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6102281-Medicinal-Plants

6102281-Medicinal-Plants

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Published by: Marvey Marcus Boulogne on Apr 09, 2011
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  • ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn
  • (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn)
  • ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik
  • (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
  • ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn
  • ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn
  • ACACIA ARABICA Willd
  • ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain
  • ACACIA CONCINNA DC
  • ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd
  • ACALYPHA INDICA Linn
  • ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn Var. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f.
  • ACORUS CALAMUS Linn
  • ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis
  • ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn
  • ADHATODA VASICA Nees
  • ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm
  • ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr
  • ÆRUA LANATA Juss
  • AGAVE AMERICANA Linn
  • AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb
  • ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang
  • (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw.)
  • ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth
  • ALLIUM CEPA Linn
  • ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn
  • ALŒ VERA Linn
  • ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. Br
  • AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn
  • AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn
  • AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume
  • ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn
  • ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. & A
  • ANANAS SATIVUS Schult
  • ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees
  • ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. Br
  • ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall
  • ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn
  • ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq
  • ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch
  • APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn
  • ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn
  • ARECA CATECHU Linn
  • ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn
  • ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet
  • ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz
  • ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn
  • ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp
  • (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn.)
  • ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn
  • ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn
  • ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd Var. JAVANICA Baker.
  • ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees
  • (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T. And.)
  • AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn
  • BACOPA MONNIERI Penn
  • (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth.)
  • BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell
  • BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f
  • BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss
  • (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
  • BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn
  • BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn
  • BASELLA RUBRA Linn
  • BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn
  • BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn
  • BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav
  • BLUMEA LACERA DC
  • BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn
  • BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn
  • BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb
  • BRASSICA NIGRA Koch
  • BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng
  • BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn
  • BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng
  • BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. Kuntz
  • (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb.)
  • CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi
  • CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn
  • CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Br
  • CALOTROPIS PROCERA R. Br
  • CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC
  • CANNA INDICA Linn
  • CANNABIS SATIVA Linn
  • CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn
  • CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn
  • CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb
  • CARICA PAPAYA Linn
  • CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn
  • CARUM COPTICUM Benth
  • CASSIA ALATA Linn
  • CASSIA AURICULATA Linn
  • CASSIA FISTULA Linn
  • CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn
  • CASSIA SOPHERA Linn
  • CASSIA TORA Linn
  • CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd
  • CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce
  • (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Don.)
  • CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn
  • (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn.)
  • CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn
  • CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn
  • CICCA ACIDA Merr
  • (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell.)
  • CICER ARIETINUM Linn
  • CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume
  • CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn
  • CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch
  • CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn
  • CITRUS MEDICA Linn
  • CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne
  • CLEOME VISCOSA Linn
  • CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon
  • CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn
  • COCCINIA INDICA W. & A
  • COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels
  • (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC.)
  • COCOS NUCIFERA Linn
  • COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn
  • CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn
  • CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd
  • CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn
  • COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm
  • CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham
  • CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn
  • CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb
  • CROTON TIGLIUM Linn
  • CUCUMIS MELO Linn
  • C. MELO Var. OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller
  • CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn
  • CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb
  • CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch
  • CUCURBITA PEPO Linn
  • CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn
  • CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn
  • CURCUMA AMADA Roxb
  • CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb
  • CURCUMA LONGA Linn
  • CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose
  • CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf
  • CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf
  • CYNODON DACTYLON Pers
  • CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn
  • DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn
  • DATURA FASTUOSA Linn
  • DAUCUS CAROTA Linn
  • DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC
  • DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf
  • (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv.)
  • DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers
  • DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn
  • DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory
  • ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb
  • ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn
  • ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton
  • ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn
  • EMBELIA RIBES Burm
  • EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn
  • (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn.)
  • ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume
  • ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr
  • (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth.)
  • ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L., Var. ORIENTALIS Merr
  • (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam.)
  • EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn
  • (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn.)
  • EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn
  • EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn
  • EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb
  • FAGONIA ARABICA Linn
  • FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn
  • FICUS CARICA Linn
  • FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb
  • FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn
  • FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. SAPIDA Roxb
  • FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn
  • GARCINIA INDICA Chois
  • GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn
  • GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb
  • GLORIOSA SUPERBA, Linn
  • GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb
  • GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn
  • GREWIA ASIATICA Linn
  • GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. Br
  • GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC
  • HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb
  • HELICTERES ISORA Linn
  • HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. Br
  • HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn
  • HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn
  • HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz
  • (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn.)
  • HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall
  • HORDEUM VULGARE Linn
  • ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. Br
  • IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk
  • IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn
  • IPOMŒA NIL Roth
  • (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq.)
  • IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois
  • IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. Br
  • IXORA COCCINEA Linn
  • JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn
  • JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait
  • JATROPHA CURCAS Linn
  • JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn
  • JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm
  • JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn
  • KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn
  • KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn
  • LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz
  • LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser
  • LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers
  • (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz.)
  • LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene
  • LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn
  • LAWSONIA ALBA Lam
  • LENS ESCULENTA Moen
  • LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn
  • LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn
  • LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam
  • LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne
  • LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. AMARA Clarke
  • MADHUKA INDICA Gmel
  • (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb.)
  • MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr
  • (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn.)
  • MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell
  • MANGIFERA INDICA Linn
  • MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke
  • (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth.)
  • MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn
  • (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juss.)
  • MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf
  • MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn
  • MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn
  • MESUA FERREA Linn
  • MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn
  • MIMOSA PUDICA Linn
  • MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn
  • MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn
  • MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn
  • MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb
  • MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn
  • MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam
  • MORUS INDICA Linn
  • MUCUNA PRURITA Hook
  • (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak.)
  • MUSA PARADISIACA L. Var. SAPIENTUM O. Kunth
  • MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn
  • MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk
  • MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn
  • NAREGAMIA ALATA W. & A
  • NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn
  • (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd.)
  • NERIUM ODORUM Soland
  • NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn
  • NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn
  • NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd
  • (NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn.)
  • OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn
  • OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn
  • OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn
  • OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn
  • OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw
  • OROXYLON INDICUM Vent
  • ORYZA SATIVA Linn
  • OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn
  • OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. Br
  • PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn
  • PAVETTA INDICA Linn
  • PAVONIA ODORATA Willd
  • PEDALIUM MUREX Linn
  • PEGANUM HARMALA Linn
  • PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth
  • PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn
  • PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn
  • PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait
  • PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb
  • PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene
  • (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich.)
  • PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn
  • PIPER BETLE, Linn
  • PIPER NIGRUM Linn
  • PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. & A
  • PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn
  • PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn
  • PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn
  • PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir
  • POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth
  • PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre
  • (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent.)
  • PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn
  • PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn
  • PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn
  • PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb
  • PUNICA GRANATUM Linn
  • QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn
  • RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk
  • RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn
  • RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth
  • RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz
  • (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees.)
  • RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn
  • ROSA DAMASCENA Mill
  • RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn
  • RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn
  • RUNGIA REPENS Nees
  • RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn
  • SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn
  • SALVADORA PERSICA Linn
  • SANTALUM ALBUM Linn
  • SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn
  • SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth
  • SARACA INDICA Linn
  • SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr
  • (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
  • SCILLA INDICA Baker
  • SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff
  • (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
  • SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn
  • SESAMUM INDICUM Linn
  • SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir
  • SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers
  • SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn
  • SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn
  • SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn
  • SOLANUM INDICUM Linn
  • SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn
  • SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn
  • SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. & Wendl
  • SORGHUM VULGARE Pers
  • SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. Juss
  • SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn
  • SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr
  • SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd
  • STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji
  • (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC)
  • STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn
  • STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn
  • SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo
  • SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb
  • SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel
  • (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan.)
  • SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston
  • (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn.)
  • TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. Br
  • (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd.)
  • TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall
  • TAGETES ERECTA Linn
  • TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn
  • TECTONA GRANDIS Linn
  • TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers
  • TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. & A
  • TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb
  • TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz
  • THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland
  • THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss
  • TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers
  • TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers
  • TOONA CILIATA Roem
  • (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb.)
  • TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb
  • TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn
  • TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn
  • TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC
  • TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn
  • TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb
  • TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn
  • TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn
  • TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A
  • URARIA PICTA Desv
  • URGINEA INDICA Kunth
  • VANDA ROXBURGHII R. Br
  • VATERIA INDICA Linn
  • VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn
  • VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. K
  • (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall.)
  • VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd
  • VERNONIA CINEREA Less
  • VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf
  • VITEX NEGUNDO Linn
  • VITIS VINIFERA Linn
  • WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz
  • WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal
  • WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz
  • (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb.)
  • WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. Br
  • XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn
  • ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc
  • ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk

SECTION I—MEDICINAL PLANTS

,
ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS Linn. (HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS Linn).
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS :— E. Gabba, Gumbo, Lady's finger, Ochra ; G. Bhinda; H. Bhindi, Katavandai, Ramturai; K. Bendikai, Bende; M. Bhendi; Sk. Bhinda, Gandhamula, Pichhila, Tindisa, Krittabija. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout the State and throughout the year. DISTR. :—Cultivated throughout India; probably of African origin ; naturalised or cultivated in all tropical countries. PARTS USED :—Leaves, fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish and tasty ; tonic, astringent, aphrodisiac; causes " Kapha" and " Vata", dyspepsia; produces oedema; to be avoided in bronchitis (Ayurveda). Mucilaginous fruit is sweetish, cooling, stomachic, aphrodisiac; enriches blood ; cures biliousness ; useful in gonorrhœa, urinary discharges, strangury and diarrhœa ; emollient; causes constipation (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Plant abounds in copious bland mucilage, consisting chiefly of pectin and starch and possesses valuable emollient, demulcent and diuretic properties. It is most beneficial in dysentery; it is also aphrodisiac. Decoction of capsule is an agreeable drink, most serviceable in fevers, catarrhal attacks and irritable states of the genito-urinary organs. Leaves are used to form emollient poultices. Fruits contain vitamins A, B and C. See—Vegetables.

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medik. (HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS Linn.)
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Musk-Mallow; G. Mushakdana; H. Mushakadana; K. Kasturibende ; M. Kasturibhendi; Sk. Lalakasturika.

2

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

CHAR.:—A tall annual shrub; stem clothed with long hairs; L.—polymorphous, cordate, the lower ovate, acute or roundish angled, upper palmately 3-7 lobed, lobes oblong-ovate, crenate, serrate or irregularly toothed, hairy; Fl.—regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy, yellow with purple centre; Fr.—capsule fulvous hairy, oblong-lanceolate, acute; Sd.—subreniform, blackish; Fl. t.—cold season. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Cultivated extensively throughout the State. DISTR. :—Cultivated in the hotter parts of India; tropics of the old-world. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves (rarely) and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds cooling, tonic, carminative, aphrodisiac; cure diseases due to " Kapha " and " Vata", intestinal complaints, stomatitis; good in diseases of heart; allay thirst and check vomiting (Ayurveda). Seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharges, gonorrhœa, leucoderma and itch; tonic, stomachic. Roots and leaves are cure for gonorrhœa (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay the seeds are rubbed to a paste with milk and used to cure itch. Seeds enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as cooling, emollient and demulcent. They are used as a drink in fevers, gonorrhœa, etc. and as an inhalation in hoarseness and dryness of throat. Seeds yield an essential oil. Moideen Sheriff used the tincture of the seeds and considered it to be stimulant, stomachic, antispasmodic and recommended its use in nervous debility, hysteria and as a tonic for dyspepsia. In Brazil the herb is used as a fomentation and an enema.

ABROMA AUGUSTA Linn.
FAM.—Sterculiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Devil's cotton; H. Kumal, Ulatkambal; K. Melpundigida; M. Ulatkambal, Olaktambol. CHAR.:—A shrub or a small tree with velvety branches; L.—10-15 X 12 cm., repand, denticulate, entire, smooth above, pubescent below; Fl.—dark-red, 5 cm. diam; Fr.—capsule 4 cm. long, obpyramidal; Sd.—enveloped in light cottony wool. HABITAT :—Grows wild in hotter parts ; also cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens. DISTR. :—Indigenous or cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India (Sikkim ; Khasia Hills, Assam), Java, Philippines, China. PARTS USED :—Root bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root bark is emmenagogue and uterine tonic. It is used in menstrual discharges. The fresh viscid juice of the root-bark is useful in the congestive and neuralgic varieties of dysmenorrhoea. It regulates the menstrual flow. It is a very popular medicine in the indigenous system. Only the fresh root-bark or dried root-bark should be used.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

3

The root has a fixed oil, resins and an alkaloid in minute quantity among its constituents. See—Fibres, Ornamental Plants.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). COM. NS.—E. Indian liquorice, Rosary pea; G. Chanoti; Gunja; H. Chirmiti, Gaungchi, Gunchi, Gunja, Kunch, Rati; K. Gunja, Haga, Madhuka ; M. Gunja, Kunch, Gunchi ; Sk. Gunja, Gunjika, Kakavallari, Tulabija. CHAR.:—A deciduous glabrous-twiner; branches slender, stem attaining 5.5 m. height; L.— paripinnate, 5-10 cm. long; leaflets 10-20 pairs ; Fl.—in racemes, small, crowded, rose-coloured; Fr.— pod, 2.5—4.3 X 1—1.25 cm., turgid, finely silky, 4-6 seeded; Sd.—scarlet with a black-spot, ovoid; Fl. t.—rainy season. HABITAT :—Moist and open littoral forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State, common in Konkan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon and throughout the tropics ; often planted. PARTS USED:—Root, leaves and seeds. Seeds are commonly used as weights by goldsmiths. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid, aphrodisiac, tonic; causes "Kapha" ; removes biliousness; improves taste and complexion; useful in eye diseases ; cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. Root and leaves—same properties as seed and in addition they cure fevers, stomatitis, head complaints, asthma, thirst, tuberculous glands, caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Seed— acrid; tonic to brain and body; aphrodisiac; harmful to old men. Root and leaves are sweet. They have the same properties as seed and oil (Yunani). LOC. USES:—Root is emetic and alexiteric. The watery extract is useful in coughs. It is employed as a substitute for liquorice. Leaves steeped in warm mustard oil are used to relieve local pain in swellings and rheumatism. Juice rubbed on leucodermic spots for a month has been found to remove them. Leaves are chewed and the juice swallowed in cases of hoarseness. In small doses seeds are purgative and emetic. Seeds poisonous in large doses. They are used by lower class people for poisoning cattle and for producing criminal abortion. Seed loses its activity when boiled and then it can be used as a food. Powdered seeds boiled with milk have a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac action on the nervous system. Externally they are used in skin diseases, ulcers and hair affection. The paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of joints, paralysis and other nervous diseases. It is used in white leprosy along with plumbago root. Paste is also used for contusions in inflammation. Powdered seeds are used as snuff in violent headache; seeds decorticated and finely ground are used in eye-troubles (granular lids). The active principle has been isolated from seeds and named abrin.

4

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Gunjabhadrarasa—given in paraplegia. (Rasendrasarasangrah). Gunjadya Tailam—used as local application in skin diseases. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

ACACIA ARABICA Willd.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black babool; Indian gum-arabic tree ; G. Babalia, Baval; H. Babul, Kikar; K. Babbuli, Karijali; M. Babhul; Sk. Babbula, Barbura, Dridhabija. HABITAT :—Dry hot regions. LOC. :—Common throughout the Deccan and the Karnatak in black cotton soil. Forms extensive forests along the rivers in Poona, Ahmednagar and Sholapur districts. DISTR. :—Throughout the greater part of India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Arabia, Egypt, Sind, Tropical and S. Africa, Natal. PARTS USED :—Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-hot, astringent to bowels, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; cures cough, bronchitis, diarrhœa, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles, leucoderma, urinary discharges; good in ascites. Leaves cure "Vata", heal fractures; good for eye diseases. Pods—cooling ; cure " Kapha ". Gum—anti-dysenteric, styptic; cures leprosy, vaginal and uterine discharges (Ayurveda). Bark—bitter, acrid, astringent to bowels, emetic; lessens dyspnoea. Leaves—tonic to liver and brain, antipyretic; cure leucoderma, gonorrhœa, strangury; enrich blood; used in urethral discharges, opthalmia and eye-sores. Flowers are powerful tonic; good cure for insanity. Gum—expectorant, liver tonic, antipyretic; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns; enriches blood ; used in colic ; all parts of the plant are aphrodisiac (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Young leaves, with sugar and cumin seeds, are given with milk in cases of bloody seminal discharges, Bark is a powerful astringent and demulcent. It has been found a valuable remedy in prolapsus-ani; as an external application in leucorrhoea and as a poultice for ulcers attended with sinous discharges. Bark juice mixed with milk is dropped into eye in conjunctivitis. Bark infusion is given in chronic diarrhœa and diabetes mellitus. Tender shoots are used as tooth brush. They strengthen teeth and gums. Gum is administered in the form of mucilage in diarrhœa, dysentery and also in diabetes mellitus. Powdered gum mixed with white of an egg is applied to burns and scalds ; it is also used to arrest hæmorrhage. Fried in ghee it is useful as a nutritive tonic and aphiodisiac in cases of sexual debility. See—Timbers, Dyes, Gums and Resins.

ACACIA CATECHU Willd. Var. SUNDRA Prain.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). COM. NS. :—E. Black pegu catechu, Cutch; G. Kher, Kherio, Khiriobaval; H. Katha, Khair, Khair-babul; K. Kachu, Kaggali,

boils. given in elephantiasis.5-12. Kushthari. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 5 Kanti. mouth troubles.—in fascicled globose heads. Manda-otte. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. M. which is somewhat of doubtful occurrence). M. Malay Islands. Khadirashtaka used internally in boils. a small piece made into lozenge with cinnamon and nutmeg is useful. palate and tongue (Chakradatta). Khair. Soap-pod tree. astringent to bowels. HABITAT :—Tropical moist monsoon forests. piles.-6-10 . leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—Dry open thorn forests.. Country and Gujarat.-Mar. :—E. gives taste and increases appetite (Ayurveda). DISTR. LOC. Saptata. Kanara (often on laterite). It is used with advantage in sponginess of gums. inflammations. Sk. LOC. Kochi. bronchitis. linear-oblong. FAM. Lalkhair.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). " Kapha ". rachis armed with hooked prickles and with glands. Ceylon PARTS USED—Bark and Cutch (Extract). wrinkled when dry . ulcers. as an astringent injection in leucorrhoea and a tonic in menorrhoea. Saradruma. Ointment with vaseline or lard is a good local application for ulcers. :—Common in the Konkan and N. . Shige. Sige-balli or kai. anthelmintic. NS. antidysenteric. :—Common throughout the Stale . " Vata ". Phena. Himalayas up to 1700 m. Fl. Kath-bole. LOC. branches dotted with white lenticels and armed with hooked prickles . (This variety is very common in the Bombay State and has often been recorded as Acacia catechu proper. Khadira. Dipta. relaxation of the uvula. heaviness. COM. throat diseases. hypertrophy of tonsils. yellow. leprosy. 5-10 cm. Khandesh Akrani S. pinnae 4-6 pairs with rachis ending in spine. China. (mixture of catechu with myrrh) is given to women after confinement as tonic and to promote milk secretion. Bhuriphena.—bipinnate. along the coasts of Konkan and N. CHAR. In ulceration of the gums. overlapping.5X2-2. See—Timbers. Pegu. ACACIA CONCINNA DC. fleshy when green.8 cm. gums. Shikekai. Yajnika. 7. strengthens teeth. erysipelas. urinary and vaginal discharges. long. :—An extensive woody climber. Sikkim. sore-throat and tooth-ache. Chikakai. K. leaflets 10-20 pairs. indigestion. Deccan. :—Rajastan. Charmakusha. Kanara forests. anti-pyretic. Sk. psoriasis. Dyes. L.USES:—In the Konkan juice of fresh bark is given with asafoetida in haemoptysis. Tans. cures itching. Vidula. Khair sal or catechic acid is used as a remedy in chest affections and as an expectorant. :—Throughout India. Dantadhavan. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Svalpakhadirvatika-used in affections of the teeth.-t. Ritha. H.. measles and other skindiseases. prurigo.-July. aphrodisiac. M. Burma. Western Peninsula. Fl. cooling.—pod. Fr. acrid. It is given in diarrhœa. Sd. DISTR.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark acrid and hot. USES :—Powdered leaves act as a mild laxative. bronchitis. anti-diarrhoeal. Kankri. Pods and round yellow heads contain a balsamic liquid which is employed as an adjunct to aphrodisiac in spermatorrhoea. Cassia flower. piles. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. prurigo. Pods are largely used by Indians externally as detergent. . Infusion of leaves is useful in checking malarious fevers and also preventing flatulence. PARTS USED :—Bark. Stinking acacia. USES :—Bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth used in bleeding of gums etc. Arimeda.. cooling. Marudruma. HABITAT :—Moist situations. Decoction of leaves and pods is a useful aperient in bilious affections. Gums and Resins. improves appetite. Sponge tree. deobstruent. Pods ground up and formed into an ointment make a good application in skindiseases. erysipelas. See—Timbers. LOC. leucoderma. Devababhul. often cultivated. often planted . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pod-bitter.pungent. tonic. itching. Leaves—cathartic and cure biliousness (Ayurveda). ACACIA FARNESIANA Willd. not indigenous but naturalised. Sk. purgative. LOC. biliousness. buboes. of small-bark is given in prolapse and leucorrhoea. leucoderma. Vilavati kikar. Decoction of pods removes dandruff and promotes growth of hair. stomatitis. H. anti-dysenteric. Internally they are aperient. M. erysipelas. The seeds are said to facilitate delivery in childbirth The plant contains saponin and an alkaloid. In Philippines decoction. ascites. G. blood diseases. detergent. Tender leaves are boiled and applied as a cataplasm to wounds and ulcers. In China and Japan pods are used in kidney arid bladder troubles . K. Pissibabul. cardio-tonic. FAM. blood-diseases.6 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Leaves and pods. Jali. NS. DISTR. Kari jali. Tender leaves bruised in a little water are swallowed for the treatment of gonorrhœa. common in eastern parts of the Deccan. cures " Kapha. Girimeda. causes " Vata". :— Naturalised near villages throughout the State . :—E. anthelmintic. alexiteric. anthelmintic. leaves and gum. Gandhbabul. Gum—sweetish. Sind. expectorant and good emetic. digestible. Jheri baval. Gandhelo khair . caries of teeth. eczema. COM. inflammations. externally they are applied to leprous patches. Sauna jali. burning sensation. LOC. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). ulcers.—Leguminosæ (Mimosaceæ). cures stomatitis.

:—Throughout India. or orbicular rounded at the-apex. ovate or rhomboid-ovate. minute. high. erect herb. G. about 50 cm. Uttrane . Apamarga.8-6. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. M.9 m. CHAR. clustered near the summit of spike. oblong-cylindric. :—An erect herb 0. pale-brown. Sk. Root bruised in hot water is employed as cathartic. brown.—monœcious.5-4. Kuppi-gida. rounded at base.-Jany.—Euphorbiaceæ. :—Common in the Deccan and S. M. The plant contains acalyphin. pneumonia and rheumatism. DISTR. Apang. HABITAT :—Weed of cultivation. Fl. Powder of dry leaves is given to children in worm cases. :—Annual. M. t. H. also used in bed-sores and wourds attacked by worms.5 cm. many. K. Khajoti.—Amarantaceæ. Fl. . :—E. Fl. Khokali. crenate-serrate. ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. females. NS. Vanchhikanto. Chalmari. leaf-decoction is given in ear-ache. t. in elongate terminal spikes. HABITAT :—Waste places and rubbish heaps. branches long. and shining sepals with narrow white margins. FAM. Ksharamadhya.— ovoid.57. Country. in lax. axillary spikes . 2. high. Latjira . branches terete or quadrangular striate. Leaves are also used in skin diseases. Agheda-di. Fr. Chirchira. long in fruit. L. brown.3 X 2. Merkati. COM.—June-Sept.:—Common weed growing all over the State in waste places. 3.—utricle. smooth. enclosed in perianth smooth. stem stiff. Fl. CHAR. ascending..—Nov. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC.5x2-4. PERPHYRISTACHYA Hook f. Philippines. L. LOC. one-seeded. small. K. Kantarika. angular.—greenish white. Kuppi. Kharamanjiri. Prickly chaff-flower.—capsule. It is a useful remedy for bronchitis. perianth 4-5 segments. somewhat 3-nerved. A cataplasm of leaves is used in syphilitic ulcers. :—G. Utranigida.—opposite. few.. NS. tropical Africa. USES :—The plant is used as an expectorant and diuretic. Sk. asthma. erect.MEDICINAL PLANTS 7 ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Expressed leaf-juice is in great repute as an emetic for children and is safe and certain. FAM. Chichra. elongate. Leaf-decoction mixed with common salt is used as laxative. Sd. hispid. Vasira. Sd.—truncate at apex. males. COM. H. 30-75 cm. Khokla. Arittamanjaria.5 cm. Var. scattered. 3-5 surrounded by a large leafy bract.3-0. elliptic obovate. softly hairy. It is used in congestive headache. Aghada . Fr.

Ash is used externally in the treatment of ulcers. NS.8 X 1. Gorbach . :—An aromatic herb . LOC. sepals scarious. brain-tonic. itching. flatulence. fevers.8 cm. improves appetite. Throughout Asia. leaves. tumours. ascites.. wild or cultivated ascending the Himalayas up to 2000 m. laxative. heating. piles. Bach. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. COM. laxative. bronchitis. thickened in the middle. worms in the ear (Ayurveda). hysteria. America. Baja . Ceylon. abdominal pains. —Throughout India and Ceylon in marshes. emetic. Decoction of powdered leaves with honey is useful in early stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. Decoction of the whole plant is a good diuretic and is given in renal dropsy and general anasarca and pneumonia. loss of memory. its infusion is tonic and stomachic. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Pungent. PARTS USED : —Root. HABITAT :—Marshy places. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Apamarga Taila (ash and sesame oil) used in ear-ache. carminative. Ugragandha. Plant possesses valuable properties as a pungent laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. good for mouth diseases. heating. Sweet flag . Gandhilovaj. America. leucoderma (Yunani). thirst. Fr. useful in abdominal pains.7-3. Africa. delirium. spadix. spathe 15-75 cm. inflammations.. Fresh leaves ground and mixed with black pepper and garlic are used as anti-periodic. green . Tropical Asia. 0. ACORUS CALAMUS Linn. creeping and branching. expectorant.—turbinate. diuretic. Bitter. dysentery. laxative. DISTR. bronchitis. USES :—Root infusion is given as a mild astringent in bowel complaints. dyspepsia. boils. Seeds are considered emetic and are useful in hydrophobia. Europe and N. Jatila. prismatic. bitter. obtuse. inflammations. M. G. H. useful in vomiting. See—Sacred Plants. improves appetite. Vekhand. :—Throughout India.—Araceæ. CHAR. Godavaj. liver and chest pains. flowers and seeds. Vekhand . epilepsy. acute. root-stock as thick as the middle finger. anthelmintic. etc. LOC. heart diseases. voice. skin eruption etc. useful in general weakness. stomatitis. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State. Bhutnashini. slightly curved. long. long. it is used in cases of cough and asthma. Sk. emmenagogue . Leaf paste with water is applied with benefit to bites of poisonous insects. margins wavy. 5-10 cm. K. :—E. Australia. dysentery. carminative. USES :—Dried rhizome is stimulant and aromatic. Sikkim. FAM. useful in dyspepsia. . kidney troubles. rat-bite. Vacha. stomachic. LOC. Plant ash yields a large quantity of potash. piles. alexiterie.8 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. throat. blood diseases (Ayurveda). toothache. L. pungent. carminative. "Vata". anthers yellow. bright-green. top pyramidal. and is considered useful in dropsy. Baluchistan.9-1.

:—K. In cases of irritation of throat and cough. Externally it is used in chronic rheumatism. Bukha. Sk. ACTINODAPHNE HOOKERI Meis. It is a good remedy in asthma. leaf and fruit. Gorakhchinch. Deccan.—Lauraceæ. DISTR. There is a bitter glucoside present named acorin. Haggodgimara. root chewed produces copious salivation and agreeable sensation of warmth in the mouth. H. indigenous in tropical Africa. G. M. PROPERTIES AND LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit cooling. USES :—The dried leaves in powder form have been found serviceable in diarrhœa. keeps off moths from woollen goods and fleas from rooms. common in places along the sea coast north of Bombay. Pichli. See—Timbers. Monkey-bread tree. FAM. anti-pyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 9 loss of appetite. NS. The plant contains the alkaloid actinodaphnine.:—Konkan. M. PARTS USED : —Root. useful in biliousness.. Matheran and Mahabaleshwar (very common) . K. etc. LOC. ADANSONIA DIGITATA Linn. COM. aerial parts yield a volatile oil.:—Planted here and there throughout the State . Powder is very effective insecticide. Rukhdo . vomiting. excessive perspiration (Ayurveda). Pisa. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. FAM. HABITAT':—Cultivated. Gorakamali. used also in atonic and choleric diarrhoea in children. NS.USES :—The mucilaginous cold infusion of the leaves is used in urinary disorders and in diabetes the oil of the seeds is used as an external application to sprains. Gorakshi. LOC. LOC. :—Grown in many places in India .—Bombacaceæ. Tudgensu . The dried rhizome yields an essential oil. Dirgh—Sarpa-dandi. HABITAT : —Rain forests along the Ghats. N. With the addition of little liquorice root it is given in cases of cough. In small doses it is carminative and nervine. fever. colic. DISTR. dysentery. Gopali. Goremlichora . bark. Gorakhaamli. in children. The leaves are used as fomentations and poultices for rheumatic affections and . It is successfully used in intermittent fevers. fevers and other maladies. :—Western Peninsula. COM. Baobab. Panch-parnika. :—E. It is eaten freely during prevalence of epidemics as it is supposed to be an antidote to several poisons. African calabash. Gujarat. Brahmamlika. Kanara evergreen forests. Supposed to have been introduced by Arabs.

10

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

inflammatory ulcers. The pulp is beneficial in pyrexia of any form of fever by diminishing the heat and quenching thirst. In Bombay the pulp mixed with butter-milk is used as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In the Konkan the pulp with figs is given in asthma and a sherbat made of it with the addition of cummin and sugar is administered in bilious dyspepsia. The leaves and bark abound in mucilage. The bark contains a crystalline bitter principle Adansonin. The fruit has a mucilaginous pulp, having a pleasant, cool, sub-acid taste like cream of tartar; it is a good refrigerant in fever. In Gold Coast and in Europe the bark was used as a substitute for cinchona bark for curing fevers. See—Timbers, Fibres.

ADHATODA VASICA Nees.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Adsoge, Aduso, Ardusi; H. Adalso, Arusho, Vasaka; K. Adsala, Adumuttada, Adusoge ; M. Adulsa, Adusa, Vasuka ; Sk. Amalaka, Atursta, Sinhika, Vasaka. CHAR. :—A dense shrub 1.2-2.4 m. high, with opposite ascending branches : L.—12-20 by 46 cm., elliptic lanceolate, dark green above, paler beneath; Fl.—in axillary spikes towards the ends of the branches; C—tubular, white, with a few rose-coloured bars in the throat; Fr.— capsule, clavate, bluntly pointed, orbicular, oblong, tubercular-verrucose ; Fl. t.—Aug.-Nov. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated, sometimes gregarious in waste places. LOC. :—In hedges throughout the state; abundant in the Deccan and Konkan districts. DISTR. :—Tropical India from the Punjab and Assam to Ceylon, Malaya, S. E. Asia. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root facilitates expulsion of fœtus; useful in strangury and leucorrhoea. Plant pungent, acrid, cooling; causes " Vata", useful in bronchitis, leprosy, blood impurities, heart-troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, consumption, jaundice, tumours, mouth diseases (Ayurveda). Root diuretic; useful in bronchitis, asthma, bilious vomiting, sore-eye, fever, gonorrhœa. Leaves emmenagogue. Flowers improve blood circulation; lessen strangury and jaundice (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Roots, leaves and flowers are extensively used in indigenous medicines as a remedy for cold, cough, bronchitis and asthma. Juice extracted from leaves, mixed with ginger or honey, is generally used. In chronic bronchitis and asthma it is said to be specially efficacious. Dried leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in asthma. Leaf juice is used in diarrhœa and dysentery, and powdered leaves are used in malaria in South India. Leaves are also used as poultice on rheumatic joints and swellings and in neuralgia. Leaves are said to be toxic in all forms of lower life. Alcoholic extract of leaves is poisonous to flies, flees, mosquitoes, centipedes and other insects (Watt.). The drug has no effect on the tubercular affection of the lungs (Chopra and Ghosh).

MEDICINAL PLANTS

11

Leaves contain alkaloid vasicine. No part of the plant can be recommended for treatment of snake-bite (Mhaskar and Caius).

ADIANTUM LUNULATUM Burm.
FAM.—Polypodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Hansapadi, Hansaraj, Mubarakh; H. Hansapagi, Kalijhamp, Kalijhant; K. Navalad; M Ghoda-khuri, Rajhans, Ratkombada, Kombada; Sk. Brahmadari, Chitrapada, Godhangri, Hansapadi. CHAR. :—Stipes 10-15 cm. long, tufted, wiry, naked, polished dark chestnut brown; fronds 15-30x7.5 cm., simply pinnate, often elongated and rooting at the apex; pinnae subdimidiate, the lower edge in a line or oblique with the petiole, the upper rounded usually more or less lobed. Rachis and both surfaces naked. Texture herbaceous. Sori linear, frequently becoming confluent. HABITAT :—Moist places. LOC. :—The Deccan hills; Konkan, Bombay Island, hills and lake region of Thana district; N. Kanara, common. DISTR. :—Throughout N. India in moist places ; South India; Ceylon, Burma, Tropics of nearly the whole world. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root good for strangury, fever due to elephantiasis. Plant pungent, cooling, alterative, alexiteric, indigestible; useful in dysentery, blood diseases, ulcers, erysipelas, burning sensation, epileptic fits (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—In Gujarat it is extensively used in the treatment of children for febrile affections. The leaves are rubbed with water and given with sugar. It is worked up with ochre and applied locally, for erysipelatous inflammation.

ÆGLE MARMELOS Corr.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Bael Fruit Tree, Bengal-Indian Quince; G. Bel, Belly; H. Bel, Bili, Sirphal; K. Belpatra, Kumbala, Malura ; M. Bel; Sk. Bilva, Malura, Shivadruma, Tripatra. HABITAT :—Dry places, wild or cultivated. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan ; wild as well as planted near the temples ; S. M. Country. DIST. : —Throughout India, in dry hilly places, from the Jhelum to Assam and southwards; often planted all over India, Burma. PARTS USED :—Root, root-bark, leaves, flowers, fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root cures fevers due to tridosha, abdominal pain, heart palpitation, urinary troubles, hypochondriasis, melancholia; removes " Vata", " Pitta ", "Kapha ". Leaves astringent, digestive; laxative and febrifuge when fresh; useful in

12

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

ophthalmia, deafness and inflammations. Flowers allay thirst, vomiting. Unripe fruit oily; cures dysentery : removes pain. Ripe fruit acrid, appetiser, binding, tonic, febrifuge; causes biliousness and "Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Ripe fruit hot and dry; tonic, restorative, astringent, laxative; good for heart and brain, bad for lungs and chest (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Decoction of root and the stem bark is used in the cure of intermittent fevers. Root constitutes one of the ingredients of Dashamula. On the Malabar coast it is used in hypochondriasis. melancholia and palpitation of heart. Root decoction is given with sugar and fried rice for checking diarrhœa and gastric irritability in infants. Leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia. Fresh juice is given with addition of black pepper in anasarca with causticness and jaundice. Sun dried slices of unripe fruit are prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery with debility of mucous membrane. It is specially useful in cases of children. In the Konkan, decoction of small unripe fruit with fennel seeds and ginger is given for piles. Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling and is made into sherbat, which is a pleasant laxative and a simple cure for dyspepsia. Bel marmalade is useful in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. Pulp of the fresh fruit, mixed with milk and administered with cubeb powder is given in chronic gonorrhœa. Rind of the ripe fruit is employed in acute dysentery. Flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit yields an important active principle marmalosin. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins, and Dyes.

ÆRUA LANATA Juss.
FAM.—Amarantaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Bur, Kapurimadhuri; H. Gorkhabundi, Kapuri-gadi; M. Kapurimadhuri, Kapurphuti; Sk. Astmabayde. CHAR. :—A herb, erect or prostrate, with a long tap-root, branched from near the base; branches many, woolly tomentose, striate; L.—alternate 2-2.5x1-1.6 cm. on the main stem; 6-10 X 3-6 mm. on the branches, elliptic or obovate, pubescent above, white with cottony hairs beneath; Fl.—bisexual, very small, sessile, in small axillary heads or spikes, often forming globose clusters, greenish white; perianth silky, hairy on the back. Fr.—utricle, broadly ovoid, acute ; Sd.—smooth, polished, black ; Fl. t. —Aug.-Oct. HABIT :—A common weed. LOC.:—Deccan, S, M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Arabia, tropical Africa, Java, Philippines. PARTS USED :—Plant and root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is diuretic; used in lithiasis. Root—demulcent, diuretic; useful in strangury (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used in the treatment of headache. In Ceylon the plant is valued for cough and also as a vermifuge for children.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

13

AGAVE AMERICANA Linn.
FAM.—Amaryllidaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. American aloe, Century plant; G. Janglikunwar; H. Banskeora, Barakarwar, Bilaitipat; Rakaspattah; K. Anekattale, Devabale; M. Elaitikedara, Ghayapat; Sk. Kalakantala, Kantala. CHAR. :—A stout shrubby rhizomatous perennial plant; stem short, serial, more or less concealed by the leaf-bases ; L.—very stout, commonly variegated, thick, fleshy, constricted into a neck just above the very swollen base, margin distinctly sinuate, bearing reflexed spines; apical spine 2.5-5 cm. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC.:—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens throughout the State. Planted as a hedge plant. DISTR. :—Tropical America; cultivated in India for its fibres. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves, gum. PROPERTIES AND LOC.USES :—Roots have diuretic and antisyphilitic properties ; used with sarsaparilla in the form of decoction. The juice from cut roots and leaves is specially useful in syphilis. The sap is laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; it is found very useful in scurvy. The fresh juice is a good external application to bruises and contusions. The gum exuding from the leaves and roots is used as a cure for tooth-ache. Leaf pulp mixed with sugar is a popular remedy for gonorrhœa. This is one of the important plants whose investigation is likely to be useful. See—Ornamental plants, Fibres. ,

AILANTHUS EXCELSA Roxb.
FAM.—Simarubaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Motoaduso, Mothoaraduso; H. Limbada, Maharukh; K. Bende, Doddabevu, Hebmani; M. Mahanimb, Maharuka; Sk. Atarusha, Madala, Mahanimba, Maharukha. LOC.:—Common in Broach District, Baroda, Gujarat and the Deccan. DISTR. :—India-N. W. parts, Western Peninsula, Bihar, often planted ; Queensland ; Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter; refrigerant, astringent, appetiser, anthelmintic, febrifuge; good in complaints of children, diarrhœa, dysentery, ear-ache; cures skin diseases, rectum troubles, fevers due to Tridosha, allays thirst; removes bad taste in the mouth (Ayurveda). LOC.USES :—The bark is aromatic and used for dyspepsia. It is regarded as tonic and febrifuge in cases of debility. Expectorant and antispasmodic, given in chronic bronchitis and asthma; as an astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. In Bombay the bark and leaves are in great repute as a tonic, especially in debility after childbirth,

LOO. aphrodisiac. Root-bark— used in piles. Uddanaka. Shirisha. COM. useful in inflammations. ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM Wang. ALBIZZIA LEBBECK Benth. G. Kanara.14 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In the Konkan the juice of leaves or fresh bark is administered in khir or treacle. Ankola. diarrhœa. K. inflammations. lumbago. Vamaka. LOC. commonly planted along roadsides. pungent. gleet. cures " Kapha". Shirish. anthelmintic. heating. Tantia. :—E. Sage-leaved alangium. G. Anedhera. inflammations. :—Throughout India. It is also used in leprosy and syphilis (Moideen Sheriff). often along banks of nalas in N. alterative. Seeds—cooling. Karnapura. Ankoli. Oil of root-bark is said to be a useful external application in acute rheumatism. Kalshish. (Mimosaceæ). Ceylon. Onkla. Asroli. Gudhapatra. H. tonic. biliousness. wasting diseases. China. Chinchola.Parrot—Siris—Sizzling tree. anthelmintic. useful in worms. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Shankiniphala. cure burning sensation and consumption (Ayurveda). See—Timbers. alexipharmic . aromatics or honey. NS. Ankotha. colic. Akoly. COM. Garso. Ankota. :—Throughout the State. The claims made regarding the therapeutic efficacy of the drug have not been investigated recently by any worker (Chopra). acute fever. (ALANGIUM LAMARCKI Thw. expectorant. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon forests. blood diseases. It is an efficient and safe emetic in large doses. DISTR. Shyamala. Kalashirish. leaves (rarely).—Leguminosæ. it is said to stop after-pains. spermatorrhoea. The plant contains the alkaloid alangine. :—Common throughout the State in dry places . Kaloshirish. cures erysipelas. Fruit—laxative. Sirisa. . :—E. Kullumavu. LOC. USES :—In Indian practice root-bark is used as purgative and anthelmintic. blood diseases. Ankoli. Ankola. carminative. Shirish. Ankora. Ankola. Root-bark poisonous. M. lumbago (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Root-bark. Ankol. Krishnashirisha. stem. Sirsul. FAM. Kathora. and fruit. poisonous bites. Stem—good in vomiting and diarrhœa. K. Juice—emetic. Sk. See—Timbers. fish-poison.) FAM. Sk. alexiteric. Piloshirish.—Alangiaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-acrid. Dridhakantaka. Malaya. Tamraphala. indigestible. Philippines. dysentery. Sirai. HABITAT :—Dry places and banks of nalas. " Vata "-pain. hydrophobia. Dodda-Hombage. burning of body. S. NS. rat-bite. H. and as nauseant and anti-pyretic it is used in continued fevers. Kalosadasado.

eruptions and swellings. boils. cultivated everywhere. Kanda. cooling. leaves. deafness. :—Cultivated as a cold season crop throughout the Deccan and Gujarat. leucoderma. emollient. Seeds—fattening. Bark-bitter. scabies. seeds. useful in caries of teeth and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). erysipelas. used in leprosy. syphilis. Oil—is applied topically in leucoderma (Yunani). alexiteric. The juice is used like smelling salt in faints and hysterical fits. excessive perspiration. etc. tonic. The plant contains vitamins A. blood diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 15 DISTR. stimulant and expectorant. B & C. :—Native country probably Persia. ear-ache. ophthalmia. itching. aphrodisiac. Piyaz. USES :—Powder of root-bark is used to strengthen gums. useful in malaria. Rochaka. bleeding piles. seeds. skin-diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. epistaxis. used in gonorrhœa and tuberculous glands. Leaves-good for ophthalmia. Anjan from seeds is used in ophthalmic diseases.:—E. piles. LOC. Flowers—aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-used in hemicrania. cures "Vata". spleen diseases. Bark— anthelmintic. SubHimalayan region from the Indus eastwards. Rajapriya.: —Throughout India. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields as garden crop. Bulb—tonic.. paralysis. applied to eyes in night-blindness (Yunani). which acts as a diuretic. Dungari. tumours. enriches blood. weakness. stomachic. Burma. DISTR. NS.—Liliaceæ. Flowers—given for asthma (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber—pungent. bronchitis. mixed with mustard oil it is used in rheumatic pains. G. good in rat-bite. body pains. diarrhœa. bark. anthelmintic. usually planted. LOC. piles. prescribed in ophthalmia. tropical and sub-tropical Asia and Africa. improves taste. inflammations. PARTS USED :—Bulbs. flowers. Root—astringent. See—Vegetables. and chronic bronchitis . Externally it is used as rubefacient and when roasted it is applied as poultice to boils. Sk. vomiting. LOC. See—Timbers. Leaves—good in night blindness. given in piles. H. relieves tooth-ache. ALLIUM CEPA Linn. dropsy. dropped into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Onion.K. etc. Ulageddi. It is an important garden crop. Onions are used to mitigate cough in phthisis. mixed with common salt it is used in colic and scurvy. Flowers are used as a cooling medicine and also externally applied in boils. appetiser. COM. it is applied to allay irritation of insect bites. Palandu. Oil is used in leprosy. USES :—The bulb contains an acrid. strengthens gums and teeth. useful in vomiting. Ceylon. catarrh.. and also in skin diseases . occasionally used in fever. their smell useful in hemicrania. FAM. Bengal. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Bark and seeds are astringent. Seeds—tonic to brain. asthma. biliousness. scabies. volatile oil. maturant. .

Garlic is an invaluable remedy in the treatment of pneumonia. Lasan. useful in inflammations. FAM. fattening. It is an important garden crop. epileptic fits. H. low fevers. Churl's or Poor-man's treacle. Ghi-kumari. Lasun. COM. H. Bellulli. paralysis. garlic and its preparations have been used extensively. Country. Kadvi-Nahani Kunvar. NS. voice. ALŒ VERA Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. Lolisara. oleaginous . Diuretic. M. Korkand. Garlic oil is stimulant and rubefacient. tonic.—Liliaceæ. :—E. troubles of spleen. In cases of diphtheria. Kumari. . Sk. M. Lasan. The plant contains vitamin C. body and joint pains. liver and lungs . Lahsan. Garlic. lumbago. FAM.—Liliaceæ. Kapila. Korphad. digestive. improves appetite. good for lumbago. It has also a reputation as a febrifuge in intermittent fevers. LOC. LOC. Kuvarpatha. inflammation. aphrodisiac. It is very effective in bronchial and asthmatic complaints. complexion. aphrodisiac. the leaves are used in the treatment of asthma. sciatica.16 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Lashuna. G. Kanya. In Cambodia. Indian aloe. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. piles. tumours. M. clears voice. bronchitis. Expressed juice is applied in case of elongated uvula. " Vata ". leucoderma. :—E. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalparasuna pinda-used in facial paralysis. carminative. hemiplegia. anthelmintic. useful in diseases of eye and heart. PARTS USED :—Bulb. leucoderma. It yields an aromatic oil of a stimulant nature. Ugragandha. When eaten in cold season it wards off attacks of rheumatism and neuralgia. alexipharmic. Kumari. COM. paraplegia and convulsive affections. It is considered to be hot and stimulant and is administered in fevers. thirst. :—Widely cultivated in irrigated lands of the Deccan and S. K. ear-ache (Ayurveda). Use of garlic preparations in tuberculous-affections has been warmly advocated. DISTR :—Widely cultivated. K. caries of teeth. prescribed internally to prevent recurrence of cold fits of intermittent fever. heating. Rasonaka. NS. asthma. chronic fevers. thins the blood (Yunani). See—Vegetables. the constant chewing of garlic clove relieves the patient. Garlic clove boiled in gingelly oil is used as an eardrop in atonic deafness and to allay the pain in otorrhoea. G. USES :—As a medicine garlic was held in great repute by the ancient physicians of India. It is an excellent medicine in several forms of atonic dyspepsia. Ikshurmallika. thirst. coughs and other debilitating conditions. Garlic juice is used as an antiseptic in ulcerated surfaces and wounds. Used as a liniment it acts very beneficially in infantile convulsions and other nervous and spasmodic affections. Kattali. In pulmonary phthisis. Sk.

alexiteric. cooling. Saptachhada. pendulous. Java. LOC. DISTR. Tender pulp is eaten in rheumatism. biliousness. methritis. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS R. liver troubles. inflammations. PARTS USED :— . Chatian. biliousness (Yunani). bark. Satian. asthma. lumbago. :—Throughout India. gonorrhœa. H. M. anthelmintic. lanceolate. Br. C. Freshly expressed juice is used as an external refrigerant application for all local inflammations. LOC. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 17 CHAR.—in dense racemes . used in form of paste in pleurisy. wild along the coast. jaundice. simple or branched. :—Throughout the State usually in monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. LOC. stem short thick. Native of S. milky juice. purgative. K. Africa. India. NS. Satwin. COM.—sessile. carminative. Kadusale. useful in splean inflammation. bronchitis. aphrodisiac. USES :—Its application in medicine dates back to the 4th century B. also cultivated. FAM. Barbados. Fresh juice is cathartic and cooling. tonic. scape longer than the leaves. Saptaparna. Leaf-pulp is a refrigerant medicine in conjunctivitis. The commercial drug is met with in hard dark masses. fattening. tumours. :—Growing wild near Bassein creek. margins spiny. ophthalmia. Tender leaves mixed with powder of cumin seed and sugar-candy is an excellent remedy in dysentery with bloody stools. Leaf juice mixed with opium and applied to forehead relieves headache. :—A perennial herb . used in fevers. Jamaica. emollient and demulcent. :—E. HABITAT :—In driest and poorest soils. Fl. Leaf-juice with turmeric is given in glandular enlargement and spleen-diseases. fleshy. Satwin. Australia. crowded. Sk. alterative. spleen enlargement. Kaduhale. perianth cylindric . somewhat divided. L. useful in eye-diseases. It also acts as a mild purgative. common in the rain-forests of N. pulp with addition of burnt alum is a valuable application in ophthalmia. digestive. also planted in gardens on a small scale in many places. :—Wild along the coast in S. piles. Mediterranean. HABITAT :—Moist forests. PARTS USED :—Leaves. purgative. E. planted in Indian gardens . Dita bark tree. Kanara. tropical Africa. with a small quantity of sugar-candy. The plant contains aloin. leaves. scaly. tonic. mixed with gingelly oil and boiled makes a fine hair-oil used in cases of sleeplessness. strangury.—Apocynaceæ. Bitter . vomiting. Root. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. liver complaints. ulcers (Ayurveda). isobarbaloin and emodin. and it is largely imported into India. yellow. skin diseases. Used also in menstrual suppression and piles. West Indian Islands. Hale. pale-green. Alœs are identified as the ancient " Ghrit Kumari" of the Vedas. pain in muscles.

5 X 1. Prickly amaranth. Pathyashaka. tropical countries. The milky juice is applied to ulcers and to rheumatic pains. leprosy. It is applied as a poultice to buboes and abscesses for hastening suppuration. Kante math. lessens menstrual flow (Ayurveda). oleaginous. " tridosha " pain. M. Bark—acrid. thickened at the top. Root—heating expectorant. Tandulibija. high. rat-bite. very good for chronic ulcers and caries of teeth (Ayurveda). Drug Com. leucoderma. digestible. ovoid. USES :—The bark is used as an astringent tonic. The drug seems to produce good effects in cases where the catarrhal conditions of the intestines have lasted for some time (Report of Ind. USES :—Root is considered a specific in gonorrhœa. useful in " Kapha ". INDIAN PREPARATION:—Amritashtakapachana. See—Timbers. rubbish heaps . Kantanu-dant. good in diseases of the heart. long. mixed with oil it relieves ear-ache. It is a valuable remedy in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery.— 3. obtuse. LOC. Bark contains two alkaloids ditamine and echitamine. DISTR. Mulladantu.2—7. See—Vegetables. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. :—Growing wild throughout the State in waste places. bitter. FAM. male calyx acute. AMARANTUS SPINOSUS Linn. Kantalo dambho. Boiled roots and leaves are given to children as laxative . also in fields. . It is also said to be used in leprosy stomach-ache and liver complaints. Tandulja. H. diuretic. also useful in catarrhal fever.— capsule. entire. :—Throughout India. appetiser. blood diseases. Leaf-poultice acts as useful local stimulant to unhealthy ulcers. galactogogue. LOC. stomachic. obtuse. Apamarisha.—in terminal and axillary dense spikes. ulcers. improves appetite. it is used in menorrhagia and eczema. hallucination. K.3—3. In Cambodia root is used internally as diuretic. HABITAT :—In waste places. 30-60 cm. anthelmintic. bristles pointed. Sk. Fl. laxative.. Mullarave-soppu. heating. bronchitis. G. rugose. often reddish.18 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is given for enlarged liver with pain.8 cm. LOC. valuable in debility and after-effects of fever.). NS. laxative. diseases of the blood. unisexual. :—E. Kantanatia. biliousness. L. Ceylon. Tandulaja. numerous. leucorrhoea. but no definite conclusions as to its anti-malarial properties are yet found. alexiteric. sudorific and febrifuge. burning sensation. boils and burns. antipyretic. :—An erect glabrous herb. antiperiodic and febrifuge. ovate. Fr. COM. branches grooved with sharp divaricate spines in the leaf-axil. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. lanceolate. CHAR. Alkaloid ditamine is said to be equally effective as sulphate of quinine. rubbish heaps and fields. piles. Cholai. asthma. female calyx oblong. It is also considered a lactagogue and a specific for colic. apiculate.—Amarantaceæ. they are applied as emollient poultice to abscesses. tumours.

—Nov. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. branches usually opposite. HABITAT:—Moist places (tolerably common). Suran. leprosy and leucoderma (Ayurveda). M. Corm is irritant and also the seeds. Kuranti. Jangli mehandi.:— Konkan. Suran . NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Dry. Blistering ammania. globose. CHAR. 8-65 cm.—Araceæ. Bharajambhul. G. HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild. harmful in "Kapha". constipating. LOC. :—E. red. Deccan. Sk. Grows wild on the banks of S. erect or subscandent herb. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). :—E. abdominal pains. is administered in decoction with ginger and Cyperus root for intermittent fevers and its ashes are mixed with oil and applied to herpetic eruptions. :—Throughout India in moist places. LOC. when applied externally they relieve pain of rheumatic swellings. :—Cultivated largely throughout the plains of India and Ceylon in rich soils. Konkan rivers. Kurendika. Arshaghna. :—Cultivated widely in the State. much narrowed at the base. USES :—Leaves are exceedingly acrid. stomachic. Sukaranda. increases appetite and taste. AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS Blume. strangury . Suran. Ceylon. DISTR. bronchitis. Vikata. PARTS USED :—Leaves. pungent. Vatari. enlargement of the spleen. K.—capsule. Gujarat and Kanara. stomachic. elephantiasis . LOC. :—An annual. tumours. acrid.—in dense axillary clusters or in loose cymes forming whorls in the axils.—Lythraceæ. used as an appetiser (Yunani). Bitter and acrid . There is much difference of opinion regarding the value of the plant as a blistering agent. irregularly circumsciss above the middle. Malaya. In the Konkan. G. FAM. It is also used as an emmenagogue. Sd.—opposite. NS. fresh or dried. blood diseases. aphrodisiac. depressed. Tropical Africa. fevers etc. LOC. especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Fl. corm. DISTR. COM. Elephant's foot." blood troubles. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter . Suran. China. L. H. Fr. Sk.—subhemispheric excavated on the plane-face . Australia. they are commonly used to raise blisters in rheumatic pains. appetiser. useful in piles. . sessile. Fl. Kandala. Jalavgiyo. Kanthalla. Dadmari. Kandavardhan. USES :—The root is used in ophthalmia and applied to boils. causes itching sensation. the plant. M. COM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 19 AMMANNIA BACCIFERA Linn. t. laxative. " Vata. removes " Kapha ". asthma. PARTS USED :—Root. vomiting. FAM. linear-oblong or oblong-lanceolate. H. Afghanistan. Corm is considered a hot carminative in form of a pickle. high. Kuranda.

Crow-Fish Killer. naturalised and cultivated in India especially near the coast. and trace of C.—Anacardiaceæ. K.5-12. swollen peduncle of fruit.5 cm.—in panicles 25-35 cm. Sk. acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant. . USES :—Bark is alterative. dysentery. ringworm. Kakamari. It is supposed to have restorative power. :—A shrub climbing to a considerable height. equal to almond oil. G. As an external application it has been recommended in leprosy. sweet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Ripe peduncle of fruit acrid. HABITAT :—Coastal regions. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant and requires to be used with caution. corns and obstinate ulcers. FAM. It is considered serviceable in haemorrhoids. piles. Kakaphal. & A. L. which is nutritious and emollient. LOC. G. The seed contains vitamin A. loss of appetite (Ayurveda). digestible. DISTR. cures "Vata" and " Kapha". broadly ovate. The plant contains Vitamins A. H. fever. CHAR. Kakamari. Root is purgative and fruit apple is anti-diarrhceal. See—Vegetables.— subcoriaceous. Garalaphala. 5-nerved. ulcers. Kakkisoppugida . Kakanashika. H. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. leaves. Sophara. NS. Kaju. M. LOC. Govamba. 10-12 X 7. ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. It is a mechanical as well as chemical antidote for irritant poisons and a good vehicle for liniments and other external applications. cordate or truncate. B. Kanara. K. The shell of the nut yields an oil which is black. :—E. bark vertically furrowed .—Menispermaceæ. anthelmintic. hot. Kernel yields a light yellow bland oil. also cultivated. Kakamari. very common near the seashore in open situations in Konkan and N. Gerubi. :—Throughout the State naturalised and completely established. It is a good application for cracks of the feet. Jermic. Prithagbija. Sk. The tar from the bark is used as a counter-irritant.20 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) When fresh. Cashew apple-nut. Upapushpika. many flowered. ascites. It is powerfully rubefacient and vesicant. :—A native of tropical America. flowers. fruit apple eaten is a remedy for scurvy. . Kempu— Turkaka geru . COM. Kakamari. aphrodisiac. skin diseases.. See—Timbers. leucoderma. COM. Agni-krita. Gova. long. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. :—E. tumours. Fl. Kakamari. PARTS USED :—Bark. FAM. Corm is poisonous. tuft of hairs in the axils of nerves except the basal ones . Kaju. Kaju . Kajutaka. Fish-Louse Berry. Oils.

COM. NS. diaphoretic and refrigerant. smooth. t. . causes cough and biliousness. PARTS USED :—Roots. FAM. DISTR. Assam. NS. Kanara (Nilkund Ghat forests). :—Cultivated in India and elsewhere in tropical countries. given with sugar it relieves hiccup. Creat. also allays gastric irritability in fevers. Seeds possess powerfully poisonous properties due to the presence of picrotoxin and are chiefly used to poison fish. from Orissa to Ceylon. Fl. black . removes gases from the intestines . Pine-apple . :—E. Olen kirayat. Parvati. See—Fruit Trees. Malay Archipelago to New Guinea. useful in cardiac disorders and fatigue. LOC. Sk. Sk. Ananas hannu. Kiriyata.—Sept.) LOC. Kantak sanjika. N. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is digestive. The juice of the ripe fruit is antiscorbutic. good for rheumatism and as an application for inflammations. Bengal. Mahateet. PROPERTIES AND USES—Fruit slightly bitter . petals absent. leaves and fruits.-Oct. HABITAT :—Hot moist regions along sea-coast.MEDICINAL PLANTS 21 bud globular. Kirata. Kanara. PARTS USED : —Leaves (rarely). COM. Mahatit. M. Ananas. Ananas . a poison to fish (Yunani).—Bromeliaceæ. H. useful in diseases of blood (Ayurveda. In Bengal fresh leaves are used as snuff in the treatment of daily ague. Nelabevu gida. Ananas . Fr —drupe on a 3-fld gynophore (usually 2). K. good expectorant. USES:—The seeds are officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India and enter as an ingredient in the preparation of an ointment used for the destruction of pediculi (lice) and obstinate forms of chronic skin diseases. LOC. ANANAS SATIVUS Schult. G. Ananasa. :—Konkan. Kiryat. cultivated. Bhuinimba. and in large quantities causes uterine contractions and ought to be rigorously avoided by pregnant women. E. DISTR. The juice of the unripe fruits is emmenagogue. it is useful in jaundice. It acts also as diuretic. H. USES :—Fresh juice of the leaves is a powerful anthelmintic . to a certain extent in Gujarat. dioecious. ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA Nees. FAM. :—Cultivated along the sea-coast in the Konkan and N. HABITAT :—Moist rain forests. native of Brazil (tropical America). Ama. LOC. Ananas. M. :—Khasia Hills. 6 to 10 grains of them are sufficient to kill a dog. fruits. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Acanthaceæ. Olikiriyat. K. also acts as a purgative. G. :—E.

LOC. high. C—2-lipped. Plant decoction or oil distilled from leaves is used externally in rheumatism. Malay Peninsula.. FAM. branches sharply quadrangular winged in the upper part. PROPERTIES AND LOC. approximate above. USES :—An infusion of the aromatic bitter leaves is in common use in affections of stomach and bowels. very small. stomachic. oblong-lanceolate. acute at both ends . Oshthaphala. Fl. solitary.5 cm. thickly woolly. purple. pale beneath.2-1. extensively used in Bengal.—small. made into an electuary. yellowish brown. COM.—Dec. Plant is useful in general debility. smooth. middle lobe divided at the apex into 2 lobes.8 m.—very thick. dysentery. L. high. white below. Leaf infusion is given to children in colic. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. Gholo-Makhamali-chodharo . sometimes cultivated. :—An erect shrub. Roots and leaves are febrifuge.3-0. :—S. lower 3lobed. DISTR. expressed leaf-juice is a common domestic remedy in the bowel complaints of children. stem quadrangular.22 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—many. :—An erect branched annual 0. L. The plant contains two bitter principles andrographolin and kalmeghin. is used by hakims as a tonic and alterative in syphilitic cachexia and foul syphilitic ulcers. dyspepsia and fever from teething. LOC. :—Throughout India. crenate-serrate.—Ghats. Mauritius PARTS USED :—Plant and leaves. and N. Fl. t. Fl. clothed with woolly hairs . Chodhara.9 m. polished brown. in lax axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. distant. HABITAT :—Dry forest undergrowth. Sundara. alterative. distant.3-10 X 2-4. Vaikunth. Ceylon.-Nov. C—2-lipped. lower lip very large and broad . t. pale above. tonic. :—Deccan. upper lip 2-toothed. linear-oblong. with leaves of Aristolochia indica and the fresh inner root-bark of country sarsaparilla. CHAR.-Oct. M. 1. . Fl. K. Gojivana. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Karnatak. USES :—The bitter herb is well known under the name of Kalmegh and forms the principal ingredient of a household medicine called alui. 6. Malabar Catmint.— capsule. acute. bracts lanceolate. :—Konkan and Kanara. It is called Indian chiretta and is used as a tonic. During the great influenza epidemic (1919) a tincture of the plant was found highly efficacious in arresting the progress of the disease. Br. ANISOMELES MALABARICA R. lateral lobes small. rugosely pitted. HABITAT. catarrhal affections and intermittent fevers. and certain forms of dyspepsia. NS. Alamoda.—nutlets. ellipsoid. Fr.—lanceolate. Karitumbe. :—E. Fr. rose coloured. The plant is considered sudorific and antipyretic. DISTR. and anthelmintic. Sk. Patients are made to inhale the vapour of a hot infusion so as to induce copious diaphoresis.—Labiatæ. Sundraphul. Kanara.—in dense whorls . Sd. forming a spicate inflorescence. Green leaves. G. undulate.

Fruit—sweet. Durangi. Leaves are used as poultice over boils and ulcers and also to kill lice. Dhavala. Krishnabija. M. and eyesores. sedative to heart. PARTS USED :—Root. Dhava. Bejjalu. M. leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Stomachic. Amritphala. K. Sitaphala. Kanara border. Bakla. produce ulcers in the eye. :—Throughout the greater part of India. cooling . Shushkanga. Anan. Ata. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens . Bark is a powerful astringent.—Anonaceæ. Pitaphala. Leaf infusion is efficacious in prolapsus ani of children. Root—cathartic. enriches blood. See—Timbers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 23 ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA Wall. Dindiga. LOC. the bark entres into the composition of a remedy against difficult expectorations and obstruction of windpipe by phlegm. NS. Sitaphala. Dhavada. discharges. relieves vomiting (Ayurveda). FAM. K. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. abortifacient. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sweet. Sitaphal. :—E. stimulant. COM. bark. lessens burning sensation and tendency to biliousness . good to destroy lice in hair (Yunani). :—E. (Yunani). Dhamora. applied to skin-diseases. Ceylon. Sharipha. Anuram. Dhava. bark. LOC. Button Tree. USES :—In Chota-Nagpur. increases biliousness . USES :—Root is considered a drastic purgative and is administered in acute dysentery. Bark is bitter. Naturalised in Hyderabad and other parts. chronic diarrhœa. removes " Kapha " and " Vata ". HABITAT :—Growing usually in dry deciduous forests. causes fever and furunculosis . domesticated and wild in forests of Dharwar District and along N. LOC. Custard apple. G. Bruised leaves with salt make a cataplasm to induce suppuration. astringent to the bowels (Ayurveda). cooling. good tonic. Sugar apple. G. COM. PARTS USED :—Root. Sweet-sop. Dohu.:—Very common throughout the State usually in dry forests. Sitaphala. expectorant. Dhavada. LOC. :—A native of West Indies . increases muscular strength. erysipelas. Seeds—difficult to digest. Sk. DISTR. Damora. Dyes. Dindala. tasty. DISTR. Leaf-juice is given in purulent discharges from the ear. H. fruit and seeds. Sitaphala. leaves and fruits.—Combretaceæ. enriches blood . now cultivated throughout India. Bahubijika. ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. FAM. NS. astringent to the bowels. useful in anaemia. H. Ripe fruit is maturant and applied— mixed with salt—to malignant tumours to hasten suppuration. They are applied for extraction of guinea-worms. Sk. useful in liver complaints. Dabria. Dried unripe fruit powdered and mixed with . It is also employed internally in depression of spirits and spinnal diseases. flavoury. improves taste and appetite .

Kadamb . See—Timbers. sweet. alexiteric. Sk. M. Fruit—heating. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-pungent. H. Valkala. biliousness. sprouts and fruits. There is a trace of vitamin A in the fruit. Bark is given in cough and fevers in Tongking. NS. . Kadamb. Karnapuraka. Burma. HABITAT :—Near tanks and villages . Malay Islands. K. Chandkuda. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. causes biliousness when ripe. blood diseases. :—G. Ceylon. Malayan Peninsula. In eye inflammations. :—Throughout India. They are detergent and their powder. Ajjanpatte. Nadija. PARTS USED :—Seeds. LOC. and a small quantity mixed with cumin and sugar is given internally. K.—Moraceæ. indigestible. vulnerary. good in uterine complaints. The plant contains an amorphous alkaloid. stomachic. LOC. often cultivated. seeds are powerful irritant of conjunctiva. :—Common near villages throughout Konkan and Kanara Not indigenous. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—In evergreen forests. sap of the tree. Sacred Plants. fresh bark-juice is applied to the heads of infants when the fontanelle sinks. mixed with gram-flour. Niv. strangury. LOC. It is generally considered tonic. H. Peninsula. aphrodisiac. astringent to bowels. ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA Miq. Sk. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Nipa. Pegu. common near Yellapur. Surabhi. is a good hairwash. saline. DISTR. Ashokari. USES :—In the Konkan and in Kanara. Jajpugri. from the Himalayas to Ceylon. wild or cultivated. Tennaserim. USES:—In the Konkan. M. juice with equal quantities of lime-juice. opium and alum is applied round the orbit. Fodder Plants. DISTR. Chandala.24 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) gram-flour is used to destory vermin. Kadam. Leaf decoction is used as a gargle in cases of aphthae and stomatitis. bitter. Kadamb. :—Rain forests of the Konkan and N. Sprouts—acrid. Kaduve. :—E. Kanara . ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Upas Tree. COM NS. The plant contains a principle similar to cinchotannic acid. the bitter seeds are used as a febrifuge and as a remedy in dysentery. See—Fruit Trees. cooling. burning sensation. acrid.—Rubiaceæ. FAM. Seeds yield an oil and resin. cures leprosy and dysentery (Ayurveda). PARTS USED:—Bark. Seeds are crushed and used to destroy worms in the wounds of cattle. galactagogue. Kadamba. Bairi. Chandkuda. Kadubale. FAM. :—W. " Vata". COM. Kadamb . " Kapha".

G. improve appetite . tonic. useful in ophthalmia.:—Foot of the N. The plant juice contains three glucosides α-antiarin. Fr. W. USES :—Root is considered alterative and diuretic. . Bodi ajomoda. scabies. As an antispasmodic they are used in asthma and bronchitis. Sk. rheumatism. 0. LOC. ridges narrow. It is used to this day as an arrow poison by wild tribes in Burma. Afghanistan. Mandapi.—1. Markati. amenorrhœa. tooth-ache. used in anasarca and colic. Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab. segments once or twice trifid. Africa. rays 5-10. rectal troubles. CHAR. :—E. Seeds are given as stimulant and cordial. Bori ajmud. Shimbika. COM NS. COM. See—Vegetables. FAM. Nelkadle. M. and γ-antiarin. Pharmacological studies show that the drug is a very powerful heart poison. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. :—E. Ajmud. G. In Europe plant is recommended as excellent in rheumatism. Asia. abortifacient. and to some extent are said to be emmenagogue in liver and spleen diseases. FAM —Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). Brahmakoshi. APIUM GRAVEOLENS Linn. Fl. Bhuimug.—Umbelliferæ. specially near large cities. M. vomiting. pinnate with large deeply lobed segments. Ajamoda. Seeds—carminative. hiccup. N. Europe. :—A biennial plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—stomachic. Mungphali. :—Cultivated in gardens in many places in the State.. DISTR. Chinimung. fever with cough. ARACHIS HYPOGÆA Linn. Java and Malaya. Karafs. L. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Abyssinia. " Vata " . cauline 3-partite. laxative. Bhuimug-chana. tumours: cause burning sensation (Ayurveda). NS. H. high. Bhuchanak.5-2 mm. inflammations. Monkey-nut. pedicels 6-16 . Ajmoda . vomiting. Wild celery.MEDICINAL PLANTS 25 The juice derived from the leaves or the bark of the tree is nevertheless distinctly poisonous. bronchitis.4 m. abdominal pain. β-antiarin. scorpion and other stings. apex toothed .— radial. The plant contains vitamins A. Sk. vittae broad. W.3-2. Ugragandha. cure " Kapha ". good for heart. urinary discharges. traces of B and C. Ground-Pea-nut. H. Snehabijaka. cure asthma. aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. branching.— in umbels. K. astringent to bowels . LOC. ascites. Glucoside apiin is present. Bhuimug. Moda. See—Timbers. Fibres. heart and spleen diseases. appetiser. Celery. good in ophthalmia. chest-pains. erect. anthelmintic. nasal catarrh (Yunani).

useful in urinary disorders. M. used for eye-inflammations. emmenagogue. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. improves appetite and taste. gleet. LOC. it is regarded as an excellent aperient and emollient and is used in catarrh of bladder. gum. in bowel complaints and bad ulcers.. Bengal.26 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. Areca palm. DISTR. Malayan Peninsula and Islands. . indigestible. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). it is applied hot to dislocations as compress with or without tafia. Dried nut (seed) when chewed produces stimulant and exhilarant effects on the system. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds and oil are sweet and astringent to bowels. Akota. Kanara. removes foul breath. Sk. seeds. Juice of young leaves mixed with oil is used as an embrocation in lumbago. laxative. Suppiyari. Oils. aphrodisiac. Betel-nut palm. Supari. bleeding gums. Chikkan. Indo-Malaya. Country. cardiotonic. DISTR. K. Areca-nut palm. Sopari. Hopari. Gum pungent. Assam. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Unripe seed poisonous and harmful to the eyesight. LOC. See—Food Plants. Tantusara. Chikka. COM. Pophal. giddiness. H. Seed cooling. Nut astringent. Powdered nut ft useful in checking diarrhœa. :—Unripe fruits are considered a good lactagogue and are given to women in milk deficiency.—Palmæ. Poga. fairly largely in the Konkan. Immature seeds contain vitamins A and B. leaves (rarely). PARTS USED :—Seeds and oil. cooling. they cause flatulence and bronchitis (Ayurveda). Malabar. M. :—Cultivated extensively in Khandesh. USES. LOC. ARECA CATECHU Linn. Adki. Pugiphal. considered as indigenous in Cochin-China.:—Extensively grown in N. :—A native of tropical America—now widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions all over. FAM. :—E. Kaungu. Burma. digestive. The grated nut is given as an anthelmintic in round and tape-worms. Mysore. G. Gujarat and S. used as an astringent lotion for eyes. Supari. NS. USES :—Root decoction is a reputed cure for sore-lips. Ground-nut oil is used in pharmacy as a good substitute for olive or almond oil. LOC. It was considered so efficacious and so highly esteemed that it was introduced in the British Pharmacopoeia. Women use it both externally and internally for stopping watery-discharges from vagina. In French Guinea. It is a nervine tonic and emmenagogue. removes pus (Yunani). In India areca-nut has been used as an anthelmintic in man and animals from time immemorial. HABITAT :—Cultivated in high rainfall tracts. Deccan. Siam. Betta. oil is given in acute abdominal pain. Chhataphala. :—Madras.

Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil which has long been in use as an aperient. India. they are ground up and mixed with onions and applied to the affected part. Daruri. cures ophthalmia and opacity of the cornea. prickly.—capsule. expectorant and demulcent. destroys worms . Roots are used to cure guinea worm affections. Fl. Indigenous in tropical America. Srigalkanta. branching.5-18 cm. oblong-ovoid 2. Bharbhand. Fruit Trees. juice mixed with ghee is given internally in gonorrhœa. more common in rice fields in the Konkan and Deccan (Maval). purgative. :—E. Pirangi datturi. prickly. It is also diuretic. various skin-diseases. HABIT :—A weed of the roadsides and in cultivated fields. sinuately pinnatifid. and guvacine. t. In the Konkan the juice is given with milk in leprosy. Svarnakshiri. Plant enriches blood. jaundice and cutaneous affections. and heals excoriations and indolent ulcers. Seeds are used to adulterate mustard seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-diuretic. LOC. Pita-pushpa. nauseant. Fl. diam. arecoline. cures leprosy. Seed contains alkaloids arecaine. K. It is also serviceable in some cases in which jalap. Brahma dandi. 2. rhubarb and castor oil are indicated. Yellow juice of the plant is used as a medicine for dropsy. when fresh cause vomiting (Ayurveda). LOC. DISTR. high. and in pertussis and asthma. M. useful in cough and catarrhal affections of the throat and pulmonary mucous membrane. spinous. antidote to various poisons. netted. veins white. Sd. Both from the chemical and the therapeutical points of view the plant appears worthy of investigation (Ph. ARGEMONE MEXICANA Linn. This is said to bring the worm out at once. Root anthelmintic. The plant contains alkaloids berberine and protopine.— terminal. glaucous herb . Bila dhatura. its use is attended with benefit in some chronic skin diseases. . Mexican prickly poppy . Shialkanta.—thistlelike. H. :—Introduced and naturalised throughout India. Ind. yellow. See—Timbers. juice yellow. FAM. Juice—used as a collyrium. Seeds yield an oil which is considered to be a cause of epidemic dropsy in N. useful in skin-diseases and leucoderma (Yunani).12 m. relieves blisters. G.8 cm. L.5-3. globose. useful is strangury. Darudi. Balurakkisa.—Papaveraceæ. PARTS USED :—Root.3-0.—numerous.). Fr. 7. sedative. emetic.5-5 cm. inflammations and bilious fevers. :—A glabrous. good expectorant and aphrodisiac. stem clasping.MEDICINAL PLANTS 27 Seed contains vitamin A to a small extent. brownish black. Sk. COM. NS. :—Found growing as a weed all over the State . seeds and yellow juice. USES :—Root is an alterative. arecaidine. CHAR.—all the year. Seeds are laxative. oblong. Seeds—purgative. opening by 4-6 valves. Datturi. stem 0. Firangi—Kate-Pivala dhotara.

LOC. G. Elephant Creeper. CHAR. strangury. Java. long. Samudrashosh. often cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Samardar sokh. Krimighni. Gujarat and S. (sometimes even larger). ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA Retz. pubescent outside.—Aristolochiaceæ. pedicel with a large bract at the base. base subglobose. Gandali. infundibuliform. useful in " Vata". HABITAT. base cordate. Samudrashok. tropical Africa. perhaps a native of Bengal. .— 3.—solitary. absorptive. LOC. reniform or broadly ovate.5 cm. Fr. tube inflated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter .— Aug.-Nov. white-tomentose L. long.5-4. " Kapha" fevers. t.—Convolvulaceæ. cultivated. Ajantri. Fl. K. COM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Purgative. Dhuma-patra. with revolute margins. NS. Fl. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves.— 7. 1. M. Peninsula. Kidamar. Fr. H. aphrodisiac. Soge. Kitamari.3-2 cm. applied to sores to kill maggots (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. FAM. :—E. See—Ornamental Plants. Kidamari. Vridhadaraka. M. Dridhadaru. prostrate. Sk. Leaves are maturative. K. Country.. tip linear dark purple. base cordate with wide sinus . CHAR. powdered root is given with milk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. H. :—E. In synovitis. useful in rheumatic affections and diseases of the nervous system. DISTR.-Sept.:—Konkan. Konkan. Arabia. gonorrhœa.5 cm. Fl. :—A slender perennial. Bracteated Birth-wort. glabrous inside. :—Bengal. COM. Samudraballi. Sd. t. Ceylon. LOC. L. Deccan and S. white-tomentose beneath. local stimulant and rubefacient and are used externally as emollient poultice for wounds and skin diseases.—capsule. oblongellipsoid. W. tubular. HABITAT :—Found growing near villages.— globose apiculate. FAM. chronic ulcers (Yunani). Ganda.—Aug.3 cm.28 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) ARGYREIA SPECIOSA Sweet. C—5-6. bracts large . diuretic . Varghoro. Shyambhuna. used in gleet. Samudrapatrashoh. stems stout. painful joints. white-tomentose.8-7. G. striate. NS. long and as broad as long. tube cylindric with trumpetshaped mouth.—Weed of cultivation in black soils. Kitakaba.—deltoid with cordate base . Adumuttadagida. Kiramar.5-30 x 6. Samandarka phal. DISTR. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the root is regarded as alterative tonic. :—A very large climber. Hastivalli.—in sub-capitate cymes. M. rose purple. weak. Sk. long. 12-ribbed . M. perianth 2. :—Abundant in the black soils of the Deccan. ovate glabrous above.3-25 cm. the bands silky pubescent outside. stems. peduncles stout. anthelmintic. Country.

bitter. Leaves are applied to the navel of children to move the bowels. Fl. G. Indian Birth-wort. Arkamula.—Compositæ. Sugandha.. Bengal.5 cm. Nilpushpa. tonic. Nepal. bowel troubles of children (Ayurveda). In Bombay it is chiefly prescribed in the bowel complaints of children. bract opposite the pedicel. :—A twining shrub. COM. M. entire with undulate margins. K. slender. Sk. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. useful in " Tridosha. globose-oblong. NS. Gathona." pains in the joints. leaves and seeds. base vaiable. Dhor-davana. . Bruised leaves mixed with castor oil are externally applied in obstinate psora and eczema of legs in children. Juice of fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children. dry cough. LOC. Leaves yield a yellowish thick juice which is mixed with boiled milk and given in syphilis and combined with opium used with success in gonorrhœa. Dovana. emmenagogue.—flat. long with globose inflated base. Sk. ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA Pamp. CHAR. Country. reaching 4. Fl. obovate oblong 10-12. :—E. alexiteric. Isharmula. biliousness. 3.:—Konkan and S.—Aristolochiaceæ. COM. DISTR. (ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. in cholera it is regarded as a stimulant tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. Sd. Indian wormwood. PARTS USED :—Roots. woody at the base. Mastaru. L. The plant contains an alkaloid. Plant is used as an abortifacient. ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA Linn. Dona. Ceylon. Majtari. K. Mixed with honey it is given in leuco-derma. USES :—Every part of the plant is extremely bitter and is much used by the Hindoo physicians on account of its anthelmintic and purgative properties. The plant contains an alkaloid.—Nov. :—E. Nagduna. Stem long. Fr.5 cm. then bent at right angle and suddenly narrowed into a cylindric tube with trumpet-shaped mouth passing into a narrow brownish lip. M.. NS. emmenagogue and is employed in intermittent fevers and other affections.3-2. purgative (Yunani). Seeds useful in inflammation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 29 LOC. Flea-bane. Mother or Mugwort. H. Sapsan.8-10 X 1. perianth greenishwhite. Isvara balli beru . Saraparni. Ishvari. USES :—Root which is very bitter is held in much esteem as a stimulant. — capsule.5x7. winged. t. and is also applied externally to the abdomen. Nakuli.5 cm. joint-pains. FAM. In Sind dried roots in powder form or infusion are administered during labour to increase uterine contraction. LOC.—in few flowered axillary racemes. grooved. 6-valved.) FAM. :—Western Peninsula. dyspnoea of children. also useful in dropsy. H. Manjipatri. Arkamula. M.—variable linear oblong. Nagdamani. Ruhimula.

involucral bracts villous. Fruit—sweet with pleasant taste. G. Fr. FAM. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. The leaves and tops are given in nervous and spasmodic affections connected with debility. Panos. constipating (Ayurveda). Thailand (Siam). ovate. Kujja. Panas. Young leaves are applied to boils for fomentation and wounds to dry them. 3 together in horizontal or suberect panicled racemes. Seeds— aphrodisiac (Yunani). although very nutritious. stems leafy.-Hilly districts. Kanara. LOC. LOC.:—A perennial shrub. grown in gardens also. It is prescribed in infusion and electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria. LOC. Vanas. HABITAT. H. :—Widely cultivated. cures "Kapha". L— lower leaves 5. solitary or 2. t. The plant contains an essential oil. minute. Tage.4 m. oleaginous. Phanas. asthma. appetiser. upper leaves smaller. Phanasa. lanceolate. LOC. aphrodisiac. DISTR. Jack-Orange wood. leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-carminative. Externally it is used in fomentations. Panesa. K. high. Sk.—heads ovoid or subglobose. "Vata". oblong ellipsoid. An infusion is given as a tonic.30 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. NS. hairy. . :—Throughout hilly districts of India. but rather difficult to digest. :—E. USES:—Plant is a valuable stomachic. aromatic. temperate Asia. Fruit Trees and Dyes. found near the villages or sites of deserted villages in Bombay State. " Kapha". often planted along roadsides in N. inner hermaphrodite. COM. The expressed juice is applied to the head of young children for prevention of convulsions.— achene. given in skin diseases and foul ulcers as an alterative. Kantakaphala. Skandaphala. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. toothed or again pinnatisect. DISTR. Ceylon.—Urticaceæ.—Jany. aphrodisiac. The young leaves are used in skin diseases.6-2. cooling. Boiled leaves are used as poultice in headache. alexiteric. deobstruent and antispasmodic. Seeds sweet. tonic. The juice of the plant is applied externally to glandular swellings and abscesses to promote suppuration. Kanthal. aphrodisiac. fattening. Chakki. M.:—Common in the Deccan hills with more rainfall. outer flowers female.5-5 em. asthma and brain diseases. Fl. diuretic. :—Konkan. base lobed. " Vata". petioled. enriches blood. ripe fruit laxative. fruit and seeds. HABITAT : —Rain forests of W. useful in biliousness. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C. white tomentose beneath. Fl. deeply pinnatisect. pubescent above. 3-fid or entire. lobes entire. fertile. itching (Ayurveda). tonic. 0. Halasina. Ghats. The unripe fruit is astringent. Jack-fruit tree. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant pungent. See—Timbers. Java. Strong decoction is given as a vermifuge and a weak one to children in measles.10x2. USES :—Root is used internally in diarrhœa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. ulcers.

dark brown. Country.3-2.—Asclepiadaceæ. PARTS USED:—Root. root-stock tuberous. :—Deccan. 7. high. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. inflammation. See—Ornamental Plants. cladodes in tufts. M. L. often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens in the State. Tropical Africa. DISTR. Satamulika. COM. biliousness.—in simple raceme. white. linear. HABITAT :—Wild in shady places . S. M. NS. oleaginous. Fl. H. cultivated as ornamental plant. Asual Shatavari. leaves and flowers. erect. valvate in bud. It is also a remedy in piles and gonorrhœa. FAM. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India and Ceylon. :—Throughout the State both in the dry deciduous. narrowed at both ends.—June-Sept. Svetmuli. indigestible. :—Introduced from the W. from Kashmir eastwards.—orange in axillary umbels.2 m. Fr. Kaktundi. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. red when ripe.000 m. PARTS USED:—Root. fragrant. :—G. :—E.—lobes reflexed in flower. USES:—Root is regarded as purgative and subsequently astringent. globose. throat complaints. naturalised in many parts of India. stomachic. t. It is useful in arresting haemorrhage in obstinate gonorrhœa: it is also sudorific. Fl.MEDICINAL PLANTS 31 ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn.5 cm. Fr. and moist monsoon forests. straight. Satavari. CHAR.—linear with a stout spinous spur. cooling. t. . Indies.5-5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots sweet.-Feb. 2. astringent to bowels. galactogogue. Fl. segments. blood and eye diseases. Satavari.—Liliaceæ. Var. L. LOC. with coma. C. undershrub.ovoid.-Dec. M. Shatavari.— follicles. lanceolate.—berry. 0.5 cm. JAVANICA Baker. Siprimuli. :—Extremely scandent. A fibre is extracted from the plants. solitary. K. Powdered leaves and flowers are used for treating sores and wounds. Sd. spines recurved. Plant contains glucosides asclepiadin and vincetoxin. NS. Root and expressed juice are emetic and cathartic. tonic. alterative. LOC.. :—An erect undershrub. tapering at both ends. useful in dysentery. Java and Australia. thorn. Sk. aphrodisiac. West Indian or wild Ipecacuanha.5-10 X 1. FAM. DISTR. in the Himalayas. Satavari. Svadurasa.—opposite 7. Kuraki. abundant round about Poona. long. Leaf juice has been strongly recommended as anthelmintic. CHAR. common in the Deccan. thin. Seed hairs are used for stuffing. oblong. appetiser. Flower is a good styptic. spinous. up to 1. curved.9-1. corona bright orange of 5 erect processes adnate to the staminal column. COM. tumours.

hispid with long hairs. It is used chiefly as a demulcent in veterinary medicine. The root is sweet. HABITAT:—Swampy places. biliousness. pointed.2 cm. (HYGROPHILA SPINOSA T.:—Common throughout the State. Ashes of plant are also diuretic and are used in dropsy. Root decoction is useful in hepatic derangement and genito-urinary diseases as a diuretic. Vajrakantaka. high. :—G. with milk and sugar in spermatorrhoea. leprosy. tonic. useful in blood diseases (Ayurveda). like leaves. And. :—Throughout India. Vikhara. Leaves good for cough. gleet. CHAR. Gokshura. t. inflammations. Vishnu Taila.32 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) tuberculosis. DISTR. lower deeply 3-lobed. Prameha-Mihira-Taila. 4 inner small. Konkan and Deccan. demulcent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves oleaginous. bracts. Narayana Taila. 2 outer large. Sk. Kolavalike. 3. anuria. ascites. abruptly swollen at the top. antispasmodic. long. tube. hypnotic. Fl. whorled in verticels of 6 at each node.—in whorls of 8 (in 4 pairs) at each node . laxative. sedative to gravid uterus . tonic. 0. galactogogue. stems fasciculate. aphrodisiac . C. ASTERACANTHA LONGIFOLIA Nees. abdominal troubles. Kalavankabija. expectorant. tropical and S.) LOC. Ceylon. Ikshura. constipation.— Acanthaceæ. Talamkhana. and alterative tonic. COM. colic. improve blood (Yunani). Talim-khana. linear oblong. night-blindness (Ayurveda). Seeds cooling. LOC. Phalaghrita.6-1. Seeds are given in gonorrhœa. Africa. aphrodisiac. thirst. . gonorrhoea. USES. K. tonic. erect. aphrodisiac. useful in diseases of kidney and liver. PARTS USED :—Root. lanceolate.—capsule. Fl. and dysentery. Talamkhan. (Yunani. lips sub-equal. When placed in mouth seeds become coated with mucilage which has agreeable flavour. anæmia. widely 2-lipped. Seeds fattening. hairy. NS.—June-Jany. Gokhalkanta.8 cm. all with straight sharp yellow spine in their axil. aphrodisiac .— purple blue. Gokhran.5 cm. dysentery. upper 2-fid. applied for gleet and in lumbago and joint-pains. Ekharo. thickened at the nodes. H. Kak-Kokilaksha. 4-8 seeded. urinary calculi and discharges. M. ciliate . Shrigalghant. Used in diarrhœa. useful in jaundice and anasarca.. diuretic. Fr. subquadrangular.) FAM. leaves and seeds. 18 X 3-3. eyediseases. The root boiled in milk is used as appetiser. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Shatavari-ghrita. tonic. Leaves and seeds are regarded as demulcent and diuretic. scalding of urine.—sessile. USES :—The root is refrigerant. useful in diarrhœa.:—The whole plant has been used medicinally. :—A stout herb. L. aphrodisiac.

Fruits are used in pickles. Safed-Kammi. indigestion. K. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. acute. :—Cultivated in many parts of India and the tropics. Shiral. laxative. Sk.:—Throughout India in wet places. . Kirihuli. Jalneam. Jany-May. t. fleshy. Manduki. decussate. tonic. fruits. HABITAT :—Damp places. leprosy.5-10 mm. H.:—Konkan and Deccan. also useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement. Kanara villages. H.) FAM. Tamarak. creeping herb. Brahmi. inflammations. Brahmi. USES:—Ripe fruit is a good remedy for bleeding piles . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—sweet. LOC. causes biliousness. G. Fr. enlargement of spleen. M. :—A glabrous. NS. causes biliousness (Yunani). 2-lipped. pale blue or white. Bama. In Cambodia leaves are considered antipyretic and antipruritic. solitary. LOC. Darehuli. Karmar. digestible. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tumours. Kamaranga. oblong.—Oxalidaceæ. axillary. capsule. DISTR. Thyme-leaved graticula . ascites. "Vata". Fl. Brahmi. sour. emetic. allays thirst.—Scrophulariaceæ. (HERPESTIS MONIERA Benth. "Kapha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). LOC. stems rooting at the nodes. astringent to bowels . dried fruit is given in fevers. heating. useful in bad ulcers. Kamarakh. ovoid. COM. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State of Bombay. K. pale. sessile. pungent. FAM. In Mauritius fruit juice is given in dysentery and hepatic colic . rarely wild. stops diarrhœa and vomiting. anæmia. COM. C. it is cooling and antiscorbutic. Sk. Karmal. L. Kamrang. Barambhi. Karmare . Fl. BACOPA MONNIERI Penn. astringent to bowels. branches many ascending. when fresh. perhaps a native of Malaya. striate.:—E. 6-25 X 2. succulent. Nirbrahmi. Sd. Soumyalata. black dotted : entire. Root is given in cases of poisoning. with shining dots. Karuka.MEDICINAL PLANTS 33 AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. :—E.. it is considered one of the best Indian cooling medicines. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Mudgara. Fruits which are acid in taste promote digestion and assimilation. NS. CHAR. Fruit sour. obovate-oblong or spatulate. Coromandel gooseberry. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves (rarely). also used in diarrhœa. lobes equal spangled. Kamarakha. M. heats the body (Ayurveda). Ceylon and all warm countries. DISTR. Carambola apple. found wild near N. See—Fruit Trees.

piles. useful in diarrhœa and pyrexia. syphilis . inflammations. It is a direct cardiac tonic. Rechani. wounds. :—G. . Fl. the lower large. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. Dec. obovoid. W. conjoined with petroleum. smooth. anasarca and jaundice. Seeds are poisonous. :—E. all male or with a few females below. Sk. leaves and seeds. Kaduharalu. :—Dry open Deccan plains. enlarged spleen.. jaundice (Ayurveda). Dantika. purifies blood. Danti. G. Kanara. branching from the roots. in monsoon forests of N. Plant contains an alkaloid which produces less toxic symptoms than strychnine. or in monsoon forests. In Pondichery plant is considered aphrodisiac. high. Leaf-decoction is said to be useful in asthma. anthelmintic. LOC. mottled. yellowish. Dantimul. HABITAT :—Dry open plains. maturant and expectorant (Yunani).8 m. diuretic. Assam. Guggul. Sd. Danti. in axillary racemes or contracted panicles. epilepsy and hoarseness. t. :—A stout undershrub. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Brahmi-Ghrita used in insanity. purgative. N. LOC. Devdhup. toothed. CHAR. 2-glandular. Guggula.—Euphorbiaceæ. L. COM. DISTR. Uddipta.9-1. It gives relief in infantile catarrh or severe bronchitis. Gum gugul. good in scabies. is used as a local application in rheumatism. H. Guggula. leucoderma. LOC. Bengal. Gugul. FAM. sinuate. useful in insanity. Mukul.34 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Bitter. leucoderma. Danti. useful in pains. Leaf-juice. FAM. Chota Nagpur. In Ceylon it is used for fomentation for erysipelas and elephantiasis. Fr. itching. Fl. It is also a powerful diuretic and aperient. Burma. epilepsy and hoarseness. 0. ellipsoid. anaemia. H. Hakum. K. Peninsula.—Burseraceæ. NS. BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL Hook f. PARTS USED :—Root. Jamalgota. often palmately 3-5 lobed. alexiteric. M. capsule. Vishodhini. Jatala. USES :—It is considered by the Hindu physicians as a nervine tonic. They are used in dropsy. M. COM. hairy. of three 2-valved cocci. Guggula. Poultice made of the boiled plant is placed on the chest in coughs of children. Root and leaves are cathartic. K. Sk. the upper small. aphrodisiac . BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM Muell. Malaya. USES :—Root is sold as "Dantimul" by the drug dealers. Danti. Seeds have properties more or less similar to Croton tiglium and are used as drastic purgative. :—Bihar. abundant on the hills of Karanja. diseases of skin and abdomen. NS. Locally seeds act as stimulant and rubefacient.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

35

HABITAT :—Dry regions. LOC.:—Khandesh and dry regions of the Deccan. DISTR. :—Hills, in Sind; Rajastan, Baluchistan, Arabia. PARTS USED :—Fruits (rarely), gum. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gum is of five kinds ; hot, acrid, laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals ulcers, fractures, fistula, piles; removes "Kapha", "Vata", bad discharges from ear; cures indigestion, urinary discharges and concretions, tumours, inflammations, tubercular glands in neck, "tridosh"; useful in ascites, asthma, chest troubles. Fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Gum— acrid with a bad odour; maturant, resolvent, expectorant, aphrodisiac; enriches blood; useful in rheumatism, lung complaints, dyspepsia, piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The drug has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine. It is used in the form of lotion for indolent ulcers, and as a gargle in teeth caries, weak and spongy gums, pyorrhoea and throat diseases. Used as stomachic in chronic dyspepsia. It is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative, especially useful in nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases. It is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac. Guggul (oleo-resin) is said to have marked anti-suppurative properties. Given in large doses it is useful in all chest affections. Fumes of guggul are inhaled in hay fever and other bronchial affections. It is applied locally as a paste in haemorrhoids, incipient abscesses and bad ulcers. See—Timbers, Gums and Resins.

BAMBUSA BAMBOS Voss. (BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA Willd.)
FAM—Gramineæ. COM. NS. :—E. Spiny-Thorny bamboo ; G. Toncar, Wans ; H. Bans, Kota—Mangar—Mal bans; K. Bidiru, Gale, Hebbidru, Kalale; M. Kalak, Bambu; Sk. Brihattrina, Kantaki, Kichaka, Vansha, Venu. HABITAT :—Along the banks of rivers and nalas in moist monsoon forests. LOC. :—Dangs, Konkan, W. Ghats, Deccan, N. Kanara. DISTR. :—Throughout India except the Himalayas ; Burma, Ceylon. Often cultivated. PARTS USED :—Root, stem, leaves, sprouts, seeds and manna. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Acrid, cooling, laxative, useful in " Kapha ", burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, leucoderma, inflammations, strangury, wounds, piles, urinary discharges, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, fevers, leprosy, jaundice, anæmia; fattening, aphrodisiac, alexiteric (Ayurveda). Tonic, emmenagogue; useful in ringworm, bleeding gums, earache, deafness, burning sensation, thirst, ophthalmia, stomatitis, syphilis ; lessens bronchitis, lumbago, piles, biliousness, gonorrhœa and fevers (Yunani).

36

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is considered diluent. Bark is used as a cure for eruptions. Poultice made from bamboo-shoots is used for dislodging worms from ulcers. Pickles or curries made from young shoots are beneficial in lack of digestion; they promote digestion and appetite. Leaf bud is good emmenagogue and administered in decoction to encourage free discharge of menses after delivery. Leaves are used with black pepper and common salt to check diarrhœa in cattle. The silicious concretion (Vanshalochana) found in the joints of bamboo is largely used as cooling tonic, and aphrodisiac ; used also in cough, consumption and asthma. It is much prized as a stimulant and febrifuge. Two varieties of Vanshalochana are available in the market—blue and white—both are sweet in taste. There is a trace of vitamin A. See—Timbers, Fibres, and Fodder Plants.

BARLERIA PRIONITES Linn.
FAM.—Acanthaceæ. COM. NS.:—G. Kantashelio; H. Katoeriya; Vajradanti; K. Gorante, Mullu-goranta, Mudarangi; M. Kalsunda, Pivalikoranti; Sk. Bona, Jhinti, Kantakuranta, Kurantaka, Souriyaka. CHAR. :—A shrub, 0.6-1.5 m. high, usually prickly, stems and branches 4-gonous; L. 918x2.5-5.7 cm. elliptic, acuminate, bristle-tipped, entire, usually with 3 acicular spines in the axils; Fl.—sessile, solitary in lower axils becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, bristle-tipped ; bracteoles almost spinous ; C—yellow, infundibuliform, 2-lipped, upper tip 4-lobed, lower entire; Fr.—capsule, ovoid with a long tapering beak, 2-seeded. Sd.—clothed with silky hairs. Fl. t.—Oct.Jany. HABITAT :—Often planted as a fence. LOC. :—Common throughout the State; Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Sind, Ceylon, tropical Asia, tropical and S. Africa. PARTS USED.—Root, bark and leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter, heating; alexiteric; useful in tooth-ache, leucoderma, blood-complaints, bronchitis, diseases of blood and skin, inflammations; appetiser (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—A root-paste is applied to disperse boils and glandular swellings. In the Konkan dried bark is given in whooping-cough; fresh bark-juice with milk is given in anasarca ; it acts as a diaphoretic and expectorant. A medicated oil (made by boiling stems and leaves with sweet oil) is applied to wounds as a cleansing material. Leaf' juice with a little honey and water is a favourable medicine in catarrhal affections of children, accompanied with fever and phlegm. In Bombay leaf-juice is applied to feet in rainy season to prevent cracking. Tooth-paste made of leaves and common salt is used to strengthen gums in caries of teeth.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

37

BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA Gaertn.
FAM.—Myrtaceæ. COM. NS.:—E. Small Indian oak; G. Samudraphala; H. Hijgal, Panniari, Samudraphal; K. Holekanua, Mavinkubia; M. Samudraphal, Niwar; Sk. Ambuja, Samudraphala. HABITAT :—Swampy places. LOC. :—Banks of rivers and streams throughout N. Kanara and Konkan; common near the coast (not in mangroves). DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malaya, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, bark, leaves, fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is given in dysentery. Fruit—bitter, acrid; astringent to bowels, vulnerary, alexipharmic, anthelmintic; causes " Vata"; useful in biliousness, blood diseases, bronchitis, sore-eyes, headache, hallucinations; cures " Tridosh" (Ayurveda). Fruit—bitter, astringent, lactagogue; useful in gleet, abdominal colic, lumbar pains, syphilis and nasal catarrh (Yunani). LOC. USES :—In Bombay root is considered warm, stimulating and emetic; often prescribed alone or in combination with other medicines as an external application in colds. It is supposed to be similar to cinchona in properties. Leaf-juice is given in diarrhœa. Kernels are given in diarrhœa with sago and Butter. Fruit rubbed in water is administered as an emetic. Powdered fruit is an ingredient along with Mal Kangoni as a cosmetic; it is rubbed on the skin in cases of fever attended with nervous symptoms; mixed with ginger it is rubbed on the skin to check profuse sweating (Sakharam Arjun). Seeds are very warm and dry, used as aromatic in colic, in parturition, also in ophthalmia; powdered seeds are used as snuff in headache. It is a fish poison. The plant contains the glucosides baringtonin and saponin. See—Timbers, Tans, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

BASELLA RUBRA Linn.
FAM.—Chenopodiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian spinach, Malabar night-shade ; G. Pothinivel, Valchi bhaji; H. Poi, Mayalki bhaji, Lalbachala; K. Kempubasale; M. Mayalu, Velbondi; Sk. Kalambi, Pichhila, Putika, Vrischikapriya, CHAR. :—A perennial herb, stem very long, slender, twining to the right, succulent; L.—1512.5 X 2.5-7.5 cm., variable, broadly ovate, thick, entire, base cordate; Fl.— white or red, sessile, few, in lax pedunculate spikes; perianth fleshy 5-fid, segments elliptic obtuse; Fr.—size of a pea, red, white, or black. HABITAT :—Climbing over houses in and about villages; also cultivated. LOC. :—Commonly grown in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Throughout India, wild or cultivated; tropical Asia and Africa. PARTS USED :—Leaves. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid, sweetish, heating, soporific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, fattening, laxative ; improves appetite; useful in

38

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

biliousness, leprosy, dysentery, ulcers; causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Sour, tonic, narcotic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, improves voice ; applied to burns (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The leaves made into pulp are used as application to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. They are demulcent and diuretic, useful in gonorrhœa and balanites. Leaf-juice mixed with butter is a soothing application in burns and scalds. Mucilaginous liquid from the plant is a popular remedy for habitual headache. See—Vegetables.

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Wild champak; G. Asundro, Piloasudro; H. Kachnar, Kanchana; K. Kadatti, Karanasupu; M. Apta, Pivala Kanchan; Sk. Phalgu, Pita Kanchana. CHAR. :—An erect shrub, branches slender, terete, zigzag ; L.—broader than long, 2.8-5 X 3.8-6.3 cm., divided a little less than half into 2 rounded lobes, base truncate; Fl.— usually in pairs (rarely 1 or 3) on short axillary or leaf opposed peduncles; C.—petals 3.8-5 cm., much imbricated, obovate, spatulate, yellow, the upper with a purple blotch on the face; Fr.—pod stalked 10-12.5x1.31.63 cm., flat, pointed, veined; Sd.—8-12. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. LOC. :—Often cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the gardens in the Konkan. Nimmo says it is wild. DISTR. :—N. W. Provinces, Circars, Karnatak, in dry forests from Chilka Lake to Tinnevelly; in other parts of India often cultivated; Ceylon, China, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Root-bark, buds, flowers and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Decoction of the root-bark is administered in inflammation of the liver. It is also used as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is externally applied on tumours and wounds. Infusion is a useful gargle in aphthae. Dried buds and young flowers are prescribed in dysenteric affections. The fruit is diuretic. Seeds have tonic and aphrodisiac action. Seed paste made with vinegar is an efficacious application to wounds inflicted by poisonous animals. See—Ornamental Plants.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Kovidara; H. Kachaar, Kaniar, Padrian; K. Arisin-ganlige, Kanjivala, Utipe; M. Kanchan, Raktakanchan; Sk. Ashantaka, Kanchana, Kovidar, Kantar. CHAR. :—A medium sized deciduous tree, young shoots brown pubescent; L.—10-15 cm. long and as broad, cleft 1/4 to 1/3 into 2 obtuse lobes, base deeply cordate ; Fl.—in racemes ; large, fragrant, white or purplish; C—petals 5-6.3 cm. long, clavate with broad

Karkutika. headache and "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). wounds and ulcers. See—Ornamental Plants. menorrhagia. Buds—indigestible. seeds. Kohala. given' to corpulent persons. Dried buds are used in piles and dysentery. Golkaddu. cures biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated. vaginal discharges. NS. urethral discharges. M. tuberculous glands.MEDICINAL PLANTS 39 claws. "Kapha". anal troubles. enriches blood. bark and flowers triturated in rice-water. cures strangury. appetising. blood impurities. aphrodisiac. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-laxative. diuretic. heart tonic (Ayurveda). China. Ash pumpkin. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India and in many warm countries. cures biliousness. Bark decoction is a useful wash in ulcers and skin diseases. ulcers. astringent. USES :—Root-decoction is given. Koholu. Bhuru-koholu. COM. tonic. used as a cataplasm to promote suppuration. used in strangury. Kushmanda. :—Cultivated throughout the State. bark and flowers. fever. dehiscent. styptic in haematuria (Yunani). LOC. Kudimah.10-15. in dyspepsia and flatulence. used as gargle in stomatitis. anthelmintic. blood diseases . biliousness.—Cucurbitaceæ.8-2. eye diseases. t. 15-20 X 1. Root. Sk. cough. Burma. tuberculous glands. " Tridosha". Sikkim. used in piles. Sd. biliousness. asthma. urinary discharges and calculi. LOC. blood diseases. Shikhivardhaka. thirst. HABITAT—Cultivated in warm countries. burning sensation. :—E. asthma.—pod. not indigenous. Timisha. Fl. leucoderma. tonic. DISTR. :—Cultivated occasionally in the gardens in the State. used in dry cough. bark of the white flowered variety cures leucoderma. dysmenorrhoea. BENINCASA CERIFERA Sav. cough. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas of the Punjab from the Indus eastwards. PARTS USED :—Fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark of both the varieties is alterative. Dorokaru. red and white. . Fr. H. tonic to liver. leprosy.-Feb. Flowers with sugar are a gentle laxative. Kondha. all white or 4 parts purple and fifth darker. oil from the seeds. it is also anti-fat remedy. Budekumbalkai.-Apl. flat. DISTR.5 cm. G. K. Kumaon. leprosy. Bark-emulsion with rice-water is administered with addition of ginger in scrofula. removes foul taste from mouth. aphrodisiac. Seeds— cooling. they are considered cool and astringent and are useful in diarrhœa and worms. Tallow-White gourd. FAM. Bark—astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Root. cardiac and general tonic. Fruit—antiperiodic. There are two varieties. thirst.

Root kept in the mouth cures mouth diseases (Ayurveda).3—0. pungent. blood diseases. NS. it is used in cases where symptoms have been affected by use of mercury. phthisis. Kukurbanda. Bhamurdi. In diabetes juice of cortical portion mixed with saffron and red rice bran is given morning and evening with strict diet. febrifuge. DISTR. haemoptysis. Kakaronda. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. catarrh. it is particularly beneficial in phthisis. 0. Fruit contains a trace of vitamin A. and nutritious tonic. laxative. Tropical Africa. epilepsy and other nervous diseases. M. t. it is given in bleeding piles. Expressed juice of fresh fruit is purgative and alterative. anti-pyretic. sharply serrate-dentate. Oil—is soporific. Fl. H. Fr. in short axillary cymes or terminal panicle. fevers. oblong. yellow involucral bracts densely silky-villous. Vasa Kushmanda Khanda—used in cough. . Kukkurdru. PARTS USED : —The whole plant. Kushmanda Ghrita—used in insanity.—the lower ones petioled. ash colored. it is also useful in insanity. pappus white. S. bitter. Fl.40 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. astringent. Seeds and oil are anthelmintic and are used in taenia. and diuretic. densely glandular. elliptic-oblong.—Compositæ. COM. good for the brain and liver. HABITAT :—Plains : common along rice fields. :—Annual herb. asthma. Kanara. burning sensation. inner bracts with green midrib. sweetish. Jangali-muli.—heads many. Tamrachuda. good in syphilis (Yunani). Sk. upper subsessile. thirst. M. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Hot. Mriduchhada. Malaya. LOC. cooling. USES : —Fruit is alterative and styptic and is a valuable anti-malarial.:—In plains south of Bombay. LOC. Kalhar. Australia. China. Country. Fruit is made into confections. LOC. INDIAN PREPARATIONS : —Khanda Kooshmandaka. base tapered.9 m. not ribbed. with a strong odour of turpentine. pubescent. Pilokapurio. :—G.—Jany. Ceylon. BLUMEA LACERA DC. cures bronchitis. Konkan.-achene. mixed with black pepper. FAM.-Apl. The plant is capable of yielding a fairly large amount of camphor (Chopra). stem erect. It is a good antidote for many kinds of vegetable poisons. root mixed with blackpepper is given in cholera. :—Throughout plains of India. Juice is specific in haemoptysis and internal hæmorrhages. See—Vegetables. heart diseases. CHAR. finely silky pubescent on both sides. often incised or lyrate. etc. USES :—The expressed juice of the leaves is used as an anthelmintic. Kakarunda. L. high. Deccan.

Ceylon. CHAR. FAM. Leaves useful in dyspepsia. G. HABITAT :—Coastal districts . "Kapha" heating. Santhikari. It is used in jaundice. Tad. Sk. carminative. and dropsy. pinkish. abdominal pains. In moderate doses it is a good expectorant and antispasmodic and successful in asthma. P. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White flowered variety (Shweta punarnava) is preferred to red flowered one (Rakta punarnava). :—E. K. Tala. Asavardu. in pain of joints. sub-orbicular. H. NS. DISTR. common in S. :—Tropical India. Fl. LOC. Baluchistan.— Nov. Plant contains large quantities of pot.—Palmæ.—in unequal pairs at each node. Vasu. green above. Celyon. Hogweed. cooling . blood impurities. fusiform. purify blood and hasten delivery (Yunani). —Nyctaginaceæ. Kommegida. (Ayurveda). very glandular . generally found in poorer soils. Fr. Desert Palm. asthma.—in corymbose umbels. Brab tree. USES :—The root is well known for its diuretic properties. The plant has been in use in the indigenous medicine from time immemorial. Dhvajadruma. inflammations. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Punarnavastaka. Ghetuli. Persian Gulf. leaves and seeds. Bitter. t. Palmyra Palm. :—Very common in the coastal districts north of Ratnagiri. India. cultivated and self-sown.3—2 cm.:—Planted and self-sown throughout the plains of India. COM. It produces a very marked and persistent. Seeds—tonic. nitrate and the active principle " Punarnavine" which is of an alkaloid nature. LOC. NS. very small.MEDICINAL PLANTS 41 BŒRHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. :—Abundant throughout the State especially in the Deccan and Gujarat. Punarnava. M. Tad. root large. It is also laxative and anthelmintic. useful in biliousness. cultivated. Indian Archipelago. Fan Palm. "Vata". FAM. COM. Kolaba and Thana districts. Useful in cases of ascites due to early liver conditions. Moto-satodo. H.. . alterative. useful in ophthalmia. expectorant. M. Tad. tumours. useful in lumbago. margins undulate. K. Burma. Africa and America. Fl. diuresis and in some cases the ascites completely disappears. Punarnavataila and Punarnavaleha—useful in dropsy and other urinary complaints. :—A diffuse herb. tropical and sub-tropical Asia. BORASSUS FLABELLIFER Linn. :—E. leucorrhoea. HABITAT :—A weed. whitish beneath. PARTS USED :—Root. alexiteric. scabies. Varshabhu. LOC. Sk. stem prostrate or ascending. Lekhyapatra.—clavate.—funnel-shaped dark-pink or white. Uttar Pradesh. Talimara. spleen enlargement. bluntly 5-ribbed. heart diseases. L. Shothaghni. Leaves— appetiser. DISTR. anæmia. native of tropical Africa. gonorrhœa. Dholia-saturdo. astringent to bowels . 1. G. Madhurasa. Raktakanda.

:—Common in dry hills throughout the greater part of India. fruit and gum. causes headache. invigorating. strengthens teeth. slightly fermented is used in diabetes. fruits. Gums and Resins. Salgond. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid. Flowers and fruits cure leucoderma and piles. allays thirst. Sugars. ulcers . useful in biliousness. tonic. LOC. useful in intestinal troubles. Moddi. M. biliousness. expectorant. Salpe. Fermented juice—tonic. K. antiglycosuretic. DISTR. improves taste. Dhupam. Cotton-like substance from the base of fronds is used in Ceylon as styptic to arrest hæmorrhage from wounds. Gum is of five kinds . bronchitis. LOC. expectorant. Extract of green leaves is used internally in secondary syphilis. allays asthma. cough. allays. Luban. fattening. asthma. Guggula. Sambrani. skin diseases.42 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. binding. bad throat.. astringent to bowels. G. Liquors. with a little salt added. also used as antiperiodic. See—Timbers. :—E. also found in Belgaum District. Pulp of ripe fruit is applied externally in skin diseases. alexiteric. juice. purifies blood (Yunani). leaves. Salai. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in leprosy. Loban. " Vata". hot. Flower— good for spleen enlargement. Mukulsalai. antibilious . as a collyrium in ophthalmia. cures dysentery. fatigue. thirst and scalding of urine. Bark-decoction. mouth-sores. may cause vomiting. It is a good antiacid in heart burns. heals wounds . intoxicating. Dup. thirst. convulsions. removes "Kapha". bitter. fattening. diaphoresis. useful in skin and blood diseases.—Burseraceæ. Fermented juice—aphrodisiac . COM. Salphali. Dhup. Freshly drawn it is useful in inflammatory affections and dropsy. :—Common in hills of the Deccan. very abundant in the Satpudas and Khandesh forests .USES :—Root is cooling and restorative. diuretic . HABITAT :—Open formations in hills. H. Guggali. Salashi. NS. flowers. cooling. Kundur. used for boils. blood complaints . Gum—hot. Vishesha-dhupa. vaginal discharges. tonic. helps delivery. causes " Kapha ". aphrodisiac. . Fruit—cooling. intoxicating. dry. flowers. Fruit—aphrodisiac. if taken regularly acts as laxative. Sk. FAM. It is diuretic and prescribed in chronic gonorrhœa and kidney troubles Ashes of the spadix are given internally in bilious affections . with a good flavour. diabetes and diseases of testes (Ayurveda). burning sensation. is a good astringent gargle for strengthening gums and teeth. antipyretic. PARTS USED :—Bark. causes flatulence (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. antidysenteric. fevers. BOSWELLIA SERRATA Roxb. laxative. Juice is used as stimulant and antiphlegmatic. its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani). scabies. Palm-sugar is antibilious and alterative and used in hepatic disorders and gleet. purifies blood. Decoction of root and expressed juice from the young terminal buds have been used in gastritis and hiccup. Fruits contain a trace of vitamin C. Indian olibanum tree. "Vata".

Broach. anthelmintic . LOC. kill external parasites. chiefly in Nasik. NS. given both internally and as fumigation in chronic laryngitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated during cold seasons. :—Cultivated in India. K. good in cough and for inflammations. :—E. as a stimulant in pulmonary diseases . indigenous in Macaronesian transition area and Mediterranean. (This treatment was reported successful by persons who tried them. Gums and Resins. The gum contains oxidising and diastatic enzymes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 43 LOC. mustard flour with water is a speedy and safe emetic. See—Timbers. Kunder or Mhashaguggula. cure nose. used with butter in syphilis . Seeds are used in medicine as poultice. The resinous substance is sold in bazar under the name of Loban. H. increase appetite . COM. increase bile. Seeds-laxative. Black-True mustard. . being useful as a simple rubefacient and vesicant. Pure fresh oil is stimulant and mild counterirritant used in sore-throat and muscular rheumatism. Seeds— remove cough tumours. neuralgic and rheumatic affections . Rai. In the form of oily solution it promotes growth of hair. stomachic. Banarasi—Kali—Makra Rai. good for throat complaints. biles. cause burning . Dharwar and Belgaum. and toothache. smoke drives away mosquitos (Yunani). cure skin-dissases. eye-troubles. as an ointment it excites a healthy action in ulceration. Kaira. It is used as a diaphoretic and an astringent and as an ointment for sores.—Cruciferae. Further trials and investigation are worth taking in hand). Asuri. See—Condiments and Spices. cure enlargement of spleen. Seeds act as digestive condiment . BRASSICA NIGRA Koch. Kari Sasive . Combined with aromatics it is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases. spleen. M. bechic. Khandesh. G. PROPERTIES AND USES : —Leaves-strengthen the body. internal congestions. scrofulous affections and skin-diseases. Jwalanti. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. appetiser. spasmodic. USES :—Fragrant resin is bitter aromatic. USED :—Mustard leaves are used as a pot-herb and are considered stomachic. vermicide. DISTR. dispel fever . Sarshapa. It is highly serviceable in febrile and inflammatory diseases. destroy external parasites (Ayurveda). Powder of shade-dried leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is said to cure burned and scalded skins and to heal these wounds rapidly. Taramira . lessen oedema of body. FAM. rheumatism. ear. Seeds contain glucoside sinigrin. Mixed with gum-acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath. Mohori. Kali-rai. Surat. LOC. if swallowed whole they are laxative. Sk. :—Cultivated in various districts of the Bombay State. India. mainly for the seeds which yield one of the most common edible oils in N. Rajika. " Vata".

t. Goge. :—G. Ekadivi. USES :—The whole plant is collected when in fruit. Manj.:—Throughout India. streaked with broad vertical lines . stem grooved. See—Timbers. margins sinuate denticulate. Asana. tropical Africa. COM. Chandra. corolla companulate. LOC. K. Gauli. The plant contains a bitter principle bryonin. Lingini. bluish green. ovate-oblong. long. NS. Suviraka. . FAM.. Asana. Asana.— Aug-Sept. Patharphoda. :—Deccan. Apastambhini. Garige. S. M. Sk. Gunjan. Fl. Khaja. smooth. Tans. Sk. Kaj. and in fevers with flatulence. It is used in bilious attacks. Ishawara-Shivalingi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a bad smell. LOC:—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon forests. alterative. Leaves are applied topically to inflammations (Ayurveda). 5-lobed. 3—2 . southward to Ceylon. Philippines. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. pungent. Lingaja.— monœcious : male in fascicles of 3-6 flowers. The bark is used as a liniment with gingelly oil in rheumatism. 1 . 10-15 cm. Mauritius. Country. H. BRYONIA LACINIOSA Linn.44 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) BRIDELIA RETUSA Spreng. 5-partite. green and scabrid above. diam. Mahavira. tendrils 2-fid : L. bark. DISTR. Shivlingi.—Cucurbitaceæ. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is pungent. bitter. CHAR. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. heating. corolla as in the male . Kassi. Malaya. It is bitter and aperient and is considered to have tonic properties.—yellowish brown. H. deeply cordate base. Kavodi. female flowers solitary. NS. Sd. of Shivaling shape . Ekalkanto. Gargumaru.—Euphorbiaceæ. subsessile. in hotter parts along the base of the Himalayas from Kashmere to Mishmi. hemiplegia. COM. Shivalingi. DISTR. Mullu-siru Honne. PARTS USED :—Root. lumbago. paler and smooth beneath. tolerably common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. Australia. USES :—Root and bark are valuable astringents. 5 cm. PARTS USED :—The plant and leaves. hot. M. useful in "Vata". or few or many. Asana. Fr.— membranous..—baccate. :—Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon. globose. LOC. :—An annual scandent herb. lobes oblong lanceolate. glabrous . FAM. :—G. bark is good for the removal of urinary concretions (Ayurveda). Shivavalli. Fl.. M.

DISTR. Char. USES :—Leaves slightly roasted are used as an application to wounds. :—Native of tropical Africa. carminative. useful in diarrhœa. snakes and scorpions avoid the plant (Yunani). Panphuti. M. t. leaflets ovate. reddish purple. In the Konkan leaf-juice is administered with ghee in dysentery. Fr. lobes triangular. purgative. younger reddish. Rajadana. tonic. H. cooling. Snehabija. Murukali. purifies blood. Kolegeru.—pendant. upper 3-5-7 foliate. Cochin-China.—Anacardiaceæ. Paira. cardio-tonic. FAM. Charpoppu. burning sensation on body. gum (rarely). Charoli. leaves. Country. BUCHANANIA LANZAN Spreng. CHAR. in large panicles. Fl. the older light-coloured. high. Country. :—A succulent glabrous herb 0. Deccan. PARTS USED :—Roots. inflammations. Gujarat. Cambodia.2 m. Dhanu. Sk. stem and leaves which drop off and become new-plants . Asthibhakshya. K. :—H. abundant in the Koyana Valley below Mahabaleshwar.) FAM. Char. Parnabija. Leaf-juice digestive.—Crassulaceæ. analgesic. LOC. lower usually simple. the Dangs. M. :—Konkan. Zakhi-haiyat. boils and bites of venomous insects.MEDICINAL PLANTS 45 BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM Kurz.. thirst. :—G. Sd. speckled with white. Sk. vomiting. COM. smooth. elliptic. Thailand (Siam). fattening. COM. Priyal. Panphui. deciduous open forests. K. ulcers. binding. Charoli. Decidedly beneficial effects follow their application to contused wounds and swellings. but naturalised everywhere throughout the tropics of the old world. Burma. (BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM Salisb. "Vata" and biliousness. aphrodisiac. The bark is bitter and poisonous. S. astringent to bowels. crenate or serrate. Tapaspriya. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The leaves are bitter and poisonous to insects (Ayurveda). decussate. allays . S. cures blooddiseases. Lalana. Piyal. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Removes "Kapha".—enclosed in the papery calyx and corolla. bruises. HABITAT :—Common in gardens as an ornamental plant.—small. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. LOC. :—Konkan. buds with root. laxative. Char.—variable. fevers. Stems obtusely 4-angled. the leaves often produce on their crenatures. when punctured. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). alexipharmic. LOC. L. :—Hot and drier parts of India.—swollen and octagonal at the base. HABITAT :—Dry.3-1. with opposite branches . Pyalchar. Fl. Lonnahadakana gida. It is a disinfectant. Deccan. M. seeds. NS. M. C. DISTR. constricted in the middle. fruit. expectorant. NS. See—Ornamental Plants. occasionally compound. also wild.—Jany.

—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). corneal opacities. Seeds tonic to body and brain. Dhak. In Bombay State kernel is employed as tonic. Gum—astringent to bowels. Leaves—good for eye diseases. Pieces of bark with sugar-candy. seeds. Muttuga. Kino-gum (exuded from the bark) is an excellent astringent used in diarrhœa and dysentery of young children and . fractures. Oils. burning urine. India. anthelmintic. Khakda. aphrodisiac. LOC. Khakera. useful in elephantiasis. useful in bone fractures. dry. stomachic. Muttala.) FAM. dysentery. gout. thirst. astringent. cough. pterygium. Khakhrao. emmenagogue. Tripatrak. Flowers—cure " Kapha". tumours. hydrocele. gonorrhœa. Gums and Resins. cures excessive perspiration. In Madras State gum with goat's milk is given internally for intercostal pains and diarrhœa. good in fevers. PARTS USED :—Root. USES :—The oil from fruit kernels is used as a substitute for almond oil in medicinal preparations and confectioneries. piles. HABITAT :—Mixed monsoon forests. pimples. gum. Palas. lessens inflammations. strangury. Weak decoction of the bark is useful in catarrh. if chewed. Kshatadru. It is applied to glandular swellings of neck. diuretic . dysmenorrhoea. (BUTEA FRONDOSA Roxb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cures night-blindness and other defects of sight. Yajnika. skindiseases. cold and cough. useful in syphilis. lessens biliousness. Pounded kernels are used by women to remove spots from the face. BUTEA MONOSPERMA O. USES :—Leaves are externally used to disperse boils. colic. worms and piles. gonorrhoea. haemorrhoids and internally in flatulence. lessens lumbago. See—Timbers. K. relieves abnormal thirst. tonic. Lye is useful in spleen enlargement (Yunani). used in liver disorders. and higher in the outer Himalayas and hills of S. laxative. H. :—Common throughout the greater part of India and Burma up to 900 m. Gum—acrid. aphrodisiac. cure tumours. bark. Kuntz. M. Kinshuk. Leaf—very astringent. tonic. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). carminative. used in diseases of chest and lungs. Fruit and seeds—oily. cures ulcers and tumours. :—Throughout the State common in mixed monsoon forests. expectorant. Bark—appetiser. LOC. leaves. eye diseases. NS. remove bad humours. digestible. useful in piles. diseases of anus. biliousness. Palash. useful in gleet and urinary concretions . anthelmintic. prickly heat and itch. DISTR. Sk. Bastard teak. anthelmintic. Kakria. good in biliousness. aphrodisiac. G. Bark—appetiser. topically in piles and hydrocele. ascends to 1200 m. tonic to liver. flowers. cause headache (Yunani). :—E. LOC. buboes. Flower—aphrodisiac.46 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) thirst. Dyes. purifies blood. Palas. Fruit and seed—hot. anthelmintic. Ceylon. stomatitis. Kernel worked up into an ointment is used to cure pimples. inflammations. piles. leprosy. burning sensation. Chichra. good in dysentery. COM. in the Khandesh Akrani. aperient used in urinary discharges.

G. K. Fl. Physic nut. Tender leaves boiled with castor-oil and thickly Applied on painful and swollen testicles are found efficacious. Tapasi. the tropics generally.5 X 4. destroys bad odour due to perspiration. L. leprosy (Yunani). very common near the sea-coast. Dyes. :—E. Gum solution is applied to bruises. asthma and colic. flowers and fruit. Katkaleja. Gajaga. Fever nut.—JulySept. Deccan hills.—Leguminosæ (Caesalpinioideæ. astringent to bowels. It is also useful in cases of hæmorrhage from the stomach and bladder. Powdered seeds are quite ineffective against hook-worm and their action against round-worms is very weak and erratic. Gajjige. Leaves contain a glucoside. ringworm. H.—yellow. Sd. Fl. malaria. Sagargota. etc. long with a pair of hooked spines at the base. Seeds roasted and powdered are administered for hydrocele internally and also applied externally. Flower—cures " Kapha" and " Vata ". Gajga. pinnae 6-8 pairs. act as rubefacient. :—An extensive climber. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-good for tumours and for removing placenta . Katkaranj. Gum is good astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. CÆSALPINIA BONDUCELLA Flemi. useful in colic. Seeds are internally administered as an anthelmintic. NS. leaflets 6-9 pairs. aphrodisiac. shortly stalked. lead-colored 1. They have been successfully used for the cure of Dhobie's itch. The seeds when pounded with lemon-juice and applied to the skin. Maggots are killed by sprinkling the powdered seeds over them. They are applied to orchitis. 5-7. cures urinary discharges. CHAR. oil from fruit is good for indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Karanja. prevents contagious diseases . fevers.—pod. leaves. anthelmintic .3 cm.—abruptly pinnate. :—Throughout India. heating. hydrocele. leucorrhcea. long .—1-2 oblong. elliptic-oblong. Kuberakshi. Flowers are astringent. branches armed with hooked and straight hard yellow prickles. See—Timbers. M. As regards their anthelmintic properties there is considerable difference of opinion. FAM. cures inflammation . LOC. Kakechika. Tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of liver and are reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue Oil expressed from leaves is used in convulsions and nervous complaints. strongly mucronate. DISTR.5 cm. petioles prickly.5 cm. 30-60 cm. good in small-pox and elephantiasis. USES :—Root-bark is useful in intermittent. t. Sind. aphrodisiac and diuretic. Leaf-juice—anthelmintic . HABITAT :—In hedges and waste places.MEDICINAL PLANTS 47 delicate women. piles. Fr. anthelmintic. Sk. long. wounds. Seeds are considered in India to be very hot and dry. densely armed on the faces with prickles. oblong 5-7. skin-diseases. They are applied as poultice to disperse swellings and promote diuresis and menstrual flow. PARTS USED :—Root-bark.) COM. Fruit—acrid. LOC.—in terminal and supra-axillary racemes C. sprouts useful in tumours. Gums and Resins. When made into paste they are used for ringworm. . :— Pretty common throughout the State in hedges. Seed—styptic. antiperiodic.

destroys "Kapha" and " Vata". Punnag. Fixed oil from seeds is emollient and used as an embrocation to remove freckles from face. NS. gum. lessens appetite. M. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. Ekke. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. 2. It is highly useful in the treatment of gonorrhœa and gleet. CHAR. thick. It is a very useful remedy for indolent ulcers.. base cordate. :—E. Surpan.—Asclepiadaceæ. Ark. K. LOC. Undi. FAM. Surhonne. It is a good embrocation in rheumatism and gout. very common in N. Leaves soaked in water are applied to inflamed eyes. Tungakeshera. :—Cultivated throughout India. COM. Sultanchampa. is steeped in water and the oil which rises to the surface is used as an application to soreeyes. Polynesia. Tears which distil from the tree and its fruit are emetic and purgative (Rheede). Vuma. Arka. Undi. Sk. Juice of the bark is purgative and is very powerful in action. Dholaakdo. :—A large shrub. K. 10-20 X3. Malaya. much branched. Gigantic swallow-wort. DISTR. also cultivated as an ornamental plant. Surangi. and oil. :—E. USES:—Bark is astringent and is used in decoction in internal hæmorrhage..H. NS. Mandara. Kshiranga.. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. mixed with bark strips and leaves. Decoction of roasted seeds is used against consumption and asthma. In 1868 seeds were made officinal in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a tonic and antipyretic and were favourably reported on by medical officers. East African Islands. The gum from wounded branches.— opposite. CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA R. Kanara associated with littoral species. Arka. H. In Java tree is supposed to possess diuretic properties. L. Alexandrian laurel. G. astringent. Br. both surfaces tomentose. Madar. Kshirparni. FAM. Ceylon. covered with cottony pubescence. Oils. Akdo. sometimes amplexicaul. used in chronic fevers. The plant contains a bitter substance bonducin. Fixed oil expressed from seed kernels is used to cure scabies. high. :—Common on the coastal regions in the State. Punnaga. Ak. heals ulcers and inflammations of the eye. Shuka-phala. often gregarious. Ponne. See—Timbers. PARTS USED :—Bark. Akand.48 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powdered seeds mixed with black-pepper are febrifuge and anti-periodic.—Guttiferæ.. Rui. mixed with warm butter-milk and asafoetida act as a tonic in dyspepsia. Purasakeshera.8-10 cm. branches stout. LOC. improves complexion (Ayurveda). Australia.4-3 m. elliptic or ovate oblong. and for its oil. Sk. Madar. Burnt seeds with alum and burnt areca-nut is a good dentifrice useful in spongy gums. sessile. COM. Mandara. M..

very common is S.:—H. rat-bite.5 cm. also used in aphthae and to cure tooth-ache. heal wounds. Milk— caustic. buds globose. cottony. spongy.—7. cures leucoderma. ascites and anasarca. scabies. DISTR. :—An erect shrub usually 1. lobes usually erect. Sk. See—Fibres. Sd:—many. useful in leprosy. leaves and flowers.. also in the Himalayas ascending 1000 m. acrid . COM.7—15 X 4. dropsy.—follicles. green. alterative and purgative properties. Fl. asthma.8-2. expectorant and anthelmintic. CHAR. Powder of dried leaves is dusted on ulcers to promote healthy action. elephantiasis. diaphoretic. also useful in intestinal worms.. Root-powder promotes gastric secretion.—Asclepiadaceæ. Fr. In the treatment of dysentery dried root-bark is an excellent substitute for ipecacuanha. Ak. astringent. L. bark. root-bark is emetic and is useful in the enlargement of abdominal viscera. Br.— Feb. painful joints .—broadly ovate.2 cm. tumours. leaves applied to paralysed parts. :—Throughdut the State in dry waste places . Sd. high. Juice—anthelmintic. M. liver and spleen enlargement. ovate oblong. . coughs. cures inflammations. Fl. tumours. piles. LOC. HABITAT :—Dry waste places. PARTS USED :—Root. USES:—Root bark and juice have emetic. Root-bark is diaphoretic. very common. used in cough. milky juice is recommended for ringworm of the scalp and to destroy piles . cures asthma and syphilis. back much curved.MEDICINAL PLANTS 49 Fl. purgative. comose .4 m. ulcers. The plant contains bitter resins akundarin and calotropin. purplish or white. China.—subsessile. buds ovoid. Reduced to paste with sour conjee it is applied to elephantiasis of legs and scrotum. ascites. Ark. tonic and stomachic in action.— purplish in umbellate cymes.5 cm. cures leprosy. All parts of the plant dried and taken with milk act as a good tonic. ringworm of scalp. good for liver (Yunani). catarrh and loss of appetite. swellings. C. usually 5. young parts white. NS. Flowers—digestive.5-10 X 5-7. Leaves are useful in ascites and enlargement of abdominal viscera. :—Throughout warmer parts of India. acts as a mild stimulant and febrifuge. Fluid extract of leaves given in intermittent fevers during intermission is said to cut off paroxysms. diseases of abdomen (Ayurveda). long. Flower—analgesic. depilatory. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant—alexipharmic.—about 2. elliptic or obovate. Milk— heating. broad. C. oleaginous. Madar.. Safedak. Rajarka. corona shorter than the column. corona lobes equalling or exceeding the staminal column. comose. subglobose. laxative. ellipsoid or ovoid. Malay Islands and S. eruption on body. flattened tomentose. Ceylon. Flowers—stomachic. LOC. bark corky.—lobes deltoid-ovate.—in umbellate cymes. India. FAM. Mandara. t. Fr. cures piles and "Kapha".5-8. spleen and liver diseases. asthma. across. 9-10 cm. Mandara. apex with two auricles.-July. CALOTROPIS PROCERA R.

Khadsambal. CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS DC. Gavria. LOC. but doubtfully wild. Akalabera. FAM.—segments 2. M. high . LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweetish. spatulate. COM. greenish or colored. P. Flowers used as detergent. green. Warm leaves used as poultice. G. Hudingana. Sema. Koshaphala. Afghanistan. cooling. appetiser. oval or orbicular. Iran. PARTS USED :—Leaves. :—E. H. Kardali. The pods contain vitamin A.. Indian shot. See—Fibres.:—Common in the dry parts of the State. flowers and milky juice.9-1. Fruits eaten create abdominal complaints. NS. CHAR. Paraholiya. tonic.50 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry regions. See—Vegetables. acrid. biliousness.—in mixed inflorescences 5-6.3 cm. hernia and colic. 3 sub-erect. erect. Asishimbi.—Scitaminaceae. Tarvardi. Milky juice used as a blistering agent. long. Waziristan. Sarvajaya. Shimbi. :—E. 1 linear . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Same as those of C. ulcers (Ayurveda). bracts oblong. Kadsambu. Shitarambha. :—Grown in Khandesh and Deccan near houses. useful in burning sensations. HABITAT :—Commonly cultivated. DISTR. stem 0. M. Egypt. There is an alkaloid present in the pods.—15-45 X 10-20 cm. Devakeli. Fl. Sarvajaya. they are given in cholera..5 cm. Kamakshi. LOC. In northern territories leaves and fruits are boiled together and used for extraction of guineaworm. DISTR. Broad—Sword bean. staminodial segments. FAM. Gavara. K. Sk. Sk. Kadavare. the virose variety is extremely abundant as a wild plant in Konkan. NS. indigestible.:—Perennial herb .2 m. Nilashimbika. Sambe. :—Commonly cultivated throughout India and everywhere in the Tropics. Gigantea. L. lanceolate to ovate.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). K. membranous. CANNA INDICA Linn. veins arching.:—More or less common in warm dry places throughout India. (Chopra). USES :—Fresh root used as a tooth-brush is considered to cure tooth-ache. Abai. Kalehu. Sabbajaya. H. abundant in Sind. Tamateballi. Arabia. PARTS USED :—Pods. root-stock tuberous. G. on trees and hedges . COM. narrow. tropical Africa.

impotence.9-1. high in its feral state. :—A tall erect dioecious annual herb strongly smelling. FAM. melancholia. sepals 5. imbricate. echinulate . Siddhapatri. flowers and seeds. CANNABIS SATIVA Linn. aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 51 revolute . Bark—tonic. Ganja. (3) Charas. inflammations. L. soporific. male fascicled. heating. Bhang and Ganja are prescribed by Indian doctors in bowel complaints and recommended as appetisers. Fl. causes thirst and biliousness. HABITAT :—Cultivated in moist situations. piles. insanity. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. Sk.—achene.—alternate or the lower opposite.—Urticaceæ.—more or less throughout the year. useful in " Kapha". Fr. Central Asia. cause headache. Wild in the Himalayas. LOC.5 m. t. Bhang. :—Widely cultivated in India. :—Cultivated as a narcotic drug. G. intoxication. hot. :—Throughout India. 3-lobed. M.:—Very common in the gardens all over the State. intoxicating. DISTR. K. leprosy. Ganja. soporific. COM. leaves. Fl. water extract anthelmintic. They are broken in small pieces. globose. PARTS USED :—Roots. alterative . Not indigenous. Shivapriya. boiled in rice water with pepper and given to cattle to drink (Drury). USES :—There are three principal forms in which the plant is used in India : (1) Ganja. Mohini. PROPERTIES AND LOC. leaves. astringent. stomachic. Female inflorescence is stomachic. causes thirst. abortifacient. LOC. shining. serrate. causes biliousness. valuable as a nervous stimulant and a source of great staying power . Bhang.—sub-globose or oblong . oil-good for earache. female perianth hyaline. useful in convulsions. DISTR. seeds and resin. Fr. CHAR. PARTS USED :—Bark. H. cultivated in tropical and temperate regions. Leaves—bitter. (2) Bhang. USES:— Root is given as a demulcent and stimulant. In the Gold-Coast flowers are said to cure eye-diseases. See—Ornamental Plants. Seed is cordial and vulnerary (Baden-Powell). Bhangi. All these are intoxicating in different degrees. :—E. Harshini. female plant supposed to grow taller than the male. restlessness. Seeds—carminative. NS. excessive use causes indigestion. lessen inflammation. cough. HABITAT :—Cultivated. When the cattle have eaten any poisonous grass resulting in swelling of abdomen root-stocks are administered. tonic. dropsy. good for hydrocele. aphrodisiac. check vomiting. usually 0. dioecious. also wild. antidiarrhoeic. used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. Unmattini. female crowded under convolute bracts. flowers. hallucinations. Ganja. Vijaya.—small axillary. intoxication (Ayurveda). Sd. Resin is smoked to allay hiccup and bronchitis (Yunani). black. LOC. lower 3-8 foliate.—many. male flowers. tonic. Hemp. astringent to bowels. upper 1-3.

spermatorrhoea. in the form of electuary. It is stomachic. Fruit—pungent. :—Cultivated all over India. Fibres. increases appetite. Tivrashakti. :—Extensively cultivated in S. Raktamaricha. Sk. often found as an escape. weakness of body. and is employed by Indian physicians.—Solanaceæ. produces a burning sensation at the anus (Yunani). Menshinkai. it is valuable in curing all kinds of headaches. FAM. Ujjvala. chronic bowel complaints and impotence. Oil extracted from seeds is used for rubbing in rheumatism. M. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Madana modak used in cough. Narcotics. expectorant. LOC. Lalmirchi. In the form of tincture it is used for checking ague fits. Capsaicin and Solanin. Poultice of fresh bruised leaves is useful in eye affections with photophobia. cholera. their juice applied to head removes dandruff and vermins. muscular pains. erysipelas. and flatulence. increases biliousness. to a small extent in Gujarat and Konkan. K.52 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) under fatigue. It has a powerful action on the mucus membrane and as a gargle in sore and putrid throat is beneficial. neuralgia as an anodyne or sedative. COM. Chillies. dropped into the ear it allays pain and destroys worms. Tikshna. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain. a poultice of the plant is applied to local inflammations. applied to relieve pain and swellings in orchitis. Resin from leaves and flowers (charas) is narcotic and is used to produce sleep. They are used in typhus and intermittent fevers. Cayenne-pepper. diarrhœa. Vegetables. Leaf-powder applied to fresh wounds promotes granulations. useful in indigestion. Fruit decoction with addition of opium and asafoetida (fried) is given with success in cholera. useful in brain complaints. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. and dropsy. dysuria. G. Marchu . The fruit contains Capsisin. also in gout. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—causes burning sensation. :—E. Powdered seeds given with hot water sometimes show remarkable effects in cases of delirium tremens. LOC. Chilly Vinegar is an excellent stomachic. gonorrhœa and is a diuretic. H. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Marichiphala. whooping cough. M. it checks the discharge in diarrhœa. stimulant and externally used as a rubefacient liniment. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Jatuphaladya churna-given in diarrhoea. . USES:—Fruit is used very widely in India in the preparation of various curries and chutneys. The plant contains cannabinin. Country in Deccan. asthma. loss of consciousness. See—Condiments and Spices. delirium (Ayurveda). See—Gums and Resins. Mirchi. Lanka mirchi. Mirchi. Jwalanala Rasa used for indigestion and loss of appetite (Bhavaprakash). dyspepsia. indigestion and loss of appetite (Sarangdhara). chronic ulcers. as an aphrodisiac in cases of impotence. NS. acute mania. HABITAT :—Cultivated. DISTR.

Kumbha. USES:—Bark and fruit astringent. stem wiry. subglobose. Decoction of bark is used to wash and clear boils. colic. PROPERTIES AND LOC. C. Kumbi. introduced. dropped into the ears to cure ear-ache and discharge from the meatus. H. common in S. smooth.—white. Agni-erum. Shaundi. CAREYA ARBOREA Roxb. piles. leaves mixed with castor oil are employed internally in rheumatism. Sakralata. juice of fresh bark and flowers is administered with honey as demulcent in coughs and colds. skin-diseases. Karnasphota. when moistened. flowers and fruits. urinary discharges. Kumbhi. bark and fruit are used to kill fish by the Mundas of Chota-Nagpur. useful in tumours. Sind. anthelmintic. ultimate segments lanceolate. and is administered in fevers. aphrodisiac. Kangu. Balloon vine. Girikarnika. cures "Kapha" (Ayurveda). :—Throughout India. :—Most warm countries. NS. alexiteric. leaves and seeds. The plant contains saponin. LOC. Sk. black. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. M. Ghats. :—Annual or perennial climbing herb. Daddala. Sk. 2-ternate. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. FAM. :—E. DISTR. K. rounded at the apex. gives out mucilage and is prescribed for emollient embrocations. Root is considered diaphoretic. G. bark. DISTR. CHAR.—Sapindaceæ. LOC. Hennumatti.—in few flowered umbellate cymes. abscesses and ulcers. See—Timbers. Maniju balli. Fl. USES :—The juice of the plant promotes the catamenial flow during the menstrual period. :—Very common throughout the State in monsoon forests. Fr. Leaves are administered in pulmonic complaints . NS. hot. it is mucilaginous. " Vata ".—capsule. bladdery . L. Kumbhi. also in valleys and ravines throughout the drier areas. deltoid. provided beneath the cyme with opposite circinnate tendrils. Vakambi. K. Gavvahannu.—globose. Konkan and W. infusion of flowers is given after child-birth to heal the ruptures . diuretic and aperient. also demulcent in gonorrhœa and in pulmonary affection. Kalindi. leucoderma. inciso-serrate. FAM. Malay Peninsula.MEDICINAL PLANTS 53 CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. Deccan.— alternate. Thailand (Siam). petals 4. dry. Blister creeper. winged at the angles. G. trigonous. Karolio. Fruit—acrid. Kanphuti. epileptic fits. COM. . bronchitis. M. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—pungent. bark. Kapalphodi. leaves.—Myrtaceæ. :—E. Jyotish-mati. Wild guava . very acute apex. COM. Root. HABITAT :—In hedges . Fibres. Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. dyspepsia.

See—Fruit Trees. Indies. depilatory. NS. Papita. appetiser . M. seeds and oil. flowers. bile. bronchitis. enlargement of spleen. NS. Sk. dried and salted fruit reduces enlarged spleen and liver. Papaw. scabies. causes burning sensation . :—Grown extensively in Poona. Karada. bruised leaves applied as poultice are said to reduce elephantoid growths. COM. H. "Tridosh". HABITAT :—Cultivated. :— E. expectorant. useful in skin diseases (Yunani). cause biliousness. strangury. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-tasty. Barre. Milky juice from unripe fruit has been long considered anthelmintic. :—Native throughout India. FAM. :—E. in haemoptysis. Oil—indigestible. ripe fruit is alterative and if eaten regularly corrects constipation. Kardai. LOC. bleeding piles. laxative. heating. aphrodisiac. Fruits contain vitamins A and C. removes biliousness . used. Safflower. leucoderma. Flower—tonic to liver. useful in expulsion of lumbrici. M. Guppe. of W. Papayi. Chirbhita. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated. cures inflammation. "Kapha". LOC. green fruit is laxative and diuretic. a digestive enzyme valued in medicine. DISTR. cure "Vata". unripe fruit. increases " Kapha " and " Vata " . aphrodisiac. Papaya. relieves obesity. Kusumbha. Papaya. Leaves—hot. LOC. Seeds—oleaginous. cures inflammations. Mexico and Brazil. Kusumba. G. cause anal troubles (Ayurveda). piles. appetiser. cure urinary discharges.54 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CARICA PAPAYA Linn. cooling. is eaten by women to stimulate milk secretion. fruit and seeds. removes urinary concretions . Seeds are vermifuge but mostly used as an emmenagogue. Papaya. USES:—Leaves warmed over fire are applied to painful parts for nervous pains. The leaves contain alkaloid carpaine and a glucoside carposide. Popayi. cures insanity (Ayurveda). digestive. Kusumba.—Compositæ. Fruit is useful in chronic diarrhœa. Sk. Fruit—stomachic. Kusumba. good for eyes. Ahmednagar and Nasik. Pangi. ringworm. diuretic. astringent to bowels. wounds of urinary track. White thin latex contains Papain. H. Cultivated PARTS USED:—Leaves. Kamalottama. carminative. diuretic. :—Cultivated throughout large parts of India. Nalikadala. it is used to procure abortion. Agnishikha. K. Chibda. Pappayi. leprosy. COM. hypnotic. it is useful in bleeding piles and dyspepsia. CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linn. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. diuretic. FAM. Kusumbo. G. Dyer's saffron. Sparingly grown in other parts of the State. PARTS USED :—Leaves.—Caricaceæ. :—Grown over large areas in the Deccan and Gujarat for the oil from their seeds and the dye from the flowers. made into curries. K. Karrak.

Owa. and diarrhœa. increase biliousness (Ayurveda). Sk. bechic. good for ear boils. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seeds. Omu . Oma. K. Egypt. NS :— E. In the Punjab seeds are considered diuretic and tonic. liver. appetiser. Iran. strengthening. oblong-obtuse. Seeds—purgative. See—Condiments and Spices. :—A large shrub with very thick downy branches. abdominal tumours. Dadmardan. subsessile. pinnate. stimulant. vomiting. it is used in febrile affections and in stomach disorders. LOC. good for heart and tooth-ache. leaflets 10-12 pairs. piles. Dadamardana. CHAR. vomiting. K. Oil is used as a liniment in rheumatism and for dressing bad ulcers. Ajowan. pungent. USES :—Flowers are stimulant. laxative. L. The seeds bitter and hot. Ringworm shrub. carminative. kidney troubles. purgative. M. Dodda sagate. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State in gardens. Oil—good in all diseases. COM. CASSIA ALATA Linn. The plant yields an essential oil and is a source of thymol. COM. they are used in jaundice .MEDICINAL PLANTS 55 improves complexion. Ajamoda. Tivragandha. See—Vegetables. enrich blood. Simyatase. stimulate intestines. paralysis. myrabolans and rock salt. aphrodisiac . Dwipagasti. dyspepsia. Afghanistan. inflammation (Yunani). long. carminative. Europe. 30-60 cm. cure ascites. DISTR. oblique at the base. Oils. enlargement of spleen. they are used as a substitute for saffron to promote eruptions in skin-diseases. good for old people. diuretic. They constitute an ingredient in cough mixture. Ajwain. and even in cholera. H. Datka pat. emmenagogue and sedative.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). good in weakness of limbs. rachis . POPULAR USES :—The root is diuretic and carminative . improve speech and eyesight. :—E. hiccup. FAM. it is also a mild purgative and is a valuable remedy for itch. give lustre to eyes. Sk. G. NS. atonic dyspepsia. Bishops' weed . They are given frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. M. Elgra. tonic and carminative properties. LOC. cures liver and joint-pains (Yunani). Ajamo . aphrodisiac. bitter. Dadrughna. Dyes. FAM. cure catarrh. They are administered in flatulence. Poultice made from powdered seeds is used to allay inflammation of the womb after child-birth. CARUM COPTICUM Benth. chest pains. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seeds are hot. Baluchistan. stomachic. H. carminative. Dipyaka. anthelmintic. mucronate. Winged senna. The fruits are much valued for their antispasmodic. chest and throat pains. spleen. downy beneath. abdominal pain. tonic. Leaves contain vitamin A.—Umbelliferæ. :—Cultivated extensively in India.

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves sour. skin-diseases. Fl. pedunculate racemes . stipules very large. across. t. rachis densely pubescent. PARTS USED :—Root. leaves. Sd. it has been much used as a gargle in sore-throat and seems to be worthy of trial. 20-25. Mukerji). useful in thirst. 28-4-88). Gujarat and S. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Alexiteric. DISTR. Ceylon. Tarwad. dull green above. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers (rarely). :—A tall much branched evergreen shrub. L. :—Introduced into India. " In eczema. good for ulcers. Fr. leprosy. 10-20 X 1. M. Mayahari. Sd. Pitakilaka. bark smooth. buds in yellow bracts. Fl. J. Madhya Pradesh and W. leaflets 8-12 pairs.—bright yellow with darker veins. reddish brown. cough. Tarwad. LOC. 5 cm. in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. asthma. reniform.—in spiciform. Fl. C. Tanner's cassia. USES:—Bark is considered astringent. and throat troubles. Sk. I have obtained the best results by washing the parts repeatedly with a strong decoction of the leaves and flowers. skin diseases.3-1. mucronate. ringworm. Avartki. DISTR. straight. anthelmintic. relieving dyspnoeal oppression and promoting expectoration. USES :— Leaves rubbed into a thin paste and mixed with vaseline constitute an effective remedy for ringworm.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. NS. thirst. long. yellow with orange veins. cm. Bark has the same properties. useful in vomiting. Ahmed.6 cm. H. t. cure " Vata ".—pod long. :—Planted in Konkan and Deccan. fruits and seeds. cures tumours. asthma . HABITAT :—Growing in black cotton soil and dry stony ground. poisoned bite and as a general tonic (Roxb)..—30-35. ligulate with a broad wing down the middle of each valve. nocturnal emissions. Fl. :—E.56 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) narrowly winged.. used in ophthalmia and dysentery (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Planted. rhombohedral.—pod. FAM. Awal. vermicide (Ayurveda). causes flatulence . In cases of bronchitis and asthma. LOC. slightly overlapping. very likely a native of the W. N. Burma. along the sea coast in laterite region. rotundate. CASSIA AURICULATA Linn. LOC.5 X 10 cm. I have administered the decoction in repeated doses during the day. obliquely septate. diabetes. Avarike.-Oct. LOC. a linear gland between each pair of leaflets .:—Dry regions of Rajputana. Sakusina. K. Ph.—7. oblong-obovate.) COM. Taroda. Internally the leaves and flowers are prescribed as a tonic (T. itching.—large. G. Fr.. Country. flowers. Peninsula. .-50 or more. CHAR. The whole plant. Medicine acts on the bowels slightly and increases the flow of urine " (Dr. pale beneath. Tangadi. alexipharmic . :—Savannah and thorn forests of the Deccan. Indies. Charmaranga. M. they are also used in other skin diseases (Ainslie).—Jany. membranous. is used by Tamil people in venereal diseases.-July. urinary discharges .

G. Pudding-pipe or stick. Seeds— oily. laxative. Leaf-poultice has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism. juice given in erysipelas. cures burning sensation. CASSIA FISTULA Linn. G. and Famine Plants. useful in chest and liver complaints. corymbose.MEDICINAL PLANTS 57 A decoction of the whole plant—especially of flower buds—has been tried with good results in diabetes and diuresis.—petals 5. LOC. leaves. Bahava. Rajataru. :—Throughout India. In Konkan. rachis with a single sessile gland near its base. (Ayurveda). Burma. L. Kasondi. safe for children and pregnant women. cure " Kapha ". Arimarda. PARTS USED :—Root.—very foetid when bruised. Fl. See—Dyes. syphilis.) COM. Kakka. Ane sogate. Tans. branches furrowed. M. faintly veined with orange . tuberculous glands. Rechana. Seeds—emetic (Yunani). fruit and seeds. griping. :—A diffuse (usually annual) undershrub. NS. cooling.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Fr. Sk. purgative. lessens inflammation and body-heat. Kacodari.—pods. leprosy. NS. t. Stinking weed. Ceylon. Negro coffee. FAM. demulcent. Aragina. Hema-puspha. eye-diseases. purgative. cause flatulence. Sd. 10—12. apex acute. cures diseases of the heart and abdominal pains.) COM. M. Fl.—20-30. throat-troubles. 15-20 cm. Dodda-tagase. DISTR. used in rheumatism. Kasonda.5 cm. Leaves lessen inflammation. CHAR. long.—in few flowered racemes. transversely septate. ovate-lanceolate. It has been found to act as a strong purgative. rheumatism. Flowers—purgative. Arogyashimbi. Amaltas. Ornamental Plants. yellow. Indian laburnum. cooling. FAM. Leaves—anti-periodic . CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Planted as ornamental and roadside tree. Kasoda. recurved. LOC. astringent. Fruit—digestible. biliousness . Fruit—antipyretic. Vyadivata. long. . Garmala. shining dark olive-green. antipyretic. Sk. Suvarnaka. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—useful in skin diseases. Balla. Finely powdered decorticated seeds have been used as a dusting powder in conjunctivitis. Konde. carminative. abortifacient. distinctly torulose.— Jany-March. Bandartauri. improve appetite. smooth. flowers.— Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. Kasari. See—Timbers. heal ulcers . :—E. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan forests and in Khandesh Akrani. often purplish. K. H. hard. In Hindoo medicine fruit pulp is used as a cathartic. Rankasvinda. HABITAT :— Mixed monsoon forests. axillary and forming a terminal panicle. leaflets 3-5 pairs. C. juice of young leaves is used to cure ringworm and to allay the irritation caused by marking-nut juice. Kasundari. Flowers—improve taste. USES :—Root is generally given as a tonic and febrifuge. Chakinda. Kasmarda. It is a mild laxative. Golden shower. K. :—E. base somewhat oblique. Chimkani.. H. also planted.

—18-23 cm. and seeds are cathartic. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root useful in ringworm. high. :—Throughout India and most tropical countries. NS. . in Kutch.58 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Amongst rubbish near villages. Sd. t.—in axillary. See—Famine Plants. root and leaf juice is a specific in ringworm. the plant is credited with the same properties as Cassia occidentalis. See—Famine Plants. turgid. ovate. fevers. Baskikasondi. Talapota. :—Abundant throughout the State during rains near villages. Fl. Seeds roasted and ground have been used as a substitute for coffee . good for sore-throat and biliousness (Ayurveda). CASSIA SOPHERA Linn. slightly recurved. dark brown . HABITAT :—Uncultivated places. LOC. alexiteric. USES:—Bark infusion and powdered seeds. CHAR. when mixed with sandal-wood paste. DISTR. few flowered corymbose racemes. long . found useful in cases of acute bronchitis. The plant contains glucoside emodin.—pod. Banar.510 cm. rachis grooved . USES :—The whole plant is purgative. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. septate between the seeds . cure " Kapha". elephantiasis. LOC. FAM. Fl.— Nov. COM. with a solitary conical gland near the base . leaflets 6-10 pairs.. base rounded. M. DISTR. Antiperiodic value of the leaves and seeds is now admitted by every therapeutist who has used them. lanceolate. cough. K. Seeds used in heat of the blood. LOC. The bark. leaves. LOC. Leaves and seeds are used in cutaneous diseases. mixed with honey. cures ascites. Kasundari. Ran tankala. leaves and seeds. yellow. H. plant is considered a cure for sore eyes (Hughes Buller). Fr. medicinal properties are destroyed in the roasting process. hiccup. leaves and seeds. Kasondi. :—A shrub 2. PROPERTIES AND USES :—In both Ayurveda and Yunani. " Vata ". asthma. tonic and febrifuge. PARTS USED :—Bark. Fruit-juice useful in ringworm. petals 5. opposite.. In the Konkan seeds are used as a cure for convulsions in children.Jany. :—G. At Kotra. L.—30-40 broadly ovoid. stomachic. :—Throughout India and the tropics generally. Kasamarda.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). A decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in diminishing urine and also to act as expectorant. :—A common weed in uncultivated places throughout the State. are given in diabetes. obtuse. for winter cough and cough in animals (Yunani). Leaf infusion is taken internally for gonorrhœa and also used externally for washing syphilitic sores. C. Kasamarda. " tridosha " . 7.4-3 m. Leaves—aphrodisiac. annual or perennial. In many countries root is considered diuretic. heals wounds.

L. LOC. 6. PARTS USED :— Root. emetic. Seeds— acrid. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat.5-20 cm. FAM. Leaves are gently aperient and prescribed in decoction for children suffering from feverish attacks while teething. Malkangoni. USES:—Root rubbed into a paste with lime juice is said to be specific for ringworm. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Malhangana. powerful brain tonic.) COM. usually unisexual. appetiser. H. :—E. 1-6 completely covered with red. small yellowish-green. Velo . aphrodisiac. Kanguni. leaflets 3 pairs. :—Ceylon and the tropics generally. Chagoche. remove "Vata" and "Kapha".—after the rains. CHAR. obovate. CHAR. opposite (lowest smaller). COM. X 4.—25-50 rhombohedral: Fl. 12. base oblique. rachis grooved. Svarnalata. Malkakni. in diam. DISTR. ovate or obovate. Fr. FAM. L. :—A very common weed all over the State. Black-oil tree. Seeds—bitter.. branches rough. M. . Takala.:—Throughout the State in hilly parts. Tarota. Fl. G.8-7. C. expectorant. upper petal 2-lobed . DISTR. :—Large deciduous climber. Sk. K. cure joint-pains.—pod. hot. Sd.5 mm. Dadamari. NS. Taga. Fr. :—An annual foetid herb. leaves and seeds. Taragosi. obliquely septate.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ. LOC. NS. H. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Leaves are emmenagogue. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward upto 2000 m. CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd.MEDICINAL PLANTS 59 CASSIA TORA Linn. Climbing-staff plant.3-10 X 3. stem upto 23 cm. Chakunda. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds.. Panevar. high. Both leaves and seeds contain chrysophanic acid and are a valuable remedy in skin diseases. 30-90 cm. Seeds are roasted and are used as a substitute for coffee. bright yellow. Tagache. alternate. cause burning sensation. crenate. Pamad. Intellect tree. bitter. unarmed. Kangli. 18 m. K. long. oblong. t.. Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. much curved when young. with a conical gland between each of the 2 lowest pairs of leaflets. covered with lenticels. Jyotishmati.—Celastraceæ. Malkamni.—in pairs in the axils of leaves . capsule. high. HABITAT :—Along roadsides and waste grounds. Kangani. :—E. Madras State. Chakramarda. Oil enriches blood and cures abdominal complaints (Ayurveda).— petals 5. Fl. 7. in drooping panicles.—pinnate. Dadrughna.5 cm. Kangodi. HABITAT :—In hedges and along river and nala banks. laxative. brain and liver tonic. reddish brown.5-10 cm. M. Burma. fleshy arillus. Sphutabandhani. Ceylon. shining above. Sd. pale yellow. Foetid cassia. globose. Sk. In China seeds are used externally and internally for all sorts of eye-diseases. The plant contains glucoside emodin.

gout. Brahmamanduki. pink. nutmegs and mace is obtained oleum nigrum of pharmacy which is used in the treatment of beri-beri.—in fascicled umbels. Seeds are hot.—capsule. :— E. good for cough and asthma. hard-rugose.—Feb. It is a powerful stimulant and diaphoretic.—in dichotomous cymes with a flower in each fork. CHAR. elliptic. Vondelaga. CENTAURIUM ROXBURGHII Druce. :—A small erect herbaceous plant 5-20 cm. Country. ovoid. linear-oblong. cauline smaller. Vallari . PARTS USED :—The whole plant. cloves.60 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) paralysis and weakness. LOC. M. DISTR. The plant contains an alkaloid and a glucoside. rooting at the nodes. HABITAT :—Common in cultivated fields. paralysis and leprosy. Fl. Fl. pink. K. Fr. narrowly oblong . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is powerfully bitter and held in high esteem as a stomachic. Jangli-karayatu. radical leaves revolute. (ERITHRÆA ROXBURGHII G. Lahanchirayat. H. COM. NS. Indian—Thick-leaved pennywort. bruised and formed into poultice they are a good stimulant to foul unhealthy and indolent ulcers. obovate or oblong. COM.-Apl. long.—tubular lobes 5. C. Mahaushadhi. Jhinkun-kariatum. They are also supposed to have the property of stimulating intellect and sharpening memory. base deeply cordate stipulate. used in leprosy. Its chief interest lies in the fact that by destructive distillation along with benzoin. Deccan and S. FAM. CENTELLA ASIATICA Linn. It is used as a substitute for chiretta. Barmi. t.—4 mm. H. Oil stomachic. aphrodisiac and stimulant. LOC. spreading star-like .—opposite. Kheta-Barik-chirayat. L. NS. (HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA Linn.).—Gentianaceæ. Seeds yield oil called locally as "Kanguni" oil. USES :—In the Konkan leaf-juice is given as an antidote in over-doses of opium. :—Throughout India. :—Konkan.—Umbelliferæ. high. Fl. Mandukparni. persistent. G. . especially in Bengal.). useful both as an external and internal remedy in rheumatism. Brahmi. CHAR. M. Don.—3 from each node. reniform. L. tonic. they are also sudorific. Ekpani. t. Brahmamanduki. Sk. Fr. FAM. :—G. stem creeping with long internodes. orbicular. It is used by the Santals in fevers (Campbell).—May-Nov. minute. :—A slender herbaceous plant. Fl. cures headache and leucoderma (Yunani). M. and is employed for external application.

Chanda. Australia Pacific Islands. thirst. memory. urinary discharges. but many investigators have advocated the use of the entire plant.—Apocynaceæ. specially roots which contain the major portion of the active principle "Vellarin". cardio-tonic. twigs. Fruit is used as a cure for hydrophobia. USES :—Only leaves are recognised in the Pharmacopoeia Indica. China. See—Timbers. COM. improves appetite. " Kapha ". abundant on the Malabar Coast. As an internal and external remedy in all chronic cutaneous affections and in chronic rheumatism its efficacy has been highly valued and as a stimulant to healthy mucous secretion in infantile diarrhœa. :—In moist situations (streams. In the Konkan leaves are given to cure stuttering. cooling. and a bitter substance odollin. LOC. bitter. carminative. M. Malay Archipelago. Leaf-powder. Honde. scalding of urine. small-pox. biliousness. nallas. plaster or bath are used. ointment. Tande. water courses throughout the State. FAM. DISTR. Plant—bitter. Kanara. fevers. :—South Konkan and N. inflammations. LOC. green fruit is employed to kill dogs . HABITAT :—Salt-swamps. PARTS USED :—Bark. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. USES :—Bark is purgative. headache . alexiteric. For external use powder. and emmenagogue in amenorrhœa it has been successfully employed. blood diseases. asthma. Plant is a valuable alterative tonic and reliable local stimulant. spleen enlargement. voice. alterative. :—Throughout India near the coast. stomachic. nut is narcotic and poisonous . PARTS USED :—Whole plant (root. bechic. milky juice. soporific. Leaves are also diuretic. cures leucoderma. the acid milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. Sukanu. clears voice and brain. cures hiccup. NS. antipyretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Leaves are dried in shade so that no active principle is lost. tonic. bronchitis. anæmia. laxative. sedative to nerves.) DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 61 HABITAT :—In moist situations. As a remedy for leprosy it has a considerable repute. tropical and subtropical regions of the world. asthma. Kernel of the fruit is an irritant poison. tonic. improves appetite (Yunani). Powdered dried leaves with milk are an alterative tonic and said to improve memory. fruit. used in insanity (Ayurveda). Ointment is used in elephantiasis and enlarged scrotum. bronchitis. leaves and seeds). LOC. CERBERA ODOLLAM Gaertn. :—K. digestible. diuretic. . fluid extract of fresh plant or syrup prepared from plant are suitable for internal administration. The plant contains glucoside cerberin.

Deccan and S. vomiting. heart. biliousness. piles. The plant yields an essential oil. :—E. DISTR. CICCA ACIDA Merr. diseases of blood. Rayara nelli. Chana. Chakravati. Chania. Chunna. But. M. "Kapha". K. G. Country. Lavali. used in the form of pot-herb in piles. Bengal—Common-gram. LOC. Harparrevdi. Kari-Kempukadale. Kadale. eye-diseases. Chalmeri. Sk. :—Very common in the Deccan. Sk. sour . diuretic. LOC.) FAM. native of Malay Islands and Madagascar. :— E. COM. fruit and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Improves appetite. K. Country gooseberry. Bathusag. M. root and the seed are cathartic. biliousness. Fruit is very sour . Agralohita. spleen (Ayurveda). throattroubles.—Euphorbiaceæ. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :—Cultivated in India. (PHYLLANTHUS DISTICHUS Muell.—Chenopodiaceæ. useful in thirst. USES :—The plant is used as a laxative. Goose-foot. Harbara. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. tonic to liver. PARTS USED :—Root. also cultivated as a pot herb. constipation. NS. See—Fruit Trees. oleaginous. H. infusion is used as an enema for intestinal ulcerations. COM. The fruit is acrid and astringent. improves appetite. Pandu. NS. Balabhojya. Sk. Chana. :—E. Chakravarti. M. Chillika. M. LOC. FAM . G. Chanaka. Kanchuki. Vajibhakshya. increases " Vata " (Ayurveda).62 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. abdominal pains. urinary concretions. piles . FAM. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-slightly bitter. . Chandanbedu. USES :— Root is purgative.. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. tonic. H. Ksharadala. useful in bronchitis. NS. "Vata".—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). fragrant. COM. Tanko. :—Widely distributed. Chakwat. purifies and enriches blood (Yunani). Harparauri K. acrid. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Rai-avala. anthelmintic. Skandhaphala. Cheel. Wild-spinach. LOC. LOC. Laveni. CICER ARIETINUM Linn. :—Cultivated largely in Gujarat. Chick pea. laxative. useful in biliousness. DISTR. H.

USES:—Plant is employed as a refrigerant in fevers. aphrodisiac. parched mouth. Seed—indigestible. . useful in loss of appetite. heated brain. strengthens liver. Kanara district. H. Dalchini. abortifacient. Oils. blood troubles. astringent to bowels . tonic. Dalchini. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. biliousness. cold in head. emmenagogue. good for diseases of liver and spleen. causes flatulence. bronchitis. causes flatulence. Oil—carminative. abdominal pains. Pulse contains vitamins A and B. anthelmintic. Lavange-hakke. Nisane. Oil is externally used in neuralgia. useful in bronchitis. Malay Peninsula. carminative. appetiser. foul mouth and fever. Oil—styptic. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Leaves-sour. throat troubles. DISTR. flatulence. vomiting. indigenous and cultivated. pungent.—Lauraceæ. Dalchini. USES :—It is used in medicine only to a limited extent. Acid exudation is astringent and useful in dyspepsia and constipation (Ayurveda). throat troubles. refrigerant. It possesses carminative. COM. LOC. pains . flatulence. FAM. Seed—stimulant. cures skin diseases and inflammations of the ear (Yunani). piles. indigestion. It checks nausea and vomiting. enriches blood. PARTS USED. It is a fragrant cordial specially useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhœa. vomiting. :—Along the ghats from Konkan southwards. LOC. Leaves contain vitamin A. diarrhœa and dysentery. thirst. diarrhœa. and also in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. :—Widely cultivated in most parts of India. hiccup. heart. toothache (Ayurveda). Leaves—purgative. aphrodisiac. astringent and stomachic properties and forms an ingredient of many medicines prescribed for bowel complaints. headache. Peninsula. Ceylon. chest complaints. acetic and malic acids and is a useful astringent given in dyspepsia. liver-tonic . Sk. Bark—tonic. Burma. causes salivation. cures skin diseases. useful in " Vata ". Cultivated in the Malay Islands and elsewhere in the tropics. headache. See—Food Plants. aphrodisiac. tonic . tonic. leprosy. PARTS USED :—Leaves. useful in hydrocele. useful in inflammations. tonic to hair. Dalchini. carminative. seed and acid exudation. toothache. :—W. K. Darchini. Kash. Acid exudation collected from leaves contains oxalic. M. aphrodisiac. Duk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 63 DISTR. LOC. cure bronchitis. etc. improve taste and appetite. anthelmintic. See—Condiments and Spices. itching. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Blume. Seeds are used in bronchial catarrh. :—G. expectorant. cures thirst and burning. anthelmintic . Gudatwaka. As a stimulant of the uterine muscular fibres it is used in menorrhagia and tedious labour due to defective uterine contraction. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. very common in the N. biliousness. Valkala. bronchitis (Yunani). useful in cold. :— Bark and oil. alexiteric. rectum and urinary diseases.

7. burning. . deeply divided or but moderately lobed.5-20 cm.—large. itching . H. :—In hills. asthma . CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS Sch. removes intestinal worms. HABITAT. removes pain. The pharmacology of the alkaloid is under investigation. drupe.—Nov. (Ind.e. Fl. formation of acetyl cholin in the system which produces a fall in blood pressure. Velvet-leaf. heart troubles. cures enlarged spleen and ulcers. G. DISTR. young shoots woolly. lobes obovateoblong.—July-Sept. skin eruptions. M. M. hairy. mucronate. LOC. Makal. smooth. solitary. 3. Asso. uterine complaints. Indrayan. The variety "Laghupatha" has the same properties (Ayurveda). Annual Report. useful in hemicrania. Venivalli. Africa and America. Kanara. in conjunction with aromatics. subglobose. axillary racemes . greenish outside.8-10 cm. Pavamekke Kayi. LOC. :— E. Indrayan. Patha. Fl. It is given for pains in the stomach and for dyspepsia. piles. NS. alleviates vomiting. diarrhœa. it has an agreeable bitterish taste and is considered a valuable stomachic. Chitraphala.—Cucurbitaceæ. somewhat hairy. or twin. destroys " Vata " and " Kapha". Fr. PARTS USED :—Root. Mahendravaruni. compressed. F. t. petals combined into cupshaped corolla. warm parts of Asia. The active constituent of the drug. E. leaves. It is frequently prescribed in the later stages of bowel complaints. dysentery. upto 25 cm.— usually margined. monœcious. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot with bitter taste . margins ciliate. FAM. greenish. diam. Bitter apple. R. male flowers in axillary cymes. CHAR. solitary. Indraphal. yellow within.—Menispermaceæ. stem thick. COM. red. Katurasa. dropsy and cough. USES :—The root is the part most esteemed. Uthika. 5-partite. an alkaloid. red or yellowish white. angular . 1949). G. female flowers in elongate. flesh juicy. H. :—Deccan. Nirbisi. orbicular or reniform. sub-globose. NS. waxy coated. i. cordate at the base. branches more or less pubescent. minute. FL t. :—An extensively climbing annual. yellowish. helps parturition. The root acts as an antiseptic of the bladder and is used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passages. L. :—E. peltate. COM. Paharmul. which possibly has a cholinergic action.-Jany. tendrils bifid. Sk. Kaduvrindavan. Fr. CHAR. long. also for prolapsus uteri.. Venivel. 5-nerved. C. Leaves have a peculiarly cooling quality and they are used locally in unhealthy sores and sinuses. subcampanulate. Tumtikayi. diam. FAM. Indruk.—A climbing shrub.64 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA Linn. The drug is recommended for use in the alleviation of pain.. has been isolated. Indrayana. Pahadvel. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. Sk. Fl. Sd. Trapusi. Colocynth. Ghorumba. L. K. fever.

It is considered to be alexipharmic and . INDIAN PREPARATION:— Jwaroghni Gutika-used along with guluncha in fevers. aphrodisiac . elephantiasis . Ceylon. laxative. anæmia. Paste of the root is applied to the enlarged abdomen of children. ulcers. enlargement of spleen. with or without nux-vomica. useful in abnormal presentation and in atrophy of fœtus (Ayurveda). fever and worms. carminative. CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Tvakasugandha. Ahmednagar and Khandesh). pain in joints. Naringa. bronchitis. Doddile. ascites. removes fatigue . sweet and has agreeable flavour. sea-shores. Flower— stimulant. tuberculous glands of neck. China—Portugal—Sweet orange . relieves colds. causes "Kapha" and "Pitta" (Ayurveda). and lumbago. useful in biliousness. LOC. Deccan. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan. LOC. PARTS USED :—Flowers and fruits. " Kapha". Fruit—sour. asthma. Nagaranga. anthelmintic. bowel complaints. cures tumours. constipation. NS. FAM. astringent. :—Konkan. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. enlargement of spleen. DISTR. throat diseases. Also indigenous in Arabia. Asia. Naringi. M. Santra. is rubbed into a paste with water and applied to boils and pimples. G. relieves vomiting and retching. externally it is used in ophthalmia and in uterine pains. good in fevers. Narenj. useful in piles. The bitter pulp of the fruit is cathartic.—Rutaceæ. USES :—The water distilled from orange flowers is employed as an antispasmodic and sedative in nervous and hysterical cases. antipyretic. constipation. urinary discharges. Kirmirtvaka. epilepsy. and tropical Africa and in the Mediterranean region. cooling. chest troubles. In the Konkan fruit and root. H. N. (Poona. USES:—Root is useful in cough and asthmatic attacks in children. Cardiotonic. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. fortifies chest. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root has a beneficial action in inflammation of breasts. Sunthura. COM. diuretic. juice stops bilious diarrhœa (Yunani). leuco-derma. Orange poultice is recommended in some skin diseases. Rind— anthelmintic. Sukkare-kanji. In rheumatism equal parts of root and long-pepper are given in pills. Narange. Kittale. :—Widely cultivated in India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-strengthening. removes biliousness. :— E. tonic. DISTR. K. fruit juice mixed with sugar is a household remedy in dropsy. Sk. Fruit is blood purifier and appetiser. Narangi. :—Throughout India wild or sparingly cultivated. Root and fruit cooling. removes " Vata ". purgative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 65 HABITAT :—Wild in arid tracts. The properties are the same as Trichosanthes palmata (Yunani). LOC. anthelmintic . Gujarat. W. jaundice. dyspepsia. good in vomiting and skin diseases. aphrodisiac. The active principle is glucoside colocynthin. tonic.

cures leprosy. Limonum. CITRUS MEDICA Linn. leaves and flowers hot and dry. increase appetite. Kutla. good for piles and in biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—sweet and sour. Rusaki. Orange water—stimulating and refreshing. LOC. FAM. Ruchaka. Amlakeshara. Distilled water of the fruit is used as a sedative. the fruit is an expellent of poisons. asthma. thirst. K. Madala. K. LOC. seeds. fruits and seeds. M. Devamadala. odd trees occur in gardens in almost every village. :—Roots. tonic and astringent properties. LOC. M. Ghats. Balank. :—Cultivated in the Deccan. the pulp cold and dry. Matunga. used in constipation and tumours. intoxication. Jambira. Bijaura. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Paharinimbu . the stock of the plant is used for budding oranges. gastric irritability in general and general debility. with a sharp taste. anasarca and chronic fever. heating. jaundice. flatulence.:—Grown in gardens in the State. removes colic. oily. The dried outer portion of the rind of the fruit possesses stomachic. anæmia. removes " Vata" and " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES:—Rind of the fruit is sour. Citron . Flowers—stimulant. HABITAT :—Cultivated. digestible. also corrects foetid breath. Seeds—indigestible. removes "Vata" and "Kapha and lung troubles (Ayurveda). Lemon . relieves sore-throat. Mavalunga. COM. its preserve is used for dysentery. :—E. G. hiccup. The fruits contain vitamins A. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Rasayanamrita leha-used in enlargement of the abdominal viscera. though there are no regular plantations. According to Theophrastus. VAR. Harale. bark and fruit. H.—Rutaceæ. sharp. G. Mahaphala. stimulant. Bijapurna. Thora-limbu. useful in vomiting. useful in abdominal complaints. Mahaphala.66 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) disinfectant. Matalunga. said to be wild in W. Orange marmalade is good for dyspeptic patients. Adam's apple. Motalimbu . rind of the fruit is bitter. :—Citron rind is hot. cough. Mahanimbu. Bijoru. H. PARTS USED. PARTS USED :—Root. The essence extracted from the rind and flowers is used as a stimulating liniment. NS. B and C. juice refrigerant and astringent. Bera nimbu. dry and tonic . It is useful in atonic dyspepsia. COM. Turanj. tonic. the juice allays ear-ache. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic. flowers. Sk. See—Fruit Trees. relieve vomiting. cough. :— E. Mahalunga. Matulunga. urinary calculus and caries of teeth. Turanj. USES. Sk. DoddaGaja-nimba. . anthelmintic. asthma. The peel is useful in checking vomiting and prevention of intestinal worms. NS. rind is made into a marmalade and is an antiscorbutic . Idalimbu. astringent to bowels . aphrodisiac.

H. Snuva. improves liver. Shodhana.Nov. whole plant tomentose. white. loss of appetite. not good in old age. Madhulika. vomiting. fatigue . NS. scarletina. . also useful in rheumatism. heart. L. Murhari. C. Fruit—sour. Diluted sweetened juice is an excellent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections . :—G. entire or shallowly 1-7 lobed. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. plethora. good for the eyes (Ayurveda). Morata. Acida. Kagadi limbu. removes diseases due to " Tridosha ". useful in weakness and tremblings of limbs.. bronchitis . Churhar. Nimbu. CLEMATIS TRILOBA Heyne. Nebu.—in axillary corymbose panicles. lobes mucronate. See—Fruit Trees. constipation. M. Sk. silky villous. blades 2-2. weak lemonade is preferable to plain water in diabetes. H.—Sept. throat trouble. Juice is a valuable antiscorbutic. t. Fruit juice is a valuable antiscorbutic and refrigerant being one of the best remedies in scurvy. leaves (rarely). brain disorders. Lemons are an excellent remedy in pulmonary diseases. M. Sk. Limbe. with long feathery tails . NS. It often proves effectual as an antidote to acro-narcotic poisons. Nimbe. ovoid. USES:— Fruit is refrigerant. Fl. COM. Limbu. sharp taste.—achenes. Morvel. hairy outside. good in " Kapha" and biliousness and foul breath. In poisoning by seed or root poisons lime-juice mixed half with water or conjee gives immediate relief. Fl. K. Moravel. cures abodominal complaints. from flowers and leaves is employed in refrigerant drinks in small-pox.—Ranunculaceæ. stomachic. petioles twinning. long ovate or orbicular. Rochana. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sour. successfully employed in acute rheumatism and acute tropical dysentery and diarrhœa. USES :—Rind of the ripe fruit is stomachic and carminative. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. K. COM. but often found trailing amongst grass. sepals 4-6. Amlasara.—petals O. eyes . it helps digestion. The fruits contain vitamins A and C. hemicrania. Juice of a baked lemon is an excellent remedy for cough . appetiser. CHAR. :—E.5 cm. Fr. Leaves are used for bleeding gums (Yunani). Limpaka. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Morhari.—simple or once ternate. where there is dry skin and much thirst. G. Lebu. Dhantiate. relieves vomiting . FAM. burning in the chest. Nimbuka. :—An extensive climber. Murva. Lime-juice is most useful in dysentery and forms an excellent gargle in cases of ulceration of the mouth.MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 PROPERTIES AND LOC. anthelmintic. it cures and prevents scurvy. Khatalimbu. LOC. Nimbu. PARTS USED :—Fruit. Devashreni. measles. Lebu. Local application of juice relieves irritation of mosquito bites. VAR. Acid-Sour lime . Oil from rind. both as a prophylactic and as a curative. with flavour. relieves biliousness. Ranjai. stimulant .

itch r and to kill parasitic worms (Ayurveda). L. CHAR. subglobose. Tinmani. Bharangi. Tilwan. laxative. K. H. Juice— cures ear-ache. Plant has penetrating bad smell. dryness and urethral discharges. Kanphodi. Barbara. Seeds—anthelmintic and detergent (Yunani). DISTR. astringent. Hulhul. C. cooling. Seeds yield on expression a fixed oil. Sk. Konkan. enriches blood and is useful in blood diseases and uterine complaints. t. M. :—W. Vatari. Talvari. useful in piles and lumbago as a local stimulant. yellow. LOC. mixed with oil. Leaves—favour digestion. erect. Kiritekki. it also forms an application to wounds and ulcers. in lax racemes.—3-5 foliate. hairy. reduces tumours and inflammations . stimulates secretion of bile. Adityabhakta. oblong-obovate. H. they are used as anthelmintic and carminative. Bharangi. They are also given in fevers and diarrhœa. :—G. LOC. diuretic. CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. hearttroubles and bilious vomiting. Bharang. :—G. LOC. it is a popular remedy for purulent discharges from the ear. leaflets elliptic-oblong. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Kasaghni. removes " Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant has saltish. bitter taste and a strong odour. cures cough and earache (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Sweet. NS. tapering towards both ends . good in malaria. USES :—Leaf-juice is put into the ear to relieve ear-ache. Seeds have properties resembling those of mustard. very common in the Deccan. veined. anthelmintic. 30-90 cm.—Capparidaceæ. hairy. Sauri. Fl.68 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. Phanjika. and dispel intestinal fermentation. . Kanphutia. externally applied to boils. useful in leprosy. FAM. high. :—Common in grass lands. :—Widely distributed throughout the State.—petals 4. Ghats. gradually becoming shorter upwards. Harhuria. blood diseases. Gantubarangi. obliquely striate. used internally in thirst. useful in skin-diseases and ulcers. HABIT :—A common weed. and fevers. transversely striate. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. COM. K. CLERODENDRON SERRATUM Moon. DISTR. :—Annual erect herb.—Verbenaceæ.—Sept-June. They are regarded as an efficient substitute. COM. causes excessive biliousness. FAM. stimulant. stems grooved and glandular. NS.—capsule.—axillary. Sd. Fr. Jangali-harhar. :—Very common throughout the Deccan and Konkan. laxative. Bruised leaves are applied to skin as counter-irritant. M. hot. Brahmani. Tilparni. terminal the largest. :—Throughout the tropics of the world. bitter. Nayibela.—brownish black. petioles of lower leaves longer. Bharangi. Fl. Sk. Karnasphota. stomachic.

:—More or less throughout India.— drupe. PARTS USED :—Root. H.3 cm. blood diseases. Ceylon.9-2.— Aug. collectively forming a terminal panicle. Vishnukranta. standard bright blue or white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 CHAR. stems bluntly quadrangular. 2-2. with a pair of bracts at each branching and a flower in the fork. L. pubescent. Aparajita. headache.—many. leucoderma. CHAR. and blue flowered. smooth. Malay Peninsula. In Ratnagiri people consider it very effective in malarial fevers. tube hairy within.5-15 X 5. fevers. leaves and seeds. burning sensation. HABITAT :—In hedges. COM. USES :—The root is used in febrile and catarrhal affections. anthelmintic. L. Fl. Fr. pains. long . . useful in ascites (Yunani). fleshy. Girikarnika. cures "Tridosha". oblong or elliptic. useful in inflammation. bronchitis. good for eye-diseases.—imparipinnate. Kajli. biliousness. Root increases appetite. FAM. heating.. tumours. PROPERTIES AND USES :—White and blue flowered varieties— Root—cooling. laxative. black. inflammations.—pale blue. The seeds bruised and boiled in butter milk are used as aperient and in dropsy. spreading. :—G. lower one deflexed.-Oct. There are two varieties :—white flowered. M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—much exerted. alexiteric. Fl. Leaves boiled with oil and butter made into an ointment are useful in cephalalgia and ophthalmia. t— June-Jany. stomachic. ulcers of the cornea.. DISTR. asthma. :—Very common in hedges everywhere throughout the State. LOC.5 X 2-3. diuretic. sometimes opposite. :—A perennial twining herb. wounds (Ayurveda). t. acrid.—pod 5-10 X 8-13 cm.2 cm.—ternately whorled. epilepsy. LOC. burning sensation. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. obovoid. 0. tubercular glands. Gokarnika. leaves and seeds. 12. 4 lobes flat. hiccup. CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. The plant contains an alkaloid. anthelmintic. sharply serrate. showy. inflammations. Garani. Wowatheti. Kowa. :—Cosmopolitan in the tropics. stems terete. Fl. Gokarni. consumption. Fr. high. Kalina. nearly straight. ulcers (Ayurveda). lessens expectoration. in lax dichotomous cymes. Girikarniballi. :—Common in deciduous dry forests and open situations of the Deccan hills .—6-10 yellowish brown. also found throughout the State. DISTR. leaflets 5-7. K. Root is purgative and diuretic. tonic to the brain.. "Vata". C.2 m. Fl. with an orange centre. LOC. NS. ozœna.—Shrub. C. asthma.8-5 cm. hairy. beaked. useful in bronchitis. elliptic oblong. tuberculous glands.—axillary.7-6. the larger lower lobe dark purple.. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root—dry. Aparajita. solitary. 3. elephantiasis. flat. Koyala. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests and open situations. fevers (Yunani).

Leaf juice mixed with that of green ginger is given in cases of colliquative sweating in hectic fever. Vevdi. NS. Dagadi-Sugadi-Yadami balli. S.—Cucurbitaceæ. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Ink-berry. inflammations due to "pitta" (Ayurveda). See—Vegetables. antipyretic . & A. FAM. G. M. USES:—In the Konkan. PROPERTIES AND USES. Vasanvel.70 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. M. urinary losses. Ceylon. The fruit contains vitamins A and C. Parvel. Glum. COCCINIA INDICA W. Galedu. Oshthi. Vasantitikta. Kanduri. tropical Africa. Gujarat. allays thirst. (COCCULUS VILLOSUS DC. M. Sk. H. Ghobe. cures leprosy. diseases of blood. burning of hands and feet. Leaf infusion is used for eruptions. biliousness. COM. Bimb. Vevati. Deccan. galactagogue. Bimbi. K. . and jaundice. Tondeballi. Hunder. dried and powdered. Garudi.) FAM. :—Grown everywhere in gardens. Kambhoja. Bimba. Fruit— indigestible. given for uterine discharges. Konkan. None of these substances reduce sugar when administered subcutaneously. root-bark decoction is given as a demulcent in the irritation of the bladder and urethra. :—G. aphrodisiac. Vasandi. DISTR :—Throughout India. asthma. fruit. Fruit is aphrodisiac. Tundi. Faridburti.—Menispermaceæ. COCCULUS HIRSUTUS Diels. HABITAT.:—Root cooling. The plant contains an enzyme.—E. cure " Kapha" and " Pitta". wild in hedges. Root juice of white flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania. LOC. cause flatulence. Broom-creeper. Leaves—acrid. COM. NS. root pounded with leaf-juice is applied as a lep to the whole body to induce perspiration in fever. stops vomiting. leaves. Root bark. useful in ascites and fevers. Malaya. a hormone and an alkaloid. flowers. useful in biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). astringent to bowels. Bimbika. K. The plant has a reputation of having a remarkable effect in reducing the amount of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients. LOC. USES :—Root is diuretic and laxative. Leaves are applied externally in skin-eruptions. Country. " Vata". Sk. Seeds are purgative and aperient.:—Cultivated in gardens. Flowers cure itching. Dirghvalli. Chireta. is said to act as a good cathartic (Taylor). Tana. Tundika. Jamtikibel. Expressed juice of the thick tap-root is used as an adjunct to the metallic preparations prescribed in diabetes. Tondali. In the Konkan root-juice is given in cold milk to remove the phlegm in chronic bronchitis. consumption. Fresh juice from the plant parts produces no reduction of sugar in the blood or urine of patients suffering from glycosuria (Chopra and Bose).

Fl. smells sweetish and pungent. it is heating. Kanara. :—Tropical and sub-tropical India from the foot of the Himalayas to S. Ceylon and throughout the tropics. biliousness. "Kapha" and "Vata". India. G.—Dec. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. tuberculosis. constipation. Cultivated in the lower basins of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Leaf-juice. PARTS USED :—Root. thirst. good in fractures. It is also used as a refrigerant. tonic. dysentery.:—Common in hedges throughout the State. as a cure for gonorrhœa. K. Arabia. LOC. male in small axillary cymose panicles. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root has an unpleasant taste. Narial.—Palmæ. Fl. subdeltoid or subhastate. Seed-cooling. keeled. t. young parts densely Villous.MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 CHAR. USES :—A decoction of fresh root. H.:—Cultivated throughout the State extensively near the sea. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root—anthelmintic.—3. cardiotonic. COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. blood diseases. Deccan. lessens thirst. Narikel. laxative. Mahaphala. fattening. Tengu. :—E. villous . tonic. oil. with a few heads of pepper. alexipharmic . causes "Kapha".:—Indigenous to islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Mangalya. ovate. Dried seed (copra) improves taste..8 cm. COM. urinary discharges. it is used for coughs.8-6. laxative and sudorific. In the Konkan. Common in Konkan and N. flowers. size of a small pea. indigestible.:— A straggling scandent shrub. Antipyretic. mixed with water. tropical Africa. Jataphala. S. coagulates into a green jelly-like substance. destroys " Kapha " and " Vata ". S. Naral. useful in urethral discharges (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—In hedges. roots rubbed with Bonduc-nuts are given as a cure for belly-ache in children.—drupe. aphrodisiac. in goat's milk is administered in rheumatic and old venereal pains . Pegu. Cocoanut palm. FAM. Milk—cooling. M. useful in biliousness. aphrodisiac. Sk. laxative. Fr. fattening. Mad. 3-5 nerved. useful in leprosy. appetiser. L. In Baluchistan the mucilage taken in milk is used to cure spermatorrhoea. enriches blood. HABITAT :—Cultivated along the sea-coasts. LOC. NS. lessens bile and burning sensation. China. oleaginous. Nalivar. 2-8 together. good for tubercular glands when mixed with sesame oil (Yunani). bark. which is taken internally with sugar. seed. Tenginmara.—dioecious. also in many places in the interior. and put on to sore-eyelids. burning sensation. ovate-oblong. and to soften breasts (Hughes-Buller).3-3. rugose . Flower-cooling . tumours. female in axillary clusters. fermented juice. LOC. Toyagarbha. Malabar and Coromandel coasts.3 X 1. useful in diabetes. DISTR. Konkan. Nariyal. . DISTR. bronchitis. Gujarat. aphrodisiac. India and Ceylon.

LOC. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The seed reduces the weight of the body. polished.. Oil—sweet. notched at the nodes .—broadly ovoid to globose. Bengal. HABITAT :—Gregarious. It is said that its continuous use during pregnancy has a marked effect on the skin color of the infant. FAM. bronchitis. tropical Asia-Africa. LOC. :—E. piles and scabies (Yunani. Madhya Bharat. CHAR.—monœcious racemes 2. Kernels deprived of their shells are used as food and medicine throughout tropical Asian . Gavedhu. strengthening and agreeable vegetable. 6. H. Cocoanut oil is a useful application in baldness . Gurlu . asthma.—10-15 x 2.) Fresh unfermented juice (Nira) is considered to be valuable nutriment containing vitamins. Dabha. :—A tall leafy grass. it also purifies blood. base cordate. Malaya. G. the albumen of the ripe fruit (copra) is hard. useful in fever. Oils.6-10 mm.—Gramineæ COM. Oil—indigestible. fermented juice is intoxicating. it promotes growth of hair. Fermented juice— stomachic and anthelmintic. diuretic. rooting at the lower nodes. polished. Bark good for teeth and in scabies. Japan. piles . Seed—sweet aphrodisiac. Rajputana. Assam. Fl. Fl. Fr. Seed is used as a tonic and diuretic (Yunani). promotes hairgrowth. Polynesia. India. sheaths long. Ran-jondhala. long. Gojivha. ulcers (Ayurveda). useful in urinary complaints.—Oct. Fibres. B and C. enriches blood. incipient phthisis and cachexia. The pulp of the young fruit is cooling and diuretic and nourishing. USES :—Among the Santals the root is given in stranguary and in menstrual complaints (Campbell). tonic.5-6. lessens inflammations . Madhya Pradesh. Milk of the fresh kernel is used in debility. It is refreshing and laxative. It is also used for burns. Juice extracted by wounding flowering spikes is made into toddy. smooth. consumption. Fresh juice is refrigerant and diuretic. Copra contains traces of vitamins of A. diuretic . America. increases body weight. Kasai. Job's tears. above the bract stout.5-5 cm. high or more. Sk. China. NS. abundant in standing water. L. USES:—Root is diuretic and is found useful in uterine diseases. useful in fevers and urinary disorders. rachis within the bract slender. spinously serrate margins. midrib stout. The kernel oil is an effective remedy for ringworm. PARTS USED :—Root and seeds. COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. long. The terminal bud of the tree is esteemed as nourishing. fattening. t. See—Fruit Trees. milk from the fruit is a good refrigerant. useful in lumbar-pain. liver complaints. internodes smooth. useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda).3 cm. Jargadi. DISTR. stem 90-150 cm. stout. causes pain in kidney and lumbago in persons of cold constitution. LOC. S. :—Himalayas. bluish grey. paralysis.72 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fermented juice intoxicating. :—Common all through the Konkan and Deccan filling up the banks of streams. smooth.

Sk. Gondan. Sd. tyrosin. K. Bhokar. Mannadike. smooth.— Sept. histidin. brown. t.—few in each cell. diam. Chaunchan . They are also used in lung and chest complaints. It is also used as a bitter tonic. CORDIA OBLIQUA Willd. FAM. H.—7. Gujarat. Col. acute or acuminate. Deare of the Indian Drugs Committee reports that the glucoside isolated from the plant is undoubtedly a valuable gastric tonic in atonic dyspepsia increasing the appetite and gastric juice and thus aiding digestion. In jutegrowing districts. leaf infusion—a so-called tea—is made and taken by those suffering from any disorder of liver. Bhukerbudara. arginine and coicin. Sebesten plum. cultivated in most tropical countries. lanceolate. Sk. L. growing very tall under cultivation. G. ridged and muricated. Patta.—Boraginaceæ. Lassora. leaves and fruit.2 cm. Challa. COM. buds obovoid.—petals 4-5. Fl. FAM. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS Linn. Resalla. The plant contains leucin. yellow. See—Fodder Plants. when there is trouble with burning sensation in hands and feet. CHAR. Chhunchh . COM. stomachic. The cold infusion is also administered as a tonic in dysenteric complaints. they make an excellent drink for invalids and have diuretic and cathartic properties. In Tongking the grains are considered a good blood-purifier. lysin. fever. and dyspepsia. Hadige. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root.— capsule. :—E. USES :—A decoction of dried root and unripe fruit is given in diarrhœa. wedgeshaped. lower serratures on each side prolonged into filiform appendages . 5-valved. See—Fibres. and intestinal antiseptic. 12 mm. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. M. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated in hotter parts. LOC.—in short cymes. Bhuselu. carminative.:—E. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Pistan. not beaked. stimulant to increase appetite and flow of saliva and gastric juice. subglobose. C. NS. Bargund. Bhokar. Jute . Fr.—Tiliaceæ. In cases of dysentery the dried leaves are eaten at breakfast time with rice. serrate. also as antiperiodic. Kalasaka. .MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 countries . The Indian Drug Research Committee reports this to be of great value. astringent. Rayagundo. :—An annual herb. NS. G. laxative. :—Konkan. Fl.5-10 X 2-3. may have been introduced from China or Cochin-China. The plant contains glucosides Corchorin and Capsularin. also efficacious in skin-diseases. M. anthelmintic.

stomachic. Kothamir. Mesapotamia and Greece. Konphir. Fruit is mucilaginous and the mucilage is demulcent. eye-pains. Kothambri. Kernels are a good remedy for ringworm. LOC. jaundice. Seed infusion is useful in flatulence. COM. stimulant. stimulant. expectorant. uterus and urethra. Kothimbir. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—slightly cooling. Bark-juice along with cocoanut-oil is given in gripes. piles. :—Throughout India. often planted. tooth-ache. Dried fruit and volatile oil are used as an aromatic stimulant in colic. NS. inflammations. purgative. scabies. See—Timbers. removes bad humours. " Kapha" (Ayurveda). valuable in all lung diseases (Ayurveda). widely known from Palestine. also cultivated. anthelmintic. pains in joints. :—Cultivated throughout India. Cochin-China. Ghats. useful in hiccup. LOC. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The whole plant is used in dysentery. wild and cultivated. prevents coryza and bronchitis. tonic to brain. H. also in moist monsoon forests in the Konkan and N. diuretic. Hivija. Dharika. Leaves are useful as an application to ulcers and in headache. leaves (rarely) and fruit. cooling. Bark is used as a mild tonic. Satpudas. dyspepsia. chronic fevers. anthelmintic. tropical Australia. Bark-powder is used as an external application in prurigo. Coriander. USES:—Juice of the fresh plant is used as an application in erythema caused by marking-nut. lessens thirst and scalding of urine. highly esteemed in coughs. Ceylon. M. used in dry cough. aphrodisiac. Fruit—diuretic. anthelmintic.74 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Dry deciduous and moist monsoon forests. bechic. bronchitis. Dhania. diseases of chest and urethra. vulnerary. used as an expectorant and astringent. Seeds—aphrodisiac. stomatitis. DISTR. good in spleen diseases (Yunani). Fruit is aromatic. bleeding gums. USES:—Bark is a useful astringent and used as infusion in form of gargle. . headache. gleet. The plant and fruit— acrid.:—E. biliousness.—Umbelliferæ. biliousness. tuberculous glands. FAM. HABITAT :—Cultivated. used in syphilis. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. Kanara. gives appetite. thirst. Egypt. Bruised plant is a cooling application for headache. PARTS USED :—Bark. analgesic. :—Extensively cultivated all over the State. G. Fibres. indigestion. Fruits are used as spice. vomiting and other intestinal disorders. cures thirst. Leaves—hypnotic. Vitunnaka. Syria. diseases of chest. LOC. K. CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linn. Sk. burning of throat. biliousness. Coriander is considered to lessen the intoxicating effects of liquors. applied to ulcers on the penis (Yunani). maturant. carminative and antispasmodic. Kustumburi. vomiting. DISTR. antipyretic. causes suppuration. heart and liver. laxative.:—Throughout the State in W. Allaka.

By the earliest writers. lobes ovate-oblong. useful in bronchitis. in moist and shady places. useful in catarrhal fevers. :—More or less throughout India.—capsule. M. hiccup (Ayurveda). K. Varuna. the bel fruit and both trees are given the same vernacular names. Vayavarna. rheumatism. H. Kust. seeds contain vitamin A and trace of vitamin C.7-7. roxburghii is found in Wari Country and along the banks of the Narbudda river near Chandod. Castle Rock. subequal. fever. C. Var. Bitusi. India. M. oblong. sheaths coriaceous . M. DISTR. Kumaraka. dyspepsia. many. bracts ovate. Pinga. and aphrodisiac. Penva. PARTS USED:—Root. disk with a tuft of hair at the base.-Oct. Madhya Bharat. CRATÆVA NURVALA Ham. Shura.:—Konkan ghats. Chikke. globosely 3-gonous. a tonic is prepared from it. lumbago. Fr. :—An erect plant 1. root-stock tuberous. Malay Islands. L. high. silky-pubescent beneath. LOC.— in very dense spikes. inflammations. Keu. Varno.7 m. and " Vata". Varvunna. Ceylon. crisped. FAM.5 cm.—Aug. red. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers. spirally arranged. mucronate.—Capparidaceæ.—Scitamineæ. lip white with yellow centre. Barna. FAM. Biliana. China.— tube short. The plant yields an essential oil. Ajapa. Pushkarmula. NS. nalas. Sk. depurative. See—Condiments and Spices. also planted near Muslim tombs. this tree was confused with Ægle marmelos. :—Almost all over India (Assam. K. Bilpatri. concave. HABITAT :—Western Ghat forests. CHAR. Varuna. coughs and skin diseases. stem sub-woody at the base . Mahakapittha. Tuber is cooked and made into a syrup or preserve which is considered to be very wholesome. subsessile. Changalkashta. DISTR. " Kapha". It is also astringent and digestive. :—G. USES:—Root is anthelmintic. Kemuka. LOC. NS. LOC. Karikuttu. :—G. COM. Leaves contain vitamins A and C . Khandala. Country. Pakarmula. Fl. nurvala is the common form throughout the State. S. t. Sk. Kushtha. H. COM.—15-30 X 5. Fl. Kashmira. Nervele. Vayavarno. .— black with white aril. Pushkarmula. Sd. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. S. Hadawarna. anæmia. bright red. Var. :—Throughout the State in moist and shady places. COSTUS SPECIOSUS Sm.2-2. also in Sub-Himalayan tract).MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 In Indo-China root and leaves powdered and macerated in alcohol are used to touch measle eruptions in children.

anthelmintic.—1 (rarely 2). K. lung and spleen diseases. urinary concretions.5 cm. Nag-damani. LOC. diam. Nag-damani.—subglobose. Fl. white. PARTS USED :—Root. laxative. Fruit sweet and oily (Ayurveda). NS. lime-juice or hot-water and applied as a paste to skin. good in strangury. A couple of buds pounded with salt taken before meals promote appetite.5-18 cm. abdomen and blood (Ayurveda). fragrant at night. vomiting. it forms the principal medicine (bark being another) for calculous affections. The plant contains saponin. Flowers—astringent and cholagogue. FAM. antipyretic. In Bombay leaves are a remedy for foot-swellings and burning sensation of soles of feet. chest and blood diseases. narrowed into a neck clothed with leaf-sheaths . bracts 7. Root bark and fresh leaves are efficacious in all affections where mustard poultice is indicated. acts as laxative and removes disorders of urinary organs. Patra-pushpi. Nagdavana. Sk. heating. :—Throughout tropical India. bark.5-10 cm. Wild or cultivated.. with a sheathing base. useful in kidney diseases and in furunculosis (Yunani).. useful in bronchitis. Kanda-shalini. bulb 5-10 cm. USES:—Root is alterative. perianth tube greenish-white. anthelmintic. Bark decoction is specially useful in urinary complaints in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Vishamungalli. CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Chindar. See—Timbers. anuria. as long as the tube. Kanmu. scape 45-90 cm. useful in biliousness. gonorrhœa. Ceylon. vulnerary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. removes disorders of urinary organs (Yunani). expectorant. carminative. leaves. Fresh leaves bruised with vinegar. laxative. linear. thin. CHAR. leaves. cylindric. Sd. It is used in fevers and skin diseases in which sarsaparilla is generally used. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark-bitter first. stomachic. strangury. toothache. decreases bile-secretion and phlegm. 0. aphrodisiac. long. HABITAT :—Cultivated. increases secretion of bile. Visha-Mandalamardini. removes "Vata". also wild.76 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. flowers and fruits. diuretic. and seeds. COM. it promotes appetite. lumbago.—15-50 in an umbel. linear lanceolate. defective vision. night-blindness. Leaf smoke is inhaled in cases of caries of nose. act as rubefacient and vesicant. M.—20-30.9-1. Bark promotes appetite. X 12. Fr.:—G. bechic. detergent.—Amaryllidaceæ. tumours. Seeds—purgative. "Pitta" and "Kapha". bitter. diseases of vagina. bright green. DISTR. expectorant. Pindar. Kanwal. then sweet. Tonic. digestive. beaked. laxative. . vesicant. :—Often cultivated in gardens in the State. flat. tuberculous glands. Nagadown. :—A herb with tunicated bulb. lobes 6. H. L. found wild in North and South Konkan. antilithic. In the Konkan juice is given in rheumatism. urinary discharges. emmenagogue. chest.

COM. PARTS USED :—Fruits and seeds. In the former disease it is both taken internally and applied locally. CROTON TIGLIUM Linn. Danti. M. Jamalgota. Smoke of burnt leaves is regarded as poisonous to mosquitoes. Seeds in large quantities are poisonous. tonic. COM. convulsions. In the Konkan leaves smeared with mustard-oil and warmed are bound round inflamed joints. :—Sylhet. Leaves bruised and mixed with castor oil are useful in whitlow and local inflammations.—Euphorbiaceæ. excessive phlegm. The plant was at one time grown at Hivre. :—E. NS. H. Bruised leaves are kept in cattle sheds to drive away noxious insects and parasites. etc. :—Bengal. Leaves are slightly roasted and juice is then expressed and few drops poured into ear in ear-ache. emetic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The fruit and seeds are purgative. bronchitis (Ayurveda). K. bark. inflammations. DISTR. Japala. removes pus and bad matter from the body (Yunani). abdominal diseases. G. Purging croton . USES:—Fresh root is emetic. carminative. Seeds cause burning sensation. See—Ornamental Plants. Bhutankusam. Jepal. :—Rare in the State. Malay Islands. it is in great request. M. Chucka . Nepala. FAM. Sk. cathartic. fever. LOC. Oil cathartic. expectorant. useful in mental troubles. Western Peninsula. Sk. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Assam to Malacca. China. CROTON OBLONGIFOLIUS Roxb. The plant contains lycorin. LOC. insanity. NS. nauseant and diaphoretic. Nepala . Chota-Natpur. :—Naturalised in S. :—H. Kanara. in small doses. As an application to sprains. See—Timbers. Ganasur.—Euphorbiaceæ. FAM. near Junnar (Poona Dist). Burma. Ceylon. Danti. Jamalgota . . Konkan.. PARTS USED :—Root. Ieucoderma. Seeds contain an alkaloid. Madhya Pradesh. Bengal. DISTR. Ceylon . leaves and seeds. USES:—Root and seeds are purgative. Konkan (Fort of Bandra) and Kumpta taluka of N. HABITAT :—Rain forests near sea-coast. In Southern Konkan bark is administered in chronic enlargement of liver and in remittent fever. Nepal. naturalised or cultivated. Jayapala. Oil from the seed is purgative. good in sore eyes.MEDICINAL PLANTS 77 LOC. bruises and rheumatic swellings. Burma.

convulsions. Oil is counter-irritant and vesicant in rheumatism. &c. :—Cultivated in all parts of India. Vrittervaru. H. M. Shantanu. LOC. diuretic. CUCUMIS MELO Linn. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Ichhabhedi vatika-used in fever with constipation. Seeds are supposed to be a cooling medicine. Chibdu Shakarteti. cooling. Said to be truly wild in India. Kharbuja. tonic. ascites. Rukkeshee Rasa used as drastic purgative in obstinate constipation. used in painful discharges and suppression of urine. Rind—vulnerary. Pathira . Shadrekha. Sk. It is given internally with great caution. pulp of fruit and seed is powerful diuretic. :—Extensively cultivated throughout India. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated in sandy beds of rivers. in overdoses it is an acronarcotic poison. HABITAT :—Cultivated widely. Mutrala. paralysis and painful affections of joints and limbs. NS. strengthens heart. Kalangida. PARTS USED :—Root. Oil diluted with mustard or olive oil is useful as a liniment in infantile bronchitis. brain and body. Karkali. diaphoretic. Lomashi. DISTR. Karkati. ascites.—Cucurbitaceæ. Oil from the seeds is said to be very nourishing. MELO Var. Fruit—tonic. Kankadi. used as drastic purgative in tympanites. Kharbuja. USES:—Fruit is cool and astringent and given in cases of dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. wholesome. Tarkakadi. Kakni. LOC. Baluchistan and tropical Africa.:—E. Kachra. cures ophthalmia. urinary discharges. chronic fever. insanity. and lock-jaw. galactagogue. may cause skin eruptions and strangury. Ripe fruit—sweet. colic. NS. fattening. Valaka. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. M. Melon. insanity. They are edible. thirst (Yunani). OTILISSIMUS Duthie and Fuller. diuretic. Sk. laxative. COM. laxative. Valungi. :—G. USES :—Seed is a powerful drastic purgative. Sweet melon . may cause indigestion. DISTR. K. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. LOC. See—Timbers. H. Kharbuja. Chibuda.78 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. G. dropsy. oily. Seeds half roasted over a lamp and smoke inhaled relieves a fit of asthma. nutritive and diuretic. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Unripe fruit-sour. cures " Vata ". FAM. :—In Deccan. fruit and seeds. applied to the hypogastrium causes diuresis. Seeds—lachrymatory. . Mahanaracha Rasa. synovitis. Kakri. gives headache. biliousness. causes congestion of eyes in plethoric people. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan during the dry season. obstinate constipation. allays fatigue. C. used in liver and kidney troubles. Kakadi. very beneficial in chronic and acute eczema. It is useful in apoplexy. in ascites and anasarca. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). COM.

Sd. with 10 green longitudinal stripes. USES:—Leaves boiled and mixed with cumin seeds.—June-Sept. t. dry. pale yellow when ripe. and in warm and temperate countries throughout the world. margined .—yellow segments elliptic. H. USES:—Powder of roasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and serviceable in promoting the passage of sand or gravel (Roxburgh). NS. In sun-stroke cucumber pieces are put on the head of the patient to neutralise the heat. Fl. they are also used as diuretic. Mrigadani. Root of sweet variety is emetic (Yunani).:—N. :—G.—white. Root of the sweet variety is used as a sedative for uterine pains in pregnancy (Ayurveda).:—E. Santekayi. enrich blood. improve complexion. India is considered to be the original home. indigestible. CHAR. are administered in throat affections. causes "Vata". See—Vegetables. tendrils simple. Cucumber. biliousness. :—Largely cultivated in gardens all over the State especially in the Deccan. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC. Vishala. FAM. Sk. Kankdi. roasted and powdered. HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—A perennial climber. Seeds possess cooling properties. Fl. male in clusters. L. hairy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 79 PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-tasty. astringent. antipyretic. allay thirst. B. good for brain and body. The fruit contains traces of vitamins A. COM.—subglobose or ellipsoid. Sushitala. Kakdi. Fr. Kakari. and C. K. Takamaki. Fruit—fattening . lobes obovate. fatigue.—monœcious . Sudhavsa. G. M. CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Khira.—Cucurbitaceæ. fruits. cordate at the base. H. LOC. Chitravalli.— suborbicular. They are nutritive. Seed oil used in fever. LOC. cures thirst. cures biliousness. diuretic. rigid. stem slender. Kumbhakshi. angled. melo var. stomachic. Sk. seeds. Cultivated in all parts of India. pulp bitter. See-Fruit Trees. fever. Tavasa. FAM. strangury. Ripe one tonic. utilissimus (Ayurveda. Karit. Yunani). . "Kapha" and flatulence.—Cucurbitaceæ. Hislambhi. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of C. Tansali. C. lobulate or dentate . Cucumber contains a fairly strong proteolytic enzyme. female peduncle longer than male. CUCUMIS TRIGONUS Roxb. Kothiban. Khira. Trapusha. M. NS. purgative. cooling. used in thirst. deeply palmately 5-7 lobed. Fruit is applied externally to relieve inflammation. COM. Seeds—diuretic.

improves taste (Ayurveda). Seeds are used as taeniacide. increases " Vata" . astringent to bowels .:—Considered to be a native of America. stomachic. DISTR.—Cucurbitaceæ. It is milder and less irritant than the fruit pulp which is very bitter and acts as a drastic purgative. Pitakushmand. causes biliousness and loss of appetite (Ayurveda). indigestible. Kashiphala. Dried pulp is a remedy in haemoptysis and hæmorrhages from the pulmonary organs. LOC. . Mithakaddu. Australia. to strengthen memory and to remove vertigo. :—Creeper is found growing very frequently on the roofs of houses and on flat ground all over the State. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. USES. Koron. NS. Seeds are cooling and astringent and useful in bilious disorders. carbuncles. Sk. Kumbala. K. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Kaddu. Pumpkin. Sk. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seeds. FAM . Iran.80 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Jungles. USES :—Pulp of the fruit is often used as a poultice to boils. LOC. :—Cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world. cures cough. LOC. Dudia. NS. etc. allays thirst. Ceylon. tonic. See—Vegetables. Vegetable marrow. in fields as well as in compounds of houses. CUCURBITA PEPO Linn. Punyalata. Malaya. Melon pumpkin. H. Red squash gourd. G. Kushmand. H. Kushmand. : — E. DISTR. Safedkaddu . increases " Vata ".—Cucurbitaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. cures " Kapha " and biliousness . K. CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. Tambda bhopala. Bhopala. Fruit contains vitamins A.:—Commonly grown in the Bombay State. Dangari. unhealthy ulcers. B and C. M. Kumra. Dried fruit indigestible . fruit is used to prevent insanity. :—Throughout the greater part of India. :—Very common in the Deccan and Konkan. :—E. FAM. :—Cultivated. cultivated in many parts of India. fruits and seeds. M. HABITAT.:—Decoction of root is prepared and given as a purgative. COM. Kumbala. G. Karkarn. Seed oil is prescribed as a nervine tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Green fruit bitter. In Malabar. on hedges. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Diuretic. Afghanistan. N. DISTR. COM. Kadimah.

uterine stimulant. good for teeth. fruit and seeds. Jirige.—Amaryllidaceæ. G. FAM. :—G. CUMINUM CYMINUM Linn.—Umbelliferæ. biliousness. analgesic. fatigue. :—Widely cultivated in India—probably a native of the Mediterranean region. carminative. astringent. COM. applied to boils and ulcers (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 81 PARTS USED :—Leaves. heals corneal opacities. Kalimusali. ulcers. Rind is used in piles and applied to wounds. antidysenteric. Seeds anthelmintic. Mushalikand . PARTS USED :—Fruit. USES:— Leaves are used as an external application for burns. leprosy. Seeds—diuretic. Fruit—very cooling. Talamulika. In Cambodia plant-juice is given in small-pox. and the root for making these more potent. cure haemoptysis. CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gærtn. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit hot. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated in fields. NS. purifies blood (Ayurveda). H. sweet. Musali. Jire. Dipaka. anthelmintic. carminative. M. Kalimusali. alexipharmic. aphrodisiac. LOC. beneficial in consumption. increases appetite . Sk. scorpion sting (Ayurveda). Seeds are taeniacide. useful in dyspepsia and diarrhœa. ft contains vitamins A and C. Ajjika. FAM. Fruit astringent. :—E. Jiru. They are a popular worm-remedy in Europe. laxative. abortifacient. astringent to bowels. cures haemoptysis. NS. stops epistaxis . bronchitis. Dirghaka. throat and eyes. Cumin. LOC. vulnerary. LOC. cooling. scabies. Seeds are largely used for flavouring certain preparations of Indian Hemp. Kalimusali. Leaves—digestible. cures leprosy. allays thirst. See—Vegetables. Zira. inflammations. belching . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. leucoderma. Jira. USES :—The fruit is considered stomachic. astringent to bowels. Girautmi. fever. See—Condiments and Spices. DISTR. diuretic and demulcent. eye-diseases. fever. remove biliousness. K. appetiser. :—Cultivated throughout the Bombay State. Bhoomitala Dirgha-kandika. tonic to intestine. asthma. Sk. good for kidney and brain (Yunani). very cooling and used in gonorrhœa. fattening. gonorrhœa. haematinic. tonic. Fruit contains traces of vitamins A and C. enlargment of the spleen. COM. antipyretic. Neltati gadde. thirst. emmenagogue. Neladati. relieves hiccup. H. Kapha " and " Vata ". Gaurajerka. carminative. K. tonic. Cures " Vata " tumours. In Malaya root decoction is administered to control uterine hæmorrhage resulting from the use of abortifacients. stomachic. . also a lactagogue. Fruit yields an essential oil.

tonic. Ambahaladara. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. NS. Peninsula. Karpuraharidra. very short. Bengal. bronchitis.—capsule. :—Bengal. troubles in the mouth and ear. useful in inflammations. LOC. t. CURCUMA AMADA Roxb.—sessile or petiolate.. LOC. Bitter. yellow. inflammations (Ayurveda). useful in bronchitis. they are often combined with aromatics and bitters and are prescribed for asthma. gleet.82 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.3-2. G. Sd. root stout with copious fleshy root fibres. bitter. gonorrhœa. lumbago. Fl. appetiser. DISTR. shining .-Sept. diarrhœa. causes "Vata". lowest in the raceme 2-sexual. Kapurahaldi. USES :—The tuberous roots constitute the Kali-musali of the bazar . appetiser. The tuber enters into the composition of several medicinal preparations intended to act as aphrodisiac. vomiting. :—Stemless herb. :—Konkan and Gujarat. Peninsula. Java. with a beak . emollient. all skin-diseases. alexiteric. antipyretic. LOC. Fl. 30-45x7.— May-June. linear or linear-lanceolate . perianth segments elliptic. biliousness. expectorant. pains in joints (Yunani).5-12. Fr. Powdered rhizome is used to stop bleeding and to dry up wounds. hiccup. W. Root—carminative. rhizome. cooling. alterative and tonic. H. :—A small herb. indigestion. sessile. Fl. lumbago. :—Konkan and N. Malay Archipelago. piles. aphrodisiac. Ambehalad. asthma. often cultivated. scabies. oblong. Fl. L. aphrodisiac. diarrhœa.5 cm. . debility and impotence. blood-diseases (Ayurveda).— in autumnal spikes 7. FAM. clavate . Amragandha. gonorrhœa. laxative.5 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES. L. fatigue. ophthalmia. oblong. alterative. gleet. common at the beginning of rains.5-15 X 3. DISTR.—grooved.:—W. oblong lanceolate. Amhaladi. black. useful in piles. tubers thick. pale yellow inside . cylindric or ellipsoid. root stock large. HABITAT :—Often cultivated. hydrophobia. roots contain a good deal of mucilage and are used as a demulcent. COM. antipyretic. maturant. aphrodisiac. useful in biliousness. HABITAT :—Hotter regions. C—white or very pale-yellow. K. 1545 X 1. t. CHAR. diuretic.—long petioled in tufts. PARTS USED :—Root. Mango-ginger. Kanara. distichous.:—Sweet. colic. bract of the coma tinged with red or pink. stomatitis (Yunani). flowering bract greenish-white. antipyretic. appetising.—Scitamineæ. PARTS USED :—Root and tubers. :—E. scape. Ambahaldi. jaundice. hairy on the back. tips sometimes rooting. Sk. during convalescence after acute illness. ulcers on penis. " Vata". Assam.— in racemes. fattening. they are also diuretic and aphrodisiac .8-5 cm. M.

variegated above.—Scitamineæ. it is seldom used alone . NS. PARTS USED :—Tubers. useful in leucoderma and blood-diseases (Ayurveda). CURCUMA LONGA Linn. also stomachic. LOC. :—Stemless herb. DISTR. :—Grown extensively in Deccan. Ran-halad. H. annulate. G. Banharidra. :—Western Peninsula. bracts of the coma tinged with red or pink. long. NS. Vanhaldara. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a garden crop in good soil. t. See—Condiments and Spices.—Scitamineæ. In the Konkan it is applied to promote eruptions of exanthematous fevers . FAM. Halad. DISTR. base deltoid. Banhaladi. with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions. Aranyaharidra. Kapur-kachali. flowering bracts cymbiform. green. Cochin-Wild turmeric. Rubbed into paste with benzoin it is a common domestic application to the forehead for headache. tubers yellow and aromatic inside. Halad. C. CHAR. Haridra. palmately branched. oblong elliptic or lanceolate.. the dorsal longer. The plant tubers yield an essential oil. sessile. :—E. upper half funnel-shaped. used as an application for skin-diseases. Halada. combined with other medicines to improve quality of blood. lip yellow. COM. PARTS USED :—Root leaves and flowers. It is used externally in scabies and eruptions of small-pox. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Sometimes cultivated. LOC. LOC. combined with astringents it is applied to bruises.-May.:—Cultivated throughout the tropics.MEDICINAL PLANTS 83 LOC. Mangalya. lobes pale-rose. CURCUMA AROMATICA Salisb. :—E. Sholi. . they are topically applied over contusions and sprains in the form of paste. Jayanti. Also cultivated in Konkan. Turmeric. in spikes 15-30 cm. COM. Harita. forming pouches for the flowers. Sk. appetiser . Yellow Zedoary. appearing before leafing stem. root-stock large. Vanarishta. Sk. K. flowers fragrant. Varnadatri. throughout Gujarat it is important as a subordinate crop with ginger. L. FAM. M.— flowering stem sheathed. G. rounded at the tips. :—Common in the Konkan and Kanara in moist shady forests. M.— 38-60 X 10-20 cm. Bengal. long. Indian saffron. USES :—Tubers regarded as cooling and carminative and useful in prurigo. 3lobed. It is considered tonic and carminative. sometimes cultivated.5 cm. Arishina. Sholika. biennial. lateral lobes oblong.—tube 2. HABITAT :—Moist shady places in forest. pale green. Fl. USES:—Tubers have an agreeable fragrant smell. H.

The plant contains curcumin. leucoderma. Tuber is used as a stimulant.:—E. Kachuri. :—Stemless herb. M. cause copious mucous discharge and relieve congestion. In coryza. :—Cultivated more or less throughout India. long. deepyellow. It contains vitamin A. useful in leucoderma. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. alexiteric. root-stock of palmately branched. FAM . See—Condiments and Spices. NS. turmeric coating is applied to facilitate scabbing. and yields an essential oil. urinary discharges. an alkaloid. externally applied to leech-bites. heating. bruises. useful in " Kapha". said to be Wild in E. clothed with sheaths. It is given in troublesome diarrhœa. cylindric.—Scitamineæ. destroys foulness of breath. heating. sprains (Ayurveda). scabies. CHAR. 3-gonous.—capsule. flowering bract green tinged with red . long. carminative.84 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. and inflammatory troubles of the joints . Karechura. Hakhir. coma-bract crimson or purple . urinary discharges. also in intermittent fevers and dropsy.— flowering stem 20-25cm.—funnel shaped. Bitter. vulnerary. Sk. boils and urticaria. Himalayas and Chittagong. alexiteric. K. and also in treatment of gonorrhœa. pale-yellow inside. As a local application in combination with lime it is valuable in sprains. boils. piles. itches etc. scabies. Fr. an ointment prepared from the rhizome. flowers yellow in spikes. USES:—Dried rhizome is used medicinally and as a condiment. Shathi. COM. CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. small-pox. annulate tubers. Narakachora. asthma. oblong-lanceolate. anthelmintic. Root parched and powdered is given in bronchitis . internally administered in blood disorders.—4-6 with long petioles. "Vata ". used in prurigo. diuretic. PARTS USED :—Tubers and leaves. emollient. bruises. H. jaundice. bitter. Fl. clouded with purple down the middle. swellings. Kachari. Kachora. Kachora. Fresh Juice is said to be anthelmintic. maturant. Turmeric and alum (1:20) is blown into the ear in chronic catarrh. Zedoary. paste from fresh tuber is applied to head in cases of vertigo. laxative. bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated. A decoction is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. LOC. Flower-paste is used in ringworm and other skin-diseases. mustard oil and hemp-leaves is effective in eczema. it is very effective in relieving pain in purulent conjunctivitis. L. odour like camphor. appearing before the leaves. bronchitis. :—Cultivated in the State. DISTR. fragrant. blood diseases. In small-pox and chicken-pox. G. improves complexion. bruises (Yunani). tonic. oblong. 30-60 cm. taste bitterish spicy. Gandhamulaka sara. fumes of burning turmeric directed into nostrils. C. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Haridrakhanda. anthelmintic. LOC. inflammations. vulnerary. appetiser. lobed . . fumes are used during hysteric fits . good for liver affections. Jatala. lip 3-lobed. antipyretic.

up to over 1. alexipharmic. stimulant and carminative. . sheaths of the culm tight. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. neuralgia. Gavati-chaha. and now widely distributed over the tropics of both the hemispheres. It is an excellent stomachic to children. :—A tall perennial. alexipharmic. Lemon grass. sharp. It is also aromatic. USES :—Fresh root is cooling and diuretic.8 m. Gandhatrina. NS. others narrow and separating. laxative. tuberculous glands of neck. Leaf-juice is given in leprosy. Purhati hullu. Sk. COM. and other painful affections. It is carminative and tonic to the intestinal mucous membrane. Leaves are used as plasters in lymphangitis. gastric irritability. The grass yields a fragrant volatile oil known as Indian Molissa oil. DISTR.—Gramineæ.—linear tapering upwards to a point. Tubers yield an essential oil. carminative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 85 tumours. velvety at the nodes. useful in vomiting and diarrhœa. K. those of the barren shoots widened and tightly clasping at the base. throwing up dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. given with black-pepper it is useful in disordered menstruation and in the congestive and neuralgic forms of dysmenorrhoea. Bhustrina. USES :—This grass is generally used in the form of an infusion. Majjige hullu. CHAR.:—The grass is only known in the cultivated state. long. CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS Stapf. aphrodisiac. Takratrina. inflammations. furunculosis. appetiser. nodding. epileptic seizure (Ayurveda). bitter. G. glaucous green. L. LOC. sprains. It forms an ingredient of the strengthening conserves given to women after child-birth. sharp hot taste. chronic rheumatism. Bitter. Ligule very short. long. upto over 90 cm. midrib whitish on the upper side. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grass pungent.. Fl—in decompound spatheate panicles 30 to over 60 cm. hot. H. tonic to brain and heart. it is stimulant. smooth or rough upwards and along the margins. anthelmintic. sheaths terete .:—E. pains. of much use in typhoid fevers. laxative. good odour. useful in bronchitis. expectorant. FAM. emmenagogue. Lilicha. it is also a good application for ringworm. enlargement of spleen. carminative. culm stout. useful in flatulent and spasmodic affections of the bowels. emetic. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). leprosy. also used as a tonic and depurative.:—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Mixed with an equal quantity of pure cocoanut oil it makes an excellent liniment for lumbago. Externally it is rubefacient. high. probably of Indian origin. antispasmodic and diaphoretic. LOC. LOC. toothache (Yunani). erect. applied to bruises and sprains. PARTS USED :—Leaves. and is of great value in cholera. M. it checks leucorrhoea and gonorrhœal discharges and purifies blood. useful in griping of children. epileptic fits. Putigandha.

fatigue. M. LOC.—2-10 cm. :—A perennial grass . FAM. CHAR. through N. leprosy. oblique or divaricate. pungent. those below the inflorescence 23 cm. carminative. K.—spikes 2-6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle 2. M. CYNODON DACTYLON Pers. NS.—Gramineæ. USES :—The oil distilled from the leaves called Rosha oil is stimulant. :—A tall perennial sweet scented grass.—Gramineæ. Deccan. sheaths tight. Fl. Country. LOC. K. :—E. COM. Bujina. pains.—Oct. long. Durva. Bahuvirya. Geramium grass. Shatagranthi. Fl. DISTR. glaucous beneath. Kobbar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. NS. usually broad.3 cm. W. Dhoboghas. vomiting. leafy. H. Bhutika. smooth. long. 1 mm. margins scabrid. subcordate or rounded at the base. epileptic fits in children (Ayurveda). :—Sourashtra.—spikes 2-nate. thirst. It is also used in rheumatism and neuralgia. particularly the Deccan trap areas. hallucinations. Vasanchullu. Saugandhika. prostrate . Shatamula. The infusion of the grass is said to be a febrifuge. HABITAT :—Grows everywhere.4 m. green or purplish. G. Dhro. stem. soft. Shyamaka. straw coloured. bad taste in the mouth. Durba.86 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CYMBOPOGON MARTINI Stapf. S. Mangala. Fl. :—E. X 1 cm. long. throughout India. long. Mirchiagand. stem. Fl. Fr. sweet. Baluchistan. Rhusghas. Afghanistan. Harali. most warm countries. skin . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Durva. :—Cosmopolitan .5-30 cm. under favourable conditions it has become a pest in cultivated fields especially in garden soils. t. H. widely creeping. wide below. LOC.5-2. and Ceylon ascending to 3. upto 2. useful in fevers.—flat. CHAR. L. high. heart diseases. COM. narrowly linear. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. bitter. Burma. with erect flowering branches 7. DISTR. Roshdo.—grain. high. Rohisha.000 m. Gharo. Bahama—Bermuda—Creeping—Dog's tooth grass.. finely acute. 1.—throughout the year. HABITAT:—Open grass lands. :—Punjab. Africa to Morocco. FAM. Sk. G. M.5-5 cm. L.:—Grows all over the State. distichous in the barren shoots and the base of stems. Rohisha. in the Himalayas. Konkan. scabies.t. Sk. slender. bronchitis. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. See-Oils. Ghats. Garikehallu. antispasmodic and diaphoretic and found useful in flatulence and spasmodic affections of the bowels. throat troubles. Roshagavat. Sind. forming matted tufts. epileptic fits. leprosy. Gujarat. burning sensation. useful in biliousness. 12-18 mm.-Nov. cooling.

COM. greyish black. acrid. The fresh expressed juice of the grass is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. erysipelas. pain. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-pungent. astringent. bearing "hard ovoid tunicate fragrant tubers. cooling. it is diuretic. anthelmintic. K. useful for ulcers and sores. Nagarmotha. juice is used in hysteria. Kachhola. very troublesome weed..—Cyperaceæ. Fl. vulnerary. Tubers yield an essential oil. NS. Mustaka. dyspepsia. :—Throughout India. Roots crushed and mixed with curds are given in chronic gleet. LOC. burning sensation. diarrhœa. diarrhœa. most hot countries. useful in vomiting. epistaxis (Ayurveda).— in simple or compound umbel. DISTR. stems subsolitary 10-75 cm. Sugandhi-granthila. Bimbal. anthelmintic. expectorant. They are held in great esteem as a cure for disordered stomach and irritation of bowels. blood diseases. USES :—Roots are commonly. PARTS USED :—Tubers. epilepsy. USES:—Root decoction is diuretic and is valuable in vesical calculus and secondary syphilis. In Ceylon. M. See—Fodder Plants.82.. White variety is acidulous and is used to check vomiting in biliousness. Koranarigadde. t. pruritis. Motha. diaphoretic. They are also diuretic and stimulant. fever. L.—Sept-Nov. dyspepsia and stomach complaints. Nut—broadly ovoid. In the Konkan grass is prescribed in compound decoction with more active drugs in dysentery and menorrhagia. :—Throughout the State in cultivated fields. rays 2-8 bearing short spikes of 3-10 spreading red brown spikelets . fever. Tungegaddo. epistaxis. as an application is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia. biliousness. erysipelas (Ayurveda). stomatitis. stomachic. emmenagogue. epilepsy and insanity. Motha. ophthalmia. dysentery. vomiting. useful in leprosy. Juice when sniffed up in case of epistaxis proves styptic and stops bleeding. Fl. Mutha. FAM.5 cm. Sk Bhadramusta. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shadanga Paniya given as a drink for appeasing thirst and relieving heat of body in fever. dysentery. CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Bitterish. used as a diaphoretic and astringent. fevers. :—Glabrous herb. trigonous.—shorter or longer than the stem. hiccup (Yunani). Motha. CHAR. biliousness. used in cases of dropsy and anasarca. spikelets 10-50 flowered. A cold infusion stops bleeding from piles. urinary concretions (Yunani). LOC. stolons elongate. LOC. vulnerary. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation.MEDICINAL PLANTS 87 diseases. 0. narrowly linear. Granthi. Root— diuretic. thirst. Ceylon. difficult to eradicate. blood diseases. appetiser. . a decoction of the tubers is given in fevers. :—G. In the Konkan the fresh tubers are applied to the breast as a galactagogue. bruises. H.

t. Clinical trials with this glucoside are being undertaken in different hospitals. Phalakantak. long 10-20.:—E. Fl. it appears to hasten the process of normal involution. on curved stalk 3. velvety pubescent beneath. Fl.5 cm. nodding. funnel-shapped. limb with 5 or 6 deltoid lobes. PROPERTIES AND LOC. HABIT :—A common weed. and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus .g. afterwards racemose. across. DISTR. It has beneficial action on the atonic condition of the intestine. Fr. NS. a glucoside. COM. found sometimes cultivated in gardens also. and the results obtained so far seem to show its usefulness in such conditions as menorrhagia (excessive bleeding). inner curved high over the staminal column. Country. This drug has been investigated on scientific lines and an active principle.—thin.—capsule.2-7. subglobose. foetid when bruised and with much milky juice. t. :—Annual shrub. reflexed. Gujarat. spur acute.. C. acute. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. L. . solitary. Sd. beak long. LOC. paralytic ileus.—many. Sk. Kanaka. Unmatta. FAM. broadly ovate or suborbicular. :—Very common in rubbish heaps and waste places throughout the State. — densely pubescent on both sides with coma. yellowish brown. and sub-involution of the uterus. Fl. Ceylon. Administered after the third stage of labour. Pharmacological studies on the drug are being continued. FAM. lobes spreading.—Sept-Dec. S. ciliate.—in lateral cymes which are at first corymbose. Utarni. 30-60 cm.—Solanaceæ. Utran. has been isolated and its mode of action studied. soft spiny. :—Deccan. In many respects this active fraction behaves like Ergot and Pituitrin.— tubular. greenish-yellow or dull-white. CHAR. DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. HABITAT :—On rubbish heaps. tubular. CHAR. high. packed.—Asclepiadaceæ. Sd. K: Dhattura. Bhranta. G. Afghanistan: PARTS USED :—The whole plant. very unequal at the base. corona outer and inner. Kanaka.5-15 X 3. ovate. glabrous above. entire or with large teeth or lobes. usually pubescent. long. :—Throughout India in hotter parts.2 cm. Kaladhatura. Kariyu-Um-Matta. stem hairy. :—A perennial twining herb. H. L.88 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DÆMIA EXTENSA Linn. covered with straight sharp prickles. and is recommended for the treatment of gynaecological conditions. COM.-Jany.—7. this drug is reputed to be a good uterine tonic and sedative. Rajdhattura. divaricately branched. double. M. white inside. 18 cm.—Aug. Kala-dhotara. LOC.—purple outside. Ns.—follicle. green. Fr. Kaladhatura. M. somewhat zigzag. Black-Purple datura. Sk. e. diam. M. outer truncate. Fl. metrorrhagia (excessive bleeding with pain). There are two varieties " Kala-dhatura " and " Safed-dhatura ".5 cm. though it seems to differ from them in its mode of action. :—H.

febrifuge. It has properties analogous to those of belladonna. The plant as a whole has narcotic. Root—useful in reducing inflammation. alexiteric.MEDICINAL PLANTS 89 DISTR. G. aphrodisiac. They regarded the drug as intoxicant. tonic. The seeds are in popular use by the dissipated. nosetrouble. Fresh leaf-juice is also a popular application in such cases. DAUCUS CAROTA Linn. leaves and seeds. LOC. mostly in the Deccan and Karnatak. hyoscyamine and traces of atropine. majum. FAM. skin-diseases. Garjara. febrifuge. Gajar. and antispasmodic properties. Hakims prepare a ghee from the seeds for rubbing on genitals to stimulate them. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds—acrid. Datura was known to the ancient Hindoo physicians. cause headache (Yunani). toxic. mumps etc. Seeds—narcotic. Smoking of seeds as a treatment for asthma was known during the Vedic period. anthelminitic . Leaves are used as anodyne poultice to inflamed breasts to check inflammation and excessive secretion of milk. (Ayurveda). black (Kala) and white (Safed). GranthiPinda-Mula.. NS. headache. to increase their stupefying effect. PARTS USED :—Root. chronic coughs. with curdled milk. emetic. Leaf poultice. Shikkikanda. H. :—E. Leaf-juice is given internally. anthelmintic. black variety is considered to be more powerful. Sk. applied topically it removes pain of tumours and piles. painful tumours. ulcers. Gajar. It is also a popular internal remedy for the prevention of hydrophobia. enlargement of testicles and boils. toddy. K. leaves and seeds. useful in leucoderma. Leaves after heating are applied locally to relieve eye pain. jaundice. Seeds are a favourite poison for criminal purposes. relieves pain. Variety Alba is found in the same locality and has practically got the same properties as above. Europe. Gajar. The plant grows so abundant and wild that it is worth while using it for the extraction of the above alkaloids for medicinal purposes. PARTS USED :—Roots.—Umbelliferæ COM. Carrot. bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated. emetic. The smoking of dried leaves and stems in a pipe or cigarette relieves spasmodic asthma. heating. M. :—Probably a native of the sea-coast of S. It also causes dilation of the pupil of the eye. digestive and heating. USES :—Out of the two varieties. LOC. in combination with subja. The whole plant is narcotic. when applied to rheumatic lumbago. Seeds contain alkaloids hyoscine. in gonorrhœa. DISTR. :—Throughout the tropics. piles. equal in effect to atropine. bronchitis. biliousness. Gajra. anodyne. Ground seeds made into pills and kept on the decayed teeth are said to relieve toothache. Seeds have a strong aphrodisiac effect. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. . Gajjari. nodes. Cultivated in many parts of India. ganja.

used in bronchitis. pains. cures biliousness. :—Konkan and N. C—violet or white. M. vomiting. Salwan. " Tridosha ". It is used in fevers. antidysenteric. burning sensation. urinary complaints.2 m. standard cuneate at the base . :—Outer Himalayas upto 1000 m.6-1. vomiting and asthma. useful in chronic fevers. Roots contain vitamins A. Salwan. Philippines. USES:—Plant is considered antipyretic and anticatarrhal. Ceylon. Fr. Fl. margins wavy. good for liver. LOC. Salparni. :—A woody undershrub. CHAR. hairy. fattening. H. LOC. used in hemicrania (Ayurveda). " Vata". hiccup.—pod. PARTS USED :—Root. tumours. leaves are preferable for external use (Yunani). Raw rasped root made into ointment with lard is much used in burns and scalds to good effect. good for inflammation. B and C. piles. chronic affections of chest and lungs. piles. Salpan. t.. USES :—Externally. Kitavinashini. rounded and deeply indented in the lower edge. green and glabrous above. inflammations. tropical Africa. they produce a spirituous liquor. Root marmalade is refrigerant. anthelmintic. prevents death of fœtus in womb . asthma. Shaliparni. sub-falcate. arranged in few-flowered fascicles . stomachic. China. Deccan and S. nausea (Yunani). asthma. COM. tonic. throughout India. M. biliousness. Salpani. NS. Fruits are used in chronic diarrhœa. carminative. Tonic. upper edge straight.—in terminal or axillary racemes. astringent to bowels. vomiting.—onefoliate. LOC. . DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. hooked hairy. joints 6-8. thirst. cures leprosy. urinary discharges. HABITAT :—Plains and deciduous monsoon forests. 0. L. Kanara . See—Vegetables. K. diuretic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Ranbhal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. Darh. ovate-oblong. thirst. FAM.90 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Gives appetite. membranous. alterative. aphrodisiac. Vidarigandha. fresh scraped root forms a good stimulating poultice for foul ulcers. high. Malay Peninsula and Islands . indigestible. cardiotonic. abundant in Khandesh Akrani. In the Konkan seeds are eaten as an aphrodisiac. :— G. lessens griping and spleen inflammation. Country. Burma. cough. Dirghamula. alexipharmic. Leaf and seed decoction is used as a stimulant to uterus during parturition. paler and hairy beneath. DISTR. removes " Kapha". they are also diuretic. chest troubles. cures typhoid. expectorant. Root— astringent in diarrhœa. Seeds are considered to be nervine tonic. Sk. biliousness.—May-July. aphrodisiac. Salwan. In Europe carrot decoction is a popular remedy for jaundice. Murele-honne. corrects foul breath (Ayurveda). Fl. astringent to bowels. stems and branches angled. other fevers. dysentery . boiled with honey and fermented. bronchitis.

high. NS. LOC. L. DISTR. Timbwini. LOC. Banda. :—Along the coasts of N. M. branched from the base. in the rain forests and river beds in ghats. Sk. cures ulcers and " Vata". LOC. diuretic. smooth. Wild mangosteen. DISTR. Konkan. creeping. Flowers—aphrodisiac. Makurkendi. Pavitra. Syria. vomiting. Fruit—oleaginous. Anilsara. long. Flowers and fruit given in hiccup of children. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Davoli.:—Saurashtra. sedative to pregnant uterus. Thailand (Siam). In the Konkan they are prescribed in compound decoctions with more active drugs for the cure of dysentery and menorrhagia. oleaginous. NS. H. Riber ebony. interrupted. rigid. Durva. used in biliousness and blood diseases. HABITAT :—Near creeks and backwaters. t. Tendu. sheaths glabrous.—Dec. stout. Kalatendu. skin eruptions. Kusha. Gavandu. jaundice. stolon very stout. G. cooling.8 cm. in the beds of rivers and streams. Kanara and the Konkan. Sacred Plants. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Bark good for dysentery. Zeeberwo. vesical calculi. aphrodisiac. erect pyramidal or columnar. flowers. Fruit— aphrodisiac and tonic (Yunani). COM. K. urinary losses and stone in urinary tract (Ayurveda). tufted.—Gramineæ. Tumari. COM. PARTS USED :—Wood. Malay Archipelago. rootstock stout. Dab. :—Throughout India. asthma. :—E. FAM. Tinduka. Tumaki Mara. USES :—The culms are said to possess diuretic and stimulant properties. diseases of blood. fruit and seeds. :—Perennial tall grass. thirst.—many. reaching 50 cm. vaginal discharges. covered with shining sheaths. heating. branches short crowded. Gujarat. Fl. DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS Pers. clothed with sessile spikelets. ligule a hairy line . Temburni. Kalaskandh. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Drier parts in open waste land. Sphurjaka. stems 30-90 cm. Darbha. Nubia. :—Throughout India in hot and dry places.—Ebenaceæ. the basal fascicled. strangury.3-3.MEDICINAL PLANTS 91 DESMOSTACHYA BIPINNATA Stapf. bark. margins hispid. Fl. astringent to bowels. See—Fodder Plants. Gale. useful in blood diseases.—G. Egypt. biliousness. diseases of bladder. CHAR. Darbha.) FAM. -panicle 15-45 X 1. Wood cures biliousness. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.. H. causes "Kapha" (Ayurveda). (ERAGROSTIS CYNOSUROIDES Beauv. Dabha. Sk. erect. good for lumbago. M.

Kulithaka. :—M. midrib of each segment gives rise to lateral branches which run to the margin and are connected by transverse veins forming 4-5 primary areoles. improves complexion. astringent to bowels. Basingh. FAM. Horse-Gram. Oil from seeds is used in local medicine with success in dysentery and diarrhœa. abdominal complaints.—Polypodiaceæ. cut down to the midrib into elongated segments. K. Surfaces naked. USES :—Bark and fruit are astringent. :—E. enlargement of spleen. Diuretic. green when very young but soon turning dark brown. strangury. DOLICHOS BIFLORUS Linn. DISTR. intestinal colic. G. eye troubles. :—Grown extensively in the Deccan—Khandesh. Texture membranaceous to leathery. liver troubles. hot. leucoderma. Infusion of fruit is used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat. COM. Hurali. removes stone from kidney (Ayurveda). USES :—The decoction is used in leucorrhoea and menstrual derangements. . ozoena. NS. Sk. fronds coriaceous of two kinds—sterile ones varying in size. Grains contain vitamin A. Sori two in each primary areole. H. LOC. Country—Belgaum. Ahmednagar and Satara Districts. grown to a certain extent in S. antipyretic. urinary discharges. hiccup. heart-troubles. coughs etc. anthelmintic. diseases of the brain and eyes. :—Tropics of the old world. removes stone from kidney. LOC. bronchitis.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). fertile ones long stalked.Gahat. FAM. fattening. Jurali. dry. Sk. stout. Kulitha. M. HABITAT :—Plains and low portions of mountains. Kulthi. "Vata". Kalvrinta. base decurrent on the stipe. Kulith. variously lobed. inflammation. asthma. Wandar bashing. :—Rhizome creeping. causes biliousness (Yunani). Bark is used for intermittent fevers. Its employment is said to reduce corpulence. Ashvakatri. pain in liver. emmenagogue. piles. Kulthi. NS. cures hiccup. piles. See-Food Plants. Sitetara. See—Timbers. tumours. appetiser. short. Kulit. CHAR. COM. Tans. generally on trees and rocks. Kulathi. PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. Nasik. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Bijapur and Dharwar. ovate. cures " Kapha". It is demulcent in calculus affection. M. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Juice of the unripe fruit makes a good application to fresh wounds. densely clothed with red-brown scales.92 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. It is also given to parturient women to promote discharge of lochia. Konkan— Ratnagiri. DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA Bory. acrid. cordate. Seeds are given as an astringent in diarrhœa.

Maka. Shulio.—Compositæ. Root—aphrodisiac (Yunani). biliousness.5 cm. analgesic. Kadechubak. improves taste. Bhangra. FAM. :—A much branched rigid annual. " Vata". :—Konkan. M. Sk. cottony. Kadigga-garaga. Bhringraj. bitter.— Nov. NS. Seeds—wholesome. thirst.-Jany. used in ophthalmia. 0. yellowish. strigose and hairy. LOC. subentire. pappus short.:—An annual erect or prostrate herb. surrounded by strong white bristles.MEDICINAL PLANTS 93 LOC. Root— abortifacient. intermediate produced in sharp spine. glabrous above. chronic fever. bracts 3seriate.:—Throughout India. DISTR. Fl. L. hectic fever. C. DISTR. hot. H. Markara. Country. cottony pubescent. Utkantaka. COM. Garagadasoppu. Kantalu. PARTS USED :—The whole plant—especially roots and seeds. :—More or less throughout India. Afghanistan. M. M. astringent to bowels . Kantaphala. LOC. Balari. used in strangury. the lobes triangular and oblong. deeply pinnatifid. globose.—heads white.— opposite. Deccan. K. usually oblong-lanceolate. L. Plant stomachic. increases appetite. high. used in typhoid fever (Ayurveda). stimulates liver. often rooting at the nodes. aphrodisiac (Ayurveda). Dadhal. CHAR. S. densely villous. Utkanto. cooling.3—0. COM. pain in joints. USES :—The plant is used in the treatment of phthisis. Ajagara. hysteria. stems and branches strigose and hairy. CHAR. Bhangro. :—G. Utanti. sinuate and spinescent. spines 2. tonic. oblong.—achene obconic. wooly beneath. USES :—Drug is bitter and is considered to be a nerve tonic and diuretic.—limb linear. sessile. Powdered roots are applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots. Pitripriya. diseases of heart. gleet. Sunilaka. t. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Plant-pungent. inflammations. Fl. spiny. long. HABITAT :—Wild in overgrazed areas of rather poor soils. FAM.—sessile. Sk. ECLIPTA ERECTA Linn. Mochand. Kalobhangro . :—Kanara. involucre. branches widely spreading from the base.—Compositæ. Keshrangana. Konkan. Bhangra. Utakatara. Utkatara. Utkanta. dyspepsia. PARTS USED :—Root and plant. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root bitter. useful in brain-diseases. . also cultivated to a certain extent.9 m. It is used in hoarse cough. NS. :—G. dyspepsia and cough. ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. causes " Kapha". Roots are powdered and mixed with acacia gum and applied to hair to destroy lice. antipyretic. H. urinary discharges. LOC.

a reputed and popular liver tonic. hemi-crania. hair. Choti-Elachi. anthelmintic. stomachic. cures vertigo (Yunani). Karangi.. toothache. Malaya. involucral bracts about 8 . Fl. prevents abortion and miscarriage. Fr. improves colour of hair. They have also been used as a substitute for Taraxacum. In Ceylon it is used to purify blood. cures inflammations. See—Sacred Plants. LOC. alexipharmic. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. tonic. solitary or 2 together. Ela. hot. leucoderma. USES :—Root is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleenic enlargements and in various chronic skin-diseases . it is powdered and applied externally. Cosmopolitan in warm climate. M. FAM.:—India (Bengal. NS. There are two forms erect and prostrate. antipyretic. used for uterine pains after delivery (Ayurveda). It relieves headache when applied with oil. HABITAT :—Moist situations in hilly tracts (rich moist forest-soils ). There are two varieties—yellow flowered and white flowered. ray flowers ligulate. eyes. C—often 4-toothed .—in heads. night blindness. Madhya Bharat. In China plant is used for checking haemorrhage. Yalakki. G. Leaf-juice is given in jaundice and fevers. Gandhkuti. The former is extensively used in catarrhal jaundice (Koman). cuneate with a narrow wing. In Indo-China it is much used for curing asthma and bronchitis. internal diseases. "Vata". Sind. fattening. Velchi. Roots and leaves are largely used alone or with Ajwan seeds in derangements of the liver and gall-bladder. Triputa. Veldoda. Gourangi. Lesser—Malabar cardamom. Sk. fevers. stomatitis. and for strengthening gums. axillary. .94 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Fl. anæmia. It is also used as an emetic and purgative. ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM Maton. Sirsi and Yellapur Talukas) . Ceylon. good for complexion. W. Elachi. lustre of eyes. :—Western valleys of N. teeth.—achene. pappus 0. and juice in affections of liver and in dropsy. alterative. H. t. Bitter . PROPERTIES AND USES :— Bitter. COM. K. bronchitis. Root is applied to galled neck in cattle. Ilaji. good for spleen diseases. Burma. There is a popular belief that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn hair black. Peninsula). disk ones tubular . cultivated. eye diseases. The plant contains alkaloid ecliptine. heart and skin diseases. LOC. Bahula.—Scitaminaceæ. Fresh plant is applied with sesame oil in elephantiasis.-Dec. hernia. "Kapha". expectorant.— Oct. :—E. HABITAT :—Wild in rather moist places. asthma. Chandrabala. It is given internally in scalding of urine. Kanara (Siddapur. and as an antiseptic in wounds in cattle. DISTR. liver pain. In the Punjab it is used externally for ulcers. Panjab. syphilis. LOC :—Pretty common all over the State.

root is laxative and tonic. :—Extensively grown chiefly in the hilly districts of the State (uplands of ghats). stomachic. USES :— The grain is rather difficult of digestion but highly nourishing. It occurs to the extent of 4 to 8 per cent of the seeds and contains a considerable amount of terpinyl-acetate. In Cambodia root and fruits are used medicinally. Bidanga. Narttaka. See—Condiments and Spices. FAM. NS. See-Food Plants. cooling. laxative.MEDICINAL PLANTS 95 DISTR. Pavaka. bad humours of liver. consumption. fragrant. Bavato. NS. clear head. useful in biliousness. It is said to be astringent. Vavading. Navalo-nagali. stimulant and emmenagogue. FAM. Africa it is used along with Plumbago zeylanica as an internal remedy for leprosy. :—Cultivated in the tropics of the old world. Heavy crops are taken in Ahmedabad and Kaira districts of Gujarat. useful in asthma. Boberang. cooling. Marua. Rajika. ear and tooth ache. Nachani. diseases of bladder. Nagali. kidney. pruritus. "Tridosh" and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bhasmaka. brain and mouth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The grain is acrid.—Myrsinaceæ. Sk. rich or poor. most suitable to hard-working classes. ELEUSINE CORACANA Gaertn. Jantughna. Makra. chest and throat (Yunani). scabies.:—Western and S. LOC. Grains contain vitamin B. M. LOC. tonic. Vayuvitang. H. K. abortifacient. PARTS USED :—Grain. stomachic. USES :—Seeds are used as an ingredient in compound preparations. K. Rotka. Seed—fragrant. Varding. causes thirst. cause biliousness . .—Gramineæ. :— G. carminative. it is administered internally in the diseases of liver and uterus. Seeds are valuable as a warm cordial and aromatic. Wavrung. H. fruit is tonic. In S. rectum and throat (Ayurveda). pungent. tonic to heart. externally it is applied to the tumours of the uterus. India. diuretic. It is stomachic. alexiteric . cultivated. LOC. The oil extracted from fruit is used both in pharmacy and perfumery. diuretic. lessens inflammation. carminative stimulant due to an essential oil. PARTS USED :—Root. Vidariga. strangury.:—G. Kanisha. CUM. HABITAT :—Grows in any soil. bronchitis. DISTR. EMBELIA RIBES Burm. COM. Vavoding. useful in head.. fruit and seeds. Sk. bitter. M. Ragi. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-bitter. wild or cultivated in Malabar and Ceylon. piles.

Dadi. bark studded with lenticels . sour. Int. M. K. Fruit and leaf useful in ophthalmia and incipient blindness. China. greenish yellow. Konkan and N. . (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA Linn. leprosy. anæmia. purgative. internodes long. leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). tonic. Dhatri. Amlika. Arch. Deccan. flexible. " Kapha'. analgesic. black when ripe. alexiteric. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Fruit-acrid. H. EMBLICA OFFICINALIS Gaertn. poisoning. The Hakims consider it to be attenuant and purgative of phlegmatic humours. S. COM. (Dymock).—Feb. cures bronchitis . Sk. Avala. K. inflammations. mental diseases. LOC.96 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. leaves. a few berries in milk given to children prevent flatulence. carminative. S.—alternate. Seed— acrid. useful in asthma. worms in wounds (Ayurveda). HABITAT :—Rain forests. coriaceous. Anola. Pharm. carminative. slender. Gokhale. often planted in Konkan. useful in burning sensation. Daula . Bitter. :—Throughout India. alterative. good for plethoric constitution. biliousness. cures tumours. Ceylon. strangury. succulent. urinary discharges. " Tridosha ". wild or planted. Anward. constipation. diseases of heart. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India. flowers. racemes minute. erysipelas.—Euphorbiaceæ. Ceylon. L.—berry. Bhoza . fruit and seeds. bronchitis. fairly common near Gerasappa Ghats. 42-II-1932). Seeds have been found an efficacious remedy in tape-worms (Sakharam Arjun) Embelia is effective against tape-worm only. PARTS USED :—Root. Triphala. piles. elliptic-lanceolate. vomiting. Fl. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). sweats. like a pepper corn when dried. Dhatriphala. USES :—The seeds are used as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worms. urinary discharges. antipyretic. alterative. Adiphala.) FAM. Ther. Ambala. good appetiser. Malaya. China. hemicrania. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . bronchitis. vulnerary. Fr. t. nearly globose. Western Ghats. Fl. HABITAT :—In deciduous forests. branches long. NS. anthelminitic. laxative. DISTR. Nellika . many. bark. Fruit along with liquorice root is used for the purpose of strengthening body and preventing the effects of age (Sushruta). jaundice. PARTS USED :—Fruit. paler and silvery beneath. laxative. dry. :—Hilly parts of the State. smooth. DISTR. cooling. :—A large scandent shrub. Embelic myrobalan. dyspnoea. anuria. Amlika. Malay Islands. LOC. Kanara. with a sharp bitter taste. Amla. thirst. anthelmintic . :— E. et. alexiteric. whole suface covered with minute reddish sunken glands. It is a useful and safe remedy against tape-worms (A. LOC. dries wound discharges . G. shining above. ascites. Paranjpe and G. reddens urine. aphrodisiac. Amalaka.—in lax panicles.

Mamejavo .—sessile. USES :—The plant is very bitter and is used in Madras as stomachic. M.—Gentianaceæ. Seed infusion is used in eye diseases. K. Fl. useful in heart-diseases.). ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES Merr.—Aug. sub-quadrangular or terete. Tans. LOC. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. opposite. Tiktapatra. liver complaints. PROPERTIES AND USES: —Plant is pungent and very bitter. S. Ind.—sessile. purifies body humours (Yunani). expectorant. astringent. Celyon. Milky juice is good application to offensive sores. M. piles. ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE Blume. Dyes. Hallekayiballi. tonic. biliousness. Chhotakirayat. Fl. Mabhipaka. Fruit—acrid. Garambi. DISTR. 3-nerved. t. R. NS. Fruit is one of the most important sources of Vitamin C. high. Doddakampi. Giant's rattle. used as laxative and astringent. NS. Country. Mackary bean. USES :—Root. cold in the nose. C—infundibuliform. Grey). (ENTADA SCANDENS Benth. bark and fruit are astringent.-Nov. West Indies. Flowers refrigerant and aperient. tropical Africa. eye troubles. in axillary clusters all along the stem. Leaves used in infusion with fenugreek seeds in chronic dysentery and are also considered a bitter tonic. It is also tonic and laxative (Pharm. FAM. anthelmintic. rounded apex. stops nasal hæmorrhage. :—Konkan. immersed in water in a new earthen vessel a whole night yield an infusion which is used as a collyrium in ophthalmia. diuretic and laxative. HABITAT :—More frequent near the sea. Exudation from fruitincisions is used as an external application in eye-inflammation. :—A perennial glabrous herb. white. Lady nut. It may be applied cold or warm (Surg. thirst.) FAM. lobes 5. sour. variable. stems erect or procumbent. aperient. Sind. Kadvinayi. :—G. cooling. Gujarat. vulnerary. Decoction prepared from fruit combined with Hirada and Beheda is useful in chronic dysentery and biliousness. LOC. Fruit Trees. :—E. Sk. H. narrowed at the base. . cures fever and "Vata" (Ayurveda). ellipsoid. Madvinashi. Tanavadi. Dried fruits.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Saurashtra. Nahu. improves appetite.— capsule. LOC. mid-nerve strong. Malaya. Garbe. Fr. COM. L. CHAR. M. In the Konkan juice of fresh bark with honey and turmeric is given in gonorrhœa. The plant is crushed and applied locally in snake-bite (Blatter). branched from the base. It is one of the ingredients of " Triphala ". See—Timbers. Nagajivha. Unripe fruit is cooling.MEDICINAL PLANTS 97 Flowers—cooling. 10—50 cm. :—Throughout the greater part of India. COM.

shining and brown. Ceylon. stomachic. Flowers used in biliousness and ear troubles (Ayurveda). hot. main rachis grooved ending in a bifid tendril. Fl. Mullumurige. cure urinary discharges. Pangara. ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. 30-90 cm..98 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. along sea-coast above high-water.—2pinnate. COM. for allaying the bodily pains and warding off cold. K. smooth.—6-15. Halivan. Pegu. Pangara.—yellow. branches terete. Panarvo. Kantakinshuka. Peninsula. rigidly coriaceous. improve appetite. Kernels are also used by hill people as febrifuge. Paribhadra. Hongara. 3. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Root emmenagogue. H. :—E. Sk. Arakan. W. Fl. in debility and glandular swellings . Bangaro.. compressed.. DISTR. thick. leaflets 7-5 x 2. t. Var.—in panicled or simple spikes 15-25 cm. Mochi-wood. Mandara. (ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. C. inflammations. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. is commonly taken by Indian women for some days immediately after delivery. pinnae 2—3 pairs. Sd. Tennaserim. The plant contains a glucoside and an alkaloid.5-10 cm. cures " Kapha" and " Vata". :—Central and Eastern Himalayas. PROPERTIES AND LOC. woody. bark.) FAM. Dadap. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. Planted as ornament. :—Coast forests of Malabar. indented between the seeds.S. bark used in dysentery. Mandara.3-2 cm.7-5x7. M. the tropics generally. oblong or obovate. Raktapushpa. :—An immense woody climber with a thick trunk. Fr. ORIENTALIS Merr. PARTS USED :—Seeds. L. DISTR. Nepal. 4. Seeds are used in pains of the loins. they are given internally as an emetic. . often along river banks.—pod. diam. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Seed powder mixed with water is given as a drink to buffalo calves for worms during the first two or three weeks. flowers. Salaki. Phandra . wide and 3-8 cm. Panderavo. mixed with spices. Leaves—bitter. USES :—Powdered kernel. LOC. dark green. slightly curved. orbicular. anthelmintic. Panjira. axillary or from the nodes of old branches . Planted as support for pepper vines. Indigenous along sea-coast from Bombay to Kanara. long. leaves. stalked. The plant is used as a fish-poison. PARTS USED :—Root. G. :—Konkan and N. for grapevines in Nasik district. N. LOC. Indian coral-tree.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).-May. glabrous.— Mar. Kanara. Sundribans. long. Andamans and Nicobar.5-5-7 cm. :—North Kanara and the Konkan Ghats.

LOC. Fl. Leaves are applied externally to disperse venereal buboes. useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Ceylon. it is anthelmintic. t. 15-50 cm. M. COM. The plant extract has sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory and genitourinary tract (Koman). gland minute. See—Timbers. Fresh leaf-juice is used for the relief of ear-ache and as an anodyne in toothache. :—E. Sd. high.—involucres numerous. Australian asthma herb. Decoction is used in asthma and chronic bronchial affections. G. Plant juice is given in dysentery and colic and the milk applied to destroy warts.—capsule. Mondukalli. Vajradruma. Pusitoa. base unequal-sided. Nevli. obliquely oblong-lanceolate. Shirthahar. Milk hedge.) FAM. COM. Kodukalli. Dudhi. Nagpur 1931). G. CHAR. Sc. FL. rugose. (EUPHORBIA PILULIFERA Linn. HABITAT :—Growing in waste places and cultivated lands. the plant has a great reputation and is believed to be a sovereign remedy for diseases of respiratory tracts. It is also prescribed in gonorrhœa. Milk bush. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI Linn. Achchegida. Dudhi.—Euphorbiaceæ. Dudanali. NS. NS. . Fr. Sk. dark green above. 18th Ind. :— E. bowel complaints and cough in children. Sher.MEDICINAL PLANTS 99 LOC. Dandalio thora. Duddi. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. reddish brown. M. serrulate or dentate. pale beneath. —throughout the year. K. and to relieve pain of the joints. H.—ovoid-trigonous. :—Annual herb.—opposite. Indian tree spurge. branches often 4-angled. Bahukshira. The plant contains an alkaloid. Sahud. appressedly hairy. with or without a limb.—Euphorbiaceæ. EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Dandasruha. Bottugalli. USES :—In the indigenous system of medicine. most tropical and sub-tropical countries. Sk. crowded in small axillary globose cymes. L. Paradeshi thora . Sendh. globose. Cong. Pill-bearing spurge. Dudhi. USES :— Bark is used as febrifuge and anti-bilious. In the Konkan juice of young leaves is used to kill worms in sores. Root is given to allay vomiting and the plant to nursing mothers when supply of milk fails. :—Common everywhere in fields and open spaces throughout the State DISTR. FAM. The plant contains an alkaloid and an essential oil. Govardhan. Plant is chiefly used for worms. Perfusion experiments show a depression of the heart (Dikshit and Kameshwar. Young roots of whiteflowered variety are pounded and given with cold milk as an aphrodisiac. H. K. hispid with long often yellowish hairs . erect or ascending. PROPERTIES AND LOC.

Common during the rains in the Deccan plains. :—Throughout the State. :—Native of East Africa. stone in bladder (Yunani). Konkan and Gujarat. USES :—The Mohamedan physicians believe that the plant has the power to strengthen brain and memory. LOC. It is used as a febrifuge with cumin and milk. Vishnugandhi.-Aug. . Sd— glabrous. :—Cutivated as a hedge plant all over the State. alexiteric. The leaves are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic bronchitis and asthma. tonic. mostly female. anthelmintic. teething of infants . t.—small. USES :—Fresh milky juice is applied in warts and used as a rubefacient embrocation in rheumatism . naturalised in India. usually clothed with long hairs . high. elliptic-oblong. spreading. enlargement of spleen. involucres clustered in the forks of branchlets. Shyamakranta . Juice is purgative. Nilpushpi. peduncles very long. thin. employed to raise blisters. stems many. jaundice. silky hairy. cocci velvety. colic.—ovoid. L. H. brightens intellect.—capsule. LOC.-light blue. Vishnukranta. 4valved. biliousness. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Sk. polished. dyspepsia. tumours. alterative. dropsy. L. Fr. It is reputed to be a sovereign remedy for dysentery. The plant is astringent and is used in internal hæmorrhage. 6-13 mm. leucoderma. milk is alexiteric.—many. rootstock woody . whooping cough. branches erect. campanulate.— capsule. globose. more than 5 cm. axillary. FAM. NS. CHAR. useful in bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Fl. The plant contains an alkaloid. It is a good alterative in syphilis and good application in neuralgia. about 6 m. LOC. epilepsy. improves complexion and appetite (Ayurveda). :—G. prostrate. HABITAT :—Grassy places in rather poor soils. base acute. smooth. smooth.-Sep. wiry. K.100 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. useful in abdominal troubles. carminative. useful in biliousness. tropical and sub-tropical countries. leprosy. Ceylon. t. DISTR. Fl.—Convolvulaceæ. and with oil to promote growth of hair. DISTR. LOC. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES Linn. Vishnukranti. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Sd. asthma. Fl. Given with butter it is said to cure affections of the spleen and to act as a purgative in colic and bowel complaints. leprosy and leucorrhoea. Kalisankhavali. branchlets whorled. long (appearing in rainy season) . HABITAT :—Cultivated in dry districts. linear. :—A perennial herb. terete. Jhinkiphudardi. also as an alterative. COM. long. useful in gonorrhœa. thick like quill. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. tumours and "Vata" (Ayurveda).-July-Nov. Vishnukranta. :—Sind. Fr. solitary or sometimes 2. pungent. :—A small tree. M. almost leafless. PARTS USED :—Plant and juice. carminative.

acute. Mediterranean. leaflets linear. yellowish brown. Cooling.-Aug. Prabhodhini. smooth. Fl. Arabia. glandular hairy. arising from between the stipules . spitting of blood. quadrangular. Gujarat. Punjab.2 cm. M. petioles deeply striate. CHAR. emmenagogue. lower half white.—very variable in size and form sessile. Kashaya. also used in chronic fevers. shining. purifies blood (Ayurveda). 1-3 foliate. largely used as a bitter and astringent tonic. Maval. :—An erect annual. L. removes "Vata". Dusparsha. infusion made with hot water is used as a bath in fevers. vomiting. root fibrous.-Oct. :—G. the upper blue. M." asthma. stomatitis. N. Rajasthan. cures dysentery. Iran. FAM. in copious terminal cymes . high.—Gentianaceæ. removes "Vata. The dried stalks are sold in South India under the name of country kirayat. typhoid. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. DISTR. flattened. 1-seeded cocci. Sk. small. Barachirayat. dropsy and delirium and in many disorders arising from poisoning. t. H. LOC. It is given to children as a prophylactic in small-pox (Bellew). erysipelas. :— H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 101 EXACUM BICOLOR Roxb. M. scarcely branched.— showy.—capsule. Fr. PARTS USED :—Leaf stalks. L. :—Common in the Deccan in grain fields. fever.—opposite. about 1. it is reputed as a suppurative in cases of abscesses from thorns. cooling. it is pounded and bound upon the neck swellings and for scrofula. HABIT :—Weed of cultivation. westwards to Afghanistan. urinary discharges. ophthalmia. FERONIA ELEPHANTUM Corr. Ghats. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-acrid and bitter.—solitary. in chronic bronchitis. NS. Country. it has got cooling properties. thirst. smooth. toothache. Waziristan. Sd. used for cooling mouth in stomatitis. W. Coimbatore. sessile. pale rose-coloured. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant possesses tonic and stomachic properties and may well be substituted for Gentian (Pharm. Upper Gangetic plains. Atmamuli. pyramidal to the apex. COM. FAM. deeply 5-partite. Fr. Circars. LOC. Fl. Ind. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. CHAR. Mysore. Fl.— ovoid. Deccan hills and S. reduces tumours. Bark is used in scabies. Dhamasa. Udichirayat. elliptic or lanceolate.—Zygophyllaceæ. :— Sind. :—A small spiny erect undershrub.-Nov. obliquely obovate. alexipharmic. :—Konkan. more or less glandular. ovate. asthma. FAGONIA ARABICA Linn. DISTR. reaching 60 cm.-Dec. :—Madras State. stipules 2 pairs of sharp slender thorns. 5-nerved. Hinguna. C—lobes 4-5. Ustarkhar. ellipsoid. good for liver troubles. COM. Dhamaso . NS. Dhanavi. FL. t. LOC. long. Leaves useful in biliousness and leucoderma (Yunani). of 5. the middle the largest.). . stem. USES :—Plant useful as an application to tumours . Baluchistan.

CHAR. K. sending down to the ground many aerial roots. and gall flowers HABITAT:—Monsoon and rain forests. Vadlo . binding diuretic. Avaroha. Vata. Leaves—very astringent. G. Kapitha. Fruit—sour . often planted. DISTR. Self-sown. Kapipriya. refrigerant . H. Ceylon. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-sour. ovate to elliptic.—Rutaceæ. In Cambodia thorns are used as styptic in menorrhagia. female. Nyagrodha. Vad. dysentery. Bargat. G. Bargad. FICUS BENGALENSIS Linn. reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhœa. Elephant or wood apple. astringent. India. Unripe fruit is astringent and is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. tumours. K. pulp good for stomatitis and sore-throat. L.:— Large evergreen tree 30 m. Ghats. Balin. :—Indigenous in S.. Trees with a very large spread of crown are found in Poona and Satara. FAM. antiscorbutic and in the form of sherbat or chutny with the addition of salt and spices forms a good stomachic. alexipharmic. shining above. aphrodisiac. Bahupada. liver and lungs . COM. country and N. Pulp of the ripe fruit is aromatic. removes biliousness. NS. common in the Tapi Valley. hiccup. cures cough. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Kapitthashtaka Churna-used in chronic diarrhœa and dysentery with loss of appetite and in throat affections. asthma. S. ophthalmia. Grahiphala. Fr. good for throat. tonic to heart. Bhringi. Bar. strengthening to gums . H. COM. with spreading branches. Pulp is also used in some affections of gums and throat. vomiting . PARTS USED :—Leaves. difficult to digest.—Moraceæ. Oil—acrid (Ayurveda). Kavit. with male. heart diseases. Malura. Vad. thirst. Monkey fruit. " Tridosha". consumption. diam. Sk. Kanara. M.— globose. HABITAT :—Dry open situation . Dadhiphala. Banian tree. Seeds—antidote to poison. Java. Ala. often cultivated. :— E. blood impurities. Sk. Byala. Goli. useful in biliousness. fatigue. Belada.—coriaceous. Kotha. :—Cultivated all over the State. " Vata ". about 2 cm. LOC. . Fruit Trees. Manmadha.102 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FAM. See—Timbers. acrid. Kavitha.5 cm.:—Planted throughout the plains in avenues and roadside trees in W. Kavath. leucorrhoea. Jatala. gum exuding from the stem is used in place of true gum arabic . high. Leaves are aromatic and carminative and are used in the bowel complaints of children. cordate or rounded base. relieves pain due to stings of wasps and other insects (Yunani). NS. 10-20 X 5-12. which afterwards develop into separate trunks. Kait. Vat. M. :—E. LOC. M. USES :—Bark is prescribed for biliousness . fruit and seeds. Alada. LOC. Kathel. refrigerant. Kathinyaphala. Kothun.

W. hill ranges of S. useful in leucoderma. bruises. Anjura. Afghanistan. Cultivated in N. thirst. liver and spleen diseases. USES :—Milky juice that exudes from the tree is externally applied for pains. In Europe roasted figs are used as poultice in gum boils. Pulp is mucilaginous and is esteemed as pectoral emollient for coughs. DISTR. demulcent. K. useful in "Kapha". ringworm. Fruit—antipyretic purgative. Seeds are cooling and tonic. seeds and milky juice. PARTS USED :—Root and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-cooling. biliousness. Root—tonic. :—Grown largely in the Purandhar taluka of the Poona district. Sacred Plants. paralysis. useful in piles.—Moraceæ. useful in "Vata". Bark-infusion is a powerful tonic and is said to have specific properties of reducing blood sugar in diabetes. . gonorrhœa. USES :—Fruit is emollient. useful in inflammation . Sk. lithotriptic. HABITAT :—Cultivated in poor soils. the fresh and dried fruits are used in constipation. Milky acrid juice from fresh green fruits destroys warts. COM. leaves. Fig. Kakodumbar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Astringent to bowels. Dharwar. W. vomiting. aphrodisiac. laxative. tonic. dangerous for eyes (Yunani). H. :— E. Grown scattered elsewhere. LOC. FICUS CARICA Linn. India. erysipelas. Aerial root is styptic. G. applied to teeth as a remedy in toothache. M. India. Fibres. nose bleeding (Ayurveda). vaginal complaints. lessens inflammations. root-fibres. nutritive. fever. See—Famine Plants. boils and carbuncles. Asia and Mediterranean. Milky juice— aphrodisiac. Bijapur. Anjir. ulcers. NS. Anjir.MEDICINAL PLANTS 103 DISTR. stimulates hair-growth. PARTS USED :—Bark. A poultice from dried figs in milk removes unpleasant odours from ulcers and cancers. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and Western Peninsula. maturant. :—Baluchistan. biliousness. inflammations. useful in syphilis. inflammation of liver (Yunani). Anjir. nose-diseases. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts. diseases of head and blood. weakness. leprosy. It is considered valuable application to cracked foot-soles. Infusion of young buds useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. alexiteric. Fruit contains vitamins A and C See—Fruit Trees. FAM. Anjir. Simeyatu . diuretic. pain in chest cures piles. LOC. in rheumatism and lumbago. Milky Juice—expectorant. LOC. leprosy (Ayurveda). vulnerary. dysentery. Leaves are applied heated as poultice.

Bark useful in asthma and piles. Pippala. Umbro. FAM. :—E. burning sensation. Sacred Plants. vagina. G. Pipli. uterus . burning sensation. acrid. DISTR. H. Rumadi. common in Western Ghats and Konkan. cummin. Vriksharaj. good for gravid uterus. :—E. See—Timbers. Fruit boiled in milk is a good remedy for visceral obstructions. ulcers. Gular. biliousness. Pimpal. leaves and fruits. nose bleedings. Bark. bark. galactagogue. leprosy. M. Udumbara. Shuchidruma. K. :—Wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts. diseases of kidney and spleen. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root used in hydrophobia. DISTR. Bath made from fruit and bark is regarded as a cure for leprosy.:—Planted near temples and villages throughout the State. USES :—An infusion of bark and leaves is astringent and has been employed as mouth wash in spongy gums and also internally in dysentery. G. Umar. leaves. COM. Bodhidruma.—Moraceæ. Bark is cooling. (Yunani). :—Widely spread throughout India. Lalka. Milk—aphrodisiac. NS. useful in "Kapha". Ripe fruit— alexipharmic. biliousness. styptic. good for foul taste. Pipal. FAM. Umbar. :—Throughout the State near villages. bark.104 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) FICUS GLOMERATA Roxb. M. LOC. cocoanut spathe and mixed with vinegar. given in leucorrhoea. PARTS USED :—Root. planted all over. K. urinary discharges. Leaves—astringent to bowels . Sk. Ragi. HABITAT :—Planted. useful. PROPERTIES AND USES :—All parts cooling. Fruit— useful in dry cough. Peepal tree . Hemadugdha. LOC. Bark infusion is given in diabetes. ground with onions. Sk. Ashwatha mara. fatigue. menorrhagia. Pavitraka. causes "Kapha" and intestinal worms (Ayurveda). fruit. Bark-powder with gingelly oil is applied to cancerous affection. PARTS USED :—Root. Yajniya HABITAT :—Near villages and along the banks of streams and rivers. Atti. Ashvatha.—Moraceæ. . LOC. vulnerary. allays thirst. Jari. Ashes—diuretic and useful in gleet. Umar. leucorrhoea. tonic. COM. NS. Fruit—astringent to bowels. blood diseases. Bengal and Madhya Bharat. Gular-Country fig. Arani. Demera. FICUS RELIGIOSA Linn. Yajnika. Pipers. in diseases of blood. The fresh juice of ripe fruit is used as an adjunct to a metallic preparation given in diabetes and other urinary disorders. Powder of young leaves mixed with honey is given in bilious affections. is given to cattle in rinderpest. Pippala. In Bombay sap is applied to mumps and other inflammatory glandular enlargements and is given with cummin and sugar in gonorrhœa. good for bronchitis. loss of voice. H. latex. menorrhagia and haemoptysis. Pipal.

Badisoppu. M. Dried fruit pulverised and taken in water for a fortnight removes asthma. Swadukantaka. Mullutari. a paste of powdered bark is used as an absorbent in inflammatory swelling. HABITAT :—Hills. Akrani. LOC. SAPIDA Roxb. Fennel. Tambat. Fruit is laxative and helps digestion. astringent in leucorrhoea. appetising and digestive. :—E. Sk. In Ceylon bark-juice is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening gums. Country and N. Gum is given along with other ingredients in cholera. fruit. Root-bark good in stomatitis. promotes granulations. M. :— G. Powder of dried bark is used in cases of anal fistulae. Fruit—purgative. Handi Kandai. Sacred Plants. Shalina. NS. Soupa. Tender shoots boiled in milk and mixed with sugar make a very nutritious drink. Satpura. Bhakal. Bilangra . H. USES :—Bark is astringent and is useful in gonorrhœa. FŒNICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Variari. common in the Peninsula. Kanara Jungles. Root-bark—aphrodisiac. Root good for gout. Burma. K. Bhanber. Fruits are sweet. aphrodisiac. Circars. M. Shateya. Khandesh. Finkel. PROPERTIES AND LOC. The juice is employed in hiccup.—Umbelliferæ. and produces sterility in women. FAM. The seeds are ground to powder with turmeric and rubbed all over the mother's body after child-birth to prevent rheumatic pains from exposure to damp winds. See—Timbers. gum. LOC. heart diseases. good for lumbago. :—Hills of the Konkan and Deccan. Variali. Hunmunki. Sk. In Madagascar the fruit is considered diuretic and root is prescribed in nephritic colic. N. bark useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. W. See—Timber. G. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalaya from the Indus eastwards. seeds. Gajale. upper Gangetic plain. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Bhuripushpa. Katar. They are given in jaundice and enlarged spleen. Hettarimullu. cleans ulcers. COM. . Paker. bark. Kankod . Potika. COM NS. Badishep. Young bark useful in bone fractures. K. Seeds useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). FAM.—Flacourtiaceæ. checks vomiting (Yunani). FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Herit Var. USES :—The bark is applied to the body with that of Albizzia at intervals during intermittent fever (Campbell). Leaves of young shoots are used as purgative and are useful in skin-diseases. Fodder Plants. S. DISTR. Tapaspriya.MEDICINAL PLANTS 105 thirst. Ghats.

Coorg. biliousness. Leaves—improve eyesight. demulcent and emollient. Kokam . DISTR. (Mhaskar and Caius). K.— decompound. tumours. often cultivated. Ghats. cures "Tridosh". causing constipation . diuretic. Sk. Wild mangosteen. burning sensation. USES :—Bark is astringent.6-0. LOC. The oil of the seeds is much used for the preparation of ointments. dark green. See—Timbers. Oils. Europe but now diffused over temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. strengthen eyes (Yunani). :—Endemic in W. aromatic and carminative. Fr. bracts and bracteoles absent. " Vata ". thirst. Kanara. yellow. leprosy (Ayurveda). ridges prominent. H. fruit and seeds. Ghats south of Bombay. It is used as a local application to ulcerations. aphrodisiac. Kokam. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Tintidika. eye-diseases. :—W. It is much used as a nutritive. :—Apparently a native of S. PARTS USED :—Bark. laxative. COM. alexiteric.—ellipsoid. promotes "Kapha" and "Pitta".—Guttiferæ. anthelmintic. lessen inflammations. annual. Syrup from the fruit-juice is used for bilious affections. leaves (rarely).9 m. LOC. Konkan and N. It is an admirable corrective of flatulence. Wynaad. pains and heart-diseases (Ayurveda). high. suppositories and other pharmaceutical purposes. it relieves griping of bowels in infants. Kokam . dysentery. cure intestinal troubles when applied to abdomen of children. seeds-carminative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-hot. The oil is called Kokam oil or Kokam butter. kidney. G. NS. Root is regarded as purgative and leaves diuretic. useful in diseases of chest. M. young leaves are used in cases of dysentery. wounds etc. See—Condiments and Spices. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forests. FL. stomachic. In Madras fruits are used in venereal diseases. :—A tall glabrous. anthelmintic. common in S. Oil from the seed is a fairly good vermicide against hook-worms. cardiotonic. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit destroys "Vata". fever. LOC. in headache. amenorrhœa. Mulgala.106 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. :—Extensively cultivated in the Kaira district of Gujarat. Atyamla. appetiser. DISTR. useful in bleeding piles. furrows vittate. Amlabija. difficult to digest. carpophore 2-partite. . 0. FAM. GARCINIA INDICA Chois. spleen. wounds. galactagogue. stimulant. ultimate segments linear. dysentery. PARTS USED :—Roots. Ratambi. Tittidika . improves appetite and allays thirst. cough and asthma.—in large umbels . cultivated to a small extent in Ahmedabad and Satara districts. leaves and seeds. :—E. USES :—used as stimulant. L. Murjinhalli. fissures of lips. cultivated extensively in Ratnagiri District.

LOC. Dikamali. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Medicinal properties are the same as those of G. oblong. Northern ghats of Madras State. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous forests. common on laterite in southern parts of N. G. K. Fl. lucida. Burma. high.-subsessile.. all dry districts of Madras State. FAM. NS. Bikke. unarmed. Western Peninsula. PARTS USED:-Gum. with many longitudinal elevated lines and a stout beak . same as for G. t. :—A deciduous shrub. Dikemali. :—India. lucida (Ayurveda). Pinda.—Rubiaceæ. HABITAT :—Open situations. Suvirya. shining. buds resinous. Hingu. first white then changing to yellow. It is a successful anthelmintic in cases of round worms. opaque. astringent to bowels. elliptic-obovate.8 cm. C.—Feb. used commonly in cutaneous diseases and to keep off flies and worms.8 m. Dekamari. The gum exuding from wounded bark is called Dikemali. used as an astringent for clearing foul ulcers and for allaying irritation of the gums and checking diarrhœa during teething of children. FAM. Fl. :—Common from Konkan southwards. L. LOC. See—Timbers. not fragrant.—Rubiaceæ. DISTR. It is mostly employed internally in flatulent dyspepsia and nervous disorders due to dentition. It is much employed by farriers to kill maggots in cattle sores.5-3.5x22. As sold in the bazar it is hard. Fr.5 cm. externally it is "antiseptic and stimulating. Cambi resin tree. Dakamali. The plant yields a gum Dikemali. DISTR. M. USES :—Gum is used internally in dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence. Peninsula). LOC. USES :—The resin from the plant is carminative and antispasmodic. Sk. :—E. long. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Increases appetite. relieves pain of bronchitis. COM. Dikkamalli. 4. Dikamari. oblong or ellipsoid. -June. COM. Jantuka. :—Western peninsula from the Satpuda range southwards .-tubular. :—India (W. See—Gums and Resins. CHAR. GARDENIA LUCIDA Roxb. vomiting and constipation (Ayurveda). LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 107 GARDENIA GUMMIFERA Linn. .-sessile. Kanara. 1-3 together. Gums and Resins.—2. PARTS USED :—Gum. NS. greenish yellow and of a repulsive odour. H. about 1.

:—Common below ghats in jungles on Konkan side. HABITAT :—Common in forests and in low jungles throughout the State.2 cm. useful in chronic ulcers. FAM.—capsule. Garbhapatani. Kalikari. . Root powdered and reduced to paste is applied to the navel and suprapubic region and vagina to promote labour. The root contains alkaloids gloriosine and superbine.—sessile. filaments long spreading. perianth segments reaching 6. the tubers are used in cataplasm for neuralgia. 7. scattered or opposite.5 X 15 X 2-4. branching climber . Fl. Cochin-China. Sivasaktibalb . changing colours from greenish yellow. Nangulika. H. :—G. Akkitang hall.—large. Starch obtained from the root by washing is used in gonorrhœa. bitter. PARTS USED :—Tuber. Root—useful in bowel complaints flower— for fever and thirst. DISTR. Tropical Africa. Malay Peninsula. inflammations. orange. In Guinea. root-stock of arched. The root-stock of one divides dichotomously and that of the other does not divide at all. tip ending in a tendril-like spiral. margins wavy. leprosy. ovate lanceolate. COM. M. Sk.—Liliaceæ. In case of retained placenta. Paste formed with water is a useful anodyne application for bites of poisonous insects. FL.. On the other hand it seems to possess alterative and tonic properties.108 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GLORIOSA SUPERBA. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). itching. K. Its use as an abortifacient has been mentioned by old Sanskrit writers... NS. Fr. axillary . fleshy-white cylindric tubers 15-30x2.5 cm.3 cm. Linn. anthelmintic. USES :—Root is not so poisonous as is generally supposed. abortifacient. LOC. Planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. leaves and flowers. Indai. acrid. t. thirst. paste of the root is applied to the palms and soles. The former is supposed to be male. linear oblong. tall. Karianag. sometimes whorled. and crimson from blooming to fading. :—Throughout tropical India. CHAR. LOC. abdominal pains. solid. Languli. used in bleeding piles and thirst (Yunani). See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. stems annual. Kalihari. In Madras it is used as an external application in parasitical affections of the skins. :—Herbaceous. Ceylon. laxative. Kulhari. solitary. Kathari. L. alexiteric. used to remove placenta from uterus. expectorant. Tuber— astringent. given off from young tubers . There are two varieties of the plant.-July-Oct. Agnimukhi. scarlet. The juice of the ground leaves is used to destroy lice in the hairs. heating. Khadyanag. piles.5-3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tuber-pungent. Dudhio vachhonag. In Bombay it is supposed to be anthelmintic and is administered to cattle affected by worms. linear-lanceolate. Huliyuguru.

anthelmintic . . scattered in monsoon forests. GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. anæmia. :—Throughout India. neglectum is cultivated in Gujarat and Saurashtra. anasarca. K. Kumbudi. Karibatti. Shiwan. scalds etc. thirst. Sk. Madhya Bharat. DISTR. flowers and fruit. NS. Provinces. made into paste. Shivani. improves appetite . Cashmere tree. White teak. It is used in form of infusion or weak decoction. H.—Verbenaceæ. leaves. Devkapas. burning sensation. stomachic. Ceylon. common on Satpuda. Gumbhar. Shiwan. Oils. leprosy. piles. useful in fevers . Savan. USES :—Root is an ingredient of dashamula which is in great repute among Hindoo physicians. useful in leprosy and blood diseases. promotes hair-growth. " Tridosha ". Gupsi. G. G. In Bombay juice of young leaves is used as demulcent in gonorrhœa. Shivan . Leaf-juice is used to remove foetid discharges and worms from wounds. flowers and seeds. Hanji. consumption. LOC. W.:—E. alterative. Petal's squeezed and soaked in human or cow's milk are used as soothing and effective application for conjunctivitis in infants. catarrh of the bladder etc. USES:—Root is used in the treatment of fever. Var. Rajasthan and N. laxative. honey and sugar increases secretion of milk. M. chronic cystitis. indigestible. Coomb teak. :—Throughout the State. In the Konkan. gleet. Seeds exercise some good influence over gonorrhœa. Root taken with liquorice. Sind. useful in "Vata". fevers. Gambhari. H. Philippines.MEDICINAL PLANTS 109 GMELINA ARBOREA Roxb. aphrodisiac. Mahabhadra. useful in hallucinations. Malaya. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. Fruit— diuretic. K. See—Fibres. Shripani. LOC. consumption and some catarrhal affections . thirst. M. strangury. ulcers. Root extract is bitter and tonic. leaves. Gambari. with patchouli leaves is used for promoting granulations in wounds. Kashmari. :—Throughout the State and about temples. Bachanige. :— Bengal. COM. FAM. urinary discharges. Gandhari. Deokapas. the root. HABITAT :—Grown in gardens and about temples. root is also stomachic and laxative. Karpasam. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. PARTS USED :—Root. vaginal discharges (Ayurveda). useful in indigestion. Khandesh. COM. Nurma . See—Timbers.—Malvaceæ. DISTR. :— E. tonic. cotton is very useful external remedy in burns. NS. abdominal pains. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. Sk. Devakapus. Tree cotton. FAM. Flowers—astringent. PROPERTIES AND LOC.

Cotton wool is a filter of atmospheric germs. increase flow of urine. Kapas . Dhamin. in hypochondria. M. Buttiyu-dippa. Rui. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated in black soils. Oils. good for throat . digestible. DISTR. H. FAM. Ripe fruit—sweet.—Tiliaceæ. Gujarat and S.. Cotton . Jana. DISTR. Seeds— ' galactagogue. Rui. Parapera. extensively in Gujarat. sour. removes " Vata ". aphrodisiac allays thirst and burning sensation. extensively cultivated. Baluchistan. Phalsa. leaf-juice good in dysentery.. seed poultice is a good application to burns and scalds. :—Grown largely in Saurashtra. PROPERTIES AND USES:— Flowers-cooling. :—Sind. Province (Pakistan). in hills near Poona. Syria. Egypt. expectorant and aphrodisiac. A. used in orchitis. Seeds are used as a galactagogue. Sk. (Yunani). HABITAT :—Cultivated. scabies .—Malvaceæ. Mesapotamia. Sk. removes " Vata" and biliousness. H. Anagnika. :—Cultivated in the State. poultice applied to burns' scalds. :— Cultivated in N. USES :—Decoction of root-bark used in dysmenorrhoea and suppression of menses produced by cold. W. Cotton seed oil makes a good liniment in rheumatic affections. Tadasala. :—E. In India they are used to procure abortion. dispel hullucinations and wanderings of mind . bark. Seeds are laxative. PARTS USED :—Root. preventing their access to wounds etc. enrich blood. Arabia and Asia Minor. allay thirst. Sutrapuspha. Mediterranean. cooling. aphrodisiac. :—G. NS. COM. K. M. Karihariyale. expectorant. Iran.Phalse. fruits and seeds. LOC. good for all kinds of inflammations. Roshana. M. PARTS USED :—Root. cures inflammations. Kapus. restore consciousness. S. Leaf-poultice applied externally hastens maturation of boils. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Unripe fruit-bitter. G. Leaves remove " Vata " . remove biliousness and " Kapha " . wild in Deccan. Arali. Pharuah. COM. fomentation for burning eyes . cure all ear-troubles. leaves. See—Fibres. causes " Kapha " and biliousness. Country. Afghanistan. GREWIA ASIATICA Linn. leaves with oil used as plaster in gouty joints. Badari. K. demulcent. NS. East Tropical Africa. as a nervine tonic they are given internally in headache and brain affection. FAM. acrid. probably in N. LOC. Hatti. F. tonic. In gynaecological practice gossypium is far better and safer than ergot. Infusion of young leaves is recommended in lax habits and preparing a vapour bath for anus in cases of tenesmus. All parts of plant are used in skin diseases. tonic. Phalsi. fruit. analgesic. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Tula. fevers and consumption. Parusha. Seed emulsion is given in dysentery. Karpas.110 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM Linn. Flower-syrup prescribed in all forms of insanity. Seeds—aphrodisiac. U. Kupas. laxative . heart and blood disorders.

diuretic and laxative properties together with their mineral contents mark the leaves as a prescription for the treatment of glycosuria (Mhaskar and Caius). useful in diarrhœa and fevers. Bastagandha. lanceolate. asthma. Fruit—sour. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests.-May. alterative. Sannagerse. L.—follicle. Sanngera. FAM. Tilparni. Arkapuspika. t. alexiteric. piles. Shrikala. USES :—It is emetic and expectorant. ulcers. Churota. DISTR. In Bombay the madrasi vaidyas recommend leaves in the treatment of furunculosis. H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 111 troubles. C. :—Throughout the State. Infusion of the bark is used as a demulcent. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. common in hedges in Dharwar district. Kanara coast. LOC. helps removal of dead fetus. should not be eaten raw. leucoderma. Adiyakharan. Kavali. Mabli. ovate. gleet and gonorrhœa (Yunani). Fresh leaves are chewed to reduce glycosuria. Caravella. In the Konkan dried and powdered leaves are used as an errhine.— with thin marginal wing. — Asclepiadaceæ. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). corona of 5 processes . LOC. removes urinary troubles and burning in vagina (Ayurveda). SK. yellow .—Capparidaceæ. CHAR. Small Indian ipecacuanha. K. Root and bark used in strangury. tonic. cures eye complaints (opacities of lens. M. anthelmintic. Fr. :E. strengthens chest and heart. much branched. Fl. usually single. NS.— opposite. India. K. H. Sd. Hulhul. Vakundi. GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE R. the stomachic stimulant. Ugragandha. FAM. biliousness. sweet. good in heart-diseases. :—A large woody climber. GYNANDROPSIS PENTAPHYLLA DC. stomachic. Sati talvani. Vishani. Merasingi. inflammations. Mardashingi. Ceylon. Kabari. Tropical Africa. elliptic. Gurmar. cooling. Karnasphota. base rounded or cordate . USES :—The fruit is one of the phala-traya or fruit triad of Sanskrit writers and possesses astringent and cooling properties. FL. Meshavalli. young stems densely pubescent. Pandhari tilwan. used as a snuff to promote discharge from nose. Sk. Hulhul. Tanmani. Leaves when chewed deaden the sense of taste. cornea. :— E. Karalia . . LOC. The leaves cause hypoglycaemia.— companulate . The Santals use the root-bark for rheumatism (Camphell).—in cymes . Kanphodi. COM. The ease of administration. Periploca of the woods. Br. Bark cures biliousness and "Vata". :—Western Peninsula. G. vitreous body) burning sensation. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. bronchitis. NS. G. acrid. COM. Bedki. Bundelkhand Saharanpur. Meshashingi.— Apl. PARTS USED :—Whole plant. M. S. a sherbat is prepared from the fruit. See—Fruit Trees. relieves thirst and hiccup. Mahabaleshwar and N.

5-9 cm. FAM. Gujarat. C.:—Tropical and sub-tropical Himalayas. Sd.2 m. leaflets subsessile. long . Kavargi. Avartant.—many. . CHAR. Marosi. gynophore 2-2. stomachic . ulcers. Deccan— Mahabaleshwar.12. spleen enlargement and bilious fevers . producing copious exudation. . Kewan. acute. DISTR.—capsule. removes "Vata". S.—Sterculiaceæ. Edamuri. HAMILTONIA SUAVEOLENS Roxb. with divaricate herbaceous branches . glabrous or pubescent above. leaves and seeds. USES :—A decoction of the root is said to be a mild febrifuge. Bruised leaves are rubefacient and. pain.—June. pubescent. Murdasing. t. COM. margins crenate-dentate. stipules triangular. LOC. Fr. tumours. :—A common weed in all tropical countries. They are used as a substitute for mustard and yield a good oil. FAM. Fl. :—M. the yellow variety good as a collyrium (Ayurveda). high. Fl. this is said to be a specific remedy and cures the ailment without any operation.5 cm. Leaf-juice is used as an anodyne for the relief of otalgia and catarrhal inflammation. tapering at both ends. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-hot. long. Katraj Ghat. Gidesa Jitasai.. :—A small deciduous shrub. hairy. in subglobose heads in terminal trichotomous panicles. pink . HABITAT:—Hills. earache. :—An annual erect herb 0. hairy. PARTS USED :—Root. stem and branches hairy. China. HABITAT :—Weed in waste places and cultivated fields. HELICTERES ISORA Linn. dark-brown .6—1. elliptic-lanceolate.—petals 4 with long slender claws. Murudseng. hills near Nagothana. Jonkaphal Maraphali. L. LOC. Kanara. Sd. elliptic-obovate. good in ascites. :—Konkan—Karanja Island. Murudi. t. H. hairy on the nerves beneath. hills in Supa Taluka. M. L. opposite. leaves are applied externally to boils to prevent the formation of pus. PARTS USED :—Root. white or blue.—Oct. NS. pedicels viscid hairy.5-20 X 3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-paste is applied to diabetic carbuncle.—Rubiaceæ.8-9 cm..—in dense bracteate racemes.—rather rigid. viscid. Sinhgad hills. M.—3-5 foliate. K. :—G. :—Deccan. Fr.112 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. Mrigashringa. petioles sometimes armed with small prickles . COM. Country. sessile. (Kirtikar and Basu).—muricate. vesicant. ellipsoid . Fl.—3-quetrous with loose lace-like covering. Sk. Fl. DISTR.—capsule. Seeds are anthelmintic and rubefacient and are employed internally for the expulsion of round-worms and externally as a counter-irritant. LOC.-Feb. Western Peninsula Madhya-Bharat. NS.

Hindisalse. rat-bites. purplish inside. 7. "Kapha". :—A perennial prostrate or twining shrub. cough. Hamadaberu . dark-green. good for brain. gargle good for toothache (Yunani). bilabiate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling aphrodisiac antipyretic. fevers. Durivel. alexiteric. Sd. tapering . liver and kidney diseases . See—Fibres. stem. Country. often variegated with white above. root-Stock woody . C.. M.—in axillary clusters 2-6 together. :— E. Anantmula. Ceylon. They are demulcent. bark and fruit. HABITAT :—In hedges. asthma. 5-6. HEMIDESMUS INDICUS R. eye troubles.—follicle cylindric. In the Konkan it is used in diabetes. Fr. :—Throughout the forests of the State : abundant in the undergrowth of many N. common in hedges. diarrhœa.MEDICINAL PLANTS 113 CHAR. thirst. spirally coiled. Utpalashariva. Fl. H. uterine complaints. USES :—The root-juice has a beneficial effect in epipyemia and stomach affections. a cure for scabies when applied locally (Yunani). useful in syphilis and leucoderma. L. M. :—From the Punjab and Bengal to Ceylon. astringent to bowels . and leaves. anti-galactagogue. Upalsali. Kapurimathuri. Root and stem—laxative. ovate orbicular. L. urinary discharges.-biferous.—numerous. lessens griping. :—Large shrub or small tree. young shoots clothed with stellate hairs. cures all skin-diseases. LOC. t. Malaya.— with silvery white coma . diaphoretic. Konkan. useful in gleet. obliquely cordate. stems thickened at the nodes . :—Upper Gangetie plain. joint-pains. Fl. Sk.-Dec. K. FAM. CHAR.— in cymes in opposite axils. Fl.—follicle of 5-6. eastwards to Bengal and to Sundribans and from Madhya Pradesh to S. Indian sarsaparilla . Root useful in hemicrania. “tridosh". leucorrhoea. DISTR. useful in piles. PARTS USED :—Root. antidiarrhœal. bronchitis. Magrabu. blood diseases.3 cm. and wasting diseases in children (Ayurveda). Upalsari. Stem lessens inflammation. COM. beaked. mildly astringent. G. astringent to bowels. FL. PARTS USED :—Root. LOC. India. Dhaval kashtha. asthma.— very variable. foul body odour. Br. Fruits are made into liniment for sores of the ear and they are administered internally for colic. Burma. :—Throughout the State. poisoning. Sugandhi-balli. Deccan and S. Fr. NS.—Asclepiadaceæ. low appetite.Sd. red at first fading to lead colour. . DISTR. "Vata' dysentery. Anantmula. greenish outside. long. demulcent. and useful in griping of bowels and flatulence in children. scabrous above. burning sensation.512. t — Aug. Australia and West Indies. Kanara ghat forests. The bark is used in diarrhœa and dysentery. syphilis. LOC. paralysis.5 X 5-10 cm. angular .—throughout the greater part of the year. irregularly crowded. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and bark expectorant. epileptic fits.—tubular. diuretic.

114 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. H. Clinical trials show that its medicinal value is in no way inferior to sarsaparilla (Chopra).—axillary.—Malvaceæ. :—Cultivated in gardens everywhere. :—A perennial shrub. Fr. Flowers are emollient and demulcent. etc. Sk. Shoe flower. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste . USES :—In Bombay the roots are dried and sold in the shops as a substitute for Althaea (Gulkhaira). useful in loss of appetite. Native country probably China. Kempupundrika. cm. then beaten into pulp with cumin and sugar. It is also diuretic. PARTS USED :—Root. flowers. bright red.5. Leaves are considered emollient and aperient. ovate or ovate lanceolate. Root is valuable in coughs. Raktapushpi. In the Konkan.. leaves. Jasum. strangury and irritable conditions of the genitourinary tracts. CHAR. G. pedicel jointed above the middle. Rudrapushpa. Powdered root mixed with cow's milk is given in cases of gravel and strangury. DISTR. In the Konkan milky juice is dropped into inflamed eyes.—no fruits produced in India. administered in the form of infusion in ardor-urinae. There are single and double forms with different colour shades of orange. Japapushpa. C. solitary. involucral bracts 5-7. magenta. K. syphilis and leucorrhoea. M. and as early as 1864. astringent. tubular below. diam. :— E. See—Ornamental Plants. It is prescribed usually in the form of syrup. uterine and vaginal discharges. and the powdered root for menorrhagia. promote growth of fœtus cause vomiting and intestinal worms. Jasuva. cooling.—7. yellow. Flowers fried in ghee check excessive menstruation (Ayurveda). glabrous. COM. fevers. Fl. Root roasted in plantain leaves. Jasut. urinary discharges. is a remedy in genito-urinary diseases. piles. t. tonic. NS. an oil made by mixing petal-juice and olive oil and boiling till water evaporates is useful as a stimulating application for the hair. staminal tube exerted far beyond the petals. Dasavala. It is also a refrigerant drink in fevers. fresh root-juice of the wild flower variety is given for gonorrhœa. skindiseases. The properties of the plant were recognised by the medical profession in Europe. red. Jasavand. LOC. L. Harivallaba. Aruna. Fl. demulcent. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout India.—during most of the year. irregularly serrate towards the top. petals thrice as long as the calyx. it was made officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia.—short petioled. entire near the base. Dasanihu. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. HABITAT :—Cultivated. seminal weakness. bark and petals are demulcent. . It is said to purify blood. remove burning of body. FAM. crimson. USES :—Root of the plant known as "Indian sarsaparilla" has long been employed as alterative and tonic. and mixed with ghee.

tropics of the old world. white.MEDICINAL PLANTS 115 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA Linn. Fr. L. :—E. :—A large woody much branched climbing shrub. sedative and refrigerant. Atimukta. hairy. asafoetida and molasses.— solitary. purple. HABITAT :—Near water-courses and in moist places.. Fl. Adimurtte Adirganti.—petals 5. Sd.3-7. fragrant. Ceylon.—5-7. 1. Sk.—capsule. Atimukta. across.5 cm. :—Cultivated in gardens throughout the State especially in Gujarat. (HIPTAGE MADABLOTA Geartn. Fl. elliptic-oblong. K. Lal ambari. CHAR. Rozelle. entire glabrous. clawed.5 cm. G. 2-lateral wings 2-cm. long. uppermost petal broader. Seed decoction is useful in cases of dysuria. See—Vegetables. Madhavi. Malati. LOC. Deccan. K. Kanara. erect. FAM.—Malvaceæ. In bilious conditions a drink is made by boiling it with water.-Dec. Sd. :—Cultivated.—1-3. Fl. 3-5 lobed. NS. calyx fleshy. Vasantduti. Ghats. base cuneate. :—Generally cultivated in hotter parts of India. orbicular. often blotched with purple with darker centre. covered with minute hairs . globose. 5th petal yellow at the base.—coriaceous.—purple with darker centres. L. Fr. H. Red sorrel. CHAR.—large. ovoid. and adding a little salt. much used in curries. on the margins. stem and branches purple. Kamuka. Lal ambadi. Grows abundantly on the W. Madmalati. NS. :—An annual. :—Throughout the State. M.—Malpighiaceæ. black-brown. flowers. The succulent calyx is used for the preparation of "Rozelle Jelly" and when dried is an article of diet like tamarind. Madhumalati. glabrous.—Oct.lobes oblong.) FAM. Fl. . petioles silky. Kampti. t. acuminate. Fibres. In Guinea leaves are much used as diuretic. Chandravalli. HIPTAGE BENGHALENSIS Kurz. COM. young parts silky. C. C. purple. :—G. PARTS USED :—Leaves. strangury and mild forms of dyspepsia and debility.—in erect racemes. Patwa.-Mar. long. Vasanti. Ragotpiti. Haladvel. beaked. pepper. 3-winged. Vasantduti. 10-18 X 4. involucral bracts 10. Pundi-bija or soppu. HABITAT. Kempupundrike. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES:—Leaves are regarded as emollient. serrate. COM. (lower leaves sometimes entire). mid-lobe the longest. H. Lal ambadi.— Jany. Madhavi. t. M. LOC. Madhavi.2-2 cm.—axillary. DISTR. fruits and seeds. fringed. Madhalata. Konkan. The fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties. Madhavi.

Assam. NS. Hale. PARTS USED :—Bark and leaves. cough. colic. lessens inflammations. often dotted with white spots. Ceylon. wounds. LOC. Kurchi tree. :—Throughout hotter parts of India. appetiser cure blood diseases. Kaling. tonic. astringent to bowels cure pains. LOC. The plant contains glusocide hiptagin. Karuindrayan.5 cm. anthelmintic. throat hairy inside.. :—E. acrid. LOC. Seeds—carminative. lumbago. good in chronic bronchitis. cures dysentery. Sd. diuresis (Yunani). common in deciduous monsoon forests from Bombay southwards. burning sensation. skin diseases. aphrodisiac. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests. Andamans. :—A large shrub or a small deciduous tree. boils.—Apocynaceæ. skin and spleen diseases. Karnatak. vulnerary. Kutaja. remove muscular pains . throughout India to Travancore and Malacca.116 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. cause "Vata". N. thirst. remove "Tridosh". PARTS USED :—Bark. Flowers— acrid. Kura. Nepal. used to fumigate the child and mother after delivery. t. FL. :—Throughout the State. bitter. Seeds—appetiser. Kodasige. insecticidal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves and Bark-hot. DISTR. USES :—In the Konkan root-bark infusion. L. Indrayana. useful in chronic rheumatism and asthma.—with deciduous coma of brown hairs . inodorous. fevers. Bark is a good sub-aromatic bitter (Graham). acrid. asthma. Veppale. COM.-June. Abu. flowers and seeds. urinary discharges. Bark constitutes the principal medicine for dysentery in Hindoo . G. USES :—Leaf-juice is an effectual insecticide and a valuable application in scabies. See—Ornamental Plants. Circars. China. Pandhara Kuda. burning sensation. Thailand (Siam). ulcers. strengthens gums. Mt. heating. Conessi bark tree. CHAR. piles. fatigue. leprosy. vulnerary. hallucinations (Ayurveda). white. biliousness. Madras State.—10-20 X 5-11. cool the brain. leucoderma . Dudhi. Burma. AND USES :—Bark—pungent. Kuda.—follicles 20-48 cm. cure skin diseases and leprosy (Ayurveda). Siwalik. biliousness. Sk.. styptic. broadly ovate or elliptic. given in chest affections. K. " Kapha". C—tubular. Leavesastringent. leaves. Kaduoindrajav. Malay Archipelago to Formosa and the Philippines. tonic. leprosy. FAM. Malay Peninsula. H. smoke good for piles. diarrhœa. bleeding piles. Karohi.— in terminal corymbose cymes . Kuda. thirst and inflammation. if rubbed well and frequently over the affected parts. long. Hath. galactagogue. good in headache. M. combined with that of Tinospora cordifolia is given for fevers of long standing. branchlets drooping. good in erysipelas. :—Tropical Himalayas from the Chenab westwards. Fr. Kudsalu. cylindric. Kumaon. HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA Wall. PROPERTIES. excessive menstrual flow. main nerves conspicuous .—Feb. Leaves are esteemed useful in cutaneous diseases. Bark—bitter. Fl. cooling.

bronchitis. pains in chest. :—Cultivated in Gujarat and Deccan as a rabi crop. Divya. is used in China and Malaya as peptic. Ymvah. especially cod-liver oil. anæmia. Its antidysenteric value compares favourably with that of any medicine in vogue. improves voice. COM. Gruel of parched grains is much used in cases of painful atonic dyspepsia. It is a bitter which increases appetite and digestive power. headache. LOC. HORDEUM VULGARE Linn. kurchine. —Cultivated chiefly in N. inflamed gums. FAM. :—E. H. Ind. K. Java. NS. demulcent and expectorant. USES :—Barley is demulcent and easy of digestion and therefore used in the dietary of the sick. Suj. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). They are also used after delivery. The simple administration of Kurchi tree bark gave surprisingly good results. . appetiser. They are astringent. Hayapriya. lowers the pulse. India. useful in bronchitis. useful in biliousness. asthma. febrifuge. It is a valuable vehicle for other medicines. good for ulcers. Partially germinated grain is a source of malt extract which is more nutritious as it contains dextrine. Sk. The grains contain vitamin B. Shaktu. Tasteless. dysentery and intestinal worms.—Gramineæ. Jav. Barley. Med. M. The plant is neither anthelmintic nor stimulant. malt sugar and diastase. allays thirst. 1928). nor styptic. Yava.MEDICINAL PLANTS 117 Pharmacopœia. and kurchicine. Gaz. LOC. Satu. burns. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. fattening. In Patna leaf-ashes are used for formation of cooling sherbats. Seeds combined with honey and saffron are made into pessaries which are supposed to favour conception. causes constipation. sweetish. Knowles. acrid. The antidiarrhœal properties are not dependant on any chemical constituent in particular but on the entire bark or seed (Caius and Mhaskar 1927). See—Food Plants. with radicle attached to it. Germinated barley. G. fevers (Yunani). PARTS USED :—Seeds. biliousness. (R. nor astringent. The bark contains alkaloids connesine. aphrodisiac. widely cultivated in temperate regions. stomachic. Jawa. DISTR. Javegodhi. useful in fevers. In Punjab stalk ashes are prescribed in indigestion. The decoction of barley (Barley water) is a valuable treatment in affections of mucous membrane and is excellent diluent drink in fevers. Aug. Jav. Bark dried and ground is rubbed over the body in dropsy. HABITAT :—Cultivated. diarrhœa. Its juice made into pills is used for diarrhœa and dysentery.

Kowti. PROPERTIES AND LOC.) FAM. Betaga. :—Throughout the Deccan and Konkan Ghats. M. S.5-23 X 3. K. Sd. Kshiradru. LOC. broadly ovate. :—K. FL. Country and Kanara. HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM Wall. Sk. white. Bihar.118 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIA Denn. good for the throat. Fl. Bhrijatuaka. Garudphala. CHAR. acuminate. :—W. Bandaru. flat. pungent. Bhutabi. :—Endemic from Konkan southwards. Sk. dry hills at the base of the Himalayas. Malabar. size of small apple. L. increases taste and appetite.. sometimes along river banks. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Apl. Fr.—berry.—solitary or in racemes. equal parts of oil and lime-water are used as a liniment.5 cm. tomentose. Peninsula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is hot. :—Large evergreen tree 12-15 m. Bhringamallika. Ghats. Kastel. Ugragandha. C. PARTS USED :—Seeds. :—Endemic in tropical forests along the W. NS. Bharnarasalya. M. Bhorsal.—Rubiaceæ.—Jany. . ophthalmia and for dressing wounds and ulcers.—Bixaceæ. NS. HABITAT :—Tropical rain forest. For scald-head. Garudphala. camphor and lime-juice. H. Bhanina. globose or ovoid. PARTS USED :—Bark and wood. M. LOC. USES :—The seeds have long been used in certain obstinate skin diseases. DISTR. See—Oils. In Travancore half tea-spoonful doses are given internally in leprous affections and the oil beaten up with kernels and shells of castor oil seed used as a remedy for itch. Niradivittulu. (HYDNOCARPUS WIGHTIANA Blume. Common in N. cures all tumours (Ayurveda). Madhya Pradesh. The oil from seeds is used in scabby erruptions mixed with equal quantities of Jatropha curcas oil.—numerous. :—G.8-7. Kanara evergreen forests. Doti. more or less coriaceous. In the Konkan the oil has a reputation as a remedy for Barasati in horses. common in Travancore. young parts brown pubescent.—ovate or oblong lanceolate. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon forests . DISTR. Panch Mahals in Gujarat. Phaldu. Bhoswar. FAM. bitter. COM.—petals fringed with soft white hairs . Kadukavata. high. Dondru. Gandele. Southern and Western India. dioecious . The fatty oil from the seeds very closely resembles Choulmogra oil both in physical characters and chemical composition. Amarachala. Fruits are used for poisoning fish. t. Dondra. COM. 12. sulphur.

Pechuli.—follicle.—in axillary and terminal. rusty pubescent. Gopini. :—Throughout the State. NS. Gorwiballi. black with white scanty coma. LOC.—capsule. Kalaghantika. S. Australia.—5-12. L. X 4 cm. Nadika. Bhadra.— Nov. vomiting. trichotomous cymes. Nalanibhaji. Shradhashaka. Kalambika. Krishnasariva. Fl. Country. COM.. CHAR. Br.5 cm.-Apl. Karihambu. " Vata ". HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. cylindric . Sk. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. Kalidudhi. the powdered wood is used for herpes. COM. thick. C. M. M. Nalichibhaji. ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS R. aphrodisiac. Fr. Chandangopa. ovoid . C. Sd.—Convolvulaceæ. elliptic-oblong or subdeltoid.—4 or 2. throat and tube dull purple .5x 3. thirst. rooting at the nodes .—linear. Siamalata. :—A large twining shrub . :—G. pubescent.—tube with narrow portion below.8 cm. blood diseases. hollow. stems long. Karmi. t. cures " Kapha ".—Apocynaceæ. Fodder Plants. The stalks and leaves are used in the form of decoction in fevers. Fl. FAM. very common in Gujarat. glabrous above. acute. See—Timbers. fever. young branches finely fulvous tomentose . Sk. L. lobes obscure .—1-5 flowered peduncles . prostrate. stalks and leaves.-Dec. Fr. :—H. lobes with white hairs on the upper side. . biliousness. Potuasaga. H. Kanara. K. CHAR. 10-15 cm. The plant contains an alkaloid hymenodictine. cordate or hastate. The outer layer is tasteless.—Nov. NS. slightly pubescent and pale beneath. USES :—The inner bark is bitter and astringent and is used as a febrifuge.MEDICINAL PLANTS 119 LOC. HABITAT :—Margins of tanks and other moist places. cooling. Fl. Kalmisag. M. Ceylon. Java.2 -7. :—More or less throughout India. Kanara. middle portion much inflated. base rounded. DISTR. LOC. greenish white. in other respects it behaves like the root of Hemidesmus indicus (Ayurveda). IPOMŒA AQUATICA Forsk. very slender. :—Annual or biennial herb. numerous . In Indo-China. :—Konkan. Sariva. t. elliptic oblong. Sd. trailing on mud or floating.—limb very pale-purple (nearly white). Kalaka.—4-5-7 X 2-3. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweetish. upper constricted. straight or slightly curved. USES :—The root is considered to possess alterative tonic properties and has been employed as a substitute for sarasaparilla. Kantebhovari. LOC. FL. Common in the evergreen forests of N. It is used in the treatment of skin eruptions.

long. USES :—The large tuberous roots are very much used in Indian medicine. Ceylon. biliousness and fevers. useful in syphilis. deeply palmately divided. Fr. twining. t. aphrodisiac. thick. vomiting. jaundice. diuretic. The powdered root-stock is given with wine to increase secretion of milk. Nila-kumbala. anthelmintic. demulcent and lactagogue. peduncle solitary axillary. Bilaikand . often broader than long. FAM.8—6. liver complaints. In Burma. Bhuikohala. Flower causes " Vata ". Africa and Australia. Africa. useful in leucoderma. tropical Asia. Kanara sea coast.—in. the stems and leaves are prescribed in febrile delirium. to children in case of emaciation. IPOMŒA DIGITATA Linn. LOC. lobes 5-7. dry. galactagogue. Fl. Carminative. appetiser. Bhunichahragadde. expectorant. the juice is said to be employed as an emetic in cases of arsenic or opium poisoning In Cambodia. (Yunani). L. leprosy. DISTR.120 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. galactagogue.3 cm. debility and want of digestive power. improves voice and complexion. cures biliousness. H. Plant yields resin similar to jalap resin.—clothed with brown cottony hairs. anthelmintic . 4-celled. stomachic. gonorrhœa and inflammation. (Yunani). long. USES :—Dried juice has purgative properties. root large. It is used as purgative in spleen diseases. Australia in moist climate. glabrous. pale. :— E. stem long. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon forests. near sea coast. flowers (rarely). K. 4-valved. stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. lessens inflammation. LOC.—capsule. Fl. the buds are used in the treatment of shingles. Swadu Vidarikand. America. NS. 3. COM. burning sensation. :—Perennial. useful in leprosy. aphrodisiac. Root—heating. many flowered corymbosely paniculate cymes. ovoid. enclosed in fleshy sepals. biliousness. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Aphrodisiac. Sk. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. (Ayurveda). Bhumikushmanda.—10-15 cm.—Convolvulaceæ. Giant potato . PARTS USED :—Root. " Kapha " . :—Throughout tropical India in moist regions . blood diseases. CHAR. See—Gums and Resins. . increases "Kapha" and "Vata" (Ayurveda). purple. alterative. :—Throughout India. indigestible. alterative. useful in fever. also useful in liver complaints.-July-Sept. Leaves enrich blood. being regarded as tonic. entire. In Assam plant is considered very wholesome for females who suffer from nervous and general debility. tonic. M. tropical Asia. carminative. LOC. leaves. ovate-lanceolate. Sd. :—Throughout the Konkan and N.

petioles hairy. pains in joints.—in 1-5 flowered axillary cymes . . crenate. L. Country. filiform. sparsely hairy. tropical Africa. C. diseases of head. LOC.5 cm. LOC. creeping and rooting at the nodes.8-5 cm. lobes ovate.—capsule. M. blue tinged with pink. :—Konkan. stems twining. Kalokumpo. dries the phlegm. S. Fl. surrounded by ciliate sepals. long tubular funnel-shaped. G. NS. Mirchai. USES :—Roxburgh was the first to make these seeds known to European physicians. M.:—Throughout India. Ceylon.— 4-6. (IPOMŒA HEDERACEA Jacq. Indian jalap. bracts linear. Undirkani. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Laxative. t. Morning glory. PARTS USED :—Seeds. E.—Convolvulaceæ. :—Western Peninsula. H.—Convolvulaceæ. COM. HABITAT :—Cultivated and apparently wild. reniform or ovate-cordate. Bhumichari Mushakaparni. abdominal diseases. :—G. broad. Sk. carminative. Musekani. Nilvel. Seeds usually known in the bazar as "Kaladana" is a very useful and cheap purgative. useful in liver and spleen diseases. Purgative. NS.—1. FAM. Nilpushpa. See—Ornamental Plants. anthelmintic. Fl. Shyamala-bijak. Kaladanah. and also one of those purgatives which are very efficient and satisfactory when used alone (Moideen Sheriff). bechic. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. Krishna—Shyama-bija. The plant contains a glucoside.— yellow. subglobose or ovoid. Seeds are updoubtedly one of the few good and cheap cathartics India possesses. fevers. Ganribij. in the Himalayas. CHAR. clothed with long hairs. stems many. axillary. believed to be of American origin.. Fl. :—E. S.) FAM. Kaladana.—3. cures inflammations.3-2. cultivated and wild up to 1800 m. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Sd. Fr. Sk. K. 3-celled.-Oct.—Sept. scabies and biliousness.—dark chestnut coloured . :—A herb . H.MEDICINAL PLANTS 121 IPOMŒA NIL Roth. deeply three-Iobed.-5-12. HABITAT :—Water-logged places. glabrous . M. :—An annual herb. diam. K. solitary or 2-3 together on a very short peduncle. L. IPOMŒA RENIFORMIS Chois. Africa. COM.5 cm. LOC. and it may be said that they now hold an important position as a useful and cheap substitute for Jalap (Kirtikar and Basu). leucoderma. CHAR. removes bad humours from body (Yunani). Undirkani. Sd. subglobose. ovate-cordate.—capsule. Fr. Vrishchikparni. headache. DISTR. DISTR. Deccan.

twining and twisted together. good in pain. The white one is used by Indian physicians as a mild cathartic. useful in spleen enlargement. The properties appear to be more fanciful than real. :—Throughout India. 3. Bili-Alutigadde Nagdanti. sometimes cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Black variety is a drastic purgative. used in rheumatism and neuralgia. like others of the genus . bladder. muscular pains. uterus. :—Common in the dry Deccan districts. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. Kalaparni. applied in diseases of eye and gums. LOC. stems very long. urethral discharges. cooling. Br. Turbith root. burning sensation and intoxication. headache Yellow-flowered variety is diuretic. red variety useful in "Kapha" (Ayurveda). wounds. base cordate or truncate . G. CHAR. Indian rhubarb. HABITAT :—Wild . globose. fleshy. :—Large perennial herb with milky juice. angled and winged. COM. antipyretic. expectorant. pungent.—Oct. Philippines. Kanaka. Black variety should not be used (Yunani). FAM. Root with bark should be used. purgative. Root— bitter. Pithori. . Nahatara. LOC. K. Fl. mucronate. Rose-flowered variety is useful in brain and nose diseases. leucoderma. heart and abdomen. the root bark contains resinous substance turpethin and to this is credited the purgative property. anthelmintic..—capsule. good for weakness. H. other properties like the rose-flowered (Yunani). Sk. removes bad humours. Malay Islands. it is a purgative if taken in large doses (Dymock). Mauritius. pains of chest and joints. laxative. tropical Africa and America. fevers. root long. IPOMŒA TURPETHUM R. paralysis. C. useful in diseases of kidney. The Hindoos administer the juice in rat-bite and drop it into the ear to cure sores in that organ. Ceylon. False-Indian jalap. acrid. bronchitis. Common in southern Gujarat. rarely slightly lobed.—Convolvulaceæ. Triputi. Fr. fistula. useful in bilious tremors of body. enclosed in enlarged sepals .—in few flowered cymes. useful in loss of consciousness. DISTR. long. M. paralysis.—white. Nashotar. Nishoth. LOC.8-5 cm. t. strangury. Trivrit. inflammations and abdominal diseases .-Jany. pedicels thickened upwards. Fl. Black one is an irritant and drastic purgative and should be avoided. ovate or oblong. when used alone .122 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. :— E. Turpeth root (white) is quite equal to jalap and is a very efficient and satisfactory purgative. Nishottara. Rechani. bechic. USES :—Plant is described as deobstruent and diuretic (Sakharam Arjun). USES :—There are two varieties of root—black or krishna and white or sweta. It is also alterative. lungs.—5-10 X 1. laxative. useful in bilious fevers. brain diseases. Nandi. much branched. anæmia. L. also in the Konkan and N. PARTS USED :—Root. white variety is a mild cathartic. often pinkish. carminative. inflammations. bracts large. NS.3-7 cm. reduces tumours (Ayurveda).

also along river banks. Bakali. See—Ornamental Plants. Kanara on the ghats and along river banks. Fl.—ripe carpels 2. K. Priyanvada. purple when ripe.—throughout the year. proximal petiolulate. very slender .—Oleaceæ. HABITAT :—Cultivated . pale when dry. FL—numerous. Chambeli.3 coriaceous. hills of Rajastan and Madhya-Bharat. wild in the sub-tropical Himalayas Salt Range. of stems and roots. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant.8 cm. size of a pea. Fl.—3. PARTS USED :—Root and flowers. intermediate sessile . Kepala. HABITAT:—Monsoon forests near sea coast. stipules with a long rigid point. imparipinnate. If attempt is made to obtain pure roots only it would stand on a level with the imported Ipomoea drugs. sessile.2-6. Jati. JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. obtuse. DISTR. L. TransIndus regions eastwards to Kumaon. :—Western Peninsula. terminal rather larger. Ceylon. across. pale when dry. very common in Konkan and N. obtuse . Pankul. sessile. G. DISTR.—July-Sept.3 cm. FAM.. LOC. smooth.—opposite. Guddedasal.5 cm. :—E.—globose. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root with long pepper and a little water is said to be a valuable remedy in acute dysentery. Fr. :—Often cultivated in gardens throughout the State. in lax axillary and terminal cymes. Flowers are also given in dysmenorrhoea.—opposite.MEDICINAL PLANTS 123 Most of the turpeth available in the market consists of aerial stems or a mixture. t. Flame of the woods . tube long. wild. Sk.2-6.— Rubiaceæ.9 m. bright scarlet in dense sessile corymbiform cymes. Fl. LOC. high. lobes 4 (rarely). :—Bombay southwards . :—Cultivated throughout India. Chambeli. Sk. . 5-12. The plant contains glucoside turpethin. stipules . coriaceous. Jai. fleshy. L. Fr. Raktaka. FAM.—tubular. CHAR. often tinged with pink outside. NS. Flowers fried in ghee and rubbed down with cumin and Nagkeshar and made into a bolus with butter and sugar-candy are administered in cases of dysentery. cultivated throughout India as an ornamental shrub. white. 5-10 X 3. Chambali. Bandhuka. Ajjige. Surabhigandha. oblong. COM. Catalonian—Spanish jasmin. Anemallige. H. CHAR. Pendgul. t. :—E. oblong. IXORA COCCINEA Linn. distal pair confluent with the terminal.. M. :—A glabrous shrub 0-6-0. Kisukare. C. K. leaflets 7-11. 3. Parali. COM NS. Jajimalle. :—A large subscandent shrub. petiole and rachis margined. M.

FAM. JASMINUM SAMBAC Ait. HABITAT :—Cultivated. biliousness. Fl. headache and weak eyes. The medicinal properties are the same as those of Jasminum grandiflorum (Ayurveda). black. ear. In ulceration and eruptions of the mucous membrane of the mouth leaves are chewed. tonic to brain. surrounded by calyx-teeth. Banmallika. heating. anthelmintic. Pramodini. Chamba. given in blood diseases. it is cooling and applied externally in skin-diseases. intoxicating. Flower has bitter taste . Sambac. t. Mallige. Mogro. diuretic. Fl. mouth and skin. M. :—A sub-erect shrub. aphthae. fresh juice is a valuable application for soft corns between toes.124 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. The application of bruised material to the breasts arrests secretion of milk in the puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess. stomatitis. suppurative. Flowers—tonic. very fragrant. caries of teeth. paralysis. USES :—Leaves are administered internally in skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Leaves and flowers. Tuscan jasmine. Root—purgative. in the tropics of both the hemispheres. vulnerary. Oil—lessens inflammations. LOC. rheumatism.—opposite. eyes and ear. Arabian Lily. See—Ornamental Plants. membranous. L. :—Cultivated throughout India. Iravantige. Mogara. DISTR. it is used in cases of insanity. useful in diseases of eye. :—E. USES :—The plant is considered cool and sweet. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. Fr. biliousness (Ayurveda). subglobose. emmenagogue. alexiteric. scarcely climbing. Navamallika. Plant—deobstruent. Dried leaves soaked in water and made into poultice are used in indolent ulcers. Ananga-mallika. Vanchandrika. entire. solitary or usuaully in 3-many flowered terminal cymes . .—white.—ripe-carpels 1-2. the root of the wild variety is used as an emmenagogue. otorrhoea. Sk. K. The plant contains an alkaloid. Mogra.—more or less throughout the year . good in asthma. leprosy. the flowers yield a fragrant essential oil. allays fevers . CHAR. alexiteric.—Oleaceæ. and for scabies (Yunani). In Goa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flowers-acrid. flowers and oil. cures "Tridosh" biliousness. weakness of sight and affections of mouth. teeth. LOC. ulcers. Leaves are also used in toothache. COM NS. good for pains in joints and ear. abundant in April-May. brain tonic . usually broadly ovate or elliptic. base rounded or subcordate. aphrodisiac. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cooling. soporific. expectorant. H. See—Ornamental Plants. useful in stomatitis. head. variable in shape. emetic. diseases of mouth. cures headache. The leaves and flowers are considered valuable as a lactifuge. stops vomiting and hiccup (Yunani). From flowers perfumed oil is prepared. Motia. G. LOC. alexiteric. softens skin.

FAM. LOC. Adalu-Dodda Kade-Mar-haralu. Bhadradanti. French or Small physic nut. Fl. USES:—Root-bark is applied externally for rheumatism in Goa. Sticks are used as toothbrushes and are said to strengthen and cure gums . thirst.—monœcious. L. black. heartdiseases (Ayurveda). 7. NS. stipules capillary. Kananerand. M. HABITAT :—Grown as a fence. G. leaves. FAM. garden shrub .—E. 3-lobed. longer than calyx.5 mm. CHAR. in the Konkan it is mixed with asafoetida and buttermilk and prescribed in diarrhœa and dysentery (Dymock). " Tridosha". stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic and is used to arrest bleeding from wounds etc.—orbicular. PROPERITES AND USES :—Fruit and seeds are anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 125 JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. If the embryo be wholly removed seeds may be used as a gentle and safe purgative. broadly ovate. Mogali—Ran-erand.—ovoid oblong.— ovoid. :—Native of tropical America.5 cm. The viscid juice has been successfully used in skin diseases. Sk. diam. biliousness. anaemia.5-12. DISTR. breaking up into 3-valved cocci. Ratanjot. Barbados Physic nut. fistula. villous within. large. corolla lobes 5. disk of female flower urceolate. Jangali erandi.—Euphorbiaceæ. yellowish green in loose axillary cymose panicles. Jangali—Pahari erand. female corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx. multifid. PARTS USED :—Wood. NS. L. 7. urinary discharges.5-12. LOC.— alternate. dull brownish black.8 cm. CHAR:—A handsome. when applied to boils. Leaves warmed and rubbed with castor-oil. Fr. long. Sd.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. cordate. Coral plant. subfleshy. 10-15 X 7. abdominal complaints. juice sticky opalescent. Virechani. COM. emetic and drastic principle appears to reside chiefly in the embryo. Seeds contain active principle curcin. long-petioled. The acrid. chronic rheumatism and as a cleansing application for wounds and ulcers. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—in flat-topped cymes.—capsule. :—Commonly grown as fence round the gardens and fields in the State. H. Simeavadala. across. Akhuparnika. :—E. . useful in chronic dysentery. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. herpes. Fl. and also promotes healing.. palmately 3 or 5 lobed. K. yellow.5 cm. coral-red. Vilayati haralu. K. Sutashreni. Dundigu. Leaves are rubefacient and a decoction of warmed leaves applied externally to breasts excite secretion of milk. Sk. :—A large deciduous soft-wooded shrub or small tree. male flowers. The seeds act as drastic purgative. Bark of root is ground and used as dressing for sores. externally applied oil is held in high esteem for itch. have suppurative effect. 1. Fr. fruits and seeds. palmately cut into narrow caudate segments. Jyotishka.

5 cm. M. Sk. FAM. :—Planted in gardens as edgings in shady places. In Cambodia. rheumatism and dysentery. native of N. PARTS USED :—The plant (leaves particularly). hot. :—H. HABITAT :—Shady positions. inflammations. USES :—The leaves and tender shoots are diaphoretic and are given in chronic rheumatism in the form of decoction. wild in Tenasserim. branches subterete with raised lines.5 cm. M. latex is applied over wounds and ulcers.5-12. purgative. long from the upper-most leaf-axil and often forming a terminal panicle . useful in bronchitis. :—A strong scented under-shrub 0. purple within. long. Bhutakeshi.—Ghati pitpapda. clavate glabrous. useful in piles. JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. LOC. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent. enlarged spleen. Kalmashi.6-1.—Acanthaceæ. hemiphlegia and facial paralysis. 5-12. high . In Madagascar root decoction boiled in milk is given in jaundice. In Malaya plant is used as a febrifuge and in Java as an emetic. DISTR. K. NS. Shindhuka. Fl. America. LOC. 7. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Karambal.2 m. COM. CHAR.—capsule. bitter. Kala adulsa. Nilmanjari. causes " Kapha ". dry . latex and oil from seeds are used medicinally. tympanitis. oil is used both internally and externally as an abortifacient.—Acanthaceæ. Karinchki. :—Cultivated in gardens all over India. :—A native of China. vomiting and burning sensation (Ayurveda). Krishna-nirgundi. often met with in Bengal. FAM. fattening tonic . The juice of fresh leaves is dropped into the ear for earache and in nostrils for hemicrania. PARTS USED :—Fruit and seed. Nachukaddi. dyspepsia. Bakas. wounds. fevers. Seed— oleaginous. Fr. USES :—Seeds are regarded as powerful purgative : they are also emetic. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. aphrodisiac. Leaves are used in scabies. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—pungent. pains.126 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. :—Bomb. leaves. LOC. .—white spotted. Nilinirgandi. An oil prepared from leaves is said to be useful in eczema and leaf-infusion is given internally in cephalalgia. LOC.—lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. COM. heating. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS Linn. in interrupted spikes. eye diseases (Ayurveda). " Vata ' and "Pitta". all over the State. vaginal discharges. DISTR. L. skin-diseases.

Madras State. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kapurkachri.—612 from the centre of the plant. DISTR. Travancore.:—Stemless herb. stops vomiting. The dried plant is regarded as efficacious in low fever and is also used as anthelmintic. softly pubescent. :—Konkan. pale violet pink. Ceylon. Sk. fugacious. tube funnel-shaped . diaphoretic. removes indigestion. :—Western Peninsula. Australia. thin. lower 3-lobed . NS. connective produced into a quadrate 2-lobed appendage. biliousness. Deccan. Cultivated in gardens. Fr.5-9 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling. aperient and to purify blood in skin diseases. It has the same therapeutic properties as Fumaria parviflora and can be substituted for it. aromatic. Sugandhavachai. Plant diuretic. P. urinary discharges. Fl. round. petioles channelled. strengthens lungs. Panchgani. good in spleen diseases. Fl. wandering of mind. Chandramala. root-stock tuberous. Fl. Tubers yield an essential oil.-Mar. diuretic. intoxication. oval. K.—2-lipped.—2. increases " Vata ". t. burning of body. M. Malaya. ovate or lanceolate. L. :—N. lying flat on the ground. thirst.—finely tuberculate. t. obtuse at both ends. upper lip notched.—lobes lanceolate.—Scitaminaceæ. tired feeling. oblong shortly pointed. South Konkan. Western Ghats . Malay Islands. HABITAT :—In hilly parts. enriches blood. . Chandramulika. constricted between the seeds . Fl. Konkan. gives lustre to eyes. constipating . pure-white. Kachri. PARTS USED :—Tubers. PROPERTIES AND LOC. (Yunani). purifies blood in skin diseases. DISTR.MEDICINAL PLANTS 127 CHAR. bracts linear lanceolate with ciliate margins . USES :—The tubers reduced to powder and mixed with honey are given with much benefit in coughs and pectoral affections. deep green.3-12. vomiting. FAM. CHAR. PARTS USED :—The whole plant.—in cylindric terminal spikes. stomachic. USES :—Leaf-juice is squeezed into the eyes in cases of ophthalmia (Ainslie).—variable. :— H. good in leprosy (Ayurveda). LOC. 6.—Oct. C. elliptic. L. expectorant. :—More or less throughout India. Roasted in oil the tuber is externally applied to stoppages of nasal organs (Rheede). fragrant. spreading horizontally...— June-July. KÆMPFERIA GALANGA Linn. Maval in the Deccan. fever. Along with black pepper it is used in the treatment of ague. LOC. teeth. lip deeply 2lobed with a lilac spot at the base.5 X 4. :—A diffuse herb with divaricate branches. Sd. COM. Kachchura .—capsule. LOC.

rootstock reaching 5 cm.—Scitaminaceæ. furrowed. Fl. Ceylon. Katutumbi. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Bhuichapha. Danta-bija.—15-37. FAM. USES :—The plant is said to have insecticidal properties. :—Konkan. :—M.8-5 cm. long. Fl. CHAR..128 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) KÆMPFERIA ROTUNDA Linn. Sk. CHAR. Dudio Tumbada. Dudhya bhopala. M. inflorescence of many ovaries. :—Mysore. carpels partially dehiscent Sd. Labuka. USES :—According to Sanskrit writers the root. Kadu—Mithi tumbi. t. :— Throughout India from the Himalayas to Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula.—Cucurbitaceæ. oblong. S. Nelasampige . H. Tubers yield an essential oil.. Halagumbala.5-10 cm. thick. L. Bhuichampa . The belief that the tubers are useful in reducing swellings is universal in India. only 1 or 2 opening at a time . anthers crowded. N. PARTS USED :—Root and the whole plant. petiole as long as blade. HABITAT :—Marshy places. in many cycles. Malay Islands. LAGENARIA VULGARIS Ser.5 X 5-12. COM. with a tuberous root-stock and many thick succulent roots bearing oblong tubers. diam. of various shades of purple and white..—30X7. Cochin. very poisonous .— sweetly fragrant. :—Stemless plant. FAM. Fr. In Bombay powder of the tubers is used as a popular local application in mumps. . used in the form of poultice. The whole plant. COM. creeping. HABITAT :—Cultivated. has wonderful efficacy in healing fresh wounds. semicylindric. K. K.. tubular below. PROPERTIES AND LOC. LOC. t. Kanara. Sk. Fl. simple. Dudhi. spathe 7. It is useful to anasarcous swellings. FAM. Lauka. Country. :—An aquatic herb. Kadu bhopala. midrib very stout. PROPERTIES AND LOC. margins undulate. Tumbaka.— inflorescence. when reduced to powder and used in the form of an ointment.-Apl.-Mar.—Aroideæ. Travancore. Bhuchampaka. annulate . LOC.—globose 3. H. —Feb. Alkaddu.—narrowly oblong. L. home from the ground only in a crowded radical spike. :—Cultivated in the State but not indigenous. remedy for itch. NS. LAGENANDRA TOXICARIA Dalz.5 cm. entire. elliptic-oblong. Vatsanabhi. Bhuichampo . crowded in a globose bead . M. Bottle-gourd. Calabash.5-23 cm. G. Fl.. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. female cylindric. M. :— G. DISTR. NS. :—E. mottled green above and pale red-purple beneath . yellow. promotes suppuration. COM. coriaceous. DISTR. Kaddu. Coorg.

seeds are narcotic. pains (Ayurveda). LOC.—Lythraceæ. wild (rarely). alexiteric. useful in coughs and antidote to certain poisons . dry cough. Konkan Ghats. brain-tonic. cures blood diseases. bitter variety is diuretic. in many cases only cultivated. the Moluccas and Abyssinia . Ornamental Plants. :—H. See—Timbers. Seeds emetic (Yunani). antipyretic. bitter. . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Sweet variety cures biliousness. K. good in ophthalmia and tooth-ache. Tarul. :—Grown in gardens all over the State throughout the year especially in the Konkan. Arjuna. styptic. leaves. fattening. lessens inflammations. PARTS USED :—Root. See—Vegetables. cooling. Fruit good in bronchitis.MEDICINAL PLANTS 129 HABITAT Cultivated. Bandhara. Flowers cooling. cures leucorrhoea. ulcers. Bitter variety—root diminishes inflammations. Arjuna. LOC. flowers. muscular pains. DISTR. HABITAT :—Along the banks of nalas and rivers and in swampy localities. bark. piles. The fruit has trace of vitamin A. LOC:—North Kanara and S. USES :— Leaves are purgative. emetic. NS. Nirbendeka: M. anti-bilious. Bark and leaves are purgative. Challa. fever. :—Western Peninsula. fruits and seeds. Ceylon. earache. the fruit is used as a local application for aphthae of the mouth. cause haemoptysis. refrigerant and anti-bilious. LOC. DISTR. sweet. Sweet variety—indigestible liver tonic. cures asthma. externally it is used as a poultice and a cooling application to the shaved head in delirium. it is also applied to the soles in burning of feet. LAGERSTRŒMIA SPECIOSA Pers. oleaginous. aphrodisiac. improves taste. There are two varieties. wholesome to fœtus. flatulence. Taman. :—Wild in Malabar and moist forests of Dehra Dun. Flesh of fruit is diuretic. COM. scalding of urine. cultivated throughout India and tropical and warm regions of the world. Holematti. (LAGERSTRŒMIA FLOS-REGINÆ Retz. fruits and seeds. causes bronchitis.) FAM. bronchitis. It is considered stimulant and febrifuge. In the Gold-Coast ground leaves are used as an enema. Seeds—good for hot constitution. PARTS-USED :—Root. Seeds yield a clear oil which is applied to relieve headache. leaves. inflammations. USES-Root is prescribed as an astringent. In Guinea seeds are prescribed in dropsy. sometimes cultivated as an ornamental tree. In the Andamans. "Vata". decoction mixed with sugar is given in jaundice. anti-periodic. China. useful in vaginal and uterine complaints. Sk. earache. diuretic. cardiac and general tonic. Malaya. laxative. increases "Vata". vulnerary. Assam.

subsessile. tonic.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). DISTR. surrounded at the base by an involucre of silky villous bracts . Sandika. The bark is used to poison fish. Grains contain vitamin A. FAM. dense terminal heads 2. NS.5-3. t. removes "Kapha" and biliousness. HABITAT :—Monsoon forests. Wooly-headed gnidia.130 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LASIOSIPHON ERIOCEPHALUS Dene. . Madaranga. Sk. Tree mignonette. M. :—A much branched large shrub. oblong flat. Ragangi. PARTS USED :—Leaves and bark. causes much flatulence. Rami. :—Extensively cultivated in Broach district. Nakharanjaka. Medi. (B. :—E. piles and wandering of the mind.—in erect. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. D. COM. Lang. G. Mukute.—Lythraceæ. pain. M. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. heart-troubles. enclosed in the perianth . Fl. lameness. USES :—A powerful vesicant but uncertain in its action. S. yellow. COM. :—E. Yavaneshta. but dangerous cathartic. Deccan hills. H. swellings etc. LAWSONIA ALBA Lam.—ellipsoid-oblong. pointed. M. LATHYRUS SATIVUS Linn.8 cm. :—Cultivated in many parts of India—probably indigenous in the regions extending from the south of Caucasus to the north of India.—Thymelaeaceæ. Triputi. Mehndi. (Ayurveda). cooling. in fairly large quantities in Nasik and Surat districts. NS. FAM. LOC. Fr. Peninsula—Ceylon. Henna plant. N. Kassar. :—E. oblong lanceolate. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seed-astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. inflammation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Khesari. In the Deccan the leaves are applied to contusions. common on the Supa Ghats.—Dec-May. Belgaum hills . HABITAT :—Cultivated. COM. Kanara. NS. Rametha. Sk. with a linear 2-fid scale at each division. glabrous above. See—Food Plants. The oil from the seeds is a powerful. improves taste.—opposite or scattered. 5-7. diam. perianth-tube densely silky villous .5 cm. Latri. Basu). LOC. Chickling—White vetch. Kukurgal. Lakh. DISTR. Country. FAM. K.. M. burning.5 X 2-2. bark mottled. silky beneath. lobes 4. Mendi. Fl. Medika. :—Konkan southwards.. :—W. K. common at Mahabaleshwar. G. Leaves are acrid and poisonous. Gorantha. CHAR. L.

Fresh leaves beaten into a paste with lime-juice are rubbed to the soles of burning feet. Masuridal. Masur. diuretic. NS. AND USES :—Seeds-cooling astringent to bowels. as an alterative in leprosy and obstinate skin diseases . M. bronchitis. cure strangury tumours. LENS ESCULENTA Moen.—in terminal. DISTR. Seeds—tonic to brain (Yunani). they are also soporific and are placed in pillows. enriches blood. :—A glabrous much branched shrub. boils. cure leucoderma. LOC. Gabholika. K.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). lumbago. globose. Lentil. expectorant. indigenous in S.—angular. Fl. pyramidal and panicled cymes. Ragadali. a leaf-decoction is used as an astringent gargle in sore-throat. veined outside. PARTS USED :—Leaves. vulnerary. ophthalmia. G. HABITAT:—Cultivated. :—Coromandel coast and Madhya Bharat. lateral branches 4-gonous. LOC. favours hair-growth. LOC. wild in Arabia. HABITAT :—Hedges near the sea-coast. elliptic or broadly lanceolate. Chanangi. See—Dyes. enlargement of the spleen and calculous affections. The plant contains a glucoside. Leaves are valuable external application In headache. Fl. skin diseases . applied to the hair they promote healthy growth. in decoction it is applied to burns and scalds. Gurubija. & Gib. finger nails and hair. Leaves yield a dye and are used for dying hands. Indigenous in Gujarat (Dalz. white or rose coloured . mucronate. Masur.—opposite. Ceylon. :—Grown in Nasik. PARTS USED:—Leaves (rarely) and seeds. often ending in spinous point. Flowers are refrigerant. allay burning sensation. scabies. cure insanity (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES. Sd. t. useful in headache. cause pain and diseases due to "Vata".—Apl-July. useful. planted as hedge. COM. Leaf-juice mixed with water and milk is given in spermatorrhoea. remove " Kapha" and biliousness. ulcers. diuretic. syphilitic sores. in the drier parts of the Indian Peninsula. :—A cold weather crop throughout India. improve appetite. diseases of spleen. L. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are emetic. Iran and Baluchistan. amenorrhœa. in diseases of heart and of . stomatitis. Sk. USES :—The bark is given in jaundice. supported by persistent calyx. Asia. :—E. Seeds—astringent to bowels and antipyretic. Fr. Masura. Europe and in temperate W. FAM.MEDICINAL PLANTS 131 CHAR. Henna is used as an emollient poultice. flowers. Belgaum and Poona districts. common on the sand-dunes near Tuticorin.). The oil and essence keep the body cool. many. They are similarly used with benefit in rheumatism. fragrant.—capsule. truncate. seeds. Massur. DISTR. H. E. Sura. Leaves—bitter. :—Throughout the State in hedges principally near the sea-coast . dysentery.

useful in diseases of chest. improves brain power and brightens intellect (Yunani). DISTR. leaves and seeds. H. In the Punjab the plant is administered in cases of asthma. destroys "Vata" and "Kapha" . and muscular pains. C—petals 2-4 or 0. Fr. Ashalika. the lower petiolate. Garden cress . aperient. Seeds contain fatty oil. emarginate (with 3 valves) slightly winged above. eye diseases (Ayurveda). galactagogue. NS. The covering is styptic and astringent. They contain vitamin B. FAM. upper sessile. bechic. good for pain in abdomen. LOC.—entire or variously lobed or pinnatisect. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LEPIDIUM SATIVUM Linn. often with linear segments . constipating. See—Vegetables. good in inflammations. Halim . tumours and injuries. They are mucilaginous and laxative. Raktabija. Seeds—indigestible. Grains contain vitamins A and B. tonic. Fl. Asahio.—pods obovate or broadly elliptic. In Germany a decoction is given to facilitate" the eruptions in small-pox. Allibija. G. Hurfi. COM. M. tonic. blood and skin diseases. laxative. diuretic. serviceable in scorbutic diseases (Balfonr). diarrhœa and skin-diseases caused by impurity of blood. cures dysentery . Root used in secondary syphilis and tenesmus (Honigberger). pulse is used in the form of poultice as an application to ulcers occurring after small-pox. LOC. white. LOC. Kurutige. Chavnsar. Leaves are used as pot-herb. stomatitis . Hot and dry.132 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eyes (Ayurveda). Ahaliva. very likely indigenous in W. Leaves are mildly stimulant and diuretic. affections of spleen. L. CHAR. Seeds are considered to be galactagogue and are administered after being boiled with milk to cause abortion (Bellew). aphrodisiac. USES :—Seeds are reputed to be useful in cases of constipation and other intestinal affections. . Chandrashura. rheumatism. :—E. Asia. chest complaints. bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.—small. bitter. Chandrika. bronchitis. Seed paste is useful for cleansing applications in cases of foul and indolent ulcers. Sk.—Cruciferæ. :—Cultivated throughout India. See-Food Plants. :—An erect glabrous annual. Halim. PARTS USED :—Root. cough with expecoration and bleeding piles. aphrodisiac . Seeds are tonic and alterative and useful in hiccup. good for eye diseases and inflammation of breast (Yunani). Suvasura. USES :—Herb and seed contain aromatic volatile oil. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. K. enrich blood.

lead to impotency. Oil from seeds removes biliousness and bad blood. black. heal ulcers. Bark and leaves good for gonorrhœa. good for cough and kidney troubles. native country probably Egypt. aphrodisiac . Linseed poultice is used as an external application in abscesses. lenticellate. base narrowed. branchlets densely tomentose. Seeds—mucilaginous. Oil mixed with lime water has been a favourite application to burns.. burnt bark styptic and healing. LOC.. remove "Vata". back-ache.—crowded at the ends of branches.:—E. Tailottama. Alashi. H. Alshi. urinary discharges .— globose. Alsi. emmenagogue. NS. USES :—Flowers are used as a cardiac tonic. Country. PARTS USED :—Bark. . Tisi. Garbijaur. FAM. M. Maidalakadi. Linseed. LOC. "Kapha". :—Cultivated throughout India. Alsi. used in consumption. DISTR. usually alternate. Mucilage from seed is dropped into the eyes as an emollient. t. tonic. elliptic ovate or oblong-lanceolate. Seeds are used internally for gonorrhœa and irritation of genito-urinary system (Emerson). :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and S. bronchitis. NS. K. L. Fibres. useful in internal wounds and ring-worm (Yunani). urinary complaints. perianth lobes wanting. leaves. Jivanika. Fl. Fumigation with the smoke is recommended for colds in head and hysteria. galactagogue. In Europe seed meal is used for cataplasms. H. CHAR. remove biliousness. flowers. with honey it is prescribed in coughs and colds. Common flax. Madagandha. The plant contains glucoside linamarin. Seeds contain vitamin A. hard to digest. LOC. "Pitta". supported by the thickened pedicel. Javas . colds and throat complaints. diuretic. diam. dysentery. M. Sk.—Linaceæ. COM.:—A small evergreen tree. aphrodisiac. Sk. See—Oils. seeds and oil. Alashi. bark somewhat corky. Fr. Sedhavi. Alasi. glossy dark-green above. Roasted seeds are astringent. Kanara. 7. Common tallow laurel. bad for eyesight. Haimwati. Flowers—brain and heart tonic. :—E. 10-25 X 5-10 cm. linseed tea is a useful drink in diarrhœa. Malina. HABITAT :—In rain-forests. yellowish. HABITAT :—Cultivated in deep moisture-holding soils. M. Leaves remove asthma (Ayurveda). Fl. inflammations. Medini. G. LITSEA CHINENSIS Lam.—Lauraceæ.—May-July.:—Throughout the Konkan and N. Maidelakri. common in Siddapur and Kumpta Talukas. FAM.5 mm.MEDICINAL PLANTS 133 LINUM USITATISSIMUM Linn. gouty and rheumatic swellings. linseed oil is a common basis for embrocation and liniment.—in umbellate heads arranged in corymbs. cure leprosy. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-oily. hot. 8-12 together in heads. pale beneath. causes loss of appetite. COM. boils.

L. Mrityupushpa. high. Nali. Sk. PARTS USED :—Root. HABITAT :—Western Ghats. Narttaka. Kalahogesoppu. FAM. overheated brains. LUFFA ACUTANGULA Var. biliousness. fever.-Mar. Deccan and S. H. the leaves and seeds are acrid and poisonous. Narsala. long.100 m. spleen diseases. SK. COM.—capsule. all oblong. :—E. bark. 3 usually connate throughout . opening by 2 valves. heating. many.5-3. thirst. K. aphrodisiac. It is esteemed as an aphrodisiac.—Cucurbitaceæ. midrib white. useful in biliousness. Kadudodka. white. :—Western Ghats of Madras State up to 2. pedicels supported by leaf-like bracts . Jhinga. Sd. It acts as anodyne. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-sweet. t. "vata". Country.—. diseases of blood. nearly sessile. Jalini. erysipelas (Ayurveda). They are used as an infusion or as a poultice. useful in inflammations.—alternate.9 cm. Divali. Nal. finely serrulate. Kadvi-turai or ghisodi . light green. branched upwards. Devnal. The bazar drug is known as " Maida-lakadi". Oil from the berries is used for rheumatism. 1. pains in joints. :—A very large biennial or perennial herb . . expectorant. Bibhishana. See—Poisons Plants and Fish Poisons. K. lower much longer.—Lobeliaceæ. Seeds—aphrodisiac (Yunani). M. Wild tobacco. diuretic. Dhamana. uterus. Ranturai. burning sensation. strangury. yellowish brown . H. NS. Karvituri. Ceylon.in terminal racemes sometimes more than 30 cm. COM. Ridge gourd. It is used as an emollient in bruises and styptic dressings for wounds. lobes linear. C—2-lipped. Ghontali. Fl. Australia.2-3 m. Devanala. Sthulanala. 2. M. bronchitis. subglobose. CHAR. It is largely employed as a demulcent and mild astringent in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—E. Dhaval. hollow. galactagogue. leprosy (Ayurveda). G. USES :—Infusion of the leaves is used as an antispasmodic in asthma. consumption. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. much curved. Katukoshataki. DISTR. USES :—The feebly balsamic mucilaginous bark is one of the best known and most popular native drugs. FAM. fruits and seeds. LOC. LOC. acrid. aphrodisiac. Kahire. LOBELIA NICOTIANAEFOLIA Heyne. cure cough. Kandele. Fr. NS. bitter. the uppermost passing into floral leaves or bracts. long. vagina. lanceolate. very small. throat troubles.134 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. Root—astringent. stem stout. :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. G.—Nov. Malay Islands. leaves. M. burning sensation. aphrodisiac. paralysis. The plant contains alkaloid lobeline. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-cooling. AMARA Clarke. :—Konkan. Leaves are mucilaginous.—numerous. Fl. stomachic. tonic. heart.

leaves. Doddippa. thick. Mhowra.—Sept. in small doses they are expectorant and demulcent. COM. base cordate. tumours. Ripe seeds are emetic and cathartic. cures urinary discharges.8 cm.:—A large climber. Gudapushpa. cough. jaundice. useful in rat-bite. biliousness. anæmia. Burma. :—Plant is bitter. inflammations. cathartic. HABITAT :—Common in hedges. pale green. cures "Vata". 5-7 lobed. at first whitish and softly villous. Mahua tree. Mahuda. :—Forests of Central India (Madhya Bharat). Madhya Pradesh. also in Konkan and N. L. HABITAT:—Deciduous forests. LOC. Moha. Madhuka. palmate. used as an errhine for headache "(Ayurveda). The dried fruit is used as snuff in jaundice. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Slightly pungent. liver complaints. tonic and diuretic. .) FAM. males in axillary 12-20 flowered racemes. LOC.MEDICINAL PLANTS 135 CHAR. at length scabrid.—small. Fl. females. C. Root-bark is abortifacient. piles. flowers and fruits. :—Throughout India. Fruit cures fever. Fr. Mowda. "Kapha". DISTR. asthma. The fruit-pulp is given in dog and other kinds of bites. solitary in the same axil as males. carminative. (BASSIA LATIFOLIA Roxb. bronchitis.—monœcious. fruit and seeds. obtusely conical at both ends. The leaves are applied locally in splenitis. hydrogogue. Juice of the roasted young fruit is applied to cure headache. laxative. tendrils usually 3-fid. asthma. Seeds beneficial in amenorrhœa (Yunani). Mahua. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Mahula. Fl. Sk. 5-10 cm. long and about 2. Juice of fresh leaves is dropped into eyes of children in granular conjunctivitis. Bengal to the W. PARTS USED :—Bark. Butter tree.—petals yellow with green veins . tonic to intestines. W. recommended in splenic enlargement. G. bitter. DISTR.—Sapotaceæ. stems 5-angled. often cultivated and self-sown near the villages.53. NS. ascites. Mowa. 10-ribbed. Hunage. haemorrhoids and leprosy. The entire plant is useful in skin diseases and asthma (Koman). MADHUKA INDICA Gmel. The kernel of the seed has a great control over dysentery.. a valuable substitute for ipecacuanha (Moideen Sheriff). Kanara (rare) .:—Common in the deciduous forests throughout the State. K. Mahura. leucoderma. bitter. alexiteric. Madhusrava. M. piles. Ceylon. Ghats and Kumaun Tarai. The plant contains a bitter substance luffin. thrives in Deccan trap.—obovoid. especially in western Peninsula. :—Common in hedges in the Konkan and Belgaum district during the rains. t. prefer dry sandy and rocky soils. USES. digestible. acrid. diuretic. uterine and vaginal tumours . Pokka. tuberculous glands. :—E. LOC. H.

Karnatic. :—E. Famine Plants. MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA Macbr. rubbed on the body as a cure for itch. G. Flower—sweet. Flowers are regarded as cooling.136 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant—acrid. Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility. flowers act as a mild purgative. leprosy. See—Timbers. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. PROPERTIES AND LOC. cures blood diseases. aphrodisiac. Flowers—oleaginous. (BASSIA LONGIFOLIA Linn. used in fractures. burning sensation. and Kanara. tonic and nutritive. :—Western peninsula. and also a remedy for itch. tonic. Seeds contain glucoside mowrin. Kamala. H. Mehua. G. Oils. Kesarimavu. Ippe. Mohache jhad. aphrodisiac. Mahuva of S. See—Timbers. M. Shendri. and Upper Burma. Leaves and seeds contain glucoside saponin. Sk. consumption. Movaro.) FAM. COM. Huli. fatigue .—Sapotaceæ. COM. LOC. DISTR. Kapila. thirst. K. yields two important products. heals wounds . anthelmintic. Honey tree. NS. K. . Flowers yield on distillation a spirit which is heating. good in heart diseases. Mahuda. :—Konkan. fixed oil and a spirit. Liquors. India . Fruit-tonic . Movanuhjad. Smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. Dried flowers are used as fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Kapila. flowers and oil. MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS Muell. often planted. cooling. Mysore. galactagogue.—Euphorbiaceæ. Mohwa. expectorant. HABITAT :—Monsoon-forests and along the banks of rivers and nalas. FAM. Kapilo. carminative. LOC. Oil is good for skin-diseases. There is a trace of alkaloid.. Bark decoction is an astringent and emollient. M. Milky juice hastens suppuration (Ayurveda). Hullichillu. honey from flowers is used in the treatment of eye diseases. NS. cures biliousness. H. ulcers. PARTS USED :—Bark. Ceylon. bronchitis. :—-E. causes "Kapha". Moha. and appetiser (Sushruta). Madhuka. HABITAT :—Monsoon and open thorn forests. USES :—Bark decoction is astringent and tonic. astringent. Oils. USES :—Astringent and emollient. Monkey-face tree. used as a remedy for rheumatic affections. Kambhal Raini. Oil—emollient (Yunani). Sk. Kampillaka. fattening.

USES :—Glands and hair on the fruit are bitter. "Pitta". tonic.—Anacardiaceæ. styptic. maturant. clears brain. biliousness. PARTS USED :—Root. useful in bronchitis. anthelmintic. :—Rain-forests of Konkan and N. fruits and seeds. spleen. laxative. heals ulcers. Ambo. cooling. purgative. wounds. dysentery and for curing cutaneous affections. Gum . alexiteric. Fruit powder is used as an anthelmintic. Burma. G. Amba. a good collyrium (Yunani). flowers. appetiser. dysentery. Bhutan. Malay Islands. good in cough. Kamarasa. Sikkim. leaves. anthelmintic. :—Throughout tropical India. in cases of hæmorrhage from lungs and intestines. liver pain. M. Sind. Dyes. NS. sour. Ghats and the Satpudas. tonic to body. In medicine Kamala has attained a considerable repute as a remedy for tapeworm. purgative. Astringent. COM. detergent. vomiting. fruits and seeds. vulnerary. diuretic. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. See—Timbers. Decoction or powder of dried flowers is a useful astringent in diarrhœa. Rasala. styptic. Fruit—heating. enriches blood. cure "Vata". K. Cuckoo's Joy. sweet. DISTR. carminative. stone in bladder. hiccup. LOC. Amra. It is also said to possess cathartic properties. vermifuge and. Bihar. also in the Deccan and Gujarat. Sahakara. improves cough. Mavin-mara. cooling. tumours. PARTS USED —Root (rarely). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. leaves. Mavu. USES :—Bark contains tannic acid.MEDICINAL PLANTS 137 LOC. urinary discharges. :—E. liver. Bark infusion is used in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea and in bleeding piles. Am. China. "Kapha". Kanara. piles. in "Tridosh". dispels langour and burning of body. cause flatulence and constipation. more common in the Konkan (jungles and hills). useful in skin-diseases. Smoke of the burning leaves has a curative effect in throat affections. good in dysentery. stomachic. LOC. Sk. Amri. thirst. FAM. cure leucorrhoea. enlargement of spleen (Ayurveda). Resinous juice from the bark is anti-syphilitic. Kamala is quite ineffective against hook—round—whip worms (Caius and Mhaskar). Australia. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. Mango tree. improves complexion. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves-bitter. improve taste and appetite. removes bad smell from mouth. Ceylon. good in heart trouble. aphrodisiac. cultivated throughout the State. DISTR. bad blood. used in chronic diarrhœa. diseases of abdomen. bronchitis. lessen intestinal pains. ulcers. :—-Throughout the State. vaginal troubles. It is used on the Malabar coast in diarrhœa. Chuta. wild and cultivated. aphrodisiac. Introduced. :—Tropical Himalayas. it exudes a pink coloured gum. beautifies complexion. H. astringent to bowels. LOC. cures stomatitis (Ayurveda). Seeds-astringent to bowels. chronic dysentery and gleet. throat troubles. Khasia Hills.

overlapping to the right. cures "Vata". Fr. Confection made from ripe mango juice. :—G. useful in bleeding piles. (DREGEA VOLUBILIS Benth. biliousness. Sk. Country.5-10 cm. Nimba. if snuffed. Fruit Trees. with addition of sugar and aromatics is recommended as a restorative tonic. Rind of the fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Tonic. . See—Timbers. H.:— Roots and tender stalks are considered emetic and expectorant. COM.. inflammations. cooling. corona lobes large. urinary discharges. Nimla. MARSDENIA VOLUBILIS Cooke. stops nasal bleeding. USES.5-11. Madhumalati. astringent to bowels. fleshy. K. long. Unripe fruit is useful in ophthalmia and eruptions. Ripe fruit is laxative. Nakchhikni. burning sensation. DISTR. :—Deccan and S. Ambri. H. asthma. older branches ash coloured. coma copious .—Meliaceæ. all plains districts of Madras State. aphrodisiac. :—A large twining shrub. (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. It is also anthelmintic. in lateral dropping umbellate cymes.) FAM. useful in diseases of eye. good for dyspepsia. :—Bengal. M. Juss. Hemajyoti-valli. LOC. Limbada. leaves are much employed as an application to boils and abscesses. Hari.5 cm. Dugdhike . Nimba. rugosely striate. flattened. green or yellowish green. M. Ceylon. Kadulimb. Ripe fruit contains vitamins A and C.—many. Nimbaka. Assam. 7. Nim. Sd. COM. slightly tapering to a very blunt point.—Apl.—rotate with broad lobes. Paribhadraka. with lenticels and black dots.—follicles. Kernel is astringent and used just as the bark.—Asclepiadaceæ. G. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. pale yellowish brown. :—-E. alexiteric. rat-bite (Ayurveda). t. MELIA AZADIRACHTA Linn. Khandodi. Suparnika.—broadly ovate.—6.-May HABIT :—Twining over shrubs. Fl. Kharkhodi.138 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of the tree is applied with benefit to cracked feet.3-15 X 4. The plant is used in colds and eyediseases to cause sneezing. Nim or Margosa tree. NS. tumours. Harandori. Java. Balant nimba. Fl. broadly ovate or suborbicular. Limbra. Fruit is dried in the sun and recommended as anti-scorbutic. antipyretic. C. LOC. piles. M. few glands above the petiole cordate . margined.) FAM. K. Fruit is the most delicious of Indian fruits. Juice of kernel. NS. L. Sk. leucoderma. Dodi. Bevu.

tonic. cough. antiperiodic. The fruit is markedly antiseptic. fever. aphrodisiac. expectorant. The gum exuding from the bark is a stimulant and demulcent tonic used in catarrhal affections. Oils. leprosy. fruits and seeds. H. relieves "Kapha". toothache. Found self-planted in denuded trap hills of the Deccan. The root-bark and young fruits are astringent. bruises. valuable in consumption. The fermented sap from the tree acts as a refrigerant nutrient and alterative tonic. sprains. and are believed to keep the breath and mouth clean and healthy. M.—Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ). anthelmintic. like a weak solution of carbolic acid. bark.MEDICINAL PLANTS 139 HABITAT :—Dry regions. :— Natural and planted along roadsides in the State. chronic leprosy. COM. thirst. Dry seeds possess the same properties when bruised and mixed with water. alexiteric. LOC. piles. The leaves are used as stimulant in the form of paste or poultice to boils and ulcers . for unhealthy ulcers. astringent. leucoderma. Ranmethi. It is applied as an insecticide for destruction of lice. insecticidal. rheumatism . FAM. anthelmintic. :—E. lessens inflammation. swollen glands. Banmethi. and loss of appetite. . it is used in the form of powder or fluid extract in cases of intermittent fevers. Vanmethika. useful in syphilitic sores. blood complaints." vomiting. it is a general vermifuge. almost every part of the plant is used medicinally. MELILOTUS PARVIFLORA Desf. cures ulcers and inflammations . :—Cultivated throughout India and many hot countries. piles. earache. general debility. USES :—The tree is believed to be advantageous to health when planted around villages as a prophylactic against malaria. lumbago. tonic and antiperiodic. Burma. maturant. Almost every product of this invaluable tree is largely employed medicinally in India. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. in hot decoction they form a valuable antiseptic and healing lotion. bad taste in the mouth. convalescence. flowers. Sk. useful in consumption (Ayurveda). The tender twigs are used as tooth-brush. pectoral. carminative. used as a dressing for foul ulcers and as an external stimulant in leprosy and other skin-diseases . urinary discharges. stimulant and stomachic. a decoction as an errhine relieves nose troubles . NS. Small melilot. fatigue. good in ophthalmia. biliousness. LOC. asthma. good as a gargle in stomatitis and for bad gums (Yunani). refrigerant. maturant.. "pittadosh. skin diseases. PARTS USED :—Root. resolvant. given in infusion in cases of atonic dyspepsia and general debility. The bark contains a bitter principle of resinous nature. See—Timbers. boils. The flowers are stimulant. burning sensation near heart. leaves. tumours. it is also used internally as anthelmintic. common in the Deccan and Karnatak. stomachic. DISTR. good for leprosy. Tonic.

—small.140 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR. male fascicled on short peduncles. truncate at the apex. Fr. Tender shoots and bitter leaves are used as a gentle aperient and recommended in vertigo and biliousness. north Bengal. glabrous or slightly hairy. LOCAL USES :—The seeds are said to be useful in bowel complaints and infantile diarrhœa. It has expectorant properties to some extent. L. FAM. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fl. Fl. oblanceolate. in spicate close racemes. L. K. :—An erect annual herb. high. Fl. LOC.—pod. increases "Vata" (Ayurveda). Sd. DISTR. petiolules of lateral leaflets very short. young parts white-hairy. rounded. Afghanistan. Bilari.—size of a pea. :—E. :—Western Peninsula. t. glabrous. USES :—Root decoction is useful in flatulence and when root is masticated it relieves toothache. slightly echinulate. C.. Khasia. females sessile. leaves and seeds. especially in strained back.—pale yellow. NS.—Cucurbitaceæ. S. Fr. tapering at both ends. 5-angled or 3-5 lobed. COM. PARTS USED :—Plant and seeds. Malaya and Africa. Seeds in decoction are sudorific.—monœcious . COM. LOC. :—An annual scandent or prostrate herb. M. Externally used as a fomentation. leaflets toothed.—3-foliate. Pudina. In Chota Nagpur crushed seeds are applied on aching bodies. CHAR. finally red. G. :—Common in Deccan. tendrils simple. poultice or plaster for swellings. The plant has been used as a discutient and emollient. Ghugri.— Jany. Europe. NS. Assam.—Labiatæ.—one. . HABITAT :—In hedges. H. of terminal rather long. standard exceeding the wings and keel. deltoid-ovate entire. HABITAT :—In pasture grounds. Country and Gujarat. Iran. Agamaki. MELOTHRIA MADARASPATANA Cogn. :—Common in Deccan and the Konkan . :—H. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as those of Trigonella feenum— graecum Linn. very hispid . ellipsoid. PARTS USED :—Tender shoots. stem angular. introduced into many other regions. scabrid. base cordate. Pudina. DISTR. given as a gruel (Murray). :—India (tropical zone). at first green and variegated with yellow. M. Pudinah. MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. FAM. lobes dentate or serrate .—variable in size. Corn-March mint. oblong-ellipsoid. Ceylon. also in S. brown. Chatinmaragu. 30-45 cm. "Sikkim.

good in asthma and sweats. China.—nutlets dry. thirst. :—A perennial erect herb .-narrowed below. hiccup. A paste of flowers with butter and ginger is used in bleeding piles and in burning of feet. Ceylon Iron-wood. Kanara. the upper similar and large. Kanara oil from seeds is used as an embrocation in rheumatism and is found useful in itch. C. HABITAT :—Cultivated.—in axillary distant whorls. biliousness. North and West Asia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot.MEDICINAL PLANTS 141 CHAR. Naghas. oblong. ovate. useful in liver and spleen diseases. . USES :—Root. binding. :—E. irritability of stomach and excessive perspiration. :—E. emmenagogue. Konkan and N. blood and heart troubles. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Country. Fl. toothed. Assam. Leaf-juice is applied to the sting or bite of poisonous animals. M. S. hairy. FAM. vomiting. NS. Sk. E. sorethroat. infusion is given in fevers. sweats. expectorant. Flowers are astringent and stomachic. USES :—Dried plant is refrigerant. :—Grown in gardens all over the State. skin diseases. LOC. :—Western Himalayas. often cultivated in the supari gardens and planted near temples. lanceolate. and stimulant. LOC. Nagkinjalka. It possesses antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. leaves. Suvarna. lilac. Plant yields by distillation an aromatic essential oil. tonic to kidneys . diuretic. used for cough. Nagsampige. flowers and fruits. In N. cures ulcers and piles (Yunani).—sub-equally 4-lobed. Europe. Nagkesara. indigestion and cephalagia. combined with ginger it is given as a sudorific. :—Scattered throughout the evergreen rain-forests of S. DISTR. Travancore. K. cough. smooth. The plant is used in chutneys. Nagkesara. Himalayas.—Guttiferæ. L. headache. DISTR. lined with hairs and hairy outside. M. Dried flowers are much used as a fragrant adjunct to decoctions and oils : they are also used in thirst. asthma. PARTS USED :—Bark. stalked. Fr. good for fevers. alexipharmic. Bengal. Plant is an excellent diaphoretic. COM. Burma Tenasserim. LOC. Carminative. cardiotonic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has a strong smell. Andamans. Nagakeshara. bark and other parts of plant exude an aromatic oleo-resin which has demulcent properties. dry. Ceylon. It is used In jaundice and is frequently given to stop vomiting. MESUA FERREA Linn. stem short. See—Timbers. Kashmir. none at the top. LOC. Nagchapha. pains in joints (Ayurveda). H. foul breath. small tumours. Bark is mildly astringent and feebly stomachic. Assam Iron-wood. dysentery and bleeding-piles (Ayurveda). digestive. Oils. Gums and Resins.

H. their smell a good stimulant (Yunani). rachis bristly. They are also useful as diuretic in renal diseases and gonorrhœa. Oil from seeds rubbed over abdomen relieves flatulence. L. Ghats. Leaves mixed with other drugs remove foetid odour of vaginal discharges. facilitates micturition. remove biliousness.—4-merous. high.142 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MICHELIA CHAMPAKA Linn.. Champa. Lajja. :—A diffuse under-shrub. diaphoretic. useful in cough. in vertigo. Nachike-gidda. S. leaflets 15-20 pairs. Lajalu. sensative. removes worms. DISTR. IndoChina. good in leprosy. NS. Sampige. Flowers-stomachic. Champaka.—Sept. bark. Sparshalajja. . Lajjika. Vanamallika. Muthmurika. nausea and fevers .-pod flat. young leaves contused and macerated in water and instilled into eyes are said to relieve vision. Sone-chapha. :—Cultivated all over the State.—bipin-nate. also used as purgative. and seeds are used for healing cracks in feet. LOC. CHAR. Dyes. Fl. Kanara.. Hem-pushpa. G. flowers beaten up with oil form an excellent application to foetid discharges from nose. See—Timbers. Champo. FAM. long. Leaf-juice acts as vermifuge. Champaka. Champaka. USES :—Dried root and root bark mixed with curdled milk is applied to abscesses . FAM. Pilochampo. Sonchampo. Sankochini. HABITAT :—Open situations in the moist coast region. acrid. rheumatism. PARTS USED :—Root. :—E. Fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark—bitter. bile. near temples and in gardens. Assam. it is given with honey to relieve colic. Lajalu. stems and branches sparingly prickly. digitate. 45-90 cm. Bark is aromatic febrifuge. Flower-infusion is used as a stimulant tonic and carminative in cases of dyspepsia. with 3-5 one-seeded joints. Lajjavati. Fl. diuretic. Thailand (Siam) and Malaya.—Leguminosæ (Mimosoideæ). Golden champa. infusion is a valuable emmenagogue. Pivala chapha.—Magnoliaceæ. skin diseases and ulcers (Ayurveda). ophthalmia. pinnae 1-2 pairs. M. gout. evergreen rain-forest of N. leaves. Fr. Much cultivated in various parts of India and Burma. Lajari. W. Flowers— expectorant. India. petioles hairy. H. pink. Yellow champa . Sk. Risemani. Sk. "Vata". hairy beneath.5 cm. K. Humble plant. common in many parts of Sirsi and Siddapur talukas . Burma. diuretic. Lajalu.-Oct. NS. cultivated. K. HABITAT :—Wild in evergreen rain-forests . glabrous above. Surabhi. slightly recurved. in globose heads. Yunnan. COM. 57. COM. stimulant. t. "Kapha". destroys poisons. rheumatism. MIMOSA PUDICA Linn. aphrodisiac. G. blood affections. Raktamula. :—E. :—Wild in the Eastern Sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills upto 900 m. LOC. Suvarna champaka. clothed with glandular hairs . M. flowers and fruits. Sensitive plant.

Kanara. Bakula. Bakul. biliousness. Bakul. stomachic. DISTR. Juice is applied externally. COM. Flowers—expectorant. acrid. In Madagascar plant is much used in convulsions of children. H. nose diseases. :—Common in the rain-forests of N. In the Konkan leaves are rubbed into a paste and applied to hydrocele. Root. piles. In Cambodia plant is used externally in rheumatism and uterine tumours. LOC. Malaya. FAM. NS. fatigue. cures biliousness. :—Naturalised throughout India. USES :—Root decoction is considered useful in gravel and similar complaints. cooling. teeth and gum diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 143 LOC. Mulsari. alterative. K. Anangaka. In Brazil root is used as emetic. flowers and fruits acrid. DISTR. See—Ornamental Plants. fruits and seeds. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-bitter. blood diseases (Ayurveda). :—G. Root is resolvent. cooling. Mukul. anthelmintic. asthma. Kanara and Konkan. Seeds fix loose teeth. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. USES: —Bark is astringent and useful as a gargle in diseases of gums and teeth. as an errhine cure head-troubles (Ayurveda). Baphuli. Bark cardiotonic. sweet. cultivated in gardens in pots. cure biliousness. burning sensation. Root as a gargle cures relaxation of gums. cure blood diseases. cures "Kapha". jaundice.:—Western Peninsula. Borsalli. Roots and leaves in powdered state are given in milk. LOC. Mugule. ulcers. also used in discharges from mucous membranes . astringent to bowels. dysentery. Kanara (Kumpta and Honawar). leprosy. cultivated in the tropics. Bolsari. Sharadika. Juice is used to impregnate cotton for dressing sinuses. It is also resolvent and alterative. In the Gold-Coast leaves are used for guinea-worm. Vovali. headache. oleaginous. good for gonorrhœa. M. :—Naturalised in the Konkan and N. probably a native of tropical America. Ranjal. Along roadsides in Sirsi and Siddapur sub-divisions. useful in blood and bile diseases. Varsuli. fruit and seeds astringent to bowels. bark. flowers. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests. Kalhala. useful in diseases arising from currupted blood and bile. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Bark.—Sapotaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root. Sk. in piles and fistula. MIMUSOPS ELENGI Linn. bilious fevers. leprosy. liver complaints. alexipharmic. vulnerary. gregarious and spread over considerable areas of coast region of N. smoke good in asthma (Yunani). alexipharmic. Flowers give taste. leucoderma. inflammations. Fruit causes flatulence. vaginal and uterine complaints. Ceylon. Bakul. smallpox (Yunani). LOC. Their juice with equal quantity of horse-urine is made into "Anjan" to remove films in conjunctiva. often planted in gardens.

Sk. . LOC. See—Ornamental Plants. Karela. good for syphilitic sores. Powdered and fried in ghee with spices it is given in milk as a poushtika. Karelo. lessen inflammations (Yunani).—Cucurbitaceæ. Roots are used as purgative in the Philippine Islands. Gulbasa . HABITAT:—Cultivated and found as an escape. Perianth salver-shaped to campanulate. each one surrounded by an involucre. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root is aphrodisiac. Root contain alkaloid trigonelline. Fr.—Nyctaginaceæ. NS. cordate. Karela. CHAR.—E. Karavalli. Oils. Fl. t. It is also tonic and febrifuge. H. In the Punjab it is used to increase fertility in women. In the Konkan unripe fruits and flowers are used to prepare lotion for sores and wounds. and rather fleshy stems . G. it is applied to relieve headache. Fl. COM. Rubbed with water it is applied as lep in contusions. M. :—A herbaceous plant. Carella fruit. Chandra—Sanjimallige. Guleaabbas . Pulp of ripe fruit is edible. :—Grown throughout India. FAM. HABITAT -Cultivated. :—Grown in gardens all over the State as an ornamental plant. COM. Hagalkai. Volatile oil from flowers is a useful stimulant medium. In Bengal snuff made of dried flowers is given in a disease called "An Ahwah "— a strong fever accompanied by headache and pain in neck. Sk. LOC.—large. 30-75 cm. NS.—membranous. Karala. Sandhya-kali or Raga. Hagala. MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. brightly coloured (dark crimson. USES :—Dried root is said to possess some nutrient qualities. See—Timbers. K. white or crimson striped with white yellow) . Kareli. Four o'clock plant.—nut ellipsoid or obpyramidal. yellow. H. clustered on the branches of leafy panicles. Kandura. K. FAM.—continually in bloom. L. :—E. Unripe fruit is astringent and is chewed for fixing loose teeth. high with large perennial tuberous roots.144 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) of bladder and urethra. Karli. often ribbed or rugose. Leaves bruised and heated are applied as poultice to boils and abscesses to hasten suppuration. Krishnakali. blackish. PARTS USED :—Roots and leaves. MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Bruised seeds are applied locally within the anus of children in case of constipation. M. DISTR. Fruit Trees. Marvel of Peru. native of tropical America. it is also used in curing chronic dysentery. Leaves are maturant.

juice useful in cholera (Ayurveda). Leaves—aphrodisiac. blood diseases. antipyretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 145 LOC. It is useful in gout. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root used in ophthalmia and in prolapsus vaginae. Kartoli. Malaya. anæmia. Fruit is tonic. COM. juice is rubbed in burning of the soles of feet and with black pepper is rubbed round the orbit for night-blindness. Beksa. anthelmintic. DISTR. laxative and authelmintic. antibilious. The fruit and leaves are both administered in leprosy. rice and marothy-oil forms a good ointment is many skin diseases. :—Grown in gardens as a vegetable all over the State. aphrodisiac. Vishakankini. burns. Country and Gujarat. See—Vegetables. Fruits contain vitamins A. cure "Vata". etc. asthma. USES :—Root—astringent and useful in haemorrhoids. and America. urinary discharges. leaves and fruit. diseases of spleen and liver. M. hearttroubles. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Kanta. PARTS USED :—Root. in elephantiasis and as an errhine in jaundice. Externally it is applied to the scalp in pustular eruptions. jaundice etc. Ceylon. The juice of the whole plant mixed with chalk is used in aphthae and as an emmenagogue in dysmenorrhoea. LOC. :—Widely cultivated in the Deccan. China. Golkandra. laxative. rheumatism. "Kapha". laxative. erysipelas (Ayurveda). hot alexiteric. urinary calculi. LOC. bronchitis. Karkotaki. Fruit—very bitter. :—G. . S. In the Konkan leaf-juice if given in bilious affections as an emetic or purgative . FAM. MOMORDICA DIOICA Roxb. digestible. excessive salivation. ulcers. Fruit—bitter. all kinds of poisoning. Karehiballi. NS. the whole plant mixed with cinnamon. LOC. M. Kantolan. cures biliousness. In the Konkan root-juice is a domestic remedy for the inflammation caused by contact with the urine of house-lizard. astringent to bowels but laxative for plethoric constitution.—Cucurbitaceæ. also in Malaya. carminative. eye and heart. :—Throughout India. urinary discharges. spleen troubles and ophthalmia (Yunani). DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root useful in head troubles. tonic. appetiser. Kantoli.'. and externally in ague as an absorbent. Vandhya. Leaves act as galactagogue. used in syphilis. stomachic. It is supposed to purify blood and dissipate melancholia. tumours. asthma. lessens expectoration . leaves and fruit. B and C. hiccup. rheumatism. sparingly in Konkan. tropical Africa. longpepper. stomachic. anthelmintic. cooling. PARTS USED :—Root. K. Tuberous root of female plant is used as an expectorant. Sk. piles. Fruit— bitter. boils. fever consumption. USES :—Roasted root is used to stop bleeding from piles and also in bowel complaints. piles. Gid-hagalu. bronchitis. Plant cures diseases of blood. anthelmintic. leprosy. stomachic. :—Cultivated throughout India. cure "Tridosh". H. Nagarali.

quite near the sea and certainly indigenous. Indian mulberry. Rochana. introduced into the nostrils produces a powerful errhine effect and provokes a copious discharge. fattening. LOC. COM. Mulgule. tumours. Segua. Ab. Ugra. Introduced var. flowers. H. HABITAT :—Cultivated . alexiteric. The unripe berries charred and mixed with salt are applied successfully to spongy gums. G. all "tridosha" fevers. anthelmintic. DISTR. MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. See—Vegetables. dyspepsia. Oil—useful in leprous ulcers (Ayurveda). Tikshnamula. emmenagogue. bark. makes blood impure . Shevaga. Achchuka. NS. inflammations. . Tagase . DISTR. LOC. Ashyuka. Aal. K. USES :—The root is used as a cathartic. Achi. Haladipavate. causes burning sensation. :—Cultivated widely in many places throughout India. HABITAT :—Along the sea-coast. Munigha. also wild. Ak. MORINDA CITRIFOLIA Linn. Saraoji. Bartondi. also in the Oudh forests. useful in heart-complaints. digestible. G. FAM. PARTS USED :—Root. eye diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot. Famine Plants. Sk. COM. The charred leaves made into decoction with mustard are used in infantile diarrhœa. Guggala. cultivated throughout India and Burma. "Vata". FAM. :—Cultivated in the State especially in Khandesh and near Pandharpur. K.—Moringaceæ. :—E. aphrodisiac. stuttering.—Rubiaceæ. Mochaka. Mochaka. biliousness . Drum-stick Tree. Unripe fruit is used as a vegetable and given as a delicacy to patients recovering from fever. :—Indigenous in the sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to the Sarada. Seglo. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND LOC. improves appetite.146 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) Powder or infusion of dried fruit. :—E. H. analgesic. Sajina. tuberculous glands in neck. Sargavo. Nuggi. earache. removes all kinds of pains. leaves and fruits. fruits and seeds. Ainshi. The leaf-juice is applied externally in gout to relieve pain. NS. Al. bracteata—common along the coast of the Konkan. Burma. Root-tonic to body and lungs. internally they are tonic and febrifuge. ulcers. Indian horse radish . In Bombay the leaves are used as a healing application to wounds and ulcers . Formosa. astringent to bowels. M. See—Dyes. M. Murangi. China. Sk. A crystalline principle called Morindin has been isolated from the root bark. "Kapha". leaves. spleen enlargement. :—Cultivated in fields and gardens all over the State.

sour. diuretic. burning sensation (Ayurveda). Seeds yield a fixed oil. expectorant. leaves and fruit. Siahtut. MORUS INDICA Linn. useful in "Vata" and "Kapha". USES :—Root-juice with milk or decoction of root-bark is useful for administration in asthma. carminative. G. wounds. enriches blood. expectorant. it is used to relieve gouty and rheumatic pains. anthelmintic. Fresh juice of root-bark is poured into ear to relieve otalgia. internal inflammations and calculous affections. Fruits contain vitamins A. :—E. increases biliousness. aromatic and acid flavour. spleen. bark. Pods are used as vegetable and act as preventive against intestinal worms. bronchitis. salt and pepper. rheumatism. leaves good for sorethroat and scabies. lumbago. The plant contains an alkaloid. allays thirst and is beneficial in fevers. Tutri. biliousness. Fruit—tonic. :—Wild in sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards . cures gleet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—acrid. exuded gum is also used for the same purpose. appetiser. Karihannu. In the Konkan bark is used with other ingredients to destroy guinea-worms. stomatitis. diuretic. See—Vegetables. PARTS USED :—Root. DISTR. useful in small-pox. Tuda. obstinate asthma. cooling. Shetur. bark is supposed to be a vermifuge and purgative. Gums and Resins. aphrodisiac. Tut. Oils. H. Cultivated largely in Bengal and Burma and sparingly in W. . NS. In Bombay root-bark decoction is used as fomentation to relieve spasms. B and C. COM. with garlic. LOC. USES :—Root is considered anthelmintic and astringent. fattening. Ambat. M. gout. epilepsy and hysteria. turmeric. Externally fresh root has been used as vesicant. leaf-decoction is used as a gargle in inflammation and thickening of the vocal cords : fruit has an agreeable. See—Fruit Trees. laxative. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. urinary discharges. Fruits are eaten fresh or made into preserves or syrup. good for inflammations of throat and chest. Flower and leaf—anthelmintic. outer hills of the Punjab and the valley of Sikkim. Plant is used as a cardiac tonic. FAM. ulcerated intestines. Madhu pippali. Tut. cure biliousness and bronchitis (Yunani). Leaf paste. loss of appetite. it is cooling laxative. Seeds heal cracks in the soles of feet (Yunani). Kambali. K. common about villages in N. a useful rubefacient in rheumatism. piles. Root and bark are used to procure abortion. LOC: —Very sparingly cultivated in the Deccan. is given internally in dog-bite and applied externally. enlarged spleen or liver. sweetish. Peninsula. Fibres.—Moraceæ. Kanara. Sk. good for brain. Root is purgative. White mulberry. Tuta. and is a good remedy in bites of rabid animals. enriches blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 147 laxative. lumbago. heart. LOC. diarrhœa.

Kunth. COM. (MUCUNA PRURIENS Bak.—Scitaminaceæ.—Oct-Nov. M. Urustambha. DISTR. indolent ulcers (Ayurveda). Several forms are cultivated in Western India. Hairs mixed with honey have been used as vermifuge. Kadvare. turgid-shaped. Fruit— aphrodisiac.) FAM. LOC. . Pods are covered with stiff hairs. Seeds— alexipharmic. Kela. Root is considered tonic and useful in diseases of the nervous system. Kavach. 5-7. FAM. leaves. dark-purple. PARTS USED :—Root. Fr.—in drooping racemes. biliousness . Sd. LOC.2 cm.—pod. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root given in dysentery and in uterine troubles. M. Maoz kela. consumption. K. laxative. spermatorrhoea etc. Tikshna. Var. used in powder form in leucorrhcea. Kapikachu. Root—emmenagogue. juice given for headache. Ceylon. USES :—This has long been known and valued in Indian medicine being mentioned in Sushruta and Bhavaprakash. such as facial paralysis and hemiplegia. :—Indigenous to Bihar and E. useful in gonorrhœa (Yunani). Himalaya up to 1200 m. :—Throughout the State from the coast inland. Seed is considered a nervine tonic. Banana. cultivated throughout India and the Tropics. silky..3 cm. from the base of the Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma . G. PARTS USED :—Root. Plantain. An ointment prepared with hairs acts externally as a local stimulant and mild vesicant.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ).—5-6 small. Root useful for delirium in fevers. flowers and fruit. Atmagupta. t. Turashi. sometimes cultivated. long. improves blood. Strong root infusion. :—E.. K. Adam's Fig.148 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) MUCUNA PRURITA Hook. Sk. Nayi songuballi. G. tonic. cultivated. grey-silky beneath. covered with tawny stinging hairs. NS. COM.5x1. pods and seeds. Rambha. Kivanch. Havanch. Kavatch. Goncha. They are used as anthelmintic. which produce intensa irritation of skin. 6-30 flowered. Kela. Fl. cosmopolitan in the Tropics and often cultivated. terminal smaller. tonic. lateral very unequal sided. " Vata ". H. Hasaguni. Dirghapatra. stem. Kuhili. its smoke accelerates delivery and lessens inflammations . CHAR. Kadali. SAPIENTUM O. with honey is given in cholera. :—Punjab plains. :—E. Fl. Cowhage.—3-foliate. Bale. common in hedges. Sk. :—Cultivated in coastal and ghat districts of the State. Vanari. leaflets membranous. NS. :—An annual twiner.3-11. cures blood diseases. Kivanchha. H. petioles 6. L. HABITAT :—Humid areas . DISTR. HABITAT :—In hedges. Kela. LOC. MUSA PARADISIACA L.

—tubular. Fruit—sweet. appetiser. stipules twin. Tropical Himalayas. with yellow hairs blocking the mouth. :—H. menstrual disorders.—opposite or 8nately whorled. mixed with ghee and sugar is given in gonorrhœa. flowers and fruit. aphrodisiac. Bellotti. Bedina. K. Root-juice. See—Fruit Trees. Leaves good for scabies and inflammation. C. Bhutakes. in " Vata". :—A rambling shrub. antidysenteric. Juice of sheathing petiole and leaf is given to children suffering from overdose of opium. Kanara. increases appetite. Unripe fruit is much used in diabetes . very hairy outside. astringent to bowels. DISTR. biliousness. Juice of the flower mixed with curds is used in dysentery and menorrhagia. gum obtained from unripe fruit mixed with rice water is used in diarrhœa. linear. LOC. blood diseases. Burnt stem is vulnerary. leaf and fruitjuice are applied with benefit in weakness of eyesight. PARTS USES :—Root. aphrodisiac.--in terminal cymes. Fruits contain traces of vitamins A. with burnt borax and nitre is given in retention of urine . good for dry bronchitis. Shrivalli. deep golden yellow. Juice of tender roots is used with mucilage for checking haemorrhage from genital and air passages. buds densely hairy. Lawsat. indigestible . hairy. PROPERTIES AND LOC. leprosy. :—Konkan and N. USES :—In the Konkan root is given in cow's urine in white leprosy. USES :—Root is antibilious and in powder form it is used in anæmia and cachexia. diseases of uterus and vagina. Fr. tube slender. Root rubbed in water is applied as a paste to relieve the burning of sore-eyes. consumption and bronchitis. anthelmintic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 149 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. Sk. broad at base. . pubescent. COM. climbing by its divaricate hairy branches. kidney troubles (Yunani). fully ripe fruit is a laxative if taken regularly early morning.. Ipparati. improves complexion (Ayurveda). White leaves are given in milk in jaundice. Green skinned ripe fruits are given to check diarrhœa. MUSSÆNDA FRONDOSA Linn. useful in "Kapha". Nagavalli. astringent to bowels. Fl. CHAR. they are also useful as a substitute for oiled silk and gutta-percha in the waterdressing of wounds and ulcers.— July-Oct. broadly elliptic. ear-pain. Hastygida. and are used in acidity. Malabar and Tinnevelly Hills. Ashes produced by burning the plant contain potash salts. thickens blood. B and C. NS. subglobose. t. causes bronchitis .—Rubiaceæ. diabetes. Young tender leaves are used as a cool dressing for inflamed and blistered surfaces. Fl. urinary discharges. LOC. :—S.— berry. leaves. L. FAM. tonic. in thirst. Serwadh. lobes broadly ovate. tonic. Root-juice is anthelmintic. Ripe fruit is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhœa. M. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon and rain-forests. Kanara where there is heavy rainfall. Assam. strangury. heart-burn and colic. sore-throat. dyspepsia. Andamans. Fibres.

M. H. Fl. allaying pain. smoke beneficial to piles. common in the Kumta taluka. :— E. black when ripe. False nutmeg. used in stopping vomiting. applied locally to relieve pain. K. ovate to lanceolate. :—Western Peninsula. A decoction is employed.—berry. Pliny. Volatile oil from leaves is antiseptic and rubefacient. diuretic. USES :—The seed bruised and subjected to boiling yields a yellowish concrete oil which. when melted with a small quantity of any bland oil. indigenous from the Mediterranean to N. HABITAT :-Cultivated in gardens. Sk. It is credited with opposite qualities. DISTR. USES :—The myrtle occupies a prominent place in the writings of Hippocrates. Dioscorides. an excellent application to indolent and ill-conditioned ulcers. fruits and oil. :—E. PARTS USED :—Leaves. LOC.—small. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Fr. M. white. Kaiphal. also in dyspepsia and diseases of stomach and liver. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are laxative. :—Often grown in gardens throughout India. PARTS USED:—Seeds. intermittent fevers and dropsy. small. Kanage. MYRTUS COMMUNIS Linn. very sweet smelling. emmenagogue. Myrtle. ellipsoid. NS.— Myristicaceæ. It is used as a substitute for true mace. Murad. :—Grown in ornamental gardens. Powdered leaves are used as an astringent especially for sores in children. CHAR. Himalayas. cures headache. Vilayantimendhi. Kanara Ghats . FAM. It is also used in certain affections of the respiratory organs and bladder and as a local application in rheumatic affections. Rampatri is considered to be a nervine tonic.150 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In Indo-China flowers are considered pectoral and diuretic. Malabar. FAM. L. especially epilepsy.— solitary. Fruit—tonic to brain and heart. See—Timbers. COM. Kamuka. Condiments and Spices. as . :—Konkan and N. COM. axillary on slender peduncles. is regarded as. cleaning surface and establishing healthy action .—Myrtaceæ. used in bronchitis and menorrhagia (Yunani). DISTR. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. Leaves are considered useful in cerebral affections. :—A shrub. MYRISTICA MALABARICA Lamk. used also as an embrocation in chronic rheumatism. Habules. promotes growth of hair. Galen and the Arabian writers. enriches blood. NS. Malati. LOC. LOC. W. all over the State. Externally they are applied as a detergent to ulcers. They are given in asthma. Malati. Ram-patri.

—capsule. PARTS USED :—Root. petiole winged.—July. LOC. Ripe carpels. LOC. Egyptian or Pythagorian bean. rough with distant prickles . solitary or 2 together. hæmorrhage. Kamala. stem. DISTR. FAM. dysentery. :—E. free. Indian sacred lotus. plentiful on the sides of nalas near Vengurla. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. white or rosy.-Nov.—Meliaceæ. & A. :—E. creeping stem rooting at the nodes. COM. C. CHAR. K. Fl. Timpani. concave or cupped. NAREGAMIA ALATA W. 3-valved. Kandabahula. high. biliousness. HABITAT :—Tanks in warmer parts. top flat. .. cures asthma. cells 2-seeded. linear spathulate. ovoid.—membranous. axillary. fleshy. Fl. Pankaja.:—Cultivated in tanks in the State. torus 18 mm. H. Suriyakamal. M.—Nymphæaceæ. Kanara. curved. 3-foliate. internal ulcerations and rheumatism. Sk. petioles very long. CHAR. G. erect. COM.3-0. glabrous. peltate. LOC. K. Ghats of Madras State and Travancore-Cochin. Belakanji. Kamal. Padma. NS. muricate.—solitary. Fl. Fl. leaves. USES :—The root is a good emetic and cholagogue. anthers with clavate appendages. diam. petals 5. The plant contains alkaloid naregamin. L. :—A large aquatic herb. DISTR. Goanese ipecacuanha. disk annular. t. Pitmari. vulnerary. NELUMBO NUCIFERA Gærtn. Kamal. Kapurbhendi. (NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM Willd. long. Sarasija. alexiteric. spongy.—pendulous. ulcers (Ayurveda). t. in diam. Kandalu. Tavari-bija or gadde.5 cm. L.-Dec. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root is sweet and cooling. :—W. radiately nerved. Sk. Ambuja. NS. In the Konkan leaves and stem are given in decoction with bitters and aromatics as a remedy for biliousness.—alternate. See—Ornamental Plants. Amlavalli. with slender. Chinese water-lily.MEDICINAL PLANTS 151 a mouth-wash in cases of aphthae.) FAM. The plant juice mixed with cocoanut oil is used in cases of psora. 0.—white. bronchitis. Padam.6 m. Ambuj. 10-25 cm. ovoidglobose. Fruit is carminative and is given in diarrhœa. HABITAT :—Along the sides of nalas. Pundarika. Nelanaringa . :—Konkan. Papra-vel. M. Fr.—petals many 5-12. Sd. Aravinda. elongate. Kamal. :—A small branching undershrub. entire. It has been found useful in acute dysentery and as an expectorant. from Iran eastwards to Australia. orbicular. elliptic..

COM. planted in gardens throughout the State. M. Kanher. Seeds are used to check vomiting and given to children as diuretic and refrigerant.—funnel-shaped. flowers. astringent to taste . . C. DISTR. PARTS USED :—Root. gives tone to breast. Salt Range. K. Sd. G. Baluchistan. :—E. useful in piles. Filaments are astringent and cooling. allays thirst. USES :—Powdered root is prescribed for piles as a demulcent. Fl. stem. leaves. Cool. improves watery eyes (Yunani). Sweet scented oleander. Cool. rose or white. established along the banks of rivers in Khandesh and Nasik districts . also for dysentery and dyspepsia . cures cough. leaves. extensively cultivated throughout the greater part of India as well as in China and Japan. bleeding piles and menorrhagia. good in throat-troubles. Sind. Ashwa-marak. Sk. used as paste in ring-worm and other cutaneons affections . diseases of skin and eye . and yellow fragrant stamens are used as a cosmetic application to the face to improve complexion. Karvira. at length separating. Waziristan. LOC. Kanel. They form cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy and are considered an antidote to poison. Upper Gangetic Plains. S. useful in burning sensation of the body.152 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—Root. diuretic. NERIUM ODORUM Soland.—red. long. In China and Malaya dried red petals. Flowers are used as an astringent in diarrhœa. CHAR. linear-lanceolate. :—Grows wild by the banks of Deccan rivers . 10-15 cm.—tipped with coma of light brown hairs. Pratihasa. in fever and liverdiseases. flowers. dark green and shining above. also recommended as cardiac tonic. The plant contains an alkaloid nelumbin. slightly bitter. inflammations and poisoning. seeds. rigid. H. NS. removes worms. vomiting. also as a hedge plant. fragrant. heart and brain tonic . long. FAM. small-pox. bronchitis leucorrhoea and internal injuries . Himalayas from Nepal westwards to Kashmir. Kaner. coriaceous. also cholera. t. removes " Kapha " and " Pitta ". L. Karvira. Kanagile. Kaner. throat scaly. fever. Vishavrikshanka. fruit. Paddali. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Nearly every part of the plant has a distinct name and economic use and supplies one or more drugs. allays thirst. The milky viscid juice of the leaves and stalks is used in diarrhœa. good in blood-complaints. strangury.—flowers more or less throughout the year. lobes rounded. A sherbat of the plant is used as refrigerant in small-pox. ulcers and sores of mouth. Fr. Fl. honey. In bleeding piles filaments are given with honey and fresh butter. 15-23 cm. leucoderma. See—Ornamental Plants. large leaves are used as cool bedsheets in high fever with burning of the skin.—follicles. :—Madhya Bharat. menorrhagia. :—A large glabrous evergreen shrub with milky juice. HABITAT :—Along banks of rivers. spermatorrhoea. biliousness. LOC. useful in fevers . aphrodisiac.—in threes. India. chest-pains. tapering into short petiole. Karber.—Apocynaceæ.

MEDICINAL PLANTS 153 PROPERTIES AND USES :—The medicinal properties are the same as those of Thevetia neriifolia (Ayurveda). sedative and emetic. they differ greatly according to the variety from narrowly linear-lanceolate to broadly oblong. useful in caries of teeth. very poisonous.—Solanaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. H. Hoge soppu. good for chronic pain in abdomen and in joints. smoke constipating. :—Native of America. G. For spongy gums and toothache chewing of tobacco leaf is a favourite remedy in India. across. Sk. disinfectant. cures bad eye-sight (Ayurveda). headache. Oil from root-bark is used in skin diseases. lobes spreading. foul nose. scabies. HABITAT :—Cultivated. tonic. scabies (Yunani). emetic. funnel-shaped. carminative. Juice of young leaves is poured into eyes in ophthalmia. COM. oblong or elliptic. Fr. :—Extensively cultivated in upper Gujerat (Kaira dist.—capsule. nervous depression and sleeplessness. :—An erect glandular-pubescent herb with terete stem. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Karaviradya taila used in eczema and other skin diseases. Tambakhu. inflammations. NICOTIANA TABACUM Linn. LOC. large (especially lower ones). Leaf decoction is recommended to reduce swellings. Tambak.) and in the area west of the Deccan and S. K. USES :—All parts of plant. C. Bujjarbhang. CHAR. bronchitis. water from hookha is diuretic. :—E. L. Tamakhu. Dhumrapatrika. An ointment made . Tamaku. about 1. DISTR. Excessive smoking gives rise to chronic inflammation of bronchial mucous membrane. also applied in leprosy. LOC. The plant contains a glucoside. Fl.—in open corymbose panicles . Root made into paste with water is used as an external application in cancers and ulcerations. inflammations. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Poisonous to fish. FAM. useful in bronchitis. M. Krimighni. skin diseases. Tamarakuthika. See—Ornamental Plants. sessile or shortly stalked (upper ones become smaller). Flowers— aphrodisiac. used also in syphilitic nodes and skin diseases. M. base wedgeshaped . asthma. Leaf decoction is a useful external application in inflammatory swellings. dimness of sight.—alternate. Tabak. Root—aphrodisiac. laxative. cures night-blindness and purulent ophthalmia (Yunani). LOC. tobacco leaves have been used in orchitis. Country (Satara and Belgaum districts). anthelmintic. cultivated in all tropical countries. good for lumbago. tonic. PARTS USED :—Leaves. black oil in the pipe heals sinuses. USES :—Leaves are narocotic.8 cm. are poisonous and are used externally. a mental stimulant. Kalanja. NS. Tobacco. wounds. especially root. caries of teeth. It is a powerful resolvent and attenuant and is used externally. sores.—pink or white. tubercular glands of neck. conical. the surface is plain or bullate. Nicotine has been recommended in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine.

(NYMPHÆA LOTUS Linn.3 cm.—Oleaceæ. Bark cures bronchitis.—lobes white. useful in bilious fevers. See—Ornamental Plants. FAM. M. Leaves are useful in obstinate fevers. Fl. obcordate or merely orbicular. Aravind. Madhya Bharat. :—E. K. CHAR. Nilophhal. Buds are tonic.— more or less throughout the year. densely pubescent beneath. Lotus. It is used with honey in chronic fever. Sephalika. Nyadale huvu . leaves. tube orange-coloured. t. separating into 2 flat 1-seeded carpels . NS.) FAM. Tobacco chewing is resorted to in cases of asthma. Seeds are used in piles and skin diseases (Yunani). stomachic. Bilitavarai. Shonapadma. NYMPHÆA PUBESCENS Willd. bark. Rakta—Kalhara-Kamala. H. Parijata . Parijataka. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a specific for obstinate sciatica. L. leaves and flowers is given in excessive diuresis and in spleen enlargement. tonic to hair.154 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing ulcers and painful tumours. Sk. Prajakta. Har. Jayaparvati. ovate acute. K. astringent-to bowels.5-6. C. M. Harsing. southwards to the Godavari. young branches quadrangular. LOC. In Guiana smoke is considered excellent for strangulated hernia. Sephali. Indian Mourner : G. 2-celled.— fragrant. DISTR. The oil from the bark is used for pain in the eye. scalp affections etc. Prajakta. HABITAT :-Cultivated. abundant July-Sept. cures fevers. Parijata. Flowers have a bitter bad taste. Fr. With honey and common salt it is used as an anthelmintic. (Ayurveda). Leaf-juice is a safe purgative for infants. PARTS USED :—Root. Assam. flowers and seeds. Kanval. a decoction of root. Kanwal. in terminal trichotomous cymes. rough above with bulbous hairs. NS. Alipriya. Sk. in pedunculate bracteate fascicles of 3-5. rough all over with stiff whitish hairs. Burma. USES :—Leaves are regarded as antibilious and expectorant. hairy. Nalkumkuma. carminative.—opposite 5-10x2. compressed. found wild in the Satpuda forests of Khandesh. lessen inflammation.—Nymphæaceæ. H. COM. NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS Linn. . :—E. Fl. :—Outer Himalayan ranges from the Chenab to Nepal. Chotakanwal. bark. Lalkamal. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-juice is bitter acrid . :—A large shrub or a small tree. Bengal. solitary. :—Widely cultivated in gardens all over the State. LOC. peduncles 4angled. Har-singhar. Cultivated in many parts of India. Kharapatraka. Coral—Night-flowering Jasmine. G. COM. Powdered seeds are employed to cure scurvy. Kumuda. axillary..—capsule.

cylindric. Sabzah. Fl. cough and vomiting (Ayurveda). Java. pale rose or white. chronic pain in joints. ripening beneath the water. enlarged spleen. black and pitted. Plant has a sharp. long. :—Var. across. leucoderma. emmenagogue. terminal raceme longer than the lateral. stomachic. pink flowers in thyrsoid racemes. Fr. glabrous or hispidly pubescent.—Labiatæ. Rihan. white.5-20 cm. diarrhœa and piles . biliousness. removes impurities from blood . erect. ellipsoid. HABITAT :—Aquatic in warmer regions. obtuse.—peltate. Ajagandhika. Sd. rough. root stock tuberous. diam. diameter. filaments dilated at the base . C. stems and branches green or purplish. stamens about 40. leaves. "Kapha". :—E. OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. DISTR. high. K. diuretic. bitter taste. glabrous. H. allays thirst. Ceylon. "Vata". peduncles very long . PROPERTIES AND USES :—The flower has an acrid. Hungary. PARTS USED :—Roots. G. anthelmintic. pubescent and prominently veined beneath . Sabja. "Vata". thyrsiflora is cultivated in gardens in the Bombay State. Tungi. useful in diseases of heart and brain. Sabja. Bahari. thyrsiflora. Tukhamariya . orbicular or reniform (younger subsagitate). aphrodisiac . irregularly sinuate-dentate. antipyretic . hot taste. 8-13 mm. febrifuge. Africa.—all the year. fleshy. globose. Fl. pink or purplish. cultivated throughout the greater part of India. Var. long. :—Large aquatic herb . Philippines. glabrous or pubescent. COM. Fl. PARTS USED :—Root-stock. petioles very long.9 m. 15-25 cm. asthma. Common sweet basil. Ramkasturi. See—Ornamental Plants. Nasabo. and nigropunctate above. :—Cultivated in many places in the State. flowers and seeds. DISTR. CHAR. LOC. short.—nutlets about 2 mm. LOC. Surasa. " Kapha". USES :—Powdered root-stock is given in dyspepsia. :—Common throughout India in warmer parts.. Seeds allay thirst (Ayurveda). toothed or lobed. oblong. Burma. green. a decoction of the flowers is prescribed in palpitation of the heart. lessens bile. roundish. :—An erect herb 0. inflammations.—ovate. 7. t. M. bracts stalked. deeply cordate at the base. Damaro. Fr. improves taste . juice gives lustre to . NS. purple stem. bitter.MEDICINAL PLANTS 155 CHAR. useful in diseases of heart and blood. L. Barbar. red. Sajjebija. C. alexipharmic.—2-lipped. leaves and flower.6-0. Manjarki. LOC. Barbar.—solitary. acute. open in the morning only. Surabhi. FAM. causes burning sensation.— ovoid. cooling .— in whorled racemes . Sk. submerged . HABITAT :—Cultivated and wild.—3 cm. L. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant is pungent and dry.—petals about 12. entire. itch.:—Indigenous on the lower hills of the Punjab.

causes insomnia (Ayurveda). . The same preparation is used for the cure of parasitic diseases of the skin. " Kapha".8—5. Java. NS. Deccan. aromatic baths and fumigations are advised in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. skin diseases.—nutlets subglobose. Ajaka. :—Throughout India. heart. M.156 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) eye. removes foul breath. stimulant. earache.—2-lipped. Gujarat. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. S. Plant has bitter. pale greenish yellow. inflammations. t. alexiteric. Vanabarbarika Gandhapanijaka. Ram Tulasi. diarrhœa and chronic dysentery. Fl. leaf-paste is applied to fingers and toe-nails. useful in diseases of brain.7 cm. Fl. strengthens gums. C. rachis quadrangular . 1. branched. G. sharp taste . heating. good for toothache. The seeds are given in headache and neuralgia.—6. BanMal tulasi. they are also aphrodisiac. The flowers possess.-July-Oct. rugose. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant has pungent taste with some flavour. aphrodisiac . :—Konkan. they are also used in internal piles and constipation which they relieve. :—A perennial shrub. L. Large basil. fits. a cold infusion is said to relieve the after-pains of parturition.8 m. woody below . USES :—Roots are used for the bowel complaints of children. stems and branches subquadrangular . COM. for which the juice warmed with honey is given. given in infusion in gonorrhœa. During fever when the extremities are cold. coarsely crenate-serrate. useful in vomiting. Seeds are mucilaginous and cooling.5 X 3. LOC. It is dropped into the ear in ear-ache and dullness of hearing. Fr. " Vata". Lemon—shrubby basil.. The whole plant is aromatic and on distillation with water the leaves yield an essential oil which solidifies into basil-camphor. diuretic and demulcent properties. Leaf-juice forms an excellent nostrum for the cure of ring-worm. Country. The leaf-decoction is of value in seminal weakness and is an esteemed remedy in gonorrhœa. mixed with pepper and ginger it is given during the cold stages of ague. Sumukha. Sk. mixed with camphor it stops nasal hæmorrhage (Yunani). OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM Linn. carminative. lower lip longer. young ones pubescent. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. Rama-Ran tulasi. It is also styptic. elliptic-lanceolate. strangury . M. Avachi-bavachi. liver and spleen. FAM.2—1. On the Gold-Coast leaves are mashed and used as an enema by newly delivered women. Leaves are useful in the treatment of croup. CHAR. H. In the aphthas of children a strong decoction is found effective. headache. LOC. high. DISTR. USES :—The plant has aromatic and stimulant properties. gland-dotted. in close whorls . :—E. diuretic and stimulant. pubescent. often cultivated : Ceylon.— in simple or branched racemes. Rantulasi. good for griping and piles (Yunani).3—12.—Labiatæ. brown.

:—E. smooth. CHAR. Sd. Root is given in decoction as a diaphoretic in malarial fevers. especially in children. causes burning sensation (Ayurveda). :—An annual herb. Parpat. Suravallari. Fresh roots are ground with water and applied to stings and bites of insects and leeches. margins recurved and scabrous. elliptic-oblong. stipules with bristles . " Kapha". Leaves are expectorant in chronic cough. purulent discharge of ear.5-5 X 1. Manjari. M. Arabia. vomiting. upper lip pubescent on the back.—Sept-Nov. purplish. :—G. stems numerous. USES :—Most sacred plant of the Hindoos. yellow with black marking. M. strangury.—on filiform pedicels. M. t. DISTR. of children and in hepatic affections . stems and branches subquadrangular. leaves and seeds. foul smells. COM. L. bitter. FAM. HABIT :—A common weed. and are given in disorders of genito-urinary system. COM.6— 3. Tulasi. CHAR. :—Konkan. used in catarrh and bronchitis . Fl. Seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. H.— nutlets. :—Grown in and near many Hindoo houses and temples all over the State. painful eye. juice poured into ear is a first-rate remedy for ear-ache.2 cm. Bruised plant is applied to the bites of mosquitoes (Roberts). Parapate. Malay Archipelago. Holy-Monk's-Rough-Sacred basil. Sk. LOC. Deccan and S.—Labiatæ. varying from 7. FAM. asthma. Asia to Java and the Philippines. angular. long.— capsule. Damanpaper. LOC.. clothed with soft hairs .—pale brown. long in close whorls . entire or serrate. Tulasi. high. West Asia. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. Fr. heating. Pavitra. Country. purplish. high. hiccup. 30-60 cm. Fl. pubescent. C.— in racemes 15-20 cm. Krishna tulasi. and are given with honey. alexiteric. dried leaves are powdered and used as snuff in ozœna and also for dislodging maggots. globose or pyriform . Ceylon. :—Throughout India.MEDICINAL PLANTS 157 OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. NS. Fr. leucoderma. Vranda. Kala tulasi. they are applied to the skin in ring-worm and other skin diseases . LOC. DISTR. :—Throughout India (cultivated) . anthelmintic. Tulasi. Fl.—2-lipped. Leaf infusion is used in gastric disorders. :—An annual plant.—Rubiaceæ. Papli. Tropical E. antipyretic. G. lumbago pains. PARTS USED :—Root. . HABITAT :—Cultivated. K. usually 2-3 cm. minutely gland-dotted. Phapti. stomachic. Sk. lobes acute. Australia. Vrinda. bronchitis.—subsessile. Vishnuvallabha. NS.5—38 cm. linear or linear-lanceolate. " Vata". H. Tulasa. L. useful in heart and blood diseases. obtuse or acute. cholagogue. See—Sacred Plants.—2. OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn.

CHAR. anæmia. xerophyte. cures inflammations. Zhoratheylo. rather thin. recurved. Vajrakantaka. cures bronchitis in children. Fl. In the Konkan juice of plant is applied to palms and soles when they burn from fever. flowers and fruits. Snuka. digestive. liver complaints. Sher. Joints variable in size. Fruit is considered refrigerant and is useful in gonorrhœa. across. inner spathulate. :—E. Sk. 3 m. LOC. yellow at the edges. leucoderma. Flowers—cure bronchitis and asthma. obovate or elliptic. Plant bitter. bearing tufts of glochidia and a few prickles.—Cactaceæ. " Vata". Nagdali. Joints pulp is applied to eyes in ophthalmia. laxative. COM. good for leucoderma. inflammations. Mullugalli. reddish purple when ripe. Hathathoria. lumbago. ascites. angular or warty. :—A woody shrub branched from the base. L. PARTS USED : —Stem-joints. Nagaphani. perianth rotate. Nagaphana. rusty brown. diuretic. used in ophthalmia. purgative. about 18-30 X 10-18 cm. PROPERTIES AND USES :—By Sanskrit authors it is considered a cooling medicine of importance in the treatment of fever (remittent fevers with gastric irritability) and nervous depressions . piles. pyriform. it is also used in liver complaints. Prickly pear. long. burning. subulate. M. NS. Since last 2 years it is found to reappear in some places). carminative. vesicular calculi. yellow or orange. Juice is given internally with a little milk and sugar in the burning at the stomach-pit and to cure heat eruptions. a decoction of the whole plant is said to be a good febrifuge and is used in chronic malaria. it has the effect of increasing bile secretion. stomachic. outer segments ovate red in the centre. Chorhothalo. introduced into India. cures syphilis (Ayurveda).158 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PARTS USED :—The whole plant. when baked and made into syrup acts as an expectorant and is a good remedy in asthma and whooping cough. tumours. juice cures earache (Yunani). ulcers. Grown as hedge.5 cm. :—Probably indigenous in Mexico. :—Growing all over the State near villages and in waste places forming a pest. Nagadru. carminative. . Plant juice—heating.—5 cm. DISTR. urinary complaints. Nagaphana. milky juice given with sugar is purgative. USES :—Joints mashed into pulp and applied as poultice allay heat and inflammation in scorbutic ulcers. HABITAT :—Common in waste places . spleen enlargement. antipyretic. spleen enlargement. largest 3. Slipper thorn.5 mm. OPUNTIA NIGRICANS Haw. H. Phadyanivdung. K. G.— berry. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-hot. long. LOC. dull bluish-green. FAM. glochidia hidden among the woolly hairs. Fr. (The introduction of cochineal insects has wiped out this plant all over the State. cures biliousness. reddish at the tips. or more high. Areoles bearing about 4-5 upto 10 slender straight prickles. loss of consciousness. alexiteric.—7. Hot joints applied to boil are said to hasten suppuration.

K. Tuntaka. LOC. Ceylon. See—Timbers. good in heart and throat diseases. NS. Bhat. COM. Arlu. HABITAT :—In moist-forests. Tandula. Araluka. OROXYLON INDICUM Vent. bronchitis (Ayurveda). Pharri. Mokka. Sk. :—Throughout India except in the Western drier area. LOC. G. :—The Konkan and the N. The plant contains a bitter principle oroxylin. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-acrid. Chaval. COM. Dirghavrinta. Alangi. Sk. Rice. dysentery. intestinal worms. oleaginous. Ghats. piles. H. Indian trumpet flower. diuretic. vomiting. astringent to bowels . Tandula. improves taste. anal troubles. Tetu. Nivara.—Many varieties are grown in the Bombay State. Rice . biliousness.MEDICINAL PLANTS 159 I have used joints warmed for poultice in guinea worm abscesses with marked effect (K. K. DISTR.S. It is astringent and tonic. very common in rain-forests near Nilkund (Kanara). decoction of root-bark is used in rheumatic swellings. asthma. R. :—Widely cultivated. Ullu. Kanara ghats . USES :—In India rice is used variously in invalid diet. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Grain acrid. HABITAT :—Aquatic. Rootbark paste boiled with sesamum oil is recommended for otorrhoea. DISTR. aphrodisiac. ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Fruit—acrid. Tetu. Fruit—expectorant. Mayarjangha. useful in " Vata". Shali. :—E. FAM. inflammations. appetiser. LOC. M. increases "Vata" and "Kapha" (Ayurveda). M. Tetu. Podval. useful in leucoderma (Yunani). Dyes. aphrodisiac. Bagi.—Bignoniaceæ.—Gramineæ. Tender fruits are beneficial carminative and stomachic. USES :—Root-bark is well known and much esteemed being an ingredient of the Dashamula of Hindoo medicine. leucoderma. H. sweet. K. PARTS USED :—Root-bark and fruit. :—E. cooling. Seeds are purgative. tonic. PARTS USED :—Grain. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery. Chokha. Powder made from bark along with hardi is a useful cure for sore-backs of horses. Vrihi. anthelmintic. G. fevers.). improves appetite. Shyonaka. LOC. NS. Malaya. stomachic. fattening. tonic. Ava. useful in biliousness . bronchitis. Country and Kanara (Rabi crop). Cochin-China. Rice is nutritious and easy to digest for weak stomachs. Tans. Fairly large areas in Gujarat. Extensively cultivated in Konkan and Deccan (Maval) close to W. FAM. Akki. M.

oblong. boils.—palmately 3-foliate. K. :—A small procumbent acrid herb . removes " Kapha ". It is an excellent application to abscesses. Dudhialata. OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM R. demulcent and refrigerant drink in fevers. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot and bitter . sub-umbellate . M. if applied to chest. H. Fl. :—E. Marudbhava. margins ciliate. Dudhani. forms an excellent drink in ordinary fevers. Jaladudhi. Changeri. " Vata " and piles. Sk. :—Cosmopolitan : throughout the warmer parts of India. USES :—Leaves have been used in fever. scarlet fever. Fr. 5-angled. taken as a drink in an inflammatory or irritable state of stomach. Indian Sorrel. small-pox. HABITAT :—A troublesome weed in gardens. beaked. C.—Oxalidaceæ. boiled and mixed with onion and then applied to the head in bilious headache. Br. Hulitiuniche-gida Pullampurchi-soppu. juice removes warts and opacities of the cornea. COM. It is a pleasant. The grains contain vitamin C. bowels or kidneys. bruised.—Asclepiadaceæ. See—Food Plants. ulcers.— many.5 cm. gives great relief. LOC.—axillary. Ambuti. used externally. gonorrhœa and in cases where there is pain and difficulty in passing urine. Rice flour dusted thickly over the surface forms a cooling and soothing application in skin diseases. :—Throughout the State.2—2. Dudhatani. ovoid. Amlalonika. CHAR. inflamed piles. In dysentery. Sk. pubescent. Shuklika. Plain rice-water is used as an enema in bowel affections. curry from fresh leaves improves appetite and digestion of dyspeptic patients. Infusion of small leaves is given as a cooling medicine in fevers . LOC. FAM. Fl. H. diarrhœa. OXALIS CORNICULATA Linn. yellow. long. measles. to which a little lemon juice is added. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Dugdhike. K. skin diseases and quartan fevers (Ayurveda). Ceylon. good appetiser . Kyirin . Dugdhika. Amrul. Ambastha. linear-oblong. obcordate. t. DISTR. In slight forms of dysentery leaves boiled in butter-milk and given twice or thrice a day prove very useful (Koman). Kshiravi. COM. buboes. Rice water. prepared with hot water they form good poultice for boils. M. petioles very slender. easy to digest.160 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) conjee is good. fresh juice of the leaves mixed with honey and sugar is said to be useful.—petals 5. brown. base cuneate subsessile. cures dysentery. NS. in the Himalayas up to 2700 m. also in burns and scalds. astringent. In chronic bronchitis and coughs. rounded at the apex.— capsule. Sd. Rice poultice is used also as a substitute for linseed meal poultice. FAM. :—G. In the Konkan the plant is rubbed in water. Dudhari. L.— Oct-May. Dugdhica. transversely striate. Dudhialata. they form a good poultice over inflamed parts . leaflets 1. stems rooting. dysentery and scurvy. NS. . Chukrita.

—Dec. C. . small-pox. " Kapha ". linear or linear-lanceolate. COM.8-6. Deccan. :—E. PARTS USED :—Plant.—oblong or globose. palegreen. Gandha-pushpa. Screw pine. :—Konkan. stem supported by aerial roots . Fl. anthelmintic. PANDANUS ODORATISSIMUS Linn. Ketgi. USES :—The fresh roots are said to be used as a specific for jaundice. female flower spadix solitary. 0. X 3.—follicles. FAM. pain in the muscles.8 mm. Ketaki. t. G.—tubular with saucer-shaped limb. Sundarbans. stems many. leucoderma. cough. causes flatulence.5 m. with flavour. drupes 50-80 each consisting of 5 to 12 carpels. coma present. Fl. heat of body. aphrodisiac. Java. DISTR. In combination with turpentine it is prescribed for itch. Gogandhul. Country— Belgaum. Milky sap forms a wash for ulcers. Fruit—tonic. HABITAT :—Sandy places near the sea-coast. A decoction of the plant is used as a gargle in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in sore-throat. NS. and urinary discharges (Ayurveda).MEDICINAL PLANTS 161 CHAR. alexiteric. diuretic. given to children as an astringent (Yunani). often planted. useful in strangury and tumours. Keora. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaves are pungent. HABITAT :—Usually near water. somniferous. :—Sea-coast of Indian Peninsula on both sides. L. aphrodisiac. :—Konkan and N. Kanara. M. Giripriya. bitter. K. much branched. Kedige.5-9 cm. thin. drooping in subumbellate or racemose 2-4 flowered cymes . rarely erect. Fl. 4. milky juice. Leaves are useful in leprosy. diseases of heart and brain. high. tonic. Anthers useful in pruritus. CHAR. roots fibrous from the lower nodes.—glaucous green.—deciduous. aphrodisiac.—very numerous. male flower spadix with many cylindric spikes enclosed in long white or yellow fragrant spathes. indigestible. Flowers improve complexion. Andamans. Kanara. S. Ketaka. DISTR.— large. corona staminal. :—Throughout the plains and lower hills of India usually near water. root.—Pandanaceæ. Chama-pushpa. Sd. Fr. :—A shrub up to 6 m. black. M. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-pungent. :—A perennial twining herb with milky juice. strikingly handsome. pale rose or white. Mundige. long. pain.. Milky juice is supposed to be galactagogue and is said to possess marked antiperiodic properties. anthers. Kewoda.—dioecious. LOC. expectorant. useful in leucoderma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). PARTS USED :-Root. fruit. LOC. juice is used in gleet. long.3 cm. ovoid-lanceolate tapering. Umbrella Tree. 3. mouth with pubescent ring. Dhulipushpika. dry. leaves. Poona Sangam. syphilis. L. LOC.9—1. margins and midrib spiny. fruit and oil from bracts. coriaceous ensiform. scabies. purple veined. Fruit is useful in " Vata ". H. Ceylon. lobes ciliate. gonorrhœa. yellow or red. anthelmintic. laxative. Kevada. Fr. Sk. Burma.

162

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

Anthers are useful in earache, headache, leucoderma, eruptions, diseases of blood. Oil cools and strengthens brain (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The Oil and the otto obtained from the bracts are considered stimulant and antispasmodic and are used in headache and rheumatism. It is also useful in earache and leprosy. Medicinal oil is prepared from the roots. In Cambodia root is considered diuretic, depurative, and tonic, See—Oils.

PAVETTA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Rubiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian Pellet Shrub; H. Kankra, Kathachampa, Papri; K. Nitile, Pavate, Sulebottu ; M. Papadi, Papat; Sk. Kakachedi, Papata, Tiriakphala. CHAR. :—A stout bushy shrub 0.6—1.2 m. high; bark yellowish, smooth; L.—7.5—15 X 2.5— 6.3 cm. membranous, variable in shape and size, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate glabrous ; Fl.—in terminal sessile corymbose cymes, white, odorous, tubular. Fr:—globose, black, smooth; Fl. t.— Mar.-May. There are two varieties; var. indica proper which is non-hairy, var. tomentosa which is hairy. HABITAT :—Var. indica proper—monsoon and rain-forest along ghats; var. tomentosa—dry deciduous forests. LOC. :—Very common on hills throughout the State; Konkan— Karanja Hills; DeccanMahabaleshwar (very common). (2) Laterite near sea-coast and forests of Dharwar district. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, Malay Archipelago, S. China and N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Root, wood and leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Root is bitter and aperient; it is commonly prescribed in visceral obstructions. It is pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water and given in dropsy. Boiled in water a fomentation is made from the leaves for haemorrhoidal pains. In Indo-China wood infusion is given as a cure for rheumatism. The plant contains a glucoside.

PAVONIA ODORATA Willd.
FAM.—Malvaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kalowalo; H. Sugandha-bala; K. Balarakkari-gida, Mudivala; M. Kala-vala, Sugandha-bala; Sk. Bala, Kachamoda, Udichya, Varapinga. CHAR. :—An erect branching annual, 45-90 cm. high; stems and branches viscous pubescent; L.—2.5—7.5 cm. long, roundish—ovate, cordate, shallowly 3-5 lobed, dentate or lower ones entire, hairy, felted and whitish beneath; Fl.—solitary, clustered at the ends of branches; involucral bracts 10-12, linear, with long white hairs, pink, twice the length of calyx; Fr.—carpels glabrous, not winged; Fl. t.-Oct. HABITAT :—Wild in waste places and open woods.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

163

LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country and Deccan. DISTR. :—N. W. India, Bundelkhand, W. Rajastan, Bengal, N. Circars, Karnatic, Sind, Baluchistan, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Appetiser and strengthener; refrigerant, stomachic, tonic; removes " Kapha" and " Pitta"; prescribed in diseases of heart and blood complaints ; cures dysentery, excessive salivation and ulcers; good for vomiting, thirst, skin eruptions, fever and asthma (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The herb has a musk-like odour. Roots also have an odour; they are cooling and stomachic. They enter into the composition of a well known drink (Sadanga Paniya), given in fevers. It is also used in hæmorrhage from internal organs and in inflammations. It is prescribed as an astringent and tonic in cases of dysentery (Taylor). Plant is used as a cure for rheumatism (Hughes—Buller). Preparation of the root with "bel" fruit (Aegle marmelos) is considered useful in dysentery. See—Sacred Plants.

PEDALIUM MUREX Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Kadava—Ubho-gokharu ; H. Bara—Kadva-gokhar ; K. Ane-neggilu, Doddaneggilu ; M. Motha—Malvi-gokharu ; Sk. Gaja-daunstraka, Gokshura, Titta-gokshura. CHAR. :—A much branched annual herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches rough with scaly glands; L.—opposite, pale green, fleshy, broadly-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or lobed, glabrous above, covered with scales beneath; Fl.—axillary, solitary; C.—tube slender below, enlarged above, 2 cm. across at the mouth, bright yellow, lobes broad, rounded. Fr.—narrowed at the base, pyramidal ovoid above. The stems, bluntly 4-angled with Horizontal, spines from the angles; Fl. t.—Oct. HABITAT :—Sandy shores. LOC. :—Konkan, S. M. Country (Badami Sandstone area), Gujarat and Sourashtra. DISTR. :—S. India, Ceylon and tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Stems, leaves and fruits. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The properties are the same as Tribulus terrestris (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Leaves are used very largely as a healing applcation to ulcers. The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cola-water speedily convert it into a thick mucilage. This is a highly prized remedy in gonorrhœa and dysuria. The fruit is demulcent, diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. It is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine and impotence. The juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue; used in puerperal diseases and to promote lochial discharges. The leaves are used as

164

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

curry in splenic enlargement. The decoction of the root is anti-bilious (Thompson). The plant contains an alkaloid.

PEGANUM HARMALA Linn.
FAM.—Rutaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Foreign Henna; Harmala; Syrian wild rue; G. Ispun; H. Harmal, Isbandlahouri, Kaladana; K. Simegoranti; M. Harmala. CHAR. :—A bush 30-90 cm. high, dichotomously and corymbosely branched; L.—alternate, 5-7.5 cm. long, multifid, segments narrow, linear acute; Fl.—solitary, sessile or pedicelled, white; Fr.—capsule, globose, deeply lobed, veined, glabrous ; Fl. t.—Oct.-Dec. HABITAT :—Drier parts. LOC. :—Konkan, Deccan, S. M. Country, Cutch. DISTR. :—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan, Iran, Central Asia, Mediterranean. PARTS USED :—Root, leaves and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—There are two varieties, dark and white seeded, with the same therapeutic properties. Expectorant, strengthening, fattening, diuretic, anthelmintic, laxative, emmenagogue; enriches blood; useful in lumbago, paralysis, weakness of muscles and of brain, diseases of children, ophthalmia, rheumatism; relieves asthma and chronic bronchitis; inhalation of smoke relieves toothache and pain in liver (Yunani). LOC. USES :—According to Mooideen Sheriff the seeds are narcotic, antispasmodic, hypnotic, anodyne, nauseant, emetic and emmenagogue. He recommends their use in cases of asthma, hiccup, hysteria, rheumatism, impaction of calculus in the ureter and of gall-stone in the gall-duct, colic, jaundice, dysmenorrhcea and neuralgia; in all of which they relieve pain and procure sleep. The seeds contain alkaloids harmaline and harmine.

PEUCEDANUM GRAVEOLENS Benth.
FAM .—Umbelliferæ. COM. NS. :—E. Anet, Dill; G. Suah, Surva; H. Sowa, Sutopoha K. Sabbasiga; M. Balantshopa, Shopha; Sk. Avakapushpi, Shata-pushpa, Shophaka, Vajana. CHAR. :—A glabrous perennial herb, 30-90 cm. high; L.—2-3 pinnate ultimate segments linear; bracts and bracteoles; Fl.—in compound umbels, yellow; Fr.—4 X 2 mm., narrowly winged, dorsal intermediate, ridges distinct, as broad as thick; vittae large, solitary in each furrow, 2 on the commissure. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Extensively cultivated in the Khandesh district and part of Gujarat. DISTR. :—Throughout tropical and sub-tropical India, often cultivated; cultivated in South Europe and Western Asia.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

165

PARTS USED :—Root, leaves (rarely) and fruit. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Hot, stomachic, antipyretic, carminative, anthelmintic ; digestible; cures " Vata ", " Kapha ", ulcers, abdominal and uterine pains, eye-diseases; causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Fruit—hot, carminative, antidysenteric, stomachic, alexiteric, diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, maturant, vulnerary; relieves griping pains due to cold, hiccup, ear-ache; good for liver, spleen, bladder, chest; useful in gleet, syphilis and piles (Yunani). LOC. USES :—Leaves moistened with oil are used as poultice. Fruit is used as a condiment and medicine; an infusion of it is given as a cordial to women after confinement. Dried fruits are carminative and stomachic; given in children's complaints in the form of dill-water. Seeds bruised and boiled in water and mixed with roots are applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings. Seeds yield an essential oil which is a valuable carminative.

PHASEOLUS MUNGO Linn.
FAM.— Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—G. Aded, Arad; H. Dord, Thikiri, Urid; K. Hesaru, Uddu; M. Udid; Sk. Baladhya, Kuruvinda, Masha, Pitri-bhojana. HABITAT :—Cultivated. LOC. :—Largely cultivated in the Deccan, Satara, Bijapur; S. M. Country, Dharwar and Belgaum. DISTR. :—Extensively cultivated all over India. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely) and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-sweet, oily, laxative, aphrodisiac, tonic, appetiser, diuretic, galactagogue; cure " Vata", piles, asthma; good for heart and in fatigue; causes thirst, " Kapha " and leprosy-like skin-diseases. (Ayurveda). Seeds—aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, galactagogue, styptic; useful in scabies, leucoderms, gonorrhœa, pains, epistaxis ; indigestible (Yunani). LOC. USES :—This is a highly valued article of diet and is also used in Hindu medicine. The seeds are much used, in the form of decoction, both internally and externally, in paralysis, rheumatism, and affections of the nervous system; also used in fevers; considered hot and tonic; useful in piles, affections of the liver and cough. It is used as a poultice for abscesses and inflammations ; as a lactagogue in the form of cooked dal. Root is said to be narcotic and is remedy for aching bones. In Indo-China seeds are considered diuretic; they are prescribed for dropsy and cephalalgia. The grains contain vitamins A and B. INDIAN PREPARATIONS:—Svalpa Mash taila-useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint and stiff shoulder joint, etc. See—Food Plants.

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Green-gram G. Lilamag, Meg ; H. Harrimung ; Mung, Pessara; K. Hesaru; M. Mug; Sk. Hayananda, Mudga, Rassottoma, Varnarha.

good for the eyes . Khaji. blood diseases. layer. light and astringent.—Palmæ. as a kharif crop. Sk. " Tridosh". FAM. Dharwar. good for eyes. inflammations. M. astringent to bowels. throat inflammations. PARTS USED :—Seeds. Burma. Abyssinia. NS. t. Sd. Kherk. See—Food Plants. stems numerous from a woody root-stock. " Kapha". COM. K. Kohesaru. Sendhi. :—Largely cultivated throughout India. :—Annual or perennial. membranous.5—5 cm.3—2. styptic. :—On the Himalayas upto 2200 m. glabrous or hairy. Kajuri. Kalli-chalu. Adabanmagi. Fl. LOC. straight subcylindric. Boichand. petioles grooved. Afghanistan. Deccan and Gujarat. Adavada. FAM. Kurangika. Tadi. bitter. K. Ichela-mara. dry. Khajuri. burning sensation. peduncles 10-23 cm. long. broadly spathulate. Malay Islands. Indian wine palm. Kharjurika. wild date palm. DISTR. bronchitis. Fl. USES :—Leaves are considered tonic and sedative. gout. Occasionally cultivated as a mixed crop for fodder. Sind. Kashayi. aphrodisiac. PHASEOLUS TRILOBUS Ait. L. leaflets 1. Khandesh. Vanmudga. Ahmednagar. piles. digestible. long. biliousness. slightly recurved. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—cooling. mugawana. DISTR. cause much flatulence (Ayurveda). USES :—The pulse is considered cool. :—G. and southwards to Ceylon. Ranmath. Belgaum. Swadi.— pod. COM. yellow. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-cooling. Siyindu.—in sub-capitate. cures consumption. LOC.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Ranmug. H. Fr. cure biliousness. prostrate. enrich blood. M. long. Ahmedabad. In Bihar they are administered in decoction in cases of irregular fever. Trianguli. It is used to strengthen the eye and as a diet in fever. LOC. The juice of the plant is prescribed in rat-bite fever (Ayurveda). eye troubles. astringent. LOC. NS. Shindi. they are used in cataplasms for week eyes. commonly 3-lobed (middle the largest. HABITAT :—Borders of cultivated fields. good in fevers. anthelmintic. CHAR. 2. Satara. cough. .—6-12.5 cm. Mugani. G. headache. wiry. Kidney diseases. Sk. PHŒNIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb. thirst. Seeds— tonic. Koshila. nose complaints. Kapila. The grains contain vitamins A and B. dysentery. :—Largely grown in. laxative. H. Kallu. :—E.—3-foliate. antipyretic. lateral oblong or more or less spathulate) all pale green. Kolaba and Kanara. Kharjuri.166 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated. cure biliousness and diseases of blood (Yunani). Date sugar palm. few flowered racemes. Magavala. Shimbiparni. PARTS USED :—Leaves and fruit. The Sutos rub the powdered bean into scarifications over tumorus and abscesses to promote suppuration. Konkan.—Oct.:—Very common throughout the State.

pinnules many. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit is sweet. 15-45x2-2. spathes separating into 2 boat-shaped valves.—opposite. HABITAT :—Moist situations in dry regions. Bihar. triangular. Jalapimpli. :—Tolerably common throughout India. scented. H. oblique. L. trunk rough with leaf-stalk scars.MEDICINAL PLANTS 167 CHAR. Sholapur. CHAR. spadix 60-90 cm. petioles compressed towards the apex. (LIPPIA NODIFLORA Mich. Siwalik. Sk. 9-15 m. Langali. The central tender part is used in gonorrhœa and gleet. Jalapipali.—2. t. good in heart and abdominal complaints. oblong-ellipsoid. wild or more often cultivated. COM. subsessile. flowers distant. M. Famine Plants. t. long. large and thick. :—Common in grassy and sandy places in the Deccan and Gujarat. fruit and juice of the tree. LOC.—white or pale-pink. useful in diseases of heart. constipating. aphrodisiac.2 cm. wandering of mind. alexiteric. USES :—The root is used in toothache and is also good in nervous debility. Ratoliya. Ratuliyo.—pinnate. crown hemispherical. lower 3-lobed. much branched. fattening. :—A tall graceful palm. Okra.—Fibres. Rohilkhand. upper 2-lobed.5 m. aphrodisiac. most tropical and sub-tropical regions. rounded at the apex. Pounded fruits mixed with almonds and other spices form a restorative poushtika. DISTR. Poona and Belgaum districts. Fr. :—Found fairly in Surat. :—A creeping perennial herb.5 m. Ceylon. loss of consciousness (Ayurveda).—Jan-Feb. rigid. Fr. sharply serrate in upper part. Bengal. The fresh juice obtained from the tree is a cooling beverage. Coromandel Coast. PHYLA NODIFLORA Greene. densly packed in long peduncled axillary heads . usually along banks. Bhuiokra. HABITAT :— Grassy and sandy places. L. :—Throughout India.— dioecious.) FAM. Agnijwala. anthelmintic. flowers very many. Sharadi. orange-yellow. densely fascicled. A fermented drink is prepared from the juice. Toyavallari. angular. 3-4. female spadix and spathe as in the male. oblong. ensiform. Fl. LOC.. Ratoliya. Baluchistan. high. Fl. cooling. pointed. See.—Verbenaceæ. spinous. Mysore. stems rooting at the nodes. DISTR. spatulate.—rounded at the ends. clothed with appressed white hairs . fevers. long.5—3. LOC.—more or less all the year. erect. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Plant-acrid. spiny at the base. . greyish-green. cooling. Fl. deeply grooved on one side. :—G. male white.—sessile. roundish. This is called neera. cardiotonic. and in beds of streams and water courses. Fl. Vashira. long. NS. C. blood and eye. 2-lipped. Sd. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). vomiting. outer Himalayas.—globose. Jalpippali. oleaginous. Africa.

wounds. 30-60 cm. biliousness.—3-gonous.. asthma. bronchitis. males 1-3. maturant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Acrid. globose. M. Sd. It is valuable in scurvy. Plant—hot. diuretic. cooling. . Leaf-poultice with salt cures scabby affections. monœcious. Bhuianvalah. Sk. Vituntika. The whole plant. thirst. Sadahazurmani. The plant contains a bitter substance phyllanthin. Bhumyamalaki. bronchitis. NS. Ajata. 6-13 X 3-6 mm . Fresh root is said to be an excellent remedy for jaundice. of female. USES :—The tender stalks and leaves are Slightly bitter and prescribed in the form of infusion to children suffering from indigestion and to women after delivery.useful in fevers. asthma. Bhumyamali. and without salt may be applied to bruises. COM. annular. Powdered roots and leaves made into poultice with rice-water are used to lessen oedematous swellings and ulcers. elliptic-oblong. scabies. leprosy. LOC. Fruit useful for tubercular ulcers. high . loss of consciousness (Ayurveda). anæmia. LOC. except Australia. CHAR :—An annual herb. alexipharmic . burning sensation. A poultice composed of fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. hiccup. angular.168 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) improves taste. HABIT :—A weed in cultivated fields. Kiranelligida. urinary discharges. PARTS USED :—Root. stoppage of bowels and pain in the knee-joint (Honingberger). Bhuiavli. Ceylon. very numerous. scarcely lobed. gonorrhœa and other troubles of the genito-urinary tract. useful in thirst. distichous. lobed.—Euphorbiaceæ. used also as a diuretic and in menorrhagia (Ayurveda). Fl. Decoction of root and leaves is very useful in inveterate inter-mittents with infracts of spleen and liver. ringworm (Yunani). smooth.—capsule. :—G.—yellowish. and a diuretic when taken cold in repeated doses. USES :—The plant is much used as a diuretic in dropsy. sores. DISTR. dry. PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. L. K. Stomachic. H. :—Konkan and Deccan. axillary. milky-juice. :—Throughout India.— numerous. leaves. stem branched at the base. colds and urinary concretions (Yunani). anuria. longitudinally ribbed on the back. Chutney made from leaves and fruits gives temporary relief to the irritation of internal piles (Koman). FAM. fruit. females solitary. Infusion is a good tonic. Tropics generally. good for ulcers. In the Konkan root rubbed down with rice-water is given as a remedy for menorrhagia. Amala. t. good for sores and in chronic dysentery. disk of the male of minute glands. Fl. In Bombay it is used as a demulcent in gonorrhœa. wounds. very small. Fr. Bhumyamali. Leaves are stomachic. Jaramla.— July-Aug. LOC. Sukshmadala.

:—Wild in the N. brings in sleep in epileptic fits (Ayurveda) Fruit—pungent. DISTR. K. Sk. Sk. leaf juice and oil are aromatic. Black-pepper. H. G. Betel pepper. bronchitis. purgative. LOC. Tikshna. asthma. vulnerary. Leaf—improves taste and appetite. Poona. . Panu. G. carminative. ozoena. tonic to brain. Leaves applied hot to the chest act as galactagogue. Menasin-kallu . spleen diseases. aphrodisiac. night blindness. Pan. leavs. pains. :—Cultivated in the Tropics generally : Ceylon. HABITAT :—Cultivated—in hotter and damper regions. Kanara. K. bechic. COM. It is used to relieve cerebral congestion. Betelleaf. Menasu. It is said to act as an aphrodisiac.MEDICINAL PLANTS 169 PIPER BETLE. Kalamirich. strengthens teeth . leaf-juice is dropped into eye in painful eyeaffection and in ear in earache. FAM. Essential oil has been successfully used in catarrhal disorders and as an antiseptic. liver and muscular pains. given with milk in hysteria. Mensinballi. Pan. Kalamiri. Malimirich . Kaphavirodhi. Kanara forests. alterative. M. acrid. alexipharmic. Eleballi. and fruits (rarely). Vata". inflammations. Kalimiri. :—E. urinary discharges. Golmirch . generally in Konkan. tonic and digestive. COM. Vileyad-ele. Kalaka. Tambola. hot. carminative and astringent. cultivated in Konkan and N. Nagavalli. Vidyache-pan. " Kapha ". Marich. It sweetens breath. satyriasis and to allay thirst.—Piperaceæ. heating. PARTS USED :—Fruits. ozœna. See—Condiments and Spices. Tambulavalli. anthelmintic. improves voice. :—E. useful in "Vata". Pan. form a valuable application to the chest in difficulty of breathing and coughs in children and also in liver congestion. Linn. M. H. PARTS USED :—Root (rarely). elephantiasis . USES :—Slender roots with black-pepper are used to produce sterility in women. Betel leaf vine. removes all foulness from mouth. throat diseases. PIPER NIGRUM Linn. useful in toothache. Thana and Kanara districts of the State. increases biliousness. :—Chief centres of cultivation: Dharwar. Satara. NS. DISTR. smeared with oil. NS.—Piperaceæ. stomachic. Fresh leaves. LOC. Sholapur. FAM. Bhakshyapatra. Warm leaves. heart and liver. laxative. clears throat. piles. HABITAT :—Wild and cultivated. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Leaf-pungent. LOC. Saptashira. It increases saliva. useful in "Kapha". :—Cultivated in hotter and damper parts of India and Ceylon. styptic (Yunani). It contains an aromatic essential oil. tonic. carminative. improves appetite (Ayurveda). aphrodisiac. foul smell in the mouth. chewed as pan acts as a gentle stimulant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Pungent.

It is a good expectorant. PITTOSPORUM FLORIBUNDUM W. Vikhari. chronic fevers. Lahuriya. Bartang. & A.—capsule. Kanara in ghat forests.5-12. and possesses narcotic properties . chest affections. W. vertigo.—Pittosporaceæ. See—Condiments and Spices.—lobes 4. Fruits contains alkaloids piperin. Externally it is rubefacient. leprosy. Greater plantain . C. piles and some skin-diseases . hills of S. Internally it may be prescribed with caution in cases of leprosy. COM. petiole longer than leaf-blade. paralysis . Fl. as an alterative in paraplegia and arthritic diseases. ovoid. It has specific effect on skin-diseases. Konkan. PLANTAGO MAJOR Linn. as a stomachic in dyspepsia and flatulence. N. as a resolvent to boils in the form of paste. Khasia Hills. dries body humours (Yunani). as an antiperiodic in malarial fevers . Burma. used as febrifuge.5 cm. :—E. USES :—Bark is bitter and aromatic. Ghats to Nilgiris and southwards. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND LOC. radial 2. . USES :—Black pepper has held an important place in Hindoo medicine for many centuries. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in cholera. :—Tolerably common along the ranges of ghats . piperidine and an essential oil. Fr. PARTS USED :—Bark and oil. base tapering into petiole. long. used in chronic bronchitis. CHAR. ophthalmia and phthisis. various forms of cutaneous diseases. Arcot and Salem. Bark contains a glucoside. coma. bruises. It yields an essential oil.— alternate. FAM. See—Timbers. sciatica.—scattered or crowded in long lax spikes 5-15 cm long . M. variable in width. FAM. as a local application used for relaxed sore-throat. H. It has been recommended for trial as a local application in rheumatism. lumbago.—Plantaginaceæ. facilitates menstruation. sprains. NS. :—Sub-tropical Himalayas from the Punjab to Sikkim. weakness following fevers. LOC. NS. Tammata. INDIAN PREPARATION:—Pranada Gutika : confection given in haemorrhoids. tonic and a local stimulant. COM. L. :—K. LOC. secondary syphilis and chronic rheumatism. entire or toothed. HABITAT :—Dry and rocky situations.170 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) leucoderma. Deccan. ovate or oblong. lanceolate or greenish . Khandala (pretty common). Vehkali. the oil is alterative. In physiological action. :—A perennial herb with an erect stout root-stock.

obtuse. base passing into amplexicaul. LOC. angled. H. PARTS USED :—Roots. Raktachitraka. :—Temperate Himalayas. exauriculate petiole. leaves. Root-bark paste raises blisters when applied externally. t. afford relief. Fl. Palni hills. LOC. long in long terminal axillary. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant is useful in rheumatism and griping pain of the bowels. Malaya. L. they are used as a good substitute for those of Plantago ovata (Isphagul). erect. C. Lead-wort. top coming off as a conical lid. PARTS USED :—Roots. Agnishikha. lax spikes. :—Cultivated throughout India. :—Cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens all over the State. alterative. M. Root and leaves are still much used against intermittent fevers. Fire plant. Baluchistan. W. It contains a crystalline principle called Plumbagin.—throughout the year. high. warm and tonic and an efficient remedy in dysentery. Nilgiris.MEDICINAL PLANTS 171 dehiscing a little above the base. Assam. Lalchita. A bunch of leaves made hot and applied to the foot is good to draw out thorn or splinter Seeds are considered stimulant. Mahabaleshwar along the Yenna river. alterative and diuretic. DISTR. LOC. HABITAT :—Cultivated. limb wide.Sept. Lalachitraka. Sd. dull-black. Lalchitrak. HABITAT :—Along river banks. :— E. Sk. Leaves are applied to open wounds or sores.. perhaps a native of Sikkim and Khasia. Ratochatro.-4-8. Internally it acts as stimulant and in large doses as an acronarcotic . Lalchitrak. Fl. LOC. :—Konkan : Deccan. The plant contains glucoside aucubin. rosy scarlet. Fl. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root has some properties as Pl. They are used in diarrhœa and piles. Wild or introduced in these and many other parts. when tempered with bland oil is applied externally in rheumatism and paralytic affections. and seeds.—3-5 cm. FAM..—Plumbaginaceæ. Chitra. stems herbaceous. Rosy-coloured leadwort. striate . cures leprosy (Ayurveda). :—A shrub 60-90 cm. they are also used in form of poultice or decoction. Leaves and roots are astringent and used in fevers. Ceylon. CHAR. Fresh leaves rubbed on parts of body stung by insects etc.Kempuchitramula. K. PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn.—large. G. The expressed juice of the plant has proved to have curative effect in tubercular consumption with spitting of blood. oblong. USES :—Bruised root—in natural state—is acrid and stimulating . t. Fattening. Mahang. zeylanica. NS. USES :—In Europe leaves are considered cooling. attenuate.—tube slender. Afghanistan and westernwards to the Atlantic. COM. Seeds useful in dysentery (Yunani).-Feb. Ghats. Burma. DISTR. Chitraka.

. " Vata" and " Kapha". COM. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root and root-bark are bitter. scabies. carminative. Malay Peninsula. stems 0. Agnishikha. ovate. it is useful in dyspepsia. a paste is made with milk. useful in laryngitis. H. It is said to increase digestive power and to promote appetite. Chitra . a tincture of root-bark is an antiperiodic and a powerful sudorific. Fr. :—Planted in gardens as ornamental plant in the State. PARTS USED :—Root. It is used as a powerful sialogogue. pointed. rheumatism. In S. bechic. leucoderma. a favourite medicine for flatulence. diseases of liver. See—Ornamental Plants. Root—bitter. bronchitis. Bengal. consumption. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. diseases of spleen. LOC.—thin. good in anæmia (Ayurveda). stomachic. It is used in procuring abortion.—Plumbaginaceæ. Fl. LOC. Milky juice is useful in ophthalmia and as an external application in scabies. Chitra. Res. India dried root is highly valued in secondary syphilis and leprosy. diarrhœa. spreading. Ceylon-White flowered leadwort. striate. Tropics of the old world. Journ. leucoderma. anthelmintic. lobes 5. Jyotishka. Vallari. :—Throughout India. tonic. aborti-facient. itching. skin disease.—white. M. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Shaddharana Yoga. laxative. Sk. K. Ind. appetiser. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. hot. Vyas and Lal have got fairly good results from use in early cases of leucoderma and baldness of head but further work is necessary (Chopra). The milk juice is applied to unhealthy ulcers and scabies. astringent to bowels. ring-worm. stomachic. it may be used in chronic skin diseases. zeylanica in indigenous medicines as a rubefacient. terete. attenuated into a short petiole. January 1933). oblong. dysentery. Chitraka. rachis glandular . L. NS. leaves are caustic. cure intestinal troubles. root-bark.—capsule. local ecbolic and sudorific has a rational basis (Bhatia and Lal. woody. USES :—Root is a powerful poison and its internal use is said to be attended with great danger. DISTR. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. Chitramula. Vahni. Chitaro Chitrak.—in elongate spikes. leaves. piles. CHAR :—A perennial subscandent herb. piles. juice.6-1. expectorant. :—E. Bile-Chitra-mula. alexipharmic. vinegar or salt and water for external use in skin diseases. and in leucoderma.5 m. HABITAT :—Shady and rocky places. Owing to its property of setting up irritation of the skin. Root contains an active principle called plumbagin. C. alterative . ascites. The use of Pl. Chitra . Chitranga.-Sept. vesicant. petiole amplexicaul at the base and dilated into auricles . Medi. leprosy.—Aug. " Tridosha" . anasarca. It enters into the composition of several Indian preparations used as caustics. cultivated . inflammations. Ceylon. Chitrak. Fl. See—Ornamental Plants. long. wild in Western Peninsula. t.172 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) poison. vesicant and aphrodisiac (Yunani). entire. G.

Rhuruchapha. entire.2—1. Goleurchampa. Deccan. M. acrid. M.-Feb. H. NS.5-18x3. purple. K.8-9 cm. Fl. Kanara. stems and branches quadrangular. LOC.—salver-shaped.-nutlets ellipsoid. long. upper lip white shot with purple. Fr. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. useful in gleet.—with a strong odour of black currants when bruised. Champakam. DISTR. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India. ulcers. Sk.MEDICINAL PLANTS 173 PLUMERIA ACUTIFOLIA Poir. 7. C. cultivated. 12 cm. L. POGOSTEMON PARVIFLORUS Benth. DISTR. heating. bark. Khairchapha. leaves and milky juice. shining black. Phangla.-May. rarely maturing. FAM. Belchampaka. smooth. urinary discharges. acute at both ends. Golainchi. LOC. :—M. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. Bark is given in the Konkan with cocoanut. with an intra-marginal vein. Devagangile. PARTS USED :—Root. common. Root-bark is purgative. spirally arranged. venereal sores. Fl.. COM. carminative. rounded. CHAR. irregularly doubly toothed. divaricate. L. :—Native of tropical America. USES :—Root-bark is a strong purgative. Kadu-sampige. S. ghee and rice in diarrhœa. Pangli.—Apocynaceæ. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. NS. oblong-lanceolate. LOC. long. Radha-champo. The blunt-ended branches are introduced into the uterus to procure abortion. shining. 3-lobed.— large. pains. many flowered. Flower-buds are eaten with betel leaves in ague.:—More or less throughout India. FAM. Pagoda tree.—Dec. :—All throughout the State.—2-lipped. 4-lobed. CHAR.—in dense pubescent spikes forming pyramidal lax panicles. whorls close. See—Ornamental Plants. :—Konkan.—follicles.—practically throughout the year. pungent. itching. t. t. Plasters made of the bark are said to be useful in dispersing hard tumours.—Labiatæ. useful in leprosy. Fl. . The core of young wood is given to lying-in women to allay thirst and for cough. Frangipani. ascites (Ayurveda). :—E. C. Fl. Country. very fragrant. cures tumours and rheumatic pains (Yunani).8 m. 15-30 cm. broadly ovate. COM. milky juice is employed as a rubefacient in rheumatism. laxative . inner face angular. Leaves made into poultice are used to dispel swellings. Fr. :—A small deciduous tree with much milky juice. abundant from Mar. abundant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bark-bitter. cylindrical. with sandalwood oil and camphor it is used as a cure for itch. G. Mahabaleshwar. :—A small shrub 1. and also a useful remedy in gonorrhœa and for venereal sores. HABITAT :—Cultivated near temples and villages. The plant contains a bitter glucoside. lower lip white. high. white with a pale yellow centre.

Gaura. . In Satara. cures biliousness. COM. Agnimandha. cures eye diseases. Kanaji. Aran. ulcers. Oil—anthelmintic. purify and enrich blood. wounds (Ayurveda). " Vata ". leprosy.) FAM. J. piles.—Verbenaceæ. lumbago. Huligili. Ash strengthens teeth (Yunani). also planted. Gracie). Honge. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Anthelmintic. a bath prepared from leaves is used for relieving rheumatic pains. Leafpoultice is applied to ulcers infested with worms. urinary discharges . Sk. M. Pavaka. carminative. Naktamala. relieves inflammation. Oil expressed from seeds is held in high esteem as an application in scabies. The oil causes slight rise in blood pressure and slight relaxation of the bronchial muscles (Chopra). Karanj. Karanjmara. DISTR. liver pain. Root is reputed remedy for hæmorrhage and has been successful in uterine hæmorrhage (C. See—Timbers. Indian beech. " Kapha ". along Deccan rivers . anthelmintic. Karanja. cure earache. useful in diseases of eye. Kanja. Kanika. enlargement of spleen and abdomen. :—G. H. they are also used as expectorant in bronchitis and whooping cough. COM. flowers. :—E. herpes and other cutaneous diseases. USES :—The fresh leaves. Oils. :—Throughout the State along rivers and streams near the sea-coast. Ustabunda . vagina. The plant contains an alkaloid and leaves yield an essential oil. Oil—styptic. very common near the sea-coast in tidal and beach-forests in Konkan. Arni. rheumatic pains. throughout tropical Asia and the Seychelles Islands. Ichu. Agnibijaka.174 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND LOC. H. (PONGAMIA GLABRA Vent. itching. Agetha. fruits and seeds. PARTS USED :—Root. Arand. good in scabies. Sk. chronic fever and hydrocele. Kirmal. K. PREMNA INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. chronic fever. bark. good for tumour. Chamari. skin diseases. PONGAMIA PINNATA Pierre. USES :—Root-juice is used for cleansing foul ulcers and sores. Karanj. F. G. Powdered seeds are supposed to be febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions. FAM. M. K. Seeds—acrid . NS. ascites. piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). LOC. head and brain diseases. leaves. Fresh-bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Jayanti. juice is given in colic and fever. LOC. Arni. NS. Finding of an essential oil in seeds is significant in view of the popularity of seeds as a remedy for troublesome cough (Chopra). wounds. lumbago. bruised. are applied as cataplasm in order to clean wounds and promote healthy granulations. :—Throughout the State along the banks of rivers. Karanja. chest complaints. skin and in keratitis . alexipharmic . HABITAT :—In moist situations along rivers and nalas. leucoderma.

sour."Vata". PSIDIUM GUYAVA Linn. Fl. dyspepsia. Peru. M.—hard. G. K. :—A small tree reaching 9 m. LOC. LOC. entire or upper part dentate. t. Jamphal. Peru . blue-black. Flowers cool body. aphrodisiac . piles.. broadly elliptic. Leaves rubbed along with pepper are given in colds and fevers. Leaves—good as an external application to piles and tumours (Ayurveda). good for liver complaints (Yunani). Sk. cool heated brain. :—A native of Mexico and possibly of other parts of tropical America. pungent. Ceylon. diabetes. H. Sd. Fruit—tonic. Cultivated and naturalised throughout India and most tropical countries. stomachic. laxative after food. Root is laxative. greenish yellow. Gova. as a mouth-wash for swollen gums.3 cm. USES:— Root-bark is astringent and is used in diarrhœa of children. HABITAT :—Cultivated in medium soils. HABITAT :—Near the sea-coast. chyluria. Piyara. It forms an ingredient of Dashamula. L. small. heating. Peruka. cooling.2-6. DISTR. Fl. :—E. Ash—caustic (Yunani). Safedsafari. rough-tubercled . Perala. COM. laxative. C. DISTR.— globose. flowers. . hairy in the throat. Jamb.—tubular. constipation. used in bronchitis. stomachic. See—Famine Plants. NS. Nicobars and Malaya. Dridhabija. cylindric. causes "Kapha". PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-acrid. Gum is tonic.—in paniculate corymbose cymes. Andamans. Young leaves are tonic in the .—5-9 X 3. Leaves used for wounds and ulcers. Decoction of the plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. It is also employed in scurvy. It is given in the form of decoction. applied to sore eyes. bronchitis. decoction applied with much benefit to the prolapsus ani of children. common about Karwar. Fr. seated on the calyx . preparation prescribed in obstinate fevers.MEDICINAL PLANTS 175 CHAR. LOC. bark yellowish. chief centre is Poona district and the Deccan. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter. Jamud-rukh. smooth. Amrut. Perala. PARTS USED :—Leaves. Kanara. fruits and gum. lobes 4. LOC. FAM. Vastula. as an astringent to bowels. cures "Vata" and "Tridosha" and biliousness (Ayurveda). Leaf decoction is given internally in cholera for arresting vomiting and diarrhœa.—Myrtaceæ. PARTS USED :—Root and leaves. :—Cultivated all over the State. inflammations. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. trunk and branches sometimes thorny. for unhealthy ulcers. useful in anaemia. cooling. good in colic and for bleeding gums. USES :—Root is given in decoction as a cordial and tonic. high.—India (near the sea from Bombay to Malacca). Anthers—dry wound.— June-July. fever. Guava tree. Soup made of leaves is used as a stomachic and carminative.

Konkan and S. aphrodisiac. antipyretic. bronchitis. NS. G. stomachic.—pod. skin diseases. They have been specially recommended in leprosy internally and also used as paste or ointment externally. good for leucoderma. HABITAT :—Waste places.2 m. nigro-punctate. good for heart troubles. . Sk. Country. anthelmintic. urinary dis charges. laxative. an extract is used in epilepsy and chorea. K. CHAR. PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. Leaf and shoot decoction is prescribed as febrifugal and antispasmodic baths. cures blood diseases . Sd. smooth. vomiting. Active principle of the seeds is an essential oil.8 X 2.176 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) diseases of the digestive functions. LOC. :—Throughout India and Ceylon. t. alterative. Bavachi. Babachi. Oil used in elephantiasis (Ayurveda). difficulty in micturition. anthelmintic. C. causes biliousness. 10-30 flowered racemes . diuretic. Leaves when chewed are a remedy in toothache. Fruit contains traces of A and C vitamins. biliousness. alexiteric. applied externally and given internally in skin diseases (Yunani). Fruits and seeds cure asthma. Fl.—Aug-Dec. 3. clawed. Kalameshi. diaphoretic in febrile conditions. Bowach-chi. improves appetite.—simple. PARTS USED :—Root. nephrites and cachexia. studded with glands and white hairs. M. ovoidoblong.6-1. COM. petioles hairy and gland-dotted. 0. Seeds of the plant have been in use in the Hindoo medicine for a long time. :—An erect annual.5—5 cm. heals ulcers. :—E. fruit and seeds. raw one is used in diarrhœa. black. cures "Vata". leprosy. high.—in dense axillary. Bhavanj. stimulant. inflammation. " Rakta-pitta". The drug was considered so efficacious that it was given the name " Kushthanashini". broadly elliptic inciso-dentate. Bukchi. Seed—purgative. H. Bavachi. Seeds— refrigerant. Fl. Babachi. rounded and mucronate at the apex. Chandralekha. M. Leaves—good for diarrhœa. USES :—In the Konkan seeds are used in making a perfumed oil applied to the skin. solitary. stem and branches grooved. anæmia. L. Leaves are applied locally in rheumatism.—bluish purple . Leaf infusion is used in cerebral affections. Vanguji. Ripe fruit is a good aperient. bitter taste. scabies. piles. closely-pitted. Fruit—diuretic. Fr. standard orbicular. LOC. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-useful in caries of teeth. See—Fruit Trees. Seeds are also used as an anthelmintic. improves hair and complexion. FAM. mucronate. leaves. :—A common weed in waste places in the Deccan. white hairy.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Bakuchi. Kushtaghni.—one. DISTR. Local applications of oleo-resinous extract from seeds are beneficial in treatment of cases of leucoderma of non-syphilitic origin (Chopra and Chatterji). vulnerary.

leprosy. leucoderma. ulcers. erysipelas. Dalimba. griping. Valka-phala. Gum—bitter. liver tonic. Benga. G. H. colic. useful in all body diseases. Dadam. used in piles. DISTR. Flowers—check vomiting. thirst. enriches blood. urinary discharges (Yunani). K. Raktabija-pushpa. cause flatulence (Ayurveda). Gum. burning sensation. Flowers— improve appetite. elephantiasis. called kino. COM. styptic. ophthalmia. Dharimb . Bigsah. . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant and gum hot and bitter. vulnerary Fruit—sweet. :—Throughout the State in deciduous monsoon-forests.MEDICINAL PLANTS 177 PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM Roxb. Fruit-appetiser. H. Anar. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-an external vermicide. useful in diarrhœa and dysentery (Ayurveda). good for biliousness. alterative . Honne. M. Seeds-used in liver and kidney troubles (Yunani). from the Balkans to the Himalayas. FAM. chest troubles. applied to hydrocele. HABITAT :—Cultivated in rather poor soils. Dadima. prolapsus ani. Gums and Resins. Honi. LOC. FAM. Flowers—useful in epistaxis. strengthens gums. PARTS USED:—Root. M. vulnerary. Ceylon. HABITAT :—Deciduous monsoon-forests. Dhalim. " Kapha ". Bark—astringent. LOC. G. flowers and gum. cultivated in many parts of India. LOC. biliousness.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). fattening. antipyretic. fever. somewhat milder in action than catechu. India. Dalimb . tonic. " Tridosh". in Akrani. is a natural exudation obtained by incision in the trunk. NS. heart-disease. laxative. Malabar kino-tree. cures " Vata ". :—Western Peninsula and S. sores and skin diseases (Rumphius). laxative. Kanara. :—E. Bark and seeds—useful in bronchitis. Kabul and Baluchistan. tonic. anthelmintic. COM. anthelmintic. NS. Bio. blood diseases. also in Konkan. anal troubles. Sunila. Bibla. Bibla. Dadima. DISTR. See—Timbers. Fruit-rind— anthelmintic. sore-throat. useful in eye troubles. used in sore throat. :—Extensively cultivated in the eastern part of Poona district. Common in N. bark. Pitasar. Hirdokhi. It is also used for toothache on the Coromandel coast. Bia. body eruptions. Dadimba. :—Leaves. gleet. diuretic. Sk. Ahmedabad and Ahmednagar districts also claim some cultivation. Khandesh and Dangs. :—E. urinary discharges. Bibla. Bija. Pomegranate tree. K. boils.—Punicaceæ. scabies. flowers and fruits. useful in biliousness. earache. scattered but not gregarious . Indian kino-tree. useful in vomiting. sore eyes brain diseases. PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. allays thirst. USES :—Bruised leaves are used in external application to boils. PARTS USED. ascends to 1100 m. Mahakutaj. Sk. :—Wild in Iran. Bijak. It is a simple astringent administered in diarrhœa. spleen complaints. stomatitis. Hulidalimb .

H. NS. brown (rarely produces fruit in Bombay State) .—Mar. the ripe seeds are roasted and given in diarrhœa and fever. M. Rangoonkibel. LOC. the leaves are given in a compound decoction for flatulent distension of the abdomen. COM. Fluid extract of fresh bark is equally effectual. HABITAT :—Cultivated. calyx tube long. Rangoon creeper. :—Indigenous in Burma and the Malay Peninsula. Rangoonchavel. Country and Kanara. Fl. Pinditak.—in axillary and terminal spikes. It is given in the form of decoction.—opposite. hairy beneath.—Rubiaceæ. base rounded. 7. Karhar Mainphal. Decoction of rind with addition of alum is a very useful gargle in relaxed sore-throat and an astringent injection in vaginal discharges . Chinese honeysuckle.5 cm. Juice of the fresh fruit is esteemed as a cooling beverage in fevers and sickness. CHAR.-Aug. t. QUISQUALIS INDICA Linn. Root-bark is a reliable remedy for the expulsion of tape-worm. The rind of the fruit. Gelphal. PARTS USED :—Leaves and seeds. Madana. acuminate. It has been hailed as almost a specific for tape-worm infection. Seeds are a popular anthelmintic among the inhabitants of Tongking. :—A strong climber. LOC. pulp is cardiac and seeds are stomachic. long.:—Common throughout the State in deciduous forests from Khandesh southwards. elliptic. HABITAT :—Monsoon and dry forests. FAM. Gela. L. Bark and rind of fruit are astringent and are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery. K. RANDIA DUMETORUM Lamk. G. C—petals 5. DISTR. Fl. numerous. :—E. Annam. jasmine .—Combretaceæ. lanceolate . Lalchameli. FAM. M. Sk. H. root-bark and juice of fresh fruit are used medicinally. dark green. Emetic nut. acutely 5-angled. Flower-buds and leaf-juice are used as styptic and astringent. Flower buds powdered are useful in bronchitis. :—E.— ellipsoid. G. Moluccas and Malay Peninsula. Midhola. pendant. widely cultivated all over India. Konkan. NS. Dharaphal. Mangari-kai. See—Ornamental Plants.178 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. at first white then deep red . USES :—In Amboyana. COM. Fr. Barmasinivel. Malaya. The plant contains an alkaloid pelletierine. nearly 6 cm. Karigidda. M. :—Extensively cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. S. LOC. . In China. Mindhola. USES :—Pomegranate is a much prized fruit and its medicinal virtues have been known for a long time. glabrous above. Minkare. Fruit contains vitamin C. They are given chiefly in the case of lumbrici in children.

purgative. DISTR. it is a sedative and nervine calmative. asthma. bitter. M. Fruit pasted in rice-water is applied over navel in colic. heating. COM. amenorrhœa. useful in chronic bronchitis. Mali. :—Throughout India. G. Ruchira. Juice of . juice relieves earache. piles. emetic. RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Radish. PARTS USED :—Bark and fruit. leprosy. See—Timber. Tropical Africa. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark is astringent. Muro. LOC. good in tumours. sweet. cholera.MEDICINAL PLANTS 179 There is a distinct arborescent variety common on the laterite at Mahabaleshwar (1350 m. and all inflammations . leucoderma (Yunani). Hastidanta. alexiteric. NS. S. anthelmintic. destroys "Vata". " Vata" and " Kapha". antipyretic. paralysis. tonic. Ground into coarse powder and applied to tongue and palate is highly esteemed domestic remedy for incidental ailments of children while teething. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. boils. Bitter. HABITAT :—Cultivated as a vegetable. aphrodisiac. Rind and pulp of fruit are generally used to produce emesis. Mula. fruit and seeds. carminative. used in diarrhœa and dysentery. :—Cultivated all over India in temperate and warm countries. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Hot. laxative. leaves. Sk. :—Grown in almost all the districts of the State. skin-diseases. FAM. it is equal to it in every respect. Sumatra. flowers. LOC. good for spleen and in paralysis. Ksharmula. carminative. E. Ceylon. inflammations. Mura. inflammations. INDIAN PREPARATION :—Pancha Kashaya-used for causing emesis. USES :—Root is a reputed medicine for piles and gastrodynic pains. bad taste. produce alopecia (Yunani).—Cruciferæ. certain and regular. Seeds-sharp. H. tumours. Mulak. The ancient Hindoo depended chiefly upon this drug for causing emesis. Fruit-pulp is believed to have anthelmintic properties and sometimes used as an abortifacient. Java. stomachic. emetic. Given internally and also applied externally when bones ache during fever . hiccup. given also in urinary and syphilitic complaints. leprosy. Flowers are bechic and cholagogue (Ayurveda). used in diseases of the brain. binding. China. Bili Mulangi. The plant contains glucoside saponin. Muri. eruptions. It is a useful substitute for ipecacuanha . piles (Ayurveda).) with evergreen leaves and decurved margins. It also contains an essential oil. cures abscesses. DISTR. carminative. useful in diseases of heart. K. :—E. Root—useful for urinary complaints and piles. PARTS USED :—Root. muscular pains. It is also used to poison fish. ulcers. its action is very safe. emmenagogue. Mula. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter.

shady open places near rain-forests. sedative. Gaja-karni. Garudpatala. K. Fl. Harkaichand. It is used in fevers along with Andrographis. Sarpagandha.—drupe. FAM. Eaten before a meal radish improves appetite and increases digestive power. Java. expectorant. rarely reaching in the Bombay State 0. Mungusavel. Root contains vitamins A. Chandrika. Palakjuhi. L. PARTS USED :—Root. t. corrective and emmenagogue. carminative. nodular. :—H.. Chhotachand.-May.—in irregular corymbose cymes. Chandrika. the inflorescence of this plant with red pedicels and calyx and white corolla is striking. ginger.—Apocynaceæ. with a long. NS. seeds are considered peptic. In the Konkan.-in whorls of 3.. Roots and seeds contain an essential oil. acrid.9 m. ajamalinine.:—Sub-Himalayan tracts from Sirhind eastwards to Burma.) FAM. Doddapatike. Juipani. Ceylon. Sarpakshi. Nakulikand. bright green above. Group B — Serpentine. ulcers (Ayurveda).5-6. M. swollen a little above the middle. HABITAT :—Moist forests. Western Peninsula. NS. lanceolate. yellowish root stock. It is said to have been long known to Indians as an antidote to poison and poisonous bites and stings. diuretic. K. In Java leaf-juice is instilled in the eyes for removing opacity of cornea. :—Throughout the moist forests of the Konkan and N. Fl. Sk. Sivanabhi. . Fr. ajmalicine. cures " Tridosha ". Yuthikaparni. C. Decoction of the root is employed in labour to increase uterine contractions. used in hyperpiesis . USES :—Root is much valued in the painful affections of the bowels. Nai. heating. See—Vegetables. Kanara. single or didymous.5-18 X 2. RHINACANTHUS HIRSUTA Kurz.—tubular. pungent. It is hypnotic. specific for insanity. white. pale beneath. Root contains the following alkaloids :— Group A—Ajmaline. LOC. COM. Andamans. the root is given in cholera with Arislolochia indica. DISTR. irregularly. leaves (rarely). 7. thin. acute. laxative. :—H.. serpentinine.180 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative.— Mar. COM. black shining. (RHINACANTHUS COMMUNIS Nees. sharp. :—An erect perennial shrub. CHAR. Sk. B and C.3 cm. M. anthelminitic . PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-bitter.—Acanthaceæ. and black salt. often tinged with violet. Harki. RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. LOC. bright red .

narrow. useful in skin-disease. FAM. NS. K. amenorrhœa (Yunani). L. black. oil—anthelmintic. Fr.—Oct. rheumatism. alterative. ring-worm. Castor oil plant. ascites. Erand. Country. or 2 to 3 together on divaricate branches of very large lax terminal panicles. fevers. entire. HABITAT :—Grows well in good soil. some fevers. Mahabaleshwar. leprosy. Fl.. useful in heart diseases. M. solitary. Java. ascites. Chitrabija. Palma christi. Tirki. Seed and oil—cathartic. Sholapur). hills near Belgaum. velvety hairy Sd. Fl. widely cultivated in tropical countries. good for burns.—Euphorbiaceæ. DISTR. LOC. cultivated. vaginal pains. bronchitis. bracts ovate lanceolate. LOC. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). hairy outside . stems obscurely angled. Leaves useful in " Vata " and " Kapha ". M.— tuberculate. anal troubles. alterative. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The root. :—Probably of African origin. ascites. DISTR.—lipped. Haralu. eructations. strangury. Erand. leaves and seeds. Warmed leaves applied to breasts or leaf decoction or the fluid extract of the leaves given internally increases the flow of milk. COM. Fruit— appetiser. intestinal worms. typhoid. upper lip bifid . increases "Kapha". high. Cattle are fed with leaves for . glandular. earache. white. generally cultivated.MEDICINAL PLANTS 181 CHAR. :—E. piles. Country (Dharwar. inflammations. S. Sk. carminative . asthma. pointed. H. :—Deccan. elephantiasis. perhaps wild in the Deccan Peninsula. lumbago. USES :—Root is particularly used in lumbago and sciatica. Vardhamana. Flowers useful in glandular tumours.-Jany. leaves and seeds are a useful remedy for ringworm and other cutaneous affections (Yunani). useful in inflammations. lumbago. body pains. 0. paralysis.—5-10 X2-5 cm.5 m. G. Divald. asthma. pains. RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. diseases of rectum and head. M. Very little in other districts of the State. HABITAT :—Hills. Straits-Settlements. Eranda.9—1. Triputiphala. PARTS USED :—Root. Belgaum. pubescent: C. PARTS USED :—Root. t. increase biliousness. flowers and seeds. tropical Africa. convulsions. USES :—Root powdered and made into a paste with lime-juice is applied with much benefit in eczema and ring-worm (dhobi-itch). night-blindness. :—Undershrub. Seeds and oil have a bad taste. Arand. useful in pains. Ceylon (wild) . Root boiled in milk is said to possess extraordinary aphrodisiacal properties. inflammations. glands. Vardhaman. liver and spleen diseases. :—Extensively grown in Gujarat (Kaira and other districts) fairly largely in S. boils. Leaves—galactagogue. purgative.—capsule. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-heating. piles.—nearly sessile. elliptic lanceolate. Khandala. dropsy. Madagascar (cultivated). leprosy. LOC. Divaligo. Root-bark—purgative. Root-bark and leaves are used as purgative. aphrodisiac. Erand. pain in back. useful in liver troubles. leaves. :—Throughout India. tumours. LOC.

LOC. It is administered in all sorts of bowel complaints in children. See—Oils. ROSA DAMASCENA Mill. adults. seldom griping or causing flatulency. biliousness. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Seeds contain a toxic substance called ricin. LOC. Pannira. Sk. long. mild and safe purgative. cultivated all over India. :—A perennial shrub. cardiotonic. L. stems with stout and hooked prickles. . Greece and Germany. Leaves applied to abdomen are said to promote menstrual discharge. pink or white. Bussora—Damascas—Persian Rose .3 cm. Gulab. Soumyagandha. antipyretic. They are also applied to painful joints. burning sensation. from the petals syrup is sometimes made and a conserve named Gulkand which has mild laxative properties. cardiotonic. Ghazipur is a chief centre. chronic fevers. Fl. laxative.5-6.. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. leaflets usually 5 (sometimes 7). pedicels and receptacle glandular-hispid . good for eyes. G. P. double. sweetish. Rose-water forms an agreeable vehicle. a few drops of oil temporarily relieve the pain. liver. stomatitis. Lakshmipushpa. FAM. otto of roses is used for perfuming emollients. Bruised leaves are used for caries of teeth. aperient removing bile and cold humours. France. cures leprosy. 2. dry. Shatadala. It is very efficient in chronic rheumatic affections. used in heat of body. laxative. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. improves appetite (Ayurveda). removes bad odour from mouth. Gulab . K. tooth-ache. Introduced into Europe from Asia-Minor . Italy. In constipation it is used as an enema. NS. USES :—Rose-buds are more astringent than expanded flowers. intestinal affections. hairy. they are cold. tonic. sometimes striped . M. COM.182 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) the same effect. attaining 1. expectorant. Fr. Oil from seed is a non-irritant.—pinnate. etc. head-ache. petioles prickly. t. " Vata". kidneys. astringent when dry (Yunani). DISTR.—obovate . :—Origin unknown. cooling. acrid. aphrodisiac. In cases of foreign bodies causing pain and irritation to the eye. much used in lotions and collyria . with a good odour. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Flower-bitter. sometimes glandular. Sudburj. excessive perspiration. PARTS USED :—Flowers.—Rosaceæ. inflammations. H. Flower—bitter. :—E.— usually corymbose. cephalic. See—Ornamental Plants. CHAR. Tarana. Extensive cultivation in Bulgaria. ovate oblong. Fl. Gulab. Leaf applied to head relieves head-ache. Punjab and U. stipules scarcely dilated. which is a powerful poison. red. serrate. Ati-manjula. benefits lungs.— all the year.5 m.

Java. bitter. laxative. HABITAT :—Higher ghats. lactagogue. vagina. Ambat Chuka.—Monœcious in leaf-opposed and terminal racemes . K. five-nerved. paralysis.—Rubiaceæ. :—E. :—Annual. erysipelas. grooved.—in terminal panicled cymes. diuretic. :—Root. and was much used in dropsy. Manjishtha. Zulu men take the decoction to cure lack of seminal emission and females take it to hasten the inception of menstruation. antidysenteric. The plant contains glucoside manjistin. Tamravalli. Dock. NS. :—Perennial climbing herb. M. all scabrous with white prickles. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Root-sweet. diseases of uterus. Sorrel. Sk. heating. used in eye-sores. :—Tolerably common on the higher ghats of the Deccan. Manjishha. CHAR. branched from the root. jaundice. blood. stems very long. shining. inducing temporary delirium with evident deterioration of the uterine system. cure " vata" and biliousness (Ayurveda). ear. H. base cuneate. Chitralata. erect glabrous herb. dysentery. Raktasara. Fl. piles. uterine pains (Yunani). ulcers. Aruna. inner perianth-segments membranous. Fr. lower leaves larger.5 cm. elliptic. tropical Africa. Gulmketu.—in whorls of 4. CHAR.—white or pink. Country. obtuse. urinary discharges. RUMEX VESICARIUS Linn. ovate. Leaves-sweet. Sk. M. amenorrhœa and visceral obstructions. 15-30 cm. Chuka. spleen-enlargement. :—Throughout India in hilly districts. Paste made by rubbing root with honey is a valuable application for the removal of freckles and other discoloration of skin. high.—Polygonaceæ.. purplish black when ripe. jaundice. It is regarded astringent and useful as an application in external inflammations. Fruit is useful in hepatic obstruction. prickly. paralysis. :—E. liver complaints. Decoction tinges blood.MEDICINAL PLANTS 183 RUBIA CORDIFOLIA Linn. branches quadrangular . Majit. cordate or hastate. Manjishtha. L. anthelmintic. USES :—Plant was considered emmenagogue and diuretic. cures " Kapha ".—2. NS. ulcers and skin-diseases. eye. cylindric. petioles triangular. with a thin red bark. Fl. pains in joints. leucorrhoea. analgesic. t-Oct. Fr. H. . greenish. Bladder. L.—didymous or globose. orbicular . Malay Peninsula. increase appetite. lethargy. leaves and fruit. FAM. Chukra. M. Ceylon. roots very long. COM. oleaginous . acrid. COM. smooth.-Jany. valves hyaline. Indian Madder. LOC. improves voice and complexion . leucoderma. analgestic. PARTS USED. Amlavetasa. it powerfully affects the nervous system. one pair with longer petioles ovate. inflammations. Fl. Root—bitter. urine and even bones red. Manjit. antipyretic. emmenagogue. the Konkan and S. If taken (in doses of 3 drachms) several times daily. FAM. Rohini. LOC. rheumatism. Japan.5—7. alexiteric. leucoderma.

bronchitis. ovoid oblong. causes biliousness (Ayurveda). Cooling. C. M. upper emarginate.—suborbicular. The whole plant dried and pulverised is given in fevers and coughs. with scarious faces and hard ridges. then erect. Nagadali. generally in the Deccan. Pismarum Sadab. NS. also considered as a vermifuge. Fr. K. t. flatulence. Trans-Indus Hills.—white. Havananju. Ghati pittapapada . analgesic. The seeds have the same properties . checks nausea and promotes appetite (Yunani). often rooting near the base. they are prescribed. The juice allays tooth-pain. FAM.—capsule. piles. while fresh they are bruised. :—A herb . Country. CHAR. stomachic. USES :—Leaves are cooling. Common—Garden-rue .-Jany. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Very sour. LOC. Satap. Fl. L. Sadabu. checks nausea and promotes appetite. useful in scabies. DISTR. pale brown. useful in heart troubles. acute. vomiting. alcoholism. in dysentery. USES :—Leaves resemble both in smell and taste those of thyme. blue or pink. Fl. RUTA GRAVEOLENS Linn. Africa. :—Common throughout the State. HABITAT :—Common everywhere. :—Throughout the warmer parts of India. Sk. COM. stems usually decumbent. with darker spots.—Rutaceæ. asthma. Parpatha. lower shortly 3-lobed. tonic. toothache. PROPERTIES AND LOC. FAM. :—Western Punjab. ciliate. Persia. NS. M.184 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Cultivated.—Nov. Satapa . Ceylon. LOC. Sk. Kharmor. Konkan. rugose with furrow. RUNGIA REPENS Nees. and externally as an epithem to allay pain caused by bites or stings. leucoderma. tumours. LOC. 2-lipped. laxative. acute . G. DISTR.—Acanthaceæ. diseases of the spleen. N. Sd. bites and stings of poisonous animals. dyspepsia. . H. Satri. See—Vegetables. Kanara. M. Khatselio . It is cooling and is of use in heat of stomach. pains. bracts elliptic. oblong lanceolate. :—Cultivated as vegetable in gardens. Vishapaha.— subsessile. constipation. roasted. Deccan. hiccup. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. aperient and diuretic. S. mixed with castor oil and applied to the scalp in cases of tinea capitis. Sadapaha. Afghanistan. COM. H. :—E.—in erect terminal imperfectly 1-sided spikes. :—G.

Powdered and combined with aromatics. K. Gudakastha. flawed. USES :—It is an acro-narcotic poison . segments cuneate. increases mental activity. LOC. :—A strong smelling herb . Sugarcane. Sk. The plant has strong antispasmodic properties. Plant juice is given to children as a remedy for worms. I have found it useful in bronchial catarrh and acute bronchitis of children (Koman). Ikshu. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Cane—sweet. Poona. COM. anti-aphrodisiac . H. Us . SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. thirst. digestive. Commercial oil of rue is quite ineffective as an anthelmintic. Ukh . diuretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 185 CHAR. :—Cultivated in many districts of the State. The oil is the best form for administration. The dried leaves are used as fumigatory for children suffering from catarrh. Gudatrina. petioled. The higher boiling fraction acts as a fairly potent vermicide to hook worms (Caius and Mhaskar). The juice undoubtedly possesses antispasmodic and expectorant properties. Rikhu. epilepsy. M. chiefly in the uterine and nervous systems. dried leaves are given as a remedy for dyspepsia. Sd. Naisakar.. :—Grown everywhere in India. L. laxative. decompound. LOC. cultivated throughout India. leprosy. Tanigarbu . See—Ornamental Plants. Rasala. Ganna.—capsule. spathulate or linear-oblong . diuretic.—in divaricately spreading corymbs. useful in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Ingotu. . indigestible. Kumad. but the rue-tea is a popular remedy. Satara. There are three varieties . HABIT :—Cultivated. it may be given internally in hysteria. and externally used as a rubefacient. emmenagogue. aphrodisiac. Kabbu. Asia is very likely the original home of the species. oleaginous. :—Largely grown below ghats in the Konkan. C. particularly Deccan. PARTS USED :—Leaves and oil. M. cooling. grown in gardens. Country and Kanara cultivate sparingly. Madhuyashti. removes " Kapha " and " Vata " (Ayurveda). :—Egypt and Algeria. forest and mountain. DISTR. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. garden. PARTS USED :—Plant and sugar.—Gramineæ. obtuse . tonic.—petals 4. all over the State. flatulence. Rue in all its forms is considered injurious to pregnant women. in pots. Sherdi. S. LOC. Ahmednagar and Nasik districts claim most of the cultivation. tincture from fresh leaves used externally in the first stages of paralysis. amenorrhœa. heating to body . useful in fatigue. colic. S. Fr. heats body. G. Fl. yellowish. The plant contains glucoside glutin. FAM. abortifacient. DISTR.-alternate.—angled. NS :—E. The herb and the oil act as stimulant. The plant is tonic. oblong-obovate. etc. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The plant is bitter. glandulose punctate.

tonic and aperient. good for lungs . In cases of poisoning by copper. bile. Kharijal. piles. drooping. intoxication and intestinal worms (Ayurveda).—Salvadoraceæ. Sugar causes " Kapha". greenish-yellow. analgesic. cures "Vata" (Ayurveda). applied to the skin acts as external stimulant. anæmia. t. purifies blood . Pilu. DISTR.-Feb. inflammations. delirium. Shoots and leaves are given as antidote to all poisons. Fruit—aphrodisiac.". Sind. Asia. Fl. K. See—Food Plants. scabies. H. elliptic-lanceolate or ovate. C. Cane—sweet. white. Leaves—bitter. improves appetite. diuretic. causes " Kapha. Ceylon. often mucronate at the apex. Fruits are deobstruent. Kanara in littoral forests. useful in heat. aphrodisiac . USES :—Root-bark is remarkably acrid. sugar is considered heavy. The juice contains vitamins A and B. numerous. Sk. fruits seeds and oil. corrective. leaves. branches numerous. In the Punjab. erysipelas. leaf-juice is given in scurvy.. Pilu. arsenic or corrosive sublimate. sugar has been successfully employed as an antidote. Mahaphala. PARTS USED :—Bark. oil is digestible. anthelmintic. NS. useful in biliousness. stomachic . leaves are used as an external application in rheumatism. HABITAT :—Saline soils and littoral forests. alexiteric. It is good in calculous complaints. dry regions of W. carminative and diuretic. the Konkan and N. opposite. Egypt. Piludi. LOC. The Hindoos set a great value upon sugar. and in medicine it is considered by them as nutritive. FAM. disorders and wind. strengthen teeth. useful in nosetroubles. laxative. 3 mm. near the coasts of Gujarat . LOC.—drupe. smooth. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-aphrodisiac. Khakan Mirjoli. improve diuresis (Yunani). ulcers. pectoral and aphrodisiac. Tooth-brush tree. :—Drier parts of India. Brihat madhu pilu. G. fleshy. The plant contains an alkaloid trimelkylamine. Goni. Seeds—purgative. L. Fl. Pilu. bad for liver (Yunani).—in compound lax axillary terminal panicles. Fr.186 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) intestinal troubles. white fine sugar is sprinkled upon ulcers with unhealthy granulations. Jal. diam. red when ripe. CHAR :—Usually a small evergreen tree .—Nov. M. stem-bark is warm and acrid and is given in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhœa. fattening. carminative. SALVADORA PERSICA Linn. often planted near Muslim tombs. Abyssinia. . useful in biliousness. diuretic. shining. globose. Pilu. sometimes it raises blisters.—very thin. lessen inflammation . finely striate. astringent to bowels. USES :—Roots are cooling and diuretic and a good bechic. :—Dry districts of the State. leucoderma. lobes much reflexed. deeply cleft. :—E. LOC. deobstruent. COM. tonic to liver.

Arithan . cholera. Aritha. epileptic fits of children. K. to allay heat and pruritus. Chandal. Sk. LOC. Chandan. paralysis. bronchitis. Cultivated elsewhere. Mangalya. Bhogivallabha. biliousness. Bhadrasara. ground. antipyretic. FAM. alexiteric. Antharalo. Kumblabijaka. NS. Ceylon. up with water into a paste. G. Kugale. PARTS USED :—Root. chiefly in S. Oil from the seeds is used in skin diseases. acts as diaphoretic. Kanara. used as a collyrium in sore-eyes and ophthalmia. In cases of morbid thirst wood-powder is taken in cocoanut water. M. HABITAT :—Dry deciduous thorn and monsoon-forests. FAM. Malayaja. LOC. :—Along the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards to N. abortifacient. PARTS USED:—Wood. Shrigandhalmara. :—Western Peninsula. Agarugandha. aphrodisiac. in skin-diseases. SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS Linn. Essential oil from wood is a popular remedy as demulcent. H. Chandan. cold in head. Bhadrasri. burning sensation. :—E. useful in diseases of heart. thirst. aphrodisiac. Seeds used locally to stimulate uterus in child-birth and to increase menstruation (Yunani). Suket. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-digestible. Wood—tonic to heart and brain. head-ache (Yunani).—Sapindaceæ. Ritha . :—E. Burugukayi. exhilarating. Kanara Ghats in evergreen monsoon forests . Ritha. Phenila. Anthuvala. gleet. emetic. Sukhad . gonorrhœa. Ringni. alexiteric. diuretic and mild stimulant in gonorrhœa and chronic cystitis. Mysore and parts of Madras State. K. S. :—Indian Peninsula. HABITAT :—Evergreen monsoon-forests. NS. A bolus of ground sandal checks hoemoptysis in mild form. astringent to bowels . DISTR. Sandal-wood Tree. Phenilu. Oil. Chandan. tonic. LOC. Arishtaka. Country and N. Fruit—bitter. Root—expectorant. stomachic. Rishta. useful in chronic dysentery. Sandal. often planted. . small-pox (Ayurveda). to temples in fever. cures "Tridosha". See—Timbers. M. H. alexipharmic. India. tubercular glands.. COM. COM. G. is applied to local inflammations. Sk. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Wood-cooling. allays uterine pains. :—Western Peninsula from Nasik southwards . vaginal discharges. " Kapha ". lumbago. laxative. diarrhœa. strangury.—Santalaceæ. fruit and seed. sedative to uterus (Ayurveda). M. hemicrania. Oils. useful in inflammations.MEDICINAL PLANTS 187 SANTALUM ALBUM Linn. DISTR. common in the dry deciduous thorn and monsoon forests of the Deccan. much cultivated. USES :—Wood. Soap-Nut tree.

188

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

LOC. USES :—Root is said to be expectorant. Fruit is considered tonic and alexipharmic ; it is given internally as an emetic, nauseant and expectorant; as an errhine it is used as a remedy in hemicrania, asthma, hysteria and epilepsy; externally it is detergent and is used in stings and bites of poisonous insects. Both root and fruit are anthelmintic. Pessaries made of seed-kernels are used to stimulate the uterus to child birth and amenaorrhoea. Fruits are used as substitute for soap. Soap-nut pulp is quite equal to ipecacuanha as an emetic. Soap-nut deserves to be brought into general use by the medical profession (Moideen Sherif). The plant contains saponin. See—Timbers.

SAPIUM INSIGNE Benth.
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—H. Khina, Lendwa; K. Kannupada, Kurda, Nanaka; M. Dudla, Hure, Ura. CHAR. :—A middle-sized deciduous tree, with thick milky juice; L.—alternate, bright green, crowded towards the ends of branches, 12.5-25 X5-8 cm., elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, crenateserrate, with a few glands on the margins, and with 2 glands at the apex of the petiole. Fl.— monœcious, in unisexual spikes, appearing when the tree is bare; male sessile, in round clusters, central flower opening first; female very shortly pedicellate, female spikes much thickened in fruit. Fr.—capsule, 2-3-celled, globose, fleshy first, dry when ripe, packed closely along the rachis; Fl. t.— Dec.-Feb. HABITAT :—Dry rocky laterite soil near the sea-coast and in moist forests. LOC. :—Konkan and N. Kanara (common) ; Deccan in the ghats. Lonavla, Phondaghat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayas, Assam, Chittagong, W. Peninsula, Ceylon. PARTS USED :—Milky juice. PROPERTIES AND LOC. USES :—Milky juice poisonous. When applied to the skin produces vesication. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SARACA INDICA Linn.
FAM.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). COM. NS. :—E. Ashok Tree; G.Ashopalava; H. Asok; K. Ashoka, Ashuge, Anthunala, Kenkali, Kusge; M. Ashok, Jasundi; Sk. Ashoka, Kankelli, Karnapurak, Pindipushpa, Vanjula. HABITAT :—Rain-forests. LOC. :—Rain-forests of the Konkan and N. Kanara; rather common in Western Ghats in the Deccan and S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Central and E. Himalayas, E. Bengal, West Peninsula, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya. PARTS USED :—Bark, flowers, seeds.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

189

PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark-acrid, refrigerant, astringent to bowels, alterative, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cures dyspepsia, thirst, burning sensation, blood diseases, biliousness, effects of fatigue, tumours, enlargement of abdomen, colic, piles, ulcers, bloody discharges from uterus, menorrhagia; useful in bone-fractures; beautifies complexion. Seeds— useful in urinary discharges (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Bark is strongly astringent, as it contains tannin. Decoction of bark in milk is used in uterine affections, especially in menorrhagia. Bark is useful in internal haemorrhoids also. Flowers pounded and mixed with water are useful in haemorrhagic dysentery. The drug does not appear to have marked therapeutic effects, though many clinicians appear to vouch for its efficacy in menorrhagia and other uterine disorder (Chopra). INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Ashok Ghrita. See—Timbers, Sacred Plants, Ornamental Plants.

SCHLEICHERA OLEOSA Merr. (SCHLEICHERA TRIJUGA Willd.)
FAM.—Sapindaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Ceylon Oak, Gum Lac Tree, Honey tree; G. Kossama; H. Gausam, Kesum; K. Hulimaya, Kukuta, Sagada, Sharagodi; M. Kohan, Kasimb, Kusumb, Peduman; Sk. Ghanaskanda, Kosha-Rakta-Vanamra. HABITAT :—Dry and moist mixed forests. LOC. :—Common throughout the State in both dry and moist mixed forests, ascends to over 1050 m. in Khandesh Satpudas. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to Nepal, Chota-Nagpur, Madhya Bharat and the Peninsula, Ceylon, Burma. PARTS USED :—Bark, fruit and seed. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bark cures leprosy, skin diseases, inflammations, ulcers and " Kapha". Unripe fruit—sour, heating to body, heavy to digest; causes biliousness ; destroys " Vata”; astringent to bowels. Ripe fruit—sweet, digestible; increases taste and appetite. Seeds—tonic, cure biliousness. Oil—tonic, stomachic, anthelmintic, purgative ; cures skin-diseases ; heals ulcers (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—The bark is astringent; rubbed up with oil, it is used as a cure for itch. The Santals apply it externally to relieve pains in the back and the loins. The oil is used for the cure of itch. The oil of the seeds is very efficient and stimulating agent for the scalp, both cleansing it and promoting the growth of hair. The medicinal effects are variously reported as purgative (in U. P.) ; as prophylactic against cholera (in Thana Division, Bombay) ; used externally in massage for rheumatism (Bombay) ; cure of headache (C. P.). It is said to be very effective in removing itch and other skin diseases. The powdered seeds are applied to ulcers of animals for removing maggots. Oil:—Well known Macassar oil is extracted from seeds, The plant contains a glucoside. See—Timbers, Oils.

190

BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY)

SCILLA INDICA Baker.
FAM.—Liliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Indian squill; G. Jangli-Ran Kanda; H. Jangli piaz; M. Rankanda; Sk. KulaPuta Kand, Panjala, Vanapalandu. CHAR. :—A small herb; bulb ovoid or globose; L.— appearing with the flowers, variable, 7.5—15 X 1.3-2.5 cm., narrowed into a sheathing petiole, dull green above often blotched with black; scape rather stout, 5-12.5 cm. long ; Fl.—in racemes, greenish purple ; perianth segments linear oblong; Fr.—capsule; Fl. t.—May-July. HABITAT :—Pasture lands. LOC. :—S. Konkan, Deccan, Mahabaleshwar. Common also in plains round about Poona, S. M. Country. DISTR. :—Bihar, Madhya Bharat, Chota Nagpur, W. Peninsula, Ceylon, Abyssinia. PARTS USED :—Bulb. PROPERTIES AND USES :—The bulbs have the same therapeutical properties as those of Urginea indica. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that S. indica is in no way inferior to either Urginea scilla or U. maritima of the British and American Pharmacopoeias (In. Med. Gaz. Dec. 1931).

SECURINEGA VIROSA Pax & Hoff. (FLUGGEA MICROCARPA Blume.)
FAM.—Euphorbiaceæ. COM. NS. :—G. Shaunavi; H. Dalme, Patala; K. Belahuli, Bilisuli, Gudahale; M. Kodarsi, Pandharphali; Sk. Bhuriphala, Dhusara; Panduphali, Patali. CHAR. :—A large glabrous shrub; bark grey with lenticular specks; branchlets angular; L.— alternate, variable, thin, 2.5-7.5X 1.6-4.5 cm., elliptic, rounded, obtuse; Fl.—axillary clusters from a crowd of minute bracts; males numerous, females 1-5; male pedicels filiform; stamens 3-5; pistillode large, 3-fid; female, styles 3, deeply divided into 2 linear segments ; Fr.—globose of 2 kinds, small with dry pericarp, larger white with a fleshy pericarp, edible; Fl. t.—May-June. HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. LOC. :—Widely spread throughout the State. DISTR. :—Throughout India, Malay Peninsula, China, Malay Islands, Australia, Tropical Africa. PARTS USED :—Roots, leaves, plant. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-cooling; tonic, aphrodisiac; good in strangury, biliousness, blood diseases (Ayurveda). LOC. USES :—Roots are used to cure gonorrhœa. Leaf-juice or leaf-paste with tobacco is used to destroy worms in sores. They are used to cure constipation; for this purpose leaves are boiled in water, and the water is drunk. It is a fish poison. The plant contains an alkaloid. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

MEDICINAL PLANTS

191

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM Linn.
FAM.—Anacardiaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Marking Nut Tree ; G. Bhilamu ; H. Bhela, Bhilava, Bilaran; K. Gerkayi, Keruvija, Keru; M. Biba, Bibwa; Sk. Agni-mukhi, Bhallataka, Shailabija, Vatari. HABITAT :—Deciduous dry forests. LOC. :—Throughout the State; abundant in dry forests of Konkan, Deccan and Gujarat. DISTR. :—Sub-Himalayan tract from the Bias eastwards; Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Madhya Bharat and Western Peninsula, E.Archipelago, N. Australia. PARTS USED :—Gum from the bark,fruit-pulp and oil. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit-hot, digestible, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic ; stays looseness of bowels ; removes " Vata ", " Kapha ", ascites, skin diseases, piles, dysentery, tumours, fevers, loss of appetite, urinary discharges ; heals ulcers; strengthens teeth; useful in insanity, asthma. Rind—oleaginous, acrid, stomachic, laxative; cures bronchitis, leprosy, inflammations; causes ulceration (Ayurveda). Sweet fruit—carminative. Leaves—lessen inflammation, stomatitis, piles, fever, weakness; expel bad humours from body. Oil—hot, dry, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, tonic, makes hair black; good for leucoderma, coryza, epilepsy, other nervous diseases ; useful in paralysis, superficial pains; causes burns, ulcers and blebs (Yunani). LOC. USES :—The brown gum from the bark is regarded by the Hindus as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections. Juice of pericarp is used internally in small doses, diluted with some bland oil in scrofulous affections and syphilis ; also in epilepsy and other diseases of the nervous system. The oil from the nut is used externally as a counter-irritant in rheumatism and sprains. It should be used with caution. In Goa, nut is used internally in asthma and is also given as vermifuge. In Konkan nut-oil with milk is given in cough caused by relaxation of uvula and palate. POISONOUS PROPERTIES :—The juice of the tree is so poisonous and acrid that people are afraid of cutting it and they only do so after killing it by removing the bark. It is said that disagreeable consequences often result by even sleeping under the tree. See—Timbers, Oils, Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.

SESAMUM INDICUM Linn.
FAM.—Pedaliaceæ. COM. NS. :—E. Gingelly, Sesame ; G. Tal, Til; H. Gingli, Til, Tir ; K. Ellu, Wollellu, Yallu; M. Til; Sk. Homadhanya, Jacila, Pavitra, Pitra-tarpana, Tailaphala, Tila. HABITAT :—Cultivated, and wild (in heavy rainfall tracts). LOC. :—Cultivated in practically all the districts of the State except Kanara and S. Konkan. Extensively grown in Gujarat and the Deccan; wild form is found in Thana and Kolaba Districts.

aphrodisiac. PARTS USED :—Root. H. eye diseases . tonic. in height. FAM. strangury.192 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR.— abruptly pinnate. syphilitic ulcers. A hot hip bath with some bruished seeds in it. urinary concretions. Jayanti. suppurating wounds. NS. L. Raysingani. Seed-oil—fattening. cure menorrhagia. Jinangi. asthma. CHAR. diseases. of eye and ear. K. compound decoction with linseed is aphrodisiac. seeds. They have been used to procure abortion. They are also emmenagogue. strengthening. :—Throughout the tropics of the old world. is said to give relief in dysmenorrhoea. cures . tonic. diuretic. Sk.—20-30. Black variety is common. 15-23 cm. probably a native of tropical Africa. long.—standard as broad as long. It is used medicinally for all the purposes in place of olive oil. Fl. Jaya. and as an oildressing for ulcers. :—A soft-wooded shrub. spleen troubles. mottled with purple on the outside. long. LOC. Ground to paste with water they are given with butter in bleeding piles. 7. Sd. inflammations (Yunani). PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roof-hot. useful in sorethroat. biliousness. lung diseases. Jayanti. applied to ulcers and piles. few flowered axillary racemes. scabies. Shewari.5-15 cm. M.. Jayantika. cooling. pendulous. COM. inflammations. useful in diarrhœa. branches striate.—in lax. small-pox. They are nourishing. promote hair growth. obscurely angled . bark. cause "Kapha " and biliousness (Ayurveda). SESBANIA ÆGYPTICA Poir. inflammations. leaves. yields best quality of oil and is suited for medicinal purposes.—pod. an emollient poultice is also made from them. beaked. Roots and seeds—aphrodisiac. oleaginous. alterative. enrich blood. :—Cultivated all over India. removes "Kapha". yellow. USES :—Leaves which abound in mucilage act as demulcent and are useful in bowel affections. :—Cultivated in the State for fodder or as wind-break. furnished at the base with 2 keel-like appendages running down winglike. hair-tonic. such as dysentery etc. DISTR. Waziristan. Seed poultice is applied to ulcers. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Seeds-acrid. PARTS USED :—Root. Seeds are taken in decoction or as sweetmeat in cases of piles and constipation. opposite. Jayanti. septate between the seeds. C. white and red. Seeds contain vitamin A. oil. :—G. carminative. into claw. applied to gouty joints. burning sensation. useful in dry cough. Janjhan. There are three varieties of seeds : black. HABITAT :—Cultivated. gouty joints. leaves. astringent to bowels. Rasin. indigestible . LOC. slightly torulose. anthelmintic. 4-5 m. Nadeyi. galactagogue. Decoction of leaves and roots is employed as a hair-wash and is supposed to blacken hair. See—Oils. etc. Fr. bleeding piles.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). rachis shortly produced above the last pair of leaflets . Baluchistan. linear-oblong. leaflets 914 pairs. Seeds yield clear non-drying oil. Jayat. seeds. diuretic and lactagogue.

—7. Leaf-poultice is a popular remedy in Amboyna for bruises. USES :—Leaves in the form of poultice promote suppuration of boils and abscesses and absorption of hydrocele and inflammatory swellings. cures nightblindness and biliousness (Yunani).MEDICINAL PLANTS 193 tuberculous glands. long. See—Vegetables. See—Fodder Plants. improves taste. juice of fresh leaves is given as an anthelmintic. Fl. LOC. Seeds mixed with flour are applied externally for itching of skin. diabetes. L. NS. Dirghashimbi. leaves. fruits. demulcent. COM. An infusion is given in small-pox. Bark— astringent. rubbed into a paste with water. 50 cm. epilepsy. maturant. relieves throat-troubles. Root-juice is given with honey as an expectorant in catarrh. CHAR. cures " Tridosh " pains. brightens intellect (Ayurveda). Paste made of root with an equal quantity of stramonium root. Munidruma. PARTS USED :—Root. PROPERTIES AND USES:—Roof-removes "Vata". :—A soft wooded tree . bronchitis. Kempagase.8 cm. cure itching. Fr. Agasta.—in racemes . ulcers. Seeds—emmenagogue. gout . Seeds remove small-pox eruptions (Ayurveda). diarrhœa.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). allays thirst. In Bombay the juice of leaves and flowers is a popular remedy in nasal catarrh and headache. :—G. Agase. :—Cultivated in many parts of India. flowers. heal chronic ulcers and eruptions . HABITAT :—Cultivated. Bark is very astringent and is recommended as a tonic. Kanali. leaflets 16-30 pairs. Agati. 2-4 white or red. LOC.— pod. Bak. astringent. anaemia. In Cambodia it is used in diarrhœa. "Kapha" and inflammation. Hatiya . Vranari. Fruit—laxative . USES :—Root from the red-flowered variety. Flowers—cooling. Sk. useful In diseases of spleen. Indigenous from Malaya to N. night-blindness. is applied in rheumatism. FAM. linear oblong. useful in ophthalmia. H. dysentery and paludism. leucoderma. Flower-juice is squeezed into the eyes to relieve dimness of vision (Murray). DISTR. tumours . improve appetite . stimulant. . alexiteric. Agusta. anthelmintic. long. Ornamental Plants. Leaves—purgative. The plant contains vitamin A. cure quartan fever. very showy. and excessive menstrual flow (Yunani). Agathio. high. Leaf— tonic and antipyretic. :—Grown about temples and villages all over the State. Bark—astringent. Agasti. t. SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA Pers. LOC. leprosy. fevers. M. C. Leaves—indigestible.5-8. is applied in painful swellings.— pinnate. gout.— flowers at various times. Basna. 15-30-cm. useful for hydrocele and all pains and inflammations. anthelmintic. 6-9 m. biliousness. Fl. long. useful in ozœna. K. Australia.

Country Mallow. Root—cooling. awns 2.—Malvaceæ. petals connate at the base with staminal tube. Kherati. decoction. sharply serrate.—smooth. M. K. astringent. " Pitta ".Dec. Country. ovate-oblong. bleeding piles. PARTS USED :—Root. FAM. carpels 5-9. softly hairy all over. Jayanti. minutely hairy. Fl. G. Gujarat and S.—2. stomachic and tonic. bark.. Pata. COM. Bala. linear. FAM. Leaves made warm and moistened with a little gingelly oil are employed to hasten suppuration (Ainslie). useful in fever. diam. Barial. lanceolate. scabrid-hairy. CHAR. C.-Oct. HABITAT :—Waste places—especially in plains. " Kapha " . L.194 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SIDA CARPINIFOLIA Linn. pedicel jointed much above the middle. :—An annual or perennial herb or undershrub . L. M. Rajbala. Hettutti-gida. :—Konkan. aphrodisiac . infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of blood and bile. Prahasa. a weed. astringent.5-6. t. crenate. NS. M. Chikna.3 cm. In Bengal leaf-juice is used in the form of electuary in the treatment of intestinal worms. DISTR. Vatyapushpi. SIDA CORDIFOLIA Linn. obtuse.— yellow. PARTS USED :—Root. removes " Vata ". useful in blood and throat diseases. good in cough as a pectoral and bechic. Kareta. COM. HABITAT :—Moist places . cordate. long. Bala. Tukti. Kumghi.—Malvaceæ. puberulous. pedicel jointed about the middle. upper margins ciliate. H. in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres.—5-6 mm. Kisangi.—6-8 mm. Pata. is given . dorsal margins toothed. Fr. leaves and seeds. Kharanti. LOC. Country. glabrous. with ginger. cooling.. Fl. black. base rounded. Khareti.—Nov.5-5 cm. M. Deccan and S. Sd. phthisis and insanity (Ayurveda). Batyalaka. NS.. awns 2. Bala. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Plant-tonic. linear . LOC. LOC.-Nov.—solitary or few together. strongly reticulated. Chikna. USES :—Bala is considered to be one of the most valuable drugs of Hindu medicine. burning of body and urinary discharges (Ayurveda). Samanga. long. :—Konkan (common). Sk. diam. USES :—In the Konkan root is applied with sparrow's dung to mature boils. diuretic. Fl. LOC. Bariara. :—G. branches slender. carpels 7-10. Fl. emollient. t. :—A shrub. CHAR. dorsal scabrid. :—Tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres. Bhiman-Visha Kaddi. Bark cures urinary troubles and discharges. strongly reticulated . PROPERTIES AND USES:—Root removes " tridosha"'.—2. yellow. digestive. K. :—E. H. :—Hotter parts of India. Baladana.—1-2 in each axil. DISTR. Sk. Fr. Chittuharatu.

L. The plant contains a crystalline bitter substance. Atibala—Sida rhombifolia Linn. slightly rough. triangular-ovate. tinged with purple. Country. Ceylon. and head-ache. a mixture of equal parts of the tincture and glycerine has been tried in Europe with good effect in ringworm and similar parasitic affections.6—1. common. SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS Linn. Fl. Seeds are aphrodisiac and are used in gonorrhœa. Nagbala—Sida spinosa Linn. diaphoretic.MEDICINAL PLANTS 195 in intermittent and other fevers attended with shivering. :—Deccan. 5 outer clavate. most tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. FAM. NS. all running down wing-like into petiole. USES :—It has a high reputation as a valuable depurative. PROPERTIES AND LOC. . Seeds are called " Bijaband ". stiff-neck. juice is used for healing wounds. high. It is quite possible that by proper cultivation and collection the alkaloidal content could be increased. M. :—A large annual herb. administered in hemiplegia. DISTR. black.2 m. In La Reunion the plant is used as a stimulant. In Indo-China the whole plant is prescribed as a cardio-tonic. 5 inner boat-shaped. Fr. HABITAT :—In waste places along roadsides &c.—Compositæ. CHAR. with horizontal branches below and dichotomously branched above. M.—achene. cystitis. Plant contains a small quantity of ephedrine. LOC.—yellow. antiscorbutic and sialogogue. It is strongly recommended in diseases of urethra. Leaves mixed with rice are given to alleviate bloody flux. also in colic and tenesmus. Sanskrit writers make mention of five species of Bala under the name " Panch Bala ". Fl. facial paralysis. Juice of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and spermatorrhoea. those of the ray red beneath. PARTS USED :—The whole plant. 0. COM. involucral bracts 2 rows. deeply and irregularly toothed. barkpowder is given with milk and sugar in micturition and leucorrhoea. stem stiff. erect. Bala Phanijivaha—Sida carpinifolia Linn. uppermost leaves much smaller and entire. Pilibadkadi. :—Throughout India. Bala Taila—used as an external application in above diseases.—Nov. :—G. noise in ears. Fl. Leaves are used in ophthalmia. Externally.—opposite. S.-Dec. Mahabala— Sida rhombifolia var. INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Maha baladi Kvatha. t.—heads small in leafy panicles . pappus 0. Linn. Bala—Sida cordifolia. It is also used to favour menstruation. and also for its healing properties in gangrenous ulcers and sores. rhomboides Roxb. Katampu.

5—7. Mhotiringni. The root is employed in difficult parturition and in toothache. Dorli. :—Common in the Konkan and Deccan hills. NS.—pale-purple.-Oct. It is seldom used alone. petiole prickly. Mahotika. LOC. Kattarta. eye diseases (Ayurveda).3—1. " Kapha".. lobed. Ceylon. laxative. C. . L. asthma. G. astringent to bowels. PARTS USED :—Root. fever. Hinguli. :—Throughout tropical India. M. Egg Plant. analgesic. stem stout. :—E. Ubhi-bhuringni. Nilaphala. prickles large.-Aug. Bhanta. dark-yellow when ripe. " Vata". Philippines. clothed outside with purple hairs . Sd. covered with stellate hairs. rarely wild. Vengni. K. bad for piles if taken internally. China. Sk. diam. K.—Solanaceæ. Vrittaphala. but beneficial if applied externally (Yunani). COM. Leaf-juice along with fresh ginger juice is given to stop vomiting. anthelmintic. leaves (rarely) and fruits. 8 mm. Vartaki. Habba-Kirigulla. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Fruit—heating. causes biliousness. Rigana. lessens inflammations. FAM. digestive.—5—15 X 2. loss of appetite. USES :—The root forms an ingredient of the much esteemed Dashamula Kvatha of Hindu medicine. The vapour of burning seeds relieves the pain in tooth-ache. Malpya. Fruit—cardiotonic.. Badanikai. Vayase. Indian Nightshade. beneficial in cardiac troubles . Fl. 0. Bhantaki. SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. base unequal-sided. high. Sk. prickly. pain. enriches blood. The plant contains alkaloids Solanine and Solanidine. bronchitis. HABITAT :—Cultivated. Vadikadheri. G. It is prescribed in cases of dysuria and inchuria. Brihati. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Heating. aphrodisiac. vomiting. LOC. t. leaves. The leaves and fruit rubbed up with sugar is useful as an external application to itch. subentire. Hinguli. Fr. sparsely prickly and hairy on both sides. PARTS USED :—Root.5 m. M. Vantak. maturant.— berry. cardiotonic. sharp. :—E. :—Cultivated all over the State in gardens. Brinjal. beneficial in " Vata" and " Kapha". CHAR :—A much branched undershrub. DISTR. Baingan. NS. It is expectorant and useful in cough and catarrhal affections. H. useful in leucoderma.. Vange. COM.—Solanaceæ. ovate. Ranringni.—in racemose extra-axillary cymes. HABITAT :—Hilly parts. globose. fruit and seeds.196 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM INDICUM Linn. DISTR. recurved. very. pruritus ani. Barhanta. Root is applied to lessen pain. LOC. removes foulness of the mouth. Kadusonde.5 cm.—minutely pitted: Fl. or triangular-ovate. improves appetite. H. FAM. increases asthma and bronchitis (Ayurveda). :—Widely cultivated in India. Bhantaki.

gonorrhœa (Yunani). Makoi.—many. :—A variable annual herb . asthma. The plant contains the alkaloid Solanine. dysuria and asthma.. :—Throughout India. LOC. liver inflammation. diuretic. laxative. useful in erysipelas and rat-bite (Ayurveda). 6 mm. The syrup acts as an expectorant and diaphoretic. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Oleaginous.—Sept. t. In S. good for neck ulcers. Kamoni. CHAR. subumbellate. alterative. Katuphala. Seeds—laxative. Sk. FAM. ear and nose . leucoderma. piles. Kakamachi. It acts as a hydrogogue. taste. useful in giddiness. LOC. cathartic and diuretic. and used with success in psoriasis.—Solanaceæ. entire or sinuate toothed. See—Vegetables. aphrodisiac. COM. favours conception and facilitates delivery . Black Night-shade. In Konkan young shoots are used in chronic skin diseases. Fl. Sd. :—E. but they are apt to lead to dyspepsia and constipation. leaves and fruit. Vayasi. In Bengal berries are employed in fevers. Kakamunchi. urinary discharges. Leaves used for head-ache and nose diseases. all temperate and tropical regions of the world. minutely pitted . . SOLANUM NIGRUM Linn. tapering into petioles. Piludi. useful in heart and eye-diseases. M.— berry. Gurkamai. L. usually purplish black (sometimes red or yellow).—small. not to be given to pregnant women. The seeds are used as a stimulant. inflammation. eye-diseases hydrophobia. Hound's Berry. griping. bark. fever. hiccup. yellow. USES :—Leaves are used as narcotic. Morellel.—divided more than half way into 5 oblong lobes . improves appetite. Kakamachi. vomiting. Ceylon. shining. smooth. :—A weed occurring in cultivated fields all over the State. 3-8 flowered cymes . ovatelanceolate. Kabaiya. throat burning. stem erect. HABIT :—A weed of cultivation. heating. fever. in pains. Fruit useful in thirst due to fever. much divaricately-branched . Tiktika. diam.—discoid. bronchitis. itch. DISTR. bronchitis. Fl. tonic. Fruit contains vitamins A. It has been recommended as an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver complaints. PARTS USED :—Root. Africa root decoction is taken internally in the treatment of syphilis. improves voice . " Tridosha". B and C. NS. dysentery. K. in extra-axillary. Fruit pierced all over with a needle and fried in gingelly oil is employed as a cure for toothache. bitter. Black berries have been used as diuretic and diaphoretic for a long time in heart diseases when attended with swellings of legs and feet. etc. H. In Madagascar leaves and fruits are commonly used in cholera. worms in ear. chronic fever. C.MEDICINAL PLANTS 197 LOC. inflammation. useful in diseases of eye. G. USES :—In Bombay plant-juice is used in chronic liver enlargement and is a valuable alterative.-Jany. Fr. Root-bark—laxative . diarrhœa.

M. CHAR. Malaya. stone in bladder. HABITAT :—Roadsides and waste lands. dysuria. Seeds—anthelmintic. appetiser. FAM. In the Konkan root with ginger and chiretta is given in decoction as a febrifuge. prickles compressed. Basu). Konkan. SORGHUM VULGARE Pers. flowers and fruits are bitter and carminative. Jolah. tropical Australia. Nirgol. Ceylon. pruritus . Great Indian millet. Jowari. NS. E. Yengara . Fumigation with vapour of burning seeds is in high repute in tooth-ache. flowers. sinuate or subpinnatifid. fever. fevers.—in extra-axillary few flowered cymes . petiole prickly. K. lobes deltoid. It is used in asthma. stem zig-zag.198 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM Schr. Juice of fresh plant with Hemidesmus juice is used as diuretic. Jundri. NS. Khandesh claim about three-quarters . Jonera. M. straight. Juice of berry is useful in sore-throat.. Sorgho. S. hairy outside. Vrittatandula. stems. lumbago. expectorant and febrifuge. Fl.—Solanaceæ. Sk. Bhoyaringni. aphrodisiac. Sholapur. "Vata" and " Kapha". Root—aphrodisiac.-5-10 X 2. often exceeding 1.— June. Root-decoction with that of Tinospora cordifolia is said to be tonic in fever and cough. PARTS USED :—Root. Bhui-Kate-ringni. yellow and shining. C. Yuvanala. Ikshupatraka. L. Brihati. sterility in women. thirst. heating. COM. 3-2 cm. Nele-Rama-gulla . muscular pains. yellow or white with green veins. leaves. they are used in the burning of feet. Nidigdhika. Africa.3 cm. Dhavani. hairy on both sides. Kateli. biliousness. :—A very prickly diffuse. useful in bronchitis. :—Throughout India. K. pains. strangury. base unequal-sided. asthma. asthma. :—E. Ringni. Sind. LOC. chronic bronchitis. USES :—Root is one of the important medicinal ingredients of the Hindoo physicians and has been recognised for a long time as an effective diuretic. DISTR. H. laxative. Shalu. t. Katai. PROPERTIES AND USES :—Bitter. :—Common in the Deccan . Kantakari. long. H. D. Jondhala. G. ozoena. anthelmintic . FAM.—Gramineæ. ovate or elliptic. bright green perennial herb . LOC.5-5. Jowar. Fl.7 cm. diam.—purple. stomachic. good in inflammation. armed on midrib and nerves with long yellow prickles. :—G. Durrah. In the Punjab leaf-juice is used with black-pepper in rheumatism (B. Fruit—laxative. good for boils and scabies (Yunani). Bijapur and E. fruits and seeds.—berry. surrounded by enlarged calyx . :—Cultivated during kharif and rabi seasons all over the State . urinary concretions. Plant decoction is used in cases of gonorrhœa.. COM. Sundia . Fr. Kenjal. catarrhal fever and chest pain. & Wendl. Sk. LOC. Kantakini. piles. Dirghashara. Leaves—good application for piles. Chikka-sonde. HABITAT :—Cultivated. heart disease. causes biliousness (Ayurveda).

. Bastard Cedar. Khandesh claim half of the total kharif area.—sessile. Kumbhala. general debility. Dharwar. cough and asthma (Ayurveda). Swami-mara. See—Timbers. piles. M. HABITAT :—Open situations. :—Throughout the State in dry forests and stony hills . removes " Vata " and blood impurities . Some. G. Satara and Poona have also very large areas of kharif jowar. PROPERTIES AND USES. hairy. Karanda-gida. Gorakhmundi. Asia and Africa. Rohini. :—The grain is cooling.—Meliaceæ. American negroes take the decoction of the seeds as a remedy for urinary. high. vaginal injections and enemas. Ceylon. Bark—astringent to bowels and useful in fevers (Yunani). Sk. Sk. CHAR. PROPERTIES AND USES. glandular. Bodiakalara. ulcers. Aruna. :—A much branched herb about 30 cm. Rawtarohan. NS. Vritta. cures " Tridosha ". leprosy and dysentery . Gorakmundi. SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA A. H. NS. Juss. Bijapur and E.MEDICINAL PLANTS 199 of the rabi area. K. Gorakhamundi. tonic and antiperiodic . :—Dry forests of W. diseases of blood. indigestible. aphrodisiac. hence used in intermittent fevers. Sumbi. Mirzapur hills and Chota Nagpur. PARTS USED. :—Bark. laxative. :—Widely cultivated in India. fevers. Ruhin. tumours (Ayurveda). :—Bark-acrid. PARTS USED. See—Food Plants. Cultivated in warmer parts of Europe. Munditika. USES :—Seeds—diuretic and demulcent. H. it has been used with success in other cases requiring the use of astringents. COM. Khandesh and S. introduced into America and Australia. with toothed wings. improves appetite and taste. Indian Red-Wood. Satara and Dharwar also have large area of rabi jowar. Rohun. Country. L. LOC. constipating. Rohani. anthelmintic. COM. while Belgaum. FAM. DISTR. K. Rohina. Pravrajita. in advanced stages of diarrhœa and dysentery. the decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles. :—Seeds. aphrodisiac. Grains contain vitamin B. Agniruha. good for sore-throat. M. Fibres. on dry stony hills. The plant contains glucoside dhurin. :—G. FAM: —Compositæ. useful in " Kapha". SPHÆRANTHUS INDICUS Linn. Mahamundi. M. LOC. Peninsula extending northwards to Merwara. DISTR. refrigerant. Ahmedabad. POPULAR USES :—The bark is astringent. bladder and kidney complaints. :— E. stem and branches cylindric. Tans. ulcers. common in Gujarat. biliousness. Gums and Resins. Poona.

—opposite. Fl. leucoderma. digestible. Fl. globose ovoid.. Plant is also used in glandular swellings. compressed . M. t. scalding of urine. ciliate near the ends . Fl. :—Throughout India. truncate. Country and Kanara. vomiting. Tonic. alterative. DISTR. :—Annual herb. Pappuso. stalked. and tonic (Stewart) . HABITAT. laxative. flowers and seeds. boils. looseness of breasts.—Nov. asthma. tuberculous glands. PROPERTIES AND USES. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. PARTS USED. dysentery. Fl. PARTS USED. Africa.— achene. indigestion. . H. Australia. bronchitis. involucral bracts oblong-lanceolate. lessens inflammations .—purple. FAM. cooling. good for eyesore. cools brain. elephantiasis. strangury. biliousness. urinary discharges. Oil from the root aphrodisiac. biliousness. S. used in prolapsis ani (Yunani). :—E. piles. depurative. They are chewed to relieve toothache. LOC. increases appetite. sometimes grown in gardens. Akarakara . glandular hairy. ovate. Dharwar and Belgaum districts. chest diseases.—Compositæ. leaves and flower-heads. hemicrania (Ayurveda).. USES :—Root and seeds are considered stomachic and anthelmintic. used in insanity. CHAR. alexipharmic. :—Deccan. M. rectal pain. the latter when present minute. emmenagogue. glaborous. involucre bracts linear. in cases of worms and indigestion. COM. Malay Islands. L. useful in skin diseases. :—Root. urethral discharges and jaundice. LOC.—Nov-Jany. laxative. Sk. base usually acute. irregularly crenateserrate. SPILANTHES ACMELLA Murr. gives lustre to eyes . anthelmintic. anæmia. Celyon. ovate-oblong. The plant contains an essential oil and an alkaloid. Bark ground and mixed with whey is a valuable remedy for piles . Akkalkara . Pellitary . :—The flower-heads are by far the most pungent part. peduncles with toothed wings. USES. Plant is pounded with a little water and the juice expressed is used as styptic. C. t. fattening. solitary or subpanicled.—Achene. with honey they are given in cough. scabies. LOC. :—Throughout India. Juice boiled with a little milk and sugar-candy is taken for cough. leaves. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Root. long. DISTR. NS. Fr. Powdered root is given as tonic. ring-worm of waist. oblong. ray flowers and ligules very often absent.—in heads ovoid. peduncles reaching 10 cm. HABITAT.200 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) decurrent. :—Common in rice-fields. It is also used as fish and crab poison. used also for local application. jaundice. bark. :—Hot. Flowers are highly esteemed as alterative. tonic. spleen diseases. gleet. :—Wild and cultivated.—compound heads. Akara-karava. serrate or dentate. :—Common in the Konkan. enriches blood . epileptic convulsions. all warm countries. pain in uterus and vagina. They are given in powder form. Fr. Ceylon. stem and branches hairy.

widely planted. Kariguddada. astringent. Ambodha. :—Leaves-tasty. :—Sub-Himalayan tract and outer valleys from the Chenab eastwards.8-7. Amate. :—Bark. destroys " Vata ". COM.. Kapichuta. Padiala. In Philippine Islands root decoction is given as purgative. long. :—H. Ali-vallabha.-Apl. PARTS USED. COM. SPONDIAS MANGIFERA Willd. stone woody. . phthisis. STEREOSPERMUM PERSONATUM Chatterji. leaf decoction is used internally as diuretic and lithotriptic. :—Often planted throughout the State. Burma. Patala. Bile Tree. Padal. leaves and fruit. M. biliousness. hard. W. Ran-amba . LOC. Hulave. Parur.MEDICINAL PLANTS 201 In Assam the plant is administered to women after child-birth. and externally as a bath in rheumatism or as a lotion in scabies and psoriasis. Fl. L. blood complaints . Country. Marahunise. In Indo-China the plant is boiled in water and the whole is given in dysentery. round with furrows and cavities. Gujarat. Farquhar has recommended a tincture of flower-heads for tooth-ache.— petals 4-5. Leaf-juice is applied locally in ear-ache. burning sensation. refrigerant. C. ovoid. ash-coloured . Kanara. K. appetising. Ambada. Dr. Kamduti. good for sore-throat.Feb. Kalavrinta. LOC. Sk. H. Infusion of pounded bark is drunk against diarrhœa and dysentery. Indian Archipelago. Fl. Wild Mango.—1 or 2 sexual in terminal panicles. Bark ground and mixed with water is rubbed on in both articular and muscular rheumatism. M. Salt Range. It has been found useful in dysentery. t. HABITAT. USES :—Bark is refrigerant. Fruit—indigestible. strong intramarginal nerve joining horizontal straight nerves. Western Peninsula. Kumbhi.5 m. Amrataka. pinkish green. Amra. long. S..—Anacardiaceæ. CHAR. Tungi. Hongkong.. ulcers. Pahad. The seeds are chewed to provoke salivation when the mouth is dry. M. NS. Leaves are rubbed on the skinrash to soothe the itching. (STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS DC) FAM. astringent to bowels (Ayurveda). tonic. K.8 cm. Sk. Andamans. Konkan.—drupe. Giri Hadari. 3. Ceylon. —alternate imparipinnate 30-45 cm. Padal. bark smooth. enriches blood .-usually 1. Patala. See—Gums and Resins. Pitana. branches nearly horizontal. FAM. leaflets 3-5 pairs and a terminal one 7. ovate oblong. yellow. Hude. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. NS. Avatekayi. Indian Hog-Plum. :—Cultivated. Fruit is a useful antiscorbutic. :—E. oblique. trunk straight. entire. oblong. :—A tree 9-10. It is a specific for inflammation of the peristomium of jaws.5 cm. Sd. Toyadhivasini. high.—Bignoniaceæ. the pulp is acid and astringent and is used in bilious dyspepsia. aphrodisiac. Gum is demulcent. Fr. Pandri.5-18 x 3. cures rheumatism.

Juice of fresh bark is given in cholera and acute dysentery. ulcers. Sk. piles. LOC. diuretic. PARTS USED. eructations. useful in bilious diarrhœa. Kajavara. The ashes of the plant are used in the preparations of alkaline water and caustic paste. cures pains in joints. emmenagogue . fruit. G. It is regarded as cooling. Kanara. "Vata". anæmia. K.—Loganiaceæ. Bark infusion or decoction is employed as tonic and febrifuge. Ceylon. USES :—A fine paste of root-bark with lime juice (made into pills) is effectual in cholera. :—In forests south of Bombay. thirst. Kajra. leaves. Travancore. heating. Root is used to cure intermittent fevers. Kuchala. Kachita. Kangira. Poison Nut. See—Timbers. jaundice. Burma. seeds. useful in paralysis and weakness of limbs (Yunani). blood diseases. Ittangi. NS. Kajra. Crow Fig. Hemushti. M. :—Fruit-acrid. Indo-China. piles . vomiting. Kanara. The paste made by rubbing the seeds is used in ratbites . diuretic. bitter. seed-paste mixed with dry ginger and the horn of antelope rubbed on the stone is used with benefit in muscular and chronic rheumatism. USES :—Root-bark is an ingredient in Dashamula. flowers. Leaves are applied as poultice for wounds or ulcers when maggots have formed. Planted in Ceylon. In the Konkan small doses of seeds with . Karaskara. inflammation. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA Linn. burning sensation. PROPERTIES AND USES. from Kashmir to Sikkim . HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests. In Bombay the wood is said to be a popular remedy in the dyspepsia of vegetarians. :—Wood (rarely). LOC. leprosy and strangury (Ayurveda). pungent. Kupaka. Travancore . Kelakutaka. H.202 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT. lumbago. west coast of Madras State. :—E. Nirmal. fruit. Visha-druma. astringent to bowels. Laos. DISTR. :—More or less throughout tropical India. tonic. fevers. N. tonic. :—Root-bitter. In Tanjore flowers are taken up in the form of confection as an aphrodisiac. Karnatak. LOC. Kuchla. itching. Nux-vomica or strychnine tree. common in the deciduous forests of Dharwar and in N. loss of taste. :—Monsoon-forests. Circars. :—Throughout India in more or less dry localities . DISTR. Vishamushti. urinary discharges (Ayurveda). poisonous. useful in " Kapha " and " Vata".. PARTS USED. aphrodisiac. antipyretic. Kakatinduka. tonic. :—Very common in Konkan and N. appetiser. :—Root. heating. PROPERTIES AND USES. "Kapha". cures leucoderma. Flowers rubbed up with honey are given to check hiccup. Kuchla. Fruit—useful in hiccup. Flowers— acrid . sub-Himalaya. COM. LOC. FAM. heating. blood diseases. Fruit—bitter. abundant on laterite along sea-coast. ring-worm. asthma.

K. Aduguchali-bija. tonic. causes biliousness. Nirmali. Burma. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ceylon. Seeds are used for clearing muddy water. Seeds are used as local application in eye diseases. emetic. pulp is a good substitute for ipecacuanha in the treatment of dysentery and bronchitis. aphrodisiac. also in Konkan. Powdered seed is given internally with milk in irritation of the urinary organs and in gonorrhœa. DISTR. jaundice. :—Root cures leucoderma. Nelmal. diuretic. Seeds—acrid. Chittu bija. NS. Rubbed with water and rocksalt they are applied to chemosis in conjunctiva. Shodhanatmaka. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons.—Loganiaceæ. lithotriptic. Rubbed up in fine paste with butter milk and given internally they are effectual in long-standing chronic diarrhœa. Sk. See—Timbers. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. The demand for strychnine is increasing. Fruit useful in eye diseases. No attempts are made to manufacture this drug in India where there is available a large amount of raw material. USES :—Mature fruit is regarded as an emetic. M. They are rubbed up with honey and a little camphor and the mixture applied to the eyes in lachrymation. head-diseases (Ayurveda). M. It is a powerful nervine tonic and stimulant to spinal cord. increases "Vata". :—Root (rarely). kidney complaints. Kanara and Khandesh. LOC. FAM. COM. As a respiratory stimulant it is used in bronchitis and phthisis. alexipharmic. In excessive doses it is a virulent poison. Madhya Bharat. anæmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 203 aromatics are given in colic. See—Timbers. Small quantities of seeds are taken in lieu of opium. If attention is paid to proper cultivation of the trees and better and cheap methods of collection and transport or seed the industry can be developed successfully in India. :—Samiragaja Kesari-used in diseases of the nervous system. astringent to bowels. India exports large quantities of seeds to foreign countries which manufacture strychnine. good for liver.. :—E. Nux-vomica is one of the most important drugs used in medicine. It is also regarded as a remedy for diabetes. cures inflammations. relieve colic (Yunani). urinary discharges. fruit and seeds. (Rasendrasarasangraha). :—Western Peninsula. thirst. Ambuprasadini. Shulaharanyoga—used in dyspepsia with pain and diarrhœa. STRYCHNOS POTATORUM Linn. diaphoretic. gonorrhœa. Kataka. Clearing Nut Tree. improve eye-sight. LOC. The plant is the chief source of strychnine. PARTS USED. cure strangury. . hallucinations. poisoning. HABITAT. Nivali. H. Seeds—bitter. alexiteric. :—Sand-stone hills of S. Country. :—Deciduous dry forests.

Fl. :—W. Californian Cinchona. Alcoholic or watery extracts if kept for some time deteriorate and become physiologically inert (K. USES :—In Hindoo medicine the bark is described as cooling.—many. Fr. M. decussate. DISTR. PROPERTIES AND USES. leprosy. E. Peninsula. Tiritaka. Fl. COM. Bark—bitter. SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA Roxb. digestible. it is given in menorrhagia due to the relaxation of uterine tissues. 5-nerved . Sd. quadrangular. vaginal discharges. aphrodisiac. Lodh . Lodhra . PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark-acrid. Used in Bombay in the preparation of plasters (lep) . HABITAT. :—Konkan and N. FAM. 0.204 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) SWERTIA DECUSSATA Nimmo. dysentery. Deccan . Dyes. 1 nectary at the base of each lobe . in powder or in fresh decoction. :— E. :—India (W. Burma. Country. flowers (rarely). winged . :—Bark. LOC. high. 2-valved. Kadu. useful in abortions . Mahabaleshwar. H. good for all eye-diseases (Yunani). Lodhra. :—The whole plant is bitter. LOC. cures cough. Peninsula). "The Plant is sold in the Mahabaleshwar Bazar under the name of 'Kadu' (Dymock)". etc.—Symplocaceæ. useful in eye-diseases. ovoid or oblong. Kanara Ghats and borders of evergreen forests near nalas.. Torna fort.—capsule. Bhilli. :—An erect herb. colloturine and loturiaine. LOC. PARTS USED. DISTR. astringent to bowels. Lodh.—Gentianaceæ.— sessile. PARTS USED. NS. :—Hilly parts. The plant contains alkaloids loturine.9 m. broadly ovate. ladia from Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Pegu.—very many in dense corymbose cymes . Lodh Tree. Balaloddujinamara. Bose). K. Lodhraka. :—M. bleeding gums . alexiteric. The plant contains bitter substance chiratin.3-0. Chota Nagpur. throughout N. FAM. L.— lobes 4-5. China Nora. emmenagogue. M. COM. C. astringent and useful in bowel complaints. Loder. 4-winged. biliousness. cooling. white with blue veins. t. diseases of blood. C. :—Root.-Jany. good for ulcers in vagina (Ayurveda). CHAR. Lodh is used in raw condition. .. eye-diseases and ulcers . C. "It is an excellent substitute for Gentian or Chiretta" (Dr. Sk. S. tonic for persons of plethoric constitutions . acrid. Shavaraka. stem densely leafy. inflammations. Deccan. HABITAT :—Evergreen forests and moist places near nalas. NS. Broughton). a decoction is used as a gargle for giving firmness to bleeding and spongy gums.— Oct. common at Mahableshwar and Panchgani. See—Timbers. Tillaka. :—Western Ghats .

COM. anthelmintic. also used in spongy and painful gums. Leaf-ash used for strengthening gums and teeth. digestive. Sk. bronchitis. Kokileshta. gargles and washes . good lotion for ring-worm in head. NS.—Myrtaceæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit—acrid. SYZYGIUM JAMBOS Alston. very often planted. Nilphala. biliousness. :—Cultivated in gardens in the State. Sk. thirst.) FAM. Khandesh Akrani and highest hills of Nasik and Satara districts. Jambu. some fine trees are planted on the hill-fort of Pratapgad near Mahabaleshwar. sprouts. Jambul. DISTR. K. . Jambula. :-Black-Java Plum. (EUGENIA JAMBOS Linn. :—Throughout India. cooling. LOC. :—Bark-acrid. See—Timbers. both wild and cultivated. carminative and diuretic. Jambu. dysentery. HABITAT :—Cultivated in gardens. ulcers. sweet. Fruit Trees. :—Throughout the State. astringent.—Myrtaceæ. carminative . etc. PARTS USED. Malay—Rose apple. Juice of tender leaves is given in goat's milk in the diarrhœa of children. asthma. Jambu. also wild. astringent to bowels. fruit vinegar is tonic. stop urinary discharges (Yunani). used in diarrhœa and dysentery. Fruit—a general and liver tonic. :—Bark. Seeds—diuretic. Pannerali. COM. common along river banks. Seeds in combination with those of mango are astringent. Australia. Pharenda. Ceylon. Jambudi. LOC. Surabhipriya. increases "Vata". Neralu. NS. Jamburaj. Seed—good for diabetes (Ayurveda). G. common at Mahabaleshwar. The plant contains a glucoside and an essential oil. Gulabjaman. M. Jamen. useful in spleen diseases.MEDICINAL PLANTS 205 SYZYGIUM CUMINI Skeel. astringent to bowels. H. strengthens gums and teeth. LOC. Nenda. Jam. :—E. M. good for sore-throat. K. Jambura. dry. Jambu. Jambu-Nayinerale. Shukapriya. Jambul. fruits and seeds. useful astringent in bilious diarrhœa. Powder of dried seeds is said to diminish quantity of sugar in urine in diabetes. Nerate. Shukapriya. enriches blood.) FAM. Gulab-Jamb. Expressed juice of leaves is used as an astringent in dysentery. good gargle for sore-throat. USES :—Bark is astringent and is used in the preparation of astringent decoctions. used in cases of chronic diarrhœa and dysentery and in sore-throat and spongy gums. HABITAT :—Along river banks and moist localities. H. blood impurities. removes bad smell from mouth. Malaya. Vinegar from the Juice of ripe fruit is an agreeable stomachic. (EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lan.

wood and oil. K.—follicles. divaricate. heating. tonic to brain. used in liver complaints. The milk is very cooling and is applied to wounds to prevent inflammation. Hills of Visakhapatanam. USES :— Wood is employed medicinally as a refrigerant. orange within. Chandani. PROPERTIES AND USES. Fruit—sweet and tasty. C—lobes overlapping to the left. G. Fl. heavy speech. blood-diseases (Ayurveda). NS. dysentery. Sk.. Maddarasa gida . improves voice." biliousness. :—Cultivated in gardens all over the State. removes "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). :—Cultivated in gardens. emmenagogue. :—Root. Fr. Ananta. COM. :—E. acrid. :—A glabrous evergreen dichotomously branched shrub. PARTS USED. rubbed with water it kills intestinal worms.—rainy season. cures epilepsy. indigestible. Wax flower. Taggar. Kottuhale. Br. elliptic or elliptic-Ianceolate. Assam. with milky juice . lessens pains in limbs and joints . LOC. and an essential oil.5-5 cm. useful in paralysis. glossy green above. Nandi.206 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) DISTR. TABERNÆMONTANA DIVARICATA R. in 1-8 flowered solitary or twin cymes 2.5-15 X 2. Tagar. . fruit and seeds. Garhwal. bitter. Trinidad . Ashvathabheda. Tagar . alexipharmic.—snow-white. aphrodisiac. The plant contains an alkaloid jambosine. The fruit is sweet with a flavour. digestible. H. :—Bark. removes bad humours. Tagara. Yunnan to Australia. Cultivated in many places. PROPERTIES AND USES. It is very cooling in ophthalmia. M. weakness of limbs. purgative. fatigue. HABITAT. USES :—In Burma the leaves are boiled and used for sore eyes. astringent to bowels. Seeds are astringent to bowels. indigestible. The plant contains an alkaloid. margins wavy.) FAM. 1-3 ribbed. PARTS USED. used in asthma. with lime-juice it removes opacity of cornea. tonic to brain.5-5 cm. See—Ornamental Plants. used in syphilis (Yunani).— opposite. lobes 5 in single. salver-shaped. E. fragrant at night. LOC. astringent to bowels. Bengal. useful in "Kapha. pale beneath. 7. hot. thirst. LOC. :—Root is acrid. astringent to bowels. Charcoal is good in ophthalmia (Yunani). inodorous during the day. tonic. See—Timbers. . L. bronchitis. Root—bitter . cultivated in many parts. Khasia Hills. Root chewed relieves toothache . liver and spleen .—Apocynaceæ. Milky juice mixed with oil is rubbed into the head to cure pain in the eyes. across. (TABERNÆMONTANA CORONARIA Willd. t. Burma. CHAR. :—Sikkim Terai. Fl. :—Bark is sweet. DISTR. :—Upper Gangetic Plain. strangury. double.

5-20 X 3. LOC. :—Shady parts of rain-forests. Amlika. coriaceous. Chinch. :—Grown abundantly in the gardens as an ornamental plant all over the State. internally they are said to purify blood.—white. :—E. Kalaga. COM. Sk. somewhat boat-shaped. Makhamal. TAGETES ERECTA Linn. Halmeti. Imli. :—Native of Mexico. Amli. Guljharo. HABITAT. Makhamala. PARTS USED. COM. Chinch. . Juice—used for ear-ache and ophthalmia.MEDICINAL PLANTS 207 TABERNÆMONTANA HEYNEANA Wall. rough. divaricata. C. DISTR. 7. Amli... with crisped lobes over-lapping to the right. NS.. grown in gardens all over India. USES :—Leaves are used as an application to boils and carbuncles. liver complaints and bleeding piles (Yunani). FAM.. L. PROPERTIES AND USES. Zanduga. oblong lanceolate . Gultora. See—Ornamental Plants. Teter. Fl. across in pedunculate cymes . belching. Nuli. good for teeth . LOC. Zendu. Sandu. Nagakuda. Fl. :—Root. Sk.5 cm. Amala. lessens inflammation . 2. :—Flower-pungent. M.—follicle. Sthulapushpa. COM. CHAR. bark grey. G.5 cm. DISTR.—Apocynaceæ. G. :—Leaves and flowers. Fr. Sd. PARTS USED. Makhamali. t. :—Rain-forests.—Compositæ. PROPERTIES AND USES. HABITAT. Leaves—good for piles. yellow when ripe. Amla. Maddarssa. their juice is given in ear-ache. NS. The flowers are used in eye-diseases and unhealthy ulcers. H. FAM.2-7. :—Same as T.—surrounded by red pulp. Travancore up to 7. : K. HABITAT. Kanara. with a beak and two sharp side-ribs . Flower—bitter. :—Malabar. Pandarakuda. NS. throughout the Konkan and N. useful in scabies. common in rain-forests. kidney troubles. Tintrani. muscular pains. French Marigold. bitter. Tintidika. :—Cultivated. wood. high. K. stomachic. Amlike.— tube inflated near the top. :—Western Ghats from the Konkan southwards . acrid. Chinchika.4-4. M.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). LOC. M. FAM. :—E. H. :—A shrub or a small tree 2. TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. useful in fevers and epileptic fits (Ayurveda). juice is given as a remedy for bleeding piles. Tamarind. Genda. astringent.000 m.—opposite.5 m.— Mar-Apl. oil. carminative. Nagaskuda.

Cultivated also. Fruit-pulp—tonic to heart. flowers. :—Throughout the State in monsoon and thorn-forests. Malay Peninsula. heals wounds and fractures.208 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Powdered with water they are applied to the crown of the head in cough and relaxation of uvula. NS. digestive. tonic to heart. :—E. their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. cure " Vata " and " Kapha ". Flour poultice is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva. Sagwan. PROPERTIES AND USES. costiveness. Tropics generally. HABITAT :—Monsoon and thorn-forests. anthelmintic. astringent to bowels. eye-diseases. M. Sag. Arna. Condiments and Spices. tonic. applied externally in liver complaints (Yunani). ringworm useful in blood-diseases. vomiting. Leaves applied to reduce swellings. Fruit-sour. USES :—Ripe fruit is astringent. Sagun. COM. DISTR. thirst. TECTONA GRANDIS Linn. Burma. H. PARTS USED :—Root. Ghats to the Mahi River in Gujarat. Bark—astringent. A gargle-of tamarind water is recommended in sore-throat. Mahapatra. LOC. leaves. useful in giddiness and vertigo. cultivated and self-sown near villages in waste lands all over the country. sore-throat. heating. flowers and seeds. Fruit—sour. tasty. causes biliousness and impoverishes blood. :—Bark. Bark is considered to have astringent and tonic properties. earache. fruit and seeds. and for sizing materials. :—Throughout India.. Leaves crushed with water and expressed yield an acid fluid. Sag. Sk. causes cough. Sumatra and Java. carminative. and laxative. :—Evergreen forests of Konkan and N. laxative. small-pox. G. LOC. Seeds astringent. heals ulcers. K. Teka. intoxication &c. :—Bark used topically for loss of sensation in paralysis.. PARTS USED. Kanara. Kanara. fruit-pulp as well as leaf-poultice is recommended to be applied to inflammatory swellings.—Verbenaceæ. biliousness. useful in diseases caused by deranged bile. wood. Seeds are good astringent. Anil. useful in liver-complaints. Flowers— appetising . indigestible. :—Western Ghats of Madras State. Tegu. Tamarind pulp contains vitamins A and C. Circars. used in bilious fevers and scalding of urine. Indigenous in tropical Central Africa. Sagwan. Best teak forests are on the slopes of Kala-nuddi and the Gangavali rivers of N. DISTR. FAM. Seeds are now used for manufacture of Pectins for industrial purposes. ash given for urinary discharges and gonorrhœa. boiled they are used as a poultice. urinary discharges. See—Timbers. scabies. Tega. bark. such as body-burning. Seeds useful in vaginal discharges and ulcers (Ayurveda). . aphrodisiac. tumours. Teak. stomatitis. sweetish. Madhya Bharat. Sagach. Leaves— reduce inflammatory swelling. abundant all along the slopes of W. laxative.

:—All over India. fresh root-bark. HABITAT:—Open situations. anthelmintic. alexiteric. Sd. Sarphoka. alterative. Wood good for head ache.. leucoderma and dysentery (Ayurveda). biliousness. M. ashes are applied to inflamed eyelids (Yunani). COM. leaves and seeds.MEDICINAL PLANTS 209 PROPERTIES AND USES :—Roots given in anuria and retention of urine. urinary discharges. Fl. "Root—diuretic. tumours. burning pain over the region of liver. expectorant.—petals clawed. inflammations. along forest borders. Sarphonka. poisoning. . Plihari.—pod 3—4. 30—60 cm. useful in bronchitis. PROPERTIES AND USES. syphilis. FAM. S. Sharapunkha. dry. long. Empali. Fr. It is employed as an anthelmintic for children in Ceylon.8 X 0. 2—2. bitter. t. oblanceolate. Sharapunkha. The ashes of wood are applied to swollen eyelids and are said to strengthen eye-sight. Ghodakan. ulcers. :—The whole plant. mucronate.8—1. high. silkyhairy beneath. Wood—acrid.—Oct. spleen. useful in scabies. Jhila. linear. pubescent on the back. :—A perennial herb. allays thirst. CHAR. asthma. Plant is used internally as a blood purifier and is considered a cordial. increase "Vata". mucronate. useful in lung and chest diseases. allays thirst. LOC. asthma. Seeds— useful in rat-bite poisoning (Ayurveda). useful in bronchitis.5 cm. slightly curved. M. glabrous above. long.:—Most common and widely distributed all over the State. C. laxative. Leaves—tonic to intestines .-June. root. antipyretic. lower flowers of the raceme fascicled . USES:—The plaster of the powdered wood is recommended in headache and inflammatory swellings . Country. :—Plant-digestible. Sarpankho. Unhali. K.—in leaf-opposed lax racemes. Kogge. :-G. heart. dyspepsia and chronic diarrhœa. blood. it acts also as a vermifuge. DISTR. TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. gonorrhœa (Yunani). See—Timbers. red. useful in piles. USES : —Root is given in tympanitis. anthelmintic. Udhadi. cures diarrhœa . L. Phanike. enriches Blood . liver. Flowers and seeds are diuretic. NS. cures diseases of liver. biliousness. leprosy. cooling. H.—5-6 . leaflets 11—21. Gujarat. PARTS USED. sedative to gravid uterus. Nut oil promotes the growth of hair and removes itchiness of skin. good in piles. Kalika. LOC. Konkan. standard. cultivated lands and roadsides.. Sk. branches spreading. Oil from the flower promotes growth of hair. taken internally it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia. with a little black pepper is given in obstinate colic. In the Konkan the tar is used as an application to prevent maggots in sores of working animals. spleen diseases. ground and made into a pill.—imparipinnate 5—10 cm. It appears to act as tonic and laxative. Deccan. Flowers—acrid. LOC.2 cm. Bark is an astringent. boils and pimples. improve appetite.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). Fl. Malay Peninsula. suborbicular.

Bastard Myrobalan. Expectorant. Karvirak. urinary discharges. intoxication. Tara. Baire. Bera.—Combretaceæ. G. Behada. blood-diseases. Sadura. LOC. Karshaphala. sore-throat. inflammation. Madhya-Bharat. anthelmintic . fruit and seed. Shantimara. M. Bahara. NS. TERMINALIA BELERICA Roxb. :—Common in deciduous mixed monsoon-forests throughout the State ascending to about 1200 m. Arjun Sadada. acrid. Kahu. :—Konkan and Deccan. tumours. . Voting. diuretic. digestible. & A. biliousness. Fruit-pungent. :—E. It is also useful in bilious affections and as an antidote to poison. styptic. leucoderma. It is given in decoction with milk as a tonic in heart-disease. with milk. Vibhata. except in dry arid regions. fruit (rarely). useful in biliousness. excessive perspiration. strangury. both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges (Yunani). Beheduk. allays thirst and relieves fatigue (Ayurveda). H. TERMINALIA ARJUNA W. USES :—Powdered bark is taken internally. Arjuna. Hela. :—Throughout the greater parts of India. PARTS USED. biliousness. Tari. Madhya-Pradesh. K. Arjun-Sadada. :—Bark. M. See—Timbers. Bahaza. Rajastan and Sind. Dhanvi. Sk. asthma.. DISTR.. Buhura. leaves. PARTS USED. heart disease. H. G. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bedda Nut. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and streams. tonic. Burma. " Kapha". Sadado. Sk. COM. Kalidrum. tonic. Sagona. Belleric Myrobalan. Juice of fresh leaves is a remedy for ear-ache. :—E.210 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) In French Guiana root is used to poison fish. Chota-Nagpur. The plant contains the glucoside rutin. aphrodisiac. useful in fractures. White Marudah. anæmia. externally in wounds and fractures. FAM. anthelmintic. Aksha.. HABITAT :—In deciduous mixed monsoon-forests. Bark is astringent and febrifuge. false presentation of fœtus. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ceylon. :—Bark useful in anæmia and leucoderma. in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis. ulcers. in the sub-Himalayan tract. LOC. NS. Koha. :—Throughout the forests of India. in Khandesh Akrani. :—Bark. A decoction used as a wash in ulcers and chancres. very common in South Konkan. Arjan.—Combretaceæ. useful in bronchitis. Indradruma. K. Bibhitiki. Kakubha. Behedo. :—Alexiteric. COM. Arjuna. Kushika. Vibhitika. laxative. Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora matti. LOC. strangury. Ceylon below elevation of about 900 m. DISTR. Arjuna. Madras State.

anaemia. cold in head. —E. gums. biliousness. fruit coarsely powdered and smoked in pipe affords relief in fits of asthma. vesicular calculi. Haritaki.MEDICINAL PLANTS 211 asthma. :—Bark and fruit. tonic. Fruit-astringent. Kanara. HABITAT :—Moist parts and monsoon-forests. diseases of eye. vomiting. anthelmintic.—Combretaceæ. Har. Seed—acrid. Sk. corneal ulcers. Unripe fruit is astringent and aperient. strengthens brain. used in paralysis (Yunani). in the outer Himalayas and up to 1800 m. Haria. decoction of fruit is a good astringent wash. eye diseases etc. useful in dyspepsia. applied to eyes. carminative. which is considered a good digestive. strangury. enriches blood. eyes. diseases of spleen. Abhaya. bleeding piles. mixed with honey. COM. sore-throat. antidysenteric. useful in dysentery and diarrhœa. in Travancore. heart and bladder. It is a popular liver regulator and aperient. a remedy prescribed in a large variety of cases such as diseases of the liver and intestinal tracts. It is a constituent of " Triphala ". Kernel has narcotic properties. carminative. useful in asthma. LOC. PARTS USED. tonic. piles. Chebulic myrobalan. constipation. aperient. LOC. K. M. Hirda. Ceylon. Dyes. G. Harade. Fruit finely powdered is used as a dentifrice. piles and diarrhœa. delirium (Ayurveda). urinary discharges. diarrhœa. USES :—The bark is mild diuretic. Oil expressed from the fruit is used as a dressing for hair. gout. bleeding and ulceration of gums. USES. vomiting. TERMINALIA CHEBULA Retz. Ripe fruit—purgative. inflammations. a valuable preparation used in many diseases. useful in thirst. It is used as an external application to inflamed parts. Harara. :—Moist parts of the Deccan trap and common along ghats. Unripe fruit is used as laxative and the dried ripe fruit as an astringent in dropsy. piles. H. Hirdo . Behada is astringent and laxative and useful in coughs. good in ophthalmia. in the monsoon-forests of Belgaum district and N. heating. attenuant. stomachic. LOC. tonic. expectorant. thirst. Burma. itching pain. Black myrobalan. hiccup. A fine paste obtained by rubbing the fruit with water mixed with carron oil and applied to burns and scalds effects . Alate. Jivanti. PROPERTIES AND USES. bilious headache. :—Fruit-dry. In the Konkan the kernel with that of the marking nut is sometimes eaten with betelnut and leaf in dyspepsia. ascites. NS. DISTR. heart and bladder. brain tonic (Yunani). Gums and Resins. useful in caries of teeth. typhoid fever. Jivantika. intoxicating. nose. Dried unripe fruit is astringent and is commonly used as purgative and antibilious. tumours. leucoderma. :—Fruit forms one of the constituents of Triphala. A conserve is made of the large ripe fruits. Haritaki. elephantiasis. alterative . diseases of eye. FAM. hoarseness. dyspepsia. :—Throughout the greater part of India up to 1500 m. the fully ripe or dried fruit. is used as an application in ophthalmia. antipyretic. common in Khandesh Akrani. relieves "Vata" (Ayurveda). See—Timbers.

Kanara. Ranbhendi. LOC. Equal parts of fried myrobalans in combination with embolic and beleric myrobalans and catechu rubbed into a thick paste with ghee or bland oil make an excellent ointment for chronic ulcerations. difficult to digest. USES :—In Madhya Pradesh root is taken as a tonic.212 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) a more rapid cure than when carron oil alone is used. produces worms in intestines . especially centipedes. Mhaskar and Issac). PROPERTIES AND USES. Tulip Tree. burning of body . FAM. ulcerated wounds and skin diseases attended with. ring-worm and other cutaneous diseases. increases " Kapha " . Parasipu. G. Burma. Gandarati. leaves ground up into paste are applied locally in children's eczema. flowers and fruit. Gajadanta. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. . Hucerasi. Flowers are employed in the cure of itch. Paraspipal. Portia Tree. See—Timbers.—Malvaceæ. H. Suparshuakan. Kuberaksha. Kandarala. Water in which fruits are kept overnight is considered a very cooling wash for the eyes. It is also used in chronic dysentery. :—Fruit-sour. which forms a valuable local application in scabies. COM. PARTS USED. :—Bark. good for heart disease and throat troubles (Ayurveda). The bark is diuretic and cardiotonic (Caius. Paras-piper. profuse discharge. HABITAT :—Wild along sea-shores. Bugari. Parisha. The ashes mixed with butter form a good ointment for sores. largely grown as a roadside tree in tronical regions. leaves. removes " Vata " and " Pitta ". The author of the Makhazan-el-adwiya distinguishes six kinds of fruits gathered at different stages of maturity and having different therapeutic properties. M. Rumphius speaks highly of the value of the heart-wood as a remedy for bilious attacks and colic. Sk. Bhindi. Bhandi. Decoction of bark is given internally as alterative. Compound oil of the bark and capsule was given in cases of urethritis and gonorrhœa with beneficial results (Koman). Phalisha. Bengal. also planted as roadside tree. Paraspiplo. THESPESIA POPULNEA Soland. Tans. :—Coast forests of India. Bhend. K. Dyes. :—Pathyakadi kvath-used as purgative. :—E. Jogiyarale. :—Districts of Konkan and N. Eastern and Western Peninsula. aphrodisiac . acrid . LOC. See—Timbers. Arasi. Amrit Haritaki—used in dyspepsia and indigestions (Bhaishajya-Ratnavali). NS. In Tahiti yellow sap from the peduncles is a cure for insect bites.. Fibres. Fruit yields a yellow viscid juice. DISTR. Leaves are employed as a local application in inflamed and swollen joints . Sacred Plants.

Gulvel.—membranous. C. Gado. The oil from the seed is emetic and purgative. bladder. elliptic. Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. LOC.—in terminal cymes.. bright green and shining above.—Apocynaceæ. leucoderma. red. LOC. root.-spirally arranged. Fl. Exile or yellow Oleander. DISTR. Vatsadani. roundish cordate with a broad sinus.5 cm. said to be antiperiodic in small doses . but its use is attended with considerable danger. growing on mango and other trees. Sk. :—E. Zard kunel. pungent. FAM. male fascicled. it has no action on digestive enzymes . cures " Vata " . yellow.. The glucoside Thevetin is very toxic.. Amarvel. America and W. 7. M. often planted in India.—broadly obovate. Pittaghni. bark corky. Fl. Gulo. 1—3. Haripriya. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES : -Bitter. Gurch.5—12. CHAR. Amritvalli. HABITAT. :—Very common in thickets throughout the State. Andamans and Ceylon. Fr. LOC. :—Stem. Fr.—drupes. G. NS. yellow. long. it has pronounced effect on the circulatory system and direct stimulant action on the plain muscles of the intestine. Burma. throat campanulate. :—Large evergreen glabrous shrub. useful in urethral discharges. Sd. Gulhel. size of a pea . Heart-leaved moonseed. females solitary.—Apl. wounds. :—Planted all over the State as an ornamental tree or hedge. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA Miers. t. Fl. across. Sk. Pila kanir. L. Karvira. . endocarp corky. Gulvel. :—E. Indies . The milky juice is highly poisonous and the kernel is a powerful acro-narcotic poison. K. seeds and milky juice. corona in the throat. exocarp fleshy. 5 cm. Uganiballi. astringent to bowels. and blood vessels . G. bronchitis . :—Bark. Amrita-Valli. linear. 5—10 cm. it has cardio-tonic properties (Chopra and Mukharji). COM. grooved . Gulancha. :—Throughout tropical India. worms. lobes 5. Jwaranashini. DISTR. virgin uterus. 7—9 nerved. with milky juice.—in axillary and terminal racemes. Pila kaner. M. hot. Ashvaghna. ventrally flat. skin diseases. HABIT :—In thickets. tubular. CHAR. eye-troubles. very poisonous (Ayurveda). acrid. L.—Menispermaceæ. COM. H. USES :—The bark is bitter and powerfully cathartic. :—An extensive climber. PARTS USED. :—Often planted.MEDICINAL PLANTS 213 THEVETIA NERIIFOLIA Juss. FAM. frequently planted.—generally 4. crowded . :—Native of S. H. piles. mesocarp bony. fevers. Pivali kanher. dorsally convex. Shatakumbha. See—Ornamental Plants. PARTS USED.

Fresh leaves are eaten raw for pains in bowels. tonic appetiser. Java. chronic fever. PROPERTIES AND LOC.8. renews blood. tropical Africa. Sumatra. Fresh root-bark is administered for the cure of hillfever. coriaceous. Kumaon to Bhutan. . CHAR. ovary rudimentary. USES. :—Rain-forests. Manger. Lopezroot Tree. It is useful in relieving symptoms of rheumatism. Watery extract was much used as febrifuge and given the name of Indian Quinine. anæmia. Unripe fruit and root are rubbed down with oil as a stimulant liniment for rheumatism. It is a valuable nutrient when there is intestinal irritability and inability to digest any food. fruits. tonic. jaundice. also in the Deccan hills. M. Leaves when distilled yield a yellowish green volatile oil.— alternate.. low fevers and enlarged spleen (Ayurveda). allays thirst. Limri. Starch obtained from root and stem is useful in chronic. dark shining green above. Infusion is a valuable tonic in debilitating diseases.—in axillary cymes. Forest Pepper. vaginal and urethral discharges. Philippines. oblong.—globose. high. giddiness. Konkan and Kanara. NS. fever. :—Root. Stem-bitter. good in cough. Fl. Root-bark is aromatic. Ceylon. juice useful in diabetes. leaves. burning sensation. diuretic. t. enriches blood. vomiting. L. Jangali-Mirchi. Fl. :—Stem-bitter. COM. Khasia Hills. especially acid. diarrhœa. stomachic. Dahan. leaflets sessile.—Dehan. The plant contains a bitter substance berberine. H. cures jaundice. pitted on the rind. digitately trifoliate. USES :—It is commonly known in the bazar as guluncha. LOC. stigma sessile. stimulant and anti-periodic. :—Common throughout the ghats of Bombay State.8-3. size of a large pea. causes constipation. Kadu-menasu. Mirchi. bark. China. male flower bud globose. crenulate. unisexual.-Jany. DISTR. Root and stem are bitter. Macimullu. armed with small hooked prickles . white. Root-bark contains the alkaloid berberine. intermittent fever and dyspepsia. (Kirtikar). Sk. 3-5 grooved. common in S. Gangalaki. :—All the parts of the plant are very pungent. :—All over the Madras State . Kaduhakukare. vomiting. 5-7 lobed. :—An evergreen scandent shrub. 15 m. PARTS USED. female flower buds oblong. stimulates bile secretion. HABITAT. FAM. 5-10 X 1. piles. TODDALIA ACULEATA Pers. expectorant. antipyretic.—Aug. LOC. K. useful in constitutional debility and in convalescence after febrile fever and other exhausting diseases. FT.214 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES.—Rutaceæ. stomachic . mixed with sesamum oil used for body massage (Yunani). :—E. useful in skin diseases. orange coloured.

PARTS USED. G. aphrodisiac. TRAPA BISPINOSA Roxb. cardio-tonic. useful in ulcers. leprosy. biliousness. It is used as a local astringent application in various forms of ulcerations. useful in . Tunika. Nand-vriksha. strangury. Mandurike. burning sensation. Shingada. M. itching. Chota-Nagpur. removes " Tridosha". antipyretic . cooling. K. H. The flowers are called Gul-tun in Bombay and considered emmenagogue. Tundu. Tuni. Trikone-phala. Kuruk. Kanara. COM. USES :—The bark of the tree is a powerful astringent (Pharm. Water-chestnut. headache. Assam. Sk. The plant contains a bitter substance nyetanthin. :—Fruit. often cultivated. biliousness. Seeds have the same properties (Yunani). :—Bark and flowers. aphrodisiac. :—Aquatic (in tanks). M. Trikota. Sandal Neem. aphrodisiac. Hindu physicians use the bark in combination with bonduc nuts as a tonic and anti-periodic. fatigue. :—Sub-Himalayan tracts from the Indus eastwards. urinary discharges. removes " Kapha ". NS. expectorant. Waitz). Tun. Kaechaka. :—Cooling . :—Throughout India. Lud. It has been used with success in chronic infantile dysentery (Dr. Gums and Resins. The resinous bark is prescribed in dysentery and in intermittent fevers in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. (CEDRELA TOONA Roxb. Lim. Deodari. tonic. HABITAT :—More or less common in monsoon and dry forests. :—Throughout the State in tanks. astringent to bowels. Jalakantaka-valli. Bark—bitter. fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES. Toon. H. indigestible. burning sensation. HABIT. :—E. Malaya. Moulmien or Singapore Cedar. Chittagong. astringent to bowels. blood diseases. tropical Africa.—Meliaceæ. cures fevers. DISTR. LOC. LOC. Apina. and blood complaints (Ayurveda). COM. cures leprosy. Indian Mahogany.MEDICINAL PLANTS 215 TOONA CILIATA Roem. LOC. Nilgiris and other hills of western peninsula. anthelmintic. digestible.) FAM. Shingoda. in dry forests of Khandesh Akrani. Garige. DISTR. See—Timbers. :—E. Gandhagarige. :—Abundant in evergreen and monsoon-forests of the Konkan and N. good for scabies and gleet. Sk. FAM. causes " Vata " . "Tridosha". Singodi. astringent to bowels. inflammation. NS. Shringa-kanda-taka.—Onagraceæ. Singhara. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—Bark-acrid. Kalingi. Mahalimbu. very abundant in tanks all over Gujarat. Burma. Kuberaka.. Ceylon. PARTS USED. Dyes. of India).

:—The whole plant. bile and phlegm. M. K. Negalu . useful in chronic fevers. leaflets 3—6 pairs . Deccan and S. Java. hairy. LOC. appetiser. . :—H. HABITAT :—Dry and hot parts . Seeds abound in starch. Petari . The kernel and pericarp contain manganese. In Cambodia the rind of the fruit is considered tonic and febrifuge. LOC. FAM. K. lumbago. :—Throughout India. Hussuk. Kadu Kange Kumbala. Aphrodisiac. sore-throat. Karahate. all warm regions of both the hemispheres. Fibres. mucronate. Sk. yellow.—Zygophyllaceæ. Ceylon. Kanara. Gamhar. one pair longer than the other . :—Throughout the hotter parts of India. COM. NS. PROPERTIES AND USES. Ceylon.—opposite. improves taste . Kantaphala. Chhota gokhru. Pindara. USES :—Seeds are farinaceous. alexiteric. Sarata. FAM. G. considered cool and sweet. and is applied locally in gouty and rheumatic affections.:—Saurashtra. Gokshri. Fl—axillary or leaf-opposed. Kere Padye. DISTR. bad-teeth (Yunani). Kurangaha. thirst. bronchitis. stems and branches pilose. Malay Peninsula. Sk. Assam. each with 2 pairs of hard. a common weed of the drier parts. the root in decoction is given to relieve flatulence. LOC. HABITAT :—Moist monsoon-forests.—several in each coccus . :—E.—Euphorbiaceæ. abruptly pinnate. Tumri. along nalas and in swampy localities.. base oblique. used as food. M. pain. L. M. Gujarat. Sumatra. Pindara. removes biliousness (Ayurveda). one of each pair smaller than the other. their nutritive value is equal to that of rice. antipyretic. Trikantaka. DISTR. PARTS USED. LOC. See—Food Plants. CHAR. :—Throughout the Konkan and N. :—Plant is cooling tonic. Gokhru. in Kashmir. biliousness. of 5 woody cocci. t.—throughout the year. Country. upto 3300 m. See—Timbers. NS. young parts silky. TREWIA NUDIFLORA Linn. :—A procumbent herb. Shadanga. oblong. Fr. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS Linn. Fl. The plant contains an alkaloid.—globose. Gokhru. solitary. Gokhura. Calthrope. Beta-Nahan Gokhru. They are also used in the form of poultice. USES :—The plant is used for the removal of swellings.. H. useful in bilious affections and diarrhœa.216 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) fractures and erysipelas (Ayurveda). COM. Sd. Gokharu. sharp spines.. Gokshura.

good gargle for mouth troubles and painful gums . increases menstrual flow. improves appetite . H. NS. Abu. removes gravel from urine and stone in bladder. Mota-Motachor. gleet. tonic. inflammations. Talakanto. piles. spinous toothed or serrate. pruritus ani. ciliate. Mt. stomachic. Infusion is very useful in kidney diseases. :—Wild in places. Fl. removes stone in the bladder (Ayurveda). lumbago . C. :—Found growing in the State south of Bombay. HABITAT. t. pain .—Compositæ. M. emmenagogue (Yunani). seeds. S. Central India. Brahmadandi. leprosy . LOC. appetiser. S. DISTR. alterative . reduces inflammation . TRICHOLEPIS GLABERRIMA DC. bloody urine. COM. :—A glabrous herb. suppression of urine. :—Gokshuradyavaleha : given in painful micturition. diuretic. Aja-dandi. ovoid. yellowish brown. cures "Kapha". Brahmadandi. LOC. aphrodisiac and are used in calculous affections. :—Hot. base of the cauline leaves not auricled . Fl. faintly ribbed. copious. asthma. :—Cooling . gonorrhœa. LOC. USES :—It is believed to be a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac and it is used in seminal debility (Sakharam Arjun). used in leucoderma and skin diseases (Ayurveda). slender. fruits. pappus shorter than the achenes. urinary disorders and impotence. Brahmadandi. : — G. M. Kanara. vesicular calculi.— purple.— Dec. useful in strangury. Physiaran. West Rajastan.MEDICINAL PLANTS 217 PARTS USED. cures strangury. tonic . long.—heads 6—8 mm. K. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Country. :—Western Peninsula. cough. L. involucral bracts linear-lanceolate. alleviating burning sensation. USES :—Fruits are cooling. cures skin and heart diseases. oblong. Water rendered mucilaginous by the plant is drunk as a remedy for impotence. Kantapatraphala. aphrodisiac. and infusion of stem is administered for gonorrhœa. Brahma-dandi. Konkan. tonic. The drug undoubtedly has diuretic properties but showed no advantage over many of the diuretics in the British Pharmacopoeia (Chopra and Ghosh). Diuretic. Coorg and the hills of Mysore. PARTS USED. diuretic. stem erect. which is taken in large quantities. S. Fr. PROPERTIES AND USES. :—The whole plant. :—Root. Sk. removes " Tridosha ". Brahmadandi. enriches blood . FAM. CHAR. purifies blood . "Vata". . fattening. PROPERTIES AND USES. linear-oblong or lanceolate.—sessile. calculous affections (Bhavaprakash). leaves. —achene. branches angled and ribbed. Fruit and root are boiled with rice to form a medicated water. the Deccan. bitter. Kanara. reduces inflammation. urinary discharges.

K. headache and boils. :—Root-cathartic . laxative. slender.. furrowed. H. Gujarat (common) and Kanara. Sd.—July-Oct. L. anasarca and ascites. dark-green above.3 cm. G. with dark-coloured glands along the lower side. In the Konkan leaf-juice is rubbed over the liver or even the whole body in remittent fevers. L. Ceylon. reniform or broadly ovate. H. TRICHOSANTHES PALMATA Roxb. ulcers. :—A scandent annual. bearing 8—15 flowers near the apex. —G. leaves. Ratan-indrayan. erysipelas. they are antifebrile and anthelmintic. stomachic. Patoladya Churna : this is used as a drastic purgative in jaundice. CHAR. Perula. Mukal.5 cm. Kaundal. bitter.218 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA Linn. K. NS. cures bronchitis. :—Throughout India. Patola. :—Root. slightly hairy. FAM . eye diseases. chireta and honey. palmately 3-5 lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES. base cordate . antipyretic.5—7. Australia.—2. Indrayan. it is given in decoction with ginger. paler beneath. Jyotsna. long. leucoderma. blood diseases. cures itching. Leaves—good for biliousness. Wild Snake-gourd. base deeply cordate. Fruit is bitter and is considered a drastic purgative and emetic.. Malay Peninsula. distantly denticulate. HABITAT:-In hedges.5 cm. PARTS USED..—monœcious. Fl. ovoid-fusiform. pungent.—Cucurbitaceæ. long. COM. FAM. :—E. :—A large climber often to a height of 9 m. antipyretic. the plant has a reputation as a febrifuge. axillary. deeply 5-lobed. Fl. male in axillary racemes.5 m. orbicular. — surrounded with red-pulp . CHAR. woody below. LOC. allays thirst. t. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. The seeds are good for stomach disorders . long. alexiteric.3-12. dentate or serrate. Lal-indrayan. Fl. Betlada padaval. white. with a long sharp beak.6—4. burning sensation.—Cucurbitaceæ. Sk. Root-juice is very purgative. N. the Deccan. long as well as broad. oil. lobes ovate-oblong. M.-male in axillary . USES :—The plant is a cardiac and general tonic. Avagude-hannu. In bilious fevers a decoction of leaves and coriander in equal parts is given as a febrifuge and laxative (Chakradatta). green with white stripes when raw. Kadvi-padyal or patola . :—Found growing in hedges in the Konkan. females solitary. variable. tendrils 3-fid. In Bombay. leprosy. DISTR. "Tridosha" (Ayurveda). :—Patoladi Kvatha : given in fever.-6. LOC. M. Fruit—hot. tendrils 3 cleft. Jangali chichonda. Kiripodla. See—Poisonous Plants and Fish Poisons. Katuka. leaf-juice is emetic. Sk. scarlet when ripe. Panduka. stem robust. asthma. Jangli— Kadu padval. stems 3. useful for boils and intestinal worms. alterative. NS. Fr. fruit.-5-12. Makal. Mahakala. Malaya. COM.

fringed. t.—throughout the year. acute. :—Root and fruit.75-1 in. all over the State. abortifacient. HABITAT. gargle good for toothache. leprosy.75 X . Australia. Fr. petioles densely hairy. China. heat of brain. Fl. :—Juice of the leaves is used successfully to check hæmorrhage from cuts. :—Wild in hilly parts. peduncles very long. is used as a bath-oil for the relief of long-standing attacks of head-ache.. diam. Ekdandi. deeply inciso-dentate or pinnatisect. N. Ray flowers ligulate. L. Fl. Country. CHAR. Fr.. HABITAT :—Weed in cultivated grounds and waste places. forms a valuable application to sores under ears and nostrils.—many . glandular. ophthalmia. :—Throughout India. PROPERTIES AND USES. limbweakness. slender. outer involucral bracts ovate. :—Leaves. :—A perennial straggling herb.—head solitary. Fruit pounded and well mixed with warm cocoanut oil. Japan. bruises and wounds. PROPERTIES AND USES. Malaya. Sd. ligules yellow. which is found abundantly all over the country. sometimes exceeding 30-35 cm. Oil obtained by boiling it in gingelly or cocoanut oil is said to cure hemicrania and ozœna. 30-60 cm. :—M. the smoke causes hæmatemesis. Kirkee. Deccan and S. :— Wild in Konkan. FAM. on the Himalayas. PARTS USED.-July. many years ago. densely silky hairy. pappus of numerous feathery bristles. rheumatism. stem and branches hairy. DISTR. C.— Apl.. inner slightly longer than outer.—petals wedge-shaped.— achene. axillary. root is also used in gonorrhœa along with myrobalans and turmeric.. lessens inflammations . red when ripe with 10 orange streaks . ear-ache and ozœna (Ayurveda). sparsely white hairy. :—Abundant in the Deccan. LOC. COM. PARTS USED. Fruit—carminative. :—Throughout India to Ceylon ascending to 1500 m. M. boiled with gingelly oil. LOC. This has been proved by actual experience in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens.5 cm. Ceylon. purgative. high. TRIDAX PROCUMBENS Linn.—Compositæ. NS. :—Fruit is useful in asthma.—1. t. Seeds—emetic and purgative (Yunani). 3-partite. USES :—Root-paste along with colocynth root is applied to carbuncles. cures hemicrania. ovate-elliptic. . female solitary.—globose 3-8. bracts large.MEDICINAL PLANTS 219 5-10 flowered racemes. white. Fruit is violent hydragogue and cathartic. Juice of fruit or root-bark. used in epilepsy. very hairy. No mention of this property of the plant is made anywhere and it is worth while to carry on more detailed investigation about this plant. hairy. LOC. black. middle lobe smallest. DISTR. Fl.

INDIAN PREPARATIONS. :—Punjab. M. much used in colic. C. K. useful in dropsy. base cordate. Seeds are mucilaginous and diuretic. The leaves contain vitamins A and B. Methi. LOC. Adumuttada Kirumanji-belli. applied to head they promote growth of hair and prevent them from falling off. K. USES :—A poultice of leaves is useful in external and internal swellings and burns. . Fl. Sd. Seeds roasted and infused are used for dysentery.5—10 cm. Nepala . Muthi. chronic cough. FAM. :—H. Sk. LOC. See—Vegetables. piles.220 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRÆCUM Linn. TYLOPHORA ASTHMATICA W & A. diarrhœa. Methi. fleshy. S. :—A twining perennial. diuretic. :—Leaves and seeds.5-5. Chandrika.—in umbellate cymes . 7. prevent hair falling off (Yunani). :—South of Bombay. large for the genus. useful in heart diseases (Ayurveda). narrowed at the apex to a free point. Kashmir. corona gibbous below.— broadly ovate. dyspepsia with loss of appetite. :—Cultivated. Konkan. long. anthelmintic. bronchitis. Pitakari (Pitamari). enlargement of spleen and liver. tonic and carminative. and the seeds contain vitamin A.7 cm. tapering to a fine point at the apex.—follicles. emmenagogue. CHAR. L. Pitabija Vedhini. COM. vomiting. Hot and dry. Country. HABITAT. :—Several confections under the name of Methi Modak are used in cases of dyspepsia and in the diarrhœa of women in child birth and in rheumatism.-Nov.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). cures leprosy. :—Grown in garden lands at all times of the year all over the State. tonic. Menthe—palle. Made into gruel they are given to increase flow of milk. NS. :—E. Seed infusion is given to small-pox patients as a cooling drink.—Asclepiadaceæ. aperient. H. G. also in low and sandy localities. enlargement of spleen and liver. FN. astringent to bowels. Methini. purplish within. cultivated in many parts of India.—Aug. M. dysentery. FAM. 5-10 x 2. suppurative. with coma . Methi. they are also aphrodisiac. Janglipikvan. ovate or elliptic oblong. LOC. appetiser. Fl. DISTR.—opposite. PARTS USED. antipyretic. flatulence. M. greenish-yellow outside. Powdered seeds are used in veterinary practice. The plant contains the alkaloid trigonelline. Kanara. NS. Leaves—useful in external and internal swellings and burns..—deeply lobed. PROPERTIES AND USES. dropsy. t. extending through Iran and Abyssinia to the Mediterranean. "Vata". Fenugreek . Methi . COM. roots many. :—Hot. long. HABITAT :—Hedges and open forests. removes bad taste from mouth.. Jyoti. Antamul.

—in close fascicles along the rachis of cylindric racemes.—capsule. NS. Fr.—purple. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Roots and leaves. Vanapalandu. Philippines. high. L. :—Liniment prepared with the root is applied to head in cephalalgia and neuralgia. Malay Islands. :—A herb. CHAR. G.—Leguminosæ (Papilionoideæ). PARTS USED. Chitra—Prishthi-parni. PARTS USED. perianth campanulate.MEDICINAL PLANTS 221 DISTR. HABITAT. :—Throughout India. Peninsula. 20-30 cm. LOC. PROPERTIES AND LOC. Shankaraja . :—Wild. Dried leaves are emetic. Jangli-Ran-khanda.— imparipinnate. long. Fl. folded on one another. NS. long. CHAR. tapering to both ends . flat. stems downy with hooked hairs. diaphoretic and expectorant. pale lead-colored. tropical Africa. DISTR. joints 3-6. Sk. Pithavan. ellipsoid. USES. t.—appearing after the flowers. Sd. white.. Thailand (Siam). leaflets on the linear part of the stem 1-3 foliate. light-brown . Decoction of leaves and infusion of root-bark were used in dysentery. Bihar. USES. Ranganja . :—The fruit is applied to the sore mouths of children. Malay Islands. :—G. URARIA PICTA Desv. H. Rankanda. 15-45 x 1. C. asthma and bronchitis and were found so give satisfactory results (Koman). Sk. hairy beneath. linear-oblong. :—Konkan. LOC.-Sept. Chota-Nagpur. :—E. COM.8 m.. :—Throughout the plains of India.— pod. stalks long. glabrous. Borneo. black.9-1. drooping. Pitvan. Pitavan . long. scape erect 30-45 cm. Fl.—Aug. 5-7 (rarely 9). rachis and pedicels with hooked hairs. It may be regarded as one of the best indigenous substitutes for ipecacuanha. URGINEA INDICA Kunth. DISTR. :—Sandy places.— Liliaceæ. found useful in dysentery.—in racemes 15-30 cm. COM. H. catarrh and other affections in which ipecacuanha has been prescribed. HABITAT... FAM. C. Prishna-parni. 0. L. bulb ovoid or globose (like onion).. Indian Squill. M. M. Ceylon.. Panjala. W. :—Western Himalayas. tropical Africa. leaflets on the upper part of the stem. KolaPutakand. Jaglipiaz. Fr. FAM. linear.— petals lanceolate.5 cm. Ceylon. blotched with white above. The plant contains an alkaloid tylophorine. Burma.— flattened. Fl. :—Bulb. . :—A perennial shrub. Dabra. polished. :—Common on sandy shores. 10-20 cm.3-2.

Rasno. PROPERTIES AND USES. USES :—Expectorant. The assays carried out by Chopra and De (1926) show that U. clavate-oblong with acute ribs 7. useful in paralysis. acute. maritima of U. Atiras. long. hiccup. with usually 2 unequal rounded lobes. HABIT. stem 30-60 cm. anthelmintic. Rasna. :—An epiphyte. diuretic. . Travancore. COM. Vanda. H. 1931. long. lessens inflammations . Br. USES :—Rasna root is said to be fragrant. toothache.3-2 cm. heating. The plant contains an alkaloid. VANDA ROXBURGHII R. NS.—Orchidaceæ. Root is bitter. obtusely keeled. tremors (Ayurveda). t. :—Konkan. LOC.— July. Banda. bronchitis. M. recurved. :—The bulb is pungent. A. Fl. scilla of Great Britain. DISTR. and U. complicate. K. :—G. 15-20 X 1. :—Epiphyte. W. in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms.5—9 cm.. boils in the scalp. Bandanike. heals fractures (Yunani).. alexiteric. purgative. Persara. sepals and petals yellow with brown lines .. dropsy. praemorse. side-lobes rising from the mouth of the spur. lumbago. Rasna. Sk. alexiteric. Gujarat and Kanara. Nakula. and was found useful (Koman). (In Med. internal pains (Yunani). bronchitis. diseases of the abdomen. asthma.—thickly coriaceous. Sarpagandha. Fl. inflammations. LOC. Madhya-Pradesh. indica is in no way inferior to the official U. Mixed with several medicated oils it is used for external application in diseases of the nervous system. Bihar. Rasna.222 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) PROPERTIES AND USES. The bulb is stomachic. S. bronchitis. tip. Vriksharuha. erect. Ceylon. Gaz. rheumatism. Fr. and an acute interposed one.—in 6-10 flowered racemes 1525 cm. Chota-Nagpur. middle lobe dilated at the fleshy. a compound decoction of root is administered in case of hemiplegia. alexiteric. The bulb was administered in the form of syrup as an expectorant in bronchial complaints. stout. laxative. scandent by simple or branching roots . long. heating. pollinia ellipsoid. useful in vomiting (Ayurveda). lip bluish dotted with purple. diseases of nose. :—Root and leaves. renal calculi. FAM. 2-lobed. L. emmenagogue. PARTS USED. In Chota-Nagpur leaves pounded and made into a paste are applied to the body during fever. good for piles. :—Root is bitter.) The Indian variety was even made official in British Pharmacopoeia in 1914. anthelmintic. :—Bengal. rheumatic pains. bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders. tonic to brain and liver. column very short. cardiac. skin diseases. stimulant and diuretic. Peninsula. LOC. useful in dyspepsia. CHAR.—capsule. antipyretic.

Coorg in Ghats. boils and ringworm. abundant in S. DISTR. USES. the powdered bark mixed with gingelly oil is used in S.5-3. H. rheumatism. G. L. C. young branches and panicles pubescent. :—E. Travancore. eardiseases. M. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhœa. urinary discharges. Khandvel. H. globular. buds 5-angled. anæmia. Mysore. oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate. Safed-damar.. alexipharmic. Kubbila. VENTILAGO MADARASPATANA Gærtn. useful in leprosy. M. DISTR. Sk. :—Western India. t. debility and slight cases of fever. Haruge. . :—North Kanara. dark. carminative. which is reputed as a local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. stomachic. resin. India as an external application for itch and other skin diseases. PARTS USED. :—Bark-hot. Fruit (seeds) yields a solid fatty oil.—Dec. :—The powdered root-bark is carminative. LOC.-Jany. tuberculous glands.—Rhamnaceæ. Pitti. Lokhandi. whitish). NS. Cooke) Rainy season (Talbot's Forest Flora).—in large drooping terminal panicles. Ragatarshado. 1-nerved wing. HABITAT :—Hotter parts. FAM. PROPERTIES AND USES.MEDICINAL PLANTS 223 VATERIA INDICA Linn. Madidhupa. Shandike. the resin (white dammar) combines with wax and oil and forms excellent resinous ointment. expectorant. Dhupa. It forms a good substitute for officinal resin as a basis for various ointments and plasters. M. LOC. Red Creeper. with an offensive odour. Gums and Resins. Country.. K. detergent. Sk. itch (Ayurveda). Kanara and S. :—E. NS. Fine avenues exist near Siddapur and near the sea-coast at Karkul. in chronic bronchitis. dysentery.. acrid. diarrhœa. PARTS USED. tonic. USES :—Under the influence of gentle heat. :—A large much branched woody climber. HABITAT :—Evergreen rain-forests . COM. COM. :—Bark. (T. Kaharub. Tenasserim. Sekalyel. Sarjaka. ulcers and wounds.—petals 5. cures cough. yellowish. CHAR. tonic and stimulant. fruit.-nut about 5 mm. piles. LOC. Fl. Raktavalli. also in N. Tree was formerly planted along avenues or roads by the Sonda Kings. deciduous and monsoon-forests. PROPERTIES AND LOC. :—Bark. Kundura. Fr. amenorrhœa. Malamaitra. entire or crenate. good for sore-throat. greenish. Shala. Kanara. Resin of 3 kinds (reddish. hemicrania. Dhupa. useful in atonic dyspepsia. Ceylon. prolonged into a linear-oblong. alexipharmic. smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to fœtus in pregnant women (Yunani). Bilidhupa. See—Timbers.—Dipterocarpaceæ. skin eruptions.—5-10 X 2. Oils. Poppli. Indian Copal or White Dammar Tree. :—Very common in the deciduous and monsoon forests of the Deccan and Konkan. bechic. K. :—Madras State. Fl.8 cm. also planted. FAM. diam. Sandras.

on long petioles. Kadvojiri. robust. truncate.. COM. hairy on both sides. L. PROPERTIES AND USES. Kalhara. PROPERTIES AND USES. Somaraj. Purple Fleabane. lyrate. about 40-flowered. :—E. PARTS USED.224 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) VERBASCUM COROMANDELIANUM O. (CELSIA COROMANDELINA Vall. 10-ribbed. all coarsely dentate. China. :—An annual herb. USES :—Leaf-juice is sedative and astringent. LOC. PARTS USED. Kulara. The juice mixed with mustard oil. innermost the longest. Ceylon . Sd. leucoderma and fevers (Ayurveda). Fl. Sk. Kalizhiri. with purple tips . mixed with sugar and water it is used as a drink in bleeding piles. NS. is applied as an external application for relieving the burning sensation of hands and feet. :—Annual.-May.—heads subcorymbose. Country. leafy herb . rachis glandular pubescent. yellow. . erect.8 cm. Kadu-Kala Jiriga. Sk.-achene oblong cylindric.2 cm. Fl. CHAR. hairy. anthelmintic. C. NS.—Compositæ. LOC.—oblong. Vishamushti. Fr. :—Throughout India.) FAM. Kalijiri. lanceolate.—capsule. :—Seeds-acrid.. hairy. :—Common in the black soil of the Deccan and S. Bhutakeshi.—Scrophulariaceæ. in equal proportions. lower cauline leaves smaller and short petioled. high . H. :—Plant. sub-globose. with small leaflets or segments at the base and a large terminal lobe. 5—9 x 2. H. t. :—Leaves (rarely) and seeds.—Dec. astringent to bowels.. hairy. :—G. M. pappus reddish. G. Sundika. DISTR. squeezed out by pounding. Kulhala. HABITAT:—Common in waste places near villages.-rotate. COM. Afghanistan. high. M. compound or pinnatisect. K. CHAR. Gujarat. LOC. warted. Java . ofter cultivated. K. Bakchi. HABITAT:-Waste places. stems 60—90 cm. used in skin-diseases. t— Jany. is used in cases of syphilitic eruptions. FAM. :—Konkan . filament densely bearded with purple hairs. The juice of the whole plant. Fl. DISTR. Deccan . :—The plant is useful in "Vata" complaints and blood derangements (Ayurveda). Agnibija. Fr. Kutki. coarsely serrate. Ceylon. Somaraj. stem 0. Gadar-tambaku. often cultivated. cure ulcers. Vapehi. :—Throughout India . M. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. lobes 5. rounded. prescribed in several cases of acute and chronic dysentery with manifest advantage. upper cauline becoming smaller and sessile. Fl.5—3.—alternate. with a linear bract near the top of the peduncle.6-0.Feb. Seeds— anthelmintic. "Vata" and "Kapha".. involucre bracts linear. Vanajiraka.—in simple or branched terminal racemes. and leaves.9 m. Kalejire.-radical 5-10 x 2-3. branched near the top. L.

Koosa.— pinkish violet. Ash-coloured Fleabane . :—E. CHAR. Sahadevi. Sk. and as vermifuge in cases of round worms. H. consumption. clothed with white hairs . Bena. M. bronchitis . pubescent. a depilatory (Yunani). Seeds are employed as an alexipharmic and anthelmintic and as a constituent of masalas for horses. Sind. Sk. Ushira. Valo . The expressed juice is given in piles. Mudivala. flowers. LOC. Osari.—Jan. heads small.—simple. LOC. :—Plant. G. made into a bolus with lime-juice.MEDICINAL PLANTS 225 purgative. Shit-Sugandhi mulak. NS. tonic. they are also administered in intestinal colic and dysuria. pappus white. VETIVERIA ZIZANOIDES Stapf. are used in destroying pediculi. variable in shape (upper smaller) broadly elliptic or lanceolate. FAM. H. 15—75 cm. The plant-decoction is used to promote perspiration in febrile conditions. Sedardi. Sahadevi. oblong. Vecrnam. COM. Kuruvelu. remove blood from liver. fireplace-soot and Spanish pepper is used in stomach-swellings of cattle. erect herb. Devika.—Compositæ. Powdered resin is distinctly effective in thread-worm infections (Chopra). Ardhaprasadana. Australia. Bala. LOC. :—E. cures "Tridosha". astringent. awned. Sahadevi. The plant is given as a remedy for spasms of bladder and strangury. Khas. about 20 flowered in divaricate terminal corymbs. t. HABITAT :—Growing in various situations and varying conditions of moisture and soil. good for sores and itching of eyes. with lime-juice. stomachic and diuretic. flowers cure fever (Ayurveda). DISTR. hiccup . tropical Asia.—achene. was found very useful in malarial fevers (Koman). NS. irregularly toothed or crenate-serrate. USES :—Root is given for dropsy. they are also given in anasarca and as plaster for abscesses. stem stiff. involucre bracts linear-lanceolate. Fl. seeds. stomachic. Fl. G. VERNONIA CINEREA Less. asthma. the flowers are administered for blood-shot eyes (conjunctivitis). K. Lavancha. Sadodi. K.-Feb. Sadori. bruised seeds ground up in paste. Panni. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant is sweet. . striate. Seeds are highly reputed in Hindoo medicine as a remedy for leucoderma and other skin diseases. FAM. PARTS USED. :—A common weed throughout the State. Fr. Vala. M. The plant with quinine. used for asthma. COM.—Gramineæ. L. They are also used as tonic. Cuscus grass. high. kidney troubles. cold. Africa . Dandotpala. USES :—Leaf-juice is given to cure phlegmatic discharges from nostrils. silky on the back. :—Throughout India.. alternate. :—Annual. In Ceylon. applied in inflammatory swellings . plant is used in fever convulsions. Powdered seeds mixed with salt.

Indrani. root-stock branching with spongy aromatic roots.8 m. Nilpushpi. Nigod. ulcers and blood diseases (Ayurveda). Bilenekki. PROPERTIES AND USES. soporific. root-bark tincture is given in cases of irritable bladder and of rheumatism. rachis stout. powdered roots are used as demulcent for piles and dysentery. Nirgundi. bitter. :—Throughout the State. H. tonic and vermifuge. consumption. long. DISTR. COM. stomachic. anthelmintic. promotes hair-growth. :—Roots. useful in burning sensation. Konkan and Deccan. margin spinously rough. LOCAL USES :—Powdered root is cooling. Afghanistan. sweats. Leaves are aromatic. Sinduvara.—Verbenaceæ. long. strangury. up to over 1. expectorant and diuretic. usually sheathed all along. useful in eye diseases. NS. :—Cooling. erect. Nirgundi. :—G. VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. thirst. very common along the banks of rivers and in moist situations . DISTR. biliousness. cephalic. M. :—Common in Gujarat and N. a decoction is given in catarrhal fever. head-ache. Fl. slender. Infusion of the root is given as febrifuge. whorls 6-10 with up to 20 rays . FAM.. refrigerant. throughout the Malayan regions. PARTS USED. It forms a beneficial drink used in fevers. :—A densely tufted perennial grass. alexiteric. LOC. :—Throughout India. Cooling to brain. colour varying from yellowish to black. Nirgundi. useful in spermatorrhoea. heating. Kanara in damp places. Nirgud. painful teething of children (Ayurveda). lower ones keeled and fan-like. asthma.-leaf sheaths compressed. PARTS USED. PROPERTIES AND USES:-Plant-acrid. leaves. inflammations. :—Root. oil prepared from leaf-juice is applied to sinuses and . racemes up to 5 cm. HABITAT :—Banks of rivers and rich marshy places. astringent. diuretic. Sk. Grass used in the form of cigarettes and smoked with benzoin relieves headache. Ceylon. inflammations and irritability of stomach. Sambhalu. LOC. juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. bitter. Philippine Islands. HABITAT :—Waste lands and moist situations. bitter. blades narrowly linear 30-90 cm. Nukki. blood diseases (Yunani). Root-paste is rubbed externally on the skin to remove oppressive heat. The roots contain an essential oil. also cultivated. Sessile spikelets. LOC. USES :—Root is tonic. stomachic. foul breath. :—Practically over the whole of India eastwards to Burma. pale green. L. Nirgari. Culms stout. West-Indies and Brazil. spleen enlargement. Sind. high. febrifuge. bilious fevers. leucoderma.226 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) CHAR.—panicle up to 30 cm. stimulant and tonic. bronchitis. astringent. Lakki. K. Lower Guinea in tropical Africa. The otto is used as a tonic..

Fruit— digestive. "Kapha" (Ayurveda). Draksha. laxative. sweet. allays vomiting. FAM-—Vitaceæ. . aphrodisiac. diuretic . Yakshmaghni. M. NS. Madhurasa. purifies and enriches blood . cough. cooling . and given in coughs. COM. Flowers are used as cool astringent in cholera. stomachic. "Vata" and "Vatarakta". K. HABITAT. Guchaphala. Angura. Draksha. astringent to bowels. :—A native of western Asia. bad effects of drinking. and traces of vitamins B and C. difficult to digest. good for lungs. The fruits contain vitamin A. In modern native practice raisins are considered cool. Stem-ashes good for joint pains. testicle swellings and piles. Leaf-decoction is used as a bath in the puerperal state of women in India. G. emmenagogue. Dried fruits (raisins) are demulcent. Dried leaves are smoked for relief of head-ache. H. :—Cultivated. cooling useful in thirst. allays vomiting. blood diseases. The plant contains an alkaloid. spleen inflammation. Dried fruit acts as vermifuge. Flowers—expectorant. LOC. hoarseness and consumption. Country. heat of body. Angur. cooling. fever. India. causes gases in the stomach. strangury. M. fever. good for eyes and throat. Drakh . good in chronic bronchitis . Draksha. tonic to liver. LOC. Draksha. syphilis. :—Fruit-acrid. :—E. sparingly in Poona. cures thirst. extensively cultivated in the Nasik district..MEDICINAL PLANTS 227 scrofulous sores. produces constipation. produces alopecia. emmenagogue. stops bleeding from mouth. Fruit is nervine. stones in bladder. laxative. Ahmednagar. USES :—Leaves are sometimes used in diarrhœa. juice of unripe grapes is used as an astringent in affections of throat. jaundice. Cultivated in many parts of India especially in N. diarrhœa. Grape-vine. Khandesh. expectorant. appetiser. piles. Leaf-juice cures head-ache. Gujarat and S. W. diuretic. Seeds form a cooling medicine in cutaneous diseases and leprosy. See—Timbers. Darakh. Seeds—aphrodisiac. :—Deccan. flowers. Sk. fruits. a remedy for skin diseases. liver diseases and as cardiac tonic. fattening. skin should not be eaten. catarrh and jaundice. burning. useful in old fevers. seeds. liver and kidney. DISTR. ash diminishes inflammation (Yunani). There are numerous cultivated varieties. fattening . applied in scabies. VITIS VINIFERA Linn. Sap of young branches. Europeans in Bombay call it a fomentation shrub and use as foment in contractions of limbs. PARTS USED :—Stem. leaves. Leaves are discutient and disperse swellings of joints in acute rheumatism and of testes in suppressed gonorrhœa. aperient. In Europe sap of young branches is a popular remedy for ophthalmia. PROPERTIES AND USES. asthma.

inflammations.—greenish or lurid yellow. hard. t.. CHAR.—5-10 X 2. COM.— Sept.228 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) INDIAN PREPARATIONS :—Draksharishta-used in consumption. PROPERTIES AND USES. Drakshasava—used as tonic. PARTS USED :—Root. inserted on the top of. coriaceous. Wagati. leucoderma. Hirimaddina-gadde. minutely hairy. USES. Deccan. :—Deccan. Sd. somewhat scurfy. asthma. CHAR. pretty common in the ghats. Fl. Vajini. usually about 5 together in a sessile umbellate cyme .—sessile in dense spicate racemes reaching 60 cm. green berries. base dentate. branches armed with recurved prickles . bronchitis. Sd.3-1. scabies. smooth. Tuber—bitter. PROPERTIES AND LOC. long. K. Kanara. Cape of Good Hope. red. obovate.. aphrodisiac. Ceylon. Fl. LOC. . inflammations. marasmus of children.) DISTR. senile debility. entire.—Leguminosæ (Cæsalpinioideæ). leaflets 5-7 pairs. spathulate. heating. aphrosidiac. Asan. Fr. NS. long. bony Fl. Fr. :—A robust woody climber. calyx-tube. M. :—K. alexipharmic. bronchitis. :—Drier regions.5-5 cm. Kamrupini. FAM. C. Wagati.—petals 5. anthelmintic. WITHANIA SOMNIFERA Dunal. FAM. :—A branched erect undershrub. Winter-cherry. insomnia. the bark is used as an application for skin-diseases. armed with prickles . :—In the drier regions of India . dark-green. abundant in Sind . Hooliganji. (not common. H. HABITAT :—Dry and moist monsoon-forests. chest troubles etc.5 m. useful in "Vata". Asgundh. :—Root and bark. good in asthma. Kanchuki. hoary tomentose . :—E. Mediterranean regions. WAGATEA SPICATA Dalz. L. ovate. "Kapha". Sk. Wakeri. alterative. LOC. consumption. NS. anthritis. Canaries. :—The roots are given in pneumonia . constricted between them.—pod.5-12. 7. leaves. ghats near Mahabaleshwar.—yellow. oblong. long. Punir. seeds. Ghodasoda. tonic. COM. branches terete. PARTS USED. psoriasis. t. Fl. M.. oblong. ulcers. favours constipation (Yunani). Gandhpatri. linear oblong. :—Konkan jungles. diam. Leaves applied to tumours and tubercular glands (Ayurveda). tonic.5 cm. :—Tubers-bitter. main rachis armed with prickles. DISTR. rachis grooved with soft hairs.-Feb.-Jany. HABITAT.—2-pinnate. lumbago. slightly 5-angled. acrid. Asgund. Balada. emmenagogue . Gujarat. 23-30 cm. dark-orange. swollen above the seeds. See—Fruit Trees. Ashvagandha. L.—Solanaceæ.—berry. :—Hills of the Western Peninsula. Asoda. 0. Amangura. 6 mm. Sogada-beru. enclosed in inflated calyx. pinnae 4-6 pairs. high. G.—3-4.

Dhavani. Bela. Dhavani. :—Pungent. K. in 2-15 flowered cymes.5 cm. brown. WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R.—mostly opposite. Sd. menorrhagia and tooth-ache (Ayurveda). DISTR. WOODFORDIA FRUTICOSA Kurz.—Lythraceæ. Hale. K. leaf-infusion is given in fever. intramarginal nerve prominent beneath . dysentery. :—Monsoon-forests. Baluchistan.—numerous. debility from old age. Japan. LOC. :—Bark and flowers. The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers for diminishing their discharge and promoting granulations (Sharngadhara). Ornamental Plants. Dhaw. nigro-punctate beneath. 1 cm. tropical Africa. Dec. The plant contains an alkaloid. emaciation of children. LOC. long. Green leaves are bruised and rubbed into ring-worm both in human beings and cattle. Dyes. lumbar pains. t. erysipelas. M. Dhawai. common in the Konkan and N. USES :—The dried flowers are astringent.-May. PARTS USED. uterine sedative. H. Madagascar. Sk. on trap in the Akrani. also considered safe stimulant in pregnancy.MEDICINAL PLANTS 229 LOC. Khirni. Java. :—G. wedge-shaped. Kodamurki. haemorrhoids. Santha. Fr.—capsule. In Transvaal root decoction is used to give tone to uterus in women habitually miscarrying. Dried flowers are given in curdled milk in dysentery and with honey in menorrhagia. L.) FAM. and in derangement of liver . Tamrapushpi. toxic. Sumatra. H. branchlets clothed with white pubescence . Kanara near the sea-coast. Indrajav. rheumatism. :—Throughout India. Fl.. simple. blood diseases. NS. alexiteric. Kalikari. Hayamaraka. :—G. See—Tans. Sk. Dhateki. used in thirst. COM. Dhawadina. :—Throughout the State in monsoon-forests. Kalakuda. ovate-lanceolate. alterative. NS. Kuda. Indrajav. useful in leucorrhoea. cooling. Swetakutaj. diuretic and deobstruent. irregularly dehiscent. ulcers and painful swellings . COM. Dhaiti. M. (WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA Salisb. Fl. It is narcotic. 5-9X 1. aphrodisiac and is used in consumption. acrid. on laterite at Mahabaleshwar. Ceylon. Hallunova. leprosy. USES. Dudhi. tonic in disorders of the mucous membrane. velvety above.—Apocynaceæ.3-2. PROPERTIES AND USES.— numerous. :—Root is regarded as tonic. leaf fomentation is used to cure sore-eyes. smooth. anthelmintic . Madhavasini. CHAR :—Large deciduous straggling shrub. Bark-infusion is used for asthma. Vanhishikha. Are. Phulsatti. . Indrajav. China. Ground root and bruised leaves are applied to carbuncles. branches long. HABITAT. FAM. Br. scarlet. Madhuindrayava.

:— Throughout India. :—Throughout the State in deciduous forests . broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular . NS.—Compositæ. biliousness. West-Peninsula. good in diseases of teeth in children (Ayurveda). long and broad. The prickly fruit is considered cooling and demulcent and is given in small-pox. Sk. :—Growing in waste places and along river banks. USES :—The bark is used as a tonic and the seeds as aphrodisiac. epilepsy. the bark is specially useful in piles. poisonous bites of insects. hairy on both sides. barren heads many. at the top. The bark and the seeds have the same properties as H. laxative.achene. In S. axillary. COM. :—Bark and seeds have the same properties as those of Holarrhena antidysenterica. cures leucoderma. Gadrian. FAM. LOC. .—many. salivation. PROPERTIES AND USES. fever. M. Dutundi. Ceylon. especially root and fruit. Ceylon and warmer parts of the world. G. H. Khandesh at 1050 m. rough with short hairs . complexion. all over the State. It is spreading fast all over and has become a nuisance. :—The whole plant. Dumundi. Fl. compressed . thickly clothed with hooked prickles. stem short. PARTS USED. L. Clot-Cockle-bur. tonic. with 2 erect beaks. fattening. LOC. Madhya Pradesh. Aristha.—Jany. oblong ovoid.5 cm.Feb. antipyretic. antidysenterica (Yunani). DISTR. Kambu-Vanamalini. Fl. Sankeshwar. long. in W. :—Rajastan. alexiteric. India the prickly involucre is tied down to ear to cure hemicrania. Banokra.1-6. Bur-Weed. Timor. irregularly incisoserrate . useful in cancer and strumous diseases. involucre of fertile head. Itara.230 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) HABITAT :—Deciduous forests. PARTS USED.. CHAR. hard and tough.-E. skin diseases and biliousness (Ayurveda). 5-7. memory. :—Annual herb . USES :—Root is bitter.—heads in terminal and axillary racemes. tonic. PROPERTIES AND USES. common in open forest on the Toranmal plateau. The plant contains a glucoside xanthostrumarin. The plant has been reputed to be fatal to cattle and pigs. :—Cooling. voice.. XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linn. Shankhahuli. Plant-decoction is supposed to possess powerful diaphoretic and sedative properties and is used in longstanding cases of malaria. 3-lobed. Fr. Sarpakshi. digestive. DISTR. LOC. improves appetite. 1-3 cm. stout. :—Bark and seeds. HABITAT :—Waste-places and along river banks in warmer parts. LOC. t. anthelmintic. fertile heads few. The leaves were formerly official in Europe and were administered internally in scrofula and herpes. ovoid in fruit.. See—Timbers.

It is stimulant. In the collapse stage of cholera powdered ginger rubbed to the extremities checks cold perspiration. anthelmintic. Ginger with salt taken before meals is carminative. carminative and stomachic and is extremely valuable in dyspepsia. :—Rhizome-pungent. Plum. colic. Juice from fresh ginger acts as diuretic and can be used in cases of general dropsy (Koman). DISTR. removes pain due to cold. G. FAM. COM. it is also used in tooth and face-ache. flatulence. inflammations. improves local circulation and relieves the agonising cramps. Sk. Hasisunthi. PROPERTIES AND USES. Bordi. It is given in powder form in combination with carbonate of soda in gout and chronic rheumatism. vomiting. NS. carminative. bronchitis. Gulmmula. good in piles. Alla Adrak. piles. aphrodisiac. See—Condiments and Spices. Ber. Boyedi. head-ache. Kuvali. Ginger. Alen. G.MEDICINAL PLANTS 231 ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rosc. lumbago. carminative. "Vata". Dridhabija. Bor. loss of appetite and piles. M. on poor soil and in rocky places. vomiting. ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA Lamk. rheumatism. INDIAN PREPARATIONS. Shringavera.—Rhamnaceæ. dyspepsia. K. spasms and other painful affections of the stomach and the bowels unattended by fever. Chinese Date. :—Semasarakara Churna-used in dyspepsia. Ada.. Bor. and dry situations. PARTS USED. Koli. Adrate. COM. it cleans throat. heating. HABITAT. Egasi. Ipanji. Kandara. pains (Yunani). expectorant. Ber. :—Cultivated. aphrodisiac. it is also given in the form of infusion. H. Saindhavadya Taila—Oil rubbed in sciatica and rheumatism (Chakradatta). Rhizome—pungent. LOC. Indian Cherry. and as a corrective adjunct to purgatives. Rhizome contains vitamins A and C. alexiteric. tonic. Sk. FAM. Badari. Ginger paste with water painted on head relieves head-ache.—Scitaminaceæ. abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). :—Widely cultivated in tropical Asia. Ajapriya. Soubhagya Sunti—this confection is used as a carminative tonic in dyspepsia and in disorders of alimentary canal in women after confinement (Bhavaprakash) . Anupama. M. K. :—Rhizome. appetiser. H. Bore. LOC. Beri. Alen. :—Extensively cultivated in the Deccan and Gujarat. useful in heart and throat diseases. :—E. . stomachic. stomachic. Bogari. "Kapha". NS. tongue and increases appetite. eructations. asthma. laxative. USES :—There are numerous preparations containing ginger included in British and other pharmacopoeias. gives lustre to eye. to prevent nausea and griping. Ardraka. pains. HABITAT :—Open dry forests. :—E. In Indian Pharmacopoeia ginger enters into several combinations. useful in elephantiasis.

removes biliousness. :—Throughout the State in dry situations . USES :—Root is useful as a decoction in fevers.. Leaves antipyretic. leaves. abscesses and carbuncles and in strangury. biliousness. Africa. laxative. thirst. and as a powder it is applied to ulcers and old wounds. fruit. Fruit—sweet and sour. indigestible. Kanara. cooling. LOC. Leaves form a plaster to boils. Bark—causes boils . :—Root-bitter. heal wounds and syphilitic ulcers .232 BOMBAY STATE GAZETTEER (BOTANY) LOC. Seed—astringent. good in liver complaints. Afghanistan. Fruit Trees. abundant in the Deccan. :—Indigenous and naturalised throughout India. useful in fevers. good in dysentery and diarrhœa. allays thirst (Yunani). bark. causes diarrhœa in large doses . on the laterite near the coast in N. seeds. Ceylon. :—Root. head-ache. cure asthma. Fruits contains vitamin A. Bark is a simple remedy in diarrhœa. causes cough. PARTS USED. Leaves—anthelmintic. berries are considered to purify blood and to assist digestion. See—Timbers. vomiting. frequently planted as a fruit tree. good in leucorrhoea (Ayurveda). good in consumption and blood-diseases. aphrodisiac. Flowers—afford a good collyrium in eye troubles. . reduce obesity. good in stomatitis and gum-bleeding. tonic. China. Seeds—cure eye-diseases. PROPERTIES AND USES. burning sensation. wounds and ulcers. Australia. tonic to heart and brain . DISTR. Root and Bark tonic. Burma. Fruit— cooling. in the outer Himalayas upto 1400 m.

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