blisters. thin. pungent. t. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. Fl. :—Native of East Africa. Shyamakranta . Ceylon. Nilpushpi. enlargement of spleen. wiry. linear.-light blue. Konkan and Gujarat. campanulate. LOC. colic. alterative. 4valved. high. milk is alexiteric. whooping cough. anthelmintic. base acute.-Aug. carminative. CHAR. teething of infants . Sd— glabrous.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Vishnukranta. COM. NS. peduncles very long. L. leucoderma.—capsule. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. naturalised in India.—small. almost leafless. Fr. useful in biliousness. . rootstock woody . more than 5 cm. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. Fl. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. M. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. elliptic-oblong. :—Throughout the State. 6-13 mm. prostrate.—Convolvulaceæ. epilepsy. dropsy. Jhinkiphudardi.— capsule. LOC. Vishnugandhi. globose.-July-Nov. L.-Sep. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. H. also as an alterative.

Ustarkhar. yellowish brown. Dhamaso . FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. scarcely branched. Ind. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. acute. reaching 60 cm. 1-3 foliate. Arabia. Barachirayat. westwards to Afghanistan. Country. smooth. Atmamuli. Iran. small.-Oct.—very variable in size and form sessile. :—Madras State.— ovoid. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. fever. Ghats. it has got cooling properties. Deccan hills and S.— showy. Dusparsha. high. t. spitting of blood. Mediterranean.—solitary. Waziristan. stem. COM. removes "Vata. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. ellipsoid.). :—G.—Gentianaceæ. 5-nerved. emmenagogue. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. the middle the largest. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. Bark is used in scabies. Sd. of 5. stomatitis. toothache.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. in chronic bronchitis. pyramidal to the apex. CHAR. Cooling. alexipharmic.—Zygophyllaceæ. Fl. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). L. M. ovate. deeply 5-partite. sessile. long. root fibrous.-Dec. DISTR. Circars. obliquely obovate. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter. erysipelas. more or less glandular. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers.—opposite. reduces tumours. C—lobes 4-5. cooling. M. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. :—An erect annual. :—Konkan. Maval. Hinguna. Coimbatore. removes "Vata". N. :— Sind. NS. Baluchistan. also used in chronic fevers. good for liver troubles. Fr. Fl. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . shining. DISTR.2 cm. Udichirayat. COM. LOC. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. asthma. glandular hairy. Fr.-Nov. t. Fl. FAM. purifies blood (Ayurveda). quadrangular. the upper blue. Dhamasa. Gujarat. Sk. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FL. vomiting. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Rajasthan. W. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. in copious terminal cymes . FAM. 1-seeded cocci. LOC. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. leaflets linear. L. Mysore. Kashaya. urinary discharges. ophthalmia. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat." asthma. Upper Gangetic plains. about 1. CHAR. typhoid. pale rose-coloured. thirst. . Prabhodhini. Dhanavi. lower half white.-Aug. arising from between the stipules . NS. petioles deeply striate. smooth. elliptic or lanceolate.—capsule. M. cures dysentery. flattened. Punjab. :— H. H.

often cultivated. Kavit. astringent. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Fruit—sour .—coriaceous. ovate to elliptic. difficult to digest. :—Indigenous in S. asthma. Jatala. Balin. female. COM. shining above. Kathel. Vadlo . . strengthening to gums . Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. hiccup. " Tridosha".5 cm. tonic to heart. Kothun. Kathinyaphala. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Seeds—antidote to poison. Manmadha. NS. G.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. Ala. Ceylon. Vad. CHAR. See—Timbers. :—Cultivated all over the State. fruit and seeds. LOC. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. Byala. high. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. cures cough. often planted. Fr. refrigerant. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. India. H. Kapipriya. cordate or rounded base. M. " Vata ". reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Malura. Bhringi. :— E. Nyagrodha. PARTS USED :—Leaves. useful in biliousness. Belada. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). NS. liver and lungs .—Moraceæ. L. common in the Tapi Valley. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. K. binding diuretic. H. Alada. blood impurities. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Fruit Trees. Kanara. Kotha. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . tumours. dysentery. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. Self-sown. acrid. Dadhiphala. thirst. DISTR.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. Monkey fruit. Leaves—very astringent. M. M. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. Ghats. Elephant or wood apple. Java. Kavath. ophthalmia. G. vomiting . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. FAM. Bargat. removes biliousness. consumption.— globose. Grahiphala. K. Avaroha. diam.—Rutaceæ. S. Kapitha. heart diseases. Sk. Kait. COM. Vat.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. leucorrhoea.. with spreading branches. country and N. Bahupada. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. Bar. Banian tree. Vata. Vad. aphrodisiac. good for throat. 10-20 X 5-12. refrigerant . :—E. with male. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . fatigue. Sk. LOC. Goli. Kavitha. about 2 cm. alexipharmic. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Bargad.

It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. diseases of head and blood. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. :— E. Afghanistan. useful in syphilis. Grown scattered elsewhere. in rheumatism and lumbago. K. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. M. Bijapur. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Root—tonic. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. hill ranges of S. nose-diseases. alexiteric. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. seeds and milky juice. leaves. weakness. diuretic. gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac. biliousness.—Moraceæ. thirst. Sk. useful in "Vata". laxative. Seeds are cooling and tonic. useful in leucoderma. PARTS USED :—Bark. FICUS CARICA Linn. inflammations. Anjura. Milky Juice—expectorant. . lithotriptic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. India. leprosy (Ayurveda). bruises. Cultivated in N. LOC. NS. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. demulcent. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Dharwar. W. leprosy. root-fibres. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. India. vulnerary. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. FAM. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). Simeyatu . Fibres. Fig. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. useful in inflammation . Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Kakodumbar. useful in "Kapha". Anjir. pain in chest cures piles. W. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. paralysis. H. Aerial root is styptic. Anjir. USES :—Fruit is emollient. Anjir. Sacred Plants. ulcers. vomiting. ringworm. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. boils and carbuncles. tonic. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Anjir. See—Famine Plants. G. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. maturant. LOC. nutritive. stimulates hair-growth. LOC. liver and spleen diseases. useful in piles. inflammation of liver (Yunani). :—Baluchistan. vaginal complaints. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Asia and Mediterranean. fever. lessens inflammations. erysipelas. dysentery. DISTR. biliousness. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts.

burning sensation. Peepal tree . In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Rumadi.—Moraceæ. useful. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Vriksharaj. NS. Bark. M. Jari. LOC. DISTR. vagina. LOC. Yajnika. Atti. K. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. (Yunani). Gular. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Demera. Fruit— useful in dry cough. H. Pipli. Pippala. Umbro. FAM. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. bark. Pimpal. Arani. Hemadugdha. biliousness. good for bronchitis. :—E. Pipal. styptic. blood diseases. planted all over. loss of voice. good for foul taste. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. urinary discharges. vulnerary. Pipers. Bark is cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. Pavitraka. Shuchidruma. Ragi. nose bleedings. leaves. HABITAT :—Planted. allays thirst. galactagogue. Udumbara. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. cummin. leucorrhoea. Umar.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. :—Throughout the State near villages. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. COM. burning sensation. Milk—aphrodisiac. . diseases of kidney and spleen. Lalka. :—E. Gular-Country fig. Bodhidruma. :—Widely spread throughout India. fruit. COM. menorrhagia. acrid. Pippala. latex. G. Pipal. leprosy. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. ulcers. given in leucorrhoea. FAM. Ashvatha. See—Timbers.—Moraceæ. Bark useful in asthma and piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. LOC. uterus . :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. useful in "Kapha". Sk.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. ground with onions. Ashwatha mara. M. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. in diseases of blood. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Umbar. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. G. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Fruit—astringent to bowels. Umar. H. K. fatigue. biliousness. leaves and fruits. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. Sk. DISTR. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). good for gravid uterus. is given to cattle in rinderpest. bark. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. tonic. Sacred Plants.

Variali. Kankod . LOC. heart diseases. Hunmunki. :— G. Shalina. aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Bilangra . Bhuripushpa. S. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Swadukantaka. promotes granulations. Handi Kandai. The juice is employed in hiccup. Badishep. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. :—E. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Khandesh. M. common in the Peninsula. Soupa. Potika. Sk. K. checks vomiting (Yunani).—Flacourtiaceæ. Burma. FAM. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Tapaspriya. upper Gangetic plain. W. FAM. Circars. Country and N. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Fodder Plants. Gajale. astringent in leucorrhoea. cleans ulcers. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. See—Timbers. Mullutari. COM. fruit. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). seeds. NS. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. LOC. Ghats. Fruit—purgative. PARTS USED :—Root.—Umbelliferæ. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. COM NS. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Shateya. Root-bark good in stomatitis. Root good for gout. Sacred Plants. . Badisoppu. Hettarimullu. and produces sterility in women. Paker. SAPIDA Roxb. M. Tambat. Variari. H. Sk. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Katar. See—Timber. G. appetising and digestive. Satpura. Kanara Jungles. Akrani. gum. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. bark. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. H. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Young bark useful in bone fractures. Bhakal. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. N. HABITAT :—Hills. K. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Fennel. Finkel. Bhanber. good for lumbago. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Fruits are sweet. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. PROPERTIES AND LOC. DISTR. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. M.

lessen inflammations. anthelmintic. LOC. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. difficult to digest. Oils. diuretic. FL. improves appetite and allays thirst. NS. Kokam .6-0. galactagogue. G. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. Wynaad.—Guttiferæ. appetiser. cough and asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". yellow. fissures of lips. fruit and seeds. kidney. laxative. aphrodisiac. demulcent and emollient. burning sensation. Mulgala. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. Leaves—improve eyesight. Wild mangosteen. Ghats. DISTR. Amlabija. aromatic and carminative. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. Murjinhalli. Kokam. causing constipation . spleen. :—E. dark green. stimulant. . LOC. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. LOC. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. useful in diseases of chest. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". Sk. (Mhaskar and Caius). L. See—Timbers.—ellipsoid. often cultivated. stomachic. annual. fever. H. PARTS USED :—Roots. :—Apparently a native of S. useful in bleeding piles. strengthen eyes (Yunani). leaves and seeds. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. dysentery. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. :—A tall glabrous. LOC. furrows vittate. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. Tintidika. " Vata ". The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. USES :—used as stimulant. bracts and bracteoles absent. COM. alexiteric. amenorrhœa. M. thirst. USES :—Bark is astringent.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. biliousness. leaves (rarely). Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Konkan and N. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. high. anthelmintic. Coorg. K. Kokam . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Ratambi. ridges prominent. See—Condiments and Spices. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. Kanara. dysentery.9 m.—in large umbels . ultimate segments linear. cures "Tridosh". :—Endemic in W. leprosy (Ayurveda). FAM. PARTS USED :—Bark. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. :—W. wounds. eye-diseases. 0. Atyamla. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot.— decompound. carpophore 2-partite. It is much used as a nutritive. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. Fr. cardiotonic. tumours. wounds etc. in headache. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. Ghats south of Bombay. Tittidika . seeds-carminative. DISTR. common in S.

HABITAT :—Open situations. oblong or ellipsoid. t. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. Dakamali. PARTS USED :—Gum. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. :—E. lucida (Ayurveda). G. same as for G. lucida.—Rubiaceæ. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. elliptic-obovate. about 1.-sessile. buds resinous. Pinda. Fl. Burma. Fl. NS. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating.5 cm. Western Peninsula. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests.—2. . 4. -June. shining. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . PARTS USED:-Gum. relieves pain of bronchitis. opaque. Northern ghats of Madras State. C. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms. :—A deciduous shrub. DISTR. NS. Bikke. CHAR. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Jantuka.-subsessile. FAM. Suvirya. Dekamari. Dikamali. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. Kanara. K. common on laterite in southern parts of N. not fragrant.—Feb. Cambi resin tree. M. first white then changing to yellow. Peninsula). COM. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. Dikamari. COM. oblong. FAM. LOC. astringent to bowels. Dikkamalli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. Hingu. all dry districts of Madras State. high. L. As sold in the bazar it is hard. Dikemali. 1-3 together.—Rubiaceæ. H. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour.8 cm. unarmed. :—Common from Konkan southwards.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. Fr. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition.8 m.5-3. :—India. See—Timbers. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . Sk. LOC. LOC.-tubular. :—India (W. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. See—Gums and Resins.5x22.. LOC. Gums and Resins. long.

The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Fr. alexiteric. linear-lanceolate.5-3. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. margins wavy. used to remove placenta from uterus. :—G. NS. thirst. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. itching. solitary. Khadyanag. piles. solid. expectorant. ovate lanceolate.5 X 15 X 2-4. changing colours from greenish yellow. and crimson from blooming to fading. Dudhio vachhonag. FAM. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. linear oblong. Tropical Africa. In Guinea. scattered or opposite. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour.-July-Oct. sometimes whorled. PARTS USED :—Tuber.. useful in chronic ulcers. Kalihari. Kathari. perianth segments reaching 6. Huliyuguru. Malay Peninsula. Agnimukhi. Sivasaktibalb . tall. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. root-stock of arched. L. laxative. FL. orange. Kulhari. Linn. 7. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. abortifacient. :—Throughout tropical India. acrid. Sk. Ceylon. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst.—sessile. leaves and flowers. In case of retained placenta. Nangulika. K. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. abdominal pains. anthelmintic. scarlet. heating. There are two varieties of the plant. Fl. stems annual. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani).2 cm. Tuber— astringent. given off from young tubers .—capsule. t. Karianag. Akkitang hall. Kalikari. branching climber . leprosy. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. :—Herbaceous. The former is supposed to be male. CHAR. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. LOC. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. LOC. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. COM.5 cm. DISTR. . tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. Cochin-China. axillary . Languli. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. Indai.3 cm. bitter.—large. filaments long spreading. Garbhapatani.. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers.. M.—Liliaceæ. inflammations. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). H. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles.

In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. White teak. G. Gumbhar. Shripani. improves appetite . LOC. Coomb teak. :—Throughout the State. leaves. DISTR. Var. Shivan .MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. NS. LOC. Gandhari. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). Mahabhadra. ulcers. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. H. :—Throughout the State and about temples. flowers and fruit. piles. Sk. useful in hallucinations. Devakapus. root is also stomachic and laxative. abdominal pains. :— E. thirst. aphrodisiac. urinary discharges. FAM. G. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. COM. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Flowers—astringent. anasarca. promotes hair-growth. Root taken with liquorice. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. useful in indigestion. made into paste. Shiwan. See—Timbers. indigestible. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. fevers. stomachic. useful in "Vata". consumption and some catarrhal affections . :—Throughout India. chronic cystitis. useful in fevers . anthelmintic . Philippines. common on Satpuda. Root extract is bitter and tonic. thirst. Rajasthan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Shiwan. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Bachanige. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. Kumbudi. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Savan. burning sensation. LOC. K. consumption. Karpasam. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. alterative. COM. Hanji.—Malvaceæ. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. NS. PARTS USED :—Root. Oils. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. strangury. " Tridosha ". H. Sk. laxative. Gambari. Kashmari. :— Bengal. See—Fibres. Devkapas. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns.—Verbenaceæ. Provinces. Nurma . Gambhari. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. Shivani. Madhya Bharat. . HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Gupsi. Cashmere tree. Karibatti. Ceylon. leprosy. In the Konkan. Deokapas. FAM. Sind. anæmia. catarrh of the bladder etc. M. Tree cotton. DISTR. leaves. flowers and seeds. the root. tonic. W. PARTS USED :—Root. K. scattered in monsoon forests.:—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Malaya. Khandesh. gleet. scalds etc. Fruit— diuretic.

demulcent. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cure all ear-troubles. removes " Vata" and biliousness. Tula. restore consciousness. Iran. cooling. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . Phalsi. cures inflammations. wild in Deccan. sour. acrid. laxative . causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Kupas. Dhamin. A. NS. H. in hills near Poona. Sk. in hypochondria. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. allay thirst. LOC. leaf-juice good in dysentery. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. Roshana. LOC. bark. Jana. Country. S. PARTS USED :—Root. In India they are used to procure abortion. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . Oils. DISTR. leaves. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Seeds are laxative. Karihariyale. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. F. Arali. :—Sind. expectorant. Egypt. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. FAM. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. W. enrich blood. G. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. DISTR. Sutrapuspha.Phalse. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. Pharuah. Badari. fruits and seeds. U. Kapus. Parusha. Rui. :—Cultivated in the State. FAM.—Malvaceæ. removes " Vata ". Sk. fomentation for burning eyes . good for throat .. LOC. Syria. extensively cultivated. (Yunani). Buttiyu-dippa. fevers and consumption. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Ripe fruit—sweet. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. Hatti.. COM. NS. preventing their access to wounds etc. PARTS USED :—Root. Karpas. Arabia and Asia Minor. increase flow of urine. Mesapotamia. M. expectorant and aphrodisiac. Kapas . heart and blood disorders. scabies . fruit. aphrodisiac. tonic. Tadasala. Anagnika. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot.—Tiliaceæ. analgesic. Mediterranean. See—Fibres. poultice applied to burns' scalds. :—G. Seeds—aphrodisiac. extensively in Gujarat. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. used in orchitis. :— Cultivated in N. H. K. Cotton . Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. M. Gujarat and S. East Tropical Africa. Parapera. tonic. COM. K. Province (Pakistan). good for all kinds of inflammations. Seeds— ' galactagogue. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Rui. Afghanistan. digestible.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. probably in N. Leaves remove " Vata " . Phalsa. Baluchistan. M. :—E.

helps removal of dead fetus. Sanngera. lanceolate. Meshashingi. Sk. Vishani. M. Tanmani. cooling. alterative. piles.—Capparidaceæ. Root and bark used in strangury. stomachic. Sati talvani. Pandhari tilwan. Karnasphota. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. asthma. Kavali. t. COM. base rounded or cordate . FAM. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Mahabaleshwar and N. inflammations. corona of 5 processes . young stems densely pubescent. USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. good in heart-diseases. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R.— with thin marginal wing. Periploca of the woods. LOC. bronchitis. common in hedges in Dharwar district. L. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. vitreous body) burning sensation. FAM. G. H. Gurmar. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Fruit—sour. usually single. ulcers. LOC. H. Ugragandha. diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). Kanphodi. See—Fruit Trees. elliptic. Sannagerse. C. leucoderma. Bastagandha. strengthens chest and heart. :—Throughout the State. Fr.—in cymes . NS. yellow . Bundelkhand Saharanpur. should not be eaten raw. Mardashingi. Vakundi. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. sweet. Shrikala. Arkapuspika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.—follicle.— opposite. Tropical Africa. much branched. S. . Small Indian ipecacuanha. K. FL. Kanara coast. :—Western Peninsula. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. :E. K. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Sd. ovate. SK. Ceylon. — Asclepiadaceæ. anthelmintic.-May. India. Hulhul. alexiteric. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Churota. useful in diarrhœa and fevers.— Apl. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". urinary discharges (Ayurveda). M. CHAR. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. NS. LOC.— companulate . DISTR. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Hulhul. The ease of administration. :— E. Karalia . biliousness. :—A large woody climber. Caravella. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). Meshavalli. Bedki. tonic. Tilparni. Merasingi. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. the stomachic stimulant. cornea. relieves thirst and hiccup. Adiyakharan. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Br. G. Kabari. acrid. COM. Mabli. Fl.

white or blue. Fl. Marosi. :—A small deciduous shrub. Avartant.5-20 X 3. C. DISTR. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. dark-brown . Katraj Ghat. pedicels viscid hairy.—June. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Murdasing. long . H. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. t. stomachic .2 m. M. Sk. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. M. hairy. Fr. :—M.—capsule. elliptic-lanceolate. Sd. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . DISTR. HABITAT:—Hills. FAM. sessile. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. acute.-Feb. Gujarat. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. NS. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. Kavargi. :—Deccan. leaflets subsessile. LOC. S. :—A common weed in all tropical countries.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.12. glabrous or pubescent above.8-9 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. margins crenate-dentate. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus.—petals 4 with long slender claws. earache.6—1. good in ascites. gynophore 2-2. ellipsoid . viscid. (Kirtikar and Basu). long. Kanara. hairy on the nerves beneath. COM.—in dense bracteate racemes.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. .—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering.—rather rigid. pink . hills in Supa Taluka. elliptic-obovate.—capsule. Fr. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.—many.—Rubiaceæ. Edamuri.—muricate. L. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. . They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. hairy. leaves and seeds. stem and branches hairy. :—G. :—An annual erect herb 0. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. COM.5 cm. CHAR. LOC. removes "Vata". Fl. NS.—Sterculiaceæ. Mrigashringa. Gidesa Jitasai.—Oct. Kewan. Murudseng. t. tumours. producing copious exudation.. Country. hills near Nagothana. Sinhgad hills. vesicant. K. stipules triangular. pain. high. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). Sd.—3-5 foliate. FAM. with divaricate herbaceous branches . pubescent. China. opposite. Murudi. 5-9 cm. Fl. L. Jonkaphal Maraphali. LOC. tapering at both ends..

demulcent.— very variable. uterine complaints.—follicle cylindric. common in hedges. tapering . HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. useful in piles. joint-pains. astringent to bowels . greenish outside. See—Fibres.—throughout the greater part of the year. PARTS USED :—Root. M.— in cymes in opposite axils. good for brain. stem. Hindisalse. PARTS USED :—Root. purplish inside. Ceylon. antidiarrhœal. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. FL. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). L. Burma. COM. lessens griping. t — Aug. alexiteric. red at first fading to lead colour.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). Australia and West Indies.Sd. Stem lessens inflammation. urinary discharges. mildly astringent. astringent to bowels.5 X 5-10 cm. foul body odour.— with silvery white coma . . Anantmula. root-Stock woody . asthma. DISTR. stems thickened at the nodes . Upalsali. Fr. Kanara ghat forests.. H. 5-6. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. beaked. LOC. asthma. LOC. Sugandhi-balli. often variegated with white above. DISTR. Kapurimathuri.-biferous. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. Sk. Fl. eye troubles. :—Throughout the State. useful in gleet. Sd. G. Dhaval kashtha.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. diaphoretic. FAM. Fr. blood diseases. long. L. angular . "Vata' dysentery. :—Upper Gangetie plain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. thirst. They are demulcent.512. rat-bites. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. HABITAT :—In hedges. Country. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.—follicle of 5-6. C. diuretic. Fl. Deccan and S. Konkan. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. NS. low appetite. Utpalashariva. Anantmula. Durivel.-Dec. fevers. paralysis. CHAR. bark and fruit. Magrabu. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. "Kapha". syphilis. diarrhœa. t. Root and stem—laxative. India.—numerous. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. K. anti-galactagogue. irregularly crowded. Br. LOC. obliquely cordate. dark-green. Root useful in hemicrania. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). bronchitis. cures all skin-diseases. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S.—tubular.—Asclepiadaceæ. and leaves. :— E.3 cm. :—Large shrub or small tree. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. scabrous above. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. “tridosh". Indian sarsaparilla . Fl. 7. Upalsari. cough. M. Malaya. bilabiate. poisoning. spirally coiled. Hamadaberu . epileptic fits. ovate orbicular. leucorrhoea. liver and kidney diseases . burning sensation.

Flowers are emollient and demulcent. syphilis and leucorrhoea. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. piles. bark and petals are demulcent. useful in loss of appetite. K. Raktapushpi. Jasut. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. solitary. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. C. Kempupundrika. t. Shoe flower. Fr. diam. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. PARTS USED :—Root. Jasuva. G. crimson. involucral bracts 5-7. Rudrapushpa. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. Jasum. and mixed with ghee. bright red. Sk. . irregularly serrate towards the top. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. :—A perennial shrub. LOC. seminal weakness. L. NS. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. yellow. entire near the base. remove burning of body.5. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). It is said to purify blood. CHAR.—7.—Malvaceæ. and as early as 1864. cooling. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. Dasavala. uterine and vaginal discharges. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae.—short petioled. Jasavand. leaves. Fl. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. Harivallaba. COM. etc. FAM. red. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra).114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. In the Konkan. glabrous. M. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. Native country probably China. urinary discharges. skindiseases. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. pedicel jointed above the middle. cm.—no fruits produced in India. Japapushpa. flowers. Aruna. petals thrice as long as the calyx. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. H. demulcent. DISTR. magenta. Root roasted in plantain leaves. tubular below.—during most of the year. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . astringent. fevers. Dasanihu. :— E. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. It is also diuretic. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). LOC. Root is valuable in coughs.. tonic.—axillary. ovate or ovate lanceolate.

on the margins. Fl. Ceylon.) FAM.—capsule. 3-winged. Atimukta. Madhumalati. Haladvel. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. t. Fl. :—E. Vasanti. Fr. Madhavi. Patwa.—Malvaceæ. Vasantduti. Chandravalli. fragrant. Kampti. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. purple. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India.—in erect racemes. COM. Lal ambadi. G. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. Sd. stem and branches purple. mid-lobe the longest. base cuneate.— Jany. 1. t. glabrous. FAM. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. young parts silky. 10-18 X 4. involucral bracts 10. often blotched with purple with darker centre. petioles silky.—5-7. LOC. across. Madhavi.—1-3. K. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. C. PARTS USED :—Leaves. asafoetida and molasses. orbicular. calyx fleshy. Lal ambadi. Madhavi. erect. 5th petal yellow at the base. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Sd. Fl. Atimukta. H. acuminate. Kanara. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Madhalata. Konkan. Deccan. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. Red sorrel. K. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. Fibres. tropics of the old world. COM. white.—coriaceous. NS. fruits and seeds. DISTR. sedative and refrigerant. purple.. M. CHAR.— solitary. Grows abundantly on the W. :—Cultivated. Lal ambari.2-2 cm. LOC. hairy. black-brown.—Malpighiaceæ. Vasantduti. Adimurtte Adirganti. flowers. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. :—Throughout the State. globose. C.—purple with darker centres.5 cm.—large. Ghats. pepper. H. L. serrate. beaked.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn.lobes oblong. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. :—G. long. CHAR. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Malati.-Dec.-Mar. :—An annual. Kamuka. Fr. covered with minute hairs . Sk. 3-5 lobed.—petals 5. Madhavi. and adding a little salt. uppermost petal broader.—axillary.—Oct. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. elliptic-oblong.5 cm. M. fringed. NS. Ragotpiti. clawed. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Rozelle. L. See—Vegetables. long. Fl. Kempupundrike. Pundi-bija or soppu. much used in curries. ovoid. . HABITAT.3-7. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. Madmalati. entire glabrous.

wounds. excessive menstrual flow. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. cylindric. good in chronic bronchitis. piles. Burma. leprosy.—10-20 X 5-11. :—E. Kudsalu. Kodasige. C—tubular. broadly ovate or elliptic. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. COM. t. burning sensation. DISTR. ulcers. aphrodisiac.. Kura. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. smoke good for piles. Circars. biliousness. long. Conessi bark tree. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . Ceylon. throat hairy inside. :—Throughout the State. anthelmintic.—Apocynaceæ. Fr. thirst. cures dysentery. biliousness. fevers. skin diseases. Siwalik. Kuda. diarrhœa. Leavesastringent. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Abu. Karohi. Nepal. L. LOC. Fl. white. remove "Tridosh". PARTS USED :—Bark. leucoderma . vulnerary. Sk. boils. Pandhara Kuda. insecticidal. good in erysipelas. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). diuresis (Yunani). Kaling. China. Karuindrayan. fatigue. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. M. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. Kumaon. Hath. main nerves conspicuous .5 cm. branchlets drooping. G. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Kuda. bleeding piles. LOC. PROPERTIES. leprosy. acrid. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. cause "Vata". USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . Thailand (Siam). Malay Peninsula. cough.-June. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. tonic. given in chest affections. astringent to bowels cure pains. burning sensation. LOC. vulnerary. appetiser cure blood diseases. tonic. Assam.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. remove muscular pains . Flowers— acrid. hallucinations (Ayurveda). Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. K. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Andamans. strengthens gums. flowers and seeds. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. Indrayana.—Feb. Hale. cooling. often dotted with white spots. lumbago. thirst and inflammation. Sd. cool the brain.. Kurchi tree. styptic.— in terminal corymbose cymes . HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Mt.—follicles 20-48 cm. NS. FL. Madras State. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca. Karnatak. asthma. H. heating. N. Dudhi. Veppale. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. Seeds—carminative. urinary discharges. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. acrid. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. Kaduoindrajav. FAM. skin and spleen diseases. colic. leaves. " Kapha". galactagogue. bitter. Kutaja. good in headache. inodorous. CHAR. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. Bark—bitter. See—Ornamental Plants. Seeds—appetiser. lessens inflammations.

improves voice. Yava. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. Med. Suj. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. useful in bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. The grains contain vitamin B. Gaz. fattening. :—E. Jawa. dysentery and intestinal worms. Hayapriya. anæmia. Java. FAM. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). DISTR. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Jav. Tasteless. They are also used after delivery. appetiser. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Javegodhi. biliousness. useful in biliousness. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. febrifuge. lowers the pulse. See—Food Plants. Jav. Barley. LOC. burns. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. Divya. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). useful in fevers. good for ulcers. nor astringent. malt sugar and diastase. Knowles. LOC. pains in chest. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. Ymvah. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. stomachic. Ind. with radicle attached to it. sweetish. especially cod-liver oil. demulcent and expectorant. asthma. They are astringent. M. diarrhœa. Satu. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. H. kurchine. nor styptic. G.—Gramineæ. (R. K. Shaktu. fevers (Yunani). :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Aug. bronchitis. —Cultivated chiefly in N. . PARTS USED :—Seeds. Germinated barley. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. widely cultivated in temperate regions. 1928). acrid. aphrodisiac. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. and kurchicine. India. HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. allays thirst. headache. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. inflamed gums. causes constipation. Sk.

sometimes along river banks. pungent. more or less coriaceous. H. sulphur. For scald-head.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. Doti. LOC. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. COM. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Kastel. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. high.. Kadukavata. . Sd. Garudphala. NS. FL. camphor and lime-juice. dioecious . broadly ovate. M. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . Peninsula. M.—solitary or in racemes. increases taste and appetite. tomentose. Sk. Kanara evergreen forests. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas.) FAM. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Niradivittulu. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Ghats. Betaga. 12. Fl. Bharnarasalya. Kowti. Fr. :—G. Kshiradru. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. t.5 cm. size of small apple. Bhanina.8-7. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume.—berry. NS. Malabar. Phaldu.—Jany. PROPERTIES AND LOC. young parts brown pubescent. Bihar. :—K. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Sk. DISTR. L. white. Madhya Pradesh. globose or ovoid. LOC. Bhutabi. bitter. Bandaru. acuminate. flat. CHAR. Amarachala. Country and Kanara.—numerous.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. COM. C. :—W. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment. Bhringamallika. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil. Common in N. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Garudphala. Dondra. DISTR. Gandele. K. FAM. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Southern and Western India. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Bhoswar. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest.—Rubiaceæ. common in Travancore. Bhorsal. Ugragandha. S. PARTS USED :—Seeds. See—Oils.—Apl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. Dondru. good for the throat.—Bixaceæ. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W.5-23 X 3. Bhrijatuaka.

rooting at the nodes .—in axillary and terminal. Australia. Sk. M. Sd. :—H. " Vata ".—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). trichotomous cymes.—capsule. Nalichibhaji. cures " Kapha ". base rounded. Fl. COM. Country. cooling. K. NS. Br. Common in the evergreen forests of N. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. hollow. elliptic oblong. aphrodisiac. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. rusty pubescent. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Fr. 10-15 cm. FAM. Java. NS. H. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. FL. Karihambu. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. M. Kalaka. very common in Gujarat. Kanara. :—A large twining shrub . vomiting. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. L. cylindric . Kantebhovari. Chandangopa. Karmi. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. Sk. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. CHAR. the powdered wood is used for herpes.. M.8 cm. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. :—G. thick. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. numerous . Kalambika.—1-5 flowered peduncles .—5-12. upper constricted. :—Annual or biennial herb. prostrate. C. Fodder Plants. pubescent. trailing on mud or floating. Kalidudhi. LOC. FAM. LOC. lobes obscure . CHAR.-Dec. :—Throughout the State. straight or slightly curved. Fr. t. Gorwiballi.—4 or 2.—follicle. Nadika. ovoid . Sariva. Siamalata. Kanara. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. t. S. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . blood diseases. Sd. COM. glabrous above. Fl. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. :—Konkan. very slender.—4-5-7 X 2-3. Krishnasariva.—tube with narrow portion below. Pechuli. Kalmisag. Fl. cordate or hastate. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). DISTR. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. The outer layer is tasteless. In Indo-China. LOC. stems long. middle portion much inflated. :—More or less throughout India. throat and tube dull purple . Shradhashaka. black with white scanty coma. fever.-Apl. stalks and leaves.— Nov. Gopini.5x 3. Ceylon. biliousness.5 cm. C. Bhadra.2 -7. greenish white. PARTS USED :—Root. Kalaghantika. X 4 cm. Nalanibhaji.—Convolvulaceæ. acute.—linear. Potuasaga.—Apocynaceæ. See—Timbers. thirst.—Nov. .

-July-Sept. liver complaints. pale. alterative. demulcent and lactagogue. :—Throughout India. entire. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. being regarded as tonic. Fl. biliousness. tropical Asia. (Yunani). the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium.—capsule. 4-valved. expectorant. t. galactagogue. tropical Asia. tonic. LOC.—Convolvulaceæ. useful in leucoderma. lobes 5-7. Giant potato . :— E. peduncle solitary axillary. biliousness and fevers. Root—heating. NS. Flower causes " Vata ". PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bhunichahragadde.8—6. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. Sd. Bhumikushmanda. ovate-lanceolate. . aphrodisiac. long. (Yunani). twining. Swadu Vidarikand. useful in leprosy. Fl. DISTR. FAM. America. long. L. gonorrhœa and inflammation. cures biliousness. appetiser. K. flowers (rarely). Bilaikand . improves voice and complexion. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. leprosy. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. stimulant. stem long. H. bronchitis.—in. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. CHAR. 4-celled. jaundice. enclosed in fleshy sepals. often broader than long. dry. In Burma. Africa. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. indigestible. near sea coast. alterative. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. glabrous. Bhuikohala. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. galactagogue. Carminative. " Kapha " . to children in case of emaciation. LOC. vomiting. anthelmintic. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. burning sensation. ovoid.—10-15 cm. M. thick. leaves. carminative. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. Fr. (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root. See—Gums and Resins. Leaves enrich blood. Kanara sea coast. Sk. debility and want of digestive power. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). useful in syphilis. anthelmintic . stomachic. root large. Nila-kumbala. Australia in moist climate. purple. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. also useful in liver complaints. diuretic. :—Perennial. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. LOC. 3. useful in fever. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. COM. Africa and Australia. lessens inflammation. deeply palmately divided.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.3 cm. blood diseases.

Sd.3-2. CHAR. Country.5 cm. fevers. stems twining. Nilvel.—dark chestnut coloured . scabies and biliousness. COM. :—E. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. FAM. S. Mirchai. Ceylon. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). glabrous . HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. subglobose or ovoid. :—A herb . .— yellow. clothed with long hairs.—3. M. Krishna—Shyama-bija.— 4-6. crenate. L. M. L. subglobose. creeping and rooting at the nodes. Vrishchikparni. H. Sd. Kalokumpo. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). HABITAT :—Water-logged places.5 cm. :—Konkan. axillary. Africa. tropical Africa. :—G. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. Kaladanah. K.. LOC. COM. long tubular funnel-shaped.—capsule.-5-12.—Sept. Sk. Purgative. Deccan.) FAM.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . Fl. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Nilpushpa. DISTR.—1. pains in joints. Bhumichari Mushakaparni.—capsule. carminative. K. Undirkani. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. Ganribij. dries the phlegm. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Fl. abdominal diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. :—Western Peninsula. surrounded by ciliate sepals. stems many. Kaladana. bracts linear. diseases of head. bechic.—Convolvulaceæ.8-5 cm. filiform. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. cures inflammations. Fr. t. See—Ornamental Plants. in the Himalayas. Sk. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. LOC. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). M. CHAR.-Oct. diam. Shyamala-bijak. LOC. sparsely hairy. Fr. Fl. deeply three-Iobed. believed to be of American origin. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. blue tinged with pink.:—Throughout India. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. Indian jalap. H. NS. S. DISTR. C. petioles hairy. useful in liver and spleen diseases. broad. Undirkani. Morning glory. anthelmintic. The plant contains a glucoside. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. E. 3-celled. leucoderma. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Musekani. NS. headache. :—An annual herb. reniform or ovate-cordate.—Convolvulaceæ. ovate-cordate. lobes ovate.

bracts large. t. Fr. useful in loss of consciousness. paralysis. heart and abdomen. NS. acrid. Triputi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. enclosed in enlarged sepals . Philippines.. Sk.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. strangury. useful in bilious tremors of body. Pithori. globose. good for weakness. bronchitis. pungent. fistula. Rechani. root long.—in few flowered cymes. inflammations and abdominal diseases . FAM. Ceylon. Nishoth. rarely slightly lobed. :— E.—Convolvulaceæ. Kalaparni. mucronate. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. like others of the genus . useful in spleen enlargement. brain diseases. anæmia. tropical Africa and America. white variety is a mild cathartic. burning sensation and intoxication. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. urethral discharges. expectorant. lungs. Indian rhubarb. sometimes cultivated.—capsule. long. also in the Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Root. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. ovate or oblong. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). Turbith root. good in pain. LOC. CHAR.3-7 cm. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). G. 3. purgative. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). base cordate or truncate . Malay Islands. fleshy. C. It is also alterative.—Oct. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. pedicels thickened upwards. HABITAT :—Wild . Black variety should not be used (Yunani). Fl. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. Fl. cooling. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. . fevers. useful in bilious fevers. paralysis. Kanaka. removes bad humours. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. anthelmintic. Nahatara. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). applied in diseases of eye and gums. uterus. False-Indian jalap. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative.8-5 cm. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). LOC. much branched.—white. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. bechic. M. H. twining and twisted together. angled and winged. Nishottara. wounds. carminative. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. pains of chest and joints. laxative. Nashotar. Nandi. antipyretic. bladder. Br. Trivrit. COM. LOC. :—Throughout India. stems very long. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. leucoderma. when used alone .—5-10 X 1. L. used in rheumatism and neuralgia.-Jany. Root with bark should be used. inflammations. Common in southern Gujarat. DISTR. useful in diseases of kidney. often pinkish. Mauritius. K. muscular pains. Root— bitter. laxative.

lobes 4 (rarely). smooth. Jajimalle. :—A large subscandent shrub. Chambeli.2-6. L. L.3 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. coriaceous. Chambeli. intermediate sessile . Pankul. oblong. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon.—opposite. petiole and rachis margined.2-6.3 coriaceous. DISTR. Ajjige. very common in Konkan and N. :—Cultivated throughout India. Pendgul. imparipinnate. Parali. wild. Guddedasal.—throughout the year. 3. :—Western Peninsula. COM NS. LOC. proximal petiolulate. Flame of the woods . :—Bombay southwards .—Oleaceæ. also along river banks. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. :—E. :—E. sessile. 5-10 X 3. Fr.—ripe carpels 2.—opposite. t. Fl. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea.5 cm.—tubular.—globose. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. Jai. distal pair confluent with the terminal. Kepala. FAM. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. HABITAT :—Cultivated . pale when dry. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. high. COM. Fl. K. Chambali. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. leaflets 7-11. Ceylon.—July-Sept. across. obtuse. See—Ornamental Plants. Kisukare. LOC. sessile. M. . CHAR. pale when dry.. of stems and roots. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. C. oblong. terminal rather larger.. stipules with a long rigid point. Bakali. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Fl. Sk. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. G. FAM. white. Priyanvada. Bandhuka. Sk. 5-12. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Anemallige. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. Fr. t.— Rubiaceæ. H.9 m. stipules . DISTR.—3. CHAR. Jati. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. tube long. K. Surabhigandha. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. purple when ripe. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. often tinged with pink outside. very slender . Raktaka. obtuse . :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. M. size of a pea. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. FL—numerous. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. fleshy.8 cm. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. NS.

Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. useful in diseases of eye. very fragrant. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. allays fevers . paralysis. FAM. Sk. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. headache and weak eyes. aphrodisiac. alexiteric. biliousness (Ayurveda). caries of teeth. emetic. cures headache. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. aphthae. t. brain tonic . mouth and skin. Iravantige. CHAR.—white. Mallige. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. See—Ornamental Plants.—more or less throughout the year . Plant—deobstruent. emmenagogue. and for scabies (Yunani). Vanchandrika. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). diuretic. leprosy. COM NS. abundant in April-May. DISTR. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. Mogro. surrounded by calyx-teeth. LOC. Ananga-mallika. softens skin. biliousness. LOC. Root—purgative. alexiteric. L. Chamba. Arabian Lily. Oil—lessens inflammations. expectorant. alexiteric. it is used in cases of insanity. stomatitis. :—Cultivated throughout India. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. ulcers. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Mogara. vulnerary.—ripe-carpels 1-2. ear. In Goa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. scarcely climbing. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. eyes and ear. Fl. anthelmintic. base rounded or subcordate. Flowers—tonic. K. suppurative. :—E. . HABITAT :—Cultivated. soporific. subglobose. The plant contains an alkaloid. good for pains in joints and ear. Sambac. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in stomatitis. rheumatism. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. diseases of mouth. Flower has bitter taste . Banmallika. flowers and oil. given in blood diseases. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. Pramodini. Navamallika. tonic to brain. LOC. variable in shape. Tuscan jasmine. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. intoxicating. membranous. Fr. Motia. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. good in asthma. heating. black. teeth. Fl. M. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. entire. G. Mogra. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Leaves are also used in toothache.—opposite.—Oleaceæ. H. :—A sub-erect shrub. head. otorrhoea.

coral-red.—monœcious. Simeavadala. Fr. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. Sd. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. have suppurative effect.. leaves. biliousness. " Tridosha". fistula. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. male flowers. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. M. . The acrid. FAM. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. H. herpes. large.5 cm. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. longer than calyx. 10-15 X 7. Sk. villous within. LOC. subfleshy. Dundigu. black. Seeds contain active principle curcin. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. broadly ovate. The seeds act as drastic purgative. across.—Euphorbiaceæ. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. disk of female flower urceolate. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. stipules capillary.— ovoid.5 mm.—Euphorbiaceæ. diam. :—Native of tropical America. L. DISTR. 7. juice sticky opalescent. CHAR:—A handsome. yellow. abdominal complaints. CHAR. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers.8 cm. Mogali—Ran-erand. Sutashreni.—in flat-topped cymes. Jyotishka. garden shrub .—ovoid oblong. Fl. NS. G. COM. K. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. Coral plant.— alternate.—capsule. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.5-12. Virechani.5-12. anaemia. 7. multifid. when applied to boils. Fl. urinary discharges. Jangali—Pahari erand. Akhuparnika. cordate. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. Barbados Physic nut. French or Small physic nut. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. NS. LOC. 3-lobed. Kananerand. Sk. Jangali erandi. corolla lobes 5. long. fruits and seeds. Bhadradanti. thirst. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). FAM. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. breaking up into 3-valved cocci.—orbicular. useful in chronic dysentery. dull brownish black.5 cm. L. Fr.—E. and also promotes healing. 1. COM. Vilayati haralu. long-petioled. PARTS USED :—Wood. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). :—E. Ratanjot.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. K. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums .

—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate.5-12. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic.—Acanthaceæ. In Cambodia. Shindhuka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. COM. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. dry . :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Leaves are used in scabies. bitter. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . purgative. Karambal. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. leaves.6-1. NS.2 m. NS. DISTR. America. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. . COM. Fr. 7. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. vaginal discharges. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. Kalmashi. fattening tonic . wild in Tenasserim. pains. Sk. Nachukaddi.—capsule. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. LOC. wounds. often met with in Bengal. :—Bomb. HABITAT :—Shady positions.—Acanthaceæ. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. purple within. rheumatism and dysentery.5 cm. Krishna-nirgundi. 5-12. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Bhutakeshi. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. branches subterete with raised lines. Nilmanjari. aphrodisiac. long. in interrupted spikes. FAM. Karinchki. inflammations. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). dyspepsia. CHAR. native of N. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). Fl.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. useful in piles. LOC. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. " Vata ' and "Pitta". Bakas. clavate glabrous. all over the State. heating. LOC. :—H. :—A native of China. LOC.5 cm. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. hot. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. tympanitis. Nilinirgandi. enlarged spleen. Kala adulsa. fevers. high . L. M. K. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. skin-diseases. eye diseases (Ayurveda). causes " Kapha ". Seed— oleaginous.—white spotted. FAM.—Ghati pitpapda.

burning of body. lower 3-lobed . Kachchura . COM. Kachri. Chandramala. spreading horizontally. thin. diaphoretic. Fl. stomachic. :—Konkan. teeth. pale violet pink.— June-July. Panchgani.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Tubers. L.—in cylindric terminal spikes. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. t.. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. obtuse at both ends. round. South Konkan. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. gives lustre to eyes. HABITAT :—Cultivated. ovate or lanceolate. enriches blood. oblong shortly pointed. LOC. P.—612 from the centre of the plant. diuretic. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). purifies blood in skin diseases. Cultivated in gardens. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague.—finely tuberculate.—variable.—Scitaminaceæ. LOC. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. tired feeling. :— H. C.5 X 4. pure-white. petioles channelled. Western Ghats . Kapurkachri. strengthens lungs. elliptic. NS. :—Western Peninsula. good in spleen diseases. CHAR. Fr. softly pubescent.—2. DISTR.. t. wandering of mind. thirst. Fl. :—N.-Mar. lying flat on the ground. . intoxication.—lobes lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND LOC. root-stock tuberous. urinary discharges. Maval in the Deccan.:—Stemless herb. (Yunani). constipating . fragrant. removes indigestion. biliousness. good in leprosy (Ayurveda).3-12. Madras State. Konkan. K. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. deep green. Sk. LOC. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Fl. vomiting. Deccan. DISTR. Sugandhavachai. constricted between the seeds . increases " Vata ". Malaya. fugacious.5-9 cm. Chandramulika. FAM. Travancore. Fl. Malay Islands. Tubers yield an essential oil. expectorant. fever. stops vomiting. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. Australia. Ceylon.—Oct. aromatic. :—More or less throughout India. 6. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. oval. M.—2-lipped. Plant diuretic. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. tube funnel-shaped . Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. upper lip notched. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. Sd.

K. Cochin. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Fl. remedy for itch. Bhuichampo .. Country. Dudio Tumbada. :—An aquatic herb. midrib very stout. Dudhya bhopala. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. :—Stemless plant.—globose 3. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . :—E. Lauka. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. N. HABITAT :—Marshy places..5 X 5-12. —Feb.-Mar. The whole plant. yellow. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. DISTR. Fl. Bhuichampa . FAM. H. Alkaddu. used in the form of poultice. Labuka. furrowed.—Scitaminaceæ.. oblong. Bhuchampaka. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—Konkan. NS. LOC. L. Sk. .— inflorescence. margins undulate.5 cm.—narrowly oblong. :—Mysore. S. Danta-bija. :— G. Halagumbala. CHAR. promotes suppuration.8-5 cm.—30X7.. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. in many cycles. petiole as long as blade. LOC.-Apl. M. Malay Islands. :—M. M. simple. creeping. Bottle-gourd. annulate . inflorescence of many ovaries. Fl. Kanara. semicylindric. H. Tumbaka. thick.—15-37. G. diam.5-23 cm. Coorg. Bhuichapha.5-10 cm. COM. t. Sk. of various shades of purple and white. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. NS. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. carpels partially dehiscent Sd.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn.—Cucurbitaceæ. K. spathe 7. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India.. very poisonous . Travancore. L. Vatsanabhi. tubular below. Fl. entire. PROPERTIES AND LOC. anthers crowded. FAM. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. Dudhi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. rootstock reaching 5 cm. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. COM. CHAR. Kadu bhopala. COM. Nelasampige . Kadu—Mithi tumbi. long. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Calabash. Fr. Kaddu. NS. Ceylon. M. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. crowded in a globose bead . home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike.—Aroideæ. t.— sweetly fragrant. Tubers yield an essential oil. elliptic-oblong. Katutumbi. female cylindric. coriaceous.

PARTS-USED :—Root. COM. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. fruits and seeds. lessens inflammations. Seeds emetic (Yunani). diuretic. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. leaves. Ceylon. Challa. seeds are narcotic. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. wild (rarely). cures blood diseases. bitter variety is diuretic. Holematti. Bark and leaves are purgative. LOC:—North Kanara and S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. USES :— Leaves are purgative. earache. improves taste. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. earache. NS. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. There are two varieties. cures asthma. fruits and seeds. antipyretic. Ornamental Plants. brain-tonic. China. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. fever. bitter. muscular pains. flatulence. pains (Ayurveda). Taman. . anti-bilious. LOC.—Lythraceæ. cures leucorrhoea. refrigerant and anti-bilious. dry cough. Flowers cooling. piles. laxative. Arjuna. alexiteric. LOC. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. bronchitis. bark. wholesome to fœtus. Malaya. increases "Vata". inflammations. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Tarul.) FAM. cardiac and general tonic. Sk. vulnerary. LOC. anti-periodic. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. Konkan Ghats. ulcers. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. Arjuna. cause haemoptysis. sweet. causes bronchitis. in many cases only cultivated. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. DISTR. aphrodisiac. emetic. leaves. K. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . Seeds—good for hot constitution. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. oleaginous. See—Timbers. scalding of urine. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. See—Vegetables. In the Andamans. Nirbendeka: M. "Vata". Assam. Bandhara. :—Western Peninsula. :—H. DISTR. Fruit good in bronchitis. fattening. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. flowers. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. styptic. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. Flesh of fruit is diuretic.

:—Konkan southwards. Fl. Wooly-headed gnidia. DISTR. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. FAM. improves taste.—in erect. :—E. :—E. dense terminal heads 2. Ragangi. K. Rametha. N. burning. Country. piles and wandering of the mind.—Lythraceæ. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Latri. M.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. Sandika.. Sk. diam. FAM. Henna plant. . LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. (Ayurveda). M.—Thymelaeaceæ. heart-troubles. Lakh. K. COM. Chickling—White vetch. oblong flat. Peninsula—Ceylon. Basu). Medi. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. DISTR.5 X 2-2. Fl. swellings etc. M. but dangerous cathartic. Tree mignonette. Gorantha. t. causes much flatulence. The bark is used to poison fish. Belgaum hills . with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Kassar. pointed.5-3. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Sk. Mendi. Mehndi. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. D.—ellipsoid-oblong. :—W. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. FAM. Mukute. 5-7.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. PROPERTIES AND LOC.8 cm. glabrous above. lobes 4. oblong lanceolate. subsessile. perianth-tube densely silky villous . pain. silky beneath. Deccan hills.. (B. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. G. COM. common on the Supa Ghats. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. Triputi. Nakharanjaka.—opposite or scattered. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5 cm. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. CHAR. G. LOC. Grains contain vitamin A. LOC. NS. Rami. See—Food Plants. Madaranga. Fr. Lang. cooling. common at Mahabaleshwar. :—A much branched large shrub. :—E. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Yavaneshta. COM. yellow. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Khesari.—Dec-May. Kanara. inflammation. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Kukurgal. enclosed in the perianth . H. lameness. NS. L. Medika. S. bark mottled. tonic. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. removes "Kapha" and biliousness.

Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. Gurubija. Ragadali. Fr. expectorant. Masur. favours hair-growth. seeds. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. stomatitis. ulcers. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. amenorrhœa. skin diseases . HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . cure strangury tumours. diseases of spleen. many. diuretic. Gabholika. Asia. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. H. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. allay burning sensation. Sd. L. wild in Arabia. veined outside. :—Grown in Nasik. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. PROPERTIES. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. K. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. dysentery. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. COM. Flowers are refrigerant. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. flowers. planted as hedge. :—E. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. Iran and Baluchistan. Leaves—bitter. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". often ending in spinous point. syphilitic sores. FAM. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. finger nails and hair. improve appetite. Belgaum and Poona districts. Masura.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR.—opposite. in diseases of heart and of .—Apl-July. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Europe and in temperate W. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. LOC. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. pyramidal and panicled cymes. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. Fl. ophthalmia. Chanangi. & Gib. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. fragrant. mucronate. Lentil. Masuridal. G. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. LOC. NS. DISTR. useful. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. lateral branches 4-gonous. indigenous in S. t. M. The plant contains a glucoside.—angular. E. enriches blood. See—Dyes. Sk. cure leucoderma. white or rose coloured . supported by persistent calyx. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. boils. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). truncate.). The oil and essence keep the body cool. Massur. cure insanity (Ayurveda). scabies. useful in headache. DISTR. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. Sura.—in terminal. vulnerary. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . bronchitis. Ceylon. diuretic. Fl. HABITAT:—Cultivated. lumbago.—capsule. globose. LOC. Masur.

bitter. Halim . diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. Hot and dry. :—E. Chavnsar. upper sessile. Sk. :—An erect glabrous annual. LOC. CHAR. and muscular pains. . tumours and injuries. chest complaints. white. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. See-Food Plants. good for pain in abdomen. M. aperient. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. eye diseases (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac .—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. Chandrika. Raktabija. rheumatism. very likely indigenous in W. constipating. cures dysentery .—Cruciferæ. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. HABITAT :—Cultivated. diuretic. tonic. Garden cress . Ahaliva. COM. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Seeds—indigestible. laxative. good in inflammations. Asahio. enrich blood.—small. L. blood and skin diseases. aphrodisiac. galactagogue.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). the lower petiolate. Asia. :—Cultivated throughout India. Chandrashura. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. tonic. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. The covering is styptic and astringent. G. H. bechic. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. DISTR. Halim. Fr. often with linear segments . LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Kurutige. LOC. They contain vitamin B. Ashalika. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Grains contain vitamins A and B. LOC. stomatitis . C—petals 2-4 or 0. FAM. They are mucilaginous and laxative. bronchitis. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). See—Vegetables. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). Seeds contain fatty oil. K. bronchitis. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). Suvasura. affections of spleen. Hurfi. Fl. leaves and seeds. Allibija. NS. Leaves are used as pot-herb.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. useful in diseases of chest.

The plant contains glucoside linamarin. emmenagogue. 8-12 together in heads. See—Oils. bark somewhat corky. Alsi. NS. flowers. :—E. usually alternate. cure leprosy. seeds and oil. perianth lobes wanting. remove biliousness. LOC. Common tallow laurel.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Sedhavi. Madagandha. native country probably Egypt. black. COM. Flowers—brain and heart tonic.. Sk. causes loss of appetite. inflammations. "Kapha". Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. pale beneath. dysentery. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). . Common flax. DISTR. remove "Vata". used in consumption. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). Haimwati. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. urinary complaints. Seeds—mucilaginous. Alashi. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. lead to impotency. aphrodisiac . USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. supported by the thickened pedicel. Garbijaur. LOC. H. hot. Alashi. LOC.—Lauraceæ. M. 7. hard to digest.. H. Sk. Alshi. aphrodisiac. Country.5 mm. tonic. gouty and rheumatic swellings. bad for eyesight. t. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. Linseed. good for cough and kidney troubles. diuretic. CHAR. Maidalakadi. urinary discharges . FAM. Tisi. PARTS USED :—Bark.—Linaceæ. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. Roasted seeds are astringent. Fr. Seeds contain vitamin A. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. galactagogue. FAM. K. boils. M. NS. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Fl. Malina. base narrowed. :—Cultivated throughout India. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas.— globose. Javas .:—E.:—A small evergreen tree. Alsi. Medini. yellowish. M. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. "Pitta". colds and throat complaints. Kanara. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. branchlets densely tomentose. glossy dark-green above. Jivanika. Maidelakri. Fibres. Fl. diam. lenticellate. heal ulcers. leaves. back-ache. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. bronchitis.—May-July. Tailottama.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. COM. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. Alasi. burnt bark styptic and healing. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs.—crowded at the ends of branches. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. L. G.

galactagogue. LOC. cure cough. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". H. much curved. COM. Narttaka.—alternate. pains in joints. t. tonic. FAM. L. yellowish brown . Malay Islands. Katukoshataki. Ceylon. Root—astringent. K. hollow. "vata". pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . leprosy (Ayurveda). G. Dhaval. Karvituri. leaves.100 m. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. AMARA Clarke. Bibhishana. uterus. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. nearly sessile. M.—. Jalini. bark.9 cm. high. M. 1. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. midrib white. . It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. Kalahogesoppu. C—2-lipped. paralysis. Deccan and S. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. SK. spleen diseases. Ghontali. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. expectorant. COM. branched upwards. many. Sk. fruits and seeds. Nal. very small. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. LOC. useful in biliousness. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs.—Nov. H. Wild tobacco. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. opening by 2 valves. Fl. G.—numerous. white.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. long. lower much longer. aphrodisiac. burning sensation. NS. strangury.2-3 m. NS. Ridge gourd. CHAR. Australia. consumption. aphrodisiac. heating.—Lobeliaceæ. fever. K. acrid. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. thirst. Narsala. Leaves are mucilaginous. subglobose. Mrityupushpa.-Mar. LOC. FAM. Fl.5-3. Fr. M.—Cucurbitaceæ. Kahire. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. Jhinga. :—E. 3 usually connate throughout . stomachic. biliousness. Sthulanala. DISTR. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. throat troubles. bitter. Devnal. Divali. It acts as anodyne. Sd. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Nali. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. 2. finely serrulate. :—Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. erysipelas (Ayurveda). bronchitis. Kadudodka. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. useful in inflammations. diuretic. heart. Kandele. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. light green. Country. diseases of blood. lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. :—E. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. Devanala. PARTS USED :—Root. all oblong. overheated brains. lobes linear. long. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery.—capsule. Ranturai. stem stout. Dhamana. vagina.

(BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. Pokka. thrives in Deccan trap. solitary in the same axil as males. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Gudapushpa. :—Plant is bitter. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. M. cathartic. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. recommended in splenic enlargement. anæmia. hydrogogue. obtusely conical at both ends. :—E. leucoderma. LOC.) FAM. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). Mahula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. females. jaundice. especially in western Peninsula. Mowa. W. Ceylon. Mahua tree. C. laxative. at first whitish and softly villous. bronchitis. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. COM.53. Fl. acrid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. bitter. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). t. ascites. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. cough.—monœcious. Mahuda.—small.—Sapotaceæ. asthma. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. Madhusrava. tendrils usually 3-fid. Bengal to the W. LOC. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). biliousness. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. diuretic. LOC. long and about 2. Moha. PARTS USED :—Bark. Mhowra. "Kapha". tuberculous glands.. Mahura. pale green. uterine and vaginal tumours . carminative. digestible. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery. Fl. thick. Madhuka. Mowda. stems 5-angled.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. Kanara (rare) . K. Butter tree. flowers and fruits. 5-10 cm. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. piles. palmate. liver complaints. haemorrhoids and leprosy. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). tonic to intestines. G.8 cm. fruit and seeds. alexiteric.:—A large climber. leaves. also in Konkan and N. Fruit cures fever. tumours. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. cures "Vata". H. useful in rat-bite. tonic and diuretic.—petals yellow with green veins . NS. 5-7 lobed. Mahua. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). at length scabrid. Root-bark is abortifacient.—Sept. inflammations. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. Sk. piles. Burma. Doddippa. USES. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. asthma. bitter. . cures urinary discharges. Madhya Pradesh. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. :—Throughout India.—obovoid. 10-ribbed. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. DISTR. DISTR. Hunage. base cordate. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. L. Fr. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache.

fattening. Moha. Oils. fatigue . Oil—emollient (Yunani). Huli. Kampillaka. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Mohwa. fixed oil and a spirit. Flowers are regarded as cooling. USES :—Astringent and emollient.—Sapotaceæ. tonic. :—E. expectorant. Mahuda. and Upper Burma. Mahuva of S. There is a trace of alkaloid. cures blood diseases. leprosy. India . Movaro. DISTR. Kapila. H. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. G. yields two important products. PROPERTIES AND LOC. See—Timbers. See—Timbers. and Kanara. heals wounds . anthelmintic. bronchitis. M. Ceylon. NS.—Euphorbiaceæ. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Kesarimavu. cures biliousness. M. ulcers. used in fractures. Mysore.. burning sensation. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. :—-E. LOC. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. Honey tree.) FAM. astringent. tonic and nutritive. flowers act as a mild purgative. Fruit-tonic . consumption. carminative. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Flowers—oleaginous. K. aphrodisiac. :—Western peninsula. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. FAM. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. COM. aphrodisiac. Kapilo. Ippe. Mehua. thirst. flowers and oil. . often planted. Shendri. NS. Sk. Kambhal Raini. and also a remedy for itch. Hullichillu. Mohache jhad. Kapila. Karnatic. LOC. COM. causes "Kapha". rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Movanuhjad. Kamala. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. good in heart diseases. Oils. Liquors. Famine Plants. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. and appetiser (Sushruta). Flower—sweet. Monkey-face tree. H.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Oil is good for skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Bark. K. G. :—Konkan. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. Sk. galactagogue. Madhuka. cooling. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda).

Amri. dispels langour and burning of body. H. Cuckoo's Joy. Astringent. it exudes a pink coloured gum. China. Kanara. Seeds-astringent to bowels. purgative. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). Amra. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. throat troubles. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit.—Anacardiaceæ. clears brain. ulcers. Introduced. alexiteric. urinary discharges. biliousness. stone in bladder. :—Throughout tropical India. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. anthelmintic. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. :—-Throughout the State. improves cough. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. LOC. DISTR. used in chronic diarrhœa. detergent. beautifies complexion. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. maturant. piles. Burma. Mavin-mara. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. fruits and seeds. Ceylon. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). thirst. :—E. heals ulcers. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. in "Tridosh". stomachic. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). also in the Deccan and Gujarat. Rasala. leaves. sour. tonic to body. See—Timbers. flowers. tumours. sweet. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. COM. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. enriches blood. FAM. vaginal troubles. purgative. "Pitta". LOC. :—Tropical Himalayas. M. aphrodisiac. Bhutan. Mango tree. Chuta. removes bad smell from mouth. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. useful in bronchitis. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. NS. cure leucorrhoea. Sahakara. vermifuge and. good in heart trouble. "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. fruits and seeds. K. cultivated throughout the State. bad blood. styptic. astringent to bowels. Sikkim. Fruit—heating. bronchitis. styptic. wounds. Malay Islands. cause flatulence and constipation. a good collyrium (Yunani). leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. anthelmintic. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). tonic. hiccup. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Ambo. Sk. spleen. liver pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. lessen intestinal pains. Kamarasa. laxative. vomiting. cooling. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. diseases of abdomen. wild and cultivated. Dyes. Mavu. LOC. good in dysentery. appetiser. aphrodisiac. Ghats and the Satpudas. G. improves complexion. good in cough. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. cure "Vata". Am. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. Khasia Hills. Amba. Sind. diuretic. chronic dysentery and gleet. Australia. liver. useful in skin-diseases. vulnerary. improve taste and appetite. Bihar. carminative. dysentery. Gum . cooling.

L. C.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. Paribhadraka. See—Timbers.—6. Confection made from ripe mango juice. Dugdhike . Ceylon.—Meliaceæ. useful in bleeding piles. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Sd. tumours.—follicles. rat-bite (Ayurveda). COM. G. Juice of kernel. CHAR. :—Deccan and S. DISTR. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. Assam. H. older branches ash coloured. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. USES. asthma. Nim. Kadulimb. :—G. Dodi. pale yellowish brown. :—Bengal. Ripe fruit is laxative. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. 7. Harandori. margined. Bevu. H.) FAM. leucoderma. cures "Vata". piles. LOC. M.—Apl. Madhumalati. NS. t. good for dyspepsia. Nim or Margosa tree.—rotate with broad lobes. fleshy. Fr.) FAM.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs.3-15 X 4.—broadly ovate. biliousness.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. long. :—-E. LOC. broadly ovate or suborbicular. COM. all plains districts of Madras State. overlapping to the right. aphrodisiac. Java. Hemajyoti-valli. Limbada. . M. astringent to bowels. Khandodi. cooling. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Hari.5-10 cm. green or yellowish green. alexiteric. Fl. :—A large twining shrub.—many. Suparnika. Juss. Ambri. Fruit Trees. Nimba. urinary discharges. corona lobes large. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. Nimbaka. useful in diseases of eye. inflammations. It is also anthelmintic. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. K. Country. burning sensation. if snuffed. Nimla. coma copious . Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Nakchhikni. Limbra. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Kharkhodi. with lenticels and black dots. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth..5-11. Balant nimba. M. flattened. Sk. stops nasal bleeding. Sk. few glands above the petiole cordate . The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. NS. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Fl. Nimba. antipyretic. slightly tapering to a very blunt point.—Asclepiadaceæ.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. K. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. rugosely striate.

skin diseases. carminative. toothache. burning sensation near heart. Tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. bruises. rheumatism . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. tumours. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. insecticidal. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water.. flowers. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. stimulant and stomachic. good in ophthalmia. it is a general vermifuge. stomachic. LOC. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. leucoderma. leaves. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. antiperiodic. alexiteric. Vanmethika. and loss of appetite. lessens inflammation. pectoral. asthma. bad taste in the mouth. boils. fever. COM. LOC. general debility. tonic and antiperiodic. expectorant. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. good for leprosy. The flowers are stimulant.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. DISTR. See—Timbers. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. piles. thirst. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). it is also used internally as anthelmintic. swollen glands. Ranmethi. anthelmintic. H. refrigerant. for unhealthy ulcers. Oils. bark. resolvant. valuable in consumption." vomiting. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. earache. urinary discharges. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . sprains. M. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. fatigue. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. leprosy. biliousness. blood complaints. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. piles. Banmethi. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. Burma. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. FAM. cough. maturant. . relieves "Kapha". anthelmintic. "pittadosh. aphrodisiac. lumbago. fruits and seeds. maturant. cures ulcers and inflammations . NS. :—E. chronic leprosy. tonic. useful in syphilitic sores. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . astringent. convalescence. Small melilot.

—size of a pea. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. It has expectorant properties to some extent. :—E. of terminal rather long. Sd. finally red. :—An erect annual herb.— Jany. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—small. rounded. tapering at both ends. leaves and seeds. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. stem angular. S. young parts white-hairy. Fr. Assam. :—India (tropical zone). north Bengal. 30-45 cm. truncate at the apex. standard exceeding the wings and keel. especially in strained back. :—Western Peninsula. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. HABITAT :—In hedges. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. Chatinmaragu. CHAR.—one. Khasia. M. t. given as a gruel (Murray). USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). Externally used as a fomentation. lobes dentate or serrate . male fascicled on short peduncles. COM. slightly echinulate. M. Pudina. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. :—Common in Deccan. C. DISTR. DISTR. oblong-ellipsoid. Fl.—pod. Pudinah. base cordate. LOC. LOC. high. glabrous. Bilari. introduced into many other regions. Afghanistan. "Sikkim. Agamaki.—variable in size.—Cucurbitaceæ. ellipsoid.. at first green and variegated with yellow. Ceylon. also in S. :—H.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Corn-March mint. Fl. NS. L. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Iran. in spicate close racemes. Fr. Europe.—pale yellow. Fl. Country and Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. Pudina. very hispid . FAM. NS. tendrils simple. leaflets toothed.—monœcious . Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. scabrid. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. females sessile. glabrous or slightly hairy. G. oblanceolate. M. brown. Malaya and Africa. . COM. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. K. FAM. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . Ghugri.—Labiatæ. L. deltoid-ovate entire.—3-foliate. poultice or plaster for swellings.

M. FAM. LOC. blood and heart troubles. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Nagkinjalka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). pains in joints (Ayurveda). biliousness. small tumours. sorethroat. Nagakeshara. Suvarna. :—E. Oils. Naghas. Ceylon. used for cough. L. thirst. toothed. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. Konkan and N. oblong. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Nagchapha. hairy. infusion is given in fevers. dry.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR.—Guttiferæ. K. :—A perennial erect herb . Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. The plant is used in chutneys. USES :—Root. H. diuretic. good for fevers. PARTS USED :—Bark. foul breath. LOC. Sk. the upper similar and large. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Nagsampige. none at the top. Assam Iron-wood. DISTR. LOC. MESUA FERREA Linn. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. M. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. and stimulant. expectorant. stem short. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. asthma. stalked. useful in liver and spleen diseases. :—Western Himalayas. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. emmenagogue. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). Fl. Burma Tenasserim. Himalayas. lanceolate. Travancore. North and West Asia. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. skin diseases. Europe. E. alexipharmic. Country. hiccup. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. Ceylon Iron-wood. cardiotonic. In N. DISTR. Assam. Kashmir. COM. Andamans. Bengal. NS. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. See—Timbers. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. lilac. China.—in axillary distant whorls. Carminative. indigestion and cephalagia. Kanara. Fr. headache. smooth. LOC. . flowers and fruits. vomiting. binding. Nagkesara.-narrowed below. cough. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. sweats. Nagkesara.—nutlets dry. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. ovate. digestive. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tonic to kidneys . good in asthma and sweats. leaves. S. lined with hairs and hairy outside. C. Gums and Resins. :—E.

—Sept.. Lajjavati. Sensitive plant. :—Cultivated all over the State. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Sankochini. leaflets 15-20 pairs. pinnae 1-2 pairs. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas .—Magnoliaceæ. Kanara. rheumatism. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. ophthalmia. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Ghats. in vertigo. Suvarna champaka. blood affections. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. Yellow champa . L. Pivala chapha. Lajjika. Burma. PARTS USED :—Root. rachis bristly. M. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests .—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Risemani. 45-90 cm. H. Champo. M. high. Champaka. Champa. K. Sonchampo. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. stems and branches sparingly prickly. diuretic. diuretic. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. Sk. Fl. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Assam.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. COM. Lajalu. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. acrid. :—E. Champaka. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. stimulant. "Kapha". H. Golden champa. removes worms. gout. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. NS. Fruit. hairy beneath. Fr. Pilochampo. near temples and in gardens.. Sparshalajja. Lajja. flowers and fruits. Sk. useful in cough.-pod flat. W. CHAR. Flowers— expectorant. pink. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Bark is aromatic febrifuge.—4-merous. :—A diffuse under-shrub. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). in globose heads. Raktamula. COM. Hem-pushpa. diaphoretic. clothed with glandular hairs . DISTR.5 cm. remove biliousness. Sampige. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Sone-chapha. petioles hairy. Champaka. India. G.—bipin-nate. also used as purgative. K. FAM. good in leprosy. Fl. G. cultivated. glabrous above. FAM. LOC. . flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. Nachike-gidda. sensative. long. See—Timbers. Muthmurika. Flowers-stomachic. S. digitate. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. Lajalu. bile. Lajalu. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. evergreen rain-forest of N. bark. facilitates micturition. IndoChina. Humble plant. t. "Vata". :—E. nausea and fevers . Yunnan. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa.-Oct. rheumatism. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. Lajari. leaves. LOC. 57. aphrodisiac. slightly recurved. Surabhi. destroys poisons. Dyes. Vanamallika.

Mugule. stomachic. leprosy. anthelmintic. FAM. bilious fevers. smallpox (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. flowers and fruits acrid. bark. cures biliousness. Baphuli. sweet. cure blood diseases. Bakul. Flowers—expectorant. Root is resolvent. Bakula. Bolsari. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. acrid. Bark cardiotonic. K. probably a native of tropical America. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). cure biliousness. leprosy. leucoderma. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. ulcers. In Brazil root is used as emetic. cures "Kapha". Varsuli. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. See—Ornamental Plants. Fruit causes flatulence. flowers. NS. LOC. biliousness. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. vaginal and uterine complaints.—Sapotaceæ. DISTR. in piles and fistula. COM. asthma. Kanara and Konkan. Seeds fix loose teeth. M. :—Naturalised throughout India. alterative. alexipharmic. burning sensation. liver complaints. cultivated in the tropics. blood diseases (Ayurveda). useful in blood and bile diseases. Borsalli. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. Bakul. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. DISTR. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. cooling. Mukul. Mulsari. nose diseases. LOC. Kanara. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. Kalhala. Flowers give taste. alexipharmic. cooling. Vovali. fatigue. Ceylon. headache. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. jaundice. Sharadika. teeth and gum diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. good for gonorrhœa. often planted in gardens. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. cultivated in gardens in pots. Anangaka. oleaginous. LOC. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. Bakul. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. inflammations. Ranjal. H. fruits and seeds.:—Western Peninsula. dysentery. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. It is also resolvent and alterative. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). Juice is applied externally. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Malaya. piles. astringent to bowels. Root. Sk. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. vulnerary. :—G.

K.—membranous. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. G.—Nyctaginaceæ. COM.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Kandura. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. Karela. NS. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Hagalkai. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. Karela. it is applied to relieve headache. brightly coloured (dark crimson. . lessen inflammations (Yunani). See—Timbers.—large. Oils. NS. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Krishnakali. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. Kareli. Karli. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. DISTR. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. See—Ornamental Plants. CHAR. K. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. high with large perennial tuberous roots. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation.—Cucurbitaceæ. yellow. :—E. Marvel of Peru. Sk. :—Grown throughout India. Karavalli. It is also tonic and febrifuge. and rather fleshy stems . 30-75 cm. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Karala. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . FAM. Gulbasa . cordate.—continually in bloom. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. Fr. often ribbed or rugose.—E. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. each one surrounded by an involucre. M. Guleaabbas . LOC. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. t. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. LOC. L. Fruit Trees. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Leaves are maturant. blackish. Sk. Hagala. M. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Fl. native of tropical America. H. good for syphilitic sores. Fl. COM. FAM.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Carella fruit. :—A herbaceous plant. HABITAT -Cultivated. Karelo. Four o'clock plant. H.

laxative. Fruits contain vitamins A. rheumatism. stomachic. asthma. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. digestible. antibilious. blood diseases. used in syphilis. Ceylon.—Cucurbitaceæ. anthelmintic. cures biliousness. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. Nagarali. COM. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. leaves and fruit. also in Malaya. Kanta. M. laxative and authelmintic. stomachic. Vandhya. rheumatism. excessive salivation. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. Golkandra. hiccup. longpepper. "Kapha". Kartoli. China. stomachic. Vishakankini. Malaya. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. S. bronchitis. cooling. NS. It is useful in gout. eye and heart. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. carminative. LOC. DISTR. fever consumption. cure "Tridosh". Karkotaki. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). boils. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. piles. Fruit—very bitter. diseases of spleen and liver. :—G. hearttroubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. Karehiballi. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. tonic. cure "Vata". sparingly in Konkan. and America. urinary discharges. . :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. leprosy. and externally in ague as an absorbent. lessens expectoration . LOC. Kantolan. burns. antipyretic. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. appetiser. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. tropical Africa. erysipelas (Ayurveda). piles. H. anæmia. Leaves act as galactagogue. urinary discharges. Gid-hagalu. FAM. Kantoli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). leaves and fruit. :—Throughout India. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. all kinds of poisoning. See—Vegetables. K. ulcers. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. etc. urinary calculi. M. bronchitis. Leaves—aphrodisiac. B and C. tumours. hot alexiteric. Plant cures diseases of blood. Fruit is tonic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. anthelmintic. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. Country and Gujarat. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit—bitter. Sk. Beksa. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fruit— bitter. DISTR. jaundice etc. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. asthma.'. HABITAT :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . laxative. anthelmintic.

Aal. all "tridosha" fevers. digestible. M. Mochaka. Introduced var. Indian horse radish . improves appetite. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Formosa. LOC. H. Ak. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. Nuggi. Ugra. HABITAT :—Cultivated . flowers. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Sk. Achchuka. removes all kinds of pains. Guggala. Root-tonic to body and lungs. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. . Burma. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. also in the Oudh forests.—Moringaceæ. dyspepsia. earache. Al. Mulgule. emmenagogue. PARTS USED :—Root. Saraoji. DISTR.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. K. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . analgesic.—Rubiaceæ. Ab. Murangi. leaves and fruits. M. Segua. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. anthelmintic. spleen enlargement. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. G. DISTR. Drum-stick Tree. Tikshnamula. causes burning sensation. alexiteric. LOC. :—E. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. stuttering. FAM. Bartondi. Sargavo. See—Vegetables. fattening. Indian mulberry. fruits and seeds. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. ulcers. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Sk. Ashyuka. Munigha. K. eye diseases. NS. Mochaka. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. tuberculous glands in neck. Haladipavate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. cultivated throughout India and Burma. G. useful in heart-complaints. also wild. Rochana. Ainshi. inflammations. "Vata". makes blood impure . Shevaga. Achi. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bark. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. China. biliousness . Sajina. Tagase . aphrodisiac. Seglo. Famine Plants. H. See—Dyes. astringent to bowels. COM. NS. FAM. leaves. :—E. tumours. "Kapha".

Shetur. Fruits contain vitamins A. lumbago. See—Fruit Trees. Tut. Peninsula. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. burning sensation (Ayurveda). :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . LOC. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. NS. gout. Tuda. good for brain. Tuta. bronchitis. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. Sk. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. loss of appetite. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. good for inflammations of throat and chest. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. epilepsy and hysteria. Seeds yield a fixed oil. it is cooling laxative. Madhu pippali. fattening. salt and pepper. expectorant. obstinate asthma. laxative. urinary discharges. carminative. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. bark.—Moraceæ. aphrodisiac. lumbago. Kanara. stomatitis. MORUS INDICA Linn. piles. biliousness. The plant contains an alkaloid. Gums and Resins. . wounds. expectorant. Tut. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Leaf paste. cures gleet. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. White mulberry. Fruit—tonic. COM. heart. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. rheumatism. FAM. diarrhœa. K. increases biliousness. DISTR. appetiser. useful in small-pox. cooling. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. sour. Siahtut. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. enriches blood. G. See—Vegetables. PARTS USED :—Root. Oils. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Fibres. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. H. sweetish. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. leaves and fruit. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. anthelmintic. common about villages in N. turmeric. Tutri. LOC. ulcerated intestines. spleen. B and C. enlarged spleen or liver. with garlic. enriches blood. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. aromatic and acid flavour. Root is purgative. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. internal inflammations and calculous affections. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. diuretic. Ambat. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. Kambali. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). M. Karihannu. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.

its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . DISTR. NS.. Urustambha. Seeds— alexipharmic. Cowhage. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. LOC. spermatorrhoea etc. terminal smaller. juice given for headache. Adam's Fig. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. Bale. 5-7.) FAM. 6-30 flowered. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda).3-11. cures blood diseases. Maoz kela. . " Vata ". which produce intensa irritation of skin. leaves. G.—Scitaminaceæ. Kela. :—Punjab plains.. :—An annual twiner. Kela. Vanari. They are used as anthelmintic. M. H.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. Turashi. flowers and fruit. Kadvare. Kivanch. M. Kavatch. COM. Ceylon. LOC. Fl. dark-purple. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Fr. :—E. Fl. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani).—Oct-Nov. DISTR. Sk. Dirghapatra. FAM. laxative. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. K. Rambha. Kapikachu. SAPIENTUM O. NS.—in drooping racemes. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Banana. cultivated. LOC. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Kunth. silky. Goncha. consumption. K. Kivanchha. Nayi songuballi. Var. COM. petioles 6. CHAR. Kela. Havanch. Atmagupta. turgid-shaped. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State.—5-6 small. common in hedges. PARTS USED :—Root. biliousness . MUSA PARADISIACA L. covered with tawny stinging hairs. leaflets membranous. H.3 cm. tonic. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. t. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. L. Fruit— aphrodisiac. with honey is given in cholera. Plantain. HABITAT :—Humid areas . Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Hasaguni. Kuhili. Strong root infusion.—3-foliate.2 cm. improves blood. long. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. pods and seeds. :—E. G.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). HABITAT :—In hedges. tonic. Himalaya up to 1200 m. sometimes cultivated. stem.5x1. Sd. Kavach. grey-silky beneath. Sk. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. Kadali. Root—emmenagogue. Tikshna.—pod. lateral very unequal sided. Seed is considered a nervine tonic.

LOC. strangury.— berry. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. Burnt stem is vulnerary. in " Vata". MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. linear. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. :—A rambling shrub.—Rubiaceæ. Tropical Himalayas. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. kidney troubles (Yunani). Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa.—tubular. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. lobes broadly ovate. Nagavalli. FAM. B and C. Kanara.— July-Oct. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . :—Konkan and N. Fibres. tonic. Bhutakes. Assam. heart-burn and colic. Lawsat. Hastygida. antidysenteric. M. . Fl. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. blood diseases. :—H. Fl. aphrodisiac. tube slender. menstrual disorders. biliousness. stipules twin. PARTS USES :—Root. broad at base. subglobose. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. causes bronchitis . Fr. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. anthelmintic. flowers and fruit. thickens blood. indigestible . Sk. dyspepsia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid.—opposite or 8nately whorled. aphrodisiac. :—S. COM. DISTR. urinary discharges. Shrivalli. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. useful in "Kapha". mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. buds densely hairy. Ipparati. hairy. very hairy outside.--in terminal cymes. Serwadh. astringent to bowels. Bellotti. broadly elliptic. tonic. t. improves complexion (Ayurveda). NS. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia.. See—Fruit Trees. Andamans. Root-juice. astringent to bowels. deep golden yellow. pubescent. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. leprosy. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. Bedina. PROPERTIES AND LOC. increases appetite. K. diabetes. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . leaves. sore-throat. in thirst. diseases of uterus and vagina. L. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. appetiser. C. CHAR. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Root-juice is anthelmintic. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. consumption and bronchitis. ear-pain. LOC. good for dry bronchitis. and are used in acidity. Fruit—sweet.

It is used as a substitute for true mace.— Myristicaceæ. :—A shrub. Condiments and Spices. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. allaying pain. False nutmeg. very sweet smelling. Himalayas. NS. CHAR. especially epilepsy. Habules. M. fruits and oil. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Malati. all over the State. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Fr. as . LOC. Malati.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. Kaiphal. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. cures headache. DISTR. K. LOC. white. FAM. COM. L. Fl. Pliny. ovate to lanceolate. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. DISTR. See—Timbers. :—Western Peninsula. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. black when ripe. COM. M. intermittent fevers and dropsy. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient.—small.—Myrtaceæ. emmenagogue. Malabar. Myrtle. PARTS USED :—Leaves. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. A decoction is employed. ellipsoid. small. is regarded as. NS. Vilayantimendhi. Kanage. common in the Kumta taluka. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. FAM. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . promotes growth of hair. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. applied locally to relieve pain. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. LOC. Dioscorides. Ram-patri. enriches blood. used in stopping vomiting. Kanara Ghats . Kamuka. :—E. Sk. It is credited with opposite qualities. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. PARTS USED:—Seeds. diuretic. H. :—Konkan and N. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. Murad. Galen and the Arabian writers. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. W. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. They are given in asthma. axillary on slender peduncles.— solitary. smoke beneficial to piles. :— E. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver.—berry.

Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. solitary or 2 together. Belakanji.. entire. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. Kandalu. torus 18 mm. Nelanaringa . elongate. COM.5 cm. C. stem. Pundarika. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. curved. fleshy. Pitmari. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd.—alternate. LOC. 0. t. Fl. diam. DISTR. Kapurbhendi. alexiteric.. NS. disk annular. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. :—A large aquatic herb. long. :—W. FAM. & A. 10-25 cm. LOC. Ripe carpels. DISTR. Fl. :—E. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. G. 3-foliate. Indian sacred lotus.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. Fl. muricate. Goanese ipecacuanha. petals 5. Tavari-bija or gadde.) FAM. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. M. high. Sk. Ambuj. Sk. Padam.—capsule. top flat. CHAR. Kanara. cells 2-seeded.-Dec. Sd. vulnerary. LOC.3-0. free.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. Papra-vel. Kamal. See—Ornamental Plants. ulcers (Ayurveda). glabrous.—solitary.—white. Kamal. cures asthma. :—Konkan. peltate. K. L. K. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. linear spathulate. orbicular. M. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. 3-valved. Timpani. Fr. Chinese water-lily. :—E. Padma. Ambuja. anthers with clavate appendages. Pankaja. radiately nerved.6 m.-Nov. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. Amlavalli. from Iran eastwards to Australia. elliptic. Suriyakamal. . with slender. t. H. ovoid.—membranous. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. L. petiole winged. bronchitis. COM.—petals many 5-12. in diam. Aravinda. leaves. :—A small branching undershrub.—pendulous. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. axillary. hæmorrhage. CHAR. Sarasija. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. ovoidglobose. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. NS. erect.—July. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts.—Meliaceæ. concave or cupped. spongy. biliousness. Kandabahula. dysentery. Kamala. Kamal. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India.—Nymphæaceæ. rough with distant prickles . petioles very long. white or rosy.

also as a hedge plant. Karvira. Cool. S. Cool. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . flowers. Fl. diuretic. planted in gardens throughout the State. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. throat scaly. fruit. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. long. M. t. Kanagile. allays thirst. useful in piles. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. biliousness. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Sweet scented oleander. Sk. rigid. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. slightly bitter. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Ashwa-marak. Karber. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. cures cough. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. also cholera. aphrodisiac. CHAR. Kanher. diseases of skin and eye . inflammations and poisoning. leaves. useful in burning sensation of the body. honey. small-pox. Karvira. Salt Range. Sd. good in blood-complaints. Sind. H. good in throat-troubles. Paddali. flowers. COM. fragrant. L. improves watery eyes (Yunani). Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. gives tone to breast. Pratihasa. linear-lanceolate. rose or white. Upper Gangetic Plains. Kanel. tapering into short petiole.—Apocynaceæ. G. See—Ornamental Plants. K. :—Madhya Bharat.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. at length separating. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . LOC. Fl. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. C. LOC. seeds. coriaceous. Waziristan. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts .—flowers more or less throughout the year. dark green and shining above. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. useful in fevers . chest-pains. menorrhagia. also recommended as cardiac tonic. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers .152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. allays thirst. strangury.—funnel-shaped. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter.—in threes.—red. Kaner. :—E. spermatorrhoea. Baluchistan. stem. FAM. NS. Kaner. and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. Fr. DISTR. heart and brain tonic . Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. India. ulcers and sores of mouth. vomiting. lobes rounded.—follicles. in fever and liverdiseases. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. In China and Malaya dried red petals. Vishavrikshanka. Filaments are astringent and cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. 10-15 cm. 15-23 cm. removes worms. long. leucoderma. fever. . bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . leaves. astringent to taste .

a mental stimulant. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. H. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. tonic. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). headache. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). Tobacco. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. Tamarakuthika.—in open corymbose panicles . Tamakhu. cultivated in all tropical countries. useful in caries of teeth. about 1. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. bronchitis. Poisonous to fish. caries of teeth. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. nervous depression and sleeplessness. laxative. Kalanja. C. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. G.—capsule. NS. foul nose. Krimighni. are poisonous and are used externally. Hoge soppu. Fr. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—Solanaceæ. sores. tubercular glands of neck. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. scabies. oblong or elliptic. good for lumbago. Dhumrapatrika. scabies (Yunani). LOC. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. LOC. M.—alternate. funnel-shaped. base wedgeshaped .) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. :—Native of America. tonic. smoke constipating. useful in bronchitis. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. An ointment made . disinfectant. water from hookha is diuretic. Root—aphrodisiac.—pink or white. Sk. Bujjarbhang. wounds. conical. DISTR. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. also applied in leprosy. inflammations. large (especially lower ones). K. especially root. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. COM. FAM. anthelmintic. emetic. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. dimness of sight. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). asthma. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Tambak. USES :—All parts of plant. inflammations. Tambakhu. carminative. Tamaku. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. across. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Flowers— aphrodisiac. M. sedative and emetic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tabak. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. The plant contains a glucoside. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. the surface is plain or bullate. very poisonous. lobes spreading. CHAR. :—E. Fl.8 cm. L. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. skin diseases.

scalp affections etc. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Fl.5-6. K. peduncles 4angled. densely pubescent beneath. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Sephalika. Nilophhal. Alipriya. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy.) FAM. Fr. Parijata. It is used with honey in chronic fever. southwards to the Godavari. COM. carminative. . :—E. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma.— more or less throughout the year. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Buds are tonic. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Kharapatraka. Chotakanwal. Parijata . rough above with bulbous hairs. Prajakta. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. Cultivated in many parts of India. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. DISTR. Harsing. Bengal. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. Sephali. young branches quadrangular. Kanval. :—A large shrub or a small tree.. See—Ornamental Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . rough all over with stiff whitish hairs.—Oleaceæ. Kanwal. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants.— fragrant. tube orange-coloured. useful in bilious fevers. Bilitavarai. LOC. stomachic. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. ovate acute. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Burma. Indian Mourner : G.—capsule. Sk.—Nymphæaceæ. Bark cures bronchitis. CHAR. Nalkumkuma. 2-celled. hairy. NS. FAM. K. cures fevers. Lalkamal. a decoction of root. abundant July-Sept. Lotus. bark. NS. (Ayurveda). With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. Kumuda.—lobes white. Sk. M. Parijataka. PARTS USED :—Root. Fl. Nyadale huvu . :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. tonic to hair. flowers and seeds. Jayaparvati. C. LOC. t. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. compressed. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Shonapadma. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. obcordate or merely orbicular. astringent-to bowels.3 cm. :—E. Har-singhar. H.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. G. Har. Assam. bark. Madhya Bharat. COM. H. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd.—opposite 5-10x2. axillary. leaves. Prajakta. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). M. lessen inflammation. solitary. HABITAT :-Cultivated. Aravind. L. Flowers have a bitter bad taste.

. diameter. pale rose or white. irregularly sinuate-dentate. peduncles very long . long. chronic pain in joints. bitter. petioles very long. antipyretic . Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda).5-20 cm. deeply cordate at the base. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . entire. ripening beneath the water. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. Fl. bracts stalked. t. "Kapha". white. glabrous or pubescent. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. hot taste. biliousness. Java. Tukhamariya . useful in diseases of heart and blood. Surabhi. bitter taste. long. Sabja. See—Ornamental Plants. Rihan. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. juice gives lustre to .:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. anthelmintic. globose. diarrhœa and piles . CHAR. acute. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. rough. thyrsiflora. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart.6-0.—petals about 12.— in whorled racemes . Sabzah. removes impurities from blood . submerged . root stock tuberous.—nutlets about 2 mm. Hungary. :—Large aquatic herb . Fr. causes burning sensation. allays thirst. Sk. alexipharmic.—all the year. glabrous.—Labiatæ. across. Plant has a sharp.9 m. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). useful in diseases of heart and brain. DISTR. asthma. inflammations. K. Ramkasturi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. lessens bile. stomachic. LOC.—solitary.— ovoid. Barbar. stamens about 40. roundish. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. :—E. Manjarki. DISTR. Var. purple stem. Africa. Fl. Sajjebija. 7. ellipsoid. Common sweet basil. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. cylindric.—ovate. L. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). fleshy. flowers and seeds. Fr. black and pitted. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. Philippines. pink or purplish. febrifuge. C. Tungi. leaves. "Vata". C. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. erect. Sabja. diam. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. itch.—3 cm. high. Barbar. :—Var. filaments dilated at the base . Damaro.—peltate. COM. and nigropunctate above. FAM. Sd. green. enlarged spleen. Ceylon. Bahari. improves taste . stems and branches green or purplish. emmenagogue. red. leucoderma. "Vata". aphrodisiac . 8-13 mm. 15-25 cm. Ajagandhika. obtuse. Nasabo. leaves and flower. NS. H. short. diuretic. oblong. M. PARTS USED :—Roots. LOC. " Kapha". L. Surasa. open in the morning only. Burma. Fl. toothed or lobed. cooling . LOC.—2-lipped.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. :—An erect herb 0. :—Cultivated in many places in the State.

aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. stimulant. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. M. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). skin diseases. often cultivated : Ceylon. Java. :—Konkan. H.—nutlets subglobose. Plant has bitter.2—1. Fl.—Labiatæ. rachis quadrangular . leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. :—E. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. COM. :—A perennial shrub. Sk. " Vata". stems and branches subquadrangular . branched. they are also aphrodisiac. good for griping and piles (Yunani). :—Throughout India. inflammations. pale greenish yellow.3—12. LOC. elliptic-lanceolate. useful in vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. lower lip longer. heating. Rama-Ran tulasi. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. Fr. rugose. Ajaka. Sumukha. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. headache.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. Deccan.7 cm. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. " Kapha".8—5. DISTR. sharp taste .—6. removes foul breath. G. woody below . earache. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. FAM.— in simple or branched racemes. Lemon—shrubby basil. Gujarat. CHAR. diuretic and stimulant. Ram Tulasi. L. strengthens gums. LOC. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. 1. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. diuretic and demulcent properties. useful in diseases of brain. M. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. t. young ones pubescent. gland-dotted. fits. carminative. . Country. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. in close whorls . It is also styptic.. heart. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. aphrodisiac . for which the juice warmed with honey is given. LOC.—2-lipped. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Rantulasi. BanMal tulasi. During fever when the extremities are cold. Large basil. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. S. The flowers possess. brown.-July-Oct. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. Avachi-bavachi. Fl. NS. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. alexiteric. high. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. liver and spleen. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm.5 X 3.8 m. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. good for toothache. C. coarsely crenate-serrate. strangury . pubescent.

stipules with bristles . Arabia. Tropical E. FAM. bitter.—2-lipped. M. Tulasi. FAM. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. Deccan and S. COM. :—Konkan. antipyretic. Sd. . strangury. high. M. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. upper lip pubescent on the back.—Rubiaceæ.—on filiform pedicels. entire or serrate. stems numerous. CHAR.— nutlets. Fr. purplish. leaves and seeds. K. Pavitra. Sk. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. Country. used in catarrh and bronchitis . varying from 7. Parapate. HABIT :—A common weed. :—G. Tulasa.—subsessile. vomiting. Fl. and are given with honey. LOC. lobes acute. angular.—Labiatæ. Manjari. linear or linear-lanceolate. pubescent. Kala tulasi. anthelmintic. of children and in hepatic affections . painful eye. LOC. Vishnuvallabha. t.2 cm. long. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). asthma. useful in heart and blood diseases. Damanpaper. heating. yellow with black marking. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. Tulasi.. :—An annual plant. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. C. leucoderma. hiccup. Malay Archipelago. stomachic. Tulasi. Vrinda. minutely gland-dotted. Sk. Fl. Papli. Suravallari. especially in children. smooth.—2. DISTR. margins recurved and scabrous. M. foul smells. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. LOC. high. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India.— capsule. Vranda. L. " Kapha". purplish. Phapti. Krishna tulasi. COM. Australia. Parpat. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. usually 2-3 cm. globose or pyriform . NS. :—An annual herb. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. See—Sacred Plants.5-5 X 1. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil.6— 3. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . Ceylon. NS.—pale brown. West Asia. " Vata". long in close whorls . they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . Fr. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. lumbago pains. elliptic-oblong.:—E. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. L. Asia to Java and the Philippines. cholagogue. obtuse or acute.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. 30-60 cm. CHAR. stems and branches subquadrangular. H. alexiteric.—Sept-Nov. clothed with soft hairs . bronchitis. Fl. G. H. purulent discharge of ear. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough.5—38 cm.

cures bronchitis in children. Sk. good for leucoderma. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . DISTR. Vajrakantaka. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. Sher. M. vesicular calculi. largest 3. Grown as hedge.5 cm. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. tumours. perianth rotate. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. piles. :—E. digestive. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. laxative. Nagdali. ascites. 3 m. across. cures inflammations. rather thin.—7. recurved. reddish at the tips. FAM. Nagaphana.—5 cm. introduced into India. yellow or orange. urinary complaints. Fr. Nagaphana. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. . lumbago. Slipper thorn. alexiteric. Mullugalli. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. Fl. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. yellow at the edges. or more high. G. Snuka. LOC. carminative. dull bluish-green. flowers and fruits. rusty brown. ulcers. NS. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. Phadyanivdung. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. H. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. juice cures earache (Yunani). In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. subulate.— berry. stomachic. purgative. angular or warty. COM. inflammations. Zhoratheylo. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. inner spathulate. long. Nagaphani. anæmia. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. used in ophthalmia. loss of consciousness. Prickly pear. burning. spleen enlargement. Chorhothalo. xerophyte. cures syphilis (Ayurveda).—Cactaceæ.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. obovate or elliptic. Joints variable in size. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). Nagadru. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. CHAR. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. it is also used in liver complaints. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. outer segments ovate red in the centre. antipyretic. spleen enlargement. Plant bitter. diuretic. pyriform. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. Plant juice—heating. K. liver complaints. carminative. long. " Vata". Hathathoria. leucoderma.5 mm. cures biliousness. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. LOC. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. reddish purple when ripe. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions .

Indian trumpet flower. Malaya. Podval. Arlu.—Bignoniaceæ. H. improves appetite.S. fattening. asthma. useful in biliousness . See—Timbers. fevers. Vrihi. :—E. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. PARTS USED :—Grain. NS. good in heart and throat diseases. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. K. Ullu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Kanara ghats . Chokha. Mokka. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. M. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). R. Bhat. M. DISTR. COM. Seeds are purgative. :—Widely cultivated. Pharri. biliousness. bronchitis. useful in " Vata". NS. Nivara. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. Fruit—expectorant. Akki. oleaginous. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). intestinal worms. Sk. COM. Tandula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. :—E. improves taste. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. appetiser. K. anthelmintic. K. Tans. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. FAM. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. leucoderma. aphrodisiac. FAM.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. aphrodisiac. diuretic.). Araluka. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. inflammations. Ceylon. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. dysentery. Shali. Tetu. tonic. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). G. vomiting. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Chaval. astringent to bowels . Dirghavrinta. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. Dyes. Ava. sweet. Tetu. stomachic. Rice. USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. Rice . Fruit—acrid. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Tetu. Alangi. Ghats. LOC. Tandula. Bagi. LOC. Sk. LOC. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Tuntaka. It is astringent and tonic. DISTR. anal troubles. cooling. G. Mayarjangha.—Gramineæ. :—The Konkan and the N. M. tonic. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Shyonaka. piles. Cochin-China. H.

easy to digest. C. DISTR. small-pox. :—Throughout the State. margins ciliate. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful. oblong. CHAR.—Asclepiadaceæ. It is an excellent application to abscesses. Jaladudhi. petioles very slender. The grains contain vitamin C. H. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Ambastha. Chukrita.5 cm.—axillary. transversely striate. long. ulcers. M. Dudhialata. base cuneate subsessile. LOC. Sd. M. Amrul. Kyirin . It is a pleasant. inflamed piles. beaked. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. good appetiser . buboes. leaflets 1. Indian Sorrel. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. L. pubescent. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. Dudhialata. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . stems rooting. Kshiravi. t. LOC. K. Shuklika. Dudhani. measles. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. diarrhœa. NS. COM. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. Ceylon. dysentery and scurvy. Amlalonika. COM. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. astringent. Changeri.— many. Fr. See—Food Plants. 5-angled.2—2. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. Sk. FAM. K. cures dysentery. used externally. H. gives great relief. ovoid.—Oxalidaceæ.— Oct-May. boils. FAM. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. Dudhatani. yellow. scarlet fever. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. Fl. to which a little lemon juice is added. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Dudhari. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. Ambuti. sub-umbellate .—palmately 3-foliate. Dugdhica. brown. Marudbhava. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. removes " Kapha ". :—G. bruised. obcordate. rounded at the apex. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). NS. if applied to chest. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). Sk. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . also in burns and scalds. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. bowels or kidneys. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . Br.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. In dysentery. " Vata " and piles. Rice water. Dugdhike. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. Fl. . Dugdhika.— capsule.—petals 5. linear-oblong.

fruit. Ketaka. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. coriaceous ensiform. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. Ceylon. Deccan. :—Konkan and N. long. root. diseases of heart and brain.5-9 cm. indigestible. " Kapha ".—Dec. LOC. anthers. aphrodisiac.5 m. LOC. :—Konkan. HABITAT :—Usually near water. L. lobes ciliate. Poona Sangam. C. diuretic. black. :—E. . milky juice. yellow or red. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". :—A shrub up to 6 m. mouth with pubescent ring. 0.—oblong or globose. PARTS USED :—Plant. cough. fruit and oil from bracts.—very numerous. 3.. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. NS. M. Mundige. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. Gandha-pushpa. Kewoda. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. long. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). useful in strangury and tumours.—deciduous.—dioecious. aphrodisiac. Country— Belgaum. syphilis. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Burma. Kanara. t.9—1.— large.—Pandanaceæ. somniferous. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . dry. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. PARTS USED :-Root. Umbrella Tree. H. pain in the muscles. anthelmintic. pain. small-pox. rarely erect. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. FAM.—follicles. Fl. L. Leaves are useful in leprosy. with flavour. juice is used in gleet. heat of body. pale rose or white. purple veined. S.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. gonorrhœa. Kanara. expectorant. high. laxative.3 cm. Fl. Sk. CHAR. bitter. roots fibrous from the lower nodes. 4. alexiteric. Dhulipushpika. COM. Ketgi. Sd. Flowers improve complexion.8 mm. stem supported by aerial roots .—glaucous green. DISTR. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. stems many. often planted. Screw pine. LOC. Fruit—tonic. Gogandhul. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Keora. corona staminal. palegreen. Kedige. leucoderma. female flower spadix solitary. leaves. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. Ketaki. K. coma present. scabies. anthelmintic. DISTR. X 3. strikingly handsome. Fr. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. Kevada.8-6. Andamans. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. margins and midrib spiny. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). Anthers useful in pruritus. much branched. M. Sundarbans. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. linear or linear-lanceolate. Java. Chama-pushpa. causes flatulence. thin. Giripriya. aphrodisiac. tonic. Fl.

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

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BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

antipyretic.:—Very common throughout the State. Burma. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). headache. Sendhi. Kashayi. good for eyes. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling.5—5 cm. Kharjuri. bronchitis. K. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Abyssinia. nose complaints. Koshila. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. :—Largely grown in. Magavala. Siyindu. Adavada. H. mugawana. NS. Ranmath. inflammations. Indian wine palm. 2. :—Annual or perennial. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. long. Dharwar.5 cm. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. . USES :—The pulse is considered cool. laxative. Tadi. Satara. straight subcylindric. dysentery. Kapila. layer. LOC. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. and southwards to Ceylon. G.—6-12. Sind.—Oct.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). " Kapha". Adabanmagi. prostrate. Ahmedabad. Fl. The grains contain vitamins A and B. thirst. cure biliousness. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. Fl. Shimbiparni. as a kharif crop. biliousness. See—Food Plants. astringent. :—G. COM. Kharjurika. LOC. Malay Islands. burning sensation. good for the eyes . Khaji. cures consumption. petioles grooved. Konkan. Khajuri. Sk. M. wild date palm. Ahmednagar. yellow. LOC. Afghanistan. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani).3—2. long. Kalli-chalu. astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Kidney diseases. Sk. throat inflammations. t. :—E. glabrous or hairy. few flowered racemes. Mugani. NS.— pod. Kherk. Date sugar palm. Seeds— tonic. Belgaum. FAM. H. K. Deccan and Gujarat. styptic. Khandesh. digestible. Ranmug. membranous. Kohesaru. Kolaba and Kanara.—Palmæ. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. broadly spathulate. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green.—3-foliate. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. slightly recurved. Vanmudga. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. cough. Shindi. bitter. LOC. Kallu. enrich blood. eye troubles. Fr. blood diseases. gout. Boichand. M. anthelmintic. COM. Trianguli. long. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Seeds.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. leaflets 1. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. Sd. Ichela-mara. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. good in fevers. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. FAM. Kajuri. aphrodisiac. L. light and astringent. CHAR. dry. Swadi. Kurangika. wiry. piles. " Tridosh". DISTR. peduncles 10-23 cm. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever.—in sub-capitate.

—rounded at the ends. Fl. . Okra. wandering of mind. Vashira. good in heart and abdominal complaints. COM. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. cooling. Bengal. rigid. deeply grooved on one side. pinnules many. pointed. long. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . high. Poona and Belgaum districts. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. much branched. :—A tall graceful palm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. wild or more often cultivated.—2. orange-yellow.5 m. triangular.—sessile. :—A creeping perennial herb. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. spiny at the base. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). Jalapipali. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. Fl. aphrodisiac. oblong. Bhuiokra. Baluchistan.2 cm. Sk. vomiting. spatulate.—Fibres. 3-4. t. Ceylon. Sd. male white. Jalapimpli. Africa. Bihar. CHAR. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). lower 3-lobed. outer Himalayas. Jalpippali. Langali. alexiteric. angular.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. upper 2-lobed. oblong-ellipsoid. Ratuliyo. Ratoliya. flowers very many. oblique. spinous. 15-45x2-2. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. Agnijwala. ensiform.. constipating. Coromandel Coast. spadix 60-90 cm. Ratoliya. :—Tolerably common throughout India.—opposite. crown hemispherical.) FAM. M. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. scented. usually along banks.5—3. 9-15 m. See. clothed with appressed white hairs . Fl.—white or pale-pink. flowers distant.— dioecious. large and thick.—globose. :—G. Rohilkhand. densely fascicled.—Verbenaceæ. roundish. fevers.—pinnate. t.—more or less all the year. Siwalik. Mysore. Fl. aphrodisiac. useful in diseases of heart. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. H. and in beds of streams and water courses. Sharadi. :—Found fairly in Surat. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. erect. Toyavallari. Famine Plants. L. sharply serrate in upper part. :—Throughout India. female spadix and spathe as in the male.5 m. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. subsessile. C. long. cooling. rounded at the apex. LOC. fattening. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. This is called neera. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. LOC. blood and eye. Fr. stems rooting at the nodes.—Jan-Feb. Fr. greyish-green. LOC. L. DISTR. anthelmintic. 2-lipped. long. NS. oleaginous. cardiotonic. fruit and juice of the tree. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. DISTR. Sholapur. petioles compressed towards the apex.

good for sores and in chronic dysentery. fruit. Bhumyamali. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. globose. annular. scabies. LOC. asthma. Stomachic. Bhumyamali. Amala. of female. Ajata. t. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. axillary. Fr. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. good for ulcers. Plant—hot. Fl. hiccup.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. disk of the male of minute glands. LOC. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). males 1-3. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. dry. Bhuiavli. lobed.—Euphorbiaceæ. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. It is valuable in scurvy.—3-gonous. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . M. Tropics generally. except Australia. The whole plant. leaves. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. K. and without salt may be applied to bruises. wounds. very small. maturant. . bronchitis. 30-60 cm. Sukshmadala. wounds. longitudinally ribbed on the back. bronchitis. Sd. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia.—yellowish. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. ringworm (Yunani). burning sensation. Fl. angular. sores. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. urinary discharges. diuretic. scarcely lobed. Bhuianvalah. Sadahazurmani. very numerous. COM. Jaramla..useful in fevers. monœcious. :—Throughout India. Kiranelligida. high . In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. milky-juice. thirst. H. L.— July-Aug. CHAR :—An annual herb. Vituntika. Sk. FAM. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. LOC.—capsule. anæmia. elliptic-oblong. alexipharmic . biliousness. NS. Leaves are stomachic. Bhumyamalaki. leprosy. females solitary. stem branched at the base. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). :—G. cooling. asthma. Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. :—Konkan and Deccan. Infusion is a good tonic. anuria. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses.— numerous. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. distichous. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). useful in thirst. smooth. Ceylon.

aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. :—E. pains. Pan. It sweetens breath. Satara. Betel leaf vine. useful in "Kapha". :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. removes all foulness from mouth. throat diseases. inflammations. carminative and astringent. asthma. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. piles. Kalamirich. . chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Betel pepper. PARTS USED :—Fruits. Sholapur. useful in "Vata". NS. LOC. increases biliousness. H. ozoena. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. LOC. Menasin-kallu . carminative. LOC. " Kapha ". aphrodisiac. It increases saliva. Black-pepper. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. tonic to brain. foul smell in the mouth.—Piperaceæ. liver and muscular pains. Kanara. Vidyache-pan. Tambola. K. spleen diseases. smeared with oil. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). improves appetite (Ayurveda). Tikshna. ozœna. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. hot. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. leavs. Kalimiri. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. improves voice. See—Condiments and Spices. Nagavalli. styptic (Yunani). tonic and digestive. COM. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. Mensinballi. strengthens teeth . acrid. FAM. and fruits (rarely). stomachic. H. elephantiasis . Warm leaves.—Piperaceæ. bechic. Golmirch . carminative. Poona. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. :—Wild in the N. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Menasu. Pan. Linn. Betelleaf. laxative. heart and liver. G. Eleballi. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Marich. FAM. satyriasis and to allay thirst. heating. Panu. G. DISTR. It contains an aromatic essential oil. Fresh leaves. clears throat. tonic. COM. M. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kanara forests. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. useful in toothache. vulnerary.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. Sk. Tambulavalli. purgative. Pan. :—E. Saptashira. Kalaka. given with milk in hysteria. Kalamiri. Sk. night blindness. NS. generally in Konkan. cultivated in Konkan and N. K. alexipharmic. Malimirich . Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Vileyad-ele. Bhakshyapatra. Kaphavirodhi. DISTR. alterative. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. bronchitis. leaf juice and oil are aromatic.

. Lahuriya. ovate or oblong. Fr. variable in width. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. C. chest affections. It has specific effect on skin-diseases.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . weakness following fevers. bruises. long. radial 2. Deccan. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. DISTR. facilitates menstruation. W.—capsule. sciatica. COM. Bark contains a glucoside. the oil is alterative. Khasia Hills. sprains. piles and some skin-diseases . M. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. Fl. ophthalmia and phthisis. Greater plantain . tonic and a local stimulant. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. Burma. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. paralysis .— alternate.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. hills of S. L. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. lumbago. various forms of cutaneous diseases. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. base tapering into petiole. Khandala (pretty common). PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. Externally it is rubefacient. COM. vertigo. FAM. & A. leprosy. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. H. LOC. lanceolate or greenish . INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. ovoid. :—K. It is a good expectorant. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . N. :—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. coma. Vikhari. It yields an essential oil. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. used as febrifuge. Konkan. dries body humours (Yunani). chronic fevers. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. In physiological action.—Plantaginaceæ. See—Timbers. NS. petiole longer than leaf-blade. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. NS. Vehkali.5 cm. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. FAM. LOC. and possesses narcotic properties . Arcot and Salem. piperidine and an essential oil.5-12. CHAR. Tammata. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. Bartang. used in chronic bronchitis. entire or toothed. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera.—lobes 4.—Pittosporaceæ. See—Condiments and Spices. Kanara in ghat forests. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards.

LOC. Baluchistan. Fl. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. afford relief. NS. :—Konkan : Deccan. Malaya. Rosy-coloured leadwort. lax spikes. alterative. Palni hills. Lalchitrak.—tube slender. W.Kempuchitramula. stems herbaceous. and seeds.—large. Lalchita. Assam. Fattening. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. angled.. K. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Nilgiris. high. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. G. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Mahang. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. oblong. LOC. striate . HABITAT :—Along river banks. exauriculate petiole. :— E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Ceylon. Ghats. Ratochatro. H. M. Burma. Fl. zeylanica.-4-8. Chitraka. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. limb wide. leaves. Sk.-Feb. COM. LOC. long in long terminal axillary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. obtuse. Sd. rosy scarlet. Raktachitraka. t. PARTS USED :—Roots. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Fire plant. LOC. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. t. :—Cultivated throughout India. base passing into amplexicaul. C. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. DISTR. dull-black. :—Temperate Himalayas. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . They are used in diarrhœa and piles. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. erect. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). Chitra. PARTS USED :—Roots. Agnishikha. Lalachitraka.Sept. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. top coming off as a conical lid. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. attenuate. alterative and diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base.—throughout the year. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. CHAR. DISTR.—Plumbaginaceæ. Lead-wort.—3-5 cm. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani).. FAM. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. Lalchitrak. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. Fl. L.

astringent to bowels. January 1933). tonic. Vahni. Jyotishka. Chitra . and in leucoderma. leaves. stems 0.—Plumbaginaceæ. vesicant. Agnishikha. Fr. wild in Western Peninsula. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). Ind. leprosy. juice. Chitranga. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. diseases of spleen. M. terete. Bengal.5 m. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. ascites. " Tridosha" . root-bark. ovate. Medi. leaves are caustic. expectorant. laxative. stomachic. :—E. . skin disease. anthelmintic. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. See—Ornamental Plants. Bile-Chitra-mula. Fl.—capsule. COM. In S. useful in laryngitis. PARTS USED :—Root. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). LOC. diarrhœa. oblong. piles. scabies. Chitra. aborti-facient. :—Throughout India. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. it is useful in dyspepsia. Vallari. stomachic. Chitraka. Tropics of the old world. leucoderma. It is used in procuring abortion. cure intestinal troubles. diseases of liver. piles. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. Chitrak. anasarca. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. attenuated into a short petiole. Ceylon. FAM. Chitaro Chitrak. itching.—Aug. Sk. LOC. G. Journ. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. bechic. Root—bitter. H. woody. leucoderma. t. L. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. NS. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. entire.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. Malay Peninsula. rheumatism.6-1.—white. appetiser. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). striate. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. ring-worm. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. alexipharmic. " Vata" and " Kapha". :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. K. C. The use of Pl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. long. Fl. inflammations. Chitramula.-Sept.—thin. Res. See—Ornamental Plants.—in elongate spikes. a paste is made with milk. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. rachis glandular . lobes 5. cultivated . a favourite medicine for flatulence. dysentery. alterative . carminative. spreading. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Chitra . hot. consumption. pointed. bronchitis. DISTR.

Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. Rhuruchapha. :—Konkan. smooth. 7. COM. Devagangile. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. itching. t. with an intra-marginal vein. laxative . ulcers.—Dec.—Labiatæ. inner face angular. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. stems and branches quadrangular. :—Native of tropical America. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. shining black. H. L.— large. long. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. very fragrant. entire. divaricate. white with a pale yellow centre. G. C. S. cultivated. :—A small shrub 1. LOC. 4-lobed. Fl. Goleurchampa. Deccan. venereal sores. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. carminative. Root-bark is purgative. FAM. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. Belchampaka. COM. rarely maturing. LOC. DISTR. useful in leprosy. Frangipani. spirally arranged. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. abundant from Mar. 3-lobed.—practically throughout the year. shining. pungent. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague. many flowered. :—M. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. ascites (Ayurveda). Fr. Kanara. urinary discharges. Mahabaleshwar. acute at both ends. K. bark. NS. Radha-champo.—follicles. Fl. 12 cm.2—1. Phangla. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice.8 m. acrid. oblong-lanceolate. Kadu-sampige.-Feb. M.-nutlets ellipsoid. NS. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—E. cylindrical. useful in gleet. . C. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. 15-30 cm. Sk. FAM. M. L.5-18x3. Golainchi. Champakam. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. common. whorls close.-May. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani).—salver-shaped.8-9 cm. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. CHAR. CHAR. long. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. Pagoda tree. abundant. DISTR. high.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. Fl.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised.—Apocynaceæ. t.:—More or less throughout India. Fr.—2-lipped. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. purple. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. broadly ovate. Pangli. PARTS USED :—Root. upper lip white shot with purple. pains. leaves and milky juice.. heating. rounded. Country. Khairchapha. lower lip white. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. irregularly doubly toothed. :—All throughout the State.

Kanja. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. cure earache. NS. itching. chronic fever.—Verbenaceæ. LOC. cures biliousness. Agetha. chest complaints. Karanj. Naktamala. leaves. carminative. Karanjmara. Huligili. PARTS USED :—Root. lumbago. Sk. " Vata ". K. wounds (Ayurveda). piles. leucoderma. :—E. Pavaka. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. piles. Sk. Aran. Ustabunda . See—Timbers. DISTR. COM. rheumatic pains. skin and in keratitis . :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. purify and enrich blood. juice is given in colic and fever. Karanja. :—G. K. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. good for tumour. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Kanika. NS. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Chamari. Ichu. Agnimandha. bark.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). skin diseases. Kirmal. Oil—styptic. Gracie). USES :—The fresh leaves. also planted. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. " Kapha ". PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. Oil—anthelmintic. Karanj. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. good in scabies. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). leprosy. Arni. M. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra).174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. Karanja. chronic fever and hydrocele. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). COM. F. Honge. relieves inflammation. H. J. G. liver pain. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. ulcers. FAM. Jayanti. along Deccan rivers . flowers. vagina. wounds. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. Gaura. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Indian beech. lumbago. useful in diseases of eye. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C.) FAM. ascites. Oils. fruits and seeds. urinary discharges . are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. Agnibijaka. Arni. cures eye diseases. Arand. anthelmintic. M. alexipharmic . head and brain diseases. H. Seeds—acrid . throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Kanaji. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. bruised. In Satara. LOC.

Jamb. useful in anaemia. FAM. C. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. stomachic. H. high."Vata". blue-black. piles. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR.—5-9 X 3. cooling. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. bark yellowish. NS. Peru. cooling. cool heated brain. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. aphrodisiac . stomachic. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. fever. Root is laxative. Dridhabija. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. used in bronchitis. applied to sore eyes. M. Vastula. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. It is also employed in scurvy. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. DISTR.—tubular. LOC.—hard. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. dyspepsia. good in colic and for bleeding gums. constipation. sour. Fl. . small. smooth. Ceylon. flowers. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Gum is tonic.2-6. Guava tree. See—Famine Plants. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). pungent. It is given in the form of decoction. K. Safedsafari.3 cm. inflammations. good for liver complaints (Yunani). laxative after food. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Perala. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Piyara. Kanara. laxative. LOC. t. Jamud-rukh. Fr. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. L. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. chyluria. Peru . USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda).— globose. Sk. greenish yellow. heating. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. for unhealthy ulcers.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Gova. lobes 4. Perala. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. :—E.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). as an astringent to bowels. Fl. Sd. diabetes. hairy in the throat.—Myrtaceæ. DISTR. Young leaves are tonic in the . Nicobars and Malaya. G. fruits and gum. Peruka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. Jamphal. COM. Andamans. common about Karwar. Anthers—dry wound. bronchitis. entire or upper part dentate. seated on the calyx . broadly elliptic. Amrut. cylindric. Flowers cool body. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. rough-tubercled . causes "Kapha".— June-July. PARTS USED :—Leaves.. Fruit—tonic. :—Cultivated all over the State.

diuretic. vulnerary. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. cures blood diseases . Konkan and S. stomachic. vomiting.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—An erect annual. Bavachi. Bavachi. 10-30 flowered racemes . bronchitis.2 m. C. 0. Bowach-chi. Bukchi. rounded and mucronate at the apex. alterative. difficulty in micturition. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. L. anthelmintic. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. Kalameshi. Sk. stem and branches grooved. See—Fruit Trees. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. Babachi. leaves. HABITAT :—Waste places.—one. piles. ovoidoblong. high. :—E. M. nigro-punctate.8 X 2. fruit and seeds. Country. Fl.—simple. heals ulcers. improves appetite. studded with glands and white hairs. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. . bitter taste. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. Fruit—diuretic. DISTR. Babachi. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". Seed—purgative. Kushtaghni. raw one is used in diarrhœa. black. Fr. biliousness. K. good for leucoderma. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Fl. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. H. improves hair and complexion.5—5 cm. M.6-1. LOC. anthelmintic. G. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). laxative. 3. closely-pitted. CHAR. skin diseases. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). causes biliousness.—bluish purple . COM. Bakuchi. solitary.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions.—pod. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic.—in dense axillary. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. t. Fruits and seeds cure asthma. scabies. aphrodisiac. NS. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. alexiteric. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji).—Aug-Dec. Bhavanj. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Seeds— refrigerant. Chandralekha. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. nephrites and cachexia. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. urinary dis charges. anæmia. LOC. good for heart troubles. standard orbicular. Sd. " Rakta-pitta". PARTS USED :—Root. clawed. stimulant. cures "Vata". inflammation. leprosy. FAM. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. Vanguji. white hairy. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. mucronate. smooth. antipyretic.

earache.—Punicaceæ. " Kapha ". Mahakutaj. useful in biliousness. Hulidalimb . laxative. cultivated in many parts of India. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). Anar. Dadima. fattening. H. useful in vomiting. ascends to 1100 m. PARTS USED:—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. Hirdokhi. LOC. Malabar kino-tree. Sk. useful in all body diseases. Sk. Gum—bitter. colic. Gums and Resins. Dadima. Gum. boils. ophthalmia. Khandesh and Dangs. elephantiasis. . Common in N. Flowers—check vomiting. :—E. spleen complaints. antipyretic. Indian kino-tree. used in sore throat. thirst. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Dalimba. Ceylon. Pitasar. :—Wild in Iran. anthelmintic. good for biliousness. blood diseases. :—Western Peninsula and S. G. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). DISTR. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. cures " Vata ". Valka-phala. styptic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). also in Konkan. body eruptions. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. FAM. Fruit-appetiser. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. NS. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. India. Bibla. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Bibla. urinary discharges (Yunani). erysipelas. called kino. NS. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. applied to hydrocele. burning sensation. alterative . bark. anthelmintic. Dadimba. chest troubles. Bija. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. flowers and gum. flowers and fruits. Kanara. Sunila. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. scabies. leucoderma. Bia. COM. griping. DISTR. Bigsah. allays thirst. laxative. useful in eye troubles. See—Timbers. Kabul and Baluchistan. stomatitis. heart-disease. Raktabija-pushpa. Benga. tonic. scattered but not gregarious . biliousness. liver tonic. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. ulcers. somewhat milder in action than catechu. vulnerary. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). LOC. urinary discharges. Pomegranate tree. anal troubles. LOC. :—E. leprosy. :—Leaves. K. Bijak. Dadam. Flowers— improve appetite. M. H. prolapsus ani.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Bark—astringent. K. used in piles. diuretic. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. sore eyes brain diseases. sore-throat. PARTS USED. Dharimb . Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. in Akrani. Bio. Honne. Honi. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). fever. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. gleet. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. FAM. tonic. Dalimb . G. M. enriches blood. Bibla. Dhalim. " Tridosh". strengthens gums.

—opposite. USES :—In Amboyana. :—E. widely cultivated all over India. COM. acutely 5-angled. LOC. The rind of the fruit. :—A strong climber. H. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. FAM. Malaya. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. LOC. Annam. base rounded. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. In China. CHAR. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Mangari-kai. Lalchameli. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . S.5 cm. calyx tube long. acuminate. hairy beneath. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. Emetic nut. Gelphal.— ellipsoid. jasmine . dark green.-Aug. Karhar Mainphal.—Mar. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . NS. . RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. Karigidda. Rangoonkibel. pendant. M.—in axillary and terminal spikes. L. long. G. G. numerous. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Combretaceæ. NS. Fruit contains vitamin C. Konkan. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. Barmasinivel. COM. Mindhola. Country and Kanara.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. C—petals 5. M.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Fl. Rangoonchavel. Minkare. Gela. Rangoon creeper. Dharaphal. Fl. Fr. 7. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. elliptic. LOC. Sk. at first white then deep red . H. lanceolate . M. Chinese honeysuckle. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM. glabrous above. nearly 6 cm. t. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. K. Madana. Midhola. :—E. DISTR. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. It is given in the form of decoction. Pinditak.—Rubiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness.

The plant contains glucoside saponin. good in tumours. useful in chronic bronchitis. laxative. stomachic. muscular pains. It also contains an essential oil. used in diseases of the brain. asthma. tonic. piles. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. aphrodisiac. Mula. PARTS USED :—Root. emetic. carminative. cholera. Tropical Africa. Ruchira. E. " Vata" and " Kapha". flowers. eruptions. COM. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. boils. Muri. leprosy. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . K. LOC. See—Timber. Muro. ulcers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. leaves. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. hiccup. S. NS. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Hastidanta. Bili Mulangi. alexiteric. It is also used to poison fish. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. Ksharmula. M. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. amenorrhœa. inflammations. Mula. emmenagogue. skin-diseases. fruit and seeds. Java. Juice of . useful in diseases of heart. good for spleen and in paralysis. Ceylon. carminative. piles (Ayurveda). tumours. anthelmintic. cures abscesses. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. purgative. destroys "Vata". DISTR. H. leucoderma (Yunani). sweet. and all inflammations . bad taste. Seeds-sharp. heating. Sumatra. Radish. it is equal to it in every respect. Bitter. Mura. its action is very safe. Mulak. paralysis. carminative. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. :—Throughout India. Mali. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot.—Cruciferæ. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. inflammations. bitter. LOC. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. G. binding. China.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. produce alopecia (Yunani). Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). DISTR. emetic. leprosy. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . certain and regular. juice relieves earache. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. Sk. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries.

.—Acanthaceæ. M. PARTS USED :—Root. Garudpatala. irregularly. Chandrika. B and C. Yuthikaparni. and black salt. L. Fr. carminative. Java. single or didymous. diuretic. Juipani.3 cm. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Sivanabhi. pale beneath. Sarpagandha. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. Sk. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. shady open places near rain-forests. Ceylon. NS. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. cures " Tridosha ".—tubular. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. Nakulikand. Chandrika. It is hypnotic. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. often tinged with violet. M. LOC. expectorant.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. :—An erect perennial shrub. Chhotachand.—in irregular corymbose cymes. COM. specific for insanity. pungent. :—H. Group B — Serpentine. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Fl. sedative. COM. See—Vegetables. Sarpakshi. C. ulcers (Ayurveda).9 m. CHAR. Harki. NS. K. black shining.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. yellowish root stock.) FAM. Mungusavel. Gaja-karni. acrid. nodular. swollen a little above the middle. Root contains vitamins A. Sk. 7. acute. serpentinine. LOC. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica.— Mar. Palakjuhi.5-18 X 2. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. :—H. DISTR. Fl.-in whorls of 3. thin. bright green above. Kanara.—Apocynaceæ.—drupe. lanceolate. corrective and emmenagogue. In the Konkan. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. white. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. heating. seeds are considered peptic. anthelminitic . t. Doddapatike. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Western Peninsula. laxative.5-6. used in hyperpiesis . ajmalicine. Nai. K.. ajamalinine. Andamans. leaves (rarely). bright red . ginger. sharp. with a long.-May. Harkaichand. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. FAM..

Divaligo. Seed and oil—cathartic. tumours. cultivated. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. stems obscurely angled.9—1. pain in back. useful in liver troubles. :—Deccan. increases "Kapha". leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. Flowers useful in glandular tumours.-Jany. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. liver and spleen diseases. vaginal pains.5 m. 0. Castor oil plant. LOC. Erand. :—Undershrub. NS. eructations. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. Ceylon (wild) . useful in inflammations. white. bronchitis. leaves and seeds. COM. Belgaum. purgative. G. leprosy. S. Vardhamana. boils. Fr. Java. Cattle are fed with leaves for . Khandala. good for burns. M. ascites. typhoid. pubescent: C. fevers. Chitrabija. DISTR. :—E. alterative. ascites. DISTR. HABITAT :—Hills. body pains. Fruit— appetiser. Mahabaleshwar. hairy outside . piles. inflammations. alterative. PARTS USED :—Root. Vardhaman. glandular. :—Probably of African origin.—Oct. M. leprosy. intestinal worms. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). useful in pains. ring-worm. some fevers. Very little in other districts of the State. Straits-Settlements. piles. L. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. H. elephantiasis. earache. black. flowers and seeds. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. strangury. asthma. anal troubles. Country (Dharwar. oil—anthelmintic. Fl. entire. tropical Africa. carminative . velvety hairy Sd. PARTS USED :—Root.— tuberculate. bracts ovate lanceolate. increase biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. rheumatism. LOC. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. aphrodisiac. Madagascar (cultivated). USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Leaves—galactagogue. lumbago. pointed. Eranda. widely cultivated in tropical countries. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Country. Root-bark—purgative. Triputiphala. :—Throughout India. Haralu. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. LOC. K.—5-10 X2-5 cm. inflammations.. amenorrhœa (Yunani).—capsule. LOC. asthma. Sk. Fl. solitary. t. useful in heart diseases.—lipped. useful in skin-disease.—nearly sessile. Tirki. diseases of rectum and head. Erand. Sholapur). lumbago.—Euphorbiaceæ. elliptic lanceolate. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. ascites. Palma christi. high. FAM. narrow. Divald. convulsions. dropsy. glands. night-blindness. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). paralysis. pains. generally cultivated. Erand. Arand. hills near Belgaum. upper lip bifid . or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. M.

G. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). expectorant. serrate. mild and safe purgative. P. double. red. tooth-ache.5-6. stomatitis. Fl. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. they are cold. benefits lungs. removes bad odour from mouth. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. Gulab. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. DISTR. Gulab. Gulab . adults. improves appetite (Ayurveda). Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. cooling.—Rosaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. head-ache. See—Oils. aphrodisiac. sometimes striped . PARTS USED :—Flowers.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. NS. acrid. laxative. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. laxative. LOC.—pinnate. dry. H. cardiotonic. They are also applied to painful joints.3 cm. tonic.. pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . which is a powerful poison. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . ovate oblong. LOC. burning sensation. Shatadala.5 m. :—Origin unknown. astringent when dry (Yunani). kidneys. Fr. excessive perspiration. Lakshmipushpa. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. L. COM. petioles prickly. seldom griping or causing flatulency. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. inflammations. with a good odour. good for eyes. Sudburj. long. Soumyagandha. hairy. Fl. :—E. 2. See—Ornamental Plants. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. Punjab and U. antipyretic. cures leprosy. etc. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. pink or white. . chronic fevers. cephalic. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. sometimes glandular. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. cultivated all over India. much used in lotions and collyria . Tarana. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.— usually corymbose.— all the year. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. " Vata". Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . FAM. :—A perennial shrub. CHAR. Greece and Germany. stipules scarcely dilated. Ghazipur is a chief centre. M. attaining 1. cardiotonic. Pannira. biliousness.—obovate . Sk. Italy. K. used in heat of body. t. aperient removing bile and cold humours. liver. In constipation it is used as an enema. intestinal affections. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. Flower—bitter. stems with stout and hooked prickles. sweetish. France. Ati-manjula.

oleaginous . leaves and fruit. diuretic. antidysenteric. Gulmketu. anthelmintic. Dock.—white or pink. :—Annual. M. Fl. roots very long. it powerfully affects the nervous system.—Polygonaceæ. FAM. heating. uterine pains (Yunani). erect glabrous herb. Fl. obtuse. ulcers and skin-diseases. lower leaves larger. K. :—Perennial climbing herb. Bladder. Amlavetasa. eye. Rohini. Leaves-sweet. jaundice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. Sk. Country.—in terminal panicled cymes. NS. stems very long. Chuka. with a thin red bark. PARTS USED. and was much used in dropsy. Majit. elliptic. Sorrel. branches quadrangular . Tamravalli. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. t-Oct. analgestic. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. . diseases of uterus.-Jany. piles. leucoderma. Fr. ovate. emmenagogue. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. ulcers. LOC. greenish. erysipelas. L. Malay Peninsula. orbicular . Decoction tinges blood. liver complaints. valves hyaline. COM. Manjishha. five-nerved. lethargy.—2. Indian Madder. smooth. H. Root—bitter. bitter. paralysis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. used in eye-sores. Fl. CHAR. Manjishtha. Sk. 15-30 cm. dysentery. vagina. Chukra. Manjit.5—7. analgesic. blood. cures " Kapha ". prickly. CHAR. base cuneate.5 cm. Raktasara. antipyretic. tropical Africa. increase appetite. one pair with longer petioles ovate. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations.—didymous or globose. paralysis. Ceylon. DISTR.—Rubiaceæ. urinary discharges. COM. H. Fr. branched from the root. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. Manjishtha. all scabrous with white prickles.—in whorls of 4. LOC. urine and even bones red. spleen-enlargement. jaundice. alexiteric. purplish black when ripe. HABITAT :—Higher ghats.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. cordate or hastate. FAM. M. laxative. Chitralata. :—E. :—E. high. ear. shining. lactagogue. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. M. leucoderma. inflammations. the Konkan and S. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). L. acrid. cylindric. Japan. petioles triangular. leucorrhoea. Aruna. improves voice and complexion . Ambat Chuka. grooved. NS. Java. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. inner perianth-segments membranous. :—Root. rheumatism.. pains in joints.

tumours. FAM. toothache. The seeds have the same properties . :—A herb . DISTR. Persia. they are prescribed. bracts elliptic. :—Western Punjab.—Nov. Fr. hiccup. Sk. t. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. often rooting near the base. :—E. C. Sadabu. Cooling. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Afghanistan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. stems usually decumbent. M. aperient and diuretic. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. checks nausea and promotes appetite. :—Common throughout the State.-Jany. M. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. Kharmor. Khatselio . Sd. Fl. ovoid oblong. NS. Deccan. Ghati pittapapada . blue or pink. flatulence. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bites and stings of poisonous animals. Pismarum Sadab. LOC. leucoderma. H. 2-lipped.—white. CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—Rutaceæ. ciliate. tonic. constipation. The juice allays tooth-pain. with darker spots.—capsule. Kanara. useful in scabies. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. diseases of the spleen. Vishapaha. Satap. Havananju. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. pale brown.—Acanthaceæ. . laxative.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. bronchitis. K.—suborbicular. oblong lanceolate. H. Sadapaha. DISTR. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Nagadali.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. asthma. Country. Satri. generally in the Deccan. vomiting. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. Satapa . FAM. roasted. G. useful in heart troubles. also considered as a vermifuge. rugose with furrow. acute . N. NS. upper emarginate. analgesic. LOC. COM. in dysentery. acute. S. Trans-Indus Hills. Ceylon. lower shortly 3-lobed. M. piles. Fl. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). Konkan. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Africa. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. alcoholism. COM. USES :—Leaves are cooling. Common—Garden-rue . See—Vegetables. then erect. with scarious faces and hard ridges. Parpatha. Sk. pains. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. stomachic.— subsessile. :—G. L. while fresh they are bruised. LOC.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. colic. Gudatrina. Sk. DISTR. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. The plant is tonic. segments cuneate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. glandulose punctate. Naisakar. Madhuyashti. flatulence. NS :—E. Sherdi. Rasala. Ganna. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. petioled.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. grown in gardens. emmenagogue. abortifacient. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). flawed. Rikhu. HABIT :—Cultivated. The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Fl. cultivated throughout India. Ukh . Kumad. . but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. amenorrhœa. Poona. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. Gudakastha. diuretic. oblong-obovate. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). The oil is the best form for administration. useful in fatigue. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly.—petals 4. etc. Sd. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Us . The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. M. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. epilepsy. digestive. Satara. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. anti-aphrodisiac . Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. See—Ornamental Plants. Sugarcane. all over the State. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. it may be given internally in hysteria. yellowish. in pots. :—Grown everywhere in India. S. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. aphrodisiac. FAM. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. Ingotu. C. forest and mountain. diuretic. DISTR. COM. thirst.-alternate. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. Kabbu. L. oleaginous. cooling.—Gramineæ. Powdered and combined with aromatics.—capsule. LOC. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . Fr. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. and externally used as a rubefacient.. particularly Deccan. leprosy. K. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. H. LOC. M. obtuse . heats body. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. G. increases mental activity. laxative. There are three varieties . :—A strong smelling herb . Tanigarbu . removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). decompound. Ikshu. indigestible.—angled. LOC. tonic. S. The plant contains glucoside glutin. garden. :—Egypt and Algeria. spathulate or linear-oblong . heating to body . HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens.

diam. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . bad for liver (Yunani). Sugar causes " Kapha". C. diuretic. Seeds—purgative..—very thin.".186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. finely striate. lobes much reflexed. red when ripe. greenish-yellow. COM. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. analgesic. stomachic . H. Cane—sweet. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. :—E. deeply cleft. opposite. good for lungs . In cases of poisoning by copper. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. t. erysipelas. Goni. Fl. fattening. inflammations. It is good in calculous complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. scabies. piles. tonic and aperient. useful in biliousness. Sind. branches numerous. globose. Pilu. oil is digestible. anæmia. causes " Kapha. Sk. near the coasts of Gujarat . USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. Mahaphala. Leaves—bitter. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. LOC. useful in biliousness. fruits seeds and oil. Brihat madhu pilu. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. Fr. delirium.—drupe.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. leaves. numerous. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). diuretic. purifies blood . The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine.-Feb. Pilu. dry regions of W. Abyssinia.—Nov. aphrodisiac . strengthen teeth. Pilu. leucoderma. smooth. alexiteric. PARTS USED :—Bark. often mucronate at the apex. useful in heat. :—Dry districts of the State. improves appetite. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. astringent to bowels. LOC. Ceylon. Khakan Mirjoli. the Konkan and N. laxative. Fl. corrective. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Asia. pectoral and aphrodisiac. M. LOC. Kharijal. sometimes it raises blisters. deobstruent. bile. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. 3 mm. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. DISTR. anthelmintic. Egypt. white. disorders and wind. FAM. G. drooping. Pilu. Kanara in littoral forests. improve diuresis (Yunani). Piludi. shining. Fruits are deobstruent. Tooth-brush tree. fleshy. In the Punjab. lessen inflammation . K. Jal. tonic to liver. carminative and diuretic. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. carminative. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. useful in nosetroubles. L. . The juice contains vitamins A and B. often planted near Muslim tombs. ulcers. sugar is considered heavy. leaf-juice is given in scurvy.—Salvadoraceæ. See—Food Plants. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—Drier parts of India. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. NS. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons.

Bhogivallabha. See—Timbers. COM. diarrhœa. head-ache (Yunani). strangury. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. gonorrhœa. Sandal-wood Tree. biliousness. in skin-diseases. epileptic fits of children. tubercular glands. thirst. " Kapha ". :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. India. chiefly in S. abortifacient. up with water into a paste. Chandal. Ritha . is applied to local inflammations. :—E. Sandal. to temples in fever. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . alexiteric. DISTR. Kumblabijaka. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. astringent to bowels . Ringni. LOC. often planted. LOC. Bhadrasara. burning sensation. Root—expectorant. cold in head. tonic. useful in inflammations. Mysore and parts of Madras State. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. COM. acts as diaphoretic. :—Indian Peninsula. H. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. hemicrania. FAM. Sk. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. Fruit—bitter. K. Ritha. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. S. cures "Tridosha". Phenila. Cultivated elsewhere. Aritha. much cultivated. Shrigandhalmara. emetic. allays uterine pains. alexipharmic. Kugale. FAM. cholera. Anthuvala. Phenilu. DISTR.. ground. Arithan . Bhadrasri. bronchitis. Arishtaka. Country and N. Agarugandha. Mangalya. LOC. NS. Oil. gleet. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. K. Soap-Nut tree. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). fruit and seed. Antharalo. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. vaginal discharges. Ceylon. Sukhad . paralysis. aphrodisiac. stomachic. G. exhilarating. Suket. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. Kanara. H. G. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. useful in diseases of heart. laxative. Burugukayi.—Sapindaceæ. alexiteric. small-pox (Ayurveda). Malayaja. M. Chandan. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. USES :—Wood. useful in chronic dysentery. PARTS USED:—Wood. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . M. :—E. aphrodisiac. Sk. . Oils. Rishta. to allay heat and pruritus. Chandan. antipyretic. :—Western Peninsula. lumbago.—Santalaceæ. Chandan.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

oleaginous. NS. enrich blood. Baluchistan. useful in sorethroat. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. of eye and ear. Fr. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. bleeding piles. promote hair growth. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. scabies. bark. :—G. Black variety is common. white and red. anthelmintic. Jayat. inflammations. long. cure menorrhagia. HABITAT :—Cultivated.5-15 cm. mottled with purple on the outside. removes "Kapha". CHAR. carminative. Jayantika. :—Cultivated all over India. opposite. septate between the seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. useful in diarrhœa. hair-tonic. :—A soft-wooded shrub. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. M. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. Jaya. H. yellow. leaflets 914 pairs. They are also emmenagogue. suppurating wounds. Shewari. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes.. inflammations (Yunani). biliousness. oil. few flowered axillary racemes. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. COM.—in lax. inflammations. etc. seeds. slightly torulose. cures . Jayanti. PARTS USED :—Root. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Rasin. 15-23 cm. leaves. aphrodisiac. branches striate. pendulous. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). K. urinary concretions. eye diseases . DISTR.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. gouty joints. L. probably a native of tropical Africa. diseases. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. applied to gouty joints. in height. Jinangi.— abruptly pinnate. spleen troubles. seeds. Seeds contain vitamin A. strangury. Jayanti. rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . 4-5 m.—standard as broad as long. tonic. Raysingani. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. beaked. Waziristan. useful in dry cough. astringent to bowels. and as an oildressing for ulcers. LOC. such as dysentery etc. into claw. Janjhan. leaves. There are three varieties of seeds : black. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. C. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. cooling. asthma. small-pox. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. indigestible . compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. They have been used to procure abortion.—pod. applied to ulcers and piles. diuretic. linear-oblong. long. lung diseases. Sd.—20-30. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Nadeyi. They are nourishing. Seed-oil—fattening. burning sensation. tonic. 7. FAM. Jayanti. an emollient poultice is also made from them. diuretic and lactagogue. obscurely angled . galactagogue. alterative. strengthening. LOC. syphilitic ulcers. See—Oils.

Agase.8 cm. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Bark—astringent. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. Hatiya . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Basna. t. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. Agusta. Indigenous from Malaya to N. astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. long. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. K.5-8. flowers.— flowers at various times. diabetes. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. gout. 2-4 white or red. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. The plant contains vitamin A. maturant. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. high. LOC. CHAR. biliousness. useful in ozœna. 15-30-cm. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. :—G. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). useful In diseases of spleen. leprosy. relieves throat-troubles. Vranari. Bark— astringent.—7. leaves. fruits. 50 cm. cure itching. Leaves—purgative. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. Fr. :—A soft wooded tree . Agasta.— pinnate. Agasti. An infusion is given in small-pox. useful in ophthalmia. gout .— pod. LOC. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. Kanali. diarrhœa. very showy. Agathio. anaemia. cure quartan fever. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. COM. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). 6-9 m. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. L. rubbed into a paste with water. improves taste. ulcers. night-blindness. Dirghashimbi. Flowers—cooling. Fruit—laxative . alexiteric. DISTR. Australia. Munidruma. epilepsy. Ornamental Plants. C. H. stimulant. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . See—Fodder Plants. demulcent. tumours . linear oblong.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). anthelmintic. Leaves—indigestible.—in racemes . bronchitis. leucoderma. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. NS. M. anthelmintic. allays thirst. Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Seeds—emmenagogue. LOC. long. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. long. is applied in rheumatism. See—Vegetables. cures " Tridosh " pains. Fl. is applied in painful swellings. Sk. Agati. improve appetite . Bak. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Kempagase. dysentery and paludism. . FAM. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). "Kapha" and inflammation. fevers. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh.

diam. Fl. Sd. removes " Vata ". " Pitta ". " Kapha " . M. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Rajbala. awns 2.—2. astringent. Kharanti. Fl. leaves and seeds. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Bala. G. COM. Fr. diuretic. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. Tukti. Chikna.—6-8 mm. scabrid-hairy. Khareti. sharply serrate. PARTS USED :—Root. branches slender. Chikna. M. linear . with ginger. K. Fr.-Nov. useful in blood and throat diseases. ovate-oblong. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Bariara. Gujarat and S. Country Mallow. cordate. Prahasa. Bala. :—G. upper margins ciliate. Kherati. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. aphrodisiac .— yellow. pedicel jointed much above the middle. dorsal margins toothed. softly hairy all over. L. LOC. long. base rounded.3 cm. M. COM.. DISTR. Sk. dorsal scabrid. NS. :—A shrub. CHAR. Kareta.. LOC. black. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. Kisangi. t. :—Konkan. minutely hairy. Chittuharatu. is given . Kumghi.—Nov. DISTR. linear. K. emollient. a weed. Sk. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. t. Country. Country. diam.5-5 cm. Pata. long. pedicel jointed about the middle. strongly reticulated . Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie).—5-6 mm.—smooth.—2.—1-2 in each axil. useful in fever. strongly reticulated. Fl. lanceolate. Jayanti. Hettutti-gida. FAM. :—E. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. awns 2. Vatyapushpi. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. glabrous.—Malvaceæ.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Bala. Batyalaka. carpels 7-10. obtuse. :—Konkan (common). LOC. CHAR. L.—solitary or few together. stomachic and tonic. NS. LOC. Root—cooling. carpels 5-9. bark. bleeding piles. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. crenate. Deccan and S.-Oct. Pata. Baladana. C. puberulous. yellow. M. Barial. :—Hotter parts of India.5-6. H. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn.—Malvaceæ. HABITAT :—Moist places . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic.. Fl.Dec. FAM. decoction. H. Samanga. astringent. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. digestive.

—achene. LOC. Country.—Compositæ. PROPERTIES AND LOC. CHAR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. M. M. Seeds are called " Bijaband ". Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. :—G. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. Fl. Katampu. It is also used to favour menstruation. Fl. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. FAM. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. noise in ears. administered in hemiplegia. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. diaphoretic. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. Ceylon. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. stem stiff. Fr. Linn. and head-ache. rhomboides Roxb. t. Pilibadkadi. . :—A large annual herb. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. L. all running down wing-like into petiole. cystitis. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. COM. high. stiff-neck. NS. slightly rough. :—Deccan.—opposite.-Dec. erect. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. common. also in colic and tenesmus. 5 inner boat-shaped. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. juice is used for healing wounds. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. Fl. 5 outer clavate. facial paralysis. involucral bracts 2 rows. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. tinged with purple. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. black.—Nov.6—1. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections.—heads small in leafy panicles . those of the ray red beneath. S. :—Throughout India. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. pappus 0.—yellow. triangular-ovate. Externally. Bala—Sida cordifolia. deeply and irregularly toothed. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. 0. DISTR.2 m. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above.

LOC. G. astringent to bowels. Sk. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". lessens inflammations. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). very. Vantak. . 8 mm. DISTR. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Bhantaki. aphrodisiac. Indian Nightshade. G. :—E. digestive. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. China. Mhotiringni. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. M. H. Malpya. H. Hinguli. Vadikadheri. Mahotika. Vrittaphala. Badanikai. recurved. Brinjal. DISTR. Vengni. high. covered with stellate hairs.—minutely pitted: Fl. ovate. M. NS. Ranringni.. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. LOC.5 cm.— berry.—5—15 X 2.-Oct. HABITAT :—Cultivated. clothed outside with purple hairs . lobed. Root is applied to lessen pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating.. Fr. K. LOC. dark-yellow when ripe. Barhanta. eye diseases (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Hilly parts. rarely wild. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache.—Solanaceæ.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes.5—7. subentire.—pale-purple. L. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. prickles large. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. removes foulness of the mouth. leaves. base unequal-sided. :—E.3—1. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. leaves (rarely) and fruits. analgesic. Kattarta.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. fruit and seeds. :—Widely cultivated in India. fever. laxative. bad for piles if taken internally. Brihati. It is seldom used alone. Rigana. Habba-Kirigulla. Vange. pruritus ani. prickly. Philippines. PARTS USED :—Root. Kadusonde. or triangular-ovate. Nilaphala. diam. C. Baingan. vomiting. cardiotonic.. stem stout. Sk. Bhanta. useful in leucoderma. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. FAM. loss of appetite. 0. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. causes biliousness. t. K. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. Bhantaki. Sd. Dorli. " Kapha". COM. anthelmintic. Fruit—cardiotonic. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). globose. " Vata". Vartaki. FAM. maturant. Ubhi-bhuringni. pain. Egg Plant. :—Throughout tropical India. improves appetite.5 m. enriches blood. petiole prickly.—Solanaceæ. Vayase. Fl. Ceylon. Hinguli.-Aug. NS. sharp. bronchitis.

tonic. diuretic. chronic fever.-Jany. useful in giddiness. laxative. G. Seeds—laxative. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. " Tridosha". In S. Kakamachi. 6 mm. bitter. Kamoni. It acts as a hydrogogue. fever. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn.—small. See—Vegetables. improves voice . Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. Kabaiya. itch. yellow. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. Sk. stem erect. Makoi. dysentery. bronchitis. inflammation. not to be given to pregnant women. Gurkamai. Fruit contains vitamins A. Kakamachi.—discoid. cathartic and diuretic. Vayasi. 3-8 flowered cymes . L. gonorrhœa (Yunani). C. . asthma. FAM. leaves and fruit.—Solanaceæ. Katuphala. diarrhœa. diam. ear and nose . Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. in pains. The seeds are used as a stimulant. DISTR. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). eye-diseases hydrophobia. shining. good for neck ulcers. subumbellate. taste. bark. inflammation. alterative. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. and used with success in psoriasis. leucoderma. tapering into petioles. Black Night-shade. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. in extra-axillary. B and C. liver inflammation. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. worms in ear. LOC. Morellel. aphrodisiac. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic.—Sept. ovatelanceolate. H. urinary discharges. t. smooth. K. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Piludi.— berry. heating. useful in diseases of eye. vomiting. hiccup. entire or sinuate toothed. Hound's Berry. LOC. Fl. dysuria and asthma. Kakamunchi. Root-bark—laxative . Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in heart and eye-diseases. CHAR. NS. :—Throughout India. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. bronchitis. :—E. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative. :—A variable annual herb . minutely pitted . COM. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. Ceylon. Sd. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. griping. throat burning. improves appetite. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. M. much divaricately-branched .. Tiktika.—many. fever. piles. Fr.

3 cm. :—G. hairy on both sides. & Wendl. Yengara . anthelmintic . Nele-Rama-gulla . thirst. L. Bhoyaringni. sinuate or subpinnatifid. E. surrounded by enlarged calyx . fever. catarrhal fever and chest pain. often exceeding 1. expectorant and febrifuge. NS. 3-2 cm. S.5-5. asthma. Sorgho. stone in bladder. straight. Fl. Great Indian millet. M. G. Dhavani. pains. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. yellow and shining. Jolah. Brihati. :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Jowar. lumbago. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sk.—purple. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). chronic bronchitis. prickles compressed. Nirgol. yellow or white with green veins. COM. Katai. Bhui-Kate-ringni. Leaves—good application for piles. Sind. Dirghashara. they are used in the burning of feet. biliousness. tropical Australia. stomachic. DISTR. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. It is used in asthma. Bijapur and E. Ringni. M. Fr. Konkan. t. diam. Fl. good in inflammation. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. lobes deltoid. flowers.—Gramineæ. sterility in women. Kateli. leaves. ozoena.—Solanaceæ. Malaya. laxative. Kenjal. Yuvanala. "Vata" and " Kapha". SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. Jondhala. :—Throughout India. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. :—E. HABITAT :—Cultivated. C. FAM. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic.7 cm. asthma. bright green perennial herb . heart disease.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . hairy outside. petiole prickly. Jundri. FAM. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. LOC. Kantakari. Vrittatandula. stem zig-zag. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. fevers. urinary concretions. LOC. Basu).. appetiser. Shalu. aphrodisiac. Ikshupatraka. Root—aphrodisiac. K. base unequal-sided. CHAR.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. useful in bronchitis. Durrah. Kantakini. Sundia . K. PARTS USED :—Root.— June. Sk. Jowari. H. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. Nidigdhika. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. stems. ovate or elliptic. piles. pruritus . heating.-5-10 X 2. dysuria. fruits and seeds. muscular pains. strangury.. Jonera. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Sholapur. D. :—Common in the Deccan . H. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . :—A very prickly diffuse. Fruit—laxative. Seeds—anthelmintic. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). COM. LOC.—berry. Africa. Ceylon. Chikka-sonde. NS. long.

Asia and Africa. G. laxative. introduced into America and Australia. constipating. :— E. Some. :—Seeds. high. NS. aphrodisiac. . common in Gujarat. Karanda-gida. Ahmedabad. fevers. COM. See—Food Plants. vaginal injections and enemas. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. cures " Tridosha ". Swami-mara. Pravrajita. NS. Ruhin. Poona. while Belgaum. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. Bodiakalara. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. DISTR. Rawtarohan. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Bijapur and E.—sessile. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . ulcers. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Sk. FAM. Agniruha. LOC. indigestible. stem and branches cylindric. HABITAT :—Open situations. See—Timbers. M. diseases of blood. Vritta. COM. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. general debility. Sk. M. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Indian Red-Wood. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark-acrid. Aruna. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. :—Bark. Kumbhala. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. piles. ulcers. LOC. M. Gorakmundi. PROPERTIES AND USES. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Gorakhamundi. Munditika. Gums and Resins. tumours (Ayurveda). Rohina. K. :—G. Tans. :—Dry forests of W. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara.—Meliaceæ. Bastard Cedar. K. improves appetite and taste. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED. Rohun. leprosy and dysentery . Sumbi. DISTR. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Country. Rohani. FAM: —Compositæ. Ceylon. Rohini. tonic and antiperiodic . hairy. Gorakhmundi. Dharwar. biliousness. H. Khandesh and S. bladder and kidney complaints. good for sore-throat. Mahamundi. L. :—Widely cultivated in India. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. Fibres.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. hence used in intermittent fevers. Juss. CHAR. Grains contain vitamin B. with toothed wings. :—The grain is cooling. refrigerant. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). useful in " Kapha". on dry stony hills. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. PARTS USED. anthelmintic. glandular.

200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. indigestion. Powdered root is given as tonic. Akkalkara . :—Common in rice-fields. scalding of urine. L. peduncles with toothed wings. laxative. DISTR. all warm countries. anæmia. solitary or subpanicled. asthma. jaundice. gives lustre to eyes . S. digestible. base usually acute. stem and branches hairy. COM. It is also used as fish and crab poison. H. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. strangury. piles. ovate. with honey they are given in cough. FAM. good for eyesore. alexipharmic. leucoderma. Celyon. vomiting. Tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. emmenagogue. :—Root. globose ovoid. Fl. used in insanity. epileptic convulsions. glaborous.—purple. LOC. :—Throughout India. :—Root. gleet. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . useful in skin diseases. HABITAT. and tonic (Stewart) . serrate or dentate. PARTS USED. Africa. used also for local application.—Compositæ. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. bark. Fr. hemicrania (Ayurveda). ciliate near the ends . :—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. Pappuso. Fl. chest diseases. flowers and seeds. Australia. urinary discharges. boils.. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. Pellitary . stalked. peduncles reaching 10 cm. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. :—Hot. :—Annual herb. :—Throughout India. They are chewed to relieve toothache. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. Fl. LOC. lessens inflammations . looseness of breasts. Akara-karava. HABITAT. oblong. leaves and flower-heads. t. . Ceylon. depurative. bronchitis. dysentery. ovate-oblong. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. cools brain. laxative. LOC.—opposite. M. cooling. compressed . enriches blood . biliousness. irregularly crenateserrate. pain in uterus and vagina. Fr. involucre bracts linear. urethral discharges and jaundice. CHAR. sometimes grown in gardens. tuberculous glands. tonic. They are given in powder form.—in heads ovoid. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). scabies. PARTS USED. DISTR. rectal pain. M. anthelmintic. leaves. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Akarakara . involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. alterative. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. :—Common in the Konkan.— achene.. ring-worm of waist.—Nov-Jany. Plant is also used in glandular swellings.—Nov. spleen diseases. fattening. Malay Islands. the latter when present minute. :—Wild and cultivated. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. long. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. increases appetite. glandular hairy. t. elephantiasis.—compound heads. truncate. NS. C.—Achene. USES. Sk. biliousness. Country and Kanara. :—Deccan. Fl. in cases of worms and indigestion.

Fruit—indigestible. biliousness. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. Andamans.5 m. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). hard. Country..—Anacardiaceæ. Padiala. NS. blood complaints . Padal. Amra. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism.—Bignoniaceæ.8-7. ovate oblong. M. Pandri. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. C.5-18 x 3. Kamduti. astringent. Fr. :—A tree 9-10. Kariguddada. Western Peninsula. ovoid. :—Cultivated.8 cm. burning sensation. Parur. ash-coloured . Ceylon. Kalavrinta. . See—Gums and Resins. Kanara. L. HABITAT. leaves and fruit. Salt Range. Kapichuta. Ambada.—drupe. Hongkong. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. M. Dr. W. oblique. pinkish green.— petals 4-5. Indian Archipelago.. Bile Tree. It has been found useful in dysentery. Giri Hadari. Tungi. appetising. Gum is demulcent. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. PROPERTIES AND USES. high. :—Often planted throughout the State. Gujarat. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache.-Apl. K. M. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. Toyadhivasini. S. long. :—E. Hulave. COM. Sk. Kumbhi. Avatekayi. Hude. Sk. Fl. branches nearly horizontal. yellow. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. DISTR. Fl. Pitana. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. good for sore-throat.. CHAR. Patala. long. ulcers. :—Leaves-tasty. :—H. refrigerant. destroys " Vata ". LOC. widely planted. Indian Hog-Plum. Amrataka. LOC. aphrodisiac. round with furrows and cavities. Ran-amba . Marahunise. Amate. cures rheumatism. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. t. Burma. stone woody. Ali-vallabha. H. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. oblong. bark smooth. Sd. Pahad. Patala. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. K. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. entire. PARTS USED. Ambodha. trunk straight. phthisis. COM. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. NS. Konkan. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. enriches blood . It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws.5 cm. :—Bark. tonic. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles.-usually 1. Padal.Feb. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Wild Mango. 3. FAM.

itching. from Kashmir to Sikkim . Kelakutaka. jaundice. :—Root. G. piles. Hemushti. pungent. Kuchala. H. :—Wood (rarely). antipyretic. tonic. Kakatinduka. "Vata". tonic. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. Flowers— acrid . heating. diuretic. N. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. thirst.. emmenagogue . Vishamushti. :—Root-bitter. Nirmal. ulcers. :—Fruit-acrid. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). anæmia. Poison Nut. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Burma. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. aphrodisiac. LOC. Kachita. Fruit—useful in hiccup. K. heating. Ittangi. PARTS USED. lumbago. tonic. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". Ceylon. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Visha-druma. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . LOC. NS. Kangira. inflammation. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). Kanara. diuretic. fevers. Sk.—Loganiaceæ. Kajavara. FAM. astringent to bowels. M. PARTS USED. Kajra. PROPERTIES AND USES. Circars. asthma. Karnatak. bitter. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. Kajra. fruit. eructations. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. piles . west coast of Madras State. leaves. vomiting. cures pains in joints. See—Timbers. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kupaka. flowers. loss of taste. Planted in Ceylon. Laos. seeds. "Kapha". Travancore . DISTR. heating. LOC. cures leucoderma. Fruit—bitter. blood diseases. :—Very common in Konkan and N. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. :—E. :—More or less throughout tropical India. Kuchla. burning sensation. LOC. fruit. ring-worm. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. useful in bilious diarrhœa. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. COM. Karaskara. :—Monsoon-forests. blood diseases. appetiser. DISTR. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. sub-Himalaya. It is regarded as cooling. :—In forests south of Bombay. Crow Fig. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). Travancore. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. poisonous. Kuchla. Kanara. Indo-China. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with .

No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Seeds—bitter. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. Aduguchali-bija. .. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. :—Western Peninsula. Ambuprasadini. aphrodisiac. thirst. lithotriptic. Nelmal. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. HABITAT. Nirmali. alexipharmic. poisoning. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. M. causes biliousness. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. See—Timbers. K. PROPERTIES AND USES. H. Chittu bija. :—E. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. gonorrhœa. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. diaphoretic. :—Root cures leucoderma. FAM. cures inflammations. astringent to bowels. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. Burma. relieve colic (Yunani). Madhya Bharat. Country. :—Root (rarely). Sk. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. Kanara and Khandesh. LOC. improve eye-sight. :—Sand-stone hills of S. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. jaundice. PARTS USED. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. Shodhanatmaka. alexiteric. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Nivali. Kataka. Seeds—acrid. hallucinations. NS. See—Timbers. tonic. kidney complaints. head-diseases (Ayurveda). also in Konkan. Fruit useful in eye diseases. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Clearing Nut Tree. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. cure strangury. COM. anæmia. fruit and seeds. (Rasendrasarasangraha). M. good for liver. DISTR. emetic. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. increases "Vata". diuretic.—Loganiaceæ. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Ceylon. urinary discharges.

:—M. E.. eye-diseases and ulcers . PROPERTIES AND USES. Lodhra. white with blue veins. broadly ovate. flowers (rarely). Lodhra . :—India (W. K. digestible. dysentery. S.3-0. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. DISTR. :—W. Fr. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. NS. useful in eye-diseases. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. C.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . . 0. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . Californian Cinchona. Deccan . USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. Fl. cures cough. Tiritaka.—Symplocaceæ.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. biliousness. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums.9 m. :—Root. Torna fort. Shavaraka. NS. 4-winged. Peninsula. inflammations. :—The whole plant is bitter.—Gentianaceæ. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu.. LOC. t. :— E. high. Tillaka. PROPERTIES AND USES. alexiteric. Peninsula). M. colloturine and loturiaine. C. acrid. Lodh. China Nora. Dyes. Deccan. :—Konkan and N. in powder or in fresh decoction. diseases of blood. :—Hilly parts. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. quadrangular. winged . See—Timbers. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". astringent and useful in bowel complaints. M. FAM. :—Bark. 2-valved. :—Western Ghats . useful in abortions . Broughton). Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Country. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Sk. etc. Sd. H. COM. Loder. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). :—Bark-acrid. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). :—An erect herb.— lobes 4-5. DISTR. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED. 5-nerved . Kadu. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. C. vaginal discharges. Burma. Chota Nagpur. LOC. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. L. LOC.— Oct.-Jany. HABITAT. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. COM. Bark—bitter. aphrodisiac. throughout N.—capsule. stem densely leafy. Lodh . Lodhraka.— sessile. leprosy. CHAR. PARTS USED. FAM. Fl. Balaloddujinamara.—many. decussate. Bose). bleeding gums . ovoid or oblong. cooling. Mahabaleshwar. Bhilli. Lodh is used in raw condition. Lodh Tree. emmenagogue.

blood impurities. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. Nilphala. NS. Jambu. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. bronchitis. M. H. Jamburaj. :—Throughout the State. Australia.) FAM. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. gargles and washes . :—Throughout India. Shukapriya. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Malaya. :—E. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. anthelmintic. PROPERTIES AND USES. digestive.—Myrtaceæ. removes bad smell from mouth. G.—Myrtaceæ. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. H. very often planted. Pharenda. K. COM. astringent to bowels. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Jambudi. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. dysentery. . ulcers. cooling. fruits and seeds. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Gulab-Jamb. good for sore-throat. Jambul. :-Black-Java Plum. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. astringent. carminative and diuretic. Malay—Rose apple. common along river banks. thirst. increases "Vata". Ceylon. Jam. DISTR. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Pannerali. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. K. Seeds—diuretic. sprouts. biliousness. good gargle for sore-throat. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). also used in spongy and painful gums. sweet. LOC. carminative . Surabhipriya. Gulabjaman. PARTS USED. also wild. Nerate. useful in spleen diseases. enriches blood. Jambu. NS. Fruit Trees. Jambul. Fruit—acrid. Shukapriya. common at Mahabaleshwar. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. LOC. Jambu-Nayinerale. asthma. Nenda. See—Timbers. M. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. LOC.) FAM. both wild and cultivated. Kokileshta. COM. :—Bark-acrid. Jambura. Jambula. fruit vinegar is tonic. Jambu. Jambu. Jamen. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. strengthens gums and teeth. Sk. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. :—Bark. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. astringent to bowels. Sk. Neralu. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. etc. dry. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel.

USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. PARTS USED. heating. glossy green above. pale beneath. Cultivated in many places. fatigue. . tonic to brain. Khasia Hills. divaricate.5-5 cm. margins wavy. bitter. indigestible. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. wood and oil." biliousness. lessens pains in limbs and joints .5-5 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid. Fl. used in asthma. 7. thirst. Bengal.—snow-white. Chandani. inodorous during the day. COM. fragrant at night. emmenagogue. t. PARTS USED. Ashvathabheda. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). Taggar. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R.—Apocynaceæ. :—Root. cultivated in many parts. Hills of Visakhapatanam. :—E. L. strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES. Trinidad . and an essential oil. orange within. Seeds are astringent to bowels. C—lobes overlapping to the left. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). hot. Root chewed relieves toothache . :—Sikkim Terai. useful in paralysis. bronchitis. Tagar. purgative. astringent to bowels. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. Garhwal. G. The fruit is sweet with a flavour.—follicles. LOC. Kottuhale. Ananta. with milky juice .—rainy season. :—Bark. Assam. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. . in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. Tagar . elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. :—Bark is sweet.. H. Sk. acrid. Root—bitter . 1-3 ribbed. indigestible. LOC. CHAR. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. removes bad humours. alexipharmic. salver-shaped. Fl. Maddarasa gida . (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. liver and spleen . with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. dysentery. useful in "Kapha. See—Ornamental Plants. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. Fruit—sweet and tasty. NS. E. tonic to brain. DISTR.) FAM. Nandi. astringent to bowels. See—Timbers.— opposite. fruit and seeds. double. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. M. lobes 5 in single. aphrodisiac. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. :—Root is acrid. :—Cultivated in gardens.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. used in liver complaints. Br. heavy speech. tonic. Burma. used in syphilis (Yunani). weakness of limbs. improves voice. Fr. digestible.5-15 X 2. K. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Yunnan to Australia. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. cures epilepsy. Wax flower. astringent to bowels. Tagara. across.

. PARTS USED.. CHAR. H. across in pedunculate cymes . FAM. Tintrani. good for teeth .—surrounded by red pulp. carminative. t. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Sk. :—E. H.—white. Amla. :—Native of Mexico. HABITAT. NS. COM. Tamarind. bark grey. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. :—Rain-forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. Nagakuda. Teter. G. Chinch. COM. Zendu. :—Malabar. M. Flower—bitter. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.—opposite. internally they are said to purify blood. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Flower-pungent. coriaceous. HABITAT.5-20 X 3. : K. throughout the Konkan and N. NS.. Pandarakuda. C. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. 2. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—A shrub or a small tree 2.000 m. G. muscular pains. LOC. lessens inflammation . kidney troubles. bitter. their juice is given in ear-ache. FAM. Amli. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . FAM. :—Same as T.. M.— Mar-Apl. common in rain-forests. Leaves—good for piles. rough.—Apocynaceæ.—follicle. wood. K.5 cm.5 cm. Nuli.. HABITAT. yellow when ripe. :—Leaves and flowers. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). acrid. Amala. NS. Kalaga. French Marigold. grown in gardens all over India. Chinchika. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. Tintidika. divaricata. Guljharo. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES. Imli. M. LOC. oil. :—Cultivated.4-4. stomachic. Genda.— tube inflated near the top. Amlike. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . :—E. Makhamal. DISTR. :—Root. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). astringent. Gultora. oblong lanceolate . L. DISTR. Sd. 7. Amli. Zanduga. Amlika. Fl.—Compositæ. Chinch. LOC. somewhat boat-shaped. belching. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Makhamala. Maddarssa. Makhamali. Halmeti. useful in scabies. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. Sandu. Travancore up to 7.2-7.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Kanara. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. PARTS USED. Fr. Nagaskuda. high. Fl. Sk. Sthulapushpa.5 m.

PARTS USED. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Sagun.—Verbenaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. vomiting. tonic to heart. astringent to bowels. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Seeds are good astringent. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Teak. earache. and laxative. LOC. Fruit—sour. M. DISTR. NS. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. Madhya Bharat. Sag. Bark—astringent. LOC. Anil. fruit and seeds. COM. Sag. Flowers— appetising . Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. sweetish. Seeds astringent. FAM. G. bark.. leaves. Sagach. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Sk. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". tumours. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. small-pox. Circars. . Burma. DISTR. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. sore-throat. laxative. anthelmintic. and for sizing materials. K. intoxication &c. digestive. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. aphrodisiac. stomatitis. flowers. wood.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Tega. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Arna. Tegu. abundant all along the slopes of W. Cultivated also. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. :—Throughout India. scabies. laxative. flowers and seeds.. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). Sagwan. thirst. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. heals wounds and fractures. Mahapatra. Tropics generally. useful in liver-complaints. boiled they are used as a poultice. biliousness. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. indigestible. Malay Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES. costiveness. Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. :—Bark. causes cough. eye-diseases. heating. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. tasty. Kanara. Sagwan. carminative. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Kanara. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. tonic. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. Fruit-sour. urinary discharges. Teka. such as body-burning. heals ulcers. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. Sumatra and Java. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. :—E. Condiments and Spices. H.

8 X 0. cures diarrhœa ..—pod 3—4. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. NS. Sarphoka. Fr. spleen. ground and made into a pill. heart. anthelmintic. Wood good for head ache. asthma. Sharapunkha. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. laxative. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . See—Timbers. Sharapunkha. Phanike. Fl. anthelmintic. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Gujarat. Ghodakan. along forest borders. Sarphonka. ulcers. useful in bronchitis. urinary discharges. Konkan. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. LOC. long.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). bitter. liver. Plihari. M. cooling. cures diseases of liver. . it acts also as a vermifuge. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. Flowers—acrid. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. t. DISTR.—5-6 . H. Sk. Empali. Sd. Udhadi. CHAR. Malay Peninsula. pubescent on the back. slightly curved.—Oct.2 cm. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). LOC. C. Kogge.5 cm. Leaves—tonic to intestines . mucronate. 30—60 cm. good in piles. asthma. Wood—acrid.. glabrous above. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. sedative to gravid uterus.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. Kalika. useful in scabies. blood. fresh root-bark. inflammations. spleen diseases. allays thirst. allays thirst. leaflets 11—21. :—A perennial herb. Sarpankho. FAM. leprosy. branches spreading. Jhila. cultivated lands and roadsides. alterative.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. leaves and seeds. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. tumours. Deccan. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). "Root—diuretic. increase "Vata". antipyretic. enriches Blood . gonorrhœa (Yunani). syphilis. Fl. M. standard. red. :-G. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. :—Plant-digestible. burning pain over the region of liver. silkyhairy beneath.8—1.-June. long. useful in piles. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in bronchitis. improve appetite. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. useful in lung and chest diseases. boils and pimples. alexiteric. biliousness.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. Unhali. high. L. mucronate. Country. :—All over India. :—The whole plant. expectorant. 2—2. LOC. dry. HABITAT:—Open situations. oblanceolate. root. Bark is an astringent.—petals clawed. S. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. COM. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). suborbicular. PARTS USED. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. poisoning. K. linear.

. Tara. false presentation of fœtus. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. Sadado. Sk. M. See—Timbers. H. Madhya-Pradesh. FAM. biliousness. H. Arjun Sadada. Buhura. blood-diseases. tonic. Voting. Bera. LOC. Expectorant. Vibhata. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Sagona.—Combretaceæ. Behedo. Madras State. useful in fractures. fruit (rarely). Aksha. NS. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. aphrodisiac. Indradruma. except in dry arid regions. Karshaphala. PROPERTIES AND USES. externally in wounds and fractures. Chota-Nagpur. very common in South Konkan. Arjuna. Behada. Sadura. LOC. COM. :—E. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Vibhitika. with milk. Kalidrum. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Bibhitiki. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Baire. PARTS USED. sore-throat. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Beheduk. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Ceylon. Madhya-Bharat. Bedda Nut. tonic. styptic. :—Throughout the forests of India. DISTR. Kushika. DISTR. diuretic. K. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. useful in bronchitis. ulcers. White Marudah. K. Karvirak. M. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. Arjun-Sadada. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests.—Combretaceæ. fruit and seed.. FAM. heart disease. :—Bark. Bastard Myrobalan. urinary discharges. :—Alexiteric. :—Throughout the greater parts of India.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. " Kapha". G. digestible. Burma. Kakubha. Koha. leaves. Shantimara. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. :—E. COM. Arjuna. NS. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. & A. Tari. tumours. :—Konkan and Deccan. Fruit-pungent. useful in biliousness. Belleric Myrobalan. biliousness. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. Bahaza. Sk. Hela. acrid. strangury. Arjan. PROPERTIES AND USES. Rajastan and Sind. anthelmintic . anæmia. Dhanvi. Arjuna. asthma. anthelmintic. laxative. in Khandesh Akrani. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. inflammation. . in the sub-Himalayan tract. strangury. Kahu.. :—Bark. G. excessive perspiration. intoxication. Bahara. leucoderma. LOC.

It is a constituent of " Triphala ". enriches blood. vomiting. NS. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. LOC. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. M. delirium (Ayurveda). Haria. hiccup. Kernel has narcotic properties. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. Harara. intoxicating. diarrhœa. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. tumours. PARTS USED. used in paralysis (Yunani). carminative.—Combretaceæ. LOC. Ceylon. H. useful in dyspepsia. biliousness. aperient. alterative . diseases of eye. :—Fruit-dry. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. hoarseness. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. COM. Jivantika. typhoid fever. :—Bark and fruit. bleeding and ulceration of gums. strengthens brain. tonic. nose. vomiting. diseases of spleen. K. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. anaemia. brain tonic (Yunani). cold in head. expectorant. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. Black myrobalan. sore-throat. Burma. Gums and Resins. piles. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. heart and bladder. leucoderma. USES. DISTR. heating. urinary discharges. Alate. mixed with honey. useful in asthma. Hirda. Harade. dyspepsia. G. attenuant. antidysenteric. Jivanti. eye diseases etc. piles. constipation. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. Chebulic myrobalan. Haritaki. Dyes. in Travancore. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . corneal ulcers. —E. Seed—acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES. vesicular calculi. elephantiasis. eyes. See—Timbers. applied to eyes. itching pain. useful in caries of teeth. Sk. heart and bladder. common in Khandesh Akrani. tonic. ascites. FAM. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. thirst. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. stomachic. Ripe fruit—purgative. Har. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. tonic. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. gums. Kanara. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. anthelmintic. good in ophthalmia. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. bilious headache. Haritaki. which is considered a good digestive. antipyretic. useful in thirst. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. inflammations. is used as an application in ophthalmia. carminative. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). diseases of eye. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. Fruit-astringent. Hirdo . the fully ripe or dried fruit. gout. bleeding piles. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. piles and diarrhœa. Abhaya. strangury.

Phalisha. :—Districts of Konkan and N. aphrodisiac . Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). which forms a valuable local application in scabies. G. Kandarala. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". Sk. Parisha. Bengal. Mhaskar and Issac). leaves. :—E. Bhend. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. profuse discharge. :—Coast forests of India. Paraspipal. PARTS USED. produces worms in intestines . difficult to digest. Tans. NS. COM. See—Timbers. Dyes. FAM. M. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. Kuberaksha. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). Portia Tree. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Kanara. . It is also used in chronic dysentery. Suparshuakan. K. H. DISTR. Sacred Plants. Jogiyarale. Hucerasi. Ranbhendi. :—Fruit-sour. acrid . :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Paraspiplo. Burma. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Bugari. Tulip Tree. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. flowers and fruit. Gajadanta. PROPERTIES AND USES. Eastern and Western Peninsula. also planted as roadside tree. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. LOC.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Fibres. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . increases " Kapha " . The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Bhandi. Parasipu. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. :—Bark. especially centipedes.—Malvaceæ. Bhindi. See—Timbers. Arasi. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties.. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. LOC. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Paras-piper. Gandarati. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. burning of body . THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland.

bladder. PARTS USED. America and W. Gulhel. red. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. t.5 cm. leucoderma. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. bark corky.—membranous. HABITAT. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). hot. Jwaranashini. CHAR. mesocarp bony. worms. bronchitis . corona in the throat. acrid.. it has no action on digestive enzymes . Amarvel. . PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. linear. G. frequently planted. :—E. eye-troubles. K. Zard kunel. NS. L. Heart-leaved moonseed.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. piles. and blood vessels . Fl. Gado. Sk. useful in urethral discharges.. bright green and shining above. Exile or yellow Oleander. virgin uterus. :—Stem. G. 5—10 cm. often planted in India. Amritvalli. size of a pea . :—E. Gurch. Fr.—Menispermaceæ. FAM.—in axillary and terminal racemes. Haripriya. Fl. Gulvel. 5 cm.—generally 4. Pittaghni. root. Fl. ventrally flat. Gulvel. pungent. lobes 5. Amrita-Valli. male fascicled. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. growing on mango and other trees. cures " Vata " . PARTS USED. Ashvaghna. Gulancha. Pila kaner.. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. M. See—Ornamental Plants. LOC. NS. Vatsadani. Uganiballi. :—Often planted. COM. but its use is attended with considerable danger. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. HABIT :—In thickets. females solitary. skin diseases. 7—9 nerved. exocarp fleshy.—broadly obovate. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. yellow. :—Bark. :—Throughout tropical India. Karvira. 7. Shatakumbha. across. yellow. LOC. Pivali kanher. DISTR. 1—3. grooved .5—12. Fr. Sd. endocarp corky. Burma. H.—Apl. H. Sk. fevers. throat campanulate. very poisonous (Ayurveda). L. long. Pila kanir.—drupes. LOC. :—An extensive climber. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. DISTR. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. M.-spirally arranged. dorsally convex.—Apocynaceæ. Andamans and Ceylon. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . CHAR. tubular. COM. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. Indies . wounds. with milky juice. FAM. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. seeds and milky juice. Gulo. astringent to bowels. crowded .—in terminal cymes. C. :—Native of S. elliptic.

stigma sessile. especially acid. vomiting.8-3. antipyretic. also in the Deccan hills. H. FAM. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). armed with small hooked prickles . enriches blood. allays thirst. Gangalaki. stomachic. :—E. leaflets sessile. unisexual. cures jaundice. stimulates bile secretion. .8. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. high. Kadu-menasu. causes constipation. bark. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. male flower bud globose. 5-7 lobed. stimulant and anti-periodic. :—Root. dark shining green above.. Limri. Java. Philippines. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. oblong. Kumaon to Bhutan.—Aug. 15 m. fever. vomiting. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. female flower buds oblong. tonic. renews blood. Forest Pepper. Ceylon.—Rutaceæ. crenulate. orange coloured. :—All over the Madras State . Sk. size of a large pea. L.-Jany. PARTS USED.—globose. Lopezroot Tree. Root and stem are bitter. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. leaves. China. Stem-bitter. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. diarrhœa.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. Jangali-Mirchi. :—Stem-bitter. Kaduhakukare. vaginal and urethral discharges. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. tonic appetiser. digitately trifoliate. M.—Dehan. Macimullu. coriaceous. good in cough. CHAR. diuretic. DISTR. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. Sumatra. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic.— alternate.—in axillary cymes. tropical Africa. stomachic . juice useful in diabetes. white. chronic fever. expectorant. t. NS. LOC. 3-5 grooved. 5-10 X 1. Fl. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. Khasia Hills. ovary rudimentary. LOC. Dahan. K. Root-bark is aromatic. Konkan and Kanara. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. COM. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. FT. (Kirtikar). common in S. HABITAT. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. anæmia. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. Mirchi. jaundice. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. pitted on the rind. fruits. useful in skin diseases. Fl. burning sensation. :—Rain-forests. giddiness. Manger. USES. piles. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers.

FAM. Lim. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). cooling. Kuberaka. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Shringa-kanda-taka. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. G. biliousness. Burma. See—Timbers. astringent to bowels.—Onagraceæ. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. aphrodisiac. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. :—Aquatic (in tanks). Mahalimbu. burning sensation. cardio-tonic. burning sensation. antipyretic . useful in . PARTS USED. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. tropical Africa. Singhara. useful in ulcers. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. LOC. Kalingi. LOC. :—Throughout the State in tanks. Jalakantaka-valli. strangury. causes " Vata " . removes " Kapha ". itching. cures leprosy. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Indian Mahogany. headache. K. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. astringent to bowels. of India). Malaya. Trikone-phala. Kaechaka. Dyes. :—Fruit. Garige. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. HABIT. Nand-vriksha.) FAM. astringent to bowels. blood diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. Toon. LOC. Mandurike. Water-chestnut. Sandal Neem. M. Shingada. Chota-Nagpur. :—Cooling . aphrodisiac. DISTR. :—E. removes " Tridosha". H. DISTR. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Shingoda. tonic.—Meliaceæ. :—E. Assam. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. Chittagong. Tunika. good for scabies and gleet. biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. digestible. Singodi. PROPERTIES AND USES. Deodari. Lud. COM. Kanara. PARTS USED. anthelmintic. Apina. Gums and Resins. Bark—bitter. Waitz). "Tridosha". and blood complaints (Ayurveda). fatigue. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. Ceylon. cures fevers. inflammation.. indigestible. Kuruk. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. :—Throughout India. Sk. urinary discharges. fattening. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. leprosy. NS. aphrodisiac. Tuni. Gandhagarige. Trikota. Tun. Tundu. :—Bark-acrid. :—Bark and flowers. NS. H. Sk. M. often cultivated. COM. expectorant.

Gokhru. DISTR. Assam. Fibres. sharp spines. :—The whole plant. Kurangaha. mucronate. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. oblong. See—Food Plants. LOC.:—Saurashtra. used as food. CHAR. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. bile and phlegm. Kantaphala. one pair longer than the other . along nalas and in swampy localities. :—Plant is cooling tonic. thirst. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. abruptly pinnate. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. in Kashmir. They are also used in the form of poultice.. Kanara. Tumri. See—Timbers. Karahate. K. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Gujarat. Country. G. NS. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. Gokshura. Java. Sk. Hussuk.—several in each coccus . Ceylon. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn.—opposite. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. K. Kere Padye. LOC. each with 2 pairs of hard. Kadu Kange Kumbala. FAM. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. LOC. Seeds abound in starch. lumbago. Gokharu. Fl. COM.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). The plant contains an alkaloid. bronchitis. sore-throat. pain. DISTR.. antipyretic. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. bad-teeth (Yunani). M. one of each pair smaller than the other.—Zygophyllaceæ. Fr. Gamhar. LOC. hairy. Ceylon. improves taste . Negalu . Aphrodisiac. FAM. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. Gokshri. :—H. biliousness. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Pindara. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Sd. upto 3300 m.. t. appetiser. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. young parts silky. useful in chronic fevers. :—A procumbent herb. yellow. COM. Pindara. Deccan and S. Gokhru. base oblique. stems and branches pilose. PARTS USED. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). H. Sarata.—throughout the year. . of 5 woody cocci. Trikantaka.—globose. Shadanga. Petari . :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. a common weed of the drier parts. L. NS. Sumatra. Sk. Calthrope. M. considered cool and sweet. Malay Peninsula. solitary. Chhota gokhru. :—Throughout India. Gokhura.—Euphorbiaceæ. alexiteric. :—E.

PARTS USED. pappus shorter than the achenes. piles. Konkan. Country. tonic . aphrodisiac. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. fruits. alterative . M. :—Cooling . ovoid. Brahmadandi. "Vata". Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. :—A glabrous herb. Mt. Central India. copious.— purple. leprosy . M. bloody urine. spinous toothed or serrate. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). Brahmadandi. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. Sk. stem erect. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . Diuretic. FAM. bitter. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). reduces inflammation. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. gleet. lumbago . USES :—Fruits are cooling. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. reduces inflammation . cures strangury. emmenagogue (Yunani). —achene. H. gonorrhœa. :—Root. seeds. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. West Rajastan. . yellowish brown. Kanara. removes " Tridosha ". long. stomachic. C. Fl. Physiaran. :—Western Peninsula. alleviating burning sensation. ciliate. useful in strangury. : — G. vesicular calculi. pain . TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. the Deccan. which is taken in large quantities. asthma. slender. tonic. K. leaves. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence.—sessile. Brahmadandi. pruritus ani. Brahmadandi. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash).— Dec. branches angled and ribbed. increases menstrual flow. urinary disorders and impotence.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. :—Hot. Mota-Motachor. purifies blood . diuretic. Fr.—Compositæ. faintly ribbed. LOC. improves appetite . :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. :—The whole plant. HABITAT. PROPERTIES AND USES. base of the cauline leaves not auricled .—heads 6—8 mm. DISTR. LOC. cough. S. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. Brahma-dandi. Kanara. oblong. L. enriches blood . fattening. S. Kantapatraphala. diuretic. appetiser. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. LOC. inflammations. suppression of urine. linear-oblong or lanceolate. urinary discharges. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). tonic. Talakanto. CHAR. COM. :—Wild in places. Abu. t. Fl. Aja-dandi. S. cures skin and heart diseases. cures "Kapha".

Kiripodla.-male in axillary . the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge.. male in axillary racemes. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. Leaves—good for biliousness. H. NS. Mukal. M. Betlada padaval. CHAR. Gujarat (common) and Kanara.—July-Oct. furrowed. Root-juice is very purgative. stem robust. useful for boils and intestinal worms. HABITAT:-In hedges. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Australia. COM. slightly hairy. tendrils 3 cleft. :—E. scarlet when ripe.. erysipelas. blood diseases. antipyretic. Kadvi-padyal or patola .3 cm. long.-5-12. leprosy. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . G. white.—Cucurbitaceæ. chireta and honey. burning sensation. DISTR. Wild Snake-gourd.—2. variable. dentate or serrate. Patola. FAM . PARTS USED. Sk. orbicular. :—Throughout India. COM. NS. :—A scandent annual. long as well as broad. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever. FAM. N. fruit. Katuka.3-12. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. paler beneath. it is given in decoction with ginger. LOC. eye diseases. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side.—monœcious. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. cures itching. Jangali chichonda. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). anasarca and ascites. Jyotsna. axillary. :—Root. K. females solitary. Avagude-hannu. Panduka.—Cucurbitaceæ. Fl. alexiteric. lobes ovate-oblong. ulcers. Kaundal. oil. allays thirst. leucoderma. reniform or broadly ovate. headache and boils. t. — surrounded with red-pulp . Malaya. with a long sharp beak.. laxative. alterative. Fr. pungent. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers.5 cm. asthma. long. Fruit—hot. slender. Fl. leaf-juice is emetic. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. In Bombay. :—Root-cathartic . distantly denticulate. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Mahakala.5 m. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. H.5—7.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. cures bronchitis.5 cm. dark-green above. the Deccan. Ceylon. Indrayan. green with white stripes when raw. antipyretic. tendrils 3-fid. deeply 5-lobed. Malay Peninsula. ovoid-fusiform.-6. L. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. palmately 3-5 lobed. Perula. base cordate .6—4. base deeply cordate. M. Makal. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. Sk. stomachic. CHAR. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). woody below. Sd. long. stems 3. bitter. LOC. Jangli— Kadu padval. Fl. —G. Lal-indrayan. L. leaves. Ratan-indrayan.

ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. :—Throughout India..—throughout the year. glandular. inner slightly longer than outer. Fl. Fr. middle lobe smallest. bracts large. PROPERTIES AND USES. very hairy.75-1 in. :—A perennial straggling herb.75 X . Japan. fringed.. which is found abundantly all over the country. C. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani).. LOC. 3-partite. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. Fr. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. hairy. PARTS USED. China.5 cm. densely silky hairy. bruises and wounds. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. LOC. :—Root and fruit. female solitary. FAM.— Apl. used in epilepsy. leprosy. petioles densely hairy. slender. . limbweakness.— achene. Kirkee. acute. L. Fl. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks .—1. cures hemicrania. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes.—many . t. Ekdandi. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. N.—petals wedge-shaped. :—Wild in hilly parts. ligules yellow. :—Leaves. black. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. sparsely white hairy. lessens inflammations . ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). PARTS USED. Australia.—globose 3-8. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. peduncles very long. Ray flowers ligulate. high. boiled with gingelly oil. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. rheumatism. gargle good for toothache. Malaya. purgative. Juice of fruit or root-bark. :—Abundant in the Deccan. COM. abortifacient. M. CHAR. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. many years ago. ovate-elliptic..-July. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. all over the State. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. stem and branches hairy. heat of brain. Sd. Fruit—carminative. axillary. :—M. HABITAT. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. Ceylon. NS. :— Wild in Konkan. 30-60 cm. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. diam. Country. outer involucral bracts ovate. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric. LOC. t. on the Himalayas.—head solitary.—Compositæ. DISTR. white. Deccan and S.

prevent hair falling off (Yunani). H. :—E.7 cm. vomiting. G.—Aug. "Vata". roots many. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. Methi. COM. L. Country. Menthe—palle. chronic cough. enlargement of spleen and liver. long. M.. removes bad taste from mouth. piles. Pitabija Vedhini. ovate or elliptic oblong. dysentery. M. DISTR. :—Leaves and seeds. 7. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. FN. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. :—H. with coma . Fenugreek .—in umbellate cymes . applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. corona gibbous below. astringent to bowels. Janglipikvan. :—Cultivated. and the seeds contain vitamin A. CHAR. greenish-yellow outside. suppurative. Methini. Hot and dry.-Nov. dropsy. flatulence. much used in colic. K. :—A twining perennial. aperient. large for the genus. antipyretic. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. LOC. Antamul.—Asclepiadaceæ. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. long. FAM. 5-10 x 2. tapering to a fine point at the apex. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. M. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. useful in dropsy. LOC. Methi. Sk. Methi . dyspepsia with loss of appetite.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Kanara.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. appetiser. cultivated in many parts of India. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. Methi.. FAM. enlargement of spleen and liver. diarrhœa.— broadly ovate. Fl.—follicles. HABITAT. :—South of Bombay. Kashmir.—opposite. Fl. Konkan. C. Jyoti. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. base cordate. COM. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. S. fleshy. anthelmintic. Chandrika. diuretic. PARTS USED. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State.5—10 cm. K.—deeply lobed. NS. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). Muthi. :—Hot. . Nepala . purplish within. PROPERTIES AND USES. cures leprosy. emmenagogue. tonic. NS. Pitakari (Pitamari). also in low and sandy localities. narrowed at the apex to a free point. See—Vegetables. tonic and carminative. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. they are also aphrodisiac. t.5-5. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. bronchitis. :—Punjab. LOC. Sd.

polished. HABITAT. found useful in dysentery. Fr.. tapering to both ends . tropical Africa. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. HABITAT. 10-20 cm. W.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR.—in racemes 15-30 cm. Malay Islands.. linear-oblong.3-2.—purple. LOC. :—G. Vanapalandu. :—A perennial shrub.8 m. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. :—Throughout India. white. Indian Squill. PARTS USED. blotched with white above.— petals lanceolate. Jangli-Ran-khanda. :—Sandy places. :—Throughout the plains of India. Fl. NS. Fl.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. LOC. :—Wild. :—Roots and leaves. CHAR.—appearing after the flowers.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. 20-30 cm. C. Fl. C. Rankanda. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. 5-7 (rarely 9). long. Peninsula. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. hairy beneath. Pithavan. drooping.— pod. pale lead-colored. Malay Islands. Fr.. KolaPutakand. :—Bulb. stalks long. :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. Prishna-parni. Dried leaves are emetic. Ceylon. Philippines. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Dabra. flat.. Sk. CHAR. ellipsoid. Panjala. scape erect 30-45 cm. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). COM. G. L. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). USES. t.—Aug. Jaglipiaz. long. H. Bihar. :—A herb. L. Pitavan . . H. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs.— imparipinnate. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. joints 3-6. NS. :—Western Himalayas. Borneo. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. Ranganja .—capsule. glabrous. 0. :—E. Burma. 15-45 x 1. long. Sd.. DISTR.— flattened. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES. M. linear. folded on one another. M.-Sept. black. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. stems downy with hooked hairs. Thailand (Siam). :—Konkan. PARTS USED.5 cm. :—Common on sandy shores. DISTR. URARIA PICTA Desv. light-brown . tropical Africa. high.9-1. Pitvan. Ceylon. diaphoretic and expectorant.. Sk. FAM. Shankaraja . perianth campanulate.— Liliaceæ. Chota-Nagpur.

The plant contains an alkaloid. COM. A. PROPERTIES AND USES. lumbago. Fl. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. heals fractures (Yunani). stout. S. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. skin diseases. M. stem 30-60 cm. Rasno. FAM. W. Peninsula.—Orchidaceæ. Gaz. Gujarat and Kanara. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. :—Epiphyte. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). lessens inflammations . hiccup. diseases of nose. Br. long. recurved. :—The bulb is pungent. :—Bengal. . bronchitis. Vriksharuha. Vanda. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. Madhya-Pradesh. t. Ceylon. Nakula. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . emmenagogue.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. Sk. Atiras. bronchitis. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. tremors (Ayurveda). K. and an acute interposed one. Root is bitter. acute. dropsy. H.. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. internal pains (Yunani). good for piles. heating. Fr. LOC. Rasna. :—Root and leaves. Fl. Sarpagandha. cardiac. praemorse. Banda. alexiteric. and was found useful (Koman). column very short. 2-lobed. :—Konkan. Travancore. lip bluish dotted with purple.—thickly coriaceous.5—9 cm. LOC. inflammations. HABIT. laxative. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. scilla of Great Britain. Bandanike. Rasna. scandent by simple or branching roots . :—Root is bitter. erect. CHAR. USES :—Expectorant. tonic to brain and liver. bronchitis. complicate. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. PARTS USED. asthma. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. Chota-Nagpur. 15-20 X 1. antipyretic. rheumatic pains. Bihar. and U. maritima of U.3-2 cm.—capsule.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. diseases of the abdomen. heating.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. DISTR.— July. purgative. diuretic. useful in paralysis. useful in dyspepsia. L. toothache. :—An epiphyte. anthelmintic. The bulb is stomachic. obtusely keeled. tip. Persara. rheumatism. boils in the scalp. alexiteric. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. LOC. pollinia ellipsoid. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. alexiteric. (In Med. NS. 1931. renal calculi. long. stimulant and diuretic.. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. anthelmintic. :—G. long. Rasna..

M. ulcers and wounds. Kubbila. :—Bark. H. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. t. NS. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. FAM. with an offensive odour. L.—Dipterocarpaceæ. HABITAT :—Hotter parts.—in large drooping terminal panicles. M. tonic. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. Fl. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. LOC. alexipharmic. abundant in S. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. useful in atonic dyspepsia. PARTS USED.—Dec. 1-nerved wing. Sk.—Rhamnaceæ. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. Dhupa. rheumatism. debility and slight cases of fever. diarrhœa. See—Timbers. :—Bark. LOC. CHAR. skin eruptions. H. FAM. Madidhupa. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. deciduous and monsoon-forests. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. yellowish. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . K. globular. dysentery. Bilidhupa. Sk. Fr. Sarjaka. useful in leprosy. G. USES. Lokhandi. LOC. in chronic bronchitis. :—Madras State. boils and ringworm.—5-10 X 2. carminative. young branches and panicles pubescent. alexipharmic. anæmia. detergent. urinary discharges. Dhupa. good for sore-throat. amenorrhœa. Raktavalli. Gums and Resins.. hemicrania. prolonged into a linear-oblong. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). Fl. resin. :—E.. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. Ragatarshado. entire or crenate.5-3. dark. (T. tuberculous glands. Sandras. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND LOC. C. NS. Shala. itch (Ayurveda). Tenasserim. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. fruit. :—Bark-hot.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. Malamaitra. bechic. Poppli. piles. :—North Kanara. also in N. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. :—A large much branched woody climber. :—Western India. Kundura. expectorant. Mysore. Kaharub. stomachic. Kanara. DISTR. Oils. Ceylon. Coorg in Ghats. :—E. Pitti. buds 5-angled. M. COM. K. Khandvel. greenish.-nut about 5 mm. Kanara and S. acrid. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). DISTR. eardiseases. Shandike. COM. diam. tonic and stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES. Safed-damar. also planted.8 cm. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. . Haruge. cures cough. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. whitish). Red Creeper.-Jany.—petals 5. Country. Travancore.. Sekalyel.

10-ribbed. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. Kalijiri. often cultivated. :—Throughout India.-achene oblong cylindric. 5—9 x 2. hairy. "Vata" and "Kapha". Deccan . hairy. Afghanistan. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. and leaves. rachis glandular pubescent. Sk. compound or pinnatisect.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. PROPERTIES AND USES. L. Fl. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda).—Compositæ. PARTS USED. on long petioles. M. Kadvojiri. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. Gujarat. M.. Kalizhiri. . innermost the longest. Sk. coarsely serrate. Fr. cure ulcers. astringent to bowels. Bhutakeshi. all coarsely dentate. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. Somaraj. DISTR. The juice mixed with mustard oil. NS. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. in equal proportions. rounded. Purple Fleabane. Somaraj. Kulara. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. G. high.-rotate. Seeds— anthelmintic. FAM. H. leafy herb . with purple tips . filament densely bearded with purple hairs. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. LOC.—capsule. L. The juice of the whole plant. PARTS USED. stems 60—90 cm. Fl. COM. Fl. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.6-0. M. robust. COM. Bakchi. Kalhara.—Dec.Feb. erect. :—Annual. :—Throughout India . Agnibija. hairy. H.9 m. DISTR.-May. sub-globose. used in skin-diseases. pappus reddish. hairy on both sides. K. t— Jany.5—3. Sd. high . :—G. t. Ceylon. yellow. :—Seeds-acrid.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. branched near the top. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. Vanajiraka. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. warted. LOC. Vapehi. lyrate. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Kulhala. HABITAT:-Waste places. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage.—Scrophulariaceæ. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. about 40-flowered.—oblong. Fl. squeezed out by pounding. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S.—heads subcorymbose. :—Plant. Gadar-tambaku. involucre bracts linear. Kutki. stem 0.2 cm. lobes 5. Vishamushti. LOC.—alternate...8 cm. anthelmintic.. K. :—Konkan . :—E. C. truncate. CHAR. China. CHAR. lanceolate. Ceylon . Country. PROPERTIES AND USES. Java .) FAM. NS.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. ofter cultivated. :—An annual herb. Fr. Sundika. Kalejire.

—Gramineæ. seeds. Ardhaprasadana. Bala. Sahadevi. bruised seeds ground up in paste. H. The expressed juice is given in piles.—simple. striate. Sk. stomachic and diuretic. . H. G. 15—75 cm. K. with lime-juice. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. made into a bolus with lime-juice. FAM. Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. asthma. :—E. remove blood from liver. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. NS. t. a depilatory (Yunani). Sadori. clothed with white hairs . about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. Fl. applied in inflammatory swellings . flowers. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. silky on the back. NS. alternate. :—Annual. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. oblong. pubescent. In Ceylon. LOC. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. LOC. high. Sadodi. FAM. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. M. consumption. CHAR. K. Kuruvelu. Lavancha. Cuscus grass. Devika. Australia. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. The plant with quinine. COM. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. Khas.—Compositæ. Koosa. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. are used in destroying pediculi. Sk. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. :—Plant. kidney troubles. pappus white. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). COM. astringent. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. Osari. good for sores and itching of eyes. :—A common weed throughout the State. DISTR. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle.-Feb. erect herb. cold. :—E. :—Throughout India. G. tonic. stem stiff. Sind. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. hiccup . Vala. stomachic. Sahadevi.— pinkish violet. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. Valo . Fl. Ushira. plant is used in fever convulsions. Mudivala. Sedardi. bronchitis . Fr. They are also used as tonic. awned. cures "Tridosha". the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). Sahadevi. used for asthma. Vecrnam. PARTS USED. Ash-coloured Fleabane . Africa . Bena.. Panni. tropical Asia. heads small. L. USES :—Root is given for dropsy.—Jan. M. Dandotpala.—achene.

promotes hair-growth. Bilenekki. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . Nigod. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. DISTR. L. FAM.8 m. usually sheathed all along. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . Kanara in damp places. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. The otto is used as a tonic.-leaf sheaths compressed. Leaves are aromatic. sweats. Nirgundi. bitter. K. bitter. Nirgari. racemes up to 5 cm. Lakki. :—Roots. Fl. Nirgundi. H. bitter. pale green. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. NS. febrifuge. head-ache. Nukki. long. leucoderma. Afghanistan. slender. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. Sind. :—Throughout India. :—Root. cephalic. Nilpushpi. USES :—Root is tonic. DISTR. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. up to over 1. strangury. stomachic. :—Cooling. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. expectorant and diuretic. consumption. rachis stout. PROPERTIES AND USES.—Verbenaceæ. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. inflammations. blood diseases (Yunani). Sk. useful in eye diseases. stomachic. Indrani. Sessile spikelets. M. COM. margin spinously rough. bronchitis. high. Konkan and Deccan. PARTS USED. LOC.—panicle up to 30 cm. tonic and vermifuge.. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. long. also cultivated. soporific. anthelmintic. diuretic. PARTS USED. Philippine Islands. Nirgundi. LOC. foul breath. LOC. Ceylon. astringent. refrigerant. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). erect. spleen enlargement. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). heating. leaves. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. colour varying from yellowish to black. West-Indies and Brazil. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . :—G. alexiteric. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. throughout the Malayan regions. useful in spermatorrhoea. stimulant and tonic. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. useful in burning sensation. astringent. inflammations and irritability of stomach. Sambhalu. lower ones keeled and fan-like. The roots contain an essential oil. Nirgud. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. bilious fevers. biliousness. Sinduvara. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. Culms stout. asthma. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge.. thirst. :—Common in Gujarat and N. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots. Cooling to brain. :—Throughout the State.

Grape-vine. Guchaphala. Country. emmenagogue. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. good for eyes and throat. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. produces constipation. Fruit— digestive. Sap of young branches. M. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. :—E. laxative. diarrhœa. Darakh. sparingly in Poona. Seeds—aphrodisiac. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". Angura. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. FAM-—Vitaceæ. stops bleeding from mouth. difficult to digest. K. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Draksha. M. stones in bladder. sweet. strangury. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. LOC. :—A native of western Asia. cooling. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. COM. See—Timbers. Fruit is nervine. PARTS USED :—Stem. jaundice. liver and kidney. The fruits contain vitamin A. diuretic . aperient. Draksha. catarrh and jaundice. and given in coughs. Khandesh. Ahmednagar. flowers. applied in scabies. cough. purifies and enriches blood . PROPERTIES AND USES. syphilis. Gujarat and S. Drakh . hoarseness and consumption. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. testicle swellings and piles. burning. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. piles. and traces of vitamins B and C. asthma. :—Cultivated. HABITAT. good for lungs. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. :—Deccan. India. . Leaf-juice cures head-ache. fever. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. emmenagogue. fattening. fattening . causes gases in the stomach. cooling . Angur. heat of body. blood diseases. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. Flowers—expectorant. allays vomiting. DISTR. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). fever. The plant contains an alkaloid. G. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. cooling useful in thirst. useful in old fevers. seeds. good in chronic bronchitis .. Sk. cures thirst. astringent to bowels. NS. Yakshmaghni. W. fruits. skin should not be eaten. Madhurasa. There are numerous cultivated varieties. Draksha. diuretic. tonic to liver. appetiser. leaves.MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. expectorant. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. laxative. H. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. produces alopecia. bad effects of drinking. :—Fruit-acrid. Draksha. LOC. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. a remedy for skin diseases. aphrodisiac. stomachic. allays vomiting. spleen inflammation.

:—K. bronchitis. inflammations.) DISTR. :—Root and bark. leaves. long. Winter-cherry. PARTS USED. K.3-1.—pod. Asoda. FAM. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal.-Feb. NS.—2-pinnate. t. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula.—berry.. lumbago. senile debility. chest troubles etc. ovate. M. inflammations. oblong. LOC.—3-4. good in asthma. Fl.—Solanaceæ.5 cm. hard. t. oblong.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. coriaceous. L. seeds. heating. L. :—Konkan jungles. Gujarat. CHAR.5-5 cm. LOC. 0. . Drakshasava—used as tonic. main rachis armed with prickles. :—A branched erect undershrub. inserted on the top of. Ceylon. rachis grooved with soft hairs. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. See—Fruit Trees. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. Asgund. useful in "Vata". pretty common in the ghats. leucoderma. DISTR. Wagati.—petals 5. :—Drier regions. entire.5 m. Ghodasoda. C. pinnae 4-6 pairs. 23-30 cm. COM. Sk. Sogada-beru. consumption. HABITAT. swollen above the seeds. Fl. ulcers. scabies. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . bronchitis.5-12. (not common. alexipharmic. high. :—Tubers-bitter. G. Vajini. Tuber—bitter. favours constipation (Yunani). hoary tomentose . Wagati. enclosed in inflated calyx. Asan. PROPERTIES AND USES. anthritis. Canaries. leaflets 5-7 pairs. long. spathulate. FAM. marasmus of children. Wakeri. 7. Punir. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. alterative. green berries. :—A robust woody climber. NS. Fl.—greenish or lurid yellow. minutely hairy.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). acrid. :—Deccan. Mediterranean regions. Hirimaddina-gadde. Amangura. :—In the drier regions of India . Fr.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. anthelmintic. Ashvagandha. slightly 5-angled. obovate. Cape of Good Hope. abundant in Sind . Gandhpatri. emmenagogue . aphrodisiac. constricted between them.-Jany. PROPERTIES AND LOC. diam. aphrosidiac. M. asthma. "Kapha". branches terete. base dentate.. tonic. Sd. H. :—E. red.— Sept. Kanchuki. COM. USES. Asgundh. dark-orange.. dark-green. 6 mm. PARTS USED :—Root. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. armed with prickles . CHAR. Kanara. Kamrupini. Deccan. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . psoriasis. Sd. linear oblong. Balada. smooth.—yellow. somewhat scurfy. Hooliganji. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). branches armed with recurved prickles . calyx-tube. bony Fl. tonic. Fr. insomnia.—5-10 X 2. long.

aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Vanhishikha. in 2-15 flowered cymes. tropical Africa. Dhavani. Sd. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. Fl. useful in leucorrhoea. :—Throughout India. Kuda. Java. Khirni. and in derangement of liver . Madhuindrayava. leprosy. USES. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. ovate-lanceolate. LOC. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. Fr. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Ceylon. M. Indrajav. :—G. M. H. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Kodamurki. Dhaiti.—mostly opposite. L. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. used in thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES. blood diseases. Kanara near the sea-coast. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Madhavasini. diuretic and deobstruent. It is narcotic. NS. . Dudhi. long. nigro-punctate beneath.5 cm. :—Pungent.—numerous.. Hallunova. Kalakuda. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . Madagascar. smooth. cooling. common in the Konkan and N. 1 cm. Sk. Bela. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Santha. :—Monsoon-forests. See—Tans. haemorrhoids. Tamrapushpi. 5-9X 1. Fl. Japan. Dhawai. NS. Dhavani. scarlet. ulcers and painful swellings . :—G.3-2. erysipelas.— numerous. uterine sedative. Indrajav. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. lumbar pains. Sk. acrid.-May. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Br. Kalikari. brown.) FAM.—Lythraceæ. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). on trap in the Akrani. dysentery. K. leaf-infusion is given in fever. China. HABITAT. Dec.—Apocynaceæ. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. t. Swetakutaj. Indrajav. simple.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. alexiteric. velvety above. Hayamaraka. Phulsatti. H. wedge-shaped. Sumatra. :—Bark and flowers. Are. toxic. alterative. DISTR. branches long. PARTS USED. anthelmintic . debility from old age. The plant contains an alkaloid. Dhaw. irregularly dehiscent. LOC. Dhateki. Ornamental Plants. Dyes. Baluchistan. K. Hale. COM. rheumatism.—capsule. FAM. Dhawadina. emaciation of children. COM.

long and broad. Shankhahuli. CHAR. memory.. alexiteric. USES :—Root is bitter.achene. useful in cancer and strumous diseases.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. Bur-Weed. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . thickly clothed with hooked prickles. fertile heads few. DISTR. improves appetite. :—Rajastan. H. poisonous bites of insects.5 cm. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. antipyretic. Khandesh at 1050 m. . skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. at the top. LOC. LOC. oblong ovoid. anthelmintic.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. Clot-Cockle-bur. involucre of fertile head. Madhya Pradesh. fattening. FAM. ovoid in fruit. 5-7. epilepsy. See—Timbers. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. PARTS USED. Itara. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. irregularly incisoserrate . Banokra. In S. G. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. LOC. tonic. Sarpakshi. M. t. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda).-E. :—Bark and seeds. especially root and fruit. with 2 erect beaks. in W. NS. Sk. cures leucoderma. all over the State. tonic. :—The whole plant. fever. PROPERTIES AND USES. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. Fr. Fl.—Jany. 1-3 cm.. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. :— Throughout India. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. :—Annual herb . 3-lobed. hairy on both sides. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. rough with short hairs . hard and tough. West-Peninsula. antidysenterica (Yunani). Gadrian.1-6. :—Cooling. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. LOC. Timor. DISTR. compressed . Kambu-Vanamalini. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . voice.—Compositæ. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs.. barren heads many. digestive. Aristha. PARTS USED. L. Fl. Dumundi. Dutundi. Sankeshwar.—many. the bark is specially useful in piles. biliousness. axillary. long. stem short. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. Ceylon.Feb. COM. laxative. stout. salivation. PROPERTIES AND USES. complexion.

:—Rhizome-pungent. :—E. to prevent nausea and griping. lumbago. Koli. Indian Cherry. NS. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Bore. Bogari. Dridhabija. Anupama. NS. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. expectorant. Shringavera. "Kapha". appetiser. heating. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). on poor soil and in rocky places. tonic. useful in heart and throat diseases. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. stomachic. Bor. aphrodisiac. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. Ipanji. carminative. DISTR. K. it cleans throat. Ber. removes pain due to cold. K. and dry situations. . Adrate. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . bronchitis. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. See—Condiments and Spices. LOC. it is also given in the form of infusion. Kuvali. pains. G. pains (Yunani). Ajapriya. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. asthma. stomachic. vomiting. Alla Adrak. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. Egasi. Badari. M. :—Cultivated. vomiting. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda).—Rhamnaceæ. Boyedi. laxative. Plum. H. COM. Kandara. piles. useful in elephantiasis. Alen. FAM. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. Hasisunthi. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. Ginger. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia.. colic. HABITAT. "Vata". good in piles. aphrodisiac. Bor. Ada.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. :—Rhizome. PARTS USED. It is stimulant. Beri. M. inflammations. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Sk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. carminative. alexiteric. eructations. Gulmmula. G. head-ache. Alen. FAM. Ber. anthelmintic. tongue and increases appetite. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat.—Scitaminaceæ. Rhizome—pungent. COM. Sk. flatulence. LOC. gives lustre to eye. Bordi. Ardraka. Chinese Date. H. dyspepsia. loss of appetite and piles. :—E. rheumatism. PROPERTIES AND USES.

on the laterite near the coast in N. thirst. PARTS USED. causes cough. head-ache. DISTR. abundant in the Deccan. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. :—Root. useful in fevers. Africa. bark. frequently planted as a fruit tree. China. Seed—astringent. cooling. Kanara. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. indigestible. biliousness. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . Leaves form a plaster to boils. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. reduce obesity. Leaves antipyretic. vomiting. tonic to heart and brain . Root and Bark tonic. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). LOC. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. Fruit— cooling. wounds and ulcers. leaves. allays thirst (Yunani). aphrodisiac. removes biliousness.. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Fruit—sweet and sour. burning sensation. good in consumption and blood-diseases. See—Timbers. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. :—Root-bitter. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. fruit. causes diarrhœa in large doses . Afghanistan. PROPERTIES AND USES. . Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. Bark—causes boils . cure asthma. Australia. good in liver complaints. seeds. Fruit Trees. Fruits contains vitamin A. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . Burma. Ceylon. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. Leaves—anthelmintic. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. tonic. laxative.

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