Pointers on Applying Flower Inducer to Mango Trees imultaneous fruiting is possible nowadays with flower inducer.

By spraying it to mango trees, not just more, but bigger fruits are produced. Potassium nitrate is the generic name of chemical flower inducer in mango, and the chemical symbol for this compound is or KNO;. It contains 13% nitrogen and 46% potash, hence it is also called 13-0-46. KNO supplies the potassium requirement of the tree and in the process, induces flowering. Another flower inducer used, nowadays is calcium nitrate (CaN). It contains 45% calcium and 15% nitrogen. It is affordable, yet the effect is just the same. Here are some pointers on applying flower inducer to mango trees. 1. Flowering and fruiting vary, depending on the variety. 2. Chemical flower inducers should not be used under the following circumstances: ‡ when the tree is 10 years old or below ‡ when the leaves and buds are young ‡ when the tree is weak and sickly ‡ during rainy days 3. High dosage of flower inducer should be applied when the tree is healthy and starting to mature, the leaves and buds are maturing, and the weather is cloudy. 4. Use low dosage of flower inducer (1% ± 2% of KNO;) when the tree is already mature, healthy, and has dormant buds; the leaves and buds are mature; and the weather is sunny. 5. Induce flowering once a year. However, if it did not flush during the fruiting time, spray again after harvest, but do not expect full bloom. 6. Spraying should be done when the tree and leaves are dry, and with no expected rain within the next six hours. 7. Use Apsa-80 as sticker. 8. Using the same formulation, spray again after two days to hasten the emergence of flowers. 9. From flowering to harvest, it takes 7 to 8 months to rejuvenate and accumulate nutrients for the next fruiting season. 10. Trees that have yielded in the previous season but have not flushed can be induced, but do not expect a full bloom. In spraying potassium nitrate, prepare a 1% ± 3% solution, depending on the condition of the tree. Or, mix 4 kilos per 200 liters of water. Spray it onto the leaves and branches, totally wetting but not dripping. Spray early in the morning (from sunrise to 9:00 a.m.) or late in the afternoon (from 4:00 p.m.-6:00 p.m.) to prevent leaf burning due to sunlight. In applying CaN, one one hand, mix 5 kilos to 200 liters of water. After 12 days, when the flowers start to emerge, spray pesticide and fungicide. The flowers would be fully opened after 20 days. At this time, the flowers are susceptible to pest, so inspect the plants every day to see if there are damages caused by insects, and spray appropriate pesticide. Applying flower inducer at the right time and amount indeed results in significant increase in production. One mango farmer in San Roque, Digos City, Davao del Sur who uses inducer is Arnold Nebria. In fact he is the first one in San Roque who has succeeded in mango farming. At present, he grosses an average of PI million every harvest. Also applying inducer is Victorino Ramos, and in September 2008 this 70year-old farmer and councilman of San Roque has earned almost P1 million. In the same year, I grossed P960,000 from my 2-hectare lot planted to grafted Cebu Mango; and it was the biggest income that I ever earned in my entire life! So consider the said tips on using flower inducer, and you, too, would have a hefty profit.

The first application is done to encourage fruit setting and minimize fruit drop. It is recommended to spray twice. In practice. This is better to less the cost on pesticide and insecticide. While the second application is to increase fruit size. before rainy season. This will gurantee a good harvest plus complete fertilize in the ground.5% KNO3 is recommended. the reco0mmended rate varies with the season: Wet months (Off-season) July to November: 2 to 2. I suggest you bag the mangoes at the fruit set usually this takes 40 days after flowering inducement. Those that have not reached the reproductive phase will not flower despite KNO3 application. I hope I helped in my own little way because this is mostly the problem of mango growers in our country. foliar spray in needed. Apply 1 to 2% KNO3 solution each application at about 42 and 65 days after induction. The first application at about 42 and 65 days after induction. In the Philippines. (1-1. 2. I suggest you apply organic fertilizer 3 times a year. -after harvest apply 1-2 bag dry chicken manure or organic fertilizer each tree plus complete fertilizer to feed to the tree. Presence of dormant buds: They should be visible on the tip of the twigs as plump and convex protrusions. if flowering is poor or does not occur.Here is a instruction of a flower inducing agent called Haifa (Potassium Nitrate): When to spray: 1. This procedure can increase flowring in mango. Age of three: KNO3 (Potassium Nitrate) should be applied to physiologically mature mango trees. A practical guide to identify mature leaves in the fields is the copper green to brown color.5 of KNO3 in 100 liters of water). after rainy season and after harvesting. the recommended concentrations for induction varies from 13% KNO3. After flushing. Suggestions to have increase in fruits and save in pesticide and insecticide and fungicide: -after harvest prune the unwanted branches and twigs espeically the dead ones and sprouting stems. FOLIAR FEEDING Any Fertilizer applied to the tree via the soil cannot be utilized by the developing flowers: hence. RAINFALL The uptake of KNO3into the leaves is extremely fast.5 percent KNO3 is recommended (2-2. RATE OF APPLICATION: It has been reported that concentration as high as 16% KNO3 have been used to induce flowering mango without any phytotoxic effects. 3. Non-dormant buds are conclave in appearance. (I advice using chicken manure because 1 bag cost 20 pesos each more cheaper than compost) -after flower inducing the mature trees. a second spray using low concentration of KNO3 should be applied. -Do not over flower induce the tree because this is the cost why some mangoes die at a early age because of flower inducer overdose. When Haifa Potassium nitrate is sprayed on the tree it becomes a fast and effective source of potassium and nitrogen. SECOND APPLICATION Oftentimes. (If you're trees are very tall. I suggest you bag the fruits in the lower portion where can easily bag them for export quality pursposes) -Remember it is importnat you feed the tree after harvest of fruits as it already lost it nutrients in the ground that were fed to the fruits for development. Consequently. leaves should grow and develop for about 7-9 months. . -You will never flower a mature tree if the tree is not well fed. Age of shoot/leaves: Mature leaves are more responsive to KNO3 than younger ones. rainfall after spraying has negligible affect provided leaves are dry during and imediately following spray aplication of Haifa Pottasium Nitrate.5 kg of KNO3 in 100 liters of water). Dry months (December to MAy): a lower concentration of 1 to 1. brittle texture and crispy appearance.

less moisture level needed during maturation of leaves and buds. has deeper cracks on bark o kidney-shaped fruit weighing about 230 grams. not exceeding 45 degrees gradient Drainage: well-drained soil. large and conical trunk with shallow and small cracks on bark. weighs about 240 grams. a 10-15 year old tree will yield approximately 500 kilos There is a niche market for both fresh and processed mangoes locally and abroad.verified and adopted nationwide Processing technologies are also available and continuing efforts are exerted to develop new products There is a pool of experts in the country that can be tapped to provide technical assistance to mango growers and processors Research and development activities on emerging pests and diseases are given priority by relevant agencies of the government Expansion of large production areas in Mindanao which are free from typhoons Favorable Growing Conditions y y y y y y y y y y Elevation: within 600 meters above sea level (400 m considered ideal) Temperature: 21°C-27°C Weather for inducing maturity of vegetativeparts and flowering: distinct wet and dry (3 to 5 months-dry) Weather for fruit development: plenty of sunlight Ideal soil: loamy. with thin. distinct beak on the apex. Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) o tree has coarse. very tender taste and slight aroma 2. CARABAO o originated from India.0 to 7. relatively high in organic matter Soil pH: 6.0 Soil texture: good water holding capacity Topography: flat to rolling. light orange yellow and sweeter than µCarabao¶ variety . Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) o tree has upright growth. processing and marketing support Once productive.MANGO Introduction Prospects and Strengths y y y y y y y y Mango growing is in line with the initiatives of both government and private sectors in terms of production. yellow pulp. open crown. fruit set and ripening Distance of planting: depending on variety Popular Varieties 1. flowering. The export market is expanding Technologies from propagation to post-harvest handling have been tested. canopy dome shaped o fruit is elongated and kidney-shaped. flesh is fibrous and thick. PICO o originated from India.

De-husk seeds to hasten germination 3.) Through Grafting 1. 8. Asexual propagation (grafting. Make an incision. ¼ inch deep from the cut. Apply fertilizer again (same as step 6) every 30 days. Grow the rootstock seedlings up to pencil size diameter (8 to 12 months) 2. Spray with pesticide when the need arises. Most common problems are scale insects. Rootstocks are ready for grafting upon attaining ³pencil size´ stem diameter (10-12 months germination). Insert the scion¶s V cut base at the incision of the rootstock. Sow the seeds in seed boxes or elevated plots. Bind them together gently but firmly with plastic tape. coconut coir dust. Immediately place inside plastic bag to prevent transpiration and drying up 4. at the center of the stem 5. B. 7. 4. Extract seeds from ripe fruits 2. cecid fly. Remove the leaves and clean the scion. 9. Thereafter. Cut the stem of the rootstock preferably at the tender joint near the active growing shoot one foot from the base. inarching. Provide drainage for excess water. Water seed boxes or seed plots to maintain enough moisture. Wrap the entire scion from the joint to the tip to prevent drying 8. corn silk beetle and anthracnose. green skin with yellowish flesh and preferably eaten as green Propagation Practices There are two methods of propagating mango. KATCHAMITA o originated from India o has compact crown and lower tree stand than µCarabao¶ and µPico¶ o fruit is small to medium. seeing to it that the cambium layer or skin of both the scion and the rootstock meet 7. Composting materials like sawdust. The ideal medium is a mixture of one part compost and the one part garden soil. Make a clean V cut at the base of the scion 6. Apply fertilizer (16-20-0 mixed with urea) 30 days after potting at the rate of ¾ teaspoon per bag. 5. etc. sexual and asexual propagation A. rounded/oval. Place the newly grafted seedlings in partly-shaded environment .3. budding. Get mature scion (pencil size with plump end) from healthy mother trees having superior characteristics 3. spray foliar at weekly intervals. Note: Seeds germinate in 10-15 days from planting. rice hull and other similar organic materials can also be used. 6. 10. Transfer seedlings with 2 to 3 leaves in black plastic bags (7´x11´) filled with garden soil mixed with decomposed organic materials. Sexual propagation ± Growing of rootstocks 1. namely.

Insect-infested and diseased branches. Crop Establishment Distance of Planting Factors to consider: y y y y y y topography of the land development program of the farm variety soil fertility planting of intercrops ± kinds of intercrops (to include a table containing recommended distance of planting and total number of trees per hectare using different systems of planting) Pruning and Thinning As a general rule. Remove the plastic bag carefully. iii. ii. leaves. When this happens. Place stakes (markers) at the site of the planting 3. 6. Plant the graft in the center and cover the hole with the remaining soil. Pour water into the hole and allow the water to be absorbed by the soil. 11. Pruning is the removal of undesirable vegetative parts of the tree. 4. Dig one cubic meter hole and refill with fertile soil (usually soil mixed with decomposed organic materials and fertilizer). remove the plastic strip that covers the tip to enhance growth. Hardening is however. Leave the strip that binds the joint. Grafts not sold after 1 year should be re-bagged using bigger plastic containers Land Preparation 1. Protect the newly-planted graft from intense heat by providing shed using coconut leaves. Prepare lay-out of the farm There are four lay-outs to choose from: i. This is usually observed in 15 to 20 days 10. usually the crowded branches. 8. 5. Square system (how tos) Triangle system (how tos) Quincunx system (how tos) Contour system (how tos) 2. Water regularly until flushing (appearance of new leaves) occurs. Grafts are ready for disposal after 8 to 10 months. flowers or other plant parts need to be removed also. recommended prior to field planting 12. 7. An integral part of pruning is training the canopy to a manageable size. the farmer should begin pruning and thinning when the crown or foliage of the trees starts to meet. . shape and height.9. Apply mulch to conserve soil moisture. iv.

. As the trees reach bearing age. dig a few holes (6-8 holes) around the tree or a canal within the area covered by the canopy. Other Considerations when Pruning 1. Fertilizer can also be applied during the dry season if there is irrigation. The procedure for fertilizer application is similar for both bearing and young trees. In general. 5. 4. Cut small branches first followed by large branches (minimal pruning only) 3. the wounded parts dry and heal faster. The zone of maximum and efficient utilization of fertilizers is 30 deep and 100 cm from the trunk of 5-10 year old trees.Type of Canopy Training: y y y y y open center formative modified ladder conventional Dwarfing Pruning is done to allow sunlight to penetrate in the crown and free air circulation. Always make a clean cut at the base of the branch and avoid leaving stumps where unwanted water sprouts may grow 4. the trees need high rate of nitrogen fertilizers. tar or disinfectant when pruning is done during wet season 5. At flowering. when the soil is still wet. Select only the parts to be pruned (minimal pruning) 2. The preferred time of fertilizer application for non-bearing trees or at the juvenile stage is at the start and before the end of the rainy season. To promote faster vegetative growth. Apply fertilizer containing 4-5% phosphoric acid and 8-15% potash. organic fertilizer application is also recommended. The best time to prune is after harvest. thereby reducing incidence of insect pests and diseases. When applying fertilizer. This goes a little farther as the tree crown becomes wider 3. pruned trees produce bigger and high quality fruits compared to unpruned trees. Nutrient Management In the first five years. spraying of foliar fertilizer is recommended as supplement. more emphasis should be given on phosphorous and potassium. Paint or spray the open cut with fungicide. When done during summer. 2. Remove all debris and maintain cleanliness of the surrounding areas. follow canopy drip line. Phosphorous fertilizer promotes root and flower development while potassium is for fruiting and ripening. Important Considerations in Fertilizer Application: 1. For big trees.

the following should be considered: 1. Spraying should be done when the tree and leaves are dry and with no expected rain within the next 6 hours Potassium nitrate is the generic name of chemical flower inducer in mango. old or fully mature Leaves and buds are fully mature Tree is healthy with dormant buds Sprayed during sunny weather Sprayed seven to nine months after harvest 5. 13-0-46. Induce flowering only once a year 6. When sprayed. From flowering to harvest. it takes 7-8 months to rejuvenate and accumulate enough nutrients for the next fruiting season 7.0% KNO3 ) should be used when: o o o o o Trees are just starting to mature Leaves and buds are maturing The tree is healthy with vigorous buds and leaves During cloudy weather Sprayed six to seven months after harvest 4. Chemical flower inducers should not be used under the following circumstances: o o o o o When the tree is too small or still young When the leaves and buds are young When the tree is weak and sickly During rainy days Just after harvest or when the tree has fruits or is in flushing stage 3. . Different mango varieties have varied flowering and fruiting habits.Flower Induction In inducing mango trees to bear flower. thus.0 to 2. it supplies the potassium deficiency of the tree and in the process. This contains 13% nitrogen and 46% potash. Use low dosage of flower inducers (1. The µCarabao¶ variety under normal conditions bears fruits every two to three years. High dosage of flower inducers (2. Trees that bear fruits last season but have not flushed should not be induced to flower 8.0% KNO3 ) when: o o o o o Trees are big.0 to 3. 2. The chemical symbol of this compound is KNO3. induces flowering.

. Spray the leaves and branches totally wetting but not dripping. insect secretes sticky fluids (honeydew) that promotes development of sooty mold. bagging is recommended to protect fruits from pests and to reduce spraying of insecticides. fungal disease. Confidor is effective against hoppers.When spraying potassium nitrate. Prepare a 1-3% solution depending on the condition of the tree. If drip irrigation is available. Water Management For young mango trees. flowers and very young fruits. The volume of water ranges from 60 to 100 liters per tree depending on size. This prevents leaf burning due to sunlight. Control: Spray recommended chemicals starting from flower/bud formation to fruit setting. 2. 3. For flowering trees. weekly manual watering should be done during dry months by saturating the soil with enough water followed by mulching. minimize fruit drop and increase fruit size. apply water weekly during flower initiation and fruit development and stop one month before harvest. Mango leaf hopper Damage: Sucking of plant sap causes withering and drying of tender shoots. In the process. Irrigate developing flowers and fruits to enhance fast development. fertilizer application can be incorporated in the irrigation water. follow this simple steps: 1. Spray early in the morning (from sunrise to 9:00 am) or late in the afternoon (from 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm). This practice is done when fruits are about chicken¶s egg size (55 to 60 days after flower induction) Insect Pests 1. Pest Management Fruit Protection Wrapping or bagging of fruits is practiced in many areas because of the following: y y y y y y Minimizes incidence of fruit fly and other fruit insects Minimizes disease (fungal) infection Reduces incidence of mechanical damage Paper used serves as absorbent for latex flow during harvest Results to cleaner fruit skin and more attractive light green color Provides an estimate of harvestable fruits per tree In general.

If chemicals have to be used. The most visible indication of the problem is the presence of dead twigs and leaves in the canopy. fruit droppings and other debris. Control: o o Prune dead branches to discourage spread of insect. Control:Pruning and burning e dead branches to discourage spread of insect. 4. b. Cultivation of soil is advantageous since this exposes and kills the weevil hidden in the soil after harvest. Affected fruits drop to the grown and are easily contaminated by microorganisms. panicles break and the flowers shed off. When present. Insecticides used for mango hopper control are also recommended for tip borer. spray at 90 or 110 days after induction.2. If infested. The insecticide should be applied at 14 days interval from fruit set to full development of the fruits. Note: Insecticides are not effective once the pest is inside the fruit. 3. Control: Bagging. Pulp weevil Damage: This is a unique pest since the larvae of the insect feed inside the fruit and destroy the pulp. Keep each tree free from weeds. Dead or overcrowding branches should be removed. The insect is present only in some parts of Palawan. Fenvalerate and Carbaryl are also effective against the pest. c. Pruning of crowded mango trees allowing light to penetrate in the canopy is unfavorable to the weevil. Twig cutters Damage: This is very destructive during the dry season. collection and proper disposal of fallen fruits and harvest at the proper stage of maturity. it is necessary to spray insecticides to protect these stages especially during hit months. . Mango tip borer Damage: Shoots wilt and terminal parts die. Burn parts that are affected. Mango fruit fly Damage: Adults lay eggs on mature fruits and larvae feed on the flesh. Protect flushes from adults by spray application of insecticide. Cypermethrin at 50 ml/100 li water provides good protection against the weevil. Since the adults start to destroy the flowers from the bud emergence to elongation. the number of flowers that will be formed is reduced. Burn infested fruits to eliminate sources of infestation during the next fruiting season. For chemical control. Control: a. yet the peel has no visible damage even up to harvest. fallen leaves.

Underbrush weedy areas since adults stay in these areas. . Infected young fruits fall prematurely. Control:Removal of infested fruits. spray insecticide late in the afternoon and remove alternate hosts like cashew. To prevent infestation. underbrushing areas around the tree. destroy ants by spraying Malathion at 1 ½ tbsp per 16 liters water. black papery film which produces unsightly appearance. On bearing trees. causing them to dry and fall. Control: .Mealy bugs Damage: Attack newly-flushed leaves. Affected leaves become covered with thin. circular galls randomly distributed on the leaf blade. a. Affected parts turn yellow. Decis. Close examination of the leaves shows dark green. Mango cecid fly Damage:Adults. guava and cacao. Prune or cut infested leaves and burn. lay eggs on new flushes. Control:Prune trees before induction. the damage is called µkurikong¶ or µarmalite¶ or µbuti¶. flowers and fruits and suck vital plant saps. which are mosquito-like in appearance. Saliva of the insect is very toxic and the site of the puncture is marked by sunken blister. Spray either Sevin. Spray insecticides to kill ants associated with mealy bug. Practice orchard sanitation. Decis at 1-5 tbsp per 16 liters water or Karate at ¾ . b. Control: . the leaves remain yellow in color. In addition. Young scale insects are carried and distributed by red ants to different parts of the tree. The lesions turn brown after 24 hoursbecoming black and scabby in 2-3 days. dry up and eventually fall. The larvae mine the leaves producing galls or swelling of tissues. twigs and fruits. high populations of the insect cause blackening of canopy due to the growth of the fungus µsooty mold¶. leaves of grafted mangoes are readily infested with scale insects. Capsid bug Damage: Attacks young leaves.1 ½ tbsp per 16 liters water. flowers and leaves. Locally. affected branches are deformed producing gall like protruberances. Scale insect Damage: In nurseries. Karate or Stingray (3-4 tbsp per 16 liters water) to minimize damage. Heavy infestation results to wrinkling of the leaves.

Damage occurs while fruit is still green Control Measures:The methods of control are similar to that of anthracnose. Symptoms are exhibited not only on the fruits bust also on flowers and leaves. However. After harvest. Infection may start during the seedling stage and may appear during both dry and wet season. The casual organism germinates and grows in the presence of latex. Prune and burn heavily infested plant parts like branches and leaves.a. c. Do not use organic materials during packing 3. leave one centimeter pedicel attached to the fruit to avoid too much latex staining. Control Measures: a. d. b. This should be followed by spray application of insecticides recommended for this pest and application of high dose of nitrogen. practice hot water treatment 2. During harvest. crown and root rot. . Important Diseases 1. Field sanitation Prune infected branches. f. Scab Damage: The disease occurs in nurseries and during moist weather. Gummosis Damage: This fungal disease causes stem bleeding. burn them and bury the trash Schedule flower induction after the rainy season or during the dry months Include insecticide and fungicide when spraying flower inducer Wrap the fruits 50-60 days after flowering to protect them from pests and diseases. b. 4. e. The disease occurs only in ripened fruits. Pack mangoes in boxes of two layers to avoid injury due to compaction c. Stem end rot Damage:This is another post-harvest disease of mango and appears during storage and transit. Anthracnose Damage: This is the most prevalent and destructive disease of mango both in the field and after harvest. scab is effectively controlled using copper fungicide. Prevention and Control: a.

weeding. Proper land preparation and cultivation. c. This includes clearing and removal of infected plant residues in the field and exposing the soil to direct sunlight. Drench infected parts. Chloropictin or other fungicides c. fertilizer application. i. h. Plant in well-drained soil. j. . g. b. As such. d. Correct distance of planting and row orientation. Proper irrigation and drainage to avoid water logging and reduce water-borne diseases. Cultivation to aerate the soil is necessary to reduce fungal infection g. cultivation. Sooty mold Damage:The causal organism (fungus) develops in the presence of honeydew excreted by insects like hoppers. f. Combine cultural. china berry and custard apple. scales and mealy bugs. harvesting. b. f. Introduction and maintenance of natural enemies and other biological control methods like entomophagous fungi against mango hoppers. Avoid too close planting to allow aeration and ventilation. cultivation and burning of infested debris.Control Measures: a. exposed damage and cover with slurry of fungicide 5. thinning. plowing. Intercropping with trees that can repel harmful insects and serve as wind breaks. aeration and ease of farm operations such as pest and disease control. maintain the right pH of 6-7. Using insecticides and fungicides derived from plant extracts like neem. k. This includes pruning. e. Planting of healthy seedlings. This will allow maximum sunlight penetration. biological and chemical means to minimize pests. d. Control Measures:Spray insecticide to kill hopper. Disinfect nursery sites before planting with methyl bromide. Integrated Pest Management This involves the following practices: a. etc. Prune crowded branches h. Practice of clean and sanitary culture. Bag fruits at 60 DAFI. This will help eliminate soil-borne pathogens. Remove dirt. Use of baits and light traps for fruit pest (fruit fly and borers). scales and mealy bugs. Foliar spray of ethyl phosphate metaxyl ot prosethal at 2g per liter water every 80 days i. Application of recommended fertilizers and soil conditioners. smudging. Avoid dumpy soils for long duration at the base of the trees. weeds or trash e. Monitoring of pest population and application of pesticide only when necessary. it stains the fruits and makes them look dirty and unattractive.

Techno-Guide For Mango In The Philippines. Trim off pedicels and let the latex dry before packing. 2. 4. 3. The best time to harvest is between 9:00 am and 3:00 pm since the tree and fruits are dry and the latex flow is minimal. 2001.This involves heating the fruit with water vapor saturated air until the fruit pulp reaches 46°C for 10 minutes. There are two ways to do this: 1. When the flesh is turning yellow. Harvest with pedicel intact (1. Hot water treatment . 3. When powdery deposit or ³bloom´ on the surface of the skin is detected.Harvest Management The following are the indications that mango fruits are ready for harvesting: 1. References: HVCC. Use of calcium carbide (µkalburo¶) at the rate of 5 to 6 grams per kilo of fruit. This is done by wrapping the calcium carbide in paper or leaves and placed at the bottom of the container. or 5. Mango. allow fruits to produce yellow color and place µkalburo¶. Ripening of Fruits Fully mature fruits may be induced to ripen faster and with uniform color. 120 days (warm climate) and 130 days (cool and high elevation) after flower initiation. . Use of ethylene gas or ethyl water solution. When fruit has flattened shoulders at the stem end. Washing of fruits in water . This is followed by hydro-cooling (washing in cool water) and air drying. Post-Harvest Treatments In order to sell quality fruits. Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) . When the pedicels of fruits turn dark green to brown in color. 75% mature fruit samples sink when submerged in 1% salt solution Harvesting by hand is the most effective way in order to avoid bruises or damage of the fruits. 6.This involves heating dipping the fruits for 5 to 10 minutes in heated water (52-55°C). 2. The container should be covered for 2 to 3 days. the following post-harvest treatment are practiced: 1.To remove dirt on the surface.5-2. 2. the fruits are simply dipped in the solution. For best result. At 110 days (for very warm and dry environment).0cm). The use of ethylene gas involves a chamber while in ethyl solution.

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