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Modeling of Aluminium – Flyash Particulate Metal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic

Modeling of Aluminium – Flyash Particulate Metal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic

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This paper models the tension and bend test data using fuzzy logic and radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network. The data have been collected experimentally working on Aluminium–flyash metal matrix composite. The fuzzy logic estimates change in height in tension test and change in buldge diameter in bend test better when compared to RBF.
This paper models the tension and bend test data using fuzzy logic and radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network. The data have been collected experimentally working on Aluminium–flyash metal matrix composite. The fuzzy logic estimates change in height in tension test and change in buldge diameter in bend test better when compared to RBF.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No.

3, March 2011

Modeling of Aluminium – Flyash Particulate Metal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic
1

R.Elangovan and 2Dr.S.Purushothaman

1

R.Elangovan, Research Scholar,

2

Dr.S.Purushothaman, Principal,

Department of Production Engineering, Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India-636 308

Sun College of Engineering and Technology, Sun Nagar, Erachakulum, Kanyakumari District – 629902, India Email: dr.s.purushothaman@gmail.com

Abstract--This paper models the tension and bend test data using fuzzy logic and radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network. The data have been collected experimentally working on Aluminium–flyash metal matrix composite. The fuzzy logic estimates change in height in tension test and change in buldge diameter in bend test better when compared to RBF. Keywords: Radial basis function, fuzzy logic, tension test, bend test, scanning electron microscopy

furniture, and engine blocks in the automotive, small engine and electro mechanical industry sectors. Flyash can be classified into two categories, precipitator and cenosphere. Precipitator flyash is a solid and has a density of about 2- 2.5 gm /cm3. Cenosphere flyash is hollow and has a lower density of about 0.6 gm/cm3. Flyash have been used as the reinforcing particulates in aluminium matrix [4-6]. Flyash has received attention as reinforcing phase as it is found to

I.

INTRODUCTION

Composite materials are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) consists of a metallic matrix combined with a reinforcing material. The matrix materials are Aluminium, Magnesium,

increase the hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance of aluminium metal matrix composites.

Particulates are the most common and cheapest reinforcement materials. These produces the isotropic property of MMC's which shows promising application in structural fields The Al - flyash - silicon carbide hybrid matrix composites have a good potential for use as wear resistant materials. Flyash particulate improves properties such as hardness, wear resistance and compressive strength. If the composite is to be used in a structural application, the

Titanium[1-3]. The reinforcing materials can be flyash, Silicon Carbide, Graphite, and Alumina

Al-flyash composite has low density. This composite has potential applications in covers, shrouds, casings, manifolds, valve covers, garden

modulus, strength and density of the composite will be important which requires high modulus, low density

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

reinforcement like flyash. If the composite is to be used in wear resistant applications, hardness is important. II MATERIALS AND METHODS

material is stirred again and again and poured into the moulds. It solidifies. The solid is cut into shapes, and the surface is cleaned.

A. Materials A hollow pipe is taken first with a dimension of 500 mm long 70mm radius and 8 mm thickness. Some quantity of water is added to the foundry sand to increase the adhesives and collapsibility of the sand. After that, a hollow pipe of 40 mm diameter and 500mm long is inserted vertically into the standing bigger hollow pipe. The gap between the pipes is filled with the prepared foundry sand. It is rammed well so as to form the shape of the pattern. Then it is kept under the sunlight so that it will set well. After that, the pattern is removed and the cavity is formed on the mould. The pure aluminium ingots arc cut into small pieces. The coal is heated in the furnace. After the sufficient heat is applied blower is switched on. Crucible is placed in the furnace. When sufficient amount of heat is obtained in the crucible, aluminium pieces are put in. When the crucible reaches about 600oC, the aluminium pieces melts into liquid. Slag is removed. When the molten metal gets into a semi solid condition, flyash is added to it and is mixed with stirrer. Then it is kept cooled so as to become a solid composite. In stir casting process, the aluminium is melted at a controlled temperature and the desired quantity of flyash is added to the molten metal. The molten metal is stirred continuously to create a vortex to force the slightly lighter particle into the melt. Continuous stirring is done to disperse the flyash particulate as uniformly as possible in a short time. For stirring the flyash and molten metal, three blade propeller type is used. The mixed matrix is then transformed into a preheated transfer ladle. The 3. 2. most B Methods B.1 Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy logic has rapidly become one of the successful of today's technologies for

developing sophistication in technologies. Fuzzy logic addresses applications perfectly as it resembles human decision making with an ability to generate precise solutions from certain or approximate information. It fills an important gap in engineering design methods left vacant by purely mathematical approaches, and purely logic-based approaches in system design. While other approaches require accurate equations to model real-world behaviors, fuzzy design can accommodate the ambiguities of real-world human language and logic. It provides both an intuitive method for describing systems in human terms and automates the conversion of those system specifications into effective models. B.2 Radial basis function (RBF) Radial basis function is a supervised neural network. The network has an input layer, hidden layer (RBF layer) and output layer. The features obtained are used as inputs for the network and the target values for training is based on the values change in height or change in buldge diameter. Training RBF is done as follows, 1. Distance between pattern and centers are found. An RBF matrix whose size will be (np X cp). where ‘np’ is the number of patterns used for training and ‘cp’ is the number of centers which is equal to ‘np’. Final weights are calculated.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

4.

During testing the performance of the RBF network, RBF values are formed from the features obtained from inputs and processed with the final weights obtained during training. Based on the result obtained, the test data is classified.

test provides information on proof stress, yield point, tensile strength, elongation and reduction in area (Table 1).

B.

Bend test Testing will be done using a UTM.

Capacity of UTM is 40 tonnes. III EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND RESULTS Diameter of rod Bending pan radius Length of the rod =24mm =16mm =265mm

Chemical composition of flvash (Data collected from Tuticorin thermal power plant Tamil Nadu, India) Sio2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 + Fe304 7.12% CaO MgO So 4 Loss on ignition 0.72% Bulk Density Fineness m2 / kg Melting point of aluminium is Casting period Stirring period - 660° C -2 ½ hrs 20 minutes 0.86gm/cc 0.075mm in 2.28% 0.85 % Traces 60.62 %, 21.93% -

IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS A. Estimating change in height during tension test Figure 1 shows estimation of change in height by Fuzzy logic for the tension test data. The estimation is accurate and concides with the original data collected. Figure 2 shows estimation of change in height by RBF for the tension test data. The estimation slightly deviates and not close with the actual data. Figure 3 presents comparisons of the performance of RBF and fuzzy logic in estimating the change in height. The performance of Fuzzy logic is superior to performance of RBF. However, depending upon the type of data used, the performance of RBF will

A. Tension test A standard test piece is taken.. The gauge length is maintained by gripping at either end by suitable apparatus in a universal testing

improve further. B test Figure 4 shows estimation of change in buldge diameter during bend test by Fuzzy logic for the for the bend test data. The estimation slightly deviates and not close with the actual data Figure 6 presents comparisons of the performance of RBF and fuzzy logic in estimating the buldge Estimating buldge diameter during bend

machine(UTM). The UTM slowly exerts an axial pull so that the specimen is stretched until it breaks. The bend test data. The estimation is almost accurate and coincides with the original data collected. Figure 5 shows estimation of change buldge diamater by RBF

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

Table 1 Tension test performance
Aluminium + 5% flyash Aluminium + 10% flyash Aluminium + 15% flyash

Maximum ultimate load Deflection maximum load Maximum displacement fracture Percentage elongation Scanning Electron Microscope photograph of at at

15.94 KN

16.14KN

17.85KN

9.9mm

11.7mm

13.3mm

7.5mm

9.2mm

10.3mm

8.3%

10.2%

12.4%

 
Table 2 Scanning electron microscope photograph Tension test performance
Aluminium + 5% flyash Aluminium + 10% flyash Aluminium + 15% flyash

13 12 11 10 Height, mm
Height, mm

13

Target Estimated

12 11 10 9 8 7

Target Estimated

9 8 7 6 5 0

6 5

0.5

1

1.5 Load, kg

2

2.5 x 10

3
4

4 0

0.5

1

1.5 Load, kg

2

2.5 x 10

3
4

Figure.1 Change in height estimated by Fuzzy logic

Figure.2 Change in height estimated by RBF

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

13 12 11 Change in Height,mm 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 0 Rbf Fuzzy Actual

38 36 34 Buldge diameter, mm 32 30 28 26 24
0.5 1 1.5 Load, kg 2 2.5 x 10 3
4

Target Estimated

22 0

0.5

1

1.5 Load, Kg

2

2.5 x 10

3
4

Figure.3 Change in height estimated by RBF and Fuzzy logic
38 36 34 Buldge Diameter, mm 32 30 28 26 24 22 0

Figure.4 Change in buldge diameter estimated by Fuzzy
38 36 34 Buldge Diameter,mm

Target Estimated

Rbf 32 30 28 26 24 22 0 Fuzzy Actual

0.5

1

1.5 Load, kg

2

2.5 x 10

0.5

1

1.5 Load, kg

2

2.5 x 10

3
4

Figure.5 Change in buldge diameter estimated by RBF

Figure.6 Change in buldge diameter estimated by RBF and Fuzzy logic

diameter. The performance of Fuzzy logic is superior to performance of RBF. However, depending upon

REFERENCES
[1] P. K. Rohatgi, J. K. Kim, R. Q. Guo, D. P. Robertson and M.

the type of data used the performance of RBF will improve further. V .CONCLUSIONS

Gajdardziska-Josifovska, “Age Hardening Characteristics of Aluminium Alloy – Hollow Fly Ash Composites”, Metallurgical & Materials Transaction A, Vol. 33A, (2002), 1541-1547. [2] T. Matsunaga, J. K. Kim, S. Hardcastle and P. K. Rohatgi, “Crystallinity and Selected Properties of Fly Ash Particles”,

This paper presents the outputs of experimental work performed on Al- flyash with 5%, 10% and 15% flyash as volume fractions. The bend test, tension test have been performed and data have been collected to train fuzzy logic and radial basis function neural network. As per this paper, Fuzzy logic performs well when compared to RBF.

Materials Science & Engineering: A, Vol. A325, (2002), 333-343. [3] J. Sobczak, Z. Slawinski, N. Sobczak, P. Darlak, R. Asthana and P. K. Rohatgi, “Thermal Fatigue Resistance of Discontinuous Reinforced Cast Aluminium-Matrix Composites”, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 11, (2002), 595602. [4] J. Bienias, M. Walczak, B. Surowska and J. Sobczak, “Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminum Fly Ash

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 2011

Composites”, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 5, (2003), 493-502. [5] X. F. Zhang, D. J. Wang and G. Xie, “Manufacturing of Aluminium/Fly Ash Composites with Liquid Reactive Sintering Technology”, Acta Metallurgica Sinica, Vol. 15, (2002), 465-470.

[6] S. Kolukisa, A. Topuz and A. Sagin, “The Production and Properties of Fly Ash Containing Aluminium Matrix Composite Materials”, Practical Metallography, Vol. 40, (2003), 357-368.

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