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Analysis on Robust Adaptive Beamformers

Analysis on Robust Adaptive Beamformers

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MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamformer is the optimal beamformer which utilizes the second order statistics of the actual data for obtaining the Covariance matrix from which the weight vector of the antenna array is determined. In adaptive beamfomer which utilizes MVDR beamformer along with SMI(sample matrix inversion), actual data is not available to calculate the covariance matrix. Instead, covariance matrix is estimated from the available data. It includes finding the Matrix inversion. It may result in bad conditioning. To avoid this, some amount of loading is introduced to the diagonal elements, which is called diagonal loading. Diagonal loading can be inserted by adding a scaled version of identity matrix. Diagonal loading imparts Robustness to the adaptive beamformer against signal mismatch due to low sample support and helps to achieve desired sidelobe level and SINR improvement. Various methods in diagonal loading are analyzed in this paper with different loading levels and a novel hybrid algorithm for MVDR-SMI beamformer with colored adaptive diagonal loading is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods is compared with other methods such as Conventional, MVDR, MVDR-SMI, MVDR-SMI-Diagonal Loading, MVDR-SMI-Colored –DL, MVDR-SMI-Adaptive DL by conducting simulations experiment. The proposed method shows the improvement in directivity and SINR compared to other methods.
MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamformer is the optimal beamformer which utilizes the second order statistics of the actual data for obtaining the Covariance matrix from which the weight vector of the antenna array is determined. In adaptive beamfomer which utilizes MVDR beamformer along with SMI(sample matrix inversion), actual data is not available to calculate the covariance matrix. Instead, covariance matrix is estimated from the available data. It includes finding the Matrix inversion. It may result in bad conditioning. To avoid this, some amount of loading is introduced to the diagonal elements, which is called diagonal loading. Diagonal loading can be inserted by adding a scaled version of identity matrix. Diagonal loading imparts Robustness to the adaptive beamformer against signal mismatch due to low sample support and helps to achieve desired sidelobe level and SINR improvement. Various methods in diagonal loading are analyzed in this paper with different loading levels and a novel hybrid algorithm for MVDR-SMI beamformer with colored adaptive diagonal loading is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods is compared with other methods such as Conventional, MVDR, MVDR-SMI, MVDR-SMI-Diagonal Loading, MVDR-SMI-Colored –DL, MVDR-SMI-Adaptive DL by conducting simulations experiment. The proposed method shows the improvement in directivity and SINR compared to other methods.

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Analysis on Robust Adaptive Beamformers

T.S.JEYALI LASEETHA
1
, DR.(MRS) R.SUKANESH
2

1. Professor
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Anna University of Technology
Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu
INDIA
email id: laseetha@gmail.com
2. Professor
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Madurai,Tamil Nadu
INDIA

Abstract: MVDR (minimum variance distortionless response) beamformer is the optimal beamformer which
utilizes the second order statistics of the actual data for obtaining the Covariance matrix from which the weight
vector of the antenna array is determined. In adaptive beamfomer which utilizes MVDR beamformer along
with SMI(sample matrix inversion), actual data is not available to calculate the covariance matrix. Instead,
covariance matrix is estimated from the available data. It includes finding the Matrix inversion. It may result in
bad conditioning. To avoid this, some amount of loading is introduced to the diagonal elements, which is called
diagonal loading. Diagonal loading can be inserted by adding a scaled version of identity matrix. Diagonal
loading imparts Robustness to the adaptive beamformer against signal mismatch due to low sample support and
helps to achieve desired sidelobe level and SINR improvement. Various methods in diagonal loading are
analyzed in this paper with different loading levels and a novel hybrid algorithm for MVDR-SMI beamformer
with colored adaptive diagonal loading is also proposed. The performance of the proposed methods is
compared with other methods such as Conventional, MVDR, MVDR-SMI, MVDR-SMI-Diagonal Loading,
MVDR-SMI-Colored –DL, MVDR-SMI-Adaptive DL by conducting simulations experiment. The proposed
method shows the improvement in directivity and SINR compared to other methods.

Key-words: Smart antennas, Adaptive beamforming, Uniform Linear Array, Minimum Variance Distortionless
Response Beamformer (MVDR), Sample-Matrix Inversion(SMI), Adaptive colored diagonal loading


1.Introduction
In Wireless Communications, smart technologies
are not only being applied at the antenna level, but
also at the receiver for direction of arrival
estimation, detection, diversity combining and
equalization and at baseband processing software
levels. The ultimate benefit of these techniques is to
increase cellular capacity and range. Adaptive
beamforming reveals to be a complementary means
for signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR)
optimization [6,7,10]. In this paper, at antenna array
elements level, the formation of a lobe structure,
that results from the dynamic variation of an
element-space processing weight vector as opposed
to a switched-beam or beam-space antennas, is
controlled by an adaptive algorithm, which is the
MVDR-Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm[2,7,10].
It minimizes cost function reduction of a link’s
SINR by ideally directing beams toward the signal-
of-interest (SOI) and nulls in the directions of
interference. Many algorithms differ largely in
complexity, correlation matrix, eigen value spread
dependence, inherent gradient noise, limited
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
171 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500
dynamic range and limited number of samples used
[1], [2].

In optimum beamformers optimality can be
achieved in theory if perfect knowledge of the
second order statistics of the interference is
available. It involves calculation of interference plus
noise correlation matrix ˞
ì+n
. For real world
scenarios, the adaptive methods are followed to
obtain optimality. In adaptive beamformer, the
correlation matrix is estimated from the collected
data. In sample matrix Inversion technique a block
of data is used to estimate the adaptive beamforming
weight vector. The estimate ˞
`
ì+n
is not really a
substitute for true correlation matrix ˞
ì+n
. Hence
there is loss in performance. The SINR which is a
measure of performance of the beamformer
degrades as the sample support (the number of data)
is low. The lower band on sidelobe levels of the
beamformer when no interference sources were
found at an angle is also to be calculated. Training
issues like the presence of desired signal in the
correlation matrix ˞
ì+n
is also dealt with. The
desired signal in the training set results in the
cancellation and subsequent lose in performance.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2,
Problem formulation and general model is
presented. In Section 3 Adaptive beamforming with
various beamforming methods are presented along
with the Novel Hybrid algorithm -Adaptive colored
diagonal loading. In Section 4 simulation
experiments are presented. Section 5 contains
Results and discussions. Section 6 presents the
conclusions.


2. Problem Formulation And General
Model
An uniform linear array (ULA) of M elements or
sensors is considered. Let a desired signal S
0
from a
point source from a known direction θ
0
with
steering vector ‘a
0
’ and L number of J(jammer or)
interference signals from unknown
directions|0
1
, 0
2
, 0
3
.. 0
L
], specified by the
steering vectors |b
1
, b
2
, b
3
, .. b
L
] respectively
impinge on the array. The white or sensor or thermal
noise is considered as ‘n’.
A single carrier modulated signal ˟
0
(ˮ) is given by
˟
0
(ˮ) = ˟
0
(ˮ)cos(Ŷn˘c)ˮ. It is arriving from an
angle θ
0
and is received by the i
th
sensor. The signal
S
0
(t) is a baseband signal having a deterministic
amplitude and random uniformly distributed phase
and F
c
is the carrier frequency. The symbol is
used to indicate that the signal is a pass band signal.
X
1
(k) is the single observation or measurement of
this signal made at time instant k, at sensor 1, which
is given as
X
1
(˫) = o
0
˟
0
(˫) +|b
1
b
2
. . . b
L
]|[
1
(˫) [
2
(˫). . . [
L
(˫)]
1
+n(˫) (1)
= o
0
˟
0
(˫) +¿ b
]
[
]
-
(˫)
L
]=1
+n(˫) (2)
Hence the single observation or measurement
made at the array of elements at the time instant k,
called array snapshot is given as a vector
X(˫) = |X
1
(˫) X
2
(˫) X
3
(˫) ..X
M
(˫)]
1
(3)
The general model of the steering vector[13] is
given as
˟˰ =
Ӡ1 c

2nd
Z
әccs(0)
c
–]2(2nd¡Z)ccs(0)
..c
-]2((M-1)nd¡Z)ccs(0)
ӡ
VM
(4)
Also it is assumed that the desired signal,
interference signals and noise are mutually
uncorrelated.


3. Adaptive Beamforming
In optimum beamformer, a priori knowledge of true
statistics of the array data is used to determine the
correlation matrix which in turn is used to derive the
beamformer weight vector. Adaptive Beamforming
is a technique in which an array of antennas is
exploited to achieve maximum reception in a
specified direction by estimating the signal arrival
from a desired direction while signals of the same
frequency from other directions are rejected. This is
achieved by varying the weights of each of the
sensors used in the array. Though the signals
emanating from different transmitters occupy the
same frequency channel, they still arrive from
different directions. This spatial separation is
exploited to separate the desired signal from the
interfering signals. In adaptive beamforming the
optimum weights are iteratively computed using
complex algorithms based upon different criteria.
For an adaptive beamformer, covariance or
correlation matrix must be estimated from unknown
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
172 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500
statistics of the array snapshots to get the optimum
array weights. The optimality criterion is to
maximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio
to increase the visibility of the desired signal at the
array output. The determination of the presence of
signals of interest is known as detection while the
inference of their parameters likes, the angle of
arrival θ
0
, is referred to as estimation. In this paper it
is assumed that the angle of arrival of the desired
signal is known

3.1 Estimation Of Correlation Matrix
The correlation matrix can be estimated[6,7,8,9]
using different methods which would result in
different performance and behavior of the algorithm.
In block adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion
technique, a block of snapshots are used to estimate
the ensemble average of ˞˲

and is written as[8]
˞
x
= ˗{˲(˫)˲
H
(˫)] =
1
M
¿ ˲(˫)˲
H K
k=1
(˫) (5)
=Ho
s
2
o
0
o
0
H

]

n
(6)
where N is the number of snapshots used and k is
the time index, o
s
2
is the power of the desired signal
and ˞
]
and ˞
n
are the jammer and noise correlation
matrices, respectively. The interference-plus-noise
correlation matrix is the sum of these two matrices
˞
]+n
= ˞
]
+ ˞
n
(7)
Where˞
n
= o
n
2
I, and o
n
2
is the thermal noise
power, I is the identity matrix. It is assumed that
thermal noise is spatially uncorrelated.

3.2 MVDR Beamformer
The MVDR beamformer whose pattern is shown in
Fig(2) is an adaptive high resolution beamformer
that minimizes the output power while maintaining
unity response in the desired direction.
Mathematically a weight vector ‘w’ is to be
calculated with the constrained optimization of
problem
w
-

w
mìn
s˯b˪˥cˮ ˮo w
-
o
0
= ŵ (8)
Now the optimal weight vector may be written as
˱
SMI
= ˞
x
-1
˰(0)¡˰
H
(0)˞
x
-1
˰(0) (9)
This beamforming method experiences the
following drawbacks
1) the computational complexity is more in the
order of ˛(˚
2
) ˮo ˛(˚
3
) .
2) In the case of large array, low sample
support i.e(M>>k), ˞
x
may result in
singular matrix or ill-conditioned.



Fig 1 conventional beamforming showing the
beampattern


Fig 2 MVDR-the optimum beamformer-
beampattern
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
angle inθ
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
conventional beamforming
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
angle inθ
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
Mvdr beamforming
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
173 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500

Fig 3 MVDR-SMI beamformer with beam
response
3.3 Diagonal Loading (Dl)
To overcome the above mentioned drawback no. 2,
a small diagonal matrix is added to the covariance
matrix. This process is called diagonal loading[15]
or white noise stabilization which is useful to
provide robustness to adaptive array beamformers
against a variety of conditions such as direction-of-
arrival mismatch; element position, gain, and/or
phase mismatch; and statistical mismatch due to
finite sample support[12,14]. Because of the
robustness that diagonal loading provides it is
always desirable to find ways to add diagonal
loading to beamforming algorithms and appropriate
amount of loading. But little analytical information
is available in the technical literature regarding
diagonal loading [11]. To achieve a desired sidelobe
level in MVDR-SMI beamformer sufficient sample
support ‘k’ must be available. However due to non-
stationarity of the interference only low sample
support is available to train the adaptive
beamformer. We know that the beam response of an
optimal beamformer can be written in terms of its
eigen values and eigen vectors. The eigen values are
random variables that vary according to the sample
support ‘k’. Hence the beam response suffers as the
eigen values vary. This results in higher sidelobe
level in adaptive beam pattern. A means of reducing
the variation of the eigen values is to add a weighted
identity matrix to the sample correlation matrix.
The result of diagonal loading of the correlation
matrix is to add the loading level to all the eigen
values. This in turn produces the bias in these eigen
values in order to reduce their variation which in
term produces side bias in the adaptive weights that
reduces the output SINR. Recommended loading
levels of o
n
2
≤ o
L
2
< ŵŴo
n
2
where o
n
2
is the noise
power and o
L
2
is the diagonal loading level. The
minimum loading level must be equal to noise
power. Diagonal loading increases the variance of
the artificial white noise by the amount o
L
2
. This
modification forces the beamformer to put more
effort in suppressing white noise rather than
interference. When the SOI steering vector is
mismatched, the SOI is attenuated as one type of
interference as the beamformer puts less effort in
suppressing the interferences and noise[17].
However when o
L
2
is too large, the beamformer
fails to suppress strong interference because it puts
most effort to suppress the white noise. Hence, there
is a tradeoff between reducing signal cancellation
and effectively suppressing interference. For that
reason, it is not clear how to choose a good diagonal
loading factor o
L
2
in the traditional MVDR
beamformer.
This conventional diagonal loading can be
thought of as a gradual morphing between two
different behavior, a fully adaptive MVDR solution
(I = Ŵ, no loading) and a conventional uniformly
weighted beampattern (I =∞, infinite loading)[5].
The conventional DL weight vector can be
calculated as
ˣ
MvÐR-ÐL
= o
MvÐR-ÐL

`
+o
L
2
I]
-1
˰(0) (10)
where o
MvÐR-ÐL
is the normalization constant
given by
o
MvÐR-ÐL
= ˰(0)
H

´
+o
L
2
I]
-1
˰(0) (11)
and o
L
2
reduces the sensitivity of the beampattern to
unknown uncertainities and interference sources at
the expenses of slight beam broadening[3]. The
choice of loading can be determined from L-Curve
approach[12] or adaptive diagonal loading. Beam
shape for Diogonal loading as shown in Fig(2) is
better when compared to previously stated methods
Fig 4 MVDR-Diagonal Loading
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
angle inθ
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
Mvdr-smi beamforming
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
angle in θ
MVDR-diagonal loading
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
174 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500

3.4 Colored Diagonal Loading(Cdl)
In the presence of colored noise, DL can be applied
which is termed as colored diagonal loading (CDL)
and the morphing process may result in a
beampattern of our choosing. The colored diagonal
loading is similar to ˣ
MvÐR-ÐL
but the diagonal
loading level of o
L
2
= ∞ , end point, can be altered
by the term[5]
ˣ
MvÐR-CÐL
= o
MvÐR-ÐL

`
+o
L
2
˞
dq
]
-1
˰(0) (12)
where ˞
dq
is the covariance matrix that captures
the desired quiescent structure. It may be
determined directly 1)based on apriori information –
where ˞
dq
, need not be diagonal or 2) desired
weight vector –where ˞
dq
must be diagonal. It is
given as
˞
dq
= ˤ˩o˧(|ˤ˩o˧(ˣ
dq
)!
-1
˰(0)) (13)
where ˣ
dq
is the desired quiescent weight vector.
The colored diagoinal loading shows no
improvement in pattern shape as shown in Fig.5

Fig 5 MVDR-Colored Diagonal Loading

3.5 Adaptive Diagonal Loading (ADL)
In this method the loading level is calculated
assuming the apriori information about the SNR is
available. The SNR can be estimated from link
budget or using some SNR estimated algorithm.Gu
and Wolf proposed a variable loading MVDR.(VL-
MVDR) in which the loading level is chosen
as(o
2
˞
`
)[16]
ˣ
MvÐR-AÐL
= o
MvÐR-ÐL

`
+o
AÐL
2
I]
-1
˰(0) (14)
where o
AÐL
= ˚. ˟˚˞ [4]

Fig 6 MVDR- Adaptive Diagonal Loading
beampattern
3.6 Adaptive coloured White Noise
Stabilization (ACDL)
As already discussed, white noise stabilization is
nothing but diagonal loading in which the adaptive
colored loading technique is imbedded to get a
novel hybrid method proposed as
ˣ
MvÐR-ACÐL
= o
MvÐR-ÐL

`

dq
!
-1
˰(0) (15)


Fig 7 MVDR- Adaptive Colored Diagonal
Loading beampattern


-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
MVDR -colored-Diagonal loading
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
angle in θ
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
MVDR-adaptive diagonal loading
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
angle in θ
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
MVDR-adaptive colored diagonal loading- the proposed algorithm
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
angle in θ
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
175 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500

4. Simulations and Experiments
For the proposed hybrid algorithm ,a 16 element
Uniform Linear Array is considered with SNR of 20
dB for the desired signal coming from θs = 0° and
INR of 70 dB for three jammer signals coming from
the directions θi = -20°, 20° and 70°. The element
spacing is d = 0.5 λ.
The various methods of beamforming are obtained
to compare them with the performance of the Mvdr-
Adaptive colored Diagonal Loading.





Fig 8 Beampattern of various diagonal loading
methods


5. Results and Discussion

5.1 Number of elements
For the ULA which is considered for simulation
work , the beampatterns were analyzed by changing
the number of elements as 4, 8, 12,16, 24, 50 and
100. As the number of elements increases, the
beampattern shows higher resolution i.e the 3 dB
beamwidth becomes much narrower from to 26° to
1° for conventional beamformer and 17° to 1° for
adaptive diagonal loading beamformer. The detailed
results are tabulated in Table1. Finer or sharper
beams are obtained when more number of elements
are used. Sharper the beam, the beamformer is not
susceptible to jammers. But the number of side
lobes also increased. The 3-dB beamwidth of the
different beamformers are tabulated in Table 2. A
trade off can be obtained to reduce the cost and to
have a compact size. Hence a maximum of 16
elements are chosen for further analysis

Table1. Effect of Changing number of antenna
elements



Table2: Beam response of the signals - desired
and jammers – using various methods

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
b
e
a
m

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

i
n

d
B
angle in θ
comparison of various diagonal loading methods


MVDR-diagonal loding
MVDR-coloured DL
Mvdr-adaptive DL
Mvdr-adapt-col-DL
B
e
a
m

f
o
r
m
i
n
g

m
e
t
h
o
d

Desired
signal
θ=0°
Beam
response
Power
(in dB)

Jammer1
θ = 20°
Beam
response
Power
(in dB)

Jammer2
θ=-20°
Beam
response
Power
(in dB)

Jammer3
θ =-70°
Beam
response
Power(in
dB)
conventional 0 -20 -20 -26.5
MVDR 0 -91 -66 -91
MVDR-SMI 0 -58 -61 -72
DL 0 -72.5 -72.5 -85
CDL -6 -50 -57 -66.5
ADL 0 -72.5 -72.5 -85
ACDL 0 -52 -56.5 -62
N
o
.
o
f

e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

3dB beamwidth
c
o
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l

M
V
D
R

M
V
D
R
-

S
M
I

D
i
a
g
o
n
a
l

C
o
l
o
r
e
d

D
L

A
d
a
p
t
i
v
e


D
L

A
d
a
p
t
i
v
e

4 26.2 19.5 17.1 17 17 17 16
8 12.8 15.4
7
13.3 14.8 14.8 14.8 25.5
12 8.4 8.7 6.9 8.4 8.5 8.7 8.5
16 6.25 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6 13.2
20 5.1 5.2 6 5.3 5.3 5.2 6.8
24 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
50 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
176 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500



5.2 Noise effect
An ULA with 16 elements is considered for
analyzing the effect of noise on the peaks of the
signal power. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) was varied
in steps of 10 dB starting from 10 dB till 60 dB. As
SNR increases the peaks becomes sharper. It also
showed that the interference sources were
suppressed to a maximum extent, so that it will not
be a disturbance while extracting the signal even in
the presence of strong interferers


5.3 Training issues with the number of array
snapshots
Increasing the number of array snapshots lead to
complexity and computational cost but the
performance of the beamformer increases. It is a
trade off between the cost and the performance


5.4 Element Spacing
The spacing between the elements for an 16 element
ULA was varied as λ/4, λ/2, 3λ/4 and λ
which in turn vary the effective aperture length of
the array. Among the four choices λ/2 showed the
best performance for the particular frequency used
for simulation. When the distance between the
elements is increased beyond λ/2, it resulted in
spatial aliasing i.e a lot of spurious peaks were
obtained which correspond to different frequencies.
Below λ/2 the resolution of the beams was not
satisfactory.



Fig 9 Training issues with the number of
snapshots



6. Conclusion
A new Hybrid Robust adaptive beamforming
algorithm is proposed with Adaptive Colored
diagonal loading based on data dependent approach.
This method is computationally efficient.
Simulation results show that the proposed method
provide robustness against steering vector errors and
random array position perturbations by comparing it
with various diagonal loading methods


References
[1] Viktor V.Zaharov, Marvi Teixeira, “SMI-
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[2]. Biao Jiang, Ye Zhu, “A New Robust Quadratic
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[3]Y.X.Zou,S.C.Chan ,et.al, “ Recursive Robust
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[4] Pekka Lilja, Harri Saarnisaari, “Robust Adaptive
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[5]John D. Hiemstra, “Colored Diagonal Loading”,
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[6]H.L.Van Trees, “Detection, Estimation , and
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[8]Simon Haykin, “Adaptive Filter Theory”,
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[9]Frank Gross, Smart Antennas for Wireless
Communications with Matlab, McGraw-Hill, 2005
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
number of snapshots k
S
I
N
R

i
n

d
B
Number of elements = 16, loading level= 100


SINR-CDL
SINR-ADL
SINR-ACDL
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
177 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500
[10]Lal.C.Godara, “Applications of Antenna Arrays
to Mobile communications, Part I: Performance
Improvement, Feasibility, and system
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July 1997
[11] Louis B.Fertig, “Statistical Performance of the
MVDR Beamformer in the presence of Diagonal
Loading” Proc of IEEE Sensor Array and
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81, 2000
[12] John D. Hiemstra, “Robust Implementations of
the Multi stage Wiener Filter”, Ph.D Dessertation ,
April 4, 2003.
[13] Biao Jiang, Ye Zhu, “A New Robust Quadratic
Constraint Beamforming against Array Steering
Vector Errors”, Proc of International Conference on
Communications, Circuits and Systems, 2004, PP
765-768
[14]Jian Li and Petre Stoica, “Robust Adaptive
Beamforming”,John Wiley & Sons Publications,
2006.
[15]Jian Li and Petre Stoice&Zwang, “On Robust
Capon Beamforming and Diagonal loading”IEEE
Trans signal proc vol51, pp, 1702-1715 July 2003.
[16]J.Gu and P.J.Wolf,“Robust Adaptive
Beamforming using variable loading” In proc IEEE
workshop on senior Array and Multichannel signal
processing 2006.
[17]Chung-Yang Chen, “Quadratically constrained
beamforming robust against Direction-Of-Arrival-
Mismatch” IEEE Transactions on signal
processing,Vol 55,No.8,Aug 2007.







(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011
178 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500

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