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There are some amazing and interesting facts about human circulatory system.
* The right lung is slightly larger than the left. *At rest, the body takes in and breathes out about 10 liters of air each minute. * The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same size as a tennis court. * The highest recorded "sneeze speed" is 165 km per hour. * The capillaries in the lungs would extend 1,600 kilometers if placed end to end. * Half a liter of water a day through breathing. Water vapor when we breathe onto glass * A person at rest usually breathes between 12 and 15 times a minute. * The breathing rate is faster in children and women than in men
We breathe 13 pints of air every minute. 2. Each lung contains 300-350 million respiratory units called alveoli making it a total of 700 million in both lungs. 3. More than half a liter of water per day is lost through breathing. 4. People under 30 years of age take in double the amount of oxygen in comparison to a 80 year old. 5. Yawning brings more oxygen to the lungs. Read more:Know Your Body - Respiratory Systemhttp://www.medindia.net/know_ur_body/ressystem.asp#ixzz0c2Ha4O2L
Human beings like other land animals breathe though their nostrils in noses and with the help of lungs. A pair of lungs are located in the airtight thoracic cavity that is bounded by a convex muscular and elastic sheet called diaphragm. Functionally, the lungs are elastic bags resembling rubber balloons. They lack any muscle, which may allow them to expand or contract by themselves. In normal breathing, through the nose, air travels through the nasal passages that are lined with ciliated mucous epithelium. Here, it is cleaned and warmed. Sensory cells detect odours. As air continues through the pharynx or throat, it crosses the path of food. This is why we can breathe through the mouth. Then, air passes the epiglottis, enters the larynx or voice box, and goes down the trachea or windpipe. A bronchus runs to each lung, divides in a tree like manner to give smaller bronchioles and finally deposits the air in the microscopic thin walled air sacs or alveoli (singular alveolus). A group of alveoli appears like a cluster of grapes and gives the lungs, a sponge like structure. There are about 150 million alveoli in each lung and altogether they cover a very large surface area (approximately 70 square metres). The alveoli are lined by a layer of moist flat epithelial cells and surrounded by networks of blood capillaries. The blood, which flows to the lungs by pulmonary artery, contains little oxygen and much carbon dioxide. On the other hand, the air in the alveoli has a high concentration of oxygen and relatively less carbon
net/know_ur_body/respiratory. Oxygen enters the blood and CO2 leaves it.asp#ixzz0c2HiApUM .dioxide.medindia. Since enormous breathing surface of lungs is exposed to the external environment the exchange of gases is computed within a few seconds. Thus a 2-way diffusion takes place through the cells of the capillaries. Read more:Know your Respiratory Systemhttp://www.
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RSV is a type of virus the causes cells to mesh rather than remain singular. The thoracic cavity is part of the upper respiratory tract. Facts and Information • There are a total of 50 general entries. We are selecting 30 for display. What age group is the most vulnerable to respiratory syncytial virus? The Respiratory System Infants.Nature's Boom Box Lung Mechanics: Statics & Dynamics Take a Deep Breath and Have a Go What's That Smell? . trachea. Special Topics The Larynx . and Information Respiratory System What part of the body is also known as the thoracic cavity? The Respiratory System chest . but children can become extremely ill with pneumonia. in produces only coldlike symptoms. What is an examination of the larynx. .Fun Trivia : Respiratory System Structure Sub-topic of: Human Body Quizzes Interesting Questions. an inflammation of lung tissue.The Nasal Cavity Interesting Questions. A bronchoscopy is a visual examination of the bronchi a tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to make an opening into the throat and spirometry is a pulmonary function test. In adults. and esophagus? The Respiratory System Laryngoscopy. Facts.
We breathe about 9 to 20 times every minute. We exhale about half a liter of water vapor in a whole day. FunTrivia offers no professional advice.com.5 cubic meters of air)! Human breathing mechanism is called tidal breathing.answers. Read more: http://wiki. Content may NOT be copied. Through every breath. transport about 300 cubic feet of air (which is about 8. we breathe in about half a liter of air. or distributed without our written consent. as air comes out the same way it goes in. we take in 13 pints of air! That is we breathe about 6. We breathe 13 pints of air every minute.15 liters of air every minute. reprinted. like musicians in a symphony. 2. The breathing rate in women and children is faster than men. and you take all responsibility for your use of anything contained herein. Let's get started with our respiratory system fun facts • • • • • Every minute we breathe. 4. FunTrivia cannot guarantee the validity of the information found here. When resting you breathe about 12-15 times per minute. The name for a specialist of the respiratory system is called pulmonologist. 1. to make us breathe.com/Q/Fun_facts_about_the_respiratory_system#ixzz0c2IRXmly nteresting facts things about respiratory system Each lung contains 300-350 million respiratory units called alveoli making it a total of 700 million in both lungs. While we try to keep trivia as accurate as possible through a regular volunteer editing process. Feel free to send a note to a particular item's author for further details or source information. All content is (C)opyright 1995-2006 FunTrivia. More than half a liter of water per day is lost through breathing. 5. Most people in North America die from lung cancer. See our conditions of use for details. most of our authors love to hear feedback about their work. People under 30 years of age take in double the amount of oxygen in comparison to a 80 year old. espiratory System Facts for Kids Our respiratory system is made up of many organs that work together. We inhale and exhale air about 22. 3.000 times per day and in the process. When you yawn more oxygen goes into your lungs. Feel free to link to any page you wish. .
That is what enables the high pressure air outside. When it contracts. moistened and heated. These provide a surface area of some 160 m2 (almost equal to the singles area of a tennis court and 80 times the area of our skin!). There are some 300 million alveoli in two adult lungs. to enter the lungs and makes them expand like balloons. which branches and rebranches into bronchioles. . When air passes through the nose and into the nasal passage called the windpipe. lungs are emptied of air and we exhale it outside. the volume of the chest cavity rises and the air pressure drops.• • • Breathing is initiated by the diaphragm. The Human Respiratory System The Pathway • • • • • • • • Air enters the nostrils passes through the nasopharynx. the oral pharynx through the glottis into the trachea into the right and left bronchi. it gets filtered. each of which terminates in a cluster of alveoli Only in the alveoli does actual gas exchange takes place. which is a stretchable muscle under the lungs. When the diaphragm expands.
these processes are reversed and the natural elasticity of the lungs returns them to their normal volume. we breath 15-18 times a minute exchanging about 500 ml of air. drawing it down . the adhesion is broken and the natural elasticity of the lung causes it to collapse. o The external intercostal muscles contract. At rest. The table shows what happens to the composition of air when it reaches the alveoli. o The internal intercostal muscles draw the ribs down and inward o The wall of the abdomen contracts pushing the stomach and liver upward. an average adult male can flush his lungs with about 4 liters of air at each breath. During expiration (exhaling). which contains the heart and lungs. This is called the vital capacity. . the diaphragm divides the body cavity into the • • abdominal cavity. which contains the viscera (e. drawing air into them. In either case.g. about 1200 ml of residual airremain. • • • During inspiration (inhaling). reinflation occurs as the air is gradually absorbed by the tissues. Some of the oxygen dissolves in the film of moisture covering the epithelium of the alveoli. Because of this adhesion. any action that increases the volume of the thoracic cavity causes the lungs to expand. This can occur from trauma. It enters a red blood cell and combines with the hemoglobin therein.. If air is introduced between them. Under these conditions. And it is sometimes induced deliberately to allow the lung to rest. From here it diffuses into the blood in a nearby capillary. In more vigorous expiration. stomach and intestines) and the thoracic cavity. o The diaphragm contracts.Breathing In mammals. The inner surface of the thoracic cavity and the outer surface of the lungs are lined with pleural membranes which adhere to each other. lifting the ribs up and out. Even with maximum expiration.
2 100. Bonneville. Note the thinness of the epithelial cells (EP) that line the alveoli and capillary (except where the nucleus is located). Note that only a fraction of the oxygen inhaled is taken up by the lungs. Component N2 (plus inert gases) O2 CO2 H2O Atmospheric Air Expired Air (%) (%) 78.6 6. some of the carbon dioxide in the blood diffuses into the alveoli from which it can be exhaled.03 0. An Introduction to the . (Reproduced with permission from Keith R.At the same time. Composition of atmospheric air and expired air in a typical subject. the surface of the red blood cell is only 0.0% The ease with which oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass between air and blood is clear from this electron micrograph of two alveoli (Air) and an adjacent capillary from the lung of a laboratory mouse. At the closest point.5 100. Porter and Mary A.85 0.3 3.9 15.62 20.0% 74. Link to discussion of gas transport in the blood.7 µm away from the air in the alveolus.
Tissue fluids .Fine Structure of Cells and Tissues... ed.) Central Control of Breathing The rate of cellular respiration (and hence oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) varies with level of activity. It is a rising concentration of carbon dioxide — not a declining concentration of oxygen — that plays the major role in regulating the ventilation of the lungs. the pH drops [CO2 + H2O → HCO3− + H+]. Streptococcus pneumoniae) and viruses. Certain cells in the medulla oblongata are very sensitive to a drop in pH. However. at high altitude in the unpressurized cabin of an aircraft) where oxygen supply is inadequate but there has been no increase in the production of CO2. Their activation is important in situations (e. Vigorous exercise can increase by 20-25 times the demand of the tissues for oxygen. and then of the blood. and the medulla oblongata responds by increasing the number and rate of nerve impulses that control the action of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm. Lea & Febiger. As the CO2 content of the blood rises above normal levels. which quickly brings the CO2 concentration of the alveolar air. 1973. This is met by increasing the rate and depth of breathing. back to normal levels.g. 4th. A rising level of CO2 causes the bronchioles to dilate. This produces an increase in the rate of lung ventilation. Link to a description of experiments that demonstrate this.. Diseases of the Lungs Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the alveoli. Local Control of Breathing The smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchioles is very sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide. It can be caused by many kinds of both bacteria (e.g. the carotid body in the carotid arteries does have receptors that respond to a drop in oxygen. This lowers the resistance in the airways and thus increases the flow of air in and out.
the patient may need supplemental oxygen. and chronic bronchitis. And. especially. reducing the gas exchange area of the lungs. The added strain can lead to heart failure. etc. The condition develops slowly and is seldom a direct cause of death. and this leads to a persistent cough. The immediate cause of emphysema seems to be the release of proteolytic enzymes as part of the inflammatory process that follows irritation of the lungs. If enough alveoli are affected. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Irritation of the lungs can lead to asthma. Among the causes of COPD are . the gradual loss of gas exchange area forces the heart to pump ever-larger volumes of blood to the lungs in order to satisfy the body's needs. by producing an enzyme inhibitor (a serpin) called alpha-1 antitrypsin. Most people avoid this kind of damage during infections. Emphysema In this disorder. Attacks of asthma can be • • triggered by airborne irritants such as chemical fumes and cigarette smoke airborne particles to which the patient is allergic. periodic constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles makes it more difficult to breathe in and. Link to discussion of allergic asthma. Chronic Bronchitis Any irritant reaching the bronchi and bronchioles will stimulate an increased secretion of mucus. the delicate walls of the alveoli break down. in fact. out. many people develop two or three of these together. Chronic bronchitis is usually associated with cigarette smoking. However.accumulate in the alveoli reducing the surface area exposed to air. This constellation is known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In chronic bronchitis the air passages become clogged with mucus. emphysema. Asthma In asthma. Those rare people who inherit two defective genes for alpha-1 antitrypsin are particularly susceptible to developing emphysema.
Chronic exposure to irritants • • • causes the number of layers to increase. The ciliated and mucus-secreting cells disappear and are replaced by a disorganized mass of cells with abnormal nuclei. Precisely how defective CFTR function produces this effect is still under investigation. All of this damages the airways — interfering with breathing and causing a persistent cough.S. Some mutations that cause cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited disease in the U. the accumulation of mucus plugs the airways and provides a fertile breeding ground for pathogenic fungi and bacteria. but the most common (and most rapidly increasing) types are those involving the epithelial cells lining the bronchi and bronchioles. males. .S. like all cancer. Lung cancer. white population. is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells. the growing mass penetrates the underlying basement membrane. Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the most common cause of cancer deaths in U. Link to lung cancer data.S. Although more women develop breast cancer than lung cancer.• • cigarette smoke (often) cystic fibrosis (rare) Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder caused by inheriting two defective genes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Defective ion transport in the lung reduces the water content of the fluid in the lungs making it more viscous and difficult for the ciliated cells to move it up out of the lungs. a transmembrane protein needed for the transport of Cl−and HCO3− ions through the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. Ordinarily. If the process continues. since 1987 U. women have been dying in larger numbers from lung cancer than from breast cancer. the lining of these airways consists of two layers of cells. There are several forms of lung cancer. In any case. This is especially apt to happen at forks where the bronchioles branch.
Link to illustrations of the cellular changes in developing lung cancer. It is this metastasis of the primary tumor that eventually kills the patient. malignant cells can break away and be carried in lymph and blood to other parts of the body where they may lodge and continue to proliferate. . • • At this point.
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