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ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.
ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.
ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.
The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.
ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.
ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,
Kanara forests. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth.. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests.8 cm. acrid. LOC. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. H.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. gums. boils. anthelmintic. relaxation of the uvula. psoriasis. anti-pyretic. Sk. :—Common throughout the Stale . overlapping. See—Timbers. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. NS. CHAR. L.—pod. Vidula. 5-10 cm. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . hypertrophy of tonsils. Country and Gujarat. Saptata. linear-oblong. Chikakai. :—Rajastan. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. wrinkled when dry . Ritha. leprosy. Himalayas up to 1700 m. In ulceration of the gums. Fl. (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. :—Common in the Konkan and N. K.-6-10 . Kochi. yellow. ulcers. DISTR. astringent to bowels. M. prurigo. :—Throughout India. LOC. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. antidysenteric. FAM. Phena. strengthens teeth. Charmakusha.—in fascicled globose heads. bronchitis. inflammations. Kath-bole. It is given in diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Dyes. " Vata ". aphrodisiac. Deccan. LOC. measles and other skindiseases. Yajnika. Khandesh Akrani S. Dantadhavan. Bhuriphena. Sikkim. Western Peninsula. given in elephantiasis.-July. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). Sd. cooling. Soap-pod tree. M. Fr. erysipelas.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). China. leucorrhoea. .-t. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. urinary and vaginal discharges. Malay Islands. Dipta. :—E. Kanara (often on laterite). indigestion. throat diseases. sore-throat and tooth-ache. along the coasts of Konkan and N. tonic. heaviness. Lalkhair. Pegu. Tans.5-12. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Shige. " Kapha ". Sk. DISTR. mouth troubles. Sige-balli or kai. Saradruma. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). :—An extensive woody climber.-Mar. Khadira. fleshy when green. Shikekai. Manda-otte. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. 7. piles. COM.5X2-2. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda).—bipinnate. It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. long. leaflets 10-20 pairs.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. cures itching. M. Kushthari. G. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. Burma. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers.. Khair. Fl.
eczema. cures stomatitis. anthelmintic. Internally they are aperient. LOC. Jheri baval. Sauna jali. ulcers. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. tonic. Kankri. Gums and Resins. Sind. ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. erysipelas. piles. anti-diarrhoeal. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Gandhelo khair .pungent. H. Jali. caries of teeth. cures " Kapha. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. :—E. PARTS USED :—Bark. Pissibabul. biliousness. prurigo.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. bronchitis.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). anthelmintic. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. improves appetite. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. See—Timbers. often cultivated. . aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Marudruma. leucoderma. alexiteric. often planted . Devababhul. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. digestible. Gum—sweetish. not indigenous but naturalised. In Philippines decoction. deobstruent. G. ascites. cooling. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). M. leaves and gum. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. purgative. COM. blood diseases. Kari jali. LOC. erysipelas. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. Arimeda. HABITAT :—Moist situations. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. K. anti-dysenteric. cardio-tonic. FAM. Sk. :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . inflammations. Sponge tree. causes " Vata". DISTR. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . burning sensation. NS. buboes. blood-diseases. detergent. leucoderma. Girimeda. stomatitis. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair.. LOC. Stinking acacia. Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. expectorant and good emetic. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Gandhbabul. Cassia flower. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. itching. Vilavati kikar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter.
NS. ascending. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms.. Var. elliptic obovate. Fr. NS.—June-Sept.9 m. Kuppi-gida. enclosed in perianth smooth. angular. small. Fl.—utricle. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. axillary spikes . H. long in fruit. t. somewhat 3-nerved.—greenish white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Fl. Sk. high. asthma. FAM. Chalmari. Utranigida.—monœcious. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract. Khokla. erect herb. brown. brown. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. tropical Africa. clustered near the summit of spike. oblong-cylindric. Agheda-di. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. 30-75 cm. high. M. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. branches terete or quadrangular striate. Apang.—Euphorbiaceæ. Merkati. Fr. Sd. CHAR. Vasira. softly hairy. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. Khokali. branches long. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. and shining sepals with narrow white margins.5x2-4. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers.5 cm. Chichra. 3..5-4. Kantarika. Kuppi. Khajoti. M. L.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. many. Sk. CHAR. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. DISTR. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. Fl. pneumonia and rheumatism. stem stiff. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. LOC. males. one-seeded. perianth 4-5 segments. K. elongate. It is used in congestive headache.— ovoid. COM. K. crenate-serrate. H. PROPERTIES AND LOC.3-0. Fl. pale-brown. COM. 2. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. few. females. minute. Latjira . :—E. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. smooth. about 50 cm.-Jany. :—Throughout India. in lax. FAM. Arittamanjaria. Aghada .57.—truncate at apex. Philippines. Vanchhikanto. Sd. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. L. scattered.—opposite. Apamarga. in elongate terminal spikes. erect. Kharamanjiri. Prickly chaff-flower. LOC. :—Annual.3 X 2.5 cm. M. Ceylon. Ksharamadhya. :—An erect herb 0. hispid. :—Common in the Deccan and S. :—G. Chirchira.—Amarantaceæ. Country.—Nov. rounded at base. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. t.—capsule. G. .8-6. Uttrane . The plant contains acalyphin.
improves appetite. abdominal pains. Gandhilovaj. spadix. piles. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. epilepsy. inflammations. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn.8 cm. green . :—Throughout India. heating. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. thickened in the middle. Australia. 5-10 cm. good for mouth diseases.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. anthers yellow. dyspepsia. skin eruption etc. flatulence. stomatitis.8 X 1. Ugragandha. hysteria. Tropical Asia. heart diseases. Africa. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. long. toothache. See—Sacred Plants. LOC. useful in vomiting. piles. Godavaj. useful in abdominal pains. boils. useful in dyspepsia. :—E. HABITAT :—Marshy places. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. leucoderma (Yunani). Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. NS. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. sepals scarious. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. LOC. bitter. itching. COM. PARTS USED : —Root. laxative. Bach. acute. Vekhand. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. delirium. inflammations. Bitter. brain-tonic. Bhutnashini. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes.7-3. America. top pyramidal. emmenagogue . pungent. alexiterie. liver and chest pains. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. throat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. America. Baluchistan. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. . Sweet flag . Europe and N. M. stomachic. Vekhand . Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. G. improves appetite. bright-green. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache.. loss of memory. expectorant. Baja . creeping and branching. diuretic. carminative. carminative. Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. Sikkim. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. 0. and is considered useful in dropsy. Gorbach .9-1. Ceylon. emetic. Fr. H. etc. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. Throughout Asia. laxative. carminative. thirst. LOC. :—An aromatic herb . "Vata". slightly curved. blood diseases (Ayurveda). dysentery. dysentery.—turbinate. long. rat-bite. Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. bronchitis. obtuse. fevers. Jatila. prismatic. laxative. bronchitis. useful in general weakness. K. voice. leaves. L. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Vacha. margins wavy. Sk.—Araceæ. heating. tumours. FAM. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. ascites.. flowers and seeds. kidney troubles. spathe 15-75 cm.
LOC. H. N.—Bombacaceæ. Bukha. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms.. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. Rukhdo . DISTR. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. LOC. FAM. Pichli. PARTS USED : —Root. in children. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. aerial parts yield a volatile oil. COM. COM. Powder is very effective insecticide. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. M. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. dysentery. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. :—Grown in many places in India .:—Konkan. FAM. G. African calabash. Kanara evergreen forests. HABITAT':—Cultivated. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. anti-pyretic. indigenous in tropical Africa. Gorakhchinch. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. Gorakhaamli. :—E. Goremlichora . Deccan. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . Gopali. bark. It is a good remedy in asthma. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. Sk.:—Planted here and there throughout the State .MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. Brahmamlika. fever. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. Baobab. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. Pisa. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs. etc. :—Western Peninsula. vomiting. It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Gujarat. DISTR. :—K. Haggodgimara. leaf and fruit. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. Gorakamali. K. Tudgensu . Gorakshi. colic. NS.—Lauraceæ. useful in biliousness. LOC. Monkey-bread tree. M. fevers and other maladies. PROPERTIES AND LOC. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. NS. See—Timbers. Panch-parnika.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.
ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).
Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).
ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.
ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.
ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.
AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,
AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,
Tantia. COM. LOC. FAM. diarrhœa. China. useful in inflammations. Ankoli. alterative. Ankola. Sk. Tamraphala. See—Timbers. fish-poison. Seeds—cooling. dysentery. LOC.) FAM. anthelmintic. Malaya. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. Chinchola. :—Throughout the State. expectorant. alexiteric. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Shyamala. Juice—emetic. H. Uddanaka. alexipharmic . Dodda-Hombage. and fruit. Kaloshirish.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. pungent. Kalashirish. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. G. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. K. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. it is said to stop after-pains.—Alangiaceæ. leaves (rarely). Sirsul. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. poisonous bites. Sirai. Shirisha. Ankola. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. DISTR. G. S. often along banks of nalas in N. rat-bite. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). (Mimosaceæ). anthelmintic. Root-bark poisonous.—Leguminosæ. Shirish. commonly planted along roadsides. Onkla. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. lumbago (Yunani). heating. Kullumavu. Akoly. cures erysipelas. :—E. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. spermatorrhoea. Ankota. Piloshirish. Kalshish. LOO. Ankola. Anedhera. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. Sirisa. M. hydrophobia. Ankol. blood diseases. Ankotha. Philippines. inflammations. Dridhakantaka. Karnapura. COM. biliousness. " Vata "-pain. Kalosadasado. tonic. Vamaka. Root-bark— used in piles. Krishnashirisha. . Sk. burning of body. Shankiniphala. PARTS USED :—Root-bark. NS. indigestible. acute fever. Garso. Shirish. Ankora. Asroli. colic. stem. Fruit—laxative. lumbago. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. M. Sage-leaved alangium. cures " Kapha". NS. K. blood diseases. :—E. inflammations. See—Timbers. carminative. :—Throughout India. aromatics or honey. Ceylon. Ankoli. H. Kanara. wasting diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. gleet. Kathora. Gudhapatra. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. useful in worms.
NS. tumours. seeds. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. and also in skin diseases .:—E. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. skin-diseases. Root—astringent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. etc. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. itching. Kanda. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. See—Timbers. epistaxis. asthma. Onion. B & C. improves taste. blood diseases.: —Throughout India. given in piles. Bark— anthelmintic. Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. Dungari. ophthalmia. Piyaz. usually planted. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. Bark and seeds are astringent. emollient. ear-ache. Palandu. Seeds—fattening. Flowers—aphrodisiac. occasionally used in fever. scabies. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. their smell useful in hemicrania.—Liliaceæ. stomachic. erysipelas. COM. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). useful in malaria. useful in vomiting. enriches blood. syphilis. piles. cures "Vata". piles. Rajapriya. prescribed in ophthalmia. Burma. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases. Ulageddi. G. anthelmintic. diarrhœa. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. Ceylon. scabies. flowers. bark. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. See—Vegetables. aphrodisiac. Oil is used in leprosy. PARTS USED :—Root. weakness. strengthens gums and teeth. excessive perspiration. which acts as a diuretic. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). biliousness. Bengal. FAM. Leaves—good in night blindness. Rochaka. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop.. M. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. dropsy. Bulb—tonic.K. bronchitis. It is an important garden crop. vomiting. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. LOC. bleeding piles. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. Sk. inflammations. boils. good in rat-bite. body pains. catarrh. leucoderma. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. seeds. used in leprosy. . LOC. leaves. deafness. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). maturant. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. cultivated everywhere. paralysis. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. H. Seeds—tonic to brain. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. eruptions and swellings. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. tonic. volatile oil. stimulant and expectorant. etc. cooling.. :—Native country probably Persia. spleen diseases. appetiser. and chronic bronchitis . relieves tooth-ache. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Bark-bitter. The plant contains vitamins A.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. DISTR.
Sk. H. useful in diseases of eye and heart. Sk. sciatica. leucoderma. low fevers. anthelmintic. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. oleaginous . Korkand.—Liliaceæ.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. voice. The plant contains vitamin C. Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. thirst. K. tumours. asthma. fattening. G. Ugragandha. troubles of spleen. Kumari. Kumari. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Ikshurmallika. piles. K. paralysis. " Vata ". COM. Ghi-kumari. :—E. improves appetite. Korphad. LOC. heating. thins the blood (Yunani). the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. paraplegia and convulsive affections. Lasan. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. bronchitis. ALŒ VERA Linn. aphrodisiac. M. :—E. Kanya. NS. Lasun. H. Country. M. aphrodisiac. FAM. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. lumbago. NS. In pulmonary phthisis. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Lashuna. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. Indian aloe. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. COM. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. tonic. Lasan. LOC. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. epileptic fits. . It is an important garden crop. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. Kapila. alexipharmic. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. In Cambodia. complexion. good for lumbago. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. Kattali. Rasonaka. thirst.—Liliaceæ. carminative. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. See—Vegetables. G. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. Kuvarpatha. chronic fevers. useful in inflammations. caries of teeth. FAM. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Lahsan. body and joint pains. Bellulli. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. inflammation. PARTS USED :—Bulb. hemiplegia. liver and lungs . Garlic. clears voice. Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. leucoderma. digestive. In cases of diphtheria. Lolisara. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. Diuretic. M. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia.
DISTR. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. Kanara. Jamaica. Satian. Satwin. margins spiny. fleshy. asthma. pendulous. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. tonic. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. planted in Indian gardens . pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. anthelmintic. simple or branched. tropical Africa. COM. jaundice. biliousness (Yunani). K. inflammations. Saptachhada.—sessile. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. milky juice. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Sk. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. used in fevers. alterative. LOC. It also acts as a mild purgative. :—A perennial herb . Native of S. somewhat divided. spleen enlargement. ulcers (Ayurveda).—in dense racemes . tumours. Ceylon.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. LOC. E. Mediterranean. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. emollient and demulcent. isobarbaloin and emodin. West Indian Islands. yellow. Australia. perianth cylindric . stem short thick. purgative. liver complaints. Java. DISTR. pale-green. Kadusale. L. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. also cultivated. aphrodisiac. Africa. piles. used in form of paste in pleurisy. biliousness. bark. vomiting. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. skin diseases. Barbados. cooling. scape longer than the leaves. pain in muscles. Dita bark tree. digestive. Bitter . Root. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. FAM. Satwin. useful in eye-diseases. Br. fattening. scaly. :—Wild along the coast in S. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. :—E.—Apocynaceæ. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. PARTS USED :—Leaves. The plant contains aloin. India. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. Hale. Fl. crowded. leaves. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. useful in splean inflammation. common in the rain-forests of N. methritis. and it is largely imported into India. carminative. NS. liver troubles. Saptaparna. LOC. lumbago. lanceolate. wild along the coast. gonorrhœa. :—Throughout India. bronchitis. tonic. Kaduhale. strangury. C. Chatian. ophthalmia. purgative. H. PARTS USED :— . alexiteric. M.
8 cm. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bark—acrid. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. apiculate. leucorrhoea. Tandulaja. also useful in catarrhal fever. laxative. Kantanatia. Sk. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. NS. bronchitis. ovate. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . :—E. also in fields. LOC. antipyretic. Kantalo dambho. high. " tridosha " pain. Mulladantu. obtuse. alexiteric. hallucination. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). Apamarisha. :—Throughout India. DISTR. useful in " Kapha ". Kante math. Pathyashaka. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. Root—heating expectorant. female calyx oblong. leprosy. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. improves appetite. M.—Amarantaceæ. entire. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. digestible. oleaginous.— capsule. laxative.3—3. Tandulja. boils and burns. G. Fl. FAM. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain.5 X 1. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. appetiser. diseases of the blood. bristles pointed. obtuse. LOC. Fr. piles.). ovoid. male calyx acute. HABITAT :—In waste places. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. bitter. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. often reddish. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. LOC. ulcers. tropical countries. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda).— 3. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. See—Vegetables. See—Timbers. rat-bite. K. . tumours. heating. diuretic. leucoderma. numerous. blood diseases. L. antiperiodic and febrifuge. stomachic. Prickly amaranth. COM. long. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. unisexual. Mullarave-soppu. asthma. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. CHAR. thickened at the top. sudorific and febrifuge. It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever. Drug Com. anthelmintic. Ceylon.2—7. rubbish heaps . Kantanu-dant. 30-60 cm. rugose. burning sensation. lanceolate.. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. Tandulibija. good in diseases of the heart. :—An erect glabrous herb. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. Cholai. galactogogue. rubbish heaps and fields. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. biliousness. H.
—Araceæ.—Lythraceæ. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. Kuranda. Vatari. NS. . K. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. globose. " Vata. Suran. red. useful in piles. aphrodisiac. FAM. :—Cultivated widely in the State.—capsule. Kandavardhan. vomiting.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. M. Blistering ammania. laxative. blood diseases. :—E. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. NS. LOC. Kandala. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. In the Konkan. removes " Kapha ".:— Konkan. Afghanistan. Jangli mehandi. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. Fl. Vikata. elephantiasis .—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . appetiser. Fr.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils. Bitter and acrid . G. LOC. H. DISTR. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Malaya. DISTR.—Nov. Konkan rivers. Elephant's foot. branches usually opposite. Australia. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. tumours. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Suran. enlargement of the spleen. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. asthma. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). bronchitis. :—Throughout India in moist places. sessile. Suran. Gujarat and Kanara.—opposite. Grows wild on the banks of S. China. Tropical Africa. Kurendika. :—E. fevers etc. COM. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. COM. Dadmari. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. Kanthalla. Sukaranda. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. M. L. Arshaghna. stomachic. much narrowed at the base. Ceylon. the plant. CHAR." blood troubles. increases appetite and taste. Sk. Suran . LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. high. Kuranti. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. G. Jalavgiyo. Fl. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. Deccan. Sd. :—An annual. pungent. abdominal pains. depressed. harmful in "Kapha". 8-65 cm. stomachic. FAM. Sk. erect or subscandent herb. constipating. strangury . t. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . PARTS USED :—Leaves. Bharajambhul. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. corm. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. fresh or dried. H. It is also used as an emmenagogue. used as an appetiser (Yunani). causes itching sensation.
See—Vegetables. Agni-krita. leaves. Gerubi. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. ulcers. USES :—Bark is alterative. cordate or truncate. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. & A. Fl. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". LOC. Garalaphala. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Kakamari. Crow-Fish Killer. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. many flowered. corns and obstinate ulcers. The plant contains Vitamins A.— subcoriaceous. anthelmintic. Kajutaka.5-12. K. Prithagbija. broadly ovate. also cultivated. Kempu— Turkaka geru . and trace of C. :—E. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. Kakamari. It is supposed to have restorative power. sweet. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant. 5-nerved. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. skin diseases. swollen peduncle of fruit. leucoderma. M. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. Kakkisoppugida . B. which is nutritious and emollient. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. Corm is poisonous. COM. bark vertically furrowed . Oils. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids.—Menispermaceæ. H. NS. Gova. Kakamari. Kakamari. The seed contains vitamin A. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. digestible. Fish-Louse Berry. :—A native of tropical America. DISTR. ascites. equal to almond oil. NS. H.. Cashew apple-nut.—Anacardiaceæ. Kakamari. Kakaphal. FAM. See—Timbers. piles. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. LOC. hot.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. :—E.—in panicles 25-35 cm. dysentery. Sk. Kaju . It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. 10-12 X 7. CHAR. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. Jermic. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. FAM. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. Govamba. Upapushpika. Kaju. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sophara. long. K. COM. Kanara. M.5 cm. aphrodisiac. G. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). Kaju. flowers. ringworm. . G. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . Kakanashika. tumours. fever. PARTS USED :—Bark. . L. Sk.
black .) LOC. Creat. NS. :—E. Sk. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. Olikiriyat. petals absent. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. G. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Olen kirayat. DISTR. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. M. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Ananas . Ananas hannu. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). PARTS USED :—Roots. FAM. H. causes cough and biliousness. t. Kantak sanjika. Mahatit. . cultivated. K. Ama. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . :—Khasia Hills. H. Fl. Ananasa. fruits. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. Kiryat. leaves and fruits. good expectorant. Pine-apple . Bengal.—Bromeliaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. smooth. COM. Bhuinimba. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). Ananas .—Sept. LOC. G. removes gases from the intestines . LOC. It acts also as diuretic. it is useful in jaundice. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. Kiriyata. COM. to a certain extent in Gujarat. Assam. :—E. FAM. native of Brazil (tropical America). Kanara. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. M. N. Mahateet. Parvati. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. :—Konkan. Nelabevu gida. also acts as a purgative. a poison to fish (Yunani). Kirata. See—Fruit Trees. E. Ananas. from Orissa to Ceylon. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. dioecious. LOC. K. diaphoretic and refrigerant. :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries.—Acanthaceæ. Ananas. NS. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . Sk.-Oct.
Sundraphul. smooth. pale above. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles.—very thick. 1. :—Deccan. rugosely pitted. linear-oblong. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. white below.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. yellowish brown.— capsule. Fl. rose coloured. L. ellipsoid. tonic. Chodhara. lower lip very large and broad . expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. Sd. Vaikunth.—lanceolate. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes. Oshthaphala. Ceylon.-Oct. :—An erect shrub. :—Throughout India. CHAR. high. Malabar Catmint.9 m. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. high. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. polished brown.3-0. G.—Ghats. :—An erect branched annual 0. bracts lanceolate. C—2-lipped. Fr. distant. Fl. NS. alterative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. crenate-serrate. solitary. pale beneath. t. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. Kanara. extensively used in Bengal.8 m. made into an electuary. and N.—nutlets. stomachic. forming a spicate inflorescence. Br. Fl. :—S. 6.. K. dysentery. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. lateral lobes small. Sk. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. and certain forms of dyspepsia. L.—many. oblong-lanceolate. Fr. DISTR. thickly woolly.—small. FAM. stem quadrangular. Malay Peninsula. Gojivana. lower 3lobed. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. Green leaves. :—Konkan and Kanara. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. HABITAT. acute. . During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Karitumbe.—in dense whorls . LOC. LOC. Fl.3-10 X 2-4. very small. undulate. Alamoda. sometimes cultivated. acute at both ends . and anthelmintic.2-1. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. M. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . Plant is useful in general debility.-Nov. t. C—2-lipped. purple. dyspepsia and fever from teething. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R.—Dec. Karnatak. distant. upper lip 2-toothed. COM. clothed with woolly hairs . Roots and leaves are febrifuge. approximate above. :—E. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves.5 cm. Sundara. DISTR.—Labiatæ.
G. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. Bejjalu. LOC. K. USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Seeds—difficult to digest. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. M. Sweet-sop. good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). Sitaphal. DISTR. M. good tonic. (Yunani). chronic diarrhœa. discharges. Damora. stimulant. Pitaphala. cooling. leaves and fruits. now cultivated throughout India. tasty. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. Sitaphala. Dhava. produce ulcers in the eye. NS. LOC. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. :—E. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". Fruit—sweet. sedative to heart. DISTR. and eyesores. Amritphala. bark. Sitaphala. PARTS USED :—Root. G. Root—cathartic. Anuram. causes fever and furunculosis . Dyes. Sharipha. Button Tree. Sk. FAM. Durangi. Dindala. Bahubijika. LOC. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. Dhava. improves taste and appetite . domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. fruit and seeds. useful in liver complaints. increases muscular strength. increases biliousness . expectorant. Custard apple. :—A native of West Indies . Ceylon. Dohu. K. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . H. useful in anaemia. Kanara border. Bakla. Dhamora.—Combretaceæ.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. :—Throughout the greater part of India. abortifacient. Dabria. Sk. Anan. enriches blood. FAM. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. Ata. Sitaphala. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . Dhavada. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . COM. Krishnabija. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. H. Dhavada.—Anonaceæ. Dhavala. :—E. astringent to the bowels. COM. erysipelas. NS. bark. Sugar apple. Sitaphala. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Shushkanga. enriches blood . See—Timbers. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. applied to skin-diseases. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). Bark is bitter. flavoury. Dindiga. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. LOC. HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). cooling . Bark is a powerful astringent.
Ceylon. :—W. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. Malay Islands. Nipa. Sprouts—acrid. Fodder Plants. LOC. alexiteric. . M. It is generally considered tonic. mixed with gram-flour. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). sap of the tree. burning sensation. strangury.—Moraceæ. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. Kadamb. Ajjanpatte. Jajpugri. " Vata". In eye inflammations. PARTS USED :—Seeds. K. Kadam. Pegu. Kadubale. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. FAM. vulnerary. USES:—In the Konkan. Peninsula. stomachic. Upas Tree. wild or cultivated. :—E. common near Yellapur. blood diseases. Surabhi. Chandala. Karnapuraka. Kadamb . Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . H. :—Throughout India. ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Chandkuda. LOC. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac. is a good hairwash. astringent to bowels. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. Kadamb . indigestible. COM NS. Valkala. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. They are detergent and their powder. See—Fruit Trees. Tennaserim. Kadamb. aphrodisiac. causes biliousness when ripe. Burma. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. sweet. Seeds yield an oil and resin. Ashokari. PARTS USED:—Bark. acrid. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. Kadamba. Fruit—heating. " Kapha". sprouts and fruits. good in uterine complaints. Bairi. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. Sk. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. galactagogue. :—G. often cultivated. FAM. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Kaduve. NS.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. COM.—Rubiaceæ. LOC. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. cooling. Sk. Niv. M. saline. bitter. Malayan Peninsula. Kanara . Sacred Plants. biliousness. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. Nadija. DISTR. H. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. DISTR. Chandkuda.
Moda. Sk. cauline 3-partite. cure " Kapha ". rays 5-10. Mungphali. See—Timbers. N. Ugragandha. H. specially near large cities. Monkey-nut. Africa. Karafs. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. 0.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. aphrodisiac.—1. Markati. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Bhuchanak. scorpion and other stings. inflammations. COM NS. vomiting.—Umbelliferæ. Bori ajmud. and γ-antiarin. ascites. Brahmakoshi. amenorrhœa. tooth-ache. G. M. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. " Vata " . high. DISTR. H. G. W. Afghanistan. NS. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. vittae broad. rheumatism. good in ophthalmia. Seeds—carminative. LOC.4 m. erect. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). CHAR.5-2 mm. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. scabies. pedicels 6-16 . Java and Malaya. Mandapi. Bhuimug-chana. Europe. The plant contains vitamins A. LOC. Wild celery. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. segments once or twice trifid. traces of B and C. useful in ophthalmia. Shimbika. rectal troubles. chest-pains. Fibres. Bhuimug. :—E. abortifacient. bronchitis. used in anasarca and colic. apex toothed . Fl. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. urinary discharges. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. K. See—Vegetables. Snehabijaka.— radial. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis.— in umbels. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. M. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Asia. cure asthma. Celery. :—A biennial plant.:—Foot of the N. Nelkadle. Bhuimug. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. anthelmintic. :—E. Ajamoda. good for heart. β-antiarin. hiccup. Chinimung. fever with cough. FAM. branching. abdominal pain. Sk.3-2. Ground-Pea-nut. W. appetiser. nasal catarrh (Yunani).. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). Ajmoda . vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Ajmud. improve appetite . Fr. ridges narrow. COM. laxative. Glucoside apiin is present. tonic. Abyssinia. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. astringent to bowels . L. heart and spleen diseases. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. . Bodi ajomoda.
gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. K. Nut astringent. Bengal. Seed cooling. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. giddiness. Gujarat and S. M. gum. Suppiyari. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. LOC. cooling. bleeding gums. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. USES. Chhataphala. Sopari. Assam. LOC. In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. cardiotonic. Betel-nut palm. NS. FAM. Burma. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—E. LOC. Indo-Malaya. removes foul breath. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency. Oils. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. Sk. aphrodisiac. Kanara. indigestible. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China.—Palmæ. Supari. it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Areca palm. H. Deccan. LOC. M. DISTR. digestive. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. In French Guinea. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. Supari. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over.. Akota. Gum pungent. Pophal. diuretic. laxative. Kaungu. Areca-nut palm. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). fairly largely in the Konkan. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Hopari. Siam. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. seeds. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. removes pus (Yunani). Country. . Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers. Betta. Poga. G. Malabar. Chikka. :—Madras. Mysore.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in urinary disorders. ARECA CATECHU Linn. DISTR. Chikkan. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Tantusara.:—Extensively grown in N. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. improves appetite and taste. Pugiphal. Adki. used for eye-inflammations. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. leaves (rarely). emmenagogue. See—Food Plants.
and in pertussis and asthma. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. veins white. Indigenous in tropical America. 7. Juice—used as a collyrium.). antidote to various poisons. Pirangi datturi. DISTR. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N.3-0. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. diam. arecaidine. sedative. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. high. inflammations and bilious fevers. Fr. Fruit Trees. netted. nauseant. Bharbhand. H. oblong-ovoid 2. Svarnakshiri. India. K. jaundice and cutaneous affections. Bila dhatura. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. Srigalkanta. L. Darudi.—capsule. Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. oblong. Brahma dandi. t. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. G. sinuately pinnatifid. Fl. Shialkanta. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. spinous. Mexican prickly poppy . various skin-diseases. arecoline. purgative.5-18 cm. opening by 4-6 valves. useful is strangury. Balurakkisa. CHAR. See—Timbers. juice yellow. prickly. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic.12 m. Ind. Fl. Sd. emetic. relieves blisters. This is said to bring the worm out at once. stem 0. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. USES :—Root is an alterative. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India.—all the year. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani). Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. glaucous herb . Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. M. Daruri. Root anthelmintic. and guvacine. 2. globose.5-5 cm. Seeds are laxative.—thistlelike. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. destroys worms .MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. LOC. :—E. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. yellow. expectorant and demulcent.—numerous. cures leprosy. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda).8 cm. FAM. branching. Plant enriches blood. brownish black. NS. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . COM. Seeds—purgative.—Papaveraceæ. Datturi.— terminal. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara.5-3. stem clasping. Sk. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. seeds and yellow juice. :—A glabrous. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. It is also diuretic. LOC. Pita-pushpa. prickly. .
Deccan and S.—Aug.8-7. Dhuma-patra. tropical Africa. long. Hastivalli. M. with revolute margins. bracts large . Fl. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. :—Bengal. Vridhadaraka. pedicel with a large bract at the base. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. C—5-6. absorptive.3-25 cm. NS. Fr. In synovitis. Adumuttadagida. reniform or broadly ovate. M. Fl. t. stems stout. cultivated. tip linear dark purple. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases. Shyambhuna. Sk. LOC.-Sept. prostrate. white-tomentose L. white-tomentose beneath.5 cm. G. glabrous inside. long and as broad as long.5-30 x 6. " Kapha" fevers. Kitakaba. 1. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. base cordate. Bracteated Birth-wort.—in sub-capitate cymes. Dridhadaru. Sd. Leaves are maturative. weak. long. the bands silky pubescent outside. LOC. M. CHAR. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. rose purple. painful joints. Fl. Samudrashosh.—capsule. HABITAT. FAM. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda).-Nov.—Convolvulaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. base subglobose. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Kidamar. Arabia. DISTR. Kitamari. Fl. M. Ganda. CHAR. Java. Country.:—Konkan.5-4. long.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Soge. K. striate. :—Throughout India.—solitary. Gujarat and S. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Peninsula. FAM. Kidamari.—Aristolochiaceæ.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. peduncles stout. DISTR. K. oblongellipsoid. Elephant Creeper. Kiramar. stems.— globose apiculate. . aphrodisiac. Ceylon. Samardar sokh. :—E. Sk.— 3. Ajantri. perianth 2. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter . Gandali. :—A very large climber. (sometimes even larger). Samandarka phal. H. useful in " Vata". tubular. COM. :—E. ovate glabrous above. base cordate with wide sinus . W. Samudrapatrashoh. anthelmintic. :—A slender perennial. Samudraballi. ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. tube inflated. Varghoro. strangury. Country. used in gleet. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth. L. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages. G.— 7.— Aug.3-2 cm.. infundibuliform. white-tomentose. Samudrashok. powdered root is given with milk.3 cm.—deltoid with cordate base . perhaps a native of Bengal. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. diuretic . 12-ribbed . See—Ornamental Plants. pubescent outside. NS.5 cm. COM. t. Krimighni. gonorrhœa. Konkan.
COM. reaching 4. K. dry cough. Sk. COM. Fl.3-2. :—A twining shrub. :—E. globose-oblong.. H. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. biliousness. G. entire with undulate margins. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Isvara balli beru . Gathona. LOC. Seeds useful in inflammation. leaves and seeds. grooved. HABITAT :—Hilly parts.5x7. H. K. Arkamula.—in few flowered axillary racemes.5 cm. . obovate oblong 10-12. woody at the base. winged. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. M. Sugandha. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. Isharmula. and is also applied externally to the abdomen.—Compositæ. useful in " Tridosha. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. The plant contains an alkaloid. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. Fl. Ceylon. 3. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections.:—Konkan and S. base vaiable. emmenagogue. LOC. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. long with globose inflated base. tonic.—variable linear oblong.8-10 X 1. Mastaru. Sd.5 cm. Indian wormwood. Nepal. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. M. Nagdamani. Sapsan. Majtari. slender. Ruhimula.. The plant contains an alkaloid. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. 6-valved. Ishvari. CHAR. FAM. joint-pains. Saraparni. Dona.) FAM. :—E. NS. dyspnoea of children.5 cm. bitter. also useful in dropsy. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. Nilpushpa. Sk. Manjipatri. L. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. DISTR. Plant is used as an abortifacient. purgative (Yunani). Flea-bane. Bengal. bract opposite the pedicel. Nagduna. perianth greenishwhite. — capsule. Stem long. Nakuli. Arkamula. Dhor-davana. NS.—Nov. :—Western Peninsula. Indian Birth-wort. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Country. alexiteric. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Fr. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). Mother or Mugwort." pains in the joints. PARTS USED :—Roots.—flat. t. In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children.—Aristolochiaceæ. Dovana. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction.
4 m. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). Kanthal. LOC. fertile. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. asthma and brain diseases. Chakki. Ceylon. Externally it is used in fomentations.— achene. but rather difficult to digest. "Vata". HABITAT. Tage. itching (Ayurveda). DISTR. Jack-fruit tree. fattening. minute. aphrodisiac. although very nutritious. The young leaves are used in skin diseases. lanceolate. asthma. See—Timbers. lobes entire. Phanasa. temperate Asia. :—E. tonic. :—Konkan. aromatic. Kantakaphala. Seeds sweet. M. Sk. deobstruent and antispasmodic. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. outer flowers female. pubescent above. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C.5-5 em. " Kapha".6-2. H. Fruit Trees and Dyes. base lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. oleaginous. ovate.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. solitary or 2. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. Ghats. high. useful in biliousness.—heads ovoid or subglobose. Panas. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. Thailand (Siam). :—Throughout hilly districts of India. Fr. stems leafy. COM. Fl. PARTS USED :—Leaves. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. G. white tomentose beneath. Skandaphala. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. diuretic. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions. aphrodisiac. cures "Kapha". Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. Panos. 3-fid or entire. ulcers. NS.:—A perennial shrub. t. Fl. The unripe fruit is astringent. LOC. The plant contains an essential oil. hairy. Jack-Orange wood. often planted along roadsides in N. Vanas. aphrodisiac. Phanas. Kanara. alexiteric. fruit and seeds. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State.10x2. Panesa. FAM. petioled. leprosy. LOC. An infusion is given as a tonic. deeply pinnatisect. Java. Halasina.-Hilly districts. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. L— lower leaves 5. ripe fruit laxative. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles. K. involucral bracts villous. Kujja. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative.—Urticaceæ. 0. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. enriches blood.—Jany. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. upper leaves smaller. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. cooling.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. . LOC. appetiser. :—Widely cultivated. DISTR. toothed or again pinnatisect. oblong ellipsoid. inner hermaphrodite. tonic. grown in gardens also. constipating (Ayurveda). " Vata". The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility.
Satavari. leaves and flowers. Fr. L. stomachic.5 cm.—orange in axillary umbels. Kuraki. naturalised in many parts of India. segments. FAM. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet. PROPERTIES AND LOC. t. up to 1. and moist monsoon forests. Indies. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. blood and eye diseases. :—G.5-10 X 1. aphrodisiac. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. lanceolate. Seed hairs are used for stuffing.—Liliaceæ. tapering at both ends. Fl. oblong. throat complaints.—lobes reflexed in flower. . abundant round about Poona. indigestible.—opposite 7.3-2. JAVANICA Baker. red when ripe. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. valvate in bud. Java and Australia. Fr. K. H. Satamulika. spinous. PARTS USED:—Root.5-5 cm. Tropical Africa.—Asclepiadaceæ. inflammation. LOC. Fl. A fibre is extracted from the plants.2 m. from Kashmir eastwards. spines recurved. M. Svadurasa. long. COM. linear. 0.—in simple raceme. erect. thorn. common in the Deccan. curved. NS. 2. solitary. :—Extremely scandent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. Satavari. dark brown. S. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. L. Sk. Siprimuli. M.—linear with a stout spinous spur. alterative. narrowed at both ends. :—An erect undershrub. galactogogue. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic.-Feb. FAM. PARTS USED:—Root. DISTR. DISTR. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. useful in dysentery. cooling. CHAR.— follicles. in the Himalayas.-Dec. Satavari. tumours. C. cladodes in tufts. t. tonic.5 cm. M. oleaginous. appetiser. Country. :—E. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. cultivated as ornamental plant. high. straight. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. NS. :—Deccan. astringent to bowels. undershrub. Sd. 7.000 m. :—Introduced from the W.ovoid. white. Fl. globose. CHAR. Asual Shatavari. COM.—June-Sept. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. thin. LOC.9-1. Svetmuli. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. with coma. fragrant.. Shatavari. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa.—berry. Kaktundi. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha. root-stock tuberous. See—Ornamental Plants. Var. Fl. Flower is a good styptic.
Vikhara. Seeds fattening. :—Throughout India. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea.:—Common throughout the State.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . Kalavankabija. urinary calculi and discharges. Africa. tonic. thirst. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. The root is sweet. hispid with long hairs. linear oblong. hypnotic.— Acanthaceæ. scalding of urine. Ceylon. HABITAT:—Swampy places. stems fasciculate. USES. lips sub-equal. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. widely 2-lipped. gonorrhoea. C. 4-8 seeded. Talim-khana. (Yunani.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. And. useful in diarrhœa. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. CHAR.8 cm. biliousness. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour.6-1. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. galactogogue. abruptly swollen at the top. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. Shrigalghant. Konkan and Deccan. constipation. demulcent. night-blindness (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac . Used in diarrhœa. anæmia. COM.— purple blue. aphrodisiac. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. aphrodisiac. LOC. 4 inner small. high. aphrodisiac . Seeds cooling. 0. aphrodisiac. tonic. Kak-Kokilaksha. useful in jaundice and anasarca. anuria.2 cm. Talamkhan. K. DISTR. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. lower deeply 3-lobed. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. Ikshura. Gokshura. Narayana Taila. Talamkhana.—sessile. abdominal troubles. leaves and seeds. ciliate . M. pointed. NS.—June-Jany. sedative to gravid uterus . Fr. inflammations.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. and alterative tonic. ascites. LOC. Fl.—capsule. hairy. tube. tropical and S. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. eyediseases. 3. laxative. L. t. diuretic. subquadrangular. Ekharo. Vishnu Taila. Phalaghrita. USES :—The root is refrigerant. lanceolate. improve blood (Yunani). :—G. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. . Sk. Gokhalkanta. 18 X 3-3. colic.. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). H. bracts.) LOC. 2 outer large. :—A stout herb. tonic. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node. Fl. antispasmodic. dysentery. Gokhran. tonic.) FAM. thickened at the nodes. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. long. leprosy.5 cm. erect. and dysentery. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. upper 2-fid. Kolavalike. expectorant. gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. like leaves. PARTS USED :—Root. Vajrakantaka. Leaves good for cough.
M. HABITAT :—Damp places. branches many ascending. striate. sour. obovate-oblong or spatulate. C. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. LOC. Manduki. Brahmi. :—A glabrous. causes biliousness (Yunani). anæmia. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. Carambola apple. emetic. with shining dots. 2-lipped. Kamaranga. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics.. Safed-Kammi. . Kanara villages. digestible. K. Fr. astringent to bowels. COM. Shiral. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. DISTR. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. Fruit sour. M.:—Throughout India in wet places. Bama. See—Fruit Trees. causes biliousness. Kamarakh. leprosy. "Vata". ascites. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement.) FAM. enlargement of spleen. FAM. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kamarakha. L. NS. sessile. DISTR. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . Karuka. Darehuli. 6-25 X 2. Kamrang. Karmar. Brahmi. LOC. Thyme-leaved graticula . axillary. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . Karmare . (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. tonic. Fruits are used in pickles. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. Jalneam. pale blue or white. Nirbrahmi. H. G. Kirihuli. :—E. perhaps a native of Malaya. Jany-May. also used in diarrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. allays thirst.—Scrophulariaceæ. Sk. NS. pale. fleshy. Fl. pungent. decussate. ovoid.:—Konkan and Deccan. succulent. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). creeping herb. Coromandel gooseberry. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. found wild near N. dried fruit is given in fevers. heats the body (Ayurveda). oblong. inflammations.—Oxalidaceæ. Brahmi. acute. when fresh. fruits. Karmal. Sd. tumours. black dotted : entire. Barambhi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. useful in bad ulcers. rarely wild.5-10 mm. t. Soumyalata. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. astringent to bowels . Ceylon and all warm countries. capsule. LOC. laxative. COM. K. heating. solitary. indigestion. Sk. stems rooting at the nodes. Mudgara.:—E. Root is given in cases of poisoning. Tamarak. lobes equal spangled.
diseases of skin and abdomen. branching from the roots. Assam.9-1. LOC. Danti. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. sinuate. capsule. syphilis . Jamalgota. useful in insanity. Danti. mottled. wounds. all male or with a few females below. DISTR. Kanara. Guggula. anaemia. piles. in monsoon forests of N. often palmately 3-5 lobed. epilepsy and hoarseness. maturant and expectorant (Yunani). toothed. Dantimul. Burma. Fl. Guggul. FAM. Hakum. Sd. L. aphrodisiac . good in scabies. leucoderma. leucoderma. NS. Devdhup. Bengal. Danti. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient. G. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. yellowish. CHAR. purifies blood.—Euphorbiaceæ. . :—E. Chota Nagpur. of three 2-valved cocci. the upper small. Uddipta. hairy. M. COM. Fr. obovoid. Peninsula. :—A stout undershrub. alexiteric. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. leaves and seeds. anthelmintic. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. Sk. BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. purgative. Rechani. useful in pains.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. Root and leaves are cathartic. :—G. Malaya. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Gum gugul. Leaf-juice. 0. jaundice (Ayurveda). LOC. enlarged spleen. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. itching. M. K. N. K. epilepsy and hoarseness. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. It is a direct cardiac tonic. They are used in dropsy. Seeds are poisonous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. diuretic. is used as a local application in rheumatism. anasarca and jaundice. Jatala. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. the lower large. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. LOC. FAM. Gugul. Kaduharalu. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. NS. or in monsoon forests. smooth.—Burseraceæ. :—Bihar. Guggula. Danti. Vishodhini. COM. :—Dry open Deccan plains. H. 2-glandular. H. Dec.. Dantika. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root.8 m. inflammations. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. conjoined with petroleum. abundant on the hills of Karanja. W. ellipsoid. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. high. Mukul. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. Fl. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Guggula. t.
HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.
BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.
BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.
BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.
BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.
BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad
they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. . fever.—pod. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. Sikkim. tonic. thirst. Kohala. Ash pumpkin. red and white. tonic. DISTR. astringent. Shikhivardhaka. asthma. biliousness. anal troubles. eye diseases. vaginal discharges. "Kapha". cures biliousness. " Tridosha". G. tuberculous glands. menorrhagia. leprosy. used in dry cough. Koholu. cures strangury. See—Ornamental Plants. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. cough. Seeds— cooling. Budekumbalkai. diuretic. oil from the seeds. K. Root. Fl.10-15. asthma. PARTS USED :—Root.-Apl. There are two varieties. Kumaon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. dehiscent. aphrodisiac. not indigenous. :—E. burning sensation. Golkaddu. Karkutika. Kudimah. used in piles. Bhuru-koholu. tonic to liver. Kondha. in dyspepsia and flatulence. urinary discharges and calculi. enriches blood. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. heart tonic (Ayurveda).8-2. COM. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). cough. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. USES :—Root-decoction is given. tuberculous glands. Bark—astringent to bowels. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Sd. Timisha. flat. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. HABITAT :—Cultivated. given' to corpulent persons. Burma. LOC. bark and flowers. dysmenorrhoea.—Cucurbitaceæ.-Feb. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Fr. blood diseases . PARTS USED :—Fruit. removes foul taste from mouth. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. appetising. FAM. cures biliousness. biliousness. used as gargle in stomatitis. blood impurities. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. Tallow-White gourd.5 cm. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. urethral discharges. seeds. China. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. used in strangury. leprosy. Dorokaru. t. 15-20 X 1. Sk. blood diseases. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. LOC. leucoderma. anthelmintic. it is also anti-fat remedy. thirst. Fruit—antiperiodic. wounds and ulcers. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. Kushmanda. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. ulcers. M. cardiac and general tonic. Buds—indigestible. H. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State.
finely silky pubescent on both sides.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. high. anti-pyretic. good in syphilis (Yunani). Kakarunda. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. Australia. t. oblong. astringent.—heads many. Kukurbanda. Fl. Tamrachuda. bitter. cooling. See—Vegetables. ash colored. heart diseases. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. pappus white. febrifuge. cures bronchitis. stem erect. Sk. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. Ceylon. Jangali-muli. NS. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. M. Deccan.-Apl. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. :—Throughout plains of India. Fl. with a strong odour of turpentine.9 m. densely glandular. Bhamurdi. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. pungent. phthisis. upper subsessile. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity. and diuretic. not ribbed. Mriduchhada. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. laxative. fevers. it is given in bleeding piles. FAM. COM. Kalhar. pubescent. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). . blood diseases. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. Tropical Africa. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. DISTR. Konkan. :—G. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. etc. M.—the lower ones petioled.:—In plains south of Bombay. 0. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. L. inner bracts with green midrib. thirst. burning sensation. Malaya. catarrh. LOC. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial. it is also useful in insanity. sharply serrate-dentate. Kukkurdru. S. BLUMEA LACERA DC. :—Annual herb.—Jany. good for the brain and liver. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. H. often incised or lyrate.-achene. China. LOC.3—0. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages.—Compositæ. base tapered. sweetish. haemoptysis. Kakaronda. mixed with black pepper. Fr. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. elliptic-oblong. Oil—is soporific. asthma. LOC. Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Fruit is made into confections. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. CHAR. Country. Pilokapurio. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. and nutritious tonic. Kanara.
L. It is used in jaundice. cultivated and self-sown. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Vasu. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. Asavardu. Fan Palm. Desert Palm. K. Shothaghni. H. cooling . Indian Archipelago. 1. fusiform. CHAR. FAM. Fl. expectorant. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Varshabhu. NS. Lekhyapatra. India. Sk. :—E. t. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. H. Hogweed. very small. K. alterative. Plant contains large quantities of pot. green above. scabies. useful in ophthalmia. anæmia. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. Ghetuli. LOC. and dropsy. M. LOC.— Nov.—clavate. Kolaba and Thana districts. Brab tree. root large. "Vata". The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. pinkish. Tad. —Nyctaginaceæ. Persian Gulf. Celyon. Dholia-saturdo. G. DISTR. :—E. Burma.—in corymbose umbels. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. COM. tumours. sub-orbicular. Talimara.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Africa and America. very glandular . cultivated. heart diseases. "Kapha" heating. Bitter. Moto-satodo. common in S.3—2 cm. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Seeds—tonic. asthma. DISTR. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. . BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. LOC. Dhvajadruma. Fr. Ceylon. :—Tropical India. blood impurities. alexiteric. leaves and seeds. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. Kommegida. Palmyra Palm. NS. Baluchistan. Tad. FAM. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. Tala.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani).—Palmæ. carminative. useful in biliousness. in pain of joints. bluntly 5-ribbed. Punarnava. COM. margins undulate. whitish beneath. HABITAT :—A weed. gonorrhœa. Leaves— appetiser. (Ayurveda). nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature.—in unequal pairs at each node. M. astringent to bowels .:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. inflammations. It produces a very marked and persistent. Raktakanda. spleen enlargement. G. PARTS USED :—Root. :—A diffuse herb. generally found in poorer soils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). native of tropical Africa.. stem prostrate or ascending. Madhurasa. Santhikari. useful in lumbago. Tad. Fl. leucorrhoea. P. abdominal pains. Uttar Pradesh. Sk.
COM. alexiteric. Luban. Kundur.—Burseraceæ. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. dry. leaves. Guggula. Bark-decoction. mouth-sores. fruits. Salai. Salgond. heals wounds . Salashi. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Vishesha-dhupa. flowers. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. Indian olibanum tree.. LOC. with a good flavour. PARTS USED :—Bark. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. :—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. diaphoresis. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). convulsions. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. causes headache. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . Gums and Resins. bitter. allays asthma. cooling.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. tonic. Salphali. blood complaints . binding. diuretic . Gum—hot. Dhupam. also found in Belgaum District. fruit and gum. fatigue. intoxicating. "Vata". Guggali. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Sk. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. intoxicating. Moddi. Loban. scabies. burning sensation. fevers. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. Fruit—cooling. helps delivery. cures dysentery. thirst and scalding of urine. antiglycosuretic. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests . NS. biliousness. Dhup. vaginal discharges. Fermented juice—tonic. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Fruit—aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels.USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. Sambrani. antibilious . slightly fermented is used in diabetes. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. M. strengthens teeth. ulcers . . expectorant. useful in intestinal troubles. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). with a little salt added. Liquors. K. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. cough. Salpe. DISTR. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. laxative. antidysenteric. thirst. aphrodisiac. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. hot. flowers. aphrodisiac. skin diseases. also used as antiperiodic. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. :—E. expectorant. allays. useful in skin and blood diseases. Dup. H. removes "Kapha". fattening. useful in biliousness. used for boils. Mukulsalai. improves taste. See—Timbers. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). G. Gum is of five kinds . invigorating. juice. may cause vomiting. as a collyrium in ophthalmia. tonic. bad throat. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. Sugars. purifies blood (Yunani). asthma. fattening. " Vata". LOC. allays thirst. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. causes " Kapha ". antipyretic. purifies blood. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac .
cure enlargement of spleen. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Dharwar and Belgaum. good for throat complaints. indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. spasmodic. Kali-rai. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). K. BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. internal congestions. LOC.—Cruciferae. H. Seeds— remove cough tumours. See—Condiments and Spices. COM. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. ear. kill external parasites. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. spleen. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Rai. DISTR. Kari Sasive . Seeds act as digestive condiment . bechic. Taramira . FAM. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. good in cough and for inflammations. India. Gums and Resins. cure skin-dissases. cure nose. Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. if swallowed whole they are laxative. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes. Mohori. Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). increase appetite . It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores. appetiser. stomachic. dispel fever . rheumatism. anthelmintic . Sarshapa. Asuri. Jwalanti. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. increase bile. Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. vermicide. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. See—Timbers. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. Seeds-laxative. Sk. " Vata". :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. :—Cultivated in India. . Surat. cause burning . biles. Rajika. LOC. lessen oedema of body. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . eye-troubles. NS. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. Khandesh. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). :—E. used with butter in syphilis . Broach. G. chiefly in Nasik. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. M. and toothache. Kaira. Black-True mustard.
Sk. long. Asana.—yellowish brown. Malaya. Gunjan. PARTS USED :—Root.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng.. Asana. K. tendrils 2-fid : L. 3—2 . Fl. smooth. Mullu-siru Honne. hot. Kaj. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). DISTR. of Shivaling shape . Shivavalli. It is used in bilious attacks. t. Gauli. H. deeply cordate base. M. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent.:—Throughout India. COM. :—G. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn. lobes oblong lanceolate. lumbago. Lingini. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. FAM. diam. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. paler and smooth beneath. alterative. :—G. Mahavira. Apastambhini. CHAR. bitter. 10-15 cm. stem grooved.—baccate. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. . DISTR. pungent. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Lingaja. :—Deccan. subsessile. heating. southward to Ceylon. Khaja. hemiplegia. See—Timbers.— membranous. S. corolla companulate. Chandra. margins sinuate denticulate. Goge. Philippines. female flowers solitary. and in fevers with flatulence. :—An annual scandent herb. Mauritius. Manj.—Cucurbitaceæ. Ishawara-Shivalingi.—Euphorbiaceæ. bluish green. or few or many. streaked with broad vertical lines . Kassi. bark. NS. green and scabrid above. Sd. Suviraka. Sk. Tans. Ekalkanto. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. globose. LOC. glabrous . Shivalingi. M. Shivlingi. FAM. H. NS. Fr. Ekadivi.. Country.. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. 5-lobed. 5-partite.— Aug-Sept. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. corolla as in the male . LOC. Gargumaru. tropical Africa. Asana. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). Australia. Fl. COM. M. Garige. LOC. Asana. Patharphoda. 1 . useful in "Vata". ovate-oblong. 5 cm. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. Kavodi.
COM. Lalana. Panphuti. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. seeds. the older light-coloured. younger reddish. Panphui. Char. L. Charoli. :—Konkan. boils and bites of venomous insects. with opposite branches .2 m.—Jany. "Vata" and biliousness. Asthibhakshya. Char. when punctured. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. LOC. It is a disinfectant. Cochin-China. Priyal. constricted in the middle. cures blooddiseases. LOC. upper 3-5-7 foliate. crenate or serrate. Gujarat. Sk. Charpoppu. decussate. leaves.3-1.—pendant. :—H. Lonnahadakana gida. expectorant. binding. reddish purple. Country. Sd. thirst. NS. smooth. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Dry. lower usually simple. Fl. analgesic. fevers. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. the Dangs. vomiting. Snehabija. purifies blood. high. tonic. astringent to bowels. Cambodia. Thailand (Siam). also wild. Rajadana.—Anacardiaceæ. NS. Murukali. Deccan. DISTR. aphrodisiac. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. in large panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz. gum (rarely). t. S. K. bruises. :—Konkan. alexipharmic. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. useful in diarrhœa. laxative. :—G. allays . speckled with white. fruit. burning sensation on body. K. S.. C. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). ulcers. Parnabija. CHAR. M. M.—swollen and octagonal at the base. :—Hot and drier parts of India. carminative. FAM. DISTR.) FAM. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. M.—variable. Zakhi-haiyat. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar. Deccan. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. fattening. Paira. Piyal. LOC. Stems obtusely 4-angled. deciduous open forests. :—Native of tropical Africa. The bark is bitter and poisonous. purgative. elliptic. Char. See—Ornamental Plants. COM. Kolegeru. Leaf-juice digestive.—small. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant. Pyalchar. aphrodisiac. leaflets ovate. Dhanu. Fl. cardio-tonic. cooling. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. Fr. Country. Sk. Burma.—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. M. PARTS USED :—Roots. Charoli. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . inflammations. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha". buds with root. lobes triangular.—Crassulaceæ. occasionally compound. H. Tapaspriya.
gonorrhœa. stomatitis. Khakera. G. Oils.) FAM. Chichra. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. Khakda. in the Khandesh Akrani. LOC. strangury. See—Timbers. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. laxative. Kuntz. K. piles. gout. Palash. COM. Bastard teak. expectorant. used in diseases of chest and lungs. diseases of anus. NS. pimples. prickly heat and itch. skindiseases. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. anthelmintic. corneal opacities. flowers. fractures. Bark—appetiser. pterygium. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. H. good in dysentery. cure tumours. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. emmenagogue. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . aphrodisiac. leaves. inflammations. dry. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. dysmenorrhoea. remove bad humours. Khakhrao. hydrocele. carminative. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. cold and cough. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. aperient used in urinary discharges. Bark—appetiser. Dhak. aphrodisiac. astringent. M. burning urine. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. Yajnika. seeds. stomachic. dysentery. worms and piles. topically in piles and hydrocele. cause headache (Yunani). ascends to 1200 m. eye diseases. Tripatrak. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. useful in piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). tonic. used in liver disorders. cures ulcers and tumours. relieves abnormal thirst. Ceylon. biliousness. Muttuga. piles. burning sensation. PARTS USED :—Root. lessens lumbago. aphrodisiac. useful in elephantiasis. gonorrhoea. LOC. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. good in fevers. Palas. Muttala. Gum—astringent to bowels. bark.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. useful in syphilis. digestible. diuretic . cough. Fruit and seed—hot. purifies blood. anthelmintic. lessens biliousness. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . India. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Leaf—very astringent. anthelmintic. Flowers—cure " Kapha". Flower—aphrodisiac. Kakria. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. Dyes. if chewed. Gums and Resins. tonic to liver. Fruit and seeds—oily. Sk. colic. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. :—E. gum. cures excessive perspiration. Kshatadru. anthelmintic. tonic. good in biliousness. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. leprosy. buboes. Palas. Leaves—good for eye diseases. LOC. useful in bone fractures. Kinshuk. DISTR. Gum—acrid. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). lessens inflammations. Seeds tonic to body and brain. thirst.
—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. 5-7. skin-diseases. leaves.5 X 4. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. antiperiodic. Gums and Resins. M. NS. Gum solution is applied to bruises. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. Fever nut. CHAR.3 cm. FAM. strongly mucronate. asthma and colic. They are applied to orchitis. aphrodisiac. Deccan hills. . Sagargota.—abruptly pinnate. Katkaranj. cures urinary discharges. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. long.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. wounds. long . PARTS USED :—Root-bark. petioles prickly. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. LOC. oblong 5-7. elliptic-oblong. Fr. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Sind. L.—1-2 oblong. HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places. hydrocele. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. Gajga. Tapasi. cures inflammation . Leaves contain a glucoside. flowers and fruit. 30-60 cm. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. fevers. G. Gajjige. :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. ringworm. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. act as rubefacient. anthelmintic . good in small-pox and elephantiasis. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. lead-colored 1. :—An extensive climber. astringent to bowels. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . sprouts useful in tumours. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. DISTR. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. See—Timbers. Fl. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". useful in colic. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch.—yellow. aphrodisiac and diuretic. Sk. Katkaleja. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). pinnae 6-8 pairs.) COM. Fruit—acrid. Physic nut. malaria. Kakechika. Gajaga. leucorrhcea. H. anthelmintic. K. Seed—styptic. Dyes. shortly stalked. Karanja. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. :—Throughout India.5 cm. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints.5 cm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. :—E. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. LOC. Sd. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. etc. Flowers are astringent. Fl. leaflets 6-9 pairs. Kuberakshi. leprosy (Yunani). t. prevents contagious diseases . the tropics generally. densely armed on the faces with prickles. piles.—pod.—JulySept. heating. very common near the sea-coast.
Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. K.— opposite. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. :—E. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Surhonne. NS. Ceylon. L. Sultanchampa. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Arka. H. G. K. gum. NS.—Asclepiadaceæ. and for its oil. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. See—Timbers. Akand. sometimes amplexicaul. much branched. East African Islands.. Kshiranga. COM. LOC.—Guttiferæ. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. Mandara. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Ak. and oil. Vuma. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. very common in N. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. Purasakeshera. Australia. M. :—A large shrub. destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". :—Cultivated throughout India. Kanara associated with littoral species. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Undi.. DISTR. FAM. M. both surfaces tomentose. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Rui. base cordate. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. high. :—E. Ekke. Surangi. Madar. COM. Gigantic swallow-wort. Ark. Punnag.4-3 m. Kshirparni. 10-20 X3. Oils. FAM. Dholaakdo. often gregarious.8-10 cm. Alexandrian laurel.. 2. covered with cottony pubescence.. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Arka. elliptic or ovate oblong. Sk.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma.H.. PARTS USED :—Bark. Tungakeshera. sessile. Surpan. LOC. astringent. branches stout. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Polynesia. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Ponne. lessens appetite. . Sk. Mandara. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. Akdo. Br. The gum from wounded branches. Undi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Punnaga. CHAR. Shuka-phala. Madar. used in chronic fevers. thick. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers. Malaya.
Ceylon. tonic and stomachic in action. PARTS USED :—Root.7—15 X 4. Mandara. :—An erect shrub usually 1. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera.—lobes deltoid-ovate. DISTR. Fl. China.8-2. bark.— purplish in umbellate cymes. very common is S. useful in leprosy. depilatory. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. good for liver (Yunani). C. elliptic or obovate. Juice—anthelmintic. cures piles and "Kapha". lobes usually erect.:—H. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m.2 cm. used in cough. buds globose. cottony. corona shorter than the column. eruption on body. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera.5 cm. Sd:—many. CHAR. Sd. FAM. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . :—Throughout warmer parts of India.—in umbellate cymes. flattened tomentose.5-10 X 5-7. purgative. piles. ulcers.—follicles. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). NS. young parts white. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action.—Asclepiadaceæ. tumours. swellings. Madar.—subsessile.5-8. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion. dropsy. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. Sk. high. Rajarka. Br. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms.4 m. comose . alterative and purgative properties. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. COM. coughs. Fl. . 9-10 cm. Flower—analgesic. back much curved. LOC. cures leucoderma. ellipsoid or ovoid. usually 5. cures leprosy. cures inflammations. India. leaves applied to paralysed parts. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . ovate oblong. L. very common. apex with two auricles. expectorant and anthelmintic. acrid . catarrh and loss of appetite. ascites and anasarca. tumours. astringent. subglobose. C. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. M. LOC. long. Fr. rat-bite.. asthma. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. Safedak. elephantiasis. Fr. Mandara. broad. Root-bark is diaphoretic. purplish or white. See—Fibres. heal wounds. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. leaves and flowers. oleaginous. liver and spleen enlargement. diaphoretic..—7. ringworm of scalp. Milk— heating. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. ascites. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column.5 cm. across. Flowers—stomachic. green. comose. spleen and liver diseases.—broadly ovate. Ark. buds ovoid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. t. Flowers—digestive. painful joints . bark corky. asthma.—about 2.. laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic. cures asthma and syphilis.— Feb. spongy.-July. scabies. Ak. also useful in intestinal worms. Milk— caustic. Malay Islands and S.
:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. LOC. 1 linear . NS. CANNA INDICA Linn. appetiser. stem 0. See—Vegetables. Hudingana. H. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. There is an alkaloid present in the pods. cooling. Warm leaves used as poultice. Abai. DISTR.—Scitaminaceae.3 cm. tropical Africa. Tamateballi.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). bracts oblong.—segments 2. Waziristan. but doubtfully wild. staminodial segments. FAM.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. PARTS USED :—Pods. useful in burning sensations. :—E.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. long. See—Fibres. lanceolate to ovate. Indian shot. Shitarambha. LOC. Kadsambu. FAM. The pods contain vitamin A. (Chopra). COM. Fl. Egypt. CHAR. LOC. Kamakshi. oval or orbicular. L. Akalabera.. Paraholiya. veins arching. DISTR. tonic.5 cm. Afghanistan. Broad—Sword bean. hernia and colic. Sambe. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. Sabbajaya. USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. spatulate. Kardali. Gavara. Sk. Koshaphala. on trees and hedges .—in mixed inflorescences 5-6. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. high . greenish or colored. Tarvardi. Sema.2 m. Shimbi. Flowers used as detergent. NS. acrid. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. Kadavare. Sarvajaya. Devakeli. P.:—Perennial herb . flowers and milky juice. H.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. M. narrow. PARTS USED :—Leaves. ulcers (Ayurveda). Iran. they are given in cholera. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics.. K. green. root-stock tuberous. indigestible. Nilashimbika. Asishimbi. Arabia. M. 3 sub-erect. Gavria. :—E. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. biliousness. G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. Sarvajaya. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. Kalehu. abundant in Sind. K. membranous. erect. G. COM.9-1. Khadsambal. Gigantea. Sk.
L. Bark—tonic. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). soporific. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. sepals 5. melancholia. flowers. imbricate. aphrodisiac.5 m. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. G.—small axillary. Shivapriya. female perianth hyaline. check vomiting. Not indigenous. intoxicating. water extract anthelmintic. seeds and resin.—achene. high in its feral state.—alternate or the lower opposite. Harshini. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. excessive use causes indigestion. serrate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. (2) Bhang. Fr.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . PROPERTIES AND LOC. causes biliousness. CHAR. oil-good for earache. intoxication. causes thirst. insanity. M. Bhang. PARTS USED :—Bark. shining. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy.—many. Fl. usually 0. also wild. :—Widely cultivated in India. Leaves—bitter. astringent. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. intoxication (Ayurveda). Unmattini. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. Sd.—more or less throughout the year. male flowers. astringent to bowels. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. echinulate . All these are intoxicating in different degrees. USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. Ganja. lower 3-8 foliate. 3-lobed. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. Seeds—carminative. heating. Central Asia. useful in convulsions. tonic. DISTR. They are broken in small pieces. hot. t. LOC. abortifacient. impotence.9-1. Ganja. cause headache. dropsy. Bhang. See—Ornamental Plants. dioecious. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. restlessness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR. globose. Ganja. lessen inflammation. Bhangi. useful in " Kapha". boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). antidiarrhoeic. hallucinations. :—Throughout India. flowers and seeds. Mohini. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Fr. black. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. upper 1-3. tonic.—Urticaceæ. causes thirst and biliousness. leaves. Sk. cough. (3) Charas. COM. Fl. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. NS. soporific. female crowded under convolute bracts. stomachic. Female inflorescence is stomachic. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . inflammations. good for hydrocele. Hemp. LOC. male fascicled. K. PARTS USED :—Roots. leprosy. Vijaya. alterative . Wild in the Himalayas. Siddhapatri. :—E. FAM. LOC. H. piles. leaves.—sub-globose or oblong .
muscular pains. PARTS USED :—Fruit. weakness of body. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. NS. chronic ulcers. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. dyspepsia. diarrhœa. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. erysipelas. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. The fruit contains Capsisin. useful in brain complaints. Narcotics. :—E. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. FAM. Capsaicin and Solanin. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. increases biliousness. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. LOC. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. Lanka mirchi. in the form of electuary. delirium (Ayurveda). Fibres. Lalmirchi. cholera. DISTR. often found as an escape. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. Mirchi. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. Sk.—Solanaceæ. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. asthma. useful in indigestion. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). whooping cough. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. Tivrashakti. H. Raktamaricha. M. Tikshna. :—Extensively cultivated in S. M. The plant contains cannabinin. Mirchi. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. Marchu . See—Condiments and Spices. HABITAT :—Cultivated. G. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Chillies. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. Marichiphala. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. and dropsy. expectorant. also in gout. and flatulence. Fruit—pungent. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. increases appetite. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. Madana modak used in cough. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. It is stomachic. dysuria. LOC. :—Cultivated all over India. acute mania. loss of consciousness. Vegetables. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. Country in Deccan. Menshinkai. spermatorrhoea. K. COM. and is employed by Indian physicians. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. Cayenne-pepper. . See—Gums and Resins. Ujjvala. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment.
Gavvahannu. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur.—capsule. L. Kumbhi.—Myrtaceæ. Balloon vine. Sind. PROPERTIES AND LOC. K. LOC. NS.—white. stem wiry. dry. Thailand (Siam). leucoderma. useful in tumours. flowers and fruits. Deccan. 2-ternate. The plant contains saponin. :—Most warm countries. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . Kumbhi. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Girikarnika. Hennumatti. CHAR. Maniju balli. very acute apex. Jyotish-mati. rounded at the apex. C. anthelmintic. FAM. and is administered in fevers. Daddala. PARTS USED :—Root. Sd. Kumbha.— alternate. Sk. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. Root is considered diaphoretic. Karnasphota. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. skin-diseases. Sk. LOC. leaves. Fruit—acrid. when moistened. winged at the angles. Blister creeper. Fibres. subglobose. Wild guava . trigonous. black. Fr. M. DISTR. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. LOC. See—Timbers. HABITAT :—In hedges . M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn.—Sapindaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. aphrodisiac. abscesses and ulcers. Malay Peninsula. " Vata ". it is mucilaginous. hot. H. G. Shaundi. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. bark. FAM. NS. Agni-erum. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. introduced. :—E.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. COM. :—E. Konkan and W. Kapalphodi. G. Vakambi. colic. urinary discharges. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. Kalindi. :—Throughout India. Karolio. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations.—globose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. petals 4. bark. Sakralata. K. Kangu. Kumbi. Fl. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). piles. epileptic fits. Ceylon. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Kanphuti. ultimate segments lanceolate. Root. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. smooth. COM. . USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. common in S. deltoid. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. DISTR. diuretic and aperient. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. alexiteric. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . inciso-serrate. leaves and seeds. bronchitis.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. dyspepsia. bladdery . Ghats.
cures inflammation. Popayi. Kusumbha. Dyer's saffron. diuretic. appetiser. depilatory. Kusumba. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. Pangi. Pappayi. wounds of urinary track. removes urinary concretions . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Barre. ringworm. Chirbhita. made into curries. diuretic. hypnotic. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Karrak. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Mexico and Brazil. appetiser . Leaves—hot. Papaw. Sk. cures insanity (Ayurveda). Kusumba. Papayi. Fruit—stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. bile. :— E. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide.—Caricaceæ. Agnishikha. Indies. COM. . diuretic. astringent to bowels. enlargement of spleen. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. K. Guppe. aphrodisiac. See—Fruit Trees. in haemoptysis. cure urinary discharges. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). causes burning sensation . leprosy. Kardai. Safflower. fruit and seeds. Flower—tonic to liver. cure "Vata". Kamalottama. M. G. NS. LOC. K. :—Native throughout India. bleeding piles. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. cooling. Papaya. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. unripe fruit. Ahmednagar and Nasik. relieves obesity. of W. G. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. Kusumbo. :—Grown extensively in Poona. carminative. cures inflammations. expectorant. Sk. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. good for eyes. bronchitis. Karada. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. scabies. leucoderma. H. removes biliousness . Oil—indigestible. Papita. cause biliousness. flowers. DISTR. LOC.—Compositæ. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. FAM. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. used. M. H. FAM. piles. aphrodisiac. strangury. NS. Kusumba. LOC. Papaya. laxative. Nalikadala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. White thin latex contains Papain. :—E. "Kapha". heating. it is used to procure abortion. "Tridosh". digestive. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . COM. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. Seeds—oleaginous.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Chibda. DISTR. Papaya. seeds and oil.
They are administered in flatulence. kidney troubles. Seeds—purgative. liver. Leaves contain vitamin A. Dodda sagate. H. COM. Sk. carminative. aphrodisiac . piles. Dipyaka. NS. Oma. abdominal pain. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. atonic dyspepsia. carminative. K. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. Oil—good in all diseases. Bishops' weed . emmenagogue and sedative. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Ajwain. Owa. 30-60 cm. pinnate. spleen. good for ear boils. stimulant. Sk. CASSIA ALATA Linn. K. vomiting. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). Europe. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). they are used in jaundice . Oils. bechic. M. COM. Dwipagasti. Ajamo . FAM. oblique at the base. They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. :—Cultivated extensively in India. NS :— E. Egypt. Tivragandha. abdominal tumours. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Omu . tonic and carminative properties. Afghanistan. oblong-obtuse. Ajamoda. Ajowan. good for old people. Ringworm shrub. carminative. downy beneath. leaflets 10-12 pairs. and diarrhœa. The seeds bitter and hot. laxative. L. stomachic. See—Condiments and Spices. purgative. bitter. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. diuretic. improve speech and eyesight. tonic. stimulate intestines. mucronate. Simyatase. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. Elgra.—Umbelliferæ. rachis . good in weakness of limbs. cure ascites. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. :—E. Iran. long. give lustre to eyes. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol.MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. aphrodisiac. POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. paralysis. myrabolans and rock salt. Dyes. H. cure catarrh. Dadamardana. Winged senna. LOC. strengthening. DISTR. Baluchistan. Dadmardan. inflammation (Yunani). hiccup. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. anthelmintic. appetiser. chest and throat pains. good for heart and tooth-ache. Datka pat. FAM. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. subsessile. chest pains. enrich blood. M. G. Dadrughna. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. vomiting. See—Vegetables. dyspepsia. pungent. CHAR. and even in cholera. LOC. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. enlargement of spleen.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ).
PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). N. Fl. FAM. LOC. 20-25. good for ulcers. Avarike. vermicide (Ayurveda). urinary discharges . Fr. causes flatulence . CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. slightly overlapping. rotundate. bark smooth. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie). a linear gland between each pair of leaflets . cures tumours.—7. long. asthma. oblong-obovate. Taroda. 5 cm. buds in yellow bracts. very likely a native of the W. . pedunculate racemes . NS. reniform. Ph. Country. Madhya Pradesh and W. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration.. Awal. Pitakilaka. cm. Ceylon. cure " Vata ". Mayahari. Fr. G. pale beneath. PARTS USED :—Root. Indies. Peninsula. alexipharmic .—in spiciform. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases. Tangadi. Avartki. Tanner's cassia. t.3-1.. CHAR. t. diabetes. The whole plant. useful in thirst. Tarwad. :—E. Charmaranga. DISTR. Fl. M. :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb).) COM. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve.—large. and throat troubles. nocturnal emissions. anthelmintic. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes.—Jany. Sakusina. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). across. K. LOC. Tarwad. Sd. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers.—pod long. stipules very large. mucronate. H. In cases of bronchitis and asthma. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. obliquely septate.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged. Fl. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. Mukerji).:—Dry regions of Rajputana. " In eczema. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. ringworm.-July.5 X 10 cm. 28-4-88). USES:—Bark is considered astringent. Bark has the same properties. 10-20 X 1. LOC. flowers. skin-diseases. Gujarat and S. useful in vomiting. fruits and seeds. reddish brown. skin diseases. HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. cough.—30-35. Ahmed. thirst. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. rachis densely pubescent. along the sea coast in laterite region. Sd. membranous. :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. asthma .—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Sk. HABITAT :—Planted. DISTR.—pod.. leaves.6 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. M. dull green above. Fl. yellow with orange veins.-Oct.—bright yellow with darker veins. straight. leaflets 8-12 pairs.-50 or more. C. :—Introduced into India. L. leprosy. LOC. itching. rhombohedral. J.
H. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. purgative. Rankasvinda. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. griping. smooth. fruit and seeds. Flowers—improve taste. 15-20 cm. flowers. Kasari. juice given in erysipelas. Vyadivata. Kakka. Flowers—purgative. FAM. Sk. antipyretic. Kasondi. Ornamental Plants.—petals 5. Leaves lessen inflammation. Ane sogate. Kasundari. Kasonda. 10—12. Rechana. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. heal ulcers . astringent. Arimarda. Ceylon.—pods. Kacodari. It is a mild laxative. Fr. LOC. Hema-puspha. Fl. often purplish.—very foetid when bruised. Konde. Aragina. lessens inflammation and body-heat. hard. Golden shower. branches furrowed. M. useful in chest and liver complaints. Bandartauri. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. In Konkan. NS. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. biliousness . leaves. See—Dyes. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). Fruit—digestible. Pudding-pipe or stick. cooling. improve appetite. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains. Garmala. corymbose. LOC. leaflets 3-5 pairs. used in rheumatism. Balla. Fruit—antipyretic. cooling.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Chimkani. H. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice.) COM.—in few flowered racemes. purgative. Stinking weed. eye-diseases. Chakinda. Fl. K. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. cause flatulence. Negro coffee. Kasoda. Indian laburnum. M. Sk. Bahava. Leaves—anti-periodic . G. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Arogyashimbi. Kasmarda. :—Throughout India. It has been found to act as a strong purgative.. syphilis. cure " Kapha ". DISTR. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Tans. :—E. carminative. long. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. C. :—E. cures burning sensation. Rajataru. apex acute. transversely septate. Seeds— oily. FAM.) COM. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub.— Jany-March. Dodda-tagase. laxative. and Famine Plants. See—Timbers. NS. t. safe for children and pregnant women. rheumatism. Suvarnaka. yellow. shining dark olive-green.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. . L. also planted. Burma. faintly veined with orange . abortifacient. tuberculous glands. ovate-lanceolate. Amaltas.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis. throat-troubles. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. (Ayurveda). long. leprosy. CHAR. G.—20-30.5 cm. demulcent. distinctly torulose. recurved. Sd. base somewhat oblique.
ovate. mixed with honey. heals wounds. good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). hiccup. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. alexiteric. annual or perennial. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Sk. with a solitary conical gland near the base . HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. " tridosha " . A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. FAM. Fl. opposite. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. long . LOC. See—Famine Plants.510 cm. L. t. Kasondi.—in axillary.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Seeds used in heat of the blood.4-3 m. LOC. . The plant contains glucoside emodin. fevers. K. Leaves—aphrodisiac. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. " Vata ". LOC. :—A shrub 2. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. lanceolate.Jany. In many countries root is considered diuretic. 7. Talapota. and seeds are cathartic. COM. turgid. DISTR.. few flowered corymbose racemes. high. stomachic. in Kutch. DISTR. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. :—G. septate between the seeds . plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). leaves and seeds. obtuse. cure " Kapha". The bark. leaves and seeds. Fl. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. Kasundari. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. At Kotra. dark brown .—30-40 broadly ovoid. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. M.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children.— Nov. Ran tankala. base rounded. slightly recurved. yellow. CHAR. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. leaflets 6-10 pairs. Kasamarda. C. Baskikasondi. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. PARTS USED :—Root.. CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. are given in diabetes. Fr. Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. elephantiasis. rachis grooved . the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. cough. cures ascites. tonic and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Bark.—18-23 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. NS. H. See—Famine Plants. LOC.—pod. Sd. USES :—The whole plant is purgative. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . asthma. Kasamarda. Banar. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. petals 5.
—in pairs in the axils of leaves . oblong. fleshy arillus. Sphutabandhani. Kanguni. Pamad. Foetid cassia. DISTR. :—An annual foetid herb. Malhangana. shining above.. Chakunda. Climbing-staff plant. K. 6. reddish brown. Svarnalata. powerful brain tonic. bright yellow. globose. X 4.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. FAM. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. unarmed.3-10 X 3. Jyotishmati. obovate. Takala. 18 m.5-20 cm. emetic. brain and liver tonic. base oblique. obliquely septate. Sd. aphrodisiac. remove "Vata" and "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND LOC. capsule.—after the rains. usually unisexual. t. Ceylon. Black-oil tree. Chakramarda. Malkamni. Sk. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Kangodi. Dadamari. small yellowish-green. leaves and seeds. Malkakni.5 mm. Sd. Burma. L. Intellect tree. Seeds— acrid. 7.— petals 5. H. M. :—E.. alternate. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. :—E.—Celastraceæ. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. stem upto 23 cm.8-7. leaflets 3 pairs.—pinnate. M. :—Large deciduous climber. L. much curved when young. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. Taga. crenate. 12. appetiser. FAM. Malkangoni. laxative. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. 30-90 cm. K. PARTS USED :— Root. H. upper petal 2-lobed . in diam. LOC.5 cm. Dadrughna. NS. COM. Kangani. branches rough. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. cause burning sensation. NS. . CHAR. hot.) COM. in drooping panicles. Madras State. Chagoche. bitter. The plant contains glucoside emodin.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. cure joint-pains. expectorant. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. :—A very common weed all over the State. Velo . Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda). pale yellow. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Fl. G.—pod. Fl. C..MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. Sk. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. high. long. DISTR. Fr. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. high. covered with lenticels. Kangli. Fr. ovate or obovate. LOC. rachis grooved. Panevar.5-10 cm. CHAR. opposite (lowest smaller). Tarota. Seeds—bitter. 1-6 completely covered with red.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Taragosi. Tagache. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat.
Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin.—opposite. LOC. FAM. orbicular. cloves. Fl. M. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. Fr. L. CHAR. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. :— E. :—A slender herbaceous plant. . minute. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. M. Brahmamanduki. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. Ekpani. Jhinkun-kariatum. they are also sudorific. COM. Vondelaga. obovate or oblong. Mandukparni. cauline smaller. CHAR. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. L. Fr.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. C. especially in Bengal. Brahmamanduki. linear-oblong. Country. DISTR. tonic. radical leaves revolute.—tubular lobes 5. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell).—May-Nov. Don.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. NS. Barmi.—capsule. persistent. useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism.). t. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn. good for cough and asthma. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). H.-Apl. spreading star-like . and is employed for external application. H.—Umbelliferæ. NS. base deeply cordate stipulate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. G. paralysis and leprosy. :—G. COM. pink.—3 from each node. narrowly oblong . used in leprosy. :—Konkan. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. Seeds are hot. rooting at the nodes. ovoid. Fl. Sk.—in fascicled umbels. Fl. t. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri.).—4 mm. Oil stomachic. LOC.—Feb. :—Throughout India. Fl. elliptic. Jangli-karayatu. Vallari . bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. M. stem creeping with long internodes. Deccan and S. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. K. gout. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Mahaushadhi. hard-rugose. reniform. aphrodisiac and stimulant. high. long. pink. Brahmi.—Gentianaceæ. Lahanchirayat. FAM.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. blood diseases. asthma. bronchitis. Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. China.) DISTR. nut is narcotic and poisonous . thirst. milky juice. water courses throughout the State. PROPERTIES AND LOC. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". fruit. cures hiccup. The plant contains glucoside cerberin. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant. cooling. soporific. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. COM. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. improves appetite. :—In moist situations (streams. PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. spleen enlargement. abundant on the Malabar Coast. Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. bechic. laxative. digestible. sedative to nerves. anæmia. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. :—K. LOC. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. leaves and seeds). asthma. LOC. :—South Konkan and N. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. alexiteric. Leaves are also diuretic. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. For external use powder. " Kapha ". Australia Pacific Islands. urinary discharges. twigs. clears voice and brain. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . Honde.—Apocynaceæ. small-pox. bitter. antipyretic. fevers. nallas. scalding of urine.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. . :—Throughout India and Ceylon. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. diuretic. ointment. HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. memory. fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. Chanda. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. Malay Archipelago. carminative. alterative. biliousness. improves appetite (Yunani). USES :—Bark is purgative. DISTR. bronchitis. plaster or bath are used. headache . tonic. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. tonic. :—Throughout India near the coast. cardio-tonic. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. LOC. PARTS USED :—Bark. Plant—bitter. NS. Kanara. cures leucoderma. Sukanu. stomachic. See—Timbers. FAM. Tande. inflammations. M. Leaf-powder. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. voice. and a bitter substance odollin.
"Vata". "Kapha". LOC. M. Chillika.—Chenopodiaceæ. Harparrevdi. Tanko. G. acrid. throattroubles. Harparauri K. Chakwat. See—Fruit Trees. oleaginous. improves appetite. tonic to liver. Bengal—Common-gram. Bathusag. spleen (Ayurveda). NS. USES :— Root is purgative. Chakravati. urinary concretions. Chania. . M. sour . NS. :—E. Balabhojya. Cheel. H. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). :—Widely distributed. K. fragrant. Chana. Deccan and S. K. root and the seed are cathartic. FAM. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Sk. :—Cultivated in India. COM. heart. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell. Country. Ksharadala. Chanaka. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. COM. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Agralohita. also cultivated as a pot herb. LOC. Chandanbedu. Kanchuki. abdominal pains. LOC. constipation. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Country gooseberry. Laveni. useful in biliousness. diuretic.. biliousness. M. Rayara nelli. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. Sk. Vajibhakshya. M. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. DISTR. Chunna. tonic. fruit and seeds. :—Very common in the Deccan. Sk. piles .62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Chalmeri. Lavali. Pandu. Rai-avala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter.) FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. useful in bronchitis. CICCA ACIDA Merr. COM. diseases of blood. H. anthelmintic. G. :— E. FAM . Chana. The plant yields an essential oil. Skandhaphala. useful in thirst. DISTR.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). LOC. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. LOC. Kari-Kempukadale. Kadale. Harbara. PARTS USED :—Root.—Euphorbiaceæ. piles. biliousness. H. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Wild-spinach. Goose-foot. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda). The fruit is acrid and astringent. eye-diseases. :—E. Fruit is very sour . native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. vomiting. HABITAT :—Cultivated. laxative. But. Chick pea. aphrodisiac. Chakravarti.
throat troubles. indigenous and cultivated. flatulence. Oil—carminative. Oil—styptic. anthelmintic . refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. diarrhœa. causes salivation. DISTR. headache. cold in head. Duk. rectum and urinary diseases. Gudatwaka. useful in inflammations. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. abdominal pains. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. piles. diarrhœa and dysentery. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. Kanara district. hiccup. cures skin diseases. Dalchini. Seed—stimulant. LOC. astringent to bowels . flatulence. bronchitis (Yunani). Darchini. biliousness. Dalchini. toothache. causes flatulence. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). itching. USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. COM. anthelmintic.—Lauraceæ. tonic. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. tonic. LOC. It possesses carminative. expectorant. HABITAT :—Rain-forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. abortifacient. leprosy. Leaves contain vitamin A. pungent. cures thirst and burning. NS. heart. Valkala. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. PARTS USED. chest complaints. Malay Peninsula. seed and acid exudation. carminative. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. Burma. Leaves—purgative. See—Food Plants. alexiteric. useful in " Vata ". Kash. biliousness. pains . aphrodisiac. . See—Condiments and Spices. appetiser. aphrodisiac. It checks nausea and vomiting. emmenagogue. useful in bronchitis. strengthens liver. aphrodisiac. causes flatulence. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. carminative. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. :— Bark and oil. foul mouth and fever. throat troubles. heated brain. Nisane. Sk. liver-tonic . very common in the N. :—W. :—G. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. Bark—tonic. vomiting. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. indigestion. etc. Seed—indigestible. bronchitis. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. tonic to hair. parched mouth. Lavange-hakke. cure bronchitis. useful in cold. thirst. useful in loss of appetite. headache. blood troubles. Ceylon. Oils. toothache (Ayurveda). improve taste and appetite. tonic . anthelmintic. FAM. vomiting. Peninsula. Dalchini. LOC. K. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. enriches blood. Dalchini. aphrodisiac. useful in hydrocele. good for diseases of liver and spleen. H. M.
5-nerved. Asso. FL t. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. red or yellowish white. useful in hemicrania. PARTS USED :—Root. Mahendravaruni. tendrils bifid. flesh juicy. :—E. Chitraphala. long. has been isolated. yellow within. hairy. E. CHAR. L.—Cucurbitaceæ.8-10 cm. Colocynth. Pahadvel. heart troubles. solitary. NS. :—In hills. COM.—large. peltate. somewhat hairy. Kanara. male flowers in axillary cymes.—July-Sept. diarrhœa. t. asthma .—A climbing shrub. Uthika. burning.-Jany. Africa and America. solitary. uterine complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . red. deeply divided or but moderately lobed. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. stem thick. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. Makal. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. drupe. HABITAT. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. in conjunction with aromatics. L. compressed. Indrayan. i. CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. Trapusi. orbicular or reniform. which possibly has a cholinergic action.—Menispermaceæ. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. G. upto 25 cm. removes intestinal worms. angular . H. Velvet-leaf. Pavamekke Kayi. CHAR. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. smooth.5-20 cm. greenish. C. :—Deccan. female flowers in elongate. also for prolapsus uteri.. greenish outside. Fl. lobes obovateoblong. skin eruptions. (Ind. piles. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. Ghorumba. H. Indraphal. 7. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". Katurasa. :— E. F. Sk. diam. young shoots woolly. R. COM. fever. Venivalli. The active constituent of the drug. warm parts of Asia. removes pain. subcampanulate. dysentery. Bitter apple. dropsy and cough. 1949). or twin. mucronate. Annual Report. Fr. subglobose. Tumtikayi. M. Fl. waxy coated. NS. Indrayana. FAM.— usually margined. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain. an alkaloid. itching . K.e. LOC. margins ciliate. 3. Nirbisi. Fl. FAM. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. yellowish. Indruk. Sd. Sk. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. Paharmul. diam. DISTR. :—An extensively climbing annual. minute. G. Patha. branches more or less pubescent. alleviates vomiting. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. LOC. Kaduvrindavan. leaves. Indrayan. Fr. monœcious. sub-globose.. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda).64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. M. axillary racemes . 5-partite. helps parturition. . cordate at the base. Venivel.—Nov.
laxative. Asia. tonic. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Gujarat. ulcers. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. LOC. NS. M. Sk. Ceylon. useful in biliousness. with or without nux-vomica. In the Konkan fruit and root. (Poona. antipyretic. elephantiasis . Naringi. cooling. sweet and has agreeable flavour. aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. W. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). tonic. carminative. INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. DISTR. Kittale. N. aphrodisiac . removes fatigue . USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. enlargement of spleen. anæmia. cures tumours. Narenj. jaundice. anthelmintic. diuretic. relieves vomiting and retching. pain in joints. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. enlargement of spleen. FAM. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic. H. dyspepsia. useful in piles. Sukkare-kanji. tuberculous glands of neck. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. Sunthura. bronchitis. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. epilepsy. bowel complaints.—Rutaceæ. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. Naringa. Root and fruit cooling. Deccan. sea-shores. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. DISTR. anthelmintic . " Kapha". good in vomiting and skin diseases. throat diseases. and lumbago. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Tvakasugandha. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). good in fevers. Flower— stimulant. K. leuco-derma. chest troubles. COM. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. ascites. G. removes " Vata ". It is considered to be alexipharmic and . Santra. Fruit—sour. Rind— anthelmintic. relieves colds. asthma. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Cardiotonic. Narangi. Also indigenous in Arabia. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Kirmirtvaka. astringent. :—Konkan. fortifies chest. :—Widely cultivated in India. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. purgative. removes biliousness. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). constipation. fever and worms. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . Ahmednagar and Khandesh). Nagaranga. LOC. Doddile. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. constipation. Narange. :— E. LOC.
increase appetite. Citron . NS. also corrects foetid breath. Turanj. According to Theophrastus. its preserve is used for dysentery. with a sharp taste. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. removes colic. Bijapurna. said to be wild in W. anthelmintic. anasarca and chronic fever. gastric irritability in general and general debility. Amlakeshara. tonic and astringent properties. relieve vomiting. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Kutla. Bijaura. Matulunga. Motalimbu . useful in abdominal complaints. hiccup. aphrodisiac. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. juice refrigerant and astringent. Seeds—indigestible. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. anæmia. FAM. cough. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Cultivated. digestible. The fruits contain vitamins A. Matalunga. leaves and flowers hot and dry. See—Fruit Trees. NS. Limonum. Thora-limbu. H. Mavalunga. Flowers—stimulant. PARTS USED. Devamadala. jaundice. B and C. Ruchaka. :—Citron rind is hot. Mahalunga. COM. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. Matunga. . Harale. though there are no regular plantations. used in constipation and tumours. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root. Fruit—sweet and sour.:—Grown in gardens in the State. Mahaphala. the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. intoxication. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". Balank. LOC. dry and tonic . Sk. stimulant. M. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic .66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. VAR. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. useful in vomiting. asthma. Madala. COM. cough. Jambira. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. Adam's apple. G. flatulence. :— E. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. asthma. sharp. Turanj. Bera nimbu. relieves sore-throat. thirst. Paharinimbu . heating. Rusaki.—Rutaceæ. the pulp cold and dry. cures leprosy. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. DoddaGaja-nimba. fruits and seeds. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). seeds. Idalimbu. astringent to bowels . Sk. G. :—E. Mahanimbu. Lemon . Ghats. H. K. Mahaphala. flowers. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. tonic. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). USES. LOC. :—Roots. K. bark and fruit. rind of the fruit is bitter. the juice allays ear-ache. Bijoru. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. oily.
heart. useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. Limbe. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Madhulika. whole plant tomentose. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. Devashreni. Murhari. Moravel. with long feathery tails . Limpaka. Oil from rind. cures abodominal complaints. Kagadi limbu. Fl. K. petioles twinning. VAR.—Ranunculaceæ. vomiting. with flavour. Snuva. ovoid. Limbu. measles. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. M. white. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. Lebu. it helps digestion. Sk. anthelmintic. eyes . G. Fr. also useful in rheumatism. CHAR. Acid-Sour lime . C. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites.Nov. Fruit—sour. :—E. burning in the chest. hairy outside. stomachic. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Lebu. Fl. LOC. throat trouble. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—G. sharp taste. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . COM. K. improves liver. Murva. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. Dhantiate. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). not good in old age.—simple or once ternate. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. . NS. Acida. constipation. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. plethora. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox.—in axillary corymbose panicles. appetiser. long ovate or orbicular. COM. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. loss of appetite. relieves vomiting . In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief.—Sept. where there is dry skin and much thirst. Nimbu. t. NS. it cures and prevents scurvy.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. blades 2-2. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. Nimbu. H. fatigue . removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". leaves (rarely). Morhari. silky villous. hemicrania. Morvel.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases.—petals O. FAM. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. but often found trailing amongst grass. scarletina. bronchitis . Amlasara. sepals 4-6.5 cm. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Nimbe. :—An extensive climber. relieves biliousness. stimulant . lobes mucronate. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . Morata.—achenes. Rochana. Nimbuka. brain disorders. L. Ranjai. Khatalimbu. Sk. M. Shodhana. See—Fruit Trees. Nebu. Churhar. H.
CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. erect. :—Common in grass lands. Adityabhakta.—3-5 foliate. Sd. Gantubarangi. Bharangi. and dispel intestinal fermentation. :—W. Kiritekki. Phanjika. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. bitter taste and a strong odour. C. mixed with oil. stimulant. Tilparni. Barbara. Jangali-harhar.—capsule. NS. Ghats. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). LOC. laxative. high. Bharangi. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. :—Annual erect herb. t.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. NS. Bharang. COM. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. CHAR. Sk. Leaves—favour digestion. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. Sk. Fl. tapering towards both ends . Brahmani. 30-90 cm. :—G. FAM. Tinmani.—Capparidaceæ. cooling. Konkan. anthelmintic. causes excessive biliousness. terminal the largest. blood diseases. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. useful in leprosy. and fevers. Fr. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. in lax racemes. stems grooved and glandular.—petals 4. :—Widely distributed throughout the State. leaflets elliptic-oblong. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. Vatari. Karnasphota. used internally in thirst. bitter. gradually becoming shorter upwards. reduces tumours and inflammations . Juice— cures ear-ache. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABIT :—A common weed. Kanphodi. Hulhul. itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda).—brownish black. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. subglobose. yellow. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. Bharangi. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. stimulates secretion of bile. removes " Kapha". LOC. COM. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). very common in the Deccan. hot. externally applied to boils. petioles of lower leaves longer.—Sept-June. LOC. H. diuretic. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. dryness and urethral discharges. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. H. Plant has penetrating bad smell. good in malaria. veined. transversely striate. Kasaghni. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. L. :—G. K. M. oblong-obovate. obliquely striate. Tilwan. DISTR. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. laxative. astringent.—Verbenaceæ. Talvari.—axillary. hairy. Harhuria. M. Fl. Sauri. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. stomachic. Nayibela. . Kanphutia. FAM. hairy. K.
stomachic. biliousness. Sd. inflammations. Root is purgative and diuretic. DISTR.—pale blue. in lax dichotomous cymes. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. C. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. useful in bronchitis. Girikarnika. Garani.8-5 cm. the larger lower lobe dark purple. C. bronchitis.. asthma.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm. FAM. good for eye-diseases.—ternately whorled. Malay Peninsula. Aparajita. acrid. flat. elephantiasis. diuretic. useful in inflammation.. . PARTS USED :—Root. and blue flowered. Girikarniballi. leaves and seeds. "Vata". Fl. stems bluntly quadrangular.—many. stems terete. solitary. Vishnukranta.—Shrub. 0. tumours. lower one deflexed. ozœna. fleshy. PARTS USED :—Root. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. There are two varieties :—white flowered.—6-10 yellowish brown. ulcers of the cornea.9-2.— Aug.— drupe.5 X 2-3. Kowa.2 cm. Wowatheti. oblong or elliptic. high. spreading. L. obovoid. Fr. LOC. Fl. smooth. Kalina. t. laxative. NS. standard bright blue or white. anthelmintic. also found throughout the State. hiccup. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. useful in ascites (Yunani). leucoderma. leaves and seeds. nearly straight. tuberculous glands. black. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers.5-15 X 5. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. Koyala. Fr. consumption. Kajli. fevers. beaked.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. blood diseases. 2-2.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State.—much exerted. showy. CHAR. anthelmintic. long . alexiteric. 12. tubercular glands. cures "Tridosha". The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sk. epilepsy. 4 lobes flat.—imparipinnate.7-6. DISTR. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills . wounds (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In hedges. 3. hairy. pains. ulcers (Ayurveda). Ceylon. headache. sharply serrate. Gokarni. inflammations. tonic to the brain. fevers (Yunani). COM. pubescent. tube hairy within. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. with an orange centre. K. M. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. Gokarnika. Root increases appetite. LOC. collectively forming a terminal panicle. burning sensation. lessens expectoration. H. L. sometimes opposite. Aparajita. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. leaflets 5-7. t— June-Jany. LOC. :—A perennial twining herb..2 m.—axillary.3 cm. Fl. elliptic oblong..-Oct. asthma. burning sensation. Fl. :—G.:—More or less throughout India.
and jaundice. Bimb. burning of hands and feet. Bimbi. S. NS. antipyretic .70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. dried and powdered. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Vasanvel. fruit. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose).—Cucurbitaceæ. flowers. aphrodisiac.:—Root cooling. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. galactagogue. K. tropical Africa. wild in hedges. Chireta. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. H. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Kambhoja. PROPERTIES AND USES. M. Vevdi. Fruit is aphrodisiac. H. Hunder. NS. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. Parvel. & A. K. Oshthi. COM. Glum. Tondeballi. G. asthma. . Kanduri. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. COCCINIA INDICA W. Seeds are purgative and aperient. Ink-berry. stops vomiting. Broom-creeper. Ceylon. Bimbika. urinary losses. useful in ascites and fevers.—Menispermaceæ. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. Bimba.—E. M. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. The plant contains an enzyme. Leaves—acrid. Sk. Malaya. Tundi. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). :—G. LOC. given for uterine discharges. a hormone and an alkaloid. HABITAT. Ghobe. Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. See—Vegetables. diseases of blood. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. cause flatulence. Gujarat. Tondali. allays thirst. Country. Garudi. Root bark. M. Konkan. Vevati. Deccan.) FAM.:—Cultivated in gardens. Flowers cure itching. cures leprosy. Vasantitikta. COM. DISTR :—Throughout India. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). LOC. Jamtikibel. biliousness. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. FAM. leaves. USES:—In the Konkan. Dirghvalli. PARTS USED :—Root. Vasandi. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. Tana. Tundika. " Vata". Fruit— indigestible. Faridburti. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. consumption. astringent to bowels. Galedu. Sk.
subdeltoid or subhastate.3-3. oleaginous. young parts densely Villous. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children. fattening. PARTS USED :—Root. size of a small pea.. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. t. In the Konkan. Tenginmara.—dioecious. LOC. Nariyal. biliousness. Gujarat. tuberculosis. seed. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. Dried seed (copra) improves taste. bark. China. "Kapha" and "Vata". COM.—Palmæ.8-6. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. ovate. India. lessens thirst. 3-5 nerved. aphrodisiac. FAM.:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Leaf-juice. Cocoanut palm. flowers. :—E. laxative and sudorific. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.—drupe. causes "Kapha". dysentery. Mad. Deccan. lessens bile and burning sensation. Pegu. cardiotonic.8 cm. useful in diabetes. Kanara. burning sensation. mixed with water. Common in Konkan and N. Narial. it is used for coughs. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. Fl. . Toyagarbha. male in small axillary cymose panicles. Flower-cooling . villous .—3. useful in biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. S. tumours. Milk—cooling. NS. H. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. laxative.:— A straggling scandent shrub.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. aphrodisiac. tropical Africa. M. Konkan. and put on to sore-eyelids. S. alexipharmic . as a cure for gonorrhœa. Seed-cooling. LOC. tonic. DISTR. fattening. good in fractures. blood diseases. laxative. 2-8 together. Sk. Naral. L. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . USES :—A decoction of fresh root. rugose . COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. enriches blood. keeled. which is taken internally with sugar. indigestible. DISTR. it is heating. ovate-oblong. Malabar and Coromandel coasts. female in axillary clusters. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. constipation. Mahaphala. Tengu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. oil. smells sweetish and pungent. Arabia. Narikel. appetiser. Antipyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). also in many places in the interior. tonic. India and Ceylon. useful in leprosy. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller). Jataphala. thirst. K. fermented juice.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. Fl. LOC.—Dec. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. Fr. bronchitis. HABITAT :—In hedges. with a few heads of pepper. It is also used as a refrigerant. urinary discharges. Nalivar. Mangalya. G.3 X 1.
bluish grey.5-5 cm. Dabha. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. L. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). LOC. LOC. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. Fl. incipient phthisis and cachexia. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. fattening. See—Fruit Trees. 6. Kasai. fermented juice is intoxicating. diuretic . DISTR. Ran-jondhala. internodes smooth. it promotes growth of hair.—Oct.—10-15 x 2. tropical Asia-Africa. B and C.—monœcious racemes 2. LOC. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). rachis within the bract slender. Bengal. Gurlu . promotes hairgrowth. Job's tears. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. :—E. Gojivha. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. sheaths long. spinously serrate margins. diuretic.. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. long. Jargadi. notched at the nodes . bronchitis. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Sk. increases body weight. rooting at the lower nodes. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. India. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. t. Madhya Bharat. ulcers (Ayurveda). Polynesia. Fibres. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. high or more. polished. Fl.—Gramineæ COM. Fr. :—Himalayas. Oil—indigestible. S. tonic. useful in lumbar-pain. smooth.5-6. piles and scabies (Yunani. useful in fever. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. enriches blood. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . H. NS. above the bract stout. G. lessens inflammations . smooth.3 cm. abundant in standing water. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . HABITAT :—Gregarious. midrib stout. Rajputana. Japan. Assam. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution.—broadly ovoid to globose. base cordate. paralysis. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. polished. Gavedhu. China. useful in urinary complaints. CHAR. piles . liver complaints.6-10 mm. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. Malaya. it also purifies blood. stem 90-150 cm. M. America. Oils. It is also used for burns. Madhya Pradesh. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. :—A tall leafy grass. consumption. It is refreshing and laxative. FAM. Oil—sweet. stout. long. asthma.
Sk. NS. It is also used as a bitter tonic. wedgeshaped. H. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. They are also used in lung and chest complaints. The plant contains leucin. fever. Gujarat. Col. histidin. cultivated in most tropical countries. acute or acuminate. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier.MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . buds obovoid. subglobose. Rayagundo. yellow. See—Fibres. not beaked. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. also as antiperiodic. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. :—Konkan. 12 mm.—Tiliaceæ. smooth. t. Sd. Sk. Patta. Fl. Bhukerbudara. DISTR. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. Sebesten plum. astringent. Fl. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. brown. M. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. K.2 cm. Challa. Fr.5-10 X 2-3. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . PARTS USED :—Root. M. Kalasaka. :—An annual herb. Bhokar. PROPERTIES AND LOC. tyrosin. CHAR. The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. COM. leaves and fruit.—petals 4-5.—in short cymes.—few in each cell. Bhokar. G. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.:—E. Gondan.—Boraginaceæ. Chhunchh . lanceolate. anthelmintic. COM. laxative. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. growing very tall under cultivation. lysin.— Sept. C. stomachic. carminative. LOC. L. Lassora. See—Fodder Plants.— capsule. and intestinal antiseptic. Jute . NS. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. In jutegrowing districts. FAM. Mannadike. Hadige. 5-valved. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. Resalla. Pistan. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. Bhuselu. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. Bargund. diam. also efficacious in skin-diseases. :—E. arginine and coicin. serrate. and dyspepsia. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints.—7. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. ridged and muricated. G. FAM. Chaunchan . .
FAM. Ghats. K.—Umbelliferæ. LOC. Kothamir. cooling. often planted. Mesapotamia and Greece. Ceylon. Syria. scabies. NS. removes bad humours. Vitunnaka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Sk. Kothambri. biliousness. bleeding gums. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. DISTR. gives appetite. LOC. widely known from Palestine. highly esteemed in coughs. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. Fruit is aromatic. biliousness. expectorant. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). inflammations. tropical Australia. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. indigestion. anthelmintic. jaundice. wild and cultivated. purgative. The plant and fruit— acrid. analgesic. chronic fevers. tooth-ache. :—Cultivated throughout India.:—E. diuretic. stimulant. headache. also cultivated. laxative. COM. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. tuberculous glands. Cochin-China. bronchitis. Fibres. Kustumburi. .:—Throughout the State in W. prevents coryza and bronchitis. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. stimulant. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. LOC. thirst. LOC. uterus and urethra. :—Throughout India. vulnerary. Hivija. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. dyspepsia. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. Coriander. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. antipyretic. used in syphilis. diseases of chest and urethra. Kothimbir. diseases of chest. Konphir. G. Egypt. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Fruits are used as spice. used in dry cough. Dhania. used as an expectorant and astringent. piles. valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). tonic to brain. aphrodisiac. Leaves—hypnotic. heart and liver. See—Timbers. DISTR. biliousness. bechic. eye-pains. burning of throat. Seeds—aphrodisiac. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. Kanara. vomiting. M. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. useful in hiccup. pains in joints. Allaka. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). " Kapha" (Ayurveda).74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. PARTS USED :—Bark. anthelmintic. H. Dharika. carminative and antispasmodic. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Cultivated. leaves (rarely) and fruit. causes suppuration. cures thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. gleet. Fruit—diuretic. stomatitis. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. maturant. stomachic. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. Satpudas.
HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. oblong. Madhya Bharat. depurative. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C. Sd. nalas. a tonic is prepared from it. Varno. stem sub-woody at the base .-Oct. COM. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. coughs and skin diseases. globosely 3-gonous.— black with white aril. Fl. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children. India. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . :—An erect plant 1.—15-30 X 5. LOC.5 cm. Var. anæmia. bracts ovate. M. DISTR. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm. many. DISTR.— tube short. Karikuttu.:—Konkan ghats. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. See—Condiments and Spices. red. hiccup (Ayurveda).—Capparidaceæ. Fl. Kemuka.—capsule. mucronate. S. subequal. C. M. lobes ovate-oblong.7 m. Khandala. Sk. Changalkashta. Varvunna. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. high. and aphrodisiac. Chikke. FAM. FAM. Pakarmula. lip white with yellow centre. Mahakapittha. Hadawarna. disk with a tuft of hair at the base. M. H. NS. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. Pinga. Castle Rock. S. PARTS USED:—Root. inflammations. Varuna. Pushkarmula. Shura. :—More or less throughout India. also in Sub-Himalayan tract). Keu. useful in bronchitis. L. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. crisped. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. lumbago. t. and " Vata". CHAR. Bilpatri.—Aug. dyspepsia. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. Nervele. root-stock tuberous.—Scitamineæ. Bitusi. Country. COM. sheaths coriaceous .7-7. Vayavarna. The plant yields an essential oil. :—G. also planted near Muslim tombs.2-2. subsessile. " Kapha". Varuna. useful in catarrhal fevers. Fr. spirally arranged. LOC. Kashmira. LOC. Pushkarmula. Sk. Var. K. Penva. :—G. By the earliest writers. Malay Islands. It is also astringent and digestive. China. bright red. Ajapa. fever. Barna. Biliana. . rheumatism. silky-pubescent beneath. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. in moist and shady places. Kushtha. H. NS. Kust. :—Almost all over India (Assam. Vayavarno. K. concave. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod.— in very dense spikes. Kumaraka.
Seeds—purgative. thin. found wild in North and South Konkan. Bark promotes appetite. and seeds.5 cm.5-10 cm..—20-30. antilithic. anuria. FAM. antipyretic. Kanda-shalini. The plant contains saponin. flat. useful in bronchitis. X 12.—1 (rarely 2). lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. act as rubefacient and vesicant. :—Throughout tropical India. vesicant. L. Nagadown. long. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. useful in biliousness. digestive. Fr. also wild. carminative.:—G. lumbago. bulb 5-10 cm. cylindric.—subglobose. with a sheathing base. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. Kanwal. Visha-Mandalamardini. Kanmu. "Pitta" and "Kapha".—Amaryllidaceæ. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). vulnerary. laxative. night-blindness. lung and spleen diseases.5-18 cm. Nag-damani. Vishamungalli. K. it promotes appetite. perianth tube greenish-white. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani). stomachic. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite. DISTR. heating. anthelmintic. urinary concretions. Sk. leaves. Chindar. defective vision. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. good in strangury. gonorrhœa. 0. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. LOC. tumours. increases secretion of bile. linear lanceolate. beaked. scape 45-90 cm. detergent. chest and blood diseases. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. USES:—Root is alterative. bechic. Patra-pushpi. bitter. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. Nagdavana. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. Nag-damani. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Cultivated. flowers and fruits. laxative. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . expectorant. vomiting. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Pindar. tuberculous glands. aphrodisiac. lobes 6. toothache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. PARTS USED :—Root.. laxative. chest. M. LOC. Ceylon. expectorant. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). Sd. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. emmenagogue. CHAR. See—Timbers. then sweet. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. anthelmintic. leaves. Tonic. . white.—15-50 in an umbel. H. diuretic. diseases of vagina.9-1. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. bark. fragrant at night. Fl. linear. bracts 7. as long as the tube. strangury. diam. urinary discharges. removes "Vata". bright green. COM. Wild or cultivated. NS.
CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. See—Timbers. USES:—Fresh root is emetic. Jamalgota . NS. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. cathartic. Kanara. Danti. bruises and rheumatic swellings. FAM. The plant contains lycorin. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Oil from the seed is purgative. China. fever. Chota-Natpur. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally.—Euphorbiaceæ. Seeds contain an alkaloid. bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—Naturalised in S. it is in great request. Ceylon . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. H. useful in mental troubles. inflammations. :—E. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. G. LOC.—Euphorbiaceæ. Madhya Pradesh. Western Peninsula. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. emetic. Jayapala. Ceylon. Chucka . carminative. Assam to Malacca. Bhutankusam. expectorant. convulsions. :—Rare in the State. Malay Islands. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations. Jepal. :—H. COM. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. leaves and seeds. LOC. :—Sylhet. Jamalgota. in small doses. insanity. naturalised or cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants.. abdominal diseases. etc. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. Danti. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. K. :—Bengal. PARTS USED :—Root. M. Oil cathartic. COM. Ganasur. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. nauseant and diaphoretic. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. Burma. PROPERTIES AND LOC. bark. Konkan. Seeds cause burning sensation. As an application to sprains. NS. FAM. Purging croton . Sk. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). DISTR. Nepal. M. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. Bengal. Nepala . Japala. Nepala. DISTR. good in sore eyes. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. excessive phlegm. Burma. Ieucoderma. . Sk. tonic.
and lock-jaw. Valungi. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. Chibuda. wholesome. NS. Valaka. convulsions. cures " Vata ". Rind—vulnerary. laxative. Baluchistan and tropical Africa. . Ripe fruit—sweet. diuretic. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Chibdu Shakarteti. cures ophthalmia. insanity. brain and body. Sk. &c. bronchitis. Pathira . LOC. cooling. Kharbuja. Seeds—lachrymatory. Fruit—tonic. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. Melon. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. laxative. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. K. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. C. COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. biliousness. Tarkakadi. fruit and seeds. Mahanaracha Rasa. LOC. Lomashi. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Kalangida. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. M. urinary discharges. nutritive and diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. MELO Var. chronic fever. NS. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. See—Timbers. Kakadi.:—E.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. :—In Deccan. Said to be truly wild in India. galactagogue. :—G. may cause indigestion. Karkali. gives headache. diuretic. thirst (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. LOC. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. ascites. synovitis. H. G. in ascites and anasarca. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. Vrittervaru. DISTR. diaphoretic. It is useful in apoplexy. used in liver and kidney troubles. fattening. dropsy. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. allays fatigue. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Kharbuja. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. obstinate constipation. strengthens heart. They are edible. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. M. DISTR. FAM. Kakri. insanity. Shadrekha. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. It is given internally with great caution. Kakni. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. oily. Mutrala. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. tonic. Kharbuja. colic. Sk. Sweet melon . Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. Karkati. aphrodisiac. H. Shantanu. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Kachra. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. ascites. COM. Kankadi.
India is considered to be the original home. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. pale yellow when ripe.—Cucurbitaceæ. NS. t. Sk. Fr. Cucumber. diuretic. FAM. enrich blood. are administered in throat affections. Sushitala. . seeds. Kakari.—white. good for brain and body. fruits. Mrigadani. L.:—E. pulp bitter. :—A perennial climber. Khira. Kakdi. roasted and powdered. Sk. DISTR. cures thirst. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. dry. See-Fruit Trees. Sudhavsa. Sd. Fruit—fattening .—monœcious . C. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. they are also used as diuretic. indigestible.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. hairy. Cultivated in all parts of India. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. allay thirst.—subglobose or ellipsoid. FAM. lobes obovate. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani). USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh).—yellow segments elliptic. biliousness. LOC. angled. Yunani). Trapusha. and C. rigid. NS. Hislambhi. female peduncle longer than male. B. Fl. H. margined . H. Seed oil used in fever. Tansali. Vishala. Kankdi. PARTS USED :—Leaves. purgative. HABITAT :—Cultivated. strangury. Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. LOC. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. cures biliousness. utilissimus (Ayurveda. LOC. K. Khira. Fl. cordate at the base. male in clusters. G. Ripe one tonic. M. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. antipyretic. Kumbhakshi. M. COM.—June-Sept. Kothiban. causes "Vata". :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan.— suborbicular. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. "Kapha" and flatulence. Karit. fatigue. tendrils simple. astringent. CHAR. Seeds—diuretic. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda). stomachic. See—Vegetables. Seeds possess cooling properties. Santekayi. improve complexion. lobulate or dentate . and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds.:—N. fever. They are nutritive.—Cucurbitaceæ. used in thirst. Chitravalli. Tavasa. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. stem slender. Takamaki. cooling. melo var. COM.
In Malabar. DISTR. LOC. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. Kushmand.:—Considered to be a native of America. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. Australia. Kashiphala. Kadimah. The plant contains glucoside saponin. increases " Vata" . COM. unhealthy ulcers. COM. FAM . :—E. FAM. stomachic. Bhopala. Melon pumpkin. Kushmand. G. Sk. Kumra. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. improves taste (Ayurveda). astringent to bowels . HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. M. Mithakaddu. Koron. Pitakushmand. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. Kaddu. fruit is used to prevent insanity. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. indigestible.—Cucurbitaceæ. Safedkaddu .:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. cultivated in many parts of India. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. Kumbala. Punyalata. K. on hedges. DISTR. Sk. :—Throughout the greater part of India. G. Tambda bhopala. carbuncles. NS. NS. Kumbala. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. :—Cultivated.—Cucurbitaceæ. Dudia. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. LOC. DISTR. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. Red squash gourd. H. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. tonic. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . Seeds are used as taeniacide. Iran. Dried fruit indigestible . Malaya. Vegetable marrow. H. Karkarn. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. N. Fruit contains vitamins A. Pumpkin. . Dangari. etc. B and C. fruits and seeds. HABITAT. cures cough. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. See—Vegetables. K. Ceylon.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. allays thirst. LOC. : — E. Afghanistan. increases " Vata ".
Seeds—diuretic. leucoderma. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. H. H. biliousness. Neltati gadde. carminative. uterine stimulant. Fruit astringent. good for teeth. See—Condiments and Spices. fattening. Cures " Vata " tumours. eye-diseases. Mushalikand . Dipaka. fever. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn. stomachic. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). fruit and seeds. LOC. Musali. Fruit yields an essential oil. inflammations. NS. NS. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. aphrodisiac. :—G. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. Gaurajerka. alexipharmic. FAM. antidysenteric. emmenagogue. bronchitis. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani). :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Talamulika. appetiser. purifies blood (Ayurveda). increases appetite .—Amaryllidaceæ. gonorrhœa. asthma. astringent to bowels. Kalimusali. antipyretic. Dirghaka. M. Seeds anthelmintic. analgesic. allays thirst. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. Fruit—very cooling. Neladati. Seeds are taeniacide. COM. cures leprosy. cooling. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. cures haemoptysis. diuretic and demulcent. throat and eyes. Jiru. tonic. Jire. belching . vulnerary. DISTR. astringent to bowels. remove biliousness. LOC. ft contains vitamins A and C. cure haemoptysis. fever. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. tonic to intestine. carminative. beneficial in consumption. stops epistaxis . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. M. Kalimusali. very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. Jirige. LOC. Zira. heals corneal opacities. ulcers. relieves hiccup. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. COM. fatigue. carminative. tonic. Kapha " and " Vata ". Leaves—digestible. abortifacient. and the root for making these more potent. sweet. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. :—E. K. leprosy. See—Vegetables.—Umbelliferæ. Sk. astringent. Sk. Kalimusali. G. anthelmintic. FAM. enlargment of the spleen. Girautmi. Cumin. . USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. scabies. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. Jira. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. K. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). thirst. also a lactagogue. Ajjika. haematinic.
:—Stemless herb. diarrhœa. very short. Peninsula. bronchitis. vomiting. pains in joints (Yunani). L. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. root stock large. tonic. antipyretic. :—Konkan and Gujarat. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. oblong. alexiteric. aphrodisiac.— in autumnal spikes 7. gonorrhœa. :—A small herb. all skin-diseases. t. ophthalmia. Fl. G. during convalescence after acute illness. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. alterative. L. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. causes "Vata". colic.—capsule.5 cm. ulcers on penis. fattening. linear or linear-lanceolate . aphrodisiac.3-2. useful in piles. inflammations (Ayurveda). indigestion. LOC. antipyretic. scabies. black. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. debility and impotence. cooling.:—Sweet. alterative and tonic. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. common at the beginning of rains. Ambahaladara. Karpuraharidra. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in inflammations. fatigue. t. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. oblong. " Vata". lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Java. Fl.5-12. emollient. hairy on the back. Ambehalad. yellow.— May-June. appetiser. Ambahaldi. cylindric or ellipsoid. W. Kanara. piles. lumbago. :—E. M. HABITAT :—Hotter regions.—sessile or petiolate. CHAR. stomatitis (Yunani).5 cm. Fl. LOC. . Amhaladi. C—white or very pale-yellow.:—W. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac . useful in bronchitis. jaundice. Bengal.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. K. DISTR. lumbago. aphrodisiac. distichous. sessile. NS. maturant. Fl. LOC. gleet. diarrhœa. flowering bract greenish-white. with a beak . perianth segments elliptic.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. FAM. laxative. Sd.—grooved. pale yellow inside . :—Konkan and N.5-15 X 3. hiccup. troubles in the mouth and ear. rhizome. appetiser. Root—carminative. clavate . PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. scape.8-5 cm. expectorant.—Scitamineæ. gleet. tips sometimes rooting. Amragandha. Sk. Assam. hydrophobia. 1545 X 1. shining . tubers thick.-Sept. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in biliousness. Kapurahaldi. asthma. Mango-ginger. biliousness. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . Fr. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). H. COM. DISTR. 30-45x7. Peninsula. bitter. oblong lanceolate. :—Bengal. Bitter. diuretic. appetising.—long petioled in tufts. Malay Archipelago. gonorrhœa.— in racemes. often cultivated.
lobes pale-rose. Banharidra. Halad. LOC. Sholi. in spikes 15-30 cm. :—E. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . NS.5 cm. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. DISTR. Fl. Arishina. Halada. the dorsal longer. K. appearing before leafing stem.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics. Aranyaharidra. Indian saffron. Jayanti. sessile. Sk. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. lip yellow. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises. Sholika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. M. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. :—Western Peninsula. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. base deltoid. M. Vanhaldara. forming pouches for the flowers.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. COM. 3lobed. :—E. Haridra. long. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. flowers fragrant. Sometimes cultivated. Yellow Zedoary.—Scitamineæ. appetiser . CURCUMA LONGA Linn.-May. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. Varnadatri. C. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. COM. Turmeric. LOC. green. L. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Also cultivated in Konkan. Cochin-Wild turmeric. CHAR. Mangalya. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell.. Fl. G. used as an application for skin-diseases. DISTR. root-stock large. H. also stomachic. Bengal. G.— flowering stem sheathed. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. It is considered tonic and carminative. NS. Sk. sometimes cultivated. upper half funnel-shaped.—tube 2. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. Ran-halad. it is seldom used alone . pale green. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. long. annulate. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Tubers. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. H.—Scitamineæ. Kapur-kachali. :—Stemless herb. palmately branched. rounded at the tips. Banhaladi. biennial. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. Vanarishta. t. Harita. FAM. Halad. variegated above. flowering bracts cymbiform. . lateral lobes oblong. oblong elliptic or lanceolate.
piles.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. blood diseases. swellings. Karechura. useful in " Kapha". lobed . bitter. Jatala. laxative. It contains vitamin A. inflammations. H. urinary discharges. Fl. internally administered in blood disorders. small-pox. Tuber is used as a stimulant. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy. good for liver affections. CHAR. antipyretic. an alkaloid. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa.—Scitamineæ. 30-60 cm. bitter. G. anthelmintic. said to be Wild in E. Sk. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. DISTR. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. :—Cultivated in the State. destroys foulness of breath. root-stock of palmately branched. oblong-lanceolate. pale-yellow inside. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. vulnerary. bruises (Yunani). fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. The plant contains curcumin. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. long. oblong. K. Kachuri. . and inflammatory troubles of the joints . fumes are used during hysteric fits . FAM . alexiteric. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. boils and urticaria. anthelmintic. Hakhir. bruises.—capsule. alexiteric. LOC. cylindric. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . clothed with sheaths. scabies. odour like camphor. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. appearing before the leaves. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. Shathi. maturant. In coryza. Himalayas and Chittagong. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. urinary discharges. lip 3-lobed. C. bruises. vulnerary. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing.:—E. Bitter. jaundice. Fr. M. L. flowering bract green tinged with red . tonic. :—Stemless herb. used in prurigo. deepyellow. carminative. Kachora. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. leucoderma. boils. See—Condiments and Spices. itches etc. In small-pox and chicken-pox. sprains (Ayurveda). COM. externally applied to leech-bites. Narakachora. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. useful in leucoderma. fragrant.—funnel shaped.—4-6 with long petioles. NS. coma-bract crimson or purple . LOC. clouded with purple down the middle. HABITAT :—Cultivated. asthma.— flowering stem 20-25cm. and yields an essential oil. taste bitterish spicy. "Vata ". Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. scabies. diuretic. Kachari. 3-gonous. long. heating. emollient. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. Gandhamulaka sara. Kachora. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. heating. Zedoary. improves complexion. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. flowers yellow in spikes. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. annulate tubers. appetiser.
throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. . upto over 90 cm. furunculosis. neuralgia. Majjige hullu. velvety at the nodes. sharp. bitter. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. up to over 1. it is stimulant. L. alexipharmic. carminative.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. :—A tall perennial. stimulant and carminative. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. G. glaucous green. culm stout.:—E. useful in griping of children. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. K. applied to bruises and sprains. also used as a tonic and depurative. appetiser. It is an excellent stomachic to children. Tubers yield an essential oil. gastric irritability. useful in bronchitis. and other painful affections. anthelmintic. inflammations. leprosy. enlargement of spleen. expectorant. sharp hot taste. Bitter. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent. emmenagogue. Externally it is rubefacient. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. high. laxative. FAM. midrib whitish on the upper side. PARTS USED :—Leaves..MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). laxative. Bhustrina. Lemon grass. Sk.8 m. chronic rheumatism. Gandhatrina. sheaths terete . LOC. others narrow and separating. sprains. H. NS. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). hot. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago.—Gramineæ. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. epileptic fits. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic. it is also a good application for ringworm. tonic to brain and heart. long. Lilicha. Putigandha. of much use in typhoid fevers. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. and is of great value in cholera. probably of Indian origin. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. M.—linear tapering upwards to a point. Takratrina. COM. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. pains. aphrodisiac. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. DISTR. CHAR. Gavati-chaha. LOC.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. long. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. Purhati hullu. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. tuberculous glands of neck. good odour. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. Ligule very short. toothache (Yunani). erect. sheaths of the culm tight. It is also aromatic. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. carminative. alexipharmic. LOC. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. nodding. emetic.
leprosy. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere. Dhro. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. Mangala. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. Fl. Durva. epileptic fits.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. Sind. burning sensation. Fr. L. high. finely acute. forming matted tufts. Rohisha.—flat. stem. K. 1. sweet. DISTR.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. bad taste in the mouth. CHAR. M. Shatamula. most warm countries. long. soft. with erect flowering branches 7. usually broad. hallucinations. margins scabrid. throughout India. Fl.—Oct. X 1 cm. subcordate or rounded at the base. LOC. leafy. :—Cosmopolitan . those below the inflorescence 23 cm. sheaths tight. :—A perennial grass . antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. thirst. Sk.—Gramineæ. long. 12-18 mm. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. smooth. Shatagranthi. :—E. COM. Durva. M. Harali. W. H. Roshagavat. COM. scabies. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. oblique or divaricate. G.000 m. wide below. L.. Dhoboghas.-Nov. heart diseases. carminative. Bujina. Durba. Vasanchullu. pungent. glaucous beneath. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). stem. bitter. :—E.:—Grows all over the State. vomiting. t.—spikes 2-nate. long. Baluchistan. narrowly linear. leprosy. FAM. pains. Ghats. Shyamaka. G. green or purplish. Rhusghas. :—Punjab. Roshdo. CHAR.3 cm. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass.5-2. Bahuvirya. straw coloured.5-5 cm. Afghanistan. useful in biliousness. LOC. Garikehallu. widely creeping. useful in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. K. Geramium grass.—2-10 cm. See-Oils. skin . Konkan. NS.5-30 cm. Burma.t. Mirchiagand. particularly the Deccan trap areas.4 m. slender. Deccan. Bhutika. Fl. long. Gujarat. Fl. prostrate . high. Rohisha.—throughout the year. in the Himalayas.—Gramineæ. Saugandhika. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. cooling.—grain. :—Sourashtra. Gharo. H. S. Country. M. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. DISTR. Africa to Morocco. NS. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass. 1 mm. bronchitis. throat troubles. FAM. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. and Ceylon ascending to 3. Sk. through N. LOC. Kobbar. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. fatigue. upto 2.
appetiser. stolons elongate. cooling. dysentery. :—Throughout India. thirst. Bitterish. Ceylon. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. juice is used in hysteria. :—Glabrous herb. . In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. blood diseases.—Cyperaceæ. USES :—Roots are commonly. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. dyspepsia. erysipelas (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. CHAR. stomatitis. Nut—broadly ovoid. vulnerary. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. PARTS USED :—Tubers. Granthi.5 cm. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. expectorant. See—Fodder Plants. COM. M. anthelmintic. LOC. blood diseases. FAM. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. In Ceylon. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . fever. Mutha. most hot countries. pruritis. acrid. Root— diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. L. pain. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. Motha. a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. Fl. DISTR. epistaxis. trigonous. spikelets 10-50 flowered. narrowly linear. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. stomachic. diaphoretic. Koranarigadde. erysipelas. difficult to eradicate. very troublesome weed. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. it is diuretic. Mustaka.82.—Sept-Nov.. Motha. Kachhola. bruises. useful in leprosy. NS. epistaxis (Ayurveda). bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. epilepsy and insanity. biliousness. fevers. useful for ulcers and sores.. greyish black. diarrhœa. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. 0. hiccup (Yunani). burning sensation. vulnerary. Nagarmotha. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. useful in vomiting. Tubers yield an essential oil. ophthalmia. Bimbal. Motha. dysentery. t. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. anthelmintic. Fl. Sk Bhadramusta. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. LOC. biliousness. astringent. Tungegaddo. vomiting. fever. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. epilepsy. H. :—G. Sugandhi-granthila.— in simple or compound umbel. They are also diuretic and stimulant. dyspepsia and stomach complaints.—shorter or longer than the stem. urinary concretions (Yunani). diarrhœa. K. emmenagogue.
:—Deccan. LOC. Ns. COM. 18 cm. Fl. soft spiny. funnel-shapped. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. 30-60 cm.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. Bhranta.—capsule. Sk.. corona outer and inner. :—A perennial twining herb. K: Dhattura. on curved stalk 3. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). tubular. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. afterwards racemose. entire or with large teeth or lobes. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). Gujarat. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. broadly ovate or suborbicular. ovate. HABIT :—A common weed. Kanaka. greenish-yellow or dull-white. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. across. S.—7. :—Annual shrub. high. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. Rajdhattura. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. diam. packed. M. FAM. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. . Fr. double. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. nodding. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine.5 cm. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. t. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. white inside. ciliate. H. inner curved high over the staminal column.—Aug. acute. M. DISTR. paralytic ileus. Kanaka. long.g.2-7.—follicle. Sd. Kala-dhotara. Fl. Black-Purple datura. Fl. Utarni. velvety pubescent beneath. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin. NS. C.—thin. very unequal at the base.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. LOC. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. Phalakantak.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. long 10-20. Fl. Fr. solitary. e. CHAR. and sub-involution of the uterus.5 cm. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus . divaricately branched. usually pubescent. Administered after the third stage of labour.— tubular. subglobose. green. Unmatta. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle.—purple outside. G.5-15 X 3.:—E. outer truncate. Utran. t. CHAR. a glucoside.2 cm. :—Throughout India in hotter parts. reflexed. somewhat zigzag. lobes spreading.—Sept-Dec. Sd. Sk. L. There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ". yellowish brown. spur acute. L.—many. covered with straight sharp prickles. glabrous above. beak long. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions.—Solanaceæ. COM. Country. :—H.-Jany. Kaladhatura. stem hairy. Kaladhatura. M. Kariyu-Um-Matta.
anthelmintic. Cultivated in many parts of India. The whole plant is narcotic. biliousness. tonic. emetic. ulcers. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. leaves and seeds. Europe. LOC. cause headache (Yunani). jaundice. with curdled milk. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. PARTS USED :—Roots.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. H. M. Gajar. skin-diseases. :—E. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. and antispasmodic properties. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. :—Throughout the tropics. GranthiPinda-Mula. PARTS USED :—Root. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. The plant as a whole has narcotic. alexiteric. to increase their stupefying effect. Gajra.—Umbelliferæ COM. enlargement of testicles and boils. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. HABITAT :—Cultivated. chronic coughs. DISTR. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. ganja. piles. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. Gajar. useful in leucoderma. NS. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. . black (Kala) and white (Safed). Sk. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. equal in effect to atropine. relieves pain. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. toxic. Gajar. FAM. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. digestive and heating. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. USES :—Out of the two varieties. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. Carrot. bitter. Garjara.. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. nodes. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. Leaf-juice is given internally. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. leaves and seeds. febrifuge. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. in combination with subja. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. G. anodyne. aphrodisiac. febrifuge. heating. anthelminitic . toddy. LOC. headache. (Ayurveda). Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Gajjari. emetic. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. Seeds—narcotic. nosetrouble. painful tumours. black variety is considered to be more powerful. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. mumps etc. majum. bronchitis. Leaf poultice. Shikkikanda. in gonorrhœa.
corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. LOC. cardiotonic. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. Deccan and S. tropical Africa. paler and hairy beneath. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. DISTR. B and C. good for liver. DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. Tonic. Roots contain vitamins A. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. Ceylon. they produce a spirituous liquor. chronic affections of chest and lungs. inflammations. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. they are also diuretic. good for inflammation. pains. Country. cures leprosy. China. FAM. diuretic. Root marmalade is refrigerant. astringent to bowels. thirst. NS. Salpani. :—Konkan and N.2 m. anthelmintic. " Tridosha ". antidysenteric. Philippines. stomachic. asthma. removes " Kapha". Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. cures typhoid. Dirghamula. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Vidarigandha. piles. asthma. fattening. Ranbhal. boiled with honey and fermented. other fevers.6-1. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. CHAR. USES :—Externally. Burma. useful in chronic fevers. :—A woody undershrub. urinary discharges. dysentery . biliousness. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. M. chest troubles. thirst. stems and branches angled. burning sensation. joints 6-8. Salpan. hairy. Malay Peninsula and Islands .—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. M.—onefoliate. Kitavinashini.—in terminal or axillary racemes. alterative. L.—May-July. Fr. :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m. astringent to bowels. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. Sk. tumours. Darh. 0. cough. :— G. Salwan. K.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. " Vata". expectorant. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). upper edge straight. vomiting. cures biliousness. prevents death of fœtus in womb . LOC. standard cuneate at the base . ovate-oblong. Salwan. alexipharmic. high. carminative. It is used in fevers. throughout India. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal.—pod. membranous. Fl. tonic. vomiting and asthma. nausea (Yunani). hooked hairy. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . piles. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. See—Vegetables. C—violet or white. hiccup. Salparni. green and glabrous above. used in bronchitis. margins wavy. t. aphrodisiac. Salwan. Kanara . indigestible. . sub-falcate. H.. Shaliparni. urinary complaints. LOC. bronchitis. vomiting. Murele-honne.
the basal fascicled. FAM. COM. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. skin eruptions. PARTS USED :—Wood. branches short crowded. t. Kanara and the Konkan. reaching 50 cm. Konkan. Dab. :—Throughout India. stolon very stout. NS. Egypt. DISTR. oleaginous.8 cm. diuretic. Tumaki Mara. good for lumbago. Sacred Plants. fruit and seeds.—many. Timbwini. Riber ebony. erect pyramidal or columnar. aphrodisiac. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. biliousness. used in biliousness and blood diseases. Gavandu. diseases of bladder. :—Along the coasts of N. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. cures ulcers and " Vata". astringent to bowels. in the beds of rivers and streams. COM. LOC. stems 30-90 cm. thirst. G. Makurkendi. Pavitra. Malay Archipelago. (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv.—Dec. -panicle 15-45 X 1. K. NS. vaginal discharges. LOC. Nubia. Gale. Tendu. useful in blood diseases. Fl. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. clothed with sessile spikelets.. tufted. Kusha. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. stout. M. smooth. H. H. Tinduka. Durva. long. Sk. Syria. strangury. high. rigid.—G. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. bark.3-3. :—Perennial tall grass. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). Temburni. cooling. Wild mangosteen.) FAM. Sphurjaka. sedative to pregnant uterus. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). Davoli. Tumari. interrupted. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Banda. ligule a hairy line . See—Fodder Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. branched from the base. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). covered with shining sheaths. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. Dabha. margins hispid. vomiting. rootstock stout. Thailand (Siam). creeping. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. Fruit—oleaginous.—Ebenaceæ. asthma. Ceylon. LOC. diseases of blood. Gujarat. jaundice. Anilsara. Kalatendu. flowers. erect. Fl. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places. heating. Darbha. sheaths glabrous. L. Wood cures biliousness. Darbha. vesical calculi. :—E. Kalaskandh. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Sk. . CHAR. Zeeberwo.:—Saurashtra.—Gramineæ.
strangury. Kulitha. Sori two in each primary areole. M. DISTR. :—E. abdominal complaints. piles. Kulithaka. Sk. piles. diseases of the brain and eyes. tumours. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. Surfaces naked. COM. LOC. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. CHAR. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. :—Tropics of the old world. Grains contain vitamin A. Country—Belgaum.—Polypodiaceæ. Nasik. NS. bronchitis.Gahat. asthma. Tans. eye troubles. liver troubles. inflammation. Kulathi. Konkan— Ratnagiri. heart-troubles. Kalvrinta. grown to a certain extent in S. Sk. hiccup. stout. "Vata". Kulthi. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Wandar bashing. enlargement of spleen. Kulit. See-Food Plants. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. NS. Ashvakatri. ovate. Bijapur and Dharwar. fertile ones long stalked. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa. ozoena. . :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Kulthi.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. variously lobed. Diuretic. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. acrid. LOC. improves complexion. leucoderma. densely clothed with red-brown scales. intestinal colic. coughs etc. Bark is used for intermittent fevers. cures hiccup. Texture membranaceous to leathery. cordate. short. G. Kulith. :—Rhizome creeping. fattening. Horse-Gram. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. M. dry. Hurali. anthelmintic. pain in liver. Jurali. hot. emmenagogue. urinary discharges. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. H. Basingh. generally on trees and rocks. causes biliousness (Yunani). FAM. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. appetiser. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. COM. :—M. Sitetara. It is demulcent in calculus affection. base decurrent on the stipe. cures " Kapha". DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. K. See—Timbers. removes stone from kidney. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. antipyretic.
— opposite.—sessile. improves taste. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). Utkanta. yellowish. Kantaphala. analgesic. :—G. bitter. M. Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. often rooting at the nodes. branches widely spreading from the base. causes " Kapha". gleet. :—Kanara. t. biliousness. H. Kantalu. also cultivated to a certain extent. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis.:—Throughout India. Utanti. Kalobhangro . antipyretic. Kadigga-garaga. hot. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. spines 2. glabrous above. pain in joints. strigose and hairy. NS. LOC. K. high. L. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. Bhangro. useful in brain-diseases.—heads white. usually oblong-lanceolate. Sk. wooly beneath. Plant stomachic. Kadechubak. NS.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. :—Konkan. Fl. H. Keshrangana.5 cm. bracts 3seriate. :—More or less throughout India. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. COM. inflammations. Balari. COM.9 m.—limb linear.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. dyspepsia. Markara. spiny. Shulio. Pitripriya. Utkatara. cottony pubescent. FAM. C. the lobes triangular and oblong. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. densely villous. LOC. intermediate produced in sharp spine. Country.—Compositæ. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. CHAR. tonic.— Nov. cooling. " Vata". Mochand. :—G. Ajagara.—achene obconic. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. urinary discharges. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb.—Compositæ. diseases of heart. Garagadasoppu. S. DISTR. Sk. involucre. Deccan. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic. subentire. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. L. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). Utkantaka. :—A much branched rigid annual. Sunilaka. sinuate and spinescent. Fl. Fr. Root— abortifacient. Konkan. used in strangury. hectic fever. LOC. thirst. oblong. Bhangra. surrounded by strong white bristles. deeply pinnatifid. Bhringraj. stimulates liver. pappus short. dyspepsia and cough. It is used in hoarse cough. stems and branches strigose and hairy. globose. cottony. Utkanto. increases appetite. . chronic fever. hysteria. used in ophthalmia. long. sessile. CHAR. Dadhal. Maka. astringent to bowels . 0. M. DISTR.3—0. Afghanistan.-Jany. Utakatara. Bhangra. Seeds—wholesome.
DISTR. Karangi. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . Fr. alterative. cuneate with a narrow wing.—achene. liver pain. Bitter . cultivated. There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. t. H. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. tonic. Fl.-Dec. Velchi. good for spleen diseases. "Vata". Gandhkuti. Choti-Elachi. :—E. Sk. stomachic. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. axillary.:—India (Bengal. expectorant. Veldoda. ray flowers ligulate. heart and skin diseases.94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis.. teeth.—Scitaminaceæ. disk ones tubular . Cosmopolitan in warm climate. hair. There are two forms erect and prostrate. hot. improves colour of hair. internal diseases. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. :—Western valleys of N. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis. See—Sacred Plants. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . Ilaji. Sind. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. night blindness. and for strengthening gums. toothache. fattening. Ela. fevers. LOC. hernia. stomatitis. eyes. bronchitis. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. . It is given internally in scalding of urine. Panjab. Madhya Bharat.—in heads. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State. pappus 0. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. syphilis. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). Peninsula). hemi-crania. anæmia. cures inflammations. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. FAM. C—often 4-toothed . prevents abortion and miscarriage. it is powdered and applied externally. "Kapha". lustre of eyes. Gourangi. good for complexion. LOC. Triputa. Malaya. Kanara (Siddapur. Yalakki. Ceylon. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. Chandrabala. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). It relieves headache when applied with oil. Bahula. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. W. K. M. Burma. COM. leucoderma. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. asthma. eye diseases. G. anthelmintic. antipyretic. Elachi. cures vertigo (Yunani). solitary or 2 together. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. alexipharmic. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers.— Oct. a reputed and popular liver tonic. involucral bracts about 8 . NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter.
cooling. M.:—G. LOC. PARTS USED :—Grain. fragrant. alexiteric . Jantughna. Marua. FAM. useful in head. pungent. kidney. chest and throat (Yunani). useful in asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid. stomachic. Seed—fragrant. Nagali. ear and tooth ache. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. LOC. See-Food Plants. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). In S. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. It is said to be astringent.—Gramineæ. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. Navalo-nagali. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. cooling. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. abortifacient. Grains contain vitamin B. Vavoding. useful in biliousness. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. most suitable to hard-working classes. diseases of bladder. Bidanga. root is laxative and tonic. carminative. lessens inflammation. fruit is tonic. H. stimulant and emmenagogue. FAM. diuretic. diuretic. stomachic. consumption. Narttaka. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery.:—Western and S. tonic to heart. brain and mouth. bronchitis. pruritus. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. :— G. PARTS USED :—Root. piles. NS. It is stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. Bavato. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. M. Rajika. K. H. See—Condiments and Spices. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations.—Myrsinaceæ. NS. bitter. Varding. Kanisha. clear head. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. CUM. Ragi. Vavading. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. strangury. rich or poor. Sk. causes thirst. Wavrung. scabies. Makra. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. cultivated. K. Rotka. fruit and seeds. Sk. DISTR. India. Bhasmaka. Boberang. COM. bad humours of liver. cause biliousness . Pavaka. LOC. Vayuvitang. Nachani. tonic. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). laxative. Vidariga. . Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy..
Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. Malay Islands. HABITAT :—Rain forests. like a pepper corn when dried. :—Throughout India. useful in burning sensation. carminative. Triphala. leaves. " Kapha'. PARTS USED :—Root. jaundice. good appetiser. leprosy. flexible. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). alterative. Western Ghats. Dadi. sour. erysipelas. black when ripe. laxative. Embelic myrobalan. 42-II-1932).96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fl. Fr. nearly globose. Fl. tonic. Avala. anthelminitic. many. Seed— acrid. :—Hilly parts of the State. good for plethoric constitution. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. LOC. diseases of heart.—Euphorbiaceæ. mental diseases. S. Konkan and N. L. poisoning. alexiteric. alterative.—berry. China. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . cooling. bark studded with lenticels . Anward. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. aphrodisiac. flowers. Adiphala. Malaya. dry. coriaceous. laxative.—alternate. Ther. carminative. DISTR. K. constipation. inflammations. antipyretic. Amla. with a sharp bitter taste. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. Pharm. smooth. alexiteric.) FAM. urinary discharges. NS. branches long. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). anuria. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Ceylon. internodes long. Nellika . Ceylon. Gokhale. succulent. Int. Bhoza . Dhatriphala. piles. cures bronchitis . DISTR. G. Ambala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. dyspnoea. t. H. COM. bronchitis. Paranjpe and G. analgesic. paler and silvery beneath. Amalaka. often planted in Konkan. urinary discharges. vomiting. anæmia. sweats. Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only.—in lax panicles. greenish yellow.—Feb. wild or planted. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. :— E. shining above. PARTS USED :—Fruit. slender. Deccan. dries wound discharges . hemicrania. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Amlika. Sk. " Tridosha ". ascites. strangury. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. Anola. LOC. Kanara. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. Dhatri. cures tumours. . a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. et. thirst. fruit and seeds. Amlika. purgative. useful in asthma. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. bronchitis. Daula . LOC. S. vulnerary. biliousness. Bitter. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. K. racemes minute. anthelmintic . (Dymock). :—A large scandent shrub. bark. reddens urine. Arch. China. M. elliptic-lanceolate. (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn.
USES :—Root. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". opposite. bark and fruit are astringent. NS. Tans. Fr. Madvinashi. LOC. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter.-Nov. Garambi. :—E. astringent. L. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). CHAR.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). mid-nerve strong.— capsule. purifies body humours (Yunani). Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. Malaya. thirst. COM. stems erect or procumbent. Tiktapatra. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. vulnerary. Mackary bean. ellipsoid. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. LOC. narrowed at the base. Dyes. tropical Africa.) FAM. biliousness. COM. piles. M. Celyon. Hallekayiballi. Garbe. :—G. cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). Nagajivha. rounded apex. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. M. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr. See—Timbers.—sessile. West Indies. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. branched from the base. cold in the nose. stops nasal hæmorrhage. :—Throughout the greater part of India. Fl. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Sind. used as laxative and astringent. cooling. Sk. Country. liver complaints. S.—Aug.—Gentianaceæ.—sessile. DISTR. Grey). :—Konkan. Dried fruits. :—A perennial glabrous herb. Fruit—acrid. FAM. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. anthelmintic. Tanavadi. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. NS. Fruit Trees. Fl. sour. t. in axillary clusters all along the stem. high. Unripe fruit is cooling.). In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. Ind. 3-nerved. Giant's rattle. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. variable. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. Doddakampi. tonic. improves appetite. sub-quadrangular or terete. white. Saurashtra. Mamejavo . lobes 5. aperient. expectorant. Kadvinayi. Lady nut. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. R. eye troubles. C—infundibuliform. H. Gujarat. Nahu. . useful in heart-diseases. Mabhipaka. diuretic and laxative. M. 10—50 cm. (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. K. Chhotakirayat.
Mochi-wood. bark used in dysentery.98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. C.. Paribhadra. Salaki. stalked. wide and 3-8 cm. Pegu. :—Konkan and N. COM. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. for grapevines in Nasik district. Panarvo. Arakan. :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. mixed with spices. M. glabrous. the tropics generally. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. Nepal. PARTS USED :—Seeds. slightly curved.5-5-7 cm. t. often along river banks. long. Hongara. Indian coral-tree. Halivan.) FAM. Planted as ornament. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. Mullumurige. 3.7-5x7. rigidly coriaceous. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. in debility and glandular swellings . long. Var. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid. 30-90 cm.-May. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. shining and brown. dark green. Leaves—bitter.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).3-2 cm. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. along sea-coast above high-water. ORIENTALIS Merr. LOC. leaflets 7-5 x 2. :—E. Sk. Ceylon. The plant is used as a fish-poison. orbicular. improve appetite. oblong or obovate. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflammations. W. branches terete. PROPERTIES AND LOC. smooth. Pangara. DISTR. Phandra . G.5-10 cm. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. Raktapushpa. Fr. Mandara. K. Planted as support for pepper vines. USES :—Powdered kernel. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. woody.— Mar. N. hot. anthelmintic. they are given internally as an emetic.—2pinnate. leaves.—pod. Kantakinshuka. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.S. Tennaserim. stomachic. Sd. H. L. Mandara. bark. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". Panjira. pinnae 2—3 pairs. compressed. Bangaro. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats. Fl. Dadap. PARTS USED :—Root.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. diam. cure urinary discharges.—yellow. Panderavo. Pangara. :—Coast forests of Malabar. . LOC.. Andamans and Nicobar. Kanara. 4.. Sundribans.—6-15. indented between the seeds. flowers. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. DISTR. thick. Fl. Peninsula.
:—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. FL. Fl. —throughout the year. Dudhi. gland minute. Pusitoa. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. Milk bush. Fr. Nevli. Pill-bearing spurge. Duddi. serrulate or dentate. M.—involucres numerous. it is anthelmintic. Sher. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. K. dark green above. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. erect or ascending. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. Sk. Indian tree spurge. M. Sahud. Bahukshira. FAM. and to relieve pain of the joints. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Annual herb. CHAR. COM. Dudhi. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes.—Euphorbiaceæ. Dudhi. Milk hedge.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. base unequal-sided. NS. pale beneath.—Euphorbiaceæ. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. globose. Kodukalli. 18th Ind. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. reddish brown. Dandalio thora. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. L. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Achchegida.—capsule. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Cong. K. Sendh. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts. H. H. Plant is chiefly used for worms. :— E. COM. appressedly hairy. NS. Mondukalli. Sc.—opposite. Australian asthma herb. Paradeshi thora . Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Ceylon. :—E. Vajradruma. 15-50 cm. Sk. Sd. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. Dandasruha. See—Timbers. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. with or without a limb. high. branches often 4-angled. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). The plant contains an alkaloid. bowel complaints and cough in children. rugose. G. Dudanali. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. .—ovoid-trigonous. Nagpur 1931). HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. Bottugalli. t. Govardhan. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. G. Shirthahar.
4valved. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. prostrate. teething of infants . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. also as an alterative. t. smooth. Vishnukranti. :—A perennial herb. anthelmintic. enlargement of spleen. tonic. silky hairy. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. cocci velvety.-Aug. usually clothed with long hairs . :—A small tree. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage.—Convolvulaceæ. :—G. Kalisankhavali. LOC. and with oil to promote growth of hair. K. about 6 m. LOC. alterative. Vishnugandhi.—many.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. campanulate. thin. dropsy. Shyamakranta .-July-Nov. milk is alexiteric. useful in gonorrhœa. H. L. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. The plant contains an alkaloid. . mostly female. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Fl. elliptic-oblong. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. LOC. Fl. solitary or sometimes 2. peduncles very long. COM. smooth. Ceylon. jaundice. useful in abdominal troubles. biliousness. thick like quill. axillary. tropical and sub-tropical countries. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. base acute. Vishnukranta. Sk. alexiteric. :—Throughout the State. leprosy and leucorrhoea. branchlets whorled. brightens intellect. FAM. Fl. dyspepsia. :—Sind. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. Nilpushpi. L. long (appearing in rainy season) . t. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. colic. asthma. CHAR. Konkan and Gujarat. terete. rootstock woody . Sd. globose. carminative. LOC. stems many. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). DISTR. wiry. spreading.—small. 6-13 mm. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—Native of East Africa. DISTR.-light blue. NS. naturalised in India. M. tumours. Fr. Fr. branches erect. more than 5 cm. almost leafless. Vishnukranta. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. leprosy. useful in biliousness. Sd— glabrous.—ovoid. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice.— capsule.-Sep. pungent. employed to raise blisters. Juice is purgative. epilepsy. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Jhinkiphudardi. long. carminative. whooping cough. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. high. Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. useful in bronchitis. leucoderma. linear. polished.—capsule. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. stone in bladder (Yunani).
dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. high. thirst. in chronic bronchitis. FL. purifies blood (Ayurveda). :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. :— Sind.—very variable in size and form sessile. Ind. N. Sd. the middle the largest. :—An erect annual. elliptic or lanceolate. :— H. M. fever. toothache. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. 1-seeded cocci. Iran. good for liver troubles. emmenagogue. yellowish brown. Circars. stomatitis.—solitary. cures dysentery. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. t. Fr. C—lobes 4-5. acute. leaflets linear. Maval. it has got cooling properties. cooling. CHAR. removes "Vata. CHAR. Fr. t. obliquely obovate. removes "Vata". it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns.— showy. Hinguna. flattened.). NS. sessile. pale rose-coloured. asthma. Coimbatore. westwards to Afghanistan. scarcely branched. shining. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. LOC. the upper blue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter.—Zygophyllaceæ. Rajasthan. Waziristan.-Aug. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. ellipsoid.—Gentianaceæ. :—A small spiny erect undershrub. . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. L. Sk. reduces tumours. Ghats. Udichirayat. typhoid. Kashaya. reaching 60 cm. Dhamaso . Dhanavi. Country. quadrangular. ophthalmia. W. lower half white. root fibrous. of 5. stem. COM. DISTR. Fl. alexipharmic. Fl. about 1. Mysore. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. 5-nerved. M. FAM. Dusparsha. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. Bark is used in scabies. DISTR. NS." asthma. smooth. LOC. 1-3 foliate. Ustarkhar.—capsule.2 cm. small. pyramidal to the apex. Arabia. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. Punjab. arising from between the stipules . Barachirayat. glandular hairy. L. deeply 5-partite.-Nov. petioles deeply striate. spitting of blood. ovate. Dhamasa. Mediterranean. more or less glandular. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. in copious terminal cymes . Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. :—G. FAM. smooth. :—Madras State.-Dec. COM.— ovoid. vomiting. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew).-Oct. urinary discharges. long. also used in chronic fevers. Atmamuli.—opposite. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). Baluchistan. LOC. erysipelas. :—Konkan. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . HABITAT :—Pasture lands. M. Upper Gangetic plains. Gujarat. Prabhodhini. H. Deccan hills and S. Cooling.
strengthening to gums . Kothun.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. dysentery. Fruit Trees. heart diseases. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . acrid. Kait. difficult to digest. refrigerant . USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. Byala. vomiting . which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Seeds—antidote to poison. Bar. Bahupada. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. common in the Tapi Valley. aphrodisiac. Dadhiphala. fatigue. removes biliousness. COM. L. 10-20 X 5-12. tonic to heart. :—E.—Rutaceæ.5 cm. M. H. Kapipriya. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. NS. " Tridosha".— globose. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. about 2 cm. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . Kavitha. See—Timbers. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Kavath. consumption. DISTR. cures cough. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. S. Kotha. :—Indigenous in S. Nyagrodha. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. alexipharmic. Grahiphala. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. Vata. LOC. Alada. Goli. ophthalmia. with spreading branches. Sk. Kathel. :— E.—coriaceous. Leaves—very astringent. binding diuretic. Kavit. blood impurities. tumours. Ala. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). Balin.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. often planted. M. leucorrhoea. useful in biliousness. Manmadha. Belada. Java. G. Vadlo . CHAR. Kanara. Banian tree. Vat. Self-sown. asthma. female. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. H. with male. Monkey fruit. Bargad. ovate to elliptic. high. astringent.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Ghats. Vad. PARTS USED :—Leaves. thirst.. liver and lungs . G. :—Cultivated all over the State. COM. shining above. India. cordate or rounded base.—Moraceæ. Kathinyaphala. LOC. Sk. LOC. Vad. good for throat. Kapitha. diam. often cultivated. " Vata ". Bhringi. K. Jatala. Elephant or wood apple. Fruit—sour . Fr. M. K. . Avaroha. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. NS. country and N. refrigerant. fruit and seeds. hiccup. Malura. FAM. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. Ceylon. Bargat.
diseases of head and blood. India. Anjir. H. maturant. Afghanistan. aphrodisiac. useful in piles. useful in leucoderma. pain in chest cures piles. Grown scattered elsewhere. India. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. erysipelas. COM. laxative. biliousness. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. diuretic. tonic. liver and spleen diseases. vaginal complaints. nose-diseases. LOC. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. fever. Anjir.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. stimulates hair-growth. Fibres. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. PARTS USED :—Bark. Leaves are applied heated as poultice. boils and carbuncles. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. Fig. Simeyatu . Cultivated in N. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. weakness. alexiteric. FAM. thirst. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. ulcers. leaves. :— E. W. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. useful in "Kapha". Kakodumbar. K. :—Baluchistan. inflammations. DISTR. Sacred Plants. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. leprosy. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. useful in syphilis. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Root—tonic. Bijapur. lessens inflammations. Anjir. biliousness. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). NS. G. Seeds are cooling and tonic. Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. Sk. W. vomiting. nose bleeding (Ayurveda).—Moraceæ. nutritive. FICUS CARICA Linn. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. LOC. vulnerary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. M. Dharwar. bruises. Anjir. gonorrhœa. LOC. demulcent. inflammation of liver (Yunani). seeds and milky juice. dysentery. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. Asia and Mediterranean. useful in "Vata". Anjura. hill ranges of S. ringworm. lithotriptic. paralysis. in rheumatism and lumbago. USES :—Fruit is emollient. See—Famine Plants. root-fibres. leprosy (Ayurveda). Aerial root is styptic. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. Milky Juice—expectorant. useful in inflammation . HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils.
(Yunani). burning sensation. Pipal. menorrhagia. diseases of kidney and spleen. M. Shuchidruma. :—E. Sk. Sk. ground with onions. useful in "Kapha". fatigue. H. Gular. PARTS USED :—Root. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. Hemadugdha. DISTR. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. Atti. vagina. FAM. styptic.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. ulcers. Bark is cooling. Bark. urinary discharges. :—Throughout the State near villages. Umar. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. :—E. leaves. Fruit—astringent to bowels. Pipli. Demera.—Moraceæ. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. allays thirst. H. Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. Jari. Pippala.—Moraceæ. galactagogue. FAM. Bark useful in asthma and piles. leprosy. Ragi. biliousness. good for bronchitis. uterus . Pimpal. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy. Milk—aphrodisiac. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. LOC. G. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. Bodhidruma. Pavitraka. Ashwatha mara. Pippala. acrid. Vriksharaj. K. PARTS USED :—Root. COM. tonic. biliousness. Peepal tree . Udumbara. K. M. Fruit— useful in dry cough. NS. NS. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Yajnika. burning sensation. loss of voice. in diseases of blood. LOC. Rumadi. fruit. given in leucorrhoea. DISTR. good for gravid uterus. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Lalka. good for foul taste. is given to cattle in rinderpest. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. Umbar. leucorrhoea. vulnerary. Ashvatha. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. useful. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. bark. HABITAT :—Planted. COM. . G. nose bleedings. Sacred Plants. blood diseases. planted all over. Umbro. Arani. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Gular-Country fig.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. leaves and fruits. Pipal. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout India. bark. See—Timbers. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. latex. Umar. Pipers. cummin.
Handi Kandai. Paker. NS. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. N. aphrodisiac. Sk. :— G. Bhakal. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Sk. Bilangra . Root good for gout.—Flacourtiaceæ. Finkel. Young bark useful in bone fractures. PARTS USED :—Root. Shalina. Satpura. G. Ghats. Shateya. :—E. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Fruit—purgative. M. Badishep. and produces sterility in women. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. upper Gangetic plain. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. checks vomiting (Yunani). COM NS. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. Potika. Hunmunki. Khandesh. Root-bark good in stomatitis. K. cleans ulcers. Circars. Badisoppu. SAPIDA Roxb. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. W. heart diseases. seeds. good for lumbago. See—Timber. common in the Peninsula. Variali. Fennel. FAM. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. Akrani. Hettarimullu. LOC. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. Variari. Mullutari. DISTR. Sacred Plants. S. . Soupa. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. Fodder Plants. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Fruits are sweet. Swadukantaka. FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. promotes granulations. Burma. H. COM. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Bhanber. Kankod . M. Katar. fruit.—Umbelliferæ. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. M. appetising and digestive. H. FAM. Kanara Jungles. HABITAT :—Hills. Gajale. The juice is employed in hiccup. K. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Tapaspriya. Tambat. LOC. See—Timbers. bark. gum. Bhuripushpa. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). astringent in leucorrhoea. Country and N.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst.
cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District. improves appetite and allays thirst. spleen. causing constipation . . young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. common in S. " Vata ". GARCINIA INDICA Chois. furrows vittate. Atyamla. Fr. HABITAT :—Cultivated. burning sensation. often cultivated.6-0. useful in bleeding piles. cardiotonic.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda).— decompound. wounds. Tittidika . M. appetiser. :—A tall glabrous. yellow. dysentery. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. tumours. anthelmintic. wounds etc. Coorg. stimulant. Wild mangosteen. :—W. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. LOC. biliousness. cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. diuretic. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. NS. ultimate segments linear. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Kokam . Oils. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". 0. fissures of lips. lessen inflammations.—in large umbels . Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. (Mhaskar and Caius). dark green. amenorrhœa. laxative. galactagogue. Kokam. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Roots. stomachic. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta". cough and asthma. leaves (rarely). Ghats. demulcent and emollient. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. Kanara. Ratambi. :—E. It is much used as a nutritive. Leaves—improve eyesight. H. Murjinhalli.—ellipsoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. leprosy (Ayurveda). difficult to digest. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. strengthen eyes (Yunani). aromatic and carminative. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. thirst. FL. K. L. anthelmintic. seeds-carminative. PARTS USED :—Bark. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. COM. DISTR. ridges prominent. fever. alexiteric. USES :—Bark is astringent. Wynaad. Amlabija. LOC. G. cures "Tridosh". Sk. FAM. Konkan and N. USES :—used as stimulant. annual. See—Timbers. See—Condiments and Spices. :—Endemic in W. useful in diseases of chest. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. bracts and bracteoles absent. dysentery. Mulgala. eye-diseases. kidney. Kokam . leaves and seeds. fruit and seeds. in headache. Ghats south of Bombay. Tintidika. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. high.—Guttiferæ. LOC.9 m. carpophore 2-partite. DISTR. :—Apparently a native of S. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests.
Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. Fl. relieves pain of bronchitis. common on laterite in southern parts of N. LOC. COM. unarmed. C. :—A deciduous shrub. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. Suvirya. The plant yields a gum Dikemali.8 m. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb.—2.5 cm. oblong.—Feb. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms.-sessile.—Rubiaceæ. Dekamari. See—Gums and Resins. DISTR. DISTR. CHAR. FAM. long. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards . Hingu.-tubular. Dikemali.5x22. :—India (W. -June. Fr. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores. See—Timbers. COM. Kanara. FAM. Dakamali. Dikamali. same as for G. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. PARTS USED:-Gum. Dikkamalli. . all dry districts of Madras State. Burma. Cambi resin tree. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. Dikamari. t. lucida (Ayurveda). LOC. Jantuka. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. NS. lucida. elliptic-obovate. :—India. HABITAT :—Open situations. astringent to bowels. opaque. 1-3 together. :—E. LOC. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). LOC. shining. about 1.5-3. As sold in the bazar it is hard. PARTS USED :—Gum. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. first white then changing to yellow. high. NS. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Peninsula). G. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. not fragrant. Bikke.-subsessile. Pinda. Fl. :—Common from Konkan southwards. Northern ghats of Madras State.—Rubiaceæ. 4.. oblong or ellipsoid. Gums and Resins. K.8 cm. Western Peninsula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. M. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. L. H. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. buds resinous.
Tropical Africa. Fl. leprosy. NS.. filaments long spreading. Languli. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. Agnimukhi. used to remove placenta from uterus. Linn. sometimes whorled. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. anthelmintic.5 cm. scarlet. DISTR. orange. solid. branching climber . Nangulika. t.—large. . The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine. K. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). Malay Peninsula. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Tuber. Kulhari. M. :—Herbaceous. :—Throughout tropical India.—capsule.—sessile. FAM. Kalikari. Fr. leaves and flowers. given off from young tubers . solitary. linear oblong. ovate lanceolate. Khadyanag. COM. Sivasaktibalb . itching. There are two varieties of the plant.-July-Oct. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. linear-lanceolate. Karianag. LOC.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. :—G. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs.3 cm. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. abdominal pains. L. fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2. :—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side.2 cm. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. Huliyuguru. abortifacient. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties. 7. CHAR. laxative. Cochin-China. LOC. Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. scattered or opposite. In case of retained placenta. expectorant. root-stock of arched. alexiteric. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Kathari. Akkitang hall. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers. inflammations. thirst. Sk. heating.5-3. piles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. axillary .—Liliaceæ. Tuber— astringent. tall.. FL. useful in chronic ulcers. and crimson from blooming to fading. H. acrid. Dudhio vachhonag. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State. bitter. changing colours from greenish yellow. perianth segments reaching 6.. margins wavy. Garbhapatani. The former is supposed to be male.5 X 15 X 2-4. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. stems annual. Ceylon. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. Kalihari. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. In Guinea. Indai.
Fruit— diuretic. common on Satpuda. consumption. tonic. FAM. improves appetite . useful in leprosy and blood diseases. thirst. thirst. abdominal pains. White teak. Flowers—astringent. Shivan . useful in indigestion. In the Konkan. strangury. LOC. anthelmintic . See—Fibres. promotes hair-growth. fevers. Gandhari. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. Kashmari. leaves. Malaya. useful in hallucinations. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. urinary discharges. Ceylon. Khandesh. PARTS USED :—Root. Philippines. Bachanige. Var. K. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever.—Verbenaceæ. scalds etc. DISTR. Sind. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. Gupsi. alterative. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. LOC. Coomb teak. Shiwan.—Malvaceæ. burning sensation. M. COM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. stomachic. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. H. . It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. Shiwan. G. :—Throughout India. chronic cystitis. anæmia. consumption and some catarrhal affections . vaginal discharges (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. Tree cotton. Karibatti. Kumbudi. NS. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Devkapas. catarrh of the bladder etc. Madhya Bharat. Cashmere tree. gleet. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. Root taken with liquorice. Sk. piles. DISTR.:—E. indigestible. Devakapus. " Tridosha ". H. Gambari. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Timbers. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. FAM. ulcers. NS. Rajasthan and N. LOC. Savan. aphrodisiac. root is also stomachic and laxative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. K. Gumbhar. M. Hanji. scattered in monsoon forests. Root extract is bitter and tonic. leaves. useful in "Vata". anasarca. Deokapas. :—Throughout the State. COM. Oils. laxative. the root. :— Bengal. Gambhari. Mahabhadra. :— E. leprosy. Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. Provinces. made into paste. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. flowers and seeds. flowers and fruit. Nurma . W. useful in fevers . Shripani. Sk. G. Shivani. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. Karpasam. :—Throughout the State and about temples.
expectorant and aphrodisiac. Phalsa. LOC. Mediterranean. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. good for all kinds of inflammations. Afghanistan. restore consciousness. fruits and seeds. heart and blood disorders. used in orchitis. Roshana. good for throat . :— Cultivated in N. COM. M. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. extensively cultivated. M. DISTR. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Kapus.—Tiliaceæ.—Malvaceæ. preventing their access to wounds etc. (Yunani). laxative . Parapera. LOC. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. NS. cure all ear-troubles. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . G. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. removes " Vata" and biliousness. Arali. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. Leaves remove " Vata " . fruit. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. acrid. A. leaf-juice good in dysentery. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. fomentation for burning eyes . cures inflammations.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. F. poultice applied to burns' scalds. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. Tula. See—Fibres. Anagnika. Tadasala. Kapas .. :—G. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. wild in Deccan. Country. fevers and consumption. FAM. :—Sind. East Tropical Africa. allay thirst. Gujarat and S. NS. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. analgesic. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Seeds—aphrodisiac. sour. PARTS USED :—Root. K. bark. enrich blood. digestible. U. Baluchistan. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Hatti.. S. Kupas. Ripe fruit—sweet. Phalsi. LOC. Rui. :—Cultivated in the State. COM. scabies . removes " Vata ". H. Buttiyu-dippa. increase flow of urine.Phalse. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. In India they are used to procure abortion. Sk. Oils. :—E. tonic. Seeds— ' galactagogue. Arabia and Asia Minor. Karihariyale. Sutrapuspha. Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. Karpas. Iran. Province (Pakistan). expectorant. Seeds are laxative. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. Cotton . in hypochondria. M. H. Egypt. Badari. in hills near Poona. DISTR. Jana. W. PARTS USED :—Root. Dhamin. probably in N. extensively in Gujarat. aphrodisiac. Parusha. Pharuah. demulcent. tonic. Syria. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). FAM. remove biliousness and " Kapha " . leaves. K. Mesapotamia. Rui. cooling. Sk.
Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. Tanmani. :— E. Karalia . corona of 5 processes . tonic. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine. Vishani. Adiyakharan. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). :—A large woody climber. FL.— with thin marginal wing. Hulhul. G. strengthens chest and heart. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Shrikala. Fl. India. Gurmar. Kanphodi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. Kanara coast. Kabari. K. LOC. LOC. SK. Pandhari tilwan. good in heart-diseases. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. Caravella. alterative. CHAR. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. Merasingi. H. Tilparni. t.-May. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. — Asclepiadaceæ. elliptic. biliousness.—follicle. Meshashingi. :E. inflammations. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. Sk. Fruit—sour.—Capparidaceæ. Ceylon. Mabli.— Apl. useful in diarrhœa and fevers. the stomachic stimulant. L. base rounded or cordate . Bedki.— companulate . Br. cornea. Sd. Small Indian ipecacuanha. ulcers. usually single. FAM. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell). Sati talvani. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. vitreous body) burning sensation. Periploca of the woods. Sanngera. DISTR.—in cymes . bronchitis. Bastagandha. acrid. COM. asthma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. yellow . Root and bark used in strangury. . Fr. relieves thirst and hiccup. :—Throughout the State. piles.— opposite. M. Meshavalli. COM. stomachic. Hulhul. C. Ugragandha. :—Western Peninsula. See—Fruit Trees. helps removal of dead fetus. Tropical Africa. H. The ease of administration. Arkapuspika. Churota. Kavali. FAM. young stems densely pubescent. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). LOC. alexiteric. Mahabaleshwar and N. much branched. Sannagerse. Karnasphota. Vakundi. leucoderma. ovate. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). NS. S. cooling. G. sweet. should not be eaten raw. common in hedges in Dharwar district. M. Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Mardashingi. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia. anthelmintic. K. NS. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. lanceolate. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit.
12. Fl. ellipsoid . in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. M. opposite. Marosi. with divaricate herbaceous branches . Gujarat. China. tapering at both ends.-Feb.—petals 4 with long slender claws. K. t.—capsule. stomachic . sessile. NS. dark-brown . tumours. long . HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields.6—1. Sinhgad hills. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge.5 cm. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. H.—Rubiaceæ.—Sterculiaceæ. Fr.—3-5 foliate. viscid. Kanara. :—M. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . Edamuri. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. white or blue.—in dense bracteate racemes. margins crenate-dentate. earache. L. NS. Fl. hairy.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fr.—capsule. Murudi. Murdasing. PARTS USED :—Root.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas.8-9 cm. Country.—muricate. pedicels viscid hairy.. hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle. :—G. leaves and seeds. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. Kewan.5-20 X 3. :—An annual erect herb 0. COM. high. long. Katraj Ghat. ulcers. (Kirtikar and Basu). petioles sometimes armed with small prickles .—rather rigid. Sd. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. vesicant. HABITAT:—Hills.—June. CHAR. pubescent. Jonkaphal Maraphali. FAM.. stem and branches hairy. C. Mrigashringa. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Murudseng. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. 5-9 cm.—Oct. LOC. gynophore 2-2. L. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. acute. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. elliptic-obovate. pink . LOC. . good in ascites. Gidesa Jitasai. hills in Supa Taluka. elliptic-lanceolate. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. Sk. stipules triangular. hills near Nagothana. M. removes "Vata". Fl. LOC. :—A small deciduous shrub. leaflets subsessile. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar. pain. DISTR.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. :—Deccan. FAM. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. COM. Kavargi. Sd. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat.—many. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation. Fl. hairy on the nerves beneath. Avartant. t. producing copious exudation. glabrous or pubescent above.2 m. S.
:— E. Stem lessens inflammation. Anantmula. Anantmula. useful in syphilis and leucoderma. long. syphilis. diaphoretic. Utpalashariva. t.-Dec. PARTS USED :—Root. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. mildly astringent.Sd.— very variable. bilabiate. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. Fl. Australia and West Indies. and leaves. leucorrhoea. thirst. useful in piles. Kanara ghat forests. NS. Deccan and S.—follicle of 5-6. Fl. :—Large shrub or small tree. poisoning. Hamadaberu . Durivel. root-Stock woody . epileptic fits. They are demulcent. HABITAT :—In hedges. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr. "Vata' dysentery. See—Fibres. lessens griping. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic.—Asclepiadaceæ. alexiteric. rat-bites. cures all skin-diseases. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. DISTR. Hindisalse. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. often variegated with white above. astringent to bowels . cough.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. FL. tapering . Indian sarsaparilla . stem. CHAR. DISTR. "Kapha". Dhaval kashtha. Country. purplish inside. .—follicle cylindric. Root and stem—laxative. low appetite. Kapurimathuri. FAM. diarrhœa. stems thickened at the nodes . The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. joint-pains.. irregularly crowded. bronchitis. antidiarrhœal. asthma. red at first fading to lead colour.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. G. Fl. “tridosh".—throughout the greater part of the year.— with silvery white coma . beaked. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. L. bark and fruit. L.5 X 5-10 cm. M. Upalsari. H. Magrabu. :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. LOC. obliquely cordate. India. urinary discharges. liver and kidney diseases . Sk. burning sensation. eye troubles. t — Aug.—numerous. ovate orbicular. astringent to bowels. Sd. Ceylon. paralysis. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). :—Upper Gangetie plain.512. asthma. C. :—Throughout the State. M. Br. 7. Root useful in hemicrania. diuretic. angular . anti-galactagogue. Sugandhi-balli. 5-6. Konkan. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). LOC.-biferous. spirally coiled.—tubular. useful in gleet. foul body odour.3 cm. fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. dark-green. greenish outside. K. common in hedges. Upalsali. Malaya. Fr. COM. Burma. good for brain. demulcent.— in cymes in opposite axils. scabrous above. LOC. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. blood diseases. uterine complaints.
red. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. uterine and vaginal discharges. piles. etc. Jasum. urinary discharges. ovate or ovate lanceolate. Japapushpa. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes. magenta. involucral bracts 5-7. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India. pedicel jointed above the middle. DISTR.—no fruits produced in India. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. syphilis and leucorrhoea. G. Shoe flower. skindiseases. PARTS USED :—Root. Raktapushpi. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. FAM. cm. H.5.—during most of the year. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). LOC. useful in loss of appetite. diam. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. Aruna. COM. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. :—A perennial shrub. yellow. It is also diuretic. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. Rudrapushpa.. leaves. Fr. crimson. Fl. . fevers. and mixed with ghee. glabrous. Root roasted in plantain leaves. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia. See—Ornamental Plants. NS. Harivallaba. flowers.—short petioled. bark and petals are demulcent. solitary. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange.—axillary. It is said to purify blood. Jasavand. Root is valuable in coughs. Native country probably China. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. LOC. t. :— E. tubular below. demulcent. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . Jasuva. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. In the Konkan. tonic. Dasavala. and as early as 1864. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. seminal weakness. cooling. C. CHAR. Fl.—7. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra). then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. Jasut.114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. K. irregularly serrate towards the top. Sk. Dasanihu. petals thrice as long as the calyx. Kempupundrika. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. entire near the base. bright red. remove burning of body. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. M. USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). HABITAT :—Cultivated. astringent.—Malvaceæ.
black-brown.— Jany. Kamuka. flowers. Madhavi.-Mar. K. HABITAT. Rozelle. CHAR. Chandravalli. hairy. purple. sedative and refrigerant. NS. L. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. :—Throughout the State. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Atimukta. much used in curries. Vasanti. 1. young parts silky. Pundi-bija or soppu.5 cm. H. covered with minute hairs . Grows abundantly on the W. Lal ambari. M.—capsule.—Malvaceæ.2-2 cm. 10-18 X 4.) FAM. Red sorrel. . LOC.5 cm. Sd. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. L. 3-winged. fragrant.—Malpighiaceæ.—5-7. calyx fleshy.—Oct. asafoetida and molasses. purple. ovoid.lobes oblong. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places. G. uppermost petal broader. C. Kanara. K. petioles silky. t.—1-3. Fibres. Haladvel.—purple with darker centres. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. and adding a little salt. Vasantduti. Atimukta. DISTR. :—An annual. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water. involucral bracts 10. PARTS USED :—Leaves. acuminate. :—G. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. Sd. Malati. often blotched with purple with darker centre. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. Kempupundrike. fruits and seeds. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility. (lower leaves sometimes entire). Madmalati. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Kampti. globose. Ghats. H. mid-lobe the longest. erect.— solitary. Fl. beaked.3-7. C. Fr. Deccan. on the margins. across. COM. Ceylon. long. Sk.—large. Madhavi. FAM. Adimurtte Adirganti. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. Patwa. Madhavi.—coriaceous.. Lal ambadi. LOC. NS. Fl.—axillary. elliptic-oblong. fringed.-Dec. long. See—Vegetables. glabrous. Ragotpiti. M. :—E. stem and branches purple. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. :—Cultivated. tropics of the old world. pepper. 3-5 lobed. Lal ambadi. clawed.—petals 5. CHAR. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. t. Fl. serrate.—in erect racemes. Madhalata. Madhumalati. entire glabrous. Fr. 5th petal yellow at the base. white. base cuneate. COM. orbicular. Vasantduti. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Fl. Madhavi.
thirst and inflammation. Seeds—carminative. Andamans.. cooling. Kutaja. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. good in erysipelas. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). remove "Tridosh". branchlets drooping. asthma. cures dysentery. Mt. biliousness. throat hairy inside.—Apocynaceæ. Hale. Karuindrayan. Kodasige. skin and spleen diseases. remove muscular pains . C—tubular. Kaduoindrajav. Dudhi. burning sensation. leprosy. broadly ovate or elliptic. Fr. DISTR. Kura. Kumaon. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. H. tonic. See—Ornamental Plants.5 cm. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. Nepal. Kuda. diarrhœa.—Feb. Malay Peninsula. tonic. flowers and seeds. K. LOC. Flowers— acrid. burning sensation. wounds. throughout India to Travancore and Malacca.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. t. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Sk. appetiser cure blood diseases. Karnatak. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . lumbago. boils.-June. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. smoke good for piles. piles. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. :—E. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests.. Madras State.—follicles 20-48 cm. galactagogue. PARTS USED :—Bark. fatigue. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. leprosy. Hath. Conessi bark tree. given in chest affections. Burma. Circars. inodorous. cause "Vata". acrid. cough. Karohi. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. Bark—bitter. Kudsalu. Assam. bleeding piles. cylindric. LOC. common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. Indrayana. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma. aphrodisiac. NS. CHAR. LOC. good in chronic bronchitis. often dotted with white spots. diuresis (Yunani). Abu. leucoderma . biliousness.— in terminal corymbose cymes . vulnerary. colic. China. fevers. strengthens gums. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). ulcers. leaves. good in headache. G. Kaling. " Kapha". Pandhara Kuda. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. Leavesastringent. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. hallucinations (Ayurveda). :—Throughout the State. N. cool the brain. anthelmintic. Thailand (Siam). long. white. skin diseases. astringent to bowels cure pains. Seeds—appetiser. FAM. M. Kuda. insecticidal.—10-20 X 5-11. excessive menstrual flow. vulnerary. Fl. styptic. lessens inflammations. acrid. Kurchi tree. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. Sd. Veppale. urinary discharges. main nerves conspicuous . Siwalik. Ceylon. FL.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. COM. L. heating. thirst. PROPERTIES.
kurchine. dysentery and intestinal worms. demulcent and expectorant. stomachic. useful in biliousness. allays thirst. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. . LOC. Satu. Germinated barley. Barley. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. DISTR. Tasteless. The grains contain vitamin B. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Jav. Java. K. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery. appetiser. LOC. nor styptic. fevers (Yunani). bronchitis. Med. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. PARTS USED :—Seeds. useful in fevers. and kurchicine. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. Ind. H. :—E. G. useful in bronchitis. NS. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. acrid. Javegodhi. with radicle attached to it. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. febrifuge. India. widely cultivated in temperate regions. M. anæmia. sweetish. Suj. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. malt sugar and diastase. nor astringent. Gaz. Hayapriya. fattening. headache. They are astringent. burns. good for ulcers. improves voice. Ymvah. Divya. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. COM. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). especially cod-liver oil. asthma. causes constipation. —Cultivated chiefly in N. aphrodisiac. FAM. Shaktu. Knowles. lowers the pulse. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick.—Gramineæ. diarrhœa. They are also used after delivery. pains in chest. biliousness. See—Food Plants. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. 1928). Jawa. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. Aug. inflamed gums. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Yava. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Jav. (R. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy.
5-23 X 3. camphor and lime-juice. Doti. Ghats. M. Southern and Western India. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. Common in N. 12. Kastel. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Garudphala. Madhya Pradesh. CHAR.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. LOC. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. :—K. H. sometimes along river banks. Bhanina. broadly ovate.—Rubiaceæ. Kadukavata.—solitary or in racemes. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . acuminate. young parts brown pubescent. Bhrijatuaka. Malabar. DISTR. more or less coriaceous. good for the throat.—Jany. pungent. Dondra. Peninsula. bitter. NS. M. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Gandele. FAM. K. size of small apple. Bhringamallika.5 cm. Amarachala. Bhutabi. See—Oils.) FAM. S. Garudphala. ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers. Country and Kanara. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. L. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. high. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. Kowti. For scald-head. Sk. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Bhoswar.. Phaldu. common in Travancore. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. Niradivittulu. Bhorsal. tomentose. Fl. COM. Kshiradru. M. Betaga. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Sd. . :—W. t. FL. increases taste and appetite. C.—Apl.—Bixaceæ. Bihar. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses.8-7. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. dioecious . Fr. Sk. Ugragandha. Dondru. sulphur. Bharnarasalya. LOC.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. Kanara evergreen forests. globose or ovoid. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). :—G. white. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. COM. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil.—berry. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. flat. DISTR. Bandaru. The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition.—numerous. Panch Mahals in Gujarat.
trichotomous cymes. greenish white. See—Timbers.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). lobes with white hairs on the upper side. Sk. the powdered wood is used for herpes. C. numerous . Kalaka. Kantebhovari. :—Konkan.. FL. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid. cures " Kapha ". hollow. aphrodisiac. fever.—Apocynaceæ.—Nov. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions. Br.—1-5 flowered peduncles .8 cm. stalks and leaves. NS. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . Country. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. prostrate. 10-15 cm. L. Sd. Kalaghantika.—linear.— Nov. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. C. Kalambika. Fr. Gopini. IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. rooting at the nodes . CHAR.—Convolvulaceæ. upper constricted. In Indo-China. H. thirst. . Sd. LOC. Fr. Common in the evergreen forests of N. black with white scanty coma. :—A large twining shrub . ovoid . Sk. acute. Shradhashaka. blood diseases. rusty pubescent. M. cylindric .-Dec. t.—capsule. :—H. cordate or hastate. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. FAM. L. glabrous above. CHAR.—4 or 2. very slender.5 cm. NS. X 4 cm.—4-5-7 X 2-3. Ceylon. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. throat and tube dull purple . S. stems long. cooling. Sariva. elliptic oblong. base rounded. t. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. LOC.2 -7. Nadika. middle portion much inflated.—follicle. Pechuli. trailing on mud or floating. Krishnasariva. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. Nalanibhaji. lobes obscure . thick.—in axillary and terminal. Fl. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). Bhadra. Fl. Kalmisag. :—Throughout the State. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. Kanara. Karmi. very common in Gujarat. " Vata ". biliousness. Fodder Plants. pubescent.5x 3. :—Annual or biennial herb. Gorwiballi.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. The outer layer is tasteless. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Kalidudhi. straight or slightly curved. vomiting. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. M. Siamalata. Karihambu. Australia. Java. FAM. Nalichibhaji. K.-Apl. Potuasaga. Kanara.—tube with narrow portion below. M. :—G. Fl.—5-12. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge. Chandangopa. LOC. COM. :—More or less throughout India.
3 cm. flowers (rarely). twining.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. anthelmintic. L. useful in leucoderma. 4-valved. liver complaints. ovoid. . stomachic. tropical Asia. Africa. Sk. useful in syphilis. useful in fever. thick. Fr.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Africa and Australia. " Kapha " . alterative.—Convolvulaceæ. Giant potato . America. Nila-kumbala. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. (Ayurveda). (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. Carminative. expectorant. Kanara sea coast. LOC. Fl. Australia in moist climate. deeply palmately divided. being regarded as tonic. Sd. enclosed in fleshy sepals. peduncle solitary axillary. biliousness. also useful in liver complaints. dry. improves voice and complexion. Fl. vomiting. In Burma. LOC. galactagogue. LOC. useful in leprosy. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. DISTR. galactagogue. 4-celled. increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). long.8—6. debility and want of digestive power. bronchitis. often broader than long.—capsule. jaundice. aphrodisiac. :—Perennial. Flower causes " Vata ". biliousness and fevers. appetiser. lessens inflammation. stem long. glabrous. gonorrhœa and inflammation. root large.—in. Bilaikand . K. PARTS USED :—Root. ovate-lanceolate. indigestible. M. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. diuretic. pale. Leaves enrich blood. long. blood diseases. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. NS. tropical Asia. burning sensation. alterative.-July-Sept. :—Throughout India. tonic. FAM. aphrodisiac. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. Swadu Vidarikand. purple. COM. Bhuikohala. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. CHAR. Bhunichahragadde. carminative. Ceylon. Root—heating. demulcent and lactagogue. :— E. leprosy. near sea coast. Bhumikushmanda. :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . lobes 5-7. 3.—10-15 cm. (Yunani). USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. anthelmintic . See—Gums and Resins. cures biliousness. t. stimulant. entire. leaves. H. to children in case of emaciation. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties.
Kalokumpo. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). stems twining. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. :—An annual herb. :—Konkan. :—A herb . subglobose. filiform. Morning glory. Fr. carminative. sparsely hairy. :—E. Fl. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. H. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). stems many. in the Himalayas. Sk. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Mirchai. Ganribij. scabies and biliousness.—3.—1.) FAM. C. clothed with long hairs. Sk. Ceylon. Krishna—Shyama-bija. Country. LOC. NS. K. E. FAM. 3-celled. H. tropical Africa. COM.—capsule. abdominal diseases. NS. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. diseases of head. fevers. petioles hairy. COM. Indian jalap. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. Undirkani. Shyamala-bijak. K. .-5-12. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). Deccan. anthelmintic. believed to be of American origin. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. creeping and rooting at the nodes.—capsule.8-5 cm. Nilpushpa. DISTR.5 cm. crenate. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m.— 4-6. LOC. Fl. long tubular funnel-shaped. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. Purgative. glabrous . G.:—Throughout India.— yellow. lobes ovate.—Convolvulaceæ. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses.-Oct.3-2. t.5 cm. broad..—dark chestnut coloured . bracts linear. S. M. See—Ornamental Plants. S. L. Sd. Fr. headache. CHAR. pains in joints. Sd. ovate-cordate. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. subglobose or ovoid. dries the phlegm. DISTR. deeply three-Iobed. M. :—Western Peninsula. diam. Musekani. Undirkani. Nilvel. Kaladanah. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Africa. leucoderma. axillary. cures inflammations. Vrishchikparni. blue tinged with pink. Kaladana.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . reniform or ovate-cordate. L. LOC. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Seeds. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. M.—Convolvulaceæ. :—G.—Sept. surrounded by ciliate sepals. The plant contains a glucoside. bechic.
useful in spleen enlargement. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. DISTR. inflammations. anæmia. paralysis. Pithori. tropical Africa and America. Fr. urethral discharges. fistula. bladder. Trivrit.—Oct. . Fl. M. Nandi. uterus. Common in southern Gujarat. laxative. Malay Islands. fevers. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. like others of the genus . NS. C. brain diseases.—Convolvulaceæ.. Nashotar. often pinkish. useful in diseases of kidney. Nishoth. enclosed in enlarged sepals .—5-10 X 1. cooling. :—Throughout India. ovate or oblong. paralysis. Ceylon. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. sometimes cultivated. acrid. CHAR. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. leucoderma. Root with bark should be used. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). Triputi. bronchitis. stems very long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. mucronate. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. pains of chest and joints. Br. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). Root— bitter. heart and abdomen. bracts large. PARTS USED :—Root. fleshy. USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta.—white. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Fl. It is also alterative. bechic. FAM.—in few flowered cymes. angled and winged. wounds.8-5 cm. rarely slightly lobed. H. LOC. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. lungs. carminative. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. twining and twisted together.3-7 cm. also in the Konkan and N. white variety is a mild cathartic.122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. when used alone . K. expectorant. purgative. pedicels thickened upwards.—capsule.-Jany. base cordate or truncate . :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. anthelmintic. Philippines. globose. Kalaparni. :— E. False-Indian jalap. reduces tumours (Ayurveda). removes bad humours. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. COM. t. Kanaka. Turbith root. 3. Nahatara. LOC. muscular pains. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). burning sensation and intoxication. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). G. Sk. Nishottara. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. much branched. useful in bilious tremors of body. good for weakness. pungent. LOC. HABITAT :—Wild . Indian rhubarb. strangury. useful in loss of consciousness. good in pain. Mauritius. applied in diseases of eye and gums. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. antipyretic. inflammations and abdominal diseases . laxative. long. root long. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. useful in bilious fevers. Rechani. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice.
Bakali. Ajjige. Bandhuka. :—E.5 cm. FAM. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. Surabhigandha. coriaceous. :—E. C. Chambeli.3 coriaceous. :—Western Peninsula. Chambeli. high. Fl. pale when dry. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. DISTR. 5-12.8 cm. leaflets 7-11. COM NS.. HABITAT :—Cultivated . Fl. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. H. size of a pea. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin.2-6. M.—globose. Parali. petiole and rachis margined. stipules with a long rigid point. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. :—Bombay southwards . purple when ripe. across. Guddedasal. oblong. Pankul. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. 3. white. Jajimalle. M. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. 5-10 X 3. Chambali. very slender . K. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. FAM. proximal petiolulate. tube long.—Oleaceæ. sessile. Jai. Pendgul. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. often tinged with pink outside.—tubular. Fr.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. COM. FL—numerous. oblong. obtuse. imparipinnate. intermediate sessile . See—Ornamental Plants. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. pale when dry.—opposite. Sk.—July-Sept. DISTR. Ceylon. K. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Fr. :—A large subscandent shrub. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. very common in Konkan and N. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. Fl. LOC.—opposite.3 cm. also along river banks. stipules . t.—throughout the year. distal pair confluent with the terminal. terminal rather larger. G. fleshy. Anemallige. Kepala.2-6. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. t.9 m. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Jati. lobes 4 (rarely). smooth.—ripe carpels 2. L. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. Sk. CHAR. Raktaka. NS. Flame of the woods . :—Cultivated throughout India. LOC. L. CHAR. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture.— Rubiaceæ. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. Priyanvada. of stems and roots. obtuse . Kisukare. sessile. wild.—3.
The plant contains an alkaloid. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. Fl. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). surrounded by calyx-teeth. H. Iravantige. t. COM NS. leprosy. Plant—deobstruent. M. .—Oleaceæ. Mogara. Root—purgative. Sambac. suppurative. DISTR. ulcers. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. :—E. vulnerary. eyes and ear. variable in shape.—white. rheumatism. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Fl. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. FAM. Ananga-mallika. tonic to brain. Vanchandrika. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. Mallige. G. Arabian Lily.—more or less throughout the year . Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. anthelmintic. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. abundant in April-May. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. Chamba. biliousness. given in blood diseases. otorrhoea. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . useful in stomatitis.—ripe-carpels 1-2. LOC. Pramodini. ear. membranous. scarcely climbing. soporific. Oil—lessens inflammations. Tuscan jasmine. cures headache. diuretic. caries of teeth. Banmallika. good in asthma. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. Sk. entire. teeth. Mogro. emetic. See—Ornamental Plants. biliousness (Ayurveda). fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes. alexiteric. useful in diseases of eye. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Flower has bitter taste . Fr. Navamallika. heating. very fragrant. softens skin. intoxicating. Leaves are also used in toothache. diseases of mouth. it is used in cases of insanity. aphrodisiac. Mogra. LOC. flowers and oil. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. LOC. In Goa. See—Ornamental Plants. head. brain tonic . :—Cultivated throughout India. allays fevers . L. Flowers—tonic. emmenagogue. expectorant. headache and weak eyes. base rounded or subcordate. alexiteric. good for pains in joints and ear. stomatitis. subglobose. and for scabies (Yunani). mouth and skin. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. :—A sub-erect shrub. K. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. black. paralysis. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. usually broadly ovate or elliptic. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. aphthae.—opposite. Motia.
dull brownish black.—Euphorbiaceæ.—orbicular.. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock).—Euphorbiaceæ.5 cm. Virechani. broadly ovate. 10-15 X 7. Coral plant. long.8 cm. Jangali erandi.—ovoid oblong. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. Fl. Dundigu. The seeds act as drastic purgative. . Barbados Physic nut. Fl. G. Sk. " Tridosha". Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. garden shrub . cordate. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. COM. villous within.—E. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. juice sticky opalescent.5 mm.5-12. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. herpes. thirst.5 cm. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. corolla lobes 5. across. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). abdominal complaints. urinary discharges. useful in chronic dysentery. disk of female flower urceolate. anaemia. NS. Ratanjot. DISTR. Kananerand.— alternate. male flowers. Mogali—Ran-erand. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. LOC. CHAR. CHAR:—A handsome. have suppurative effect. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. Simeavadala. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.5-12. fruits and seeds. L. stipules capillary. yellow. subfleshy. black.—in flat-topped cymes. NS. and also promotes healing. Fr. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. H. Sutashreni. Seeds contain active principle curcin. coral-red. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. longer than calyx. FAM. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. multifid. Fr. French or Small physic nut. stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc. LOC. Bhadradanti. L. PARTS USED :—Wood. Akhuparnika. leaves. K. :—Native of tropical America. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers.—monœcious. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. large. M. K. 1. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . Sk. The acrid. 7. biliousness. diam. Sd. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. 7.— ovoid. Vilayati haralu. Jangali—Pahari erand. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. when applied to boils. :—E.—capsule. Jyotishka. FAM. fistula. COM. 3-lobed. long-petioled.
branches subterete with raised lines.2 m. purgative. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. enlarged spleen. LOC. wild in Tenasserim. Krishna-nirgundi. rheumatism and dysentery. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. LOC. Fl. Bhutakeshi. The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. DISTR. FAM. Seed— oleaginous. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. Kala adulsa. FAM. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. bitter. :—H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. Kalmashi. 7. high . :—A native of China. fattening tonic . in interrupted spikes. inflammations. K. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS.—white spotted. clavate glabrous. Karinchki. . PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). Shindhuka. useful in bronchitis. M.—capsule. purple within. long. DISTR. hot. skin-diseases.6-1. pains. COM. Nilmanjari. Karambal. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. tympanitis. wounds. leaves. HABITAT :—Shady positions. Nilinirgandi. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. all over the State. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. dry . vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). causes " Kapha ".—Acanthaceæ. fevers. Bakas.5-12. Nachukaddi.—Ghati pitpapda.—Acanthaceæ. latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. dyspepsia. M. 5-12. In Cambodia. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.5 cm. useful in piles. America. Leaves are used in scabies. L. CHAR. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. often met with in Bengal. COM. :—Bomb. " Vata ' and "Pitta". native of N. LOC. eye diseases (Ayurveda).5 cm. NS. vaginal discharges. aphrodisiac. Fr. LOC. Sk. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient. heating. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm.
oval. Malay Islands. t.—Scitaminaceæ. pale violet pink.—capsule. Konkan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. elliptic. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage.— June-July. petioles channelled. USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. Travancore. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. Malaya. Fl. thirst.—2-lipped. good in spleen diseases. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sugandhavachai.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling.3-12. L. 6. t.—lobes lanceolate. Madras State. HABITAT :—Cultivated. stomachic. Sk. COM. Western Ghats . expectorant. K. FAM. constricted between the seeds . Chandramala. LOC. Tubers yield an essential oil. DISTR. Cultivated in gardens. Chandramulika. urinary discharges.:—Stemless herb. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base. Kapurkachri. :—Western Peninsula. DISTR.. fragrant. Fl. diaphoretic. fever. LOC. :— H. South Konkan.—2.—612 from the centre of the plant. .—variable. Fr. pure-white. fugacious. Sd. lower 3-lobed . LOC. increases " Vata ". softly pubescent. obtuse at both ends.5-9 cm. teeth. round. P. Fl. tired feeling. tube funnel-shaped . Kachri. :—N. NS. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie). good in leprosy (Ayurveda). removes indigestion. Kachchura . upper lip notched.—in cylindric terminal spikes. biliousness. intoxication. PARTS USED :—Tubers. gives lustre to eyes. purifies blood in skin diseases. Australia. Maval in the Deccan. CHAR. root-stock tuberous. spreading horizontally.—Oct. vomiting. aromatic. Panchgani. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). C. M. deep green. ovate or lanceolate.5 X 4. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. stops vomiting. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Ceylon. thin.-Mar. Plant diuretic. lying flat on the ground. strengthens lungs. constipating .—finely tuberculate. (Yunani). enriches blood. diuretic. Deccan. burning of body. L. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. :—Konkan. Fl. :—More or less throughout India. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. wandering of mind. oblong shortly pointed.
has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. Fl. tubular below. Fr. PROPERTIES AND LOC. COM. LOC. :—Stemless plant. NS. female cylindric. HABITAT :—Cultivated. long. Bhuchampaka. L.—narrowly oblong. Cochin. Bhuichampo . Nelasampige . Kadu bhopala. Bhuichampa .8-5 cm. The whole plant. petiole as long as blade. DISTR. Sk. Bottle-gourd.— inflorescence. H. semicylindric. annulate . M. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz. diam. very poisonous .. M. promotes suppuration. :—Konkan. —Feb. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . elliptic-oblong. L. yellow. t.. Malay Islands. Kaddu. Fl. S. Kanara.. rootstock reaching 5 cm. NS. PROPERTIES AND LOC. coriaceous.—Scitaminaceæ. Halagumbala. crowded in a globose bead . N. t.128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Bhuichapha. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Country. thick. Dudio Tumbada. COM. NS. H. Ceylon. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. :—E. CHAR.5 cm. Travancore.—Cucurbitaceæ.— sweetly fragrant. K. K. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. Tubers yield an essential oil. :—An aquatic herb. :—Mysore. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment. The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. of various shades of purple and white. HABITAT :—Marshy places.—Aroideæ. :—M. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous.. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers.5 X 5-12. DISTR. Dudhi. furrowed.. Danta-bija. creeping. Calabash. CHAR. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. M.5-23 cm. FAM. entire. FAM. COM. spathe 7. in many cycles. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. G. Fl. Labuka. :— G. Dudhya bhopala. . carpels partially dehiscent Sd. Katutumbi. margins undulate.—15-37. FAM. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser. Coorg. Sk. Lauka. Vatsanabhi. midrib very stout. simple. Tumbaka. oblong.-Mar.5-10 cm.—30X7. used in the form of poultice. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—globose 3. Fl. anthers crowded. remedy for itch. Alkaddu. inflorescence of many ovaries. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath .-Apl.
cardiac and general tonic. oleaginous. piles. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. muscular pains. cause haemoptysis. Challa. alexiteric. Tarul.) FAM. LOC:—North Kanara and S. styptic. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. Seeds—good for hot constitution. "Vata". bark. Holematti. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. bitter variety is diuretic. There are two varieties. Ceylon. in many cases only cultivated. decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. Nirbendeka: M. PARTS-USED :—Root. brain-tonic. fruits and seeds. leaves. diuretic. fruits and seeds. Konkan Ghats. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . increases "Vata". HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. causes bronchitis. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. Fruit good in bronchitis. Bandhara. Arjuna. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. cures blood diseases. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. USES :— Leaves are purgative. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. wild (rarely). improves taste. inflammations. :—Western Peninsula. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. bitter. LOC. Taman. Flesh of fruit is diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. ulcers. emetic. antipyretic. seeds are narcotic. COM. laxative. refrigerant and anti-bilious. China. NS. wholesome to fœtus. aphrodisiac. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. DISTR. anti-bilious. Seeds emetic (Yunani). fattening. earache. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. Malaya. cooling. LOC. See—Timbers. lessens inflammations. pains (Ayurveda). anti-periodic. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . sweet. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. Flowers cooling. cures asthma. K. Arjuna. flatulence. Assam. See—Vegetables. Bark and leaves are purgative. leaves. :—H. cures leucorrhoea. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. flowers. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. Ornamental Plants. scalding of urine. bronchitis. . it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet.—Lythraceæ. In the Andamans. earache. vulnerary. dry cough. Sk. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. fever. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. LOC.
:—A much branched large shrub. H. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. tonic. COM.—Thymelaeaceæ. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. Belgaum hills . S. diam. lobes 4. (B.. COM. Khesari. lameness. Wooly-headed gnidia.5 cm. Yavaneshta. L. NS. oblong lanceolate. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn. Mukute. Tree mignonette. See—Food Plants. oblong flat.8 cm. glabrous above. yellow. common on the Supa Ghats. Kanara. Kukurgal. Henna plant. M. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. Triputi. common at Mahabaleshwar.5-3. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. Gorantha.—ellipsoid-oblong. heart-troubles.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. causes much flatulence.—opposite or scattered. inflammation. piles and wandering of the mind. K. Sandika. Country. K. LOC. Kassar. . The oil from the seeds is a powerful. :—W.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). pointed. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Rami.—in erect. Basu). Grains contain vitamin A. Fr. but dangerous cathartic. CHAR. D. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Madaranga. cooling. bark mottled. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. Sk. Sk. burning. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. LOC. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. Fl. Nakharanjaka. PROPERTIES AND LOC. M. Chickling—White vetch. G. subsessile. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. Fl. FAM. Peninsula—Ceylon. Mehndi. Lang. perianth-tube densely silky villous . NS. FAM. dense terminal heads 2. Rametha. HABITAT :—Cultivated. pain. Ragangi. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Dec-May. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. Deccan hills. (Ayurveda). :—E. Mendi. 5-7. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. FAM.—Lythraceæ. M. enclosed in the perianth . DISTR. N. silky beneath. improves taste.5 X 2-2. NS. :—E. Latri. :—Konkan southwards. Medi. Lakh. Medika. :—E. swellings etc. The bark is used to poison fish. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. COM. DISTR. t.. G.
Asia. stomatitis. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. lumbago. The plant contains a glucoside. Ceylon. planted as hedge. veined outside. See—Dyes. useful. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. favours hair-growth. Leaves—bitter. Flowers are refrigerant. vulnerary.—in terminal. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). COM. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. Gabholika. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata". Masur. applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. LENS ESCULENTA Moen. dysentery. enriches blood. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism.—capsule. globose. LOC. cure strangury tumours. ophthalmia. mucronate.). G. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. many. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. The oil and essence keep the body cool. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. in diseases of heart and of . in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. & Gib. white or rose coloured . Europe and in temperate W. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . pyramidal and panicled cymes. Fr. often ending in spinous point. allay burning sensation. improve appetite. t. skin diseases . M. Belgaum and Poona districts. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. L. diseases of spleen. they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. expectorant. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. useful in headache. Fl. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. :—Grown in Nasik. HABITAT:—Cultivated. Ragadali. Iran and Baluchistan. NS. DISTR. Sk. scabies. Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. indigenous in S. Sd. boils. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. DISTR. wild in Arabia. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. diuretic. Gurubija. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin. seeds. K. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES. supported by persistent calyx. H. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . lateral branches 4-gonous. ulcers. Chanangi.—Apl-July. Fl.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. FAM. truncate. LOC. Masura. finger nails and hair. flowers. Lentil. fragrant.—opposite. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Massur. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. E. cure leucoderma. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat.—angular. amenorrhœa. Masur. cure insanity (Ayurveda). Masuridal. bronchitis. syphilitic sores. :—E. diuretic. Sura.
very likely indigenous in W. Leaves are used as pot-herb. Chandrashura.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. Hurfi. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. enrich blood. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. diuretic. H. FAM. Chavnsar. Sk. cures dysentery . emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. See-Food Plants. white. stomatitis . aphrodisiac. LOC. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Fl. good in inflammations. . blood and skin diseases. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. L. C—petals 2-4 or 0. bronchitis. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. galactagogue. The covering is styptic and astringent. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. Ahaliva. and muscular pains. Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). aphrodisiac .—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. :—An erect glabrous annual. Chandrika. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Hot and dry. M. affections of spleen. bitter. Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. :—Cultivated throughout India. Seeds contain fatty oil. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . NS. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Asahio. DISTR. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. Raktabija. leaves and seeds. upper sessile. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). K. tonic. Fr. Suvasura. Grains contain vitamins A and B. diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. bechic. Ashalika.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). tonic. Halim . Garden cress . In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. often with linear segments . pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. See—Vegetables. aperient. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. COM.—Cruciferæ. They contain vitamin B. constipating. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). rheumatism.—small. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). tumours and injuries. the lower petiolate. Asia. LOC. Halim. :—E. laxative. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). Seeds—indigestible. bronchitis. LOC. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Allibija. PARTS USED :—Root. CHAR. G. good for pain in abdomen. Kurutige. eye diseases (Ayurveda). chest complaints. useful in diseases of chest.
t. LOC. leaves. Roasted seeds are astringent. Jivanika. Common tallow laurel. . Alsi. aphrodisiac. Maidelakri. glossy dark-green above. M. Alasi. :—Cultivated throughout India. yellowish.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Fibres. :—E.:—A small evergreen tree. supported by the thickened pedicel. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. bronchitis.—Lauraceæ. urinary discharges . Alashi. K. Medini. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. gouty and rheumatic swellings. usually alternate. FAM. bad for eyesight.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. The plant contains glucoside linamarin.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. Tailottama. pale beneath. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. tonic. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. Alshi. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. FAM. lead to impotency. M. COM. Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. PARTS USED :—Bark. black.:—E. galactagogue. M. "Pitta". colds and throat complaints. dysentery. good for cough and kidney troubles. remove "Vata". diam. used in consumption. LOC. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. base narrowed. aphrodisiac . Garbijaur. COM. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. branchlets densely tomentose. lenticellate. See—Oils.. H. G. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas.—May-July. CHAR. Sk. Fl. Common flax. Alashi. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. Malina. Seeds—mucilaginous. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). causes loss of appetite. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. hard to digest. heal ulcers. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic.5 mm. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. Country. LOC. native country probably Egypt. NS. Madagandha. "Kapha". Tisi. Haimwati. Fl. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns. Sedhavi.—crowded at the ends of branches. Javas .—Linaceæ. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. L. seeds and oil. boils. emmenagogue. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam.— globose. NS. bark somewhat corky. 8-12 together in heads. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. back-ache. cure leprosy. Kanara. urinary complaints.. 7. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). Sk. inflammations. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment. Maidalakadi. flowers. hot. Seeds contain vitamin A. H. Alsi. Fr. perianth lobes wanting. burnt bark styptic and healing. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). diuretic. Linseed. remove biliousness.
:—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. G. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. AMARA Clarke. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". Narttaka.—. C—2-lipped. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . FAM. spleen diseases. t. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. diuretic. Wild tobacco. light green. :—E. 3 usually connate throughout . NS. Ceylon. very small. vagina. Root—astringent. Fl. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . long. M. long. Malay Islands. H. Fr.2-3 m.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. 2. LOC. Nali. NS. burning sensation. paralysis. leprosy (Ayurveda). bark.5-3. lanceolate. aphrodisiac. Ranturai. Divali. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. Sk. bronchitis. Sd. branched upwards. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. FAM. fruits and seeds. Australia.9 cm. COM. subglobose. stomachic. K. throat troubles. Dhaval. midrib white. LOC. useful in inflammations. Mrityupushpa. much curved. :—E. galactagogue. Leaves are mucilaginous. CHAR. thirst. Fl. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Ridge gourd. Ghontali. acrid. L. pains in joints. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling.—capsule.—Lobeliaceæ. Narsala. finely serrulate. many. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. expectorant. heating. G. aphrodisiac. fever. Dhamana. :—Konkan. Deccan and S. white. lower much longer. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. COM. useful in biliousness.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. H. tonic. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var.-Mar. Jalini. all oblong. high. DISTR. Kalahogesoppu. nearly sessile. Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. stem stout. yellowish brown . Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). diseases of blood. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. heart. Devanala. overheated brains. Country. It acts as anodyne. . leaves. bitter. "vata". opening by 2 valves. Kadudodka. Jhinga. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. 1. strangury.—alternate. lobes linear. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. biliousness. erysipelas (Ayurveda). LOC. consumption. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . Nal. Karvituri. M. Kahire.—numerous. cure cough.—Cucurbitaceæ. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India.100 m. Kandele. Bibhishana. K. Sthulanala. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac. SK.—Nov. aphrodisiac. Katukoshataki. They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. uterus. hollow. Devnal. PARTS USED :—Root. burning sensation.
tonic and diuretic. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. Mahula. Butter tree. Mahua tree. :—Throughout India. useful in rat-bite.—Sept. K. cough. solitary in the same axil as males. H. DISTR. Madhusrava..:—A large climber. liver complaints. palmate. also in Konkan and N. especially in western Peninsula. asthma. stems 5-angled. biliousness.53. bitter. W. Mahuda. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. Mowa. Madhuka. Bengal to the W. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent.:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. piles.—monœcious. leaves. carminative. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. leucoderma. :—E. Ceylon. thick. haemorrhoids and leprosy. recommended in splenic enlargement. flowers and fruits. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages. uterine and vaginal tumours . C. fruit and seeds. long and about 2. 5-7 lobed. Mowda. G. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). Doddippa. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. base cordate. tuberculous glands. acrid. Madhya Pradesh. Gudapushpa. obtusely conical at both ends. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. thrives in Deccan trap. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. Sk.—small. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery.) FAM. :—Plant is bitter. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains.—obovoid. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. Kanara (rare) . L. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). . females. anæmia. cures urinary discharges. LOC. COM. Fr. 10-ribbed. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. cathartic. at first whitish and softly villous. digestible. pale green. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites.—petals yellow with green veins . PARTS USED :—Leaves.8 cm. Moha. piles. Fl. inflammations. tonic to intestines. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Hunage. Fl. USES. diuretic. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. PARTS USED :—Bark. Pokka. asthma. M. Mhowra. LOC. alexiteric. Root-bark is abortifacient. Burma. cures "Vata". 5-10 cm. "Kapha". bitter. Mahura. Mahua.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. jaundice. tumours. t. bronchitis. at length scabrid. ascites. Fruit cures fever. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. tendrils usually 3-fid.—Sapotaceæ. laxative. The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. hydrogogue. MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. NS. DISTR.
NS. causes "Kapha". Mehua. :—E. Kamala. H. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. Honey tree. fixed oil and a spirit. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. :—Konkan. cooling. flowers and oil. There is a trace of alkaloid. . anthelmintic. LOC. Mohache jhad. Karnatic. Sk. Madhuka. Kambhal Raini. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. LOC. expectorant. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. carminative. H. Hullichillu. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. Kesarimavu. NS. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. G.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. tonic and nutritive. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. and appetiser (Sushruta). aphrodisiac. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. COM. USES :—Astringent and emollient. fatigue . tonic. Fruit-tonic . COM. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. M. galactagogue.—Euphorbiaceæ. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. and Upper Burma.) FAM. Mohwa. Ippe. leprosy. Kapila. Kapila. M. used in fractures. burning sensation. astringent. bronchitis. Flower—sweet. cures blood diseases. Monkey-face tree. Ceylon. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Sk. Kampillaka. heals wounds . See—Timbers. Flowers are regarded as cooling. Movaro. and Kanara. and also a remedy for itch. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. often planted. Oil is good for skin-diseases. K. cures biliousness. K. Movanuhjad. See—Timbers. Flowers—oleaginous. India . HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. Shendri. DISTR. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Mahuva of S. PARTS USED :—Bark. Liquors. :—Western peninsula.—Sapotaceæ. Oil—emollient (Yunani). flowers act as a mild purgative. Mahuda. Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. thirst.. consumption. yields two important products. Huli. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. Oils. aphrodisiac. good in heart diseases. Mysore. G. Famine Plants. ulcers. fattening. :—-E. Moha. Oils. Kapilo. FAM. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Am. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). astringent to bowels. Introduced. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. :—E. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. useful in skin-diseases. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. leaves. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Burma. vermifuge and. carminative. sweet. detergent. hiccup. anthelmintic. Kanara. G. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). vomiting. Ceylon. M. sour. LOC. Malay Islands. K. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. H. leaves. liver pain. Khasia Hills. useful in bronchitis. Gum . DISTR. heals ulcers. appetiser. Australia. Seeds-astringent to bowels. Sk. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. vaginal troubles. NS. diseases of abdomen. "Pitta". fruits and seeds. cause flatulence and constipation. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. China. :—Tropical Himalayas. Rasala. wild and cultivated. vulnerary. Chuta. COM. Amba. styptic. stomachic. Fruit—heating. good in heart trouble. purgative. bad blood. urinary discharges. Amra. diuretic. it exudes a pink coloured gum. liver. Ambo. dysentery. alexiteric. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. "Kapha". clears brain. wounds. FAM. cure leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). ulcers. Sikkim. a good collyrium (Yunani). flowers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. cooling. cooling. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. bronchitis. improves cough.—Anacardiaceæ. DISTR. Sind. spleen. lessen intestinal pains. Sahakara. Mavu. aphrodisiac. Kamarasa. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. throat troubles. enriches blood. LOC. anthelmintic. Mavin-mara. chronic dysentery and gleet. piles. purgative. Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. removes bad smell from mouth. good in dysentery. tonic. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. dispels langour and burning of body. stone in bladder. tumours. improves complexion. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. good in cough. styptic. improve taste and appetite. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid. Cuckoo's Joy. fruits and seeds. Mango tree. in "Tridosh". It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. Astringent. PARTS USED :—Root. cultivated throughout the State. USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. Ghats and the Satpudas. laxative. :—-Throughout the State. :—Throughout tropical India. cure "Vata". LOC. tonic to body. used in chronic diarrhœa. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. beautifies complexion. Bihar. Amri. biliousness. Bhutan. Dyes. thirst. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). maturant. See—Timbers. aphrodisiac.
Paribhadraka. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A.3-15 X 4. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Kadulimb. leucoderma. Bevu. . COM.—many. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark. Nakchhikni. Dodi. Confection made from ripe mango juice.—follicles. cooling. :—A large twining shrub. older branches ash coloured. Suparnika.) FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. piles. tumours. cures "Vata". rugosely striate. LOC. M.) FAM. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. M. Madhumalati.5-11. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. NS. with lenticels and black dots.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—-E. Nim. rat-bite (Ayurveda). H. asthma. Juice of kernel. Harandori. burning sensation. biliousness. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. Assam.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. all plains districts of Madras State. Sk. Nim or Margosa tree. M. stops nasal bleeding. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Ripe fruit is laxative. astringent to bowels.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet. useful in diseases of eye. 7. Ambri. Nimba. H.5 cm. DISTR. L.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant.—6. broadly ovate or suborbicular. :—Bengal. Kharkhodi. flattened. G. corona lobes large. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. Juss. if snuffed. It is also anthelmintic. overlapping to the right. Fruit Trees.5-10 cm. Limbada. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. CHAR. :—G. Fr. Limbra. Sk. K.—Meliaceæ. NS.—Apl. Java. long. urinary discharges.—broadly ovate. Country. fleshy. Hemajyoti-valli.. Nimba. Nimla. C. Ceylon. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Hari. Dugdhike . K. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. slightly tapering to a very blunt point. margined. pale yellowish brown. aphrodisiac. :—Deccan and S. Balant nimba. green or yellowish green. USES. coma copious . See—Timbers. inflammations. COM. useful in bleeding piles. Sd. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Nimbaka. Khandodi. antipyretic. LOC. Fl. t. good for dyspepsia. few glands above the petiole cordate . Fl.—rotate with broad lobes. alexiteric.
boils. good for leprosy. :—E. The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. tonic. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. cures ulcers and inflammations . refrigerant. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. stomachic. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). common in the Deccan and Karnatak. Banmethi. leucoderma. Small melilot. sprains. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. bad taste in the mouth. fatigue.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. anthelmintic. expectorant. earache. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . flowers. maturant. Ranmethi. good in ophthalmia. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . astringent. "pittadosh. biliousness. toothache. FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). it is a general vermifuge. pectoral. general debility. See—Timbers. relieves "Kapha". chronic leprosy. thirst. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. maturant. and loss of appetite. skin diseases. it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. burning sensation near heart. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections." vomiting. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. lessens inflammation. antiperiodic. Vanmethika. convalescence. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. urinary discharges. The flowers are stimulant. for unhealthy ulcers. Tonic. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. aphrodisiac. anthelmintic. bruises. :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. Oils. alexiteric. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. PARTS USED :—Root.. bark. LOC. H. carminative. NS. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. lumbago. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. . Burma. M. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). piles. asthma. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. rheumatism . valuable in consumption. swollen glands. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. piles. fruits and seeds. useful in syphilitic sores. cough. tumours. stimulant and stomachic. insecticidal. leprosy. resolvant. Sk. COM. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. fever. LOC. blood complaints. tonic and antiperiodic. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. DISTR.
K.—monœcious . also in S.—small. Chatinmaragu. Corn-March mint. DISTR. north Bengal. young parts white-hairy. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. glabrous. LOC. Afghanistan. M. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa.— Jany. NS. oblanceolate. at first green and variegated with yellow. t. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. Iran. :—E. . male fascicled on short peduncles. Ceylon. very hispid . It has expectorant properties to some extent. Assam. Externally used as a fomentation. deltoid-ovate entire. L. Fl. Sd. COM. of terminal rather long. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. Pudina. Khasia. M.—Cucurbitaceæ. introduced into many other regions. FAM. base cordate.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Fl. "Sikkim. LOC. HABITAT :—In hedges. given as a gruel (Murray). G. ellipsoid. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. scabrid. Country and Gujarat. in spicate close racemes. females sessile. Seeds in decoction are sudorific. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan .—3-foliate. Bilari. tapering at both ends. truncate at the apex. leaves and seeds. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. glabrous or slightly hairy. S. Europe. brown. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. Fr. Ghugri. :—Western Peninsula. poultice or plaster for swellings. :—India (tropical zone). especially in strained back. C. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. oblong-ellipsoid. lobes dentate or serrate .—one. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC.—variable in size. leaflets toothed. Fl. Fr. COM. Pudinah. high. Malaya and Africa. finally red.. Pudina. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). :—H. slightly echinulate. stem angular.—pod. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. L. rounded.—size of a pea.—Labiatæ. H. DISTR. Agamaki. NS. 30-45 cm. standard exceeding the wings and keel. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. :—Common in Deccan. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies.—pale yellow. FAM. tendrils simple. :—An erect annual herb. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds.
Naghas. Europe. FAM. Nagkesara. good for fevers. Assam Iron-wood. LOC. Konkan and N. the upper similar and large. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. Nagchapha. C. China. and stimulant. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. M. DISTR. M. LOC. flowers and fruits. binding. S. cough. MESUA FERREA Linn. asthma. emmenagogue. digestive. . sorethroat. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. headache. Nagakeshara. K. vomiting. L. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. H. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. blood and heart troubles. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. In N. Country. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. dry. hairy. hiccup. E. Andamans. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani). Fl. sweats. biliousness. Suvarna. cardiotonic. foul breath. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. The plant is used in chutneys. indigestion and cephalagia. :—E. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. stem short. LOC. pains in joints (Ayurveda). tonic to kidneys . lanceolate. :—Western Himalayas. USES :—Root. PARTS USED :—Bark. skin diseases. See—Timbers. NS.—sub-equally 4-lobed. Travancore. expectorant. Kashmir. Nagkinjalka. thirst. Nagsampige. Ceylon Iron-wood. DISTR. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. oblong. Carminative. useful in liver and spleen diseases. small tumours. toothed.-narrowed below. Oils. ovate. stalked. :—A perennial erect herb . good in asthma and sweats. smooth. Himalayas.—Guttiferæ. Assam. alexipharmic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. COM. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. lilac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. none at the top. Bengal.—in axillary distant whorls.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. Nagkesara. leaves. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). Fr. Ceylon. used for cough. Sk. lined with hairs and hairy outside.—nutlets dry. :—E. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. infusion is given in fevers. Gums and Resins. Kanara. North and West Asia. Burma Tenasserim. LOC. diuretic.
Suvarna champaka. flowers and fruits. Sensitive plant. Vanamallika. gout. diuretic. leaves. NS. Yellow champa . Fruit. Sonchampo. Kanara. COM. G. useful in cough. K.. Sparshalajja. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. IndoChina. petioles hairy. sensative. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . M. COM. Champaka.—Sept. Champa. diuretic. Lajalu.-Oct. L. Golden champa. India. Surabhi. M. Assam. W.—bipin-nate. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). K. Risemani. Champaka. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. CHAR. hairy beneath. bark.. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. near temples and in gardens. rheumatism. Pilochampo. 57. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. slightly recurved. Sampige. rachis bristly. H. Champaka. diaphoretic. Lajari. Nachike-gidda. LOC. Sankochini. Lajja.5 cm. aphrodisiac. ophthalmia. 45-90 cm. Flowers-stomachic. Lajalu. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . Flowers— expectorant. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya. :—Cultivated all over the State. :—E. rheumatism. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Champo. FAM. Burma. also used as purgative. stimulant. in vertigo. PARTS USED :—Root. facilitates micturition. LOC. acrid. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. glabrous above. clothed with glandular hairs . Muthmurika. bile. Sone-chapha. S. Lajjika. t. Sk. :—E. FAM. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. Ghats. digitate.-pod flat. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. leaflets 15-20 pairs. in globose heads.—4-merous. Yunnan. Lajalu. "Kapha".—Magnoliaceæ. Fl. good in leprosy. "Vata". Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. DISTR. long.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn. Humble plant. NS. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. removes worms. See—Timbers. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. G. Fl. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. high. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani).—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). destroys poisons. . cultivated. stems and branches sparingly prickly. blood affections. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Dyes. evergreen rain-forest of N. Pivala chapha. Fr. Hem-pushpa. :—A diffuse under-shrub. nausea and fevers . pinnae 1-2 pairs. Lajjavati. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. pink. remove biliousness. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. Raktamula. H. Sk. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas .
leprosy. Mugule. Ceylon. headache. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. Kanara and Konkan. Anangaka. NS. alexipharmic. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. COM. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. useful in blood and bile diseases. cure biliousness. cooling. In Brazil root is used as emetic. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. fruits and seeds. burning sensation. See—Ornamental Plants. inflammations. Sharadika. astringent to bowels. DISTR. FAM. cooling. Bakul. Juice is applied externally. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. flowers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. teeth and gum diseases. liver complaints. Mukul. Flowers give taste. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. bilious fevers. Mulsari. Root is resolvent. alterative. in piles and fistula. ulcers. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). :—Common in the rain-forests of N. asthma. DISTR. Seeds fix loose teeth. Baphuli. flowers and fruits acrid. stomachic.:—Western Peninsula. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). :—Naturalised throughout India. Kalhala. PARTS USED :—Root. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark. Borsalli. Bakul. cures biliousness. It is also resolvent and alterative. sweet. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. Bolsari. cultivated in gardens in pots. Vovali. LOC. oleaginous. :—G. Root. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. often planted in gardens. vulnerary. blood diseases (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. M. probably a native of tropical America. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Bakula. leucoderma. K. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . cure blood diseases. Fruit causes flatulence. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. good for gonorrhœa. LOC. leprosy. jaundice. alexipharmic. LOC. Ranjal. nose diseases. Malaya. cultivated in the tropics. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. vaginal and uterine complaints. Bakul. cures "Kapha". Bark cardiotonic. acrid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. Sk. anthelmintic.—Sapotaceæ. dysentery. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. fatigue. Kanara. Flowers—expectorant. H. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). smallpox (Yunani). piles. bark. Varsuli. biliousness.
it is applied to relieve headache. Karelo. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. M. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . :—E. K. Karela. often ribbed or rugose. Karala. COM. H. Guleaabbas . Leaves are maturant. high with large perennial tuberous roots. G. H. Hagala. HABITAT -Cultivated.—continually in bloom. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. NS. K. Fr. Krishnakali. lessen inflammations (Yunani).—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. NS. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. Four o'clock plant. Hagalkai. t. Fl. COM. See—Ornamental Plants. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. Gulbasa . and rather fleshy stems . Sk. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery.—large. Marvel of Peru. Carella fruit. 30-75 cm. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. L. LOC. each one surrounded by an involucre. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. Kareli. Karli. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. good for syphilitic sores. native of tropical America. Karela. Sk. Karavalli.—E. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. yellow. FAM. Kandura. brightly coloured (dark crimson. Fruit Trees. M. . Fl. DISTR. HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape.—Cucurbitaceæ.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant.—Nyctaginaceæ. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. cordate. blackish. It is also tonic and febrifuge. FAM. CHAR. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Chandra—Sanjimallige. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. LOC. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. Oils. :—A herbaceous plant. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration.—membranous. See—Timbers. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. :—Grown throughout India.
leaves and fruit. carminative. Kanta. LOC. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. laxative. Vandhya. NS. cooling. rheumatism. digestible. fever consumption. bronchitis. urinary discharges. urinary discharges. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. aphrodisiac. Beksa. :—G. used in syphilis. hiccup. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. asthma. hot alexiteric. appetiser. B and C. leprosy. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. . Kantoli. Ceylon. "Kapha". stomachic. :—Throughout India. diseases of spleen and liver. tonic. burns. and externally in ague as an absorbent. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. LOC. cure "Tridosh". HABITAT :—Cultivated. all kinds of poisoning. laxative. Fruits contain vitamins A. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. China. stomachic. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . COM.—Cucurbitaceæ. Karkotaki. Plant cures diseases of blood. antipyretic. and America. PARTS USED :—Root. ulcers. eye and heart. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. tropical Africa. DISTR. M. bronchitis. S. hearttroubles. Leaves act as galactagogue. Malaya. anthelmintic. PARTS USED :—Root. excessive salivation. also in Malaya. boils. antibilious. urinary calculi. piles. piles. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. blood diseases. leaves and fruit. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. Nagarali. Fruit—very bitter. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. erysipelas (Ayurveda). Fruit is tonic. tumours. K. sparingly in Konkan. FAM. longpepper. cure "Vata". LOC. Gid-hagalu. Kantolan. cures biliousness. stomachic. Karehiballi. Fruit—bitter. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. Sk. Leaves—aphrodisiac. etc. Country and Gujarat. H. Golkandra. Kartoli. jaundice etc. anæmia.'. rheumatism. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. laxative and authelmintic. DISTR. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. Fruit— bitter. anthelmintic. :—Cultivated throughout India. asthma. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. M. It is useful in gout. lessens expectoration . Vishakankini.
dyspepsia. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Famine Plants. Sk. LOC. tuberculous glands in neck. stuttering. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. G. spleen enlargement. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Al. Introduced var. cultivated throughout India and Burma. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. HABITAT :—Cultivated . MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Mulgule. flowers. G. fattening. M. Ab. "Kapha". Segua. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. also wild. Sajina. Ugra. aphrodisiac. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Ak. Guggala. Sargavo. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State. H. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. Seglo. Murangi. Mochaka. Ashyuka. fruits and seeds. :—E. makes blood impure . anthelmintic. Burma. PROPERTIES AND LOC. . :—E.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. Ainshi. eye diseases. COM. NS. bark. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. astringent to bowels. "Vata". improves appetite. digestible. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. Rochana. removes all kinds of pains. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. useful in heart-complaints. quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. PARTS USED :—Root. Mochaka. leaves and fruits. causes burning sensation. LOC.—Rubiaceæ. Drum-stick Tree. earache. FAM. Root-tonic to body and lungs. NS. DISTR. FAM. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. DISTR. M. H. biliousness . also in the Oudh forests. K. analgesic. alexiteric. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Nuggi. COM. Bartondi. K. Tikshnamula. Munigha. In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Indian horse radish . emmenagogue. Achchuka. Saraoji. Shevaga. See—Vegetables. Tagase . Achi. China. Aal. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. ulcers. Indian mulberry. PARTS USED :—Root. Haladipavate. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. Formosa. all "tridosha" fevers. See—Dyes. leaves.—Moringaceæ. Sk. inflammations. tumours.
exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. Tuta. lumbago. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". Gums and Resins. biliousness. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. The plant contains an alkaloid. appetiser. loss of appetite. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. FAM. Leaf paste. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Kambali. aromatic and acid flavour. good for brain. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. NS. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. good for inflammations of throat and chest. stomatitis. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). Fruit—tonic. sweetish. turmeric. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. carminative. USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. bronchitis. G. K. Tutri. leaves and fruit. piles. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). diuretic. heart. MORUS INDICA Linn. with garlic. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. Shetur. spleen. gout. cooling. diarrhœa. wounds. Siahtut. Fruits contain vitamins A. Oils. H. fattening.—Moraceæ. it is cooling laxative. rheumatism. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. diuretic. :—E. See—Vegetables. Karihannu. PARTS USED :—Root. common about villages in N. aphrodisiac. White mulberry. Madhu pippali. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. LOC. Seeds yield a fixed oil. B and C. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. ulcerated intestines. enriches blood. laxative. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. burning sensation (Ayurveda). enlarged spleen or liver. See—Fruit Trees. bark. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. increases biliousness. sour. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. obstinate asthma. salt and pepper. Peninsula. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. urinary discharges. expectorant. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. useful in small-pox. Ambat. M. anthelmintic. Fibres. Tut. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. Tuda. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. Root is purgative. LOC. Tut. DISTR. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. Kanara. expectorant. epilepsy and hysteria. cures gleet. COM. enriches blood. lumbago.
5-7. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . Rambha. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. NS. Maoz kela. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. K. PARTS USED :—Root. M. Kavach. Var. tonic. COM. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). silky. HABITAT :—Humid areas . . turgid-shaped. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. pods and seeds. Several forms are cultivated in Western India. which produce intensa irritation of skin. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. They are used as anthelmintic. improves blood. covered with tawny stinging hairs.—pod. Kavatch. Plantain. Fr. G. flowers and fruit. spermatorrhoea etc. cures blood diseases. Kunth. Kivanchha. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. Banana.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Sd. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . Vanari. LOC. 6-30 flowered.—Scitaminaceæ.) FAM. FAM. stem. Kuhili. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. L. t. leaves. " Vata ". Kela.5x1. SAPIENTUM O.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. lateral very unequal sided. cultivated. Hasaguni. G. petioles 6.. :—Punjab plains.—3-foliate..—Oct-Nov. Bale. juice given for headache. dark-purple. tonic. Dirghapatra. Adam's Fig. Himalaya up to 1200 m. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant. Kivanch. :—An annual twiner. Fruit— aphrodisiac. CHAR. Fl. Tikshna. Nayi songuballi. DISTR. Sk. Kela.2 cm. long. Kadvare. M. MUSA PARADISIACA L. PARTS USED :—Root. Kela. leaflets membranous. Fl.—5-6 small. Cowhage.3-11.—in drooping racemes. HABITAT :—In hedges. laxative. sometimes cultivated. Urustambha. Pods are covered with stiff hairs. NS. with honey is given in cholera. H. Seeds— alexipharmic. terminal smaller. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. common in hedges. COM. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Root useful for delirium in fevers. Sk. consumption. K.3 cm. :—E. Kadali. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. Strong root infusion. :—E. Atmagupta. Root—emmenagogue. grey-silky beneath. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Goncha. H. Ceylon. biliousness . LOC. Kapikachu. Turashi. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. Havanch. DISTR.
increases appetite. Sk. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. Bhutakes. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. t. Nagavalli. White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . menstrual disorders. flowers and fruit. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. PARTS USES :—Root. Root-juice is anthelmintic.—Rubiaceæ. C. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. in " Vata". leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. antidysenteric. subglobose. deep golden yellow. Fr. L. COM. appetiser. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. lobes broadly ovate. aphrodisiac. Fl. Bedina. Shrivalli. thickens blood. fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning. very hairy outside.—opposite or 8nately whorled. dyspepsia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. biliousness. improves complexion (Ayurveda). MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. in thirst. :—A rambling shrub. CHAR. tube slender. Bellotti. stipules twin.--in terminal cymes. Fibres. M. leprosy.. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. broad at base. heart-burn and colic. Fl. DISTR. Root-juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. astringent to bowels. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. :—S. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers. Assam. NS. Lawsat. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. consumption and bronchitis. ear-pain. Fruit—sweet. FAM.— July-Oct. leaves. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. . urinary discharges. B and C. blood diseases. strangury. LOC. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. broadly elliptic. Andamans. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. buds densely hairy. See—Fruit Trees. K. pubescent. Ipparati. :—H. anthelmintic. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes.— berry. and are used in acidity. tonic. Kanara. tonic. Tropical Himalayas. Burnt stem is vulnerary. linear. kidney troubles (Yunani). diabetes. hairy. astringent to bowels. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. :—Konkan and N. Serwadh.—tubular. good for dry bronchitis. causes bronchitis . sore-throat. diseases of uterus and vagina. useful in "Kapha". Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. aphrodisiac. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. LOC. indigestible . Hastygida.
all over the State. enriches blood. False nutmeg. is regarded as. Malabar. Condiments and Spices. PROPERTIES AND LOC. fruits and oil. Galen and the Arabian writers. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Kamuka. NS. :—Western Peninsula. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. Ram-patri. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. Fl. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. They are given in asthma. Sk. ovate to lanceolate. Kanara Ghats . COM. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. LOC. promotes growth of hair. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Habules. L.— Myristicaceæ. FAM. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk.—berry. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic. Myrtle. :— E. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. smoke beneficial to piles. cures headache. white. M. Kaiphal. W. Kanage. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). common in the Kumta taluka. LOC. axillary on slender peduncles. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. Dioscorides. PARTS USED:—Seeds. It is credited with opposite qualities. allaying pain. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. H. as . Malati. Vilayantimendhi. emmenagogue. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. :—Konkan and N. used in stopping vomiting. CHAR. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. COM. Pliny. small. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. :—E. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. very sweet smelling. DISTR. See—Timbers. black when ripe. PARTS USED :—Leaves. intermittent fevers and dropsy. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. ellipsoid. Himalayas. Malati. NS. especially epilepsy. LOC. Fr. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. M. Murad. DISTR.—small. FAM. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. applied locally to relieve pain.—Myrtaceæ.— solitary. K. diuretic. It is used as a substitute for true mace. :—A shrub. A decoction is employed. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action . when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil.
-Dec. Kandabahula. entire. stem. t.—July. K. NS. G. Sk.—white. elliptic. white or rosy. solitary or 2 together. C. 10-25 cm. cures asthma. hæmorrhage. ovoidglobose. petioles very long. Pitmari. CHAR. Kandalu. 0. Ripe carpels. L. Padam. rough with distant prickles . Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Ambuj. biliousness. Chinese water-lily. petiole winged. fleshy. peltate. orbicular. long. :—E. in diam. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. See—Ornamental Plants. radiately nerved. M. FAM. K. COM. leaves.. top flat.) FAM. Sarasija. PARTS USED :—Root. from Iran eastwards to Australia.5 cm. Amlavalli. alexiteric. DISTR. :—W. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. . diam. :—A large aquatic herb. Fl. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Tavari-bija or gadde. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. & A. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. cells 2-seeded. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. bronchitis. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. Pundarika. Suriyakamal.—Meliaceæ. petals 5. ulcers (Ayurveda). Kanara. Kamal. LOC. anthers with clavate appendages. torus 18 mm. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd.6 m. disk annular. t. with slender.—alternate. muricate.—membranous. :—E. :—Konkan. ovoid. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. Sd. Fl. Aravinda. Nelanaringa . linear spathulate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae. L. M. Kamala. :—A small branching undershrub. DISTR. Pankaja. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. vulnerary. 3-foliate. erect.. Indian sacred lotus. Padma. NS. axillary. 3-valved. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. high. Papra-vel. Kamal. Fl. Fl. spongy.—pendulous. curved.—capsule.—Nymphæaceæ. LOC. concave or cupped. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India.3-0. Kapurbhendi.—petals many 5-12. Kamal. Belakanji.-Nov. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. elongate.—solitary. Fr. CHAR. free. Ambuja. dysentery. Timpani. LOC. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. Goanese ipecacuanha. H. Sk. glabrous.
ulcers and sores of mouth. Vishavrikshanka. useful in piles.—red. coriaceous. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. spermatorrhoea. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. lobes rounded. Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. diuretic. fever. FAM. CHAR. long. See—Ornamental Plants. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant. rigid. Upper Gangetic Plains. dark green and shining above. Karvira. Sweet scented oleander. flowers. In China and Malaya dried red petals. in fever and liverdiseases. seeds. tapering into short petiole.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root.—funnel-shaped. leaves. M. throat scaly. diseases of skin and eye . flowers. India. Cool. Kaner. aphrodisiac. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. good in throat-troubles. PARTS USED :—Root. also recommended as cardiac tonic. Sind.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. 10-15 cm. chest-pains. heart and brain tonic . astringent to taste . gives tone to breast. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . Sd. S.—Apocynaceæ.—follicles. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). vomiting. Karber. rose or white. useful in fevers . LOC. Pratihasa. at length separating. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. removes worms. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. improves watery eyes (Yunani). removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". small-pox. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. long. strangury. also for dysentery and dyspepsia . cures cough. Cool. Sk. NERIUM ODORUM Soland. C. useful in burning sensation of the body. Fr. DISTR. COM. LOC. linear-lanceolate. allays thirst. allays thirst. fruit. inflammations and poisoning. stem. :—Madhya Bharat. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin. biliousness. Kaner. Salt Range. Fl. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. Kanel. t. G. also cholera. planted in gardens throughout the State. L. NS. Paddali. . used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. honey. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. Filaments are astringent and cooling. Waziristan. fragrant. leucoderma. also as a hedge plant.—flowers more or less throughout the year. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. Baluchistan. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . Kanher. good in blood-complaints. Fl. K. menorrhagia. Ashwa-marak. Karvira. leaves. 15-23 cm. Kanagile. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter.—in threes. H. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. slightly bitter. :—E.
nervous depression and sleeplessness. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. asthma. Tambakhu. caries of teeth. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Dhumrapatrika. Tamaku. emetic. useful in bronchitis. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. K. funnel-shaped. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. Fr. Poisonous to fish. Tobacco. Tabak. very poisonous. foul nose. bronchitis. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. LOC. tonic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—capsule. wounds. USES :—All parts of plant. especially root. inflammations.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. Hoge soppu. scabies. smoke constipating. across. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). COM. Kalanja. :—Native of America. scabies (Yunani). H. Fl. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. good for lumbago. M. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. L. Tambak. Tamarakuthika. LOC. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. sedative and emetic. The plant contains a glucoside. lobes spreading. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). base wedgeshaped . Sk. laxative. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist. G. dimness of sight. are poisonous and are used externally.MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). An ointment made . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. large (especially lower ones). inflammations. Root—aphrodisiac.—in open corymbose panicles . Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. a mental stimulant. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. conical.8 cm. water from hookha is diuretic.—alternate. tubercular glands of neck. Flowers— aphrodisiac. the surface is plain or bullate. headache. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. HABITAT :—Cultivated. USES :—Leaves are narocotic. :—E. about 1.—pink or white. useful in caries of teeth. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). sores. anthelmintic. cultivated in all tropical countries. oblong or elliptic. tonic. skin diseases.—Solanaceæ. M. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. also applied in leprosy. Bujjarbhang. disinfectant. C. See—Ornamental Plants. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. Tamakhu. NS. carminative. CHAR. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). Krimighni. FAM.
C.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. H. L. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. Bark cures bronchitis. Lalkamal. :—E. rough above with bulbous hairs. scalp affections etc. Assam. It is used with honey in chronic fever. cures fevers. tonic to hair. hairy. Shonapadma. Kanwal. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. useful in bilious fevers. :—A large shrub or a small tree. Kharapatraka.. PARTS USED :—Root. ovate acute. abundant July-Sept. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. HABITAT :-Cultivated. Chotakanwal. astringent-to bowels. Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. Fl.—Oleaceæ. Fr. carminative. DISTR. lessen inflammation. t. Cultivated in many parts of India. G. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs.— more or less throughout the year. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Jayaparvati. K. Har-singhar. peduncles 4angled. solitary. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. CHAR. Sk. Bilitavarai. Alipriya. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. (Ayurveda). separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Aravind. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. Burma. M. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. Bengal. Madhya Bharat. Indian Mourner : G. compressed. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn. densely pubescent beneath. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. bark. tube orange-coloured. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). Sephali. NS.5-6. flowers and seeds. . COM. Parijata .3 cm.—Nymphæaceæ.—opposite 5-10x2. Har. Nilophhal. bark. Prajakta.) FAM. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. M. Lotus. :—E. Nalkumkuma. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. Nyadale huvu . a decoction of root. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. axillary. stomachic. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. Buds are tonic. LOC. obcordate or merely orbicular.—lobes white. southwards to the Godavari. COM.—capsule. Harsing. Prajakta. Sephalika. young branches quadrangular. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Parijata. Parijataka.— fragrant. 2-celled. FAM. K. Kanval. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . NS. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Kumuda. in terminal trichotomous cymes. Sk. H. leaves. LOC.
Surasa. rough. NS. Burma. orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). "Vata". cultivated throughout the greater part of India. asthma. entire. :—E. G. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. Barbar. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. Sabja.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. submerged . Fl. hot taste. :—Large aquatic herb . cylindric. removes impurities from blood .6-0. USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. itch. root stock tuberous. peduncles very long . globose. febrifuge. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . purple stem. Hungary.—ovate. L. Africa.9 m. FAM. glabrous or pubescent. CHAR. pale rose or white.— ovoid. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. chronic pain in joints. across. Ramkasturi. Surabhi. allays thirst. Ceylon. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). DISTR. PARTS USED :—Roots. stamens about 40. ellipsoid. erect. oblong. DISTR.—3 cm. Ajagandhika. COM. :—Var. flowers and seeds.—peltate. thyrsiflora. improves taste . LOC. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. Fr. Sd. Barbar. Tukhamariya . antipyretic . :—Common throughout India in warmer parts. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. long. 8-13 mm. LOC. emmenagogue. green. C. long. useful in diseases of heart and blood. bracts stalked. stems and branches green or purplish. leaves and flower. 7. lessens bile. deeply cordate at the base. Damaro. roundish.—all the year.. Philippines. Sk. diameter. Manjarki. obtuse. diarrhœa and piles . "Kapha". Var. " Kapha".5-20 cm. toothed or lobed. causes burning sensation. leaves. inflammations. pink or purplish.—2-lipped.— in whorled racemes . white. filaments dilated at the base . glabrous. Fl.—nutlets about 2 mm. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab. red. open in the morning only. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. acute. See—Ornamental Plants. 15-25 cm. irregularly sinuate-dentate. K. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). Fl. cooling . :—An erect herb 0. Fr. diam. petioles very long. useful in diseases of heart and brain. Java. Sajjebija. anthelmintic. short. Nasabo. Tungi. L. high. alexipharmic. black and pitted. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. bitter. t. biliousness. "Vata". bitter taste. M. Rihan. ripening beneath the water. Bahari. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. and nigropunctate above. Sabzah. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry. Plant has a sharp. diuretic. C. H. stomachic. juice gives lustre to . aphrodisiac . enlarged spleen. glabrous or hispidly pubescent. Sabja.—Labiatæ. thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State.—petals about 12. fleshy.—solitary. Common sweet basil. leucoderma.
PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Java.8 m. skin diseases. pale greenish yellow. useful in vomiting. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. 1. often cultivated : Ceylon. NS. coarsely crenate-serrate. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. LOC. good for griping and piles (Yunani). Large basil.—6. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. woody below . :—Throughout India. :—E. elliptic-lanceolate.-July-Oct. gland-dotted. t. Country. " Kapha". sharp taste . Avachi-bavachi. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). for which the juice warmed with honey is given.—2-lipped. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. Deccan. Ajaka. L. stimulant. The flowers possess. young ones pubescent.8—5. removes foul breath. M.—nutlets subglobose. G.2—1. headache. Ram Tulasi. heating. given in infusion in gonorrhœa.7 cm. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. high. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. Gujarat. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. H. aphrodisiac . CHAR. diuretic and stimulant. strangury . HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. rachis quadrangular . FAM. LOC.3—12. rugose. pubescent. alexiteric. diuretic and demulcent properties. USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. :—A perennial shrub. causes insomnia (Ayurveda). Sumukha. useful in diseases of brain. inflammations. S. Rantulasi.. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. :—Konkan. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. " Vata". Fl. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. heart. Plant has bitter.—Labiatæ. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition. LOC. Rama-Ran tulasi. It is also styptic.— in simple or branched racemes. fits. liver and spleen. brown. OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. stems and branches subquadrangular . strengthens gums. lower lip longer. they are also aphrodisiac. DISTR. BanMal tulasi. M. COM. Lemon—shrubby basil. During fever when the extremities are cold.5 X 3. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia. branched. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling. Fl. C. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. carminative. earache. Sk. in close whorls . The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. . good for toothache.
Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. varying from 7.— in racemes 15-20 cm.—2. Kala tulasi. COM. Papli. Manjari. Parapate. . :—G. obtuse or acute. alexiteric. usually 2-3 cm. FAM. hiccup. globose or pyriform . Tulasi. CHAR. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Vranda. Country. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. strangury. 30-60 cm. Sk. C. Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. Pavitra. margins recurved and scabrous. Krishna tulasi. stems and branches subquadrangular. Fr. upper lip pubescent on the back. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. HABIT :—A common weed.2 cm. K. NS. L. G.—pale brown. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots.6— 3. asthma. of children and in hepatic affections . H. NS. Deccan and S. Vrinda. :—An annual herb.—2-lipped. and are given with honey. Phapti. LOC. Asia to Java and the Philippines. COM.—Sept-Nov. HABITAT :—Cultivated. long. pubescent. high. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . leaves and seeds. entire or serrate. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. Arabia. t. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). useful in heart and blood diseases.5—38 cm. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. purplish. Damanpaper. leucoderma. Tulasa. stems numerous. DISTR. Vishnuvallabha. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. antipyretic. used in catarrh and bronchitis . M. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). stomachic. bronchitis. Australia. purplish. Suravallari. Parpat.—subsessile.. linear or linear-lanceolate.— capsule.5-5 X 1. Ceylon. LOC. anthelmintic.—Labiatæ. H. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. vomiting. Sd. Fl. :—Konkan. Fr. lumbago pains. Tulasi. bitter. angular.— nutlets. FAM. smooth. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. See—Sacred Plants. especially in children. " Kapha". M. purulent discharge of ear. :—Throughout India.—on filiform pedicels. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache. long in close whorls . elliptic-oblong. painful eye. CHAR. West Asia. Tropical E.:—E. clothed with soft hairs . heating. minutely gland-dotted. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. L. foul smells. lobes acute. yellow with black marking. Fl. " Vata". they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . DISTR. high. stipules with bristles . Fl. Tulasi.—Rubiaceæ. Sk. M.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. cholagogue. :—An annual plant. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. Malay Archipelago.
used in ophthalmia. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles. Snuka.5 cm. dull bluish-green. ulcers. LOC. K. Prickly pear. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places).—5 cm. M. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs.— berry. Joints variable in size.—Cactaceæ. juice cures earache (Yunani). Plant bitter. or more high. alexiteric. Nagadru. cures inflammations. Sher. carminative. recurved. DISTR. obovate or elliptic. antipyretic. loss of consciousness. Grown as hedge. Sk. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. Vajrakantaka. anæmia.158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fr. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. subulate. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. piles. reddish at the tips. rather thin. Phadyanivdung. Plant juice—heating. burning. " Vata". Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. Mullugalli. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration. inflammations. liver complaints. spleen enlargement. stomachic. long. carminative. Nagaphani. it is also used in liver complaints. CHAR. cures syphilis (Ayurveda). good for leucoderma. NS. flowers and fruits. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. 3 m. leucoderma. perianth rotate. across. rusty brown. inner spathulate. angular or warty. :—E. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . introduced into India. outer segments ovate red in the centre. ascites. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. diuretic.—7. reddish purple when ripe. FAM. cures biliousness. yellow at the edges. lumbago. urinary complaints. . Nagdali. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. Nagaphana. long. G. laxative. spleen enlargement. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. largest 3. L. tumours. Hathathoria. purgative. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. xerophyte. Zhoratheylo. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . LOC. Slipper thorn. cures bronchitis in children. digestive. COM. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. Nagaphana. H. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. vesicular calculi. yellow or orange.5 mm. Chorhothalo. pyriform.
Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. It is astringent and tonic. fattening. diuretic. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). dysentery. Tetu. Dyes. Ullu. Rice. Shyonaka. Tandula. Fruit—acrid. Alangi. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. Ghats. Akki. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. tonic. Seeds are purgative. Mayarjangha. Chokha. piles. K. :—The Konkan and the N. Dirghavrinta. Fruit—expectorant. astringent to bowels . inflammations. sweet. Kanara ghats . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. LOC. Cochin-China. G. useful in " Vata". intestinal worms. Tetu. bronchitis. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. COM. K.S. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. LOC. Mokka. LOC. Rice . Ava. R. M. M. biliousness. bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—E. Araluka. useful in biliousness . Bhat. stomachic. H. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. DISTR. See—Timbers. NS. leucoderma. H. tonic. Arlu.—Bignoniaceæ. anthelmintic. good in heart and throat diseases. vomiting. improves appetite. Sk. Ceylon. :—Widely cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. DISTR.). aphrodisiac. Tetu. Nivara. Sk. fevers. Chaval. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—E. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. HABITAT :—Aquatic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. Tandula. Bagi. FAM. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. M. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Indian trumpet flower. asthma. G. aphrodisiac. Podval. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Pharri. Tans. K. NS. Shali. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. oleaginous. cooling. PARTS USED :—Grain. Tuntaka.—Gramineæ. improves taste. appetiser. Malaya.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. anal troubles. Vrihi. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. COM. FAM.
Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . Changeri. Indian Sorrel.—petals 5. NS. Dudhari. Ceylon.—axillary. Sk. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. gives great relief. sub-umbellate . In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. pubescent. transversely striate. Amrul. Rice water. " Vata " and piles. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine.— Oct-May. It is an excellent application to abscesses. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful.2—2. M. H. linear-oblong. Sk. oblong. NS. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Br. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Leaves. ovoid. margins ciliate. The grains contain vitamin C. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. K. leaflets 1. t. See—Food Plants. good appetiser . Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. bowels or kidneys. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn.—Oxalidaceæ.5 cm. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . brown. Amlalonika. yellow. In dysentery. Marudbhava. also in burns and scalds. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. to which a little lemon juice is added. dysentery and scurvy. COM. Dudhialata. LOC. Dudhani. K. Dugdhike. long. astringent. obcordate.— many. scarlet fever. Fl. DISTR. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. Dugdhika. Ambuti. inflamed piles. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). beaked. :—Throughout the State. used externally. It is a pleasant. COM. Jaladudhi.—Asclepiadaceæ. Dugdhica. LOC. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. :—E.—palmately 3-foliate. easy to digest. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). Kshiravi. cures dysentery. Ambastha. rounded at the apex. bruised. measles. base cuneate subsessile. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . H. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. Sd. small-pox. FAM. :—G. boils.— capsule. Shuklika. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. CHAR. C. stems rooting. FAM. . Chukrita. Dudhatani. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. L. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. petioles very slender. Fl. Kyirin . Dudhialata. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . M. diarrhœa. if applied to chest. buboes. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. 5-angled. Fr. removes " Kapha ". demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers.
:—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water.MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR.—Pandanaceæ. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. laxative. juice is used in gleet. Fl. COM. G. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn.—Dec. aphrodisiac. thin. Gogandhul. :—Konkan and N. small-pox. LOC. Kewoda. Fr. Fr. Java. Sk. Sundarbans.5 m. . useful in strangury and tumours. K. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. alexiteric. milky juice. FAM. linear or linear-lanceolate. Andamans. yellow or red. Fl. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. t. scabies. :—Konkan. anthelmintic.5-9 cm. Anthers useful in pruritus. Fruit—tonic. anthers. DISTR. H.—glaucous green. C. PARTS USED :—Plant. purple veined. long. X 3. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). high. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. expectorant. 4.— large. S. NS. L. Kanara.9—1. diseases of heart and brain. Sd. HABITAT :—Usually near water. cough. indigestible. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. Kanara. corona staminal. Screw pine. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. M. pain in the muscles. LOC. leucoderma. with flavour. :—A shrub up to 6 m.—dioecious. Poona Sangam. Kedige. pain. LOC. Dhulipushpika. PARTS USED :-Root. Ketgi. anthelmintic. Ketaki. causes flatulence.—very numerous. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . heat of body.. pale rose or white. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). L. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. root. coriaceous ensiform. stems many. strikingly handsome. syphilis. female flower spadix solitary. rarely erect. gonorrhœa. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. 0. Fl. bitter. " Kapha ". tonic. Giripriya. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". Chama-pushpa. often planted. mouth with pubescent ring. much branched. margins and midrib spiny. Ketaka. lobes ciliate. palegreen. dry. diuretic. Ceylon. fruit. Flowers improve complexion. aphrodisiac. fruit and oil from bracts. Keora. Kevada.—deciduous. Leaves are useful in leprosy. :—E. long. Country— Belgaum. Gandha-pushpa. black.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. Mundige. coma present. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. stem supported by aerial roots .—oblong or globose.8-6. Burma. somniferous. 3. DISTR.8 mm.—follicles. CHAR. M. Deccan. roots fibrous from the lower nodes.3 cm. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. leaves. Umbrella Tree.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.
PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.
PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.
LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.
PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.
PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.
PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.
PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.
PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.
PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.
dysentery. :—G. digestible. Sk. Belgaum. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. Koshila. NS. See—Food Plants. Fr. bronchitis. and southwards to Ceylon. FAM. Trianguli. glabrous or hairy. gout. nose complaints. Ahmednagar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. :—E. Adavada. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. laxative. :—Annual or perennial. FAM.3—2. layer. Sk. t. astringent. anthelmintic. petioles grooved. inflammations. L. yellow. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Afghanistan. cure biliousness. Date sugar palm. Ichela-mara. thirst. good in fevers.—Palmæ. straight subcylindric. aphrodisiac. Fl. cures consumption. wild date palm. H. K. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. Vanmudga. wiry. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Kapila. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. broadly spathulate. Khajuri. styptic. Khaji. Seeds— tonic. Abyssinia. Kurangika. The grains contain vitamins A and B. stems numerous from a woody root-stock.—in sub-capitate. few flowered racemes. Kolaba and Kanara.5 cm. leaflets 1. Tadi. COM. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Kharjurika. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. LOC. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. Kharjuri. slightly recurved. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). Kherk. Satara. prostrate. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. headache. Kallu. CHAR. Indian wine palm. Magavala. DISTR. light and astringent. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. Kidney diseases. NS. USES :—The pulse is considered cool. Ahmedabad. long. Kajuri. Kashayi. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. eye troubles. Swadi. LOC.— pod. Burma. G. mugawana. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. Deccan and Gujarat. 2. LOC. piles. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). H. Dharwar. blood diseases. as a kharif crop. M. Malay Islands. membranous. enrich blood. biliousness. K.—3-foliate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. Sind. Shindi.—Oct. Khandesh. long. . throat inflammations. Siyindu. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Boichand. " Kapha".5—5 cm. burning sensation. Mugani. good for the eyes . Adabanmagi. astringent to bowels. antipyretic. bitter. long. Kohesaru. :—Largely grown in. Konkan.—6-12. LOC. Sendhi. Shimbiparni. Sd. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. COM. dry. good for eyes. DISTR. Ranmug. Fl. M. cough. Ranmath. peduncles 10-23 cm.:—Very common throughout the State. " Tridosh". Kalli-chalu.
blood and eye. Fr. Bihar. sharply serrate in upper part. Fr. petioles compressed towards the apex. clothed with appressed white hairs . greyish-green.—2. long. Sholapur. high. male white.2 cm. :—A tall graceful palm. LOC. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Okra. Ratoliya. Coromandel Coast. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. :—G. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. Fl. deeply grooved on one side. alexiteric. good in heart and abdominal complaints.—sessile. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. cooling. crown hemispherical. usually along banks. Famine Plants. :—A creeping perennial herb.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). Jalapipali. pinnules many. COM. DISTR.—white or pale-pink. Africa. spiny at the base. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. Bengal. wild or more often cultivated. :—Throughout India. Langali. LOC. orange-yellow. This is called neera. LOC. and in beds of streams and water courses. t. H. :—Tolerably common throughout India. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. flowers distant. Poona and Belgaum districts. Siwalik. Jalpippali. scented. anthelmintic. Fl. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. Sk. t. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). female spadix and spathe as in the male. subsessile. Vashira. erect.—pinnate.. angular. aphrodisiac.—Fibres. triangular. 3-4. upper 2-lobed. rigid. Agnijwala. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves. wandering of mind. stems rooting at the nodes.— dioecious. useful in diseases of heart. cooling. 15-45x2-2. spadix 60-90 cm. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. aphrodisiac. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. 9-15 m. spatulate. Ratuliyo.—Verbenaceæ. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. long. flowers very many. roundish. See.—Jan-Feb. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. lower 3-lobed. oblong. long.5 m.—globose. L.5 m. constipating. Ceylon. Fl. CHAR. C. Bhuiokra. 2-lipped. oblong-ellipsoid. densely fascicled. Sd. Fl. Ratoliya. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars. Toyavallari. vomiting. Baluchistan. rounded at the apex. much branched. fruit and juice of the tree. cardiotonic.) FAM. oleaginous. Mysore. Jalapimpli.—rounded at the ends. ensiform. pointed. large and thick. :—Found fairly in Surat. spinous. outer Himalayas. fattening.—more or less all the year. fevers. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. NS.5—3. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . M. DISTR. L.—opposite. oblique. Rohilkhand. Sharadi.
annular. alexipharmic . Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). leaves. Sk. t. distichous. Fr. CHAR :—An annual herb. FAM. DISTR. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. longitudinally ribbed on the back. Kiranelligida. biliousness. urinary discharges. L. and without salt may be applied to bruises. diuretic. of female. H. sores. :—G. M. males 1-3. Ceylon. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery. Vituntika. It is valuable in scurvy. wounds. Bhuianvalah. Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. thirst. Bhumyamali. lobed. fruit. bronchitis. high . wounds. disk of the male of minute glands. Bhumyamalaki. NS.. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. useful in thirst. asthma. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. ringworm (Yunani). :—Konkan and Deccan. Bhuiavli. 30-60 cm.— numerous. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. maturant. COM. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). stem branched at the base. Jaramla. hiccup. bronchitis. Fl.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste.—capsule. angular. Leaves are stomachic. except Australia. K. cooling. Tropics generally. elliptic-oblong. Infusion is a good tonic. anæmia.useful in fevers. axillary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . scabies. Amala. Bhumyamali. Sadahazurmani. asthma. globose. Sd. . good for ulcers. burning sensation. milky-juice. LOC. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice.—3-gonous. Fl. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. scarcely lobed.— July-Aug. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. The whole plant. Plant—hot. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. very numerous. :—Throughout India. very small. LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. smooth. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. females solitary. monœcious. LOC. leprosy. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. dry. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. anuria. Stomachic. Sukshmadala. Ajata.—yellowish. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses.—Euphorbiaceæ. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia.
:—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. COM. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. :—Wild in the N. tonic and digestive. pains. bronchitis. acrid. leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. carminative and astringent. spleen diseases. Kalamirich. Vidyache-pan. Sk. removes all foulness from mouth. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Malimirich . Sk. :—E. aphrodisiac. It sweetens breath. Kalaka. Betel pepper. Golmirch . :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. elephantiasis . Poona. Betel leaf vine. heart and liver. Pan. Pan. K. Sholapur. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Betelleaf. It increases saliva. increases biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. improves appetite (Ayurveda). M. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. Eleballi. Mensinballi. Nagavalli. night blindness. alexipharmic. :—E. styptic (Yunani). Marich. Linn. Kaphavirodhi. clears throat. Vata". PIPER NIGRUM Linn. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. PARTS USED :—Fruits. liver and muscular pains. " Kapha ". given with milk in hysteria. Kanara forests. throat diseases. M. COM. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. Pan. smeared with oil. USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. vulnerary. bechic. foul smell in the mouth. laxative. Tikshna. ozœna. Black-pepper. Panu. Menasin-kallu . and fruits (rarely). strengthens teeth . asthma. Vileyad-ele. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). aphrodisiac. See—Condiments and Spices. urinary discharges. stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. purgative.—Piperaceæ. Satara. FAM. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. Menasu. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. cultivated in Konkan and N. ozoena. Tambola. hot. anthelmintic. carminative. H. generally in Konkan. DISTR. G. inflammations. K. Warm leaves. piles. Kalimiri. Bhakshyapatra. Kanara. FAM. satyriasis and to allay thirst. LOC. G. useful in "Vata". Kalamiri. improves voice. LOC. useful in toothache. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. useful in "Kapha". Fresh leaves. DISTR.—Piperaceæ. H. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. . Saptashira. LOC. It contains an aromatic essential oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. NS. Tambulavalli. NS. tonic. alterative. carminative. leavs. heating. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac. tonic to brain.
PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. FAM. ophthalmia and phthisis. COM. Externally it is rubefacient. M. leprosy.—capsule. Konkan. Burma. dries body humours (Yunani). INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. piles and some skin-diseases . & A. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. the oil is alterative.— alternate. ovate or oblong. Fl. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. H. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. :—K. weakness following fevers. Vehkali. Vikhari. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations. L. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. lumbago. FAM. facilitates menstruation. C. ovoid. entire or toothed. lanceolate or greenish . NS. It is a good expectorant. sciatica. tonic and a local stimulant. N. W. Deccan. In physiological action. used as febrifuge. variable in width. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long .5-12. piperidine and an essential oil. LOC. and possesses narcotic properties . LOC. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. See—Timbers. COM. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. Bartang. DISTR. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. various forms of cutaneous diseases. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . Arcot and Salem. Khasia Hills. Tammata. sprains. petiole longer than leaf-blade. Lahuriya. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. long. NS. :—E. Bark contains a glucoside. vertigo. Khandala (pretty common). radial 2. bruises.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. .—lobes 4. Greater plantain . used in chronic bronchitis. Fr. base tapering into petiole. chronic fevers. It yields an essential oil. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers .—Pittosporaceæ. Kanara in ghat forests.5 cm. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. coma. CHAR. See—Condiments and Spices. hills of S. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock. chest affections. USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. paralysis . PROPERTIES AND LOC.—Plantaginaceæ.
Kempuchitramula. Lalchita. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Lead-wort. dull-black. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant.—large. K. M. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. obtuse. LOC. and seeds. Palni hills. HABITAT :—Along river banks. stems herbaceous. Mahang. Chitra.—tube slender. Nilgiris.. W. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc. zeylanica. G. t. DISTR. erect. alterative and diuretic. Sk. HABITAT :—Cultivated. base passing into amplexicaul. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . NS. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Fattening.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base.—3-5 cm. PARTS USED :—Roots. Malaya. alterative. attenuate. :—Temperate Himalayas. Lalachitraka. high. afford relief. Baluchistan. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores. Lalchitrak. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . L. top coming off as a conical lid. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. Ceylon.. oblong. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. PARTS USED :—Roots. Chitraka. Assam. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. :—Konkan : Deccan. LOC. cures leprosy (Ayurveda). Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. t. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. exauriculate petiole. :— E. long in long terminal axillary.-Feb. H. lax spikes. FAM. LOC. Ghats. Fl. limb wide. :—A shrub 60-90 cm. DISTR. Fl. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani). LOC. leaves. CHAR. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. angled. Raktachitraka. Burma. C. :—Cultivated throughout India. Fl. Lalchitrak. striate . Agnishikha. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State.—throughout the year.-4-8. Fire plant.Sept. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl.—Plumbaginaceæ. COM. Rosy-coloured leadwort. Sd. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. rosy scarlet. Ratochatro.
PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. ring-worm. Bile-Chitra-mula. ascites. anasarca. bechic. DISTR. Chitraka. PARTS USED :—Root. diseases of spleen. alterative . Tropics of the old world. laxative.—thin. bronchitis. K. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. The use of Pl. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. piles. Sk.—Plumbaginaceæ. LOC. leucoderma. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. leucoderma. Chitranga. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. See—Ornamental Plants. dysentery. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. lobes 5. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. LOC. rheumatism. January 1933). spreading. striate. Malay Peninsula.—capsule. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). diarrhœa. Fr. stomachic. oblong. and in leucoderma. carminative. leaves are caustic. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . aborti-facient.5 m. ovate. Medi. stomachic. NS. hot. G. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). skin disease. a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. juice. " Vata" and " Kapha". Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). Root—bitter.—in elongate spikes. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. Vahni. . astringent to bowels. FAM. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies.—Aug. wild in Western Peninsula. stems 0. The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. inflammations. Jyotishka. COM. Chitrak. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. expectorant. Res. entire. a paste is made with milk. long. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. " Tridosha" . Ceylon. Bengal. itching. Fl. piles. Chitra . consumption. cultivated . a favourite medicine for flatulence. anthelmintic.6-1. Fl. it is useful in dyspepsia. Chitaro Chitrak. H. scabies.—white. attenuated into a short petiole. Chitra . leprosy. root-bark. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. appetiser. woody. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. In S. useful in laryngitis. Journ. L. :—E. rachis glandular . It is used in procuring abortion. M. diseases of liver. alexipharmic. vesicant. t. C. See—Ornamental Plants. Vallari. Agnishikha. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. terete. Chitramula. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. pointed.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. cure intestinal troubles. Ind.-Sept. Chitra. leaves. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. :—Throughout India. tonic.
—2-lipped. K. acrid. many flowered. DISTR.:—More or less throughout India. M. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. Sk.5-18x3. S. . HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages.-nutlets ellipsoid. rarely maturing. entire. Rhuruchapha. LOC.—Apocynaceæ. Khairchapha. Pangli. irregularly doubly toothed. itching. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—practically throughout the year. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. COM. Devagangile. abundant. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. Champakam. whorls close. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. Frangipani. long. 7.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. inner face angular. shining. useful in gleet. high.. pains. :—M. pungent. C. upper lip white shot with purple. long. FAM. Root-bark is purgative. stems and branches quadrangular. L. venereal sores. rounded. laxative . See—Ornamental Plants. Radha-champo. 4-lobed. acute at both ends. white with a pale yellow centre. Phangla. L. DISTR. useful in leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. carminative. divaricate. broadly ovate. smooth. :—Native of tropical America.-Feb. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.2—1. ascites (Ayurveda). cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani). The plant contains a bitter glucoside. lower lip white. shining black. M. NS. :—A small shrub 1. oblong-lanceolate. Fl. G. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. :—Konkan. :—E. H. cultivated. Fl.—follicles.-May.8-9 cm. LOC. 12 cm. t. Fr. Fl. CHAR. :—All throughout the State. Mahabaleshwar. PARTS USED :—Root.—Labiatæ. t. FAM. leaves and milky juice. Belchampaka. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. abundant from Mar.—Dec.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. bark. Golainchi. spirally arranged. Fl. The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. Fr. heating. 15-30 cm. COM. CHAR. with an intra-marginal vein.8 m. Kanara. cylindrical. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours. urinary discharges. Kadu-sampige.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. Goleurchampa. Pagoda tree. common. NS. Deccan. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. purple. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. C. ulcers.— large. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. Country. very fragrant. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague.—salver-shaped. 3-lobed. LOC.
cures eye diseases. F. Ichu. Arand. chronic fever and hydrocele. bruised. :—G. also planted. Oil—styptic. NS. flowers. NS. DISTR. LOC. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). Karanja. Sk. Karanjmara. good for tumour.—Verbenaceæ. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Agnibijaka. vagina. wounds. Karanja. COM. alexipharmic . :—E. leprosy. relieves inflammation. Gracie). Sk. piles. along Deccan rivers . piles. Karanj. " Kapha ". cures biliousness. bark. ascites. Pavaka. juice is given in colic and fever. Kanika. Jayanti. Agnimandha. chronic fever. wounds (Ayurveda). Karanj. FAM. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. Arni. HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. See—Timbers. Gaura. itching. Honge. J. Huligili. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. . ulcers. In Satara. Aran. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Naktamala. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. cure earache. H. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Arni. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. Ustabunda . throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. anthelmintic. leaves. Indian beech. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. " Vata ". Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. Seeds—acrid . M. skin and in keratitis . The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. chest complaints. lumbago. lumbago. carminative. Chamari. useful in diseases of eye. rheumatic pains. liver pain. head and brain diseases. Oils. Agetha. G. PARTS USED :—Root. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. Kirmal. Oil—anthelmintic. skin diseases.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). USES :—The fresh leaves. COM. leucoderma. purify and enrich blood. fruits and seeds. LOC. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. urinary discharges . M. Kanja.) FAM. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. Kanaji. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. H. K. good in scabies.
Piyara. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. Peru . FAM. DISTR.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. C. Gum is tonic. LOC. fruits and gum. Amrut. Fr.—hard.—5-9 X 3. stomachic. smooth. small. sour. COM. Fruit—tonic. PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. flowers.. piles. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. Ash—caustic (Yunani).—Myrtaceæ. Dridhabija. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. common about Karwar. See—Famine Plants. useful in anaemia. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. Flowers cool body. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. laxative. Young leaves are tonic in the . Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. Guava tree. DISTR. Anthers—dry wound. Nicobars and Malaya. bark yellowish. Root is laxative. aphrodisiac . Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa. L. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. entire or upper part dentate. Jamud-rukh. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). seated on the calyx . Fl. K. bronchitis. blue-black. Perala. as an astringent to bowels. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums. Jamphal.— June-July. inflammations. Andamans. LOC. pungent. heating. Jamb. applied to sore eyes. LOC. for unhealthy ulcers. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. :—E. M. Ceylon. Vastula. cool heated brain. It is given in the form of decoction.—tubular. .2-6. Peruka. broadly elliptic. LOC. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. It is also employed in scurvy. Gova. chyluria. diabetes. Peru. H. Sk. :—Cultivated all over the State. constipation.— globose. t. NS. fever. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative. good for liver complaints (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. G. cylindric. lobes 4. greenish yellow. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. rough-tubercled . PARTS USED :—Leaves. dyspepsia. preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers. high. Kanara. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter.3 cm. Safedsafari. hairy in the throat. causes "Kapha". used in bronchitis. Perala. cooling. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. cooling. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. good in colic and for bleeding gums. laxative after food. stomachic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR."Vata".
cures blood diseases . PARTS USED :—Root. Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Sd. solitary. Seed—purgative. The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". rounded and mucronate at the apex. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. bitter taste. 10-30 flowered racemes . studded with glands and white hairs. closely-pitted. stomachic. nephrites and cachexia. LOC. raw one is used in diarrhœa. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism. Country. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. piles. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). :—E. good for heart troubles. stimulant. high. Fl. scabies. fruit and seeds. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. Bakuchi.—simple. COM. G. Seeds— refrigerant. K. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. bronchitis. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. difficulty in micturition. LOC. leaves. vulnerary. Kalameshi. Vanguji. anthelmintic. skin diseases. HABITAT :—Waste places. anæmia. H. white hairy. laxative. inflammation. t. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. Bavachi. broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. alterative. Bowach-chi. clawed. improves hair and complexion. aphrodisiac. See—Fruit Trees. C. Bavachi. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. Fruit—diuretic. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. vomiting.5—5 cm. good for leucoderma. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. NS. stem and branches grooved. alexiteric. CHAR. mucronate. . causes biliousness. Babachi. Kushtaghni.2 m. antipyretic. Fl. standard orbicular. diuretic. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. 3.—bluish purple . DISTR.—Aug-Dec. M. ovoidoblong. L. Sk. smooth. urinary dis charges. heals ulcers. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. improves appetite. Fr. biliousness. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. Fruits and seeds cure asthma.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions.—in dense axillary. FAM. Babachi. :—An erect annual. " Rakta-pitta". Leaves—good for diarrhœa. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). Bhavanj. leprosy. nigro-punctate. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil. black. Chandralekha. 0. anthelmintic. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. M.—one.6-1. cures "Vata". Konkan and S.8 X 2.—pod.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Bukchi.
thirst. somewhat milder in action than catechu. Sk.—Punicaceæ. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. chest troubles. K. Hulidalimb . urinary discharges (Yunani). anthelmintic. Malabar kino-tree. laxative. Valka-phala. alterative . G. PARTS USED. enriches blood. Bibla. Pitasar. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. :—Western Peninsula and S. fattening. Bio. Gums and Resins. Dalimb . strengthens gums. diuretic. laxative. Dadam. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. leprosy. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. Bija. burning sensation. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Khandesh and Dangs. sore-throat. NS. LOC. Sunila. elephantiasis. anal troubles. flowers and fruits. from the Balkans to the Himalayas. liver tonic. earache. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. Dalimba. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests. heart-disease. cures " Vata ". It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. useful in biliousness. NS. See—Timbers. Bijak. India. used in sore throat. Fruit-appetiser. H. Kabul and Baluchistan. K. ulcers. Flowers— improve appetite.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). M. DISTR. prolapsus ani. M. Pomegranate tree. Anar. Gum—bitter. Indian kino-tree. body eruptions. :—Wild in Iran. fever. spleen complaints. . used in piles. LOC. bark. ascends to 1100 m. Common in N. ophthalmia. Benga. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. Ceylon. :—Leaves. Bark—astringent. :—E. Honi. tonic. PARTS USED:—Root. Bibla. allays thirst. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. leucoderma. :—E. Dadima. DISTR. gleet. Dhalim. blood diseases. sore eyes brain diseases. scabies. Raktabija-pushpa. Dadimba. Kanara. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). biliousness. Bibla. called kino. tonic. cultivated in many parts of India. FAM. COM. " Kapha ". styptic. flowers and gum. H. urinary discharges. Hirdokhi. griping. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Dharimb . applied to hydrocele. scattered but not gregarious . stomatitis. boils. G. Flowers—check vomiting. " Tridosh". Bigsah. Gum. Honne. LOC. Sk. in Akrani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. useful in vomiting. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. useful in all body diseases. colic. COM. useful in eye troubles. Mahakutaj. also in Konkan. erysipelas. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). anthelmintic. antipyretic. Dadima. good for biliousness. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. FAM. vulnerary. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius).MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Bia.
5 cm. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. jasmine . Chinese honeysuckle. pendant. DISTR. Rangoon creeper. Fruit contains vitamin C. Barmasinivel. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. G. nearly 6 cm.— ellipsoid. S. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. It is given in the form of decoction. elliptic.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. The rind of the fruit. NS. K. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. Fl. Minkare. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Rangoonkibel. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. LOC. FAM. CHAR. Konkan. Gelphal.—Mar. C—petals 5. acuminate. Gela. glabrous above. long. Karhar Mainphal. H. Midhola. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. Karigidda. M.—Rubiaceæ. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness.-Aug. Country and Kanara. Madana. 7. M. COM. Rangoonchavel. Pinditak. Annam. dark green. Lalchameli. Dharaphal.—in axillary and terminal spikes. Fr. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. lanceolate . numerous. Emetic nut. :—A strong climber. at first white then deep red . base rounded. t. H. Mindhola. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Sk. G. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children. In China. HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. :—E.—opposite. calyx tube long. Mangari-kai. Fl. USES :—In Amboyana. . :—E. NS.—Combretaceæ. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. LOC. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) . M. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. widely cultivated all over India. Malaya. hairy beneath. FAM. COM. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. LOC. L. acutely 5-angled.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula.
G. FAM. E. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. inflammations. useful in diseases of heart. laxative. LOC. Muro. bitter. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. eruptions. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. flowers.—Cruciferæ. heating. cures abscesses. produce alopecia (Yunani). carminative. bad taste. leprosy. Radish. See—Timber. Bitter. juice relieves earache. DISTR. LOC. aphrodisiac. The plant contains glucoside saponin. It also contains an essential oil. Ksharmula. DISTR. good in tumours. asthma. and all inflammations . Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. leucoderma (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. useful in chronic bronchitis. Seeds-sharp. emetic. destroys "Vata". carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. China. hiccup. carminative. PARTS USED :—Root. inflammations. M. ulcers. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Hastidanta. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Bili Mulangi. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. COM. fruit and seeds. :—Throughout India. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . muscular pains. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. it is equal to it in every respect. anthelmintic. NS. Mulak. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. piles (Ayurveda). Mura. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . Sk. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. leprosy. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. Tropical Africa. its action is very safe. emetic. K. sweet. Mula. S. good for spleen and in paralysis. paralysis. tumours. certain and regular. binding. Mula. " Vata" and " Kapha". leaves. It is also used to poison fish. Mali. Juice of . emmenagogue.) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. antipyretic. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. piles. H. used in diseases of the brain. purgative. Ceylon. tonic. skin-diseases. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. boils. Muri. Sumatra. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. stomachic. amenorrhœa. Ruchira. cholera. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. :—E. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. Java. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles.
specific for insanity. LOC. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. DISTR. CHAR. acrid. heating. diuretic. Gaja-karni. irregularly.5-18 X 2. pungent. Yuthikaparni. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. t. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz. Mungusavel. PARTS USED :—Root. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Doddapatike. Root contains vitamins A. carminative. :—An erect perennial shrub.-May.—tubular. Sarpakshi. ginger. Palakjuhi. Harki. Sk. It is hypnotic. Western Peninsula. ajmalicine. often tinged with violet. K. Fr. anthelminitic . lanceolate. white. In the Konkan. leaves (rarely). K. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. Harkaichand.. :—H.—drupe. with a long.— Mar. :—H.) FAM. NS. 7. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative. bright green above. ulcers (Ayurveda).-in whorls of 3. swollen a little above the middle. Java. B and C. M. nodular.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. laxative.—in irregular corymbose cymes. COM. M. Ceylon. Nai. shady open places near rain-forests.. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. serpentinine. COM. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. LOC. Chandrika. sharp. NS. Kanara.—Acanthaceæ. corrective and emmenagogue.9 m.—Apocynaceæ. acute.. Andamans. Sivanabhi. cures " Tridosha ". . Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power.3 cm. Sk. thin. Sarpagandha. Fl. pale beneath. FAM. ajamalinine. Chandrika. Nakulikand. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. and black salt. bright red . yellowish root stock. C. L. See—Vegetables. Garudpatala. Chhotachand. seeds are considered peptic.5-6. expectorant. black shining. Fl. sedative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Group B — Serpentine. HABITAT :—Moist forests. single or didymous. Juipani. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. used in hyperpiesis .
pointed. t. Khandala. Fruit— appetiser. Haralu. useful in inflammations. widely cultivated in tropical countries. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. asthma. Sholapur). Seed and oil—cathartic. body pains. Vardhaman. M. liver and spleen diseases. Chitrabija. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. purgative. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). DISTR. leaves. black. Erand. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. pubescent: C. earache. S. elliptic lanceolate. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". FAM. Belgaum. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). increase biliousness.. K. Tirki. rheumatism. Fr.—5-10 X2-5 cm. pains. Ceylon (wild) . H. ascites. :—Throughout India. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. M.—Euphorbiaceæ.5 m. PARTS USED :—Root. strangury. inflammations. cultivated. COM. Castor oil plant. good for burns. velvety hairy Sd. Mahabaleshwar. :—Undershrub. night-blindness. diseases of rectum and head. LOC. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. typhoid. generally cultivated. useful in pains. lumbago. Java. fevers. boils. Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. Cattle are fed with leaves for . useful in skin-disease. Erand. Flowers useful in glandular tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. Root-bark—purgative. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. leprosy. useful in heart diseases. asthma. increases "Kapha". stems obscurely angled. elephantiasis. Fl.—Oct. eructations. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. carminative . leprosy. M. Vardhamana. glandular.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. bracts ovate lanceolate. piles. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Hills.9—1. high. useful in liver troubles. leaves and seeds. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. tropical Africa. flowers and seeds. LOC. ascites. white. narrow. Erand. entire.— tuberculate. dropsy. ring-worm. alterative. Straits-Settlements. intestinal worms. pain in back. Divald. anal troubles. upper lip bifid . oil—anthelmintic. hills near Belgaum. :—Deccan. piles. Madagascar (cultivated). lumbago. Eranda. Arand. vaginal pains. inflammations. paralysis. Triputiphala.—lipped. LOC. solitary. 0. aphrodisiac. Fl. LOC. L. NS.—nearly sessile. some fevers.-Jany. tumours. alterative. ascites. Palma christi. Country. :—Probably of African origin. hairy outside . Very little in other districts of the State.—capsule. :—E. Divaligo. G. Leaves—galactagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Country (Dharwar. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. glands. DISTR. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. convulsions. amenorrhœa (Yunani).
etc. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Pannira. Tarana. petioles prickly. Ati-manjula. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose . P. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. expectorant. serrate. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. acrid. Oil from seed is a non-irritant. cephalic. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. liver. They are also applied to painful joints. G. laxative. Italy. they are cold. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). Greece and Germany. Soumyagandha. 2. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. intestinal affections. Shatadala. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. Sk. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. good for eyes. antipyretic.—Rosaceæ. cardiotonic. mild and safe purgative.3 cm. Gulab . USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. LOC. PARTS USED :—Flowers.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. head-ache. attaining 1. " Vata". pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . Sudburj. seldom griping or causing flatulency. excessive perspiration. Lakshmipushpa. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. M. cures leprosy. ovate oblong. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. See—Ornamental Plants. cardiotonic. stomatitis. Flower—bitter. which is a powerful poison.— usually corymbose. chronic fevers. removes bad odour from mouth. astringent when dry (Yunani). H. aperient removing bile and cold humours. biliousness. :—A perennial shrub. See—Oils. NS.. Ghazipur is a chief centre. Gulab. dry. L. benefits lungs. In constipation it is used as an enema. COM. Fl. FAM. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties.— all the year. with a good odour. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . hairy. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. tooth-ache. red.5 m. adults. aphrodisiac. sometimes striped . burning sensation. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. t. CHAR.—pinnate. . :—E. K. Punjab and U. laxative. LOC. stipules scarcely dilated. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. stems with stout and hooked prickles. Fl. France. cultivated all over India. tonic. pink or white. inflammations. :—Origin unknown.—obovate . double. used in heat of body. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. sweetish. Fr. DISTR. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. Gulab.5-6. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. improves appetite (Ayurveda). sometimes glandular. much used in lotions and collyria . kidneys. long. cooling.
Dock. leaves and fruit. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations.. Sorrel. greenish. NS. ear. high. Chuka. inflammations. CHAR. Sk. Japan. Country.—Rubiaceæ. Majit. laxative. H. grooved. LOC. Leaves-sweet. ulcers. dysentery. analgestic. :—Annual. CHAR. Sk. Manjit. M. Tamravalli. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. PARTS USED. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. cylindric.—didymous or globose. spleen-enlargement. . leucorrhoea. all scabrous with white prickles. shining. Manjishtha. 15-30 cm. used in eye-sores. ulcers and skin-diseases. Root—bitter. leucoderma. antidysenteric. Fl. orbicular . LOC. Aruna. oleaginous .—Polygonaceæ. urine and even bones red. Chukra. petioles triangular. Fr. Raktasara. Manjishtha.—2.5 cm. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. jaundice. erect glabrous herb. :—E. tropical Africa. liver complaints. emmenagogue. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. Fl. base cuneate. H.—in whorls of 4. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. vagina. Indian Madder. L. valves hyaline. t-Oct. Chitralata. antipyretic. bitter. it powerfully affects the nervous system. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. analgesic. one pair with longer petioles ovate. eye. lactagogue. COM. purplish black when ripe. jaundice. Bladder.5—7. leucoderma. inner perianth-segments membranous. anthelmintic. Java. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic.—white or pink. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. ovate. :—Root. cures " Kapha ". DISTR. blood. M. roots very long. paralysis. piles. rheumatism. cordate or hastate.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . Rohini. improves voice and complexion .MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. branched from the root. M. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. K. elliptic. FAM. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. Gulmketu. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction.-Jany. the Konkan and S. paralysis. L. branches quadrangular . FAM. :—E. urinary discharges.—in terminal panicled cymes. prickly. with a thin red bark. and was much used in dropsy. alexiteric. heating. diseases of uterus. Manjishha. increase appetite. pains in joints. lower leaves larger. NS. diuretic. acrid. Ambat Chuka. Malay Peninsula. COM. Fr. smooth. Decoction tinges blood. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. five-nerved. Amlavetasa. Fl. :—Perennial climbing herb. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. lethargy. uterine pains (Yunani). obtuse. stems very long. Ceylon. erysipelas. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda).
Ghati pittapapada .—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. :—Common throughout the State. LOC.-Jany. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Fl. LOC.—Rutaceæ. 2-lipped. acute . Sk. Persia. acute. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. diseases of the spleen. CHAR. S.—Nov. Africa.—Acanthaceæ. lower shortly 3-lobed. Trans-Indus Hills. K. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. Konkan. Sd. :—G. upper emarginate. blue or pink. stems usually decumbent. Nagadali. Satapa . piles. they are prescribed. hiccup. Sk. rugose with furrow. aperient and diuretic. Ceylon. H. oblong lanceolate.—suborbicular. analgesic. stomachic. NS. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. then erect. Vishapaha. Kanara. Sadabu. ovoid oblong. Afghanistan. flatulence. The juice allays tooth-pain. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. with darker spots. tumours. also considered as a vermifuge. leucoderma. pains. COM. COM. NS. generally in the Deccan. M. ciliate. pale brown. Sadapaha. bracts elliptic. Satri. useful in heart troubles. Havananju. :—Western Punjab. asthma. roasted. bronchitis. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. t. Kharmor. M. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. FAM. Parpatha. The seeds have the same properties . Pismarum Sadab. in dysentery. checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). H. C. N. Cooling.— subsessile. USES :—Leaves are cooling. :—E. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. checks nausea and promotes appetite. M. Fr. Fl. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. often rooting near the base. Country. constipation. :—A herb . Deccan. laxative. Common—Garden-rue .—capsule. See—Vegetables. while fresh they are bruised. bites and stings of poisonous animals. G.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. vomiting. with scarious faces and hard ridges. FAM. DISTR. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. Khatselio . Satap. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). DISTR. tonic. .—white. useful in scabies. toothache. dyspepsia. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. L. alcoholism.
grown in gardens. increases mental activity. Gudakastha. . PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. cultivated throughout India.—petals 4. Sd. K. particularly Deccan. FAM. Gudatrina. Tanigarbu . abortifacient. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. tonic.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. NS :—E. LOC. Rasala. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms.. indigestible. leprosy. Sugarcane. S. LOC. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. cooling.—angled. C. oleaginous. HABIT :—Cultivated. See—Ornamental Plants. Ingotu. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Sk. :—A strong smelling herb . Ukh . The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. There are three varieties . Satara. useful in fatigue. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. L.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. etc.—Gramineæ. diuretic. Us . segments cuneate. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. :—Egypt and Algeria. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. LOC. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. spathulate or linear-oblong . anti-aphrodisiac . The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). petioled.-alternate. Poona. The plant contains glucoside glutin. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Powdered and combined with aromatics. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. Kabbu. flawed. Madhuyashti. M. yellowish. oblong-obovate. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. The oil is the best form for administration. it may be given internally in hysteria. DISTR. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. M. :—Grown everywhere in India. digestive. DISTR. glandulose punctate. Kumad. Fr. The plant is tonic. diuretic. Ganna. Naisakar. heating to body . forest and mountain. epilepsy. decompound. all over the State. heats body. thirst. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. laxative. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Rikhu. COM. Sherdi. emmenagogue. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. flatulence. H. and externally used as a rubefacient. Ikshu. obtuse . S. amenorrhœa. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda).—capsule. aphrodisiac. Fl. colic. garden. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . in pots. G.
CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree . fattening. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Egypt. Cane—sweet. tonic to liver. erysipelas. Fl. Fruit—aphrodisiac. Fr.—very thin. oil is digestible. LOC. leucoderma. The juice contains vitamins A and B. diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. numerous. useful in heat. red when ripe. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. leaf-juice is given in scurvy. aphrodisiac . corrective. Sind. Kanara in littoral forests. applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. causes " Kapha. Pilu. Fruits are deobstruent. Asia. Jal. fruits seeds and oil. COM. bad for liver (Yunani). LOC. alexiteric. See—Food Plants. . Seeds—purgative. delirium.-Feb. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. :—E. anthelmintic. G. Abyssinia. near the coasts of Gujarat . Tooth-brush tree. Mahaphala. Kharijal. useful in biliousness. opposite.—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. the Konkan and N. fleshy. Goni. piles. scabies. good for lungs . M. carminative. sugar is considered heavy. Fl. Ceylon. LOC. sometimes it raises blisters. C. Pilu. useful in nosetroubles. 3 mm.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. greenish-yellow. globose. laxative. lobes much reflexed. dry regions of W. Sk. diam. t. Pilu. smooth. In cases of poisoning by copper. USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. K. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. often mucronate at the apex. leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Bark. Leaves—bitter. branches numerous. useful in biliousness. anæmia. H. FAM. analgesic. disorders and wind. deeply cleft.". ulcers.—drupe.—Salvadoraceæ. bile. often planted near Muslim tombs. pectoral and aphrodisiac. stomachic . white. inflammations. DISTR. leaves.. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. Brihat madhu pilu. L. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. It is good in calculous complaints. :—Drier parts of India. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. lessen inflammation . In the Punjab. astringent to bowels. deobstruent. strengthen teeth. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons.—Nov. finely striate. Khakan Mirjoli. diuretic. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. improve diuresis (Yunani). carminative and diuretic. improves appetite. :—Dry districts of the State. Sugar causes " Kapha". shining. purifies blood . intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. Piludi. drooping. Pilu. tonic and aperient. NS.
fruit and seed. LOC. FAM. up with water into a paste.—Santalaceæ. biliousness. M. to temples in fever. useful in diseases of heart. " Kapha ". allays uterine pains. vaginal discharges. cold in head. gonorrhœa. laxative. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Mangalya. much cultivated. Anthuvala. H. Chandal. K. thirst. DISTR. paralysis. often planted. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. Chandan. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. :—E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). Sandal-wood Tree. Rishta. H. epileptic fits of children. :—E. Sk. strangury. gleet. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia.. Ritha. acts as diaphoretic. Chandan. antipyretic. small-pox (Ayurveda). Chandan. Antharalo. . USES :—Wood. :—Western Peninsula. alexiteric. Phenila. FAM. NS. lumbago. diarrhœa. Bhadrasara. Sk. Burugukayi. Suket. alexiteric. stomachic. Ringni. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. burning sensation. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . Country and N. tubercular glands. G. Ceylon. Ritha . Oils. Arithan . Root—expectorant. ground. emetic. S. Phenilu. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. PARTS USED :—Root. Shrigandhalmara. head-ache (Yunani). Kugale. Mysore and parts of Madras State. COM. PARTS USED:—Wood. useful in chronic dysentery. M. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. bronchitis. India. to allay heat and pruritus. COM. Arishtaka. tonic. Agarugandha. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . abortifacient. K. Sandal. Aritha. LOC. M. Kanara. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. DISTR. exhilarating. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. cholera. Cultivated elsewhere. astringent to bowels . useful in inflammations. See—Timbers. Kumblabijaka. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. G. Bhogivallabha. Oil. Malayaja. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. cures "Tridosha". Soap-Nut tree. Sukhad . Fruit—bitter. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. :—Indian Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. aphrodisiac. NS. Bhadrasri. aphrodisiac. LOC. alexipharmic. in skin-diseases. chiefly in S. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). is applied to local inflammations. hemicrania.—Sapindaceæ.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.
SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.
PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.
SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.
BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)
SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).
SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.
SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.
CHAR. probably a native of tropical Africa. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. leaves. aphrodisiac. eye diseases . K. urinary concretions. few flowered axillary racemes. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. diseases. Seed-oil—fattening. slightly torulose. oil. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. opposite. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. Seeds contain vitamin A.— abruptly pinnate.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). an emollient poultice is also made from them. white and red. hair-tonic. scabies. Baluchistan.. useful in sorethroat. linear-oblong. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. seeds. beaked. galactagogue. etc. astringent to bowels. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. and as an oildressing for ulcers. Raysingani. LOC. useful in diarrhœa. cooling. Nadeyi. asthma. anthelmintic. cure menorrhagia. FAM. Fl. NS.—in lax. There are three varieties of seeds : black. 7. gouty joints. They have been used to procure abortion. indigestible . rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . Waziristan. spleen troubles. seeds. applied to gouty joints. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. LOC. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. small-pox. Jayanti. burning sensation. :—A soft-wooded shrub. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. Jayanti. strengthening. into claw. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). Jaya. carminative. promote hair growth. enrich blood. 4-5 m. :—G. syphilitic ulcers. M. Rasin. Fr. in height. Jayat. alterative. COM. long. 15-23 cm. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. They are also emmenagogue. suppurating wounds. Jinangi. SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. PARTS USED :—Root. lung diseases. Jayantika. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. branches striate. Janjhan. obscurely angled . long. leaflets 914 pairs. inflammations. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. tonic.—20-30. inflammations. removes "Kapha".—pod. Sd. septate between the seeds. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. oleaginous. useful in dry cough. mottled with purple on the outside. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. Shewari. biliousness. diuretic and lactagogue. cures . such as dysentery etc.5-15 cm. bark. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. yellow. applied to ulcers and piles. See—Oils. pendulous. :—Cultivated all over India. L. Black variety is common.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. of eye and ear. They are nourishing. strangury.—standard as broad as long. inflammations (Yunani). diuretic. C. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. bleeding piles. tonic. H. DISTR. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. Jayanti.
cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani). long. Flowers—cooling. Basna.—in racemes . Indigenous from Malaya to N. Fl. Fruit—laxative . Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). Australia. very showy. Leaves—indigestible. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. C. 6-9 m. leaves. cures " Tridosh " pains. L. K. anaemia. Munidruma. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. leprosy. Agathio. leaflets 16-30 pairs. alexiteric. rubbed into a paste with water. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. astringent. leucoderma. . Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. FAM. bronchitis. anthelmintic. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. gout. linear oblong. Bark—astringent. See—Fodder Plants.MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. useful in ophthalmia. t.5-8. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache.— flowers at various times. Sk. allays thirst.—7. NS. improves taste. Agati. diabetes. cure itching. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". Dirghashimbi. fevers. biliousness.8 cm. :—A soft wooded tree . H. Fr. diarrhœa. Agase. M. dysentery and paludism. ulcers.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. DISTR. fruits. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. See—Vegetables. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. cure quartan fever. useful in ozœna. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. 15-30-cm. USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Hatiya . useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. gout . Vranari. Agasta. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . LOC. useful In diseases of spleen. An infusion is given in small-pox. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). is applied in painful swellings. relieves throat-troubles. improve appetite . high. Ornamental Plants. night-blindness. tumours . LOC. Seeds—emmenagogue.— pod. maturant. Kempagase. 2-4 white or red. epilepsy. "Kapha" and inflammation. anthelmintic. The plant contains vitamin A. 50 cm. Agasti. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic.— pinnate. Kanali. Leaves—purgative. Fl. Agusta. long. flowers. demulcent. COM. CHAR. stimulant. :—G. Bak. Bark— astringent. LOC. is applied in rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Root.
—1-2 in each axil. K. leaves and seeds. COM. HABITAT :—Moist places . useful in blood and throat diseases. :—Konkan (common). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. LOC. Tukti. lanceolate. Bariara. t. LOC. Samanga. Fl. L.. diam.. M. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Khareti. Sk.. Hettutti-gida. black. dorsal margins toothed. t. Pata. PARTS USED :—Root. Rajbala. :—Hotter parts of India. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). petals connate at the base with staminal tube. decoction. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . sharply serrate.—Nov. Pata. Chikna. is given . Fl. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. H. M. upper margins ciliate. Gujarat and S. Kherati. Country. :—E.3 cm. bleeding piles. Sk. Country. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). ovate-oblong. base rounded. pedicel jointed much above the middle. Fl. FAM. Fl. Country Mallow. " Pitta ". branches slender. crenate. :—G.-Nov. carpels 5-9.—2. Sd. minutely hairy. stomachic and tonic. astringent. NS. Root—cooling. emollient. bark. awns 2.-Oct. Kisangi. aphrodisiac .— yellow. Barial. Chikna.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn.5-5 cm. Bala. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'. LOC. Jayanti. pedicel jointed about the middle. Vatyapushpi. Bala.—smooth. infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. puberulous. Fr. glabrous. scabrid-hairy. strongly reticulated. COM. Chittuharatu. NS. linear. :—Konkan. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. K. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. CHAR. a weed. Kumghi. digestive. G.Dec. obtuse. CHAR.—2. M. Fr. diuretic. awns 2. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. astringent. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. yellow. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. Kareta.—Malvaceæ. dorsal scabrid. Kharanti. cooling. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. Baladana. long. DISTR. linear .5-6. FAM.—solitary or few together. Prahasa. Batyalaka. L. with ginger. diam. carpels 7-10. DISTR. strongly reticulated . In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. C. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda).—5-6 mm. useful in fever. H. cordate. LOC. long.—Malvaceæ. Deccan and S. :—A shrub. removes " Vata ". softly hairy all over. Bala. M.—6-8 mm. " Kapha " . PARTS USED :—Root.
cystitis. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea.—opposite. erect. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. LOC. high. black. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. diaphoretic. :—G. 5 outer clavate. involucral bracts 2 rows. also in colic and tenesmus. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. FAM. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn.2 m. stem stiff. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. COM. :—Deccan. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Externally. stiff-neck. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. noise in ears. all running down wing-like into petiole.—achene. It is also used to favour menstruation. Pilibadkadi. Katampu. triangular-ovate. Ceylon. rhomboides Roxb. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. M. Country.—Nov. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Fr. Fl. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. S. Seeds are called " Bijaband ".6—1. deeply and irregularly toothed. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. DISTR. facial paralysis. slightly rough. 0. pappus 0. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. M. CHAR. those of the ray red beneath. common. Linn. juice is used for healing wounds. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. 5 inner boat-shaped. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. NS.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. L. administered in hemiplegia. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c. and head-ache. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. . a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections. tinged with purple.—Compositæ. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. Fl. :—Throughout India. Fl. t. Bala—Sida cordifolia. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn.—yellow.-Dec.—heads small in leafy panicles . :—A large annual herb. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha.
FAM. maturant. clothed outside with purple hairs . aphrodisiac. Bhantaki. loss of appetite. Sk.—minutely pitted: Fl. astringent to bowels. M.. Fr. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria.3—1. Sd.. pruritus ani. prickles large. or triangular-ovate. DISTR. digestive.5 cm. LOC. 0. FAM. Ceylon. Bhantaki. Vantak. Vadikadheri. lessens inflammations. Baingan. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. NS. leaves (rarely) and fruits. :—E. Malpya. Vange. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. useful in leucoderma. eye diseases (Ayurveda). K. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. China. very.-Aug. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. vomiting. cardiotonic. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". causes biliousness. pain. NS. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). fruit and seeds. . Ranringni. rarely wild. beneficial in cardiac troubles . 8 mm. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated.. Vartaki. Rigana.—Solanaceæ. Fl. COM. " Vata". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating.—pale-purple. anthelmintic. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. H. fever. Dorli. Philippines. M. ovate. Mhotiringni. :—Throughout tropical India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. Vayase. COM. sharp. Nilaphala. PARTS USED :—Root. improves appetite. Barhanta. Mahotika. high. DISTR. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine.5—7. asthma. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. base unequal-sided. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. diam. Fruit—cardiotonic. removes foulness of the mouth. PARTS USED :—Root. Brihati. :—E. Ubhi-bhuringni. Vrittaphala. laxative. " Kapha".-Oct. Vengni.— berry. petiole prickly. K. :—Widely cultivated in India. lobed. Brinjal. It is seldom used alone.5 m. G.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. subentire. Hinguli. Badanikai. Hinguli. leaves. Root is applied to lessen pain. H. Habba-Kirigulla. stem stout. L. Bhanta. Egg Plant. Sk. enriches blood. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). C. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. LOC. prickly. CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. LOC. recurved. t. Indian Nightshade. covered with stellate hairs. Kadusonde.—5—15 X 2. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. dark-yellow when ripe. globose. bronchitis. analgesic. bad for piles if taken internally. Kattarta.—Solanaceæ.
Sk. much divaricately-branched . LOC. Tiktika. Piludi. NS. SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. CHAR. hiccup. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. griping. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. Fruit contains vitamins A. t. taste. aphrodisiac. It acts as a hydrogogue.— berry. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. good for neck ulcers.—discoid. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. chronic fever. M. shining. minutely pitted . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative.—small. improves appetite. Kakamachi. useful in giddiness. etc. vomiting. Fr. DISTR.—Solanaceæ.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . Black Night-shade. C. smooth. cathartic and diuretic. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. asthma. favours conception and facilitates delivery . liver inflammation. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda).. inflammation. itch. bitter. in extra-axillary. Vayasi. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. laxative. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. stem erect. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. :—A variable annual herb . leaves and fruit. H. ovatelanceolate. FAM. G. Root-bark—laxative . fever. Ceylon. L. eye-diseases hydrophobia. entire or sinuate toothed. inflammation. 3-8 flowered cymes . worms in ear. :—E. :—Throughout India. in pains. heating. Fl. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow). urinary discharges. subumbellate. piles. dysuria and asthma. Hound's Berry. improves voice . tonic. ear and nose . alterative. In S. " Tridosha". bronchitis. not to be given to pregnant women. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. The seeds are used as a stimulant. diam. 6 mm. dysentery. Kakamunchi. useful in diseases of eye. Fl. Kakamachi. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers.-Jany. PARTS USED :—Root. B and C. diarrhœa. yellow. tapering into petioles. Seeds—laxative. K. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. bark. bronchitis.—many. diuretic. LOC. Morellel. . HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. Makoi. See—Vegetables. fever. Kamoni. Sd. and used with success in psoriasis. Gurkamai. gonorrhœa (Yunani). throat burning. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. Kabaiya.—Sept. useful in heart and eye-diseases. leucoderma. Katuphala. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints.
diam. laxative. Fruit—laxative. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. stems. Kateli. Basu). FAM.—Solanaceæ. straight. Bijapur and E. :—A very prickly diffuse. Seeds—anthelmintic. M. lumbago. asthma. Jundri. thirst. leaves. they are used in the burning of feet. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa. Malaya. catarrhal fever and chest pain. often exceeding 1. aphrodisiac. chronic bronchitis. Nele-Rama-gulla .. K. Leaves—good application for piles. Nirgol. appetiser. expectorant and febrifuge. Kantakini. LOC. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . Vrittatandula.7 cm. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. fevers. M. useful in bronchitis. DISTR. piles. :—Common in the Deccan . PARTS USED :—Root. 3-2 cm. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B.—Gramineæ. COM. Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. Nidigdhika. E. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . heart disease. good in inflammation. Africa. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. Fr.— June. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat. Jonera. Great Indian millet.. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. Kenjal. hairy on both sides. strangury. Jowar. "Vata" and " Kapha". Ceylon. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Jowari. bright green perennial herb . flowers. Bhoyaringni. H. asthma. LOC. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. D. LOC. long. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Ringni. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). NS. anthelmintic . Yuvanala. K. fruits and seeds. Chikka-sonde. pruritus . SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. lobes deltoid. surrounded by enlarged calyx . Jolah. Shalu. urinary concretions.—purple. prickles compressed. Fl. Sundia . Sind. stomachic. Sholapur. hairy outside. Kantakari. H.3 cm.5-5. Sk. Durrah. S. Fl. Bhui-Kate-ringni. stem zig-zag. :—Throughout India. G. t.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Dhavani. Yengara .—berry. C. sterility in women. COM. fever. yellow or white with green veins. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. L. ozoena. Katai. CHAR. dysuria. Konkan. ovate or elliptic. It is used in asthma. :—E. tropical Australia. muscular pains. heating. pains. petiole prickly. Sk. base unequal-sided. NS. Root—aphrodisiac. :—G. Ikshupatraka. Dirghashara. Jondhala. biliousness. Brihati. stone in bladder. sinuate or subpinnatifid.-5-10 X 2. Sorgho. yellow and shining. & Wendl.
:—Bark. hence used in intermittent fevers. tumours (Ayurveda). K. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. Poona. constipating. M. with toothed wings. Swami-mara. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. G. Juss. tonic and antiperiodic . laxative. Tans. Ruhin. PARTS USED. :— E. Rohani. Rawtarohan. introduced into America and Australia. Bastard Cedar. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. common in Gujarat. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. L. ulcers. diseases of blood. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe.—sessile. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. hairy. high. Bodiakalara. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. useful in " Kapha". NS. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. indigestible. Asia and Africa. anthelmintic. FAM. :—Bark-acrid. Gorakhamundi. Aruna. :—Dry forests of W. Ceylon. Sk. piles. Mahamundi. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. . biliousness. Khandesh and S. refrigerant. :—Seeds. aphrodisiac. Kumbhala. Gorakhmundi. M. on dry stony hills. Dharwar. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. Vritta. vaginal injections and enemas. general debility. DISTR. FAM: —Compositæ. Bijapur and E. stem and branches cylindric. Munditika. Rohina. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. K. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. H. Agniruha. COM. :—G. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Some. PARTS USED. COM. :—The grain is cooling. NS. SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. bladder and kidney complaints. Gorakmundi. leprosy and dysentery . Rohun.—Meliaceæ. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sumbi. Fibres. improves appetite and taste. Gums and Resins. LOC. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. H. DISTR. M. glandular. removes " Vata " and blood impurities . :—Widely cultivated in India. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. cures " Tridosha ". PROPERTIES AND USES. LOC. See—Food Plants. while Belgaum. CHAR. HABITAT :—Open situations. Rohini. Karanda-gida. Country. fevers. Indian Red-Wood. Grains contain vitamin B. Pravrajita. good for sore-throat. aphrodisiac. Ahmedabad.
Fl. Akara-karava. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. serrate or dentate. vomiting. Celyon. Malay Islands. :—Annual herb. t. :—Common in rice-fields. flowers and seeds. scalding of urine. boils. Fl. dysentery. laxative.— achene. laxative. C. leaves and flower-heads. tonic. :—Hot. all warm countries. DISTR. :—Throughout India. hemicrania (Ayurveda). They are chewed to relieve toothache. PROPERTIES AND USES. the latter when present minute. enriches blood . glandular hairy. L. Country and Kanara. t. anthelmintic. anæmia. biliousness. scabies. globose ovoid. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. :—Wild and cultivated. piles. ovate. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. leucoderma.—Achene. FAM. glaborous. lessens inflammations . Oil from the root aphrodisiac. It is also used as fish and crab poison. Fl.—Nov. ciliate near the ends . M. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. urinary discharges. increases appetite. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. used also for local application. PROPERTIES AND LOC. long. base usually acute. USES. pain in uterus and vagina. alexipharmic.—opposite. H. :—Deccan. truncate. Fr. asthma.. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. stalked. bark. :—Common in the Konkan. M. solitary or subpanicled. DISTR. LOC. and tonic (Stewart) . bronchitis. biliousness. HABITAT.. involucre bracts linear. tuberculous glands. peduncles reaching 10 cm. ray flowers and ligules very often absent. LOC. cooling. compressed . Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. in cases of worms and indigestion. Akkalkara . spleen diseases. chest diseases. looseness of breasts. cools brain. elephantiasis. Africa. leaves. Tonic. good for eyesore. ovate-oblong. urethral discharges and jaundice. oblong. HABITAT. . Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . used in insanity. depurative. with honey they are given in cough. gives lustre to eyes . :—Root. :—Throughout India.—Compositæ. epileptic convulsions. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). emmenagogue. Powdered root is given as tonic. LOC. NS. strangury. Sk. COM. digestible. alterative.—compound heads.—in heads ovoid. Pellitary . indigestion. :—E. Akarakara . PARTS USED. sometimes grown in gardens. :—Root. Fl. irregularly crenateserrate.—Nov-Jany. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. Ceylon. S. rectal pain. They are given in powder form. PARTS USED. gleet. CHAR.—purple. Australia. fattening. jaundice. stem and branches hairy. useful in skin diseases. Fr. ring-worm of waist. Pappuso. peduncles with toothed wings. :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part.
Sd.Feb. :—Leaves-tasty. aphrodisiac. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji.8 cm. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Gum is demulcent.—Bignoniaceæ. ovoid. oblique. oblong.—Anacardiaceæ. ulcers. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Hongkong.5 m. CHAR. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. Sk. Wild Mango. LOC. Hulave. NS. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. :—H. long. Fr. HABITAT. t. S. Bile Tree. LOC. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis.-Apl. Toyadhivasini. long. Gujarat. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards. blood complaints . Pitana.. Fruit—indigestible. Padiala. See—Gums and Resins. Avatekayi. L.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. M. Fl. bark smooth. FAM.—drupe. :—A tree 9-10. ash-coloured . widely planted. Konkan. Pahad. Kapichuta. :—Often planted throughout the State. tonic. Salt Range. K. Ambodha. Ambada. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache. leaves and fruit. Padal. Kalavrinta. K. Tungi. Kanara. Patala. hard. H. Parur.5 cm. phthisis. trunk straight. Andamans. appetising. COM. Ran-amba . In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. yellow. Kumbhi. DISTR. round with furrows and cavities.8-7. high. branches nearly horizontal. Patala. Amra. Sk. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. Country. M. Western Peninsula. NS. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). Dr. Ceylon. C. Hude. stone woody. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. PROPERTIES AND USES. astringent.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. M. Kamduti. ovate oblong. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. PARTS USED. Giri Hadari. Ali-vallabha. Fl. entire. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws. biliousness. enriches blood . burning sensation. Burma. Indian Archipelago.. pinkish green.5-18 x 3. Marahunise. :—Cultivated. Pandri.. . (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. COM. :—E. good for sore-throat. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. destroys " Vata ".-usually 1.— petals 4-5. W. :—Bark. refrigerant. Padal. Amrataka. 3. It has been found useful in dysentery. cures rheumatism. Kariguddada. Amate. Indian Hog-Plum. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic.
G. tonic. cures leucoderma. :—Wood (rarely). appetiser. Kajra. ulcers. fevers. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . Kachita. inflammation. lumbago. seeds. Planted in Ceylon. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata". FAM. LOC. Burma. Kangira. Kanara. flowers. Visha-druma. cures pains in joints. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. Travancore. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. :—In forests south of Bombay. Vishamushti. Ceylon.. burning sensation. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. Travancore . Kelakutaka. K. Indo-China. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. tonic. Karnatak. fruit. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . PARTS USED. jaundice. aphrodisiac. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. Crow Fig. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). vomiting. "Vata". itching. Circars. PROPERTIES AND USES. ring-worm. Hemushti. M. Kajra. Laos. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. asthma. from Kashmir to Sikkim . sub-Himalaya. :—Root. Kakatinduka. PARTS USED. emmenagogue . :—Monsoon-forests.—Loganiaceæ. "Kapha". piles. Flowers— acrid . It is regarded as cooling. tonic. fruit. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. :—Root-bitter. Sk. Fruit—bitter. Kuchala. astringent to bowels. Poison Nut. diuretic. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Kuchla. poisonous. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaves. COM. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. piles . heating. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. thirst. blood diseases. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. eructations. Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. :—Fruit-acrid. LOC. pungent. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. bitter. Kajavara. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). anæmia. heating. Karaskara. See—Timbers. Kupaka. H. DISTR. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. N. Nirmal. NS. useful in bilious diarrhœa. :—Very common in Konkan and N. LOC. loss of taste. :—E. Ittangi. heating. Kuchla. antipyretic. :—More or less throughout tropical India. diuretic. blood diseases. DISTR. west coast of Madras State. Kanara.
diaphoretic. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. fruit and seeds. diuretic. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. M. :—Root cures leucoderma. alexiteric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. DISTR. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. H. Kanara and Khandesh. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Country. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. increases "Vata". urinary discharges. thirst. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. Nelmal. Ambuprasadini. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC. Nivali. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Chittu bija. :—E. FAM. M. PROPERTIES AND USES. Burma. See—Timbers. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. Sk. poisoning. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. Aduguchali-bija. alexipharmic. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. cures inflammations. gonorrhœa. Madhya Bharat. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. Shodhanatmaka. Fruit useful in eye diseases.—Loganiaceæ. The demand for strychnine is increasing. . Ceylon. relieve colic (Yunani). As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. good for liver. :—Root (rarely). STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. emetic. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Nirmali. hallucinations. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. head-diseases (Ayurveda). K. kidney complaints. astringent to bowels. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. NS. also in Konkan. HABITAT. :—Western Peninsula. (Rasendrasarasangraha). INDIAN PREPARATIONS. cure strangury. Clearing Nut Tree. LOC. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. Seeds—bitter. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. causes biliousness. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. tonic. Kataka. improve eye-sight. lithotriptic. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Seeds—acrid.. :—Deciduous dry forests. jaundice. anæmia. See—Timbers. COM.
3-0. Deccan . HABITAT. decussate. COM. vaginal discharges. t. Bhilli. PARTS USED. Broughton). C. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu. a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . PROPERTIES AND USES. L. emmenagogue. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling. 2-valved. Loder. Lodh Tree. eye-diseases and ulcers . 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . cooling.. FAM. Sk. :—India (W. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. :—An erect herb. inflammations. Fl. :—Bark-acrid. LOC.-Jany. Burma. :—Konkan and N. Tillaka.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . Shavaraka. Californian Cinchona. . H. LOC.—Gentianaceæ. Sd. Fl. 4-winged. colloturine and loturiaine. Torna fort. diseases of blood. Lodh . E. white with blue veins. winged . PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in abortions . in powder or in fresh decoction. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. ovoid or oblong. bleeding gums .204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo.— sessile. :—W. NS. high. M. digestible. 5-nerved . FAM. :—The whole plant is bitter. Chota Nagpur. Lodh is used in raw condition. Bark—bitter. cures cough. China Nora. DISTR. Lodhra .9 m.—Symplocaceæ. 0. Mahabaleshwar. acrid. K. C.. Peninsula). aphrodisiac. Balaloddujinamara. flowers (rarely). useful in eye-diseases. :—Western Ghats . :—Bark. alexiteric. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. NS. CHAR. S. :— E.— Oct. Lodhraka. Deccan. LOC. Kadu. :—M.— lobes 4-5. Dyes. Peninsula. "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. biliousness.—capsule. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. quadrangular. Tiritaka. M. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . Fr. throughout N. C. Lodh. COM. broadly ovate. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas. The plant contains alkaloids loturine. :—Root. leprosy. dysentery. astringent to bowels. Lodhra. :—Hilly parts. PARTS USED. DISTR. See—Timbers. etc. stem densely leafy. Bose). Country.—many.
Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. :—Bark. COM. . K. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. useful in spleen diseases. Surabhipriya. Malaya. LOC. common along river banks. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. gargles and washes . Neralu. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Gulabjaman. Ceylon. See—Timbers. sprouts. astringent to bowels. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). enriches blood. increases "Vata". Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). astringent. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. sweet.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. H. Nerate. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. good gargle for sore-throat. Jam.) FAM. NS. both wild and cultivated. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan. Jambu. Pharenda. Kokileshta. Jambu-Nayinerale. NS. common at Mahabaleshwar. Jamen. strengthens gums and teeth. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. removes bad smell from mouth. Jambu. Sk. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. M. :—Bark-acrid. Seeds—diuretic. thirst. carminative .—Myrtaceæ. COM. bronchitis. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. good lotion for ring-worm in head. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. Fruit Trees. :—Throughout the State. Jambu. Sk. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Shukapriya. PARTS USED. :-Black-Java Plum. Jambul. K. digestive. dry. fruits and seeds. Jambudi. dysentery. Australia. Jambul. also wild. Malay—Rose apple. blood impurities. astringent to bowels. biliousness. asthma. Fruit—acrid. DISTR. LOC. very often planted. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. Jambura. ulcers. cooling. Nilphala. Nenda. also used in spongy and painful gums.) FAM. Jambula. :—Throughout India. M. :—E. Jambu. etc. fruit vinegar is tonic. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. anthelmintic. Pannerali. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. Gulab-Jamb. Shukapriya. LOC. Jamburaj. good for sore-throat. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes.—Myrtaceæ. G. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. carminative and diuretic.
Fr. cures epilepsy. aphrodisiac. :—Bark. Garhwal. removes bad humours. liver and spleen . Fruit—sweet and tasty.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.— opposite. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). :—Sikkim Terai. double. t. Kottuhale. cultivated in many parts. across.—follicles. hot. Khasia Hills. digestible. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2. weakness of limbs. Maddarasa gida . CHAR. Cultivated in many places. with milky juice . Nandi. . used in syphilis (Yunani). Wax flower. lobes 5 in single. tonic to brain. bronchitis. emmenagogue. Fl. orange within. astringent to bowels. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in "Kapha. strangury. L. glossy green above. Hills of Visakhapatanam. Assam. It is very cooling in ophthalmia.5-5 cm. fatigue. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. Taggar. The plant contains an alkaloid. HABITAT. See—Ornamental Plants. inodorous during the day. lessens pains in limbs and joints . acrid. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant.—Apocynaceæ. heating. Chandani. :—Root is acrid. 7. :—E. useful in paralysis. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State." biliousness. dysentery. Tagara. thirst. indigestible. LOC. K. C—lobes overlapping to the left. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. 1-3 ribbed. bitter. Tagar. wood and oil.) FAM. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms. indigestible.. Trinidad . blood-diseases (Ayurveda). Br. :—Bark is sweet. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Root—bitter . used in liver complaints. See—Timbers. E. Ashvathabheda. alexipharmic. :—Root. G. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. . USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. Bengal. NS. M. Ananta.5-15 X 2. astringent to bowels.—snow-white. Root chewed relieves toothache . fruit and seeds. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. :—Cultivated in gardens. margins wavy. salver-shaped. PROPERTIES AND USES. PARTS USED. astringent to bowels. purgative. LOC. pale beneath. H. Seeds are astringent to bowels. used in asthma. LOC. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. improves voice. tonic. COM. divaricate. Fl. and an essential oil. The fruit is sweet with a flavour.—rainy season. heavy speech. PARTS USED. Yunnan to Australia. tonic to brain.5-5 cm. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. Burma. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. DISTR. Tagar . :—Upper Gangetic Plain. fragrant at night.
bark grey. Sandu. Maddarssa. NS. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). Fr.4-4. Imli. G. Kanara. astringent.—Compositæ. H.—follicle. t. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES. juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. common in rain-forests. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. 2. kidney troubles.5-20 X 3. COM. rough. PARTS USED. NS. Sd. coriaceous. Kalaga. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). somewhat boat-shaped. Amli.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). Makhamali. Nagakuda. Amala.5 cm. oblong lanceolate . Chinch. Sk. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers.2-7. G. carminative. Amli. COM. Zanduga.. LOC. DISTR. FAM.—Apocynaceæ. yellow when ripe. FAM. M. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . :—Rain-forests. their juice is given in ear-ache. with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. Genda. high.—opposite. Chinch.—surrounded by red pulp. Tintrani. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . Guljharo. PROPERTIES AND USES. Flower—bitter. :—Same as T. Pandarakuda.— tube inflated near the top. bitter. FAM. H. C. :—Native of Mexico. wood. across in pedunculate cymes . Tintidika. Nuli. :—E. Halmeti. . :—E. Sthulapushpa. M. French Marigold. : K. Fl.5 m.—white. :—Flower-pungent. 7. HABITAT. oil. Amla. :—Cultivated. divaricata. K. Travancore up to 7. Leaves—good for piles. Makhamal. grown in gardens all over India.000 m. :—Leaves and flowers. See—Ornamental Plants. Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia. PARTS USED.— Mar-Apl.. Amlike. stomachic. Nagaskuda. CHAR. Makhamala. COM. HABITAT.. Tamarind. Teter. Zendu. Sk. lessens inflammation . LOC. HABITAT. throughout the Konkan and N. Chinchika. L. Amlika. Gultora. NS. :—Root.. DISTR. useful in scabies. :—Malabar. good for teeth . muscular pains. internally they are said to purify blood. acrid. LOC.5 cm. belching. M. Fl.
Cultivated also. Sag..—Verbenaceæ. flowers and seeds. Flowers— appetising . Mahapatra. and for sizing materials.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. PARTS USED :—Root. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. Seeds astringent.. Fruit-sour. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. COM. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Teka. DISTR. Sk. Fruit—sour. leaves. FAM. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. useful in giddiness and vertigo. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. laxative. :—E. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. anthelmintic. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Tropics generally. H. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Kanara. vomiting. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. useful in liver-complaints. flowers. Burma. LOC. digestive. causes cough. . Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Sagach. See—Timbers. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. PROPERTIES AND USES. laxative. eye-diseases. Circars. Teak. thirst. intoxication &c. bark. ringworm useful in blood-diseases. heals wounds and fractures. stomatitis. :—Bark. tonic to heart. astringent to bowels. G. Sumatra and Java. Arna. wood. Madhya Bharat. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Sag. costiveness. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). Tegu. small-pox. Bark—astringent. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. Sagwan. Seeds are good astringent. fruit and seeds. DISTR. Anil. scabies. PARTS USED. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. indigestible. heals ulcers. and laxative. urinary discharges. earache. Kanara. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Sagwan. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. tonic. tumours. K. sore-throat. heating. such as body-burning. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings. sweetish. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. LOC. carminative. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. biliousness. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. NS. :—Throughout India. Tega. Condiments and Spices. aphrodisiac. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. boiled they are used as a poultice. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Sagun. tasty. abundant all along the slopes of W. M. Malay Peninsula.
lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). Ghodakan. :—All over India. Fl. useful in bronchitis. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon. branches spreading. poisoning. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. LOC. Fr. DISTR. Sharapunkha. long. K. increase "Vata". leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). COM. Fl. useful in bronchitis. silkyhairy beneath. standard. useful in lung and chest diseases.—pod 3—4.-June. Jhila. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. H. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . expectorant. inflammations. asthma.8—1. asthma. ground and made into a pill. biliousness. fresh root-bark. Sk. :—Plant-digestible. laxative. allays thirst.—Oct. useful in scabies. Sarphonka. pubescent on the back. linear. CHAR. biliousness. high. See—Timbers. long. glabrous above. allays thirst.. Wood good for head ache. spleen. LOC. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. Empali. enriches Blood . with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. L.8 X 0. Wood—acrid.5 cm.—5-6 . heart. cultivated lands and roadsides. PARTS USED. Sarpankho. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. cures diarrhœa . Flowers—acrid.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. blood. S. t. M. it acts also as a vermifuge. :-G. bitter. anthelmintic. mucronate. good in piles. Phanike. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. Unhali.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. NS. Udhadi. along forest borders.2 cm. :—A perennial herb. leprosy. urinary discharges. slightly curved. Deccan. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. alexiteric. useful in piles. HABITAT:—Open situations. mucronate. PROPERTIES AND USES. Sd. Leaves—tonic to intestines . 30—60 cm. leaflets 11—21. C. boils and pimples. ulcers. Kalika. Plihari. spleen diseases. Sarphoka.. cooling. gonorrhœa (Yunani). Sharapunkha. root. Bark is an astringent. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. tumours. FAM. leaves and seeds. dry. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. liver. "Root—diuretic. anthelmintic. burning pain over the region of liver. antipyretic.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. Gujarat. improve appetite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine.—petals clawed. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. red. Konkan. 2—2. M. . Kogge. LOC. :—The whole plant. syphilis. suborbicular. alterative. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). oblanceolate. Malay Peninsula. sedative to gravid uterus. cures diseases of liver. Country.
PARTS USED. DISTR. :—Bark. White Marudah. See—Timbers. anthelmintic. " Kapha". LOC. Kushika. PROPERTIES AND USES. Dhanvi. Baire. Shantimara. tumours.. M. useful in fractures. G. false presentation of fœtus. Bark is astringent and febrifuge.—Combretaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit-pungent. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. Madhya-Pradesh. Ceylon. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. :—E. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Tara. :—Throughout the forests of India. H. G. Arjuna. & A. externally in wounds and fractures. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. Rajastan and Sind. Karvirak. Chota-Nagpur. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. Aksha. leaves. in Khandesh Akrani. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. Kahu. biliousness. Arjuna. inflammation. Bastard Myrobalan. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. useful in biliousness. intoxication. tonic. Kalidrum. Belleric Myrobalan. urinary discharges. Vibhitika. Arjun-Sadada. COM. biliousness. K. blood-diseases. :—Konkan and Deccan. acrid. Hela. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. NS. :—Bark. LOC. Sk. LOC. Indradruma. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Arjan. digestible. DISTR. ulcers. Behedo. Sadado. except in dry arid regions. heart disease. FAM. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. Bahara. Bedda Nut. NS. Behada. Koha. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Expectorant. Karshaphala. Sk. K. tonic. sore-throat. Sadura. anæmia. excessive perspiration. PARTS USED. :—E. leucoderma. M. Arjun Sadada. Tari. Burma. Bibhitiki. FAM. anthelmintic . styptic. Arjuna. COM. Buhura. Bahaza. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. very common in South Konkan. Madras State. Sagona.—Combretaceæ. asthma. laxative. useful in bronchitis. diuretic. Voting. . strangury. with milk. Kakubha. Madhya-Bharat. Beheduk.. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb.. aphrodisiac. in the sub-Himalayan tract. fruit and seed. :—Alexiteric. H. Vibhata. fruit (rarely). strangury. Bera. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani).
typhoid fever. dyspepsia. See—Timbers. used in paralysis (Yunani). DISTR. elephantiasis. eyes. H. Burma. Ripe fruit—purgative. constipation. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. LOC. applied to eyes. expectorant. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". tonic. enriches blood. in Travancore. hiccup. tumours. Hirdo . cold in head. FAM. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. leucoderma. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Harade. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. diarrhœa. useful in asthma. sore-throat. common in Khandesh Akrani. PROPERTIES AND USES. Haritaki. Ceylon. COM. brain tonic (Yunani). Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. vesicular calculi. eye diseases etc. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. Sk. gout. in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. NS. Abhaya. piles. Kanara. diseases of eye. Haria.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. heart and bladder. vomiting. heating. :—Bark and fruit. tonic. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. PARTS USED. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. bleeding piles. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. K. mixed with honey. anthelmintic. Fruit-astringent. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. strangury. diseases of eye. —E. M. aperient. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . carminative. piles and diarrhœa. Chebulic myrobalan. Jivanti. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. corneal ulcers. urinary discharges. useful in caries of teeth. Harara. Gums and Resins. stomachic. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. strengthens brain. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. Black myrobalan. tonic. alterative . It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. delirium (Ayurveda). Kernel has narcotic properties. Haritaki. Dyes. useful in thirst. which is considered a good digestive. gums. bilious headache. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. thirst. Seed—acrid. inflammations. antipyretic. ascites. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. Hirda. LOC. Jivantika. heart and bladder. LOC. useful in dyspepsia. diseases of spleen. G. good in ophthalmia. intoxicating.—Combretaceæ. antidysenteric. nose. bleeding and ulceration of gums. hoarseness. USES. biliousness. Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). Har. is used as an application in ophthalmia. the fully ripe or dried fruit. :—Fruit-dry. anaemia. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. piles. carminative. attenuant. Alate. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. itching pain. vomiting.
Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. Arasi. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. Bhend. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. Burma. NS. Kuberaksha. Gajadanta. :—Bark. Tans. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". H. aphrodisiac . Gandarati. Bengal. FAM. Suparshuakan. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Bhindi. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. produces worms in intestines . Mhaskar and Issac). Bugari. Tulip Tree. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. See—Timbers. See—Timbers. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with.—Malvaceæ.. Portia Tree. Paraspiplo. LOC. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. COM. G. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). profuse discharge. Sk. Kandarala. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. DISTR. difficult to digest. . leaves. PARTS USED. M. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Paras-piper. The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Sacred Plants. The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. acrid . Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). also planted as roadside tree. burning of body .212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. Parisha. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. It is also used in chronic dysentery. :—Fruit-sour. LOC. Bhandi. Dyes. Jogiyarale. :—Coast forests of India. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Parasipu. Phalisha. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Kanara. especially centipedes. increases " Kapha " . Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. PROPERTIES AND USES. Eastern and Western Peninsula. Ranbhendi. Hucerasi. :—E. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. flowers and fruit. Paraspipal. K. Fibres. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores.
See—Ornamental Plants. Haripriya.—Apocynaceæ. frequently planted. Gulvel.. pungent. dorsally convex. Fl. yellow. Gulo. LOC. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. elliptic. red. C. M. :—Bark. very poisonous (Ayurveda). but its use is attended with considerable danger. seeds and milky juice. grooved . leucoderma. acrid. useful in urethral discharges. :—Native of S. worms.5—12. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. exocarp fleshy. Indies . LOC. Amrita-Valli. Vatsadani. Shatakumbha.—in axillary and terminal racemes. Fr. Burma. and blood vessels . . Andamans and Ceylon. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. :—An extensive climber.—Apl. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . Pivali kanher. :—Throughout tropical India. HABIT :—In thickets. fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. with milky juice.-spirally arranged. females solitary. G. Sd. eye-troubles. size of a pea . Zard kunel. throat campanulate. roundish cordate with a broad sinus. PARTS USED. Amarvel. M. LOC. H. corona in the throat. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic. Gurch. L. bright green and shining above. Gulvel. Gado. Heart-leaved moonseed.—drupes.—broadly obovate.. tubular. astringent to bowels. America and W.—Menispermaceæ. endocarp corky. male fascicled. piles. Jwaranashini. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine.—generally 4. skin diseases. Gulancha. mesocarp bony. :—Stem. NS. COM. Sk.—membranous. across.5 cm. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. it has no action on digestive enzymes . crowded . linear. 5—10 cm. virgin uterus. Pittaghni. 5 cm. The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. Fl. yellow. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. often planted in India. root. Uganiballi. G. Exile or yellow Oleander. NS. PARTS USED. long. :—E. K. Fr. t. 1—3. growing on mango and other trees. DISTR. Karvira. FAM. bladder. L. Ashvaghna. Pila kaner. CHAR. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. lobes 5. wounds. HABITAT. Amritvalli. Pila kanir. Fl. H. bark corky. Gulhel. hot. :—Often planted. CHAR. bronchitis . 7—9 nerved..—in terminal cymes. DISTR. COM. ventrally flat. cures " Vata " . 7. FAM. Sk. :—E.
stomachic . orange coloured. Manger. :—All over the Madras State . stimulates bile secretion. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. 5-10 X 1. Macimullu. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil. China. causes constipation. Ceylon. Konkan and Kanara. Kumaon to Bhutan. CHAR. digitately trifoliate. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. L. H.—Aug. size of a large pea. especially acid. vaginal and urethral discharges. Khasia Hills. female flower buds oblong. Fl. (Kirtikar). Forest Pepper. Java. unisexual. t. also in the Deccan hills. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. Philippines. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases. .. burning sensation. :—Stem-bitter. Root-bark is aromatic. renews blood. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. :—Root. stimulant and anti-periodic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. high. Dahan. leaves. LOC. HABITAT. FT. 5-7 lobed. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State. stigma sessile. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. Stem-bitter. Mirchi.— alternate. Jangali-Mirchi. juice useful in diabetes.—globose. antipyretic. white. good in cough. fruits. ovary rudimentary. armed with small hooked prickles . Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever.-Jany. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. Limri. vomiting. stomachic. 3-5 grooved. Gangalaki. diuretic. fever.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. chronic fever. PARTS USED. allays thirst. Sk. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. :—Rain-forests.8. coriaceous. jaundice. Fl. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). :—An evergreen scandent shrub. NS. USES. DISTR. oblong. :—E. Root and stem are bitter. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. Kadu-menasu. tonic appetiser.8-3. pitted on the rind. Sumatra.—Rutaceæ.—Dehan. useful in skin diseases. expectorant. COM. FAM. M. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. tropical Africa. 15 m. Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. giddiness. Kaduhakukare. anæmia. K. enriches blood. diarrhœa. male flower bud globose. dark shining green above. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. Lopezroot Tree.—in axillary cymes. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. cures jaundice. bark. LOC. common in S. leaflets sessile. mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). piles. tonic. vomiting. crenulate.
leprosy. HABIT. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. inflammation. Trikone-phala. Shingoda. :—Aquatic (in tanks). DISTR. Garige. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. strangury. cooling. COM. Shringa-kanda-taka. aphrodisiac. aphrodisiac. causes " Vata " . HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. :—Cooling . COM. Shingada. removes " Tridosha". Lim.. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. Singhara. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. Burma. Malaya. :—E. indigestible. biliousness. biliousness. astringent to bowels. useful in . fattening. Chittagong. Dyes. Kaechaka. :—E. Assam. cures fevers. of India). Kuberaka. Tunika. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Trikota. Sk. tonic. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. expectorant. blood diseases. Indian Mahogany. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue.) FAM. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. removes " Kapha ". often cultivated. PARTS USED. itching. Kuruk. anthelmintic. aphrodisiac.—Onagraceæ. "Tridosha". Bark—bitter. astringent to bowels. Tun.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. NS.—Meliaceæ. Ceylon. Water-chestnut. tropical Africa. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. Toon. :—Throughout the State in tanks. burning sensation. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. LOC. H. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Fruit. antipyretic . Apina. fatigue. LOC. Sk. NS. good for scabies and gleet. G. M. Nand-vriksha. headache. M. :—Bark-acrid. LOC. Tundu. burning sensation. PARTS USED. :—Bark and flowers. K. Gandhagarige. Mahalimbu. Chota-Nagpur. Jalakantaka-valli. cures leprosy. Lud. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. Kalingi. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. Waitz). USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Singodi. Deodari. Sandal Neem. useful in ulcers. DISTR. H. digestible. astringent to bowels. Kanara. urinary discharges. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. Mandurike. cardio-tonic. See—Timbers. Gums and Resins. :—Throughout India. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). Tuni.
Gujarat. CHAR. :—Plant is cooling tonic. DISTR.. :—H. stems and branches pilose. COM. Pindara. K. :—The whole plant. PARTS USED. G. alexiteric. mucronate. Gamhar. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . :—Throughout India. lumbago. in Kashmir. bad-teeth (Yunani). Ceylon. oblong. Gokhura. DISTR. Sd. Java. Calthrope. M. LOC. Fibres. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Petari . young parts silky. Gokshri. Sk. Aphrodisiac. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice.—several in each coccus . FAM. Sk. LOC. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). solitary. bronchitis. used as food.—throughout the year. sore-throat. t. biliousness. one pair longer than the other . Pindara. a common weed of the drier parts. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. Trikantaka. Kurangaha. Deccan and S. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. Fr. upto 3300 m. :—E. H. NS. Kantaphala. Shadanga. Gokhru. bile and phlegm. NS. along nalas and in swampy localities. appetiser. Chhota gokhru. M. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous.—Euphorbiaceæ. Gokharu. improves taste .. sharp spines. Hussuk.:—Saurashtra. leaflets 3—6 pairs . K. pain. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Kere Padye. Karahate. thirst. . See—Timbers. :—A procumbent herb. PROPERTIES AND USES. Country. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Kanara. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections. The plant contains an alkaloid. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. Fl. See—Food Plants. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Assam. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. FAM. Sarata.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa. one of each pair smaller than the other. considered cool and sweet. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. of 5 woody cocci. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. Ceylon.. Gokhru. each with 2 pairs of hard. hairy. They are also used in the form of poultice.—globose. Negalu .—opposite. Gokshura. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings. antipyretic. L. yellow. LOC. Seeds abound in starch. M. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. Malay Peninsula.—Zygophyllaceæ. COM. abruptly pinnate. LOC. The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. base oblique. Sumatra. useful in chronic fevers. Tumri.
cough. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. Mt. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. enriches blood . Aja-dandi.— Dec. :—Cooling . FAM. spinous toothed or serrate. L. cures strangury. improves appetite . Brahmadandi. Diuretic. S. Fl. aphrodisiac. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. yellowish brown. HABITAT. LOC. ciliate. t. pappus shorter than the achenes. pain . alterative . S. M. tonic. alleviating burning sensation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. purifies blood . Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. inflammations. pruritus ani. urinary discharges. tonic . Physiaran. stem erect. fattening. urinary disorders and impotence. tonic. used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). branches angled and ribbed. Sk. fruits. gonorrhœa. asthma. seeds. diuretic. CHAR. bitter.— purple. K. gleet. Kantapatraphala. M. LOC. piles. :—Root. useful in strangury. Brahmadandi. :—The whole plant. —achene. Talakanto. Brahmadandi. faintly ribbed. ovoid. :—Wild in places. :—Hot. removes " Tridosha ". leprosy . Kanara. vesicular calculi. :—Western Peninsula. Fl. LOC. West Rajastan. oblong. cures skin and heart diseases. Mota-Motachor. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Konkan. stomachic. increases menstrual flow. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. Brahmadandi. reduces inflammation. good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . :—A glabrous herb. copious. long.—heads 6—8 mm. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). NS. diuretic. which is taken in large quantities. H. reduces inflammation . . Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. USES :—Fruits are cooling. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. Central India. Abu. suppression of urine. PROPERTIES AND USES. slender. emmenagogue (Yunani). base of the cauline leaves not auricled . The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). leaves. Country. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES. TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. appetiser. PARTS USED.—Compositæ. bloody urine. linear-oblong or lanceolate. Kanara. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). Fr. "Vata".—sessile. S. the Deccan. DISTR. cures "Kapha". Brahma-dandi. COM. : — G. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. C. lumbago .
Makal. chireta and honey. t. Fr. leaves. Fl.—2. Sd. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. reniform or broadly ovate. tendrils 3-fid. allays thirst. male in axillary racemes. alexiteric. :—A scandent annual.-5-12. alterative. base deeply cordate. K.—Cucurbitaceæ. pungent. CHAR. L. HABITAT:-In hedges. PARTS USED. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. COM. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. palmately 3-5 lobed. Australia. Jangli— Kadu padval.5 m. N. long. green with white stripes when raw. Kiripodla. useful for boils and intestinal worms. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. it is given in decoction with ginger. lobes ovate-oblong. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. DISTR. fruit. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. M. oil. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. ovoid-fusiform. Sk. orbicular.—Cucurbitaceæ. Malay Peninsula. Fruit—hot. Leaves—good for biliousness.6—4. Wild Snake-gourd. NS. G. leucoderma. variable.—July-Oct. long. :—E. blood diseases. stem robust. :—Root. scarlet when ripe. — surrounded with red-pulp . eye diseases. USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Katuka. cures bronchitis. :—Throughout India. Root-juice is very purgative. In Bombay. woody below. H. dark-green above. bitter. ulcers. females solitary. H. tendrils 3 cleft. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic. Fl. leaf-juice is emetic. LOC. Ceylon. erysipelas. Kaundal.5 cm. Perula.5 cm.-6. FAM. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. Sk. with a long sharp beak. FAM . furrowed. base cordate .218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. anasarca and ascites. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). Betlada padaval. NS. distantly denticulate. deeply 5-lobed. laxative. L. —G. antipyretic. antipyretic. slender.—monœcious. leprosy. :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. burning sensation. Patola. the Deccan. dentate or serrate. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. Mahakala. CHAR.3-12. K.. axillary. :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever.-male in axillary . headache and boils. slightly hairy. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta).3 cm. Jangali chichonda. Ratan-indrayan.. Avagude-hannu. COM. M. stomachic. white. Fl. Jyotsna. :—Root-cathartic . paler beneath. Indrayan. PROPERTIES AND USES. asthma. Kadvi-padyal or patola .5—7. Malaya. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic.. Panduka. stems 3. long. Mukal. cures itching. LOC. long as well as broad. Lal-indrayan.
bracts large. China. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. :—Root and fruit. red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache. PARTS USED. N.—globose 3-8. lessens inflammations . HABITAT.. boiled with gingelly oil.-July. COM. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. gargle good for toothache. :—M. black. ovate-elliptic. Juice of fruit or root-bark.—many . stem and branches hairy. Fl. female solitary. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric.75 X . Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani).—head solitary. white. Malaya. Fl. Fr. abortifacient. :— Wild in Konkan. glandular. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. FAM. Ekdandi. Sd. many years ago. very hairy. outer involucral bracts ovate. diam. L. LOC.—throughout the year. Ceylon. sparsely white hairy.. CHAR.— Apl. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. high. .—petals wedge-shaped. :—Fruit is useful in asthma. which is found abundantly all over the country. 30-60 cm. :—A perennial straggling herb. NS. Deccan and S. on the Himalayas. middle lobe smallest. hairy. bruises and wounds.5 cm. acute. PARTS USED. DISTR. DISTR. peduncles very long. ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). petioles densely hairy. Fruit—carminative. rheumatism. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. M. C. :—Abundant in the Deccan. purgative. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. Country. used in epilepsy.— achene. ophthalmia. fringed. leprosy.—Compositæ. heat of brain. cures hemicrania. inner slightly longer than outer.. all over the State. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect.—1. Japan. Kirkee. t. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils. :—Throughout India. densely silky hairy. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. PROPERTIES AND USES.75-1 in. Fl. Australia. Ray flowers ligulate. t. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. axillary. Fr. :—Wild in hilly parts. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. :—Leaves. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. slender. ligules yellow. limbweakness. 3-partite..
—in umbellate cymes . HABITAT. H. also in low and sandy localities. LOC. Kashmir. Sk. L. dysentery. CHAR. cultivated in many parts of India. 7. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. M. LOC. fleshy. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda).—deeply lobed. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery. Antamul. Muthi. DISTR. Fenugreek .-Nov. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice.—Asclepiadaceæ. :—E. :—Cultivated. tonic and carminative. enlargement of spleen and liver. Jyoti. Janglipikvan. corona gibbous below. long. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. NS. with coma . Sd. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns. PARTS USED. "Vata". Methi .220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. Methi.5-5. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. :—Hot. long. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism. enlargement of spleen and liver. M. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. Fl. FN. removes bad taste from mouth.5—10 cm. K. M. COM. cures leprosy. astringent to bowels. suppurative. flatulence. LOC. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). aperient. dropsy. bronchitis. S. anthelmintic. Country. chronic cough. . emmenagogue.. purplish within..—Aug. ovate or elliptic oblong. tapering to a fine point at the apex. t. Pitakari (Pitamari). Methini. Kanara. tonic. :—South of Bombay. NS. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink.—follicles. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. base cordate. piles. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. :—Punjab. FAM. Methi. vomiting. Nepala . diarrhœa. G. Hot and dry. :—A twining perennial. and the seeds contain vitamin A. Pitabija Vedhini. COM.7 cm. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. they are also aphrodisiac. roots many. Konkan. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. K. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off.— broadly ovate. Chandrika. 5-10 x 2. Methi. :—Leaves and seeds. See—Vegetables. narrowed at the apex to a free point. diuretic. C. FAM. much used in colic.—opposite. useful in dropsy. Menthe—palle. greenish-yellow outside. large for the genus. :—H. appetiser.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).
15-45 x 1. :—E.—purple.3-2. USES. light-brown . :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. stems downy with hooked hairs. high. :—G. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion). Shankaraja . Ranganja . tropical Africa. Sd. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. :—A herb.5 cm.. long. blotched with white above. Fl. Dabra.. 5-7 (rarely 9). It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. Pithavan. :—Sandy places. :—Konkan. 20-30 cm. USES. PARTS USED. COM. long. :—Wild. leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. Peninsula. Bihar. black. Indian Squill. found useful in dysentery. Prishna-parni. . 10-20 cm. DISTR. linear. Malay Islands. Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. HABITAT. diaphoretic and expectorant. joints 3-6. Rankanda. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. Pitvan. NS. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. :—Throughout India. rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. :—A perennial shrub. PROPERTIES AND LOC. G. Borneo. polished. Jaglipiaz. long. LOC.8 m.9-1.— pod.— petals lanceolate. URARIA PICTA Desv. scape erect 30-45 cm. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). ellipsoid. stalks long. Fl. W. H. folded on one another. Pitavan . C. :—Western Himalayas. hairy beneath. Malay Islands. Philippines. Ceylon. Sk. KolaPutakand.—in racemes 15-30 cm.— flattened. CHAR. :—Bulb. tapering to both ends .. Jangli-Ran-khanda. C. Fr. L. 0.. tropical Africa. Dried leaves are emetic.. :—Common on sandy shores. Ceylon.—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes. Fl. linear-oblong. M. Panjala.—capsule. FAM. perianth campanulate.— Liliaceæ. :—Roots and leaves. flat. CHAR. Fr. COM. t. Burma. NS. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. L. M.—Aug. HABITAT.-Sept. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. pale lead-colored.—appearing after the flowers. DISTR. Thailand (Siam).—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Chota-Nagpur. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. leaflets on the upper part of the stem.. white. PARTS USED. LOC. glabrous. drooping. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Vanapalandu. H. :—Throughout the plains of India. Sk.— imparipinnate.
scandent by simple or branching roots . recurved. Sk.—capsule. long. antipyretic. PARTS USED. rheumatism. skin diseases. complicate. alexiteric. :—Root is bitter. asthma. heating. Ceylon. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms. Sarpagandha. Vriksharuha. PROPERTIES AND USES. obtusely keeled. Atiras. erect. cardiac. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Madhya-Pradesh. lip bluish dotted with purple. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. dropsy. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. bronchitis. . praemorse.. laxative. L. maritima of U. :—Konkan. Gaz. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. Rasna. tonic to brain and liver. rheumatic pains. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. Travancore. boils in the scalp. :—Bengal. anthelmintic. LOC. Rasna. S. Persara. :—An epiphyte. The bulb is stomachic. Gujarat and Kanara. and U. USES :—Expectorant. useful in dyspepsia. diuretic. stimulant and diuretic.. Peninsula. toothache. HABIT. heals fractures (Yunani). and an acute interposed one. useful in paralysis. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. good for piles. Bihar. bronchitis. LOC. lumbago. column very short.— July. Rasno. pollinia ellipsoid. 1931.—thickly coriaceous. purgative. M. hiccup.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. inflammations. DISTR. and was found useful (Koman). Bandanike.. Fr. long. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. diseases of nose. alexiteric. internal pains (Yunani). A. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). bronchitis. Root is bitter. :—Epiphyte. scilla of Great Britain.5—9 cm. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. K. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders.—Orchidaceæ. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. Rasna. Banda. FAM. Nakula. H. LOC. Fl. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines . :—Root and leaves. 2-lobed. renal calculi.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. Vanda. (In Med. lessens inflammations . anthelmintic. stem 30-60 cm. :—The bulb is pungent. CHAR. heating. long.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. :—G. tip. Br. Chota-Nagpur. 15-20 X 1. NS. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur.3-2 cm. emmenagogue. diseases of the abdomen. acute. COM. stout. t. The plant contains an alkaloid. alexiteric. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. tremors (Ayurveda). W.
urinary discharges. Ceylon. globular.—Rhamnaceæ. Tenasserim. eardiseases. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil. Kundura.—5-10 X 2. Kanara. good for sore-throat. hemicrania. prolonged into a linear-oblong.. Gums and Resins. FAM. Pitti. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora). detergent. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. diarrhœa. PROPERTIES AND LOC. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. tonic. amenorrhœa. 1-nerved wing. Lokhandi. also planted. PROPERTIES AND USES.—petals 5. :—Bark-hot. ulcers and wounds. LOC. M. anæmia. G. alexipharmic. COM. Country. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative.. Coorg in Ghats. young branches and panicles pubescent. piles. Ragatarshado. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. skin eruptions. K. expectorant. Fr. :—North Kanara. dysentery. :—A large much branched woody climber. M. whitish). Red Creeper. LOC. :—Bark. :—Western India. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. NS. NS. Shala. diam. Kubbila. Safed-damar. cures cough. with an offensive odour. (T. USES.—Dec. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S. Travancore. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. tonic and stimulant.-nut about 5 mm. Poppli. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. PARTS USED. debility and slight cases of fever. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). tuberculous glands. yellowish. carminative.5-3. in chronic bronchitis. Sandras. H. L. t. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. useful in atonic dyspepsia. Mysore. Malamaitra. :—Madras State. Sk. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. buds 5-angled.—in large drooping terminal panicles. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. PARTS USED. Sk. also in N. Bilidhupa.-Jany. Fl. CHAR. stomachic. rheumatism. boils and ringworm. deciduous and monsoon-forests. Raktavalli. alexipharmic. FAM. DISTR. Haruge.8 cm. :—E. useful in leprosy.—Dipterocarpaceæ. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. Dhupa. K. dark. . fruit.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn.. bechic. :—E. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. H. greenish. Kaharub. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . Sekalyel. Fl. Khandvel. Shandike. :—Bark. Madidhupa. Oils. COM. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. DISTR. resin. acrid. Sarjaka. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. M. abundant in S. Kanara and S. LOC. See—Timbers. Dhupa. C. itch (Ayurveda). entire or crenate.
Somaraj. Kadvojiri.. Fr. LOC. M. Somaraj.—heads subcorymbose. hairy on both sides. LOC. hairy. Vanajiraka.Feb. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. lyrate. FAM. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle. Kulara. robust. filament densely bearded with purple hairs. used in skin-diseases. :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India . :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages. Kalejire. M. :—G.-achene oblong cylindric. :—Annual. G. "Vata" and "Kapha". Sundika. .-rotate. often cultivated. anthelmintic. hairy. DISTR. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fl. truncate. involucre bracts linear. M. NS. Country. Kulhala. lobes 5. erect. and leaves.-May. 5—9 x 2. Sd. compound or pinnatisect. mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. :—Throughout India.8 cm. The juice mixed with mustard oil.—Dec. Kalhara. :—Konkan . lanceolate.—capsule. L. LOC. ofter cultivated. Gujarat.—Compositæ. Fl. DISTR. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. The juice of the whole plant.—oblong. Ceylon . with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. COM. pappus reddish. Agnibija. :—Plant. Ceylon. about 40-flowered. on long petioles.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. :—An annual herb. sub-globose. PROPERTIES AND USES. K. coarsely serrate. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled.—Scrophulariaceæ. Gadar-tambaku. with purple tips . Fl.9 m. high. C. HABITAT:-Waste places. branched near the top. H. rounded.5—3. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. squeezed out by pounding. :—E. L. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. Kutki. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. Seeds— anthelmintic. t— Jany. :—Seeds-acrid. high . Deccan . warted. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). stems 60—90 cm. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. COM. Vishamushti. 10-ribbed. Bhutakeshi. NS.6-0. leafy herb . Bakchi.. Java . rachis glandular pubescent. Vapehi. all coarsely dentate. Purple Fleabane. CHAR. Fl. PARTS USED. cure ulcers. China. astringent to bowels. hairy..—alternate. PARTS USED. yellow.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. in equal proportions. Sk.2 cm. H.. Fr. t. Kalizhiri. Afghanistan. stem 0. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. K.) FAM. CHAR. innermost the longest. Kalijiri.
pappus white. asthma. . cold. Fr. 15—75 cm. LOC. G. Fl. COM. plant is used in fever convulsions. applied in inflammatory swellings . Mudivala. M. :—Annual. Panni. t.— pinkish violet. seeds.—achene. G. made into a bolus with lime-juice. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. stomachic. astringent. silky on the back. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. are used in destroying pediculi. Australia. Sadodi. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria.-Feb. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). VERNONIA CINEREA Less. K.—simple. bronchitis . striate. Cuscus grass. Ushira. K. H. In Ceylon. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. flowers. Kuruvelu. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. NS. Ardhaprasadana. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). tropical Asia. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. hiccup . Bala.—Jan. :—E. Bena. awned. stomachic and diuretic. L. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. Koosa. PARTS USED. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. Osari. LOC. consumption. Sadori. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). used for asthma. H. Valo . oblong. Powdered seeds mixed with salt. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Sk. COM. NS. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra).—Gramineæ. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. Africa . high. Lavancha. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. The plant with quinine. heads small. :—Plant. CHAR. :—A common weed throughout the State. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. Dandotpala. The expressed juice is given in piles. Vala. Sk. tonic. M. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. Ash-coloured Fleabane . Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. cures "Tridosha". The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. stem stiff. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. :—Throughout India. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. DISTR. Sahadevi. Khas. remove blood from liver. :—E. Sedardi. FAM.. a depilatory (Yunani). They are also used as tonic. Fl. Sind. alternate. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. Sahadevi. erect herb. Vecrnam. good for sores and itching of eyes. clothed with white hairs . Devika. kidney troubles. Sahadevi. with lime-juice. pubescent. FAM. LOC.—Compositæ.
PARTS USED. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. The otto is used as a tonic. heating. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. leucoderma. Afghanistan. M. throughout the Malayan regions. astringent. Sessile spikelets. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. PROPERTIES AND USES. lower ones keeled and fan-like. Sinduvara. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots.—Verbenaceæ. stimulant and tonic. high. margin spinously rough.—panicle up to 30 cm. :—G. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . useful in burning sensation. Lakki. LOC. DISTR. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. :—Throughout the State. :—Roots. up to over 1. refrigerant. Leaves are aromatic. Sind. The roots contain an essential oil. bitter. Nukki. also cultivated. USES :—Root is tonic. spleen enlargement.-leaf sheaths compressed. LOC. stomachic. Sk. blood diseases (Yunani). VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Nirgud. NS. :—Root. FAM. biliousness. tonic and vermifuge. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). consumption. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. racemes up to 5 cm. Kanara in damp places. rachis stout. inflammations and irritability of stomach. usually sheathed all along. DISTR. bronchitis. H. colour varying from yellowish to black. strangury. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. :—Common in Gujarat and N. Indrani. leaves. expectorant and diuretic. West-Indies and Brazil. foul breath. pale green. febrifuge. thirst. Cooling to brain. long. L. Nilpushpi. painful teething of children (Ayurveda).226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. astringent. inflammations. sweats.. soporific.8 m. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . Ceylon. useful in eye diseases. anthelmintic. Bilenekki. COM.. erect. bilious fevers. cephalic. bitter. asthma. K. Nirgundi. Fl. Nirgari. PARTS USED. Konkan and Deccan. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Sambhalu. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. head-ache. slender. Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. bitter. Nirgundi. stomachic. Nigod. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. Culms stout. useful in spermatorrhoea. promotes hair-growth. :—Cooling. alexiteric. LOC. Philippine Islands. diuretic. Nirgundi. long.
stomachic. fattening . Khandesh. See—Timbers. There are numerous cultivated varieties. India. Fruit— digestive. "Vata" and "Vatarakta".MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. fever. The plant contains an alkaloid. :—E. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. FAM-—Vitaceæ. Seeds—aphrodisiac. fruits. cures thirst. Draksha. diuretic . produces constipation. jaundice. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Angura. aphrodisiac. useful in old fevers. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. a remedy for skin diseases. catarrh and jaundice. Fruit is nervine. liver and kidney. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. and traces of vitamins B and C. H. K. Madhurasa. Darakh. Draksha. flowers. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. bad effects of drinking. allays vomiting. asthma. The fruits contain vitamin A. Draksha. M. appetiser. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. blood diseases. Angur. cough. Yakshmaghni. laxative. hoarseness and consumption. good for lungs. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. heat of body. . :—A native of western Asia. :—Deccan. cooling . produces alopecia. fattening. strangury. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. expectorant. applied in scabies. good in chronic bronchitis . M. purifies and enriches blood . HABITAT. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. astringent to bowels. piles. LOC. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. G. COM. allays vomiting. Ahmednagar. laxative. and given in coughs. Gujarat and S. spleen inflammation. Grape-vine. diuretic. :—Fruit-acrid.. sweet. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. skin should not be eaten. NS. aperient. leaves. difficult to digest. Sap of young branches. diarrhœa. LOC. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. testicle swellings and piles. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district. Drakh . causes gases in the stomach. PROPERTIES AND USES. burning. emmenagogue. syphilis. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. cooling. Country. stops bleeding from mouth. cooling useful in thirst. PARTS USED :—Stem. fever. seeds. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). sparingly in Poona. W. DISTR. :—Cultivated. emmenagogue. stones in bladder. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. Guchaphala. good for eyes and throat. Sk. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. Draksha. Flowers—expectorant. tonic to liver.
—3-4. inflammations. dark-orange. Asoda. t. Punir. marasmus of children. oblong. Hooliganji. pinnae 4-6 pairs. Asgund. Deccan. Fr. Ghodasoda. COM. insomnia. :—In the drier regions of India . H. "Kapha". Asgundh. Amangura. chest troubles etc.. swollen above the seeds. enclosed in inflated calyx. Balada.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). tonic. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. 23-30 cm.—2-pinnate.—5-10 X 2. Fl.—berry. CHAR. red. :—A branched erect undershrub. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Drier regions. Hirimaddina-gadde.— Sept. psoriasis. inserted on the top of. Canaries.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. long.5-5 cm. emmenagogue . Wagati. :—K. leucoderma. seeds. pretty common in the ghats. LOC. Asan. asthma. constricted between them. lumbago. diam. tonic. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. useful in "Vata". anthritis. :—Root and bark. favours constipation (Yunani). USES. ghats near Mahabaleshwar. bony Fl. 7. senile debility. Sk. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. Mediterranean regions. COM. G. Sd.—greenish or lurid yellow. Kanchuki. K. . M. :—E. main rachis armed with prickles. good in asthma. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . Winter-cherry. C. M. somewhat scurfy.5-12. oblong. heating.-Feb. Drakshasava—used as tonic.—petals 5. L. 0. t.. leaves. Cape of Good Hope.-Jany. linear oblong. scabies. green berries. FAM. 6 mm. slightly 5-angled. NS.—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. ulcers. acrid. bronchitis. ovate.—yellow.—pod. Fl. minutely hairy. PROPERTIES AND USES. leaflets 5-7 pairs. FAM.) DISTR. spathulate. Fr. hard. consumption. dark-green. PARTS USED. Gujarat. Sogada-beru. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). base dentate. :—Deccan. LOC. long. inflammations. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. DISTR. obovate. anthelmintic.. Gandhpatri. :—Tubers-bitter. L. Ashvagandha. smooth. :—Konkan jungles. abundant in Sind .5 m. bronchitis. Kamrupini. branches armed with recurved prickles . rachis grooved with soft hairs. :—A robust woody climber. aphrosidiac. calyx-tube. alexipharmic.—Solanaceæ. high. branches terete. See—Fruit Trees. Fl. Ceylon. coriaceous. HABITAT. NS.3-1. Kanara. (not common. Wakeri. armed with prickles . aphrodisiac. Vajini. CHAR. alterative. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. hoary tomentose . entire. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme . WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. long. Tuber—bitter. Wagati.5 cm.
Japan. simple. China. Kalikari. Phulsatti.5 cm. ulcers and painful swellings . WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz. nigro-punctate beneath. Fl. uterine sedative. Kodamurki. common in the Konkan and N. Bela. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Dhaiti. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Are. Dhavani.—Lythraceæ. irregularly dehiscent. . HABITAT. Indrajav. M. :—G. Dhateki. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sd. dysentery.-May. wedge-shaped. erysipelas. 1 cm.—numerous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Indrajav. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. 5-9X 1. branches long. PARTS USED. LOC. M. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. blood diseases. COM. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent. Hallunova. :—Pungent. :—Root is regarded as tonic. Baluchistan. :—Monsoon-forests. NS. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. used in thirst. Fl. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. in 2-15 flowered cymes. PROPERTIES AND USES. Madhavasini. Kuda. Ornamental Plants. Dhawadina. scarlet. H. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. Khirni.) FAM. Santha. :—Bark and flowers.—mostly opposite. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. Dyes. Hayamaraka. and in derangement of liver . debility from old age. rheumatism. tropical Africa.—Apocynaceæ. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). t. Sk. Madhuindrayava. USES. :—G. ovate-lanceolate. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Br. velvety above. Fr. FAM. acrid.— numerous. Dhavani. Indrajav. See—Tans. It is narcotic. Dhaw. :—Throughout India. Hale. NS.—capsule. lumbar pains. haemorrhoids. Kalakuda. brown. H. emaciation of children. anthelmintic . Dec. toxic.3-2. Tamrapushpi. Kanara near the sea-coast. Sk. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . alterative. cooling. L. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. K. DISTR. Java. on trap in the Akrani. LOC. diuretic and deobstruent. alexiteric. Madagascar. Dhawai. leprosy. Ceylon. COM. Vanhishikha. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy.. leaf-infusion is given in fever. K. Sumatra. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . smooth. Swetakutaj. long. Dudhi. useful in leucorrhoea.
DISTR. :—The whole plant.1-6.. Banokra. especially root and fruit. cures leucoderma. hard and tough. Khandesh at 1050 m. See—Timbers. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. L. PARTS USED. Fr. in W.achene. 3-lobed. epilepsy. alexiteric. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. LOC. all over the State. Aristha. stout. G.—Compositæ. fattening. West-Peninsula. Bur-Weed. Dumundi. :—Cooling. LOC. salivation. poisonous bites of insects. at the top. Clot-Cockle-bur. In S. tonic. PARTS USED. rough with short hairs . Dutundi. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. thickly clothed with hooked prickles. 5-7. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . barren heads many. Fl. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. ovoid in fruit. Gadrian.5 cm. anthelmintic. . long. PROPERTIES AND USES. broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . irregularly incisoserrate .—many. Ceylon. H. oblong ovoid. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. LOC. complexion. Timor. fever. tonic. compressed . The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. PROPERTIES AND USES. useful in cancer and strumous diseases. Itara.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. DISTR. Sk. memory. COM. Sankeshwar. :—Rajastan. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. voice. antidysenterica (Yunani). :—Bark and seeds. fertile heads few. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. axillary. long and broad. Madhya Pradesh. :—Annual herb . Sarpakshi.Feb. improves appetite. Kambu-Vanamalini. antipyretic. USES :—Root is bitter. t. hairy on both sides. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). 1-3 cm. FAM. laxative. CHAR. with 2 erect beaks.-E.—Jany. Fl. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. stem short. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. involucre of fertile head. digestive. the bark is specially useful in piles.. Shankhahuli. NS. M. :— Throughout India.. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. LOC. biliousness. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda).
H. Bogari. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). K. Sk. eructations. Alen. useful in heart and throat diseases. K. Ginger. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. anthelmintic. tongue and increases appetite. G. pains (Yunani). inflammations. "Kapha". abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Beri. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. :—Rhizome-pungent. good in piles. Bor. lumbago. to prevent nausea and griping. bronchitis. Adrate. asthma.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. on poor soil and in rocky places. pains. heating.—Rhamnaceæ. Bore. M. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. expectorant. Anupama. Rhizome—pungent.—Scitaminaceæ. it is also given in the form of infusion. Shringavera. G. it cleans throat. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . . HABITAT. Ber. colic. Ada. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. COM. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. Koli. Sk. useful in elephantiasis. Chinese Date. Ardraka.. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. Bor. Ber. Ajapriya. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. rheumatism. Badari. Bordi. :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. LOC. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. FAM. aphrodisiac. carminative. alexiteric. Dridhabija. and dry situations. vomiting. loss of appetite and piles. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. It is stimulant. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache. laxative. head-ache. stomachic. Boyedi. stomachic. "Vata". INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. DISTR. vomiting. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. PARTS USED. piles. Alla Adrak. M. :—Rhizome. carminative. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Gulmmula. :—Cultivated. gives lustre to eye. Egasi. Indian Cherry. aphrodisiac. NS. Kuvali. Hasisunthi. COM. :—E. Plum. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). flatulence. Ipanji. Alen. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. See—Condiments and Spices. FAM. tonic. Kandara. dyspepsia. NS. appetiser. :—E. H. removes pain due to cold.
Leaves form a plaster to boils. Seed—astringent. useful in fevers. abundant in the Deccan. good in liver complaints. causes diarrhœa in large doses . :—Throughout the State in dry situations . good in consumption and blood-diseases. burning sensation. LOC. tonic to heart and brain . Fruit— cooling. thirst.. indigestible. Kanara.232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. allays thirst (Yunani). in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m. tonic. leaves. Fruits contains vitamin A. on the laterite near the coast in N. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. laxative. China. head-ache. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. causes cough. :—Root. Australia. removes biliousness. vomiting. USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers. Fruit—sweet and sour. Leaves antipyretic. Africa. cure asthma. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). Burma. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. Bark—causes boils . bark. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers . cooling. Ceylon. . PARTS USED. DISTR. seeds. Leaves—anthelmintic. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. PROPERTIES AND USES. reduce obesity. Fruit Trees. wounds and ulcers. biliousness. Root and Bark tonic. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. Afghanistan. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. See—Timbers. :—Root-bitter. aphrodisiac. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. fruit. frequently planted as a fruit tree.
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