University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations

Teaching Knowledge Test

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The words in this glossary are entered into categories to help the reader. Some entries fall into more than one category. However, to economise on space they have only been entered once. Candidates preparing for specific modules should, therefore, ensure that they are familiar with all the terms in the glossary. The list is indicative only. Other terms may also appear in TKT.

MODULE 1 Concepts and terminology for describing language
Please note that you should refer to a grammar reference book for more detailed information about the grammar items in this Glossary, and also that the list of grammar items in this section is not exhaustive. Active voice In an active sentence, the subject of the verb usually does or causes the action, e.g. The car hit the tree. See passive voice. Adjective An adjective describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun, e.g. a cold day. See comparative adjective, demonstrative adjective, -ing/-ed adjective, possessive adjective, superlative adjective. Adverb An adverb describes or gives more information about how, when, where, or to what degree etc something is done, e.g. he worked quickly and well. Apostrophe A punctuation mark (’). The ’ is added to a singular noun before an s to show that something belongs to someone, e.g. John’s house. Article An article can be definite (the), indefinite (a/an) or zero (-), e.g. I was at (-) home in the sitting room when I heard a noise. Aspect A way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time. Aspect relates to the type of event, e.g. whether it is long or short, whether it is complete or not, whether it is repetitive or not, whether it is connected to the time of speaking or not. There are two aspects in English, the continuous/progressive and the perfect. The continuous aspect, for example, suggests that something is happening temporarily. ‘At’ symbol A punctuation mark (@) used instead of ‘at’ in email addresses, e.g. Auxiliary verb An auxiliary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives, tenses, etc e.g. be, do, have. Base form of a verb The base form of a verb is the infinitive form of a verb without ‘to’, e.g. go. Capital letter A letter of the form and size used at the beginning of a sentence or a name, e.g. They went to Spain last year.

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Clause A clause generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject and any other elements, e.g. object. A clause can be a full sentence or a part of a sentence. Main clause When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking. Subordinate clause When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking. Relative clause The learners who were sitting near the front stood up. Collective noun A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group of people or things, e.g. the police, the government. Comma A punctuation mark (,) used to separate items in a list or to show where there is a pause in a sentence, e.g. I bought some apples, oranges, bananas and lemons. When I went to the market, I met my friend. Comparative adjective A comparative adjective compares two things, e.g. He is taller than she is. Complex sentence A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Compound noun A compound noun is a combination of two or more words, which are used as a single word, e.g. a flower shop, a headache. Conditional (forms) A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation. Grammar books often mention four kinds of conditionals: First conditional – refers to present or future possible or likely situations, e.g. I will come if I can. Second conditional – refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossible or unlikely, e.g. I would go if they asked me. Third conditional – refers to past situations that cannot be changed, e.g. I would have seen her if I had arrived earlier (but I didn’t so I couldn’t). Mixed conditional – is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence, e.g. If I’d arrived on time, I wouldn’t have to wait now. If I’d arrived refers to the past and I wouldn’t have to wait refers to the present. Conjunction A conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences, e.g. I like tea but I don’t like coffee because it’s too strong for me. Connector: see conjunction. Countable noun A countable noun has a singular and plural form, e.g. book


Demonstrative adjective A demonstrative adjective shows whether something is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this (near), that (far). Demonstrative pronoun A demonstrative pronoun is a word which refers to a noun (phrase) and shows whether it is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this, that, these, those. Dependent preposition A dependent preposition is a word that is always used with a particular noun, verb or adjective before another word, e.g. interested in, depend on, bored with. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 © UCLES 2009

Determiner A determiner is used to make clear which noun is referred to, or to give information about quantity, and includes words such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g. That car is mine. Direct object: see object. Direct speech, question The actual words someone says, e.g. He said, ‘My name is Ron.’, ‘What do you mean, Sue?’, asked Peter. See indirect speech, question and reported speech, statement, question. Exclamation mark A punctuation mark (!) written after an exclamation, e.g. Be careful! Exponent An example of a grammar point, function or lexical set. First conditional: see conditional forms. Full stop A punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence, e.g. I like chocolate. Future forms Future with going to I’m going to visit my aunt on Sunday. It’s going to rain. Future with present continuous He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow. Future with present simple The plane leaves at 9.00 next Saturday. Future with will or shall I’ll help with the cleaning. It will be lovely and sunny tomorrow. Indirect object: see object. Gerund, -ing form A form of a verb functioning as a noun, which ends in -ing, e.g. I hate shopping. (Grammatical) structure, form A grammatical structure is a grammatical language pattern, e.g. present perfect simple, and the parts which combine to make it, e.g. have + past participle. Imperative The form of a verb that gives an order or instruction, e.g. Turn to page 10. Indirect speech, question The words someone uses when they are telling someone what somebody else said or asked, e.g. He told me his name was Ron. Peter asked Sue what she meant. An indirect question can also be used when someone wants to ask something in a more polite way, e.g. ‘I was wondering if you could help me.’ (indirect question) instead of ‘Could you help me?’ (direct question). See direct speech, question and reported speech, statement, question. Infinitive The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with ‘to’. It is used after another verb, after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. 'I want to stud y . ’, ‘It’s difficult to understand . ’ Infinitive of purpose This is used to express why something is done, e.g. I went to the lesson to learn English.

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e. school. See transitive. She never cried. e. I went out. something is done to or happens to the subject of the verb.g. but I should study even harder. proper noun. must. e. Intensifier A word used to make the meaning of another word stronger. An -ing adjective describes things or people. go went (past simple) gone (past participle). Each irregular verb has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle.g. e. See subject. look after. Past simple I went on holiday to France last year. elephant. Main clause: see clause.g.g. will. Past perfect continuous. e.g. progressive I had been studying for three hours so I felt tired. (past participle) Particle A small grammatical word. grass. e. He gave the book to me.g. should. progressive In a passive sentence. A direct object is the main object of a transitive verb. the book is the direct object and me is an indirect object.-ing/-ed adjective An -ing/-ed adjective describes things or feelings. Modal verb A modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or obligation or possibility. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 © UCLES 2009 . e. I saw Mary in the classroom. her. See collective noun. Participle (past and present) –ed and –ing forms of the verb.g. him. e. place or thing. An -ed adjective describes feelings. Past perfect simple After I had phoned Mary. they are often used to make tenses or adjectives.g. an interesting film (present participle). girl. countable noun. compound noun. They include can.g. Noun A person. Irregular verb An irregular verb does not follow the same pattern as regular verbs. uncountable noun. An indirect object is an object affected by a verb but not directly acted on.g. Object pronoun An object pronoun is a word which replaces an object noun or an object noun phrase. Past continuous. I can speak French. e. singular noun. e. plural noun. In this sentence. Passive voice. e.g. I haven’t seen him today. e. The tree was hit by the car. The book is very interesting. I am very interested in the book. after is a particle. I’m very tired. He’s much taller than his brother. Interrogative A question form. often an adverb or preposition which does not change its form when used in a sentence. Intransitive Is used to describe a verb which does not take a direct object. progressive I was watching TV all evening. Object This is a noun or phrase that describes the thing or person that is affected by the action of a verb.g. See active voice.g. e.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 © UCLES 2009 . e. e. the house is mine.Person First person – the person speaking. Proper noun A proper noun is the name of a person or place. e. Possessive pronoun A possessive pronoun is used to replace a noun and shows something belongs to someone. e. London.g.g. Phrase A group of words often without a finite verb that do not form a sentence.g.g. women. Present continuous.g.). boys. pronoun or gerund to connect it to another word. object pronoun. question mark (?). which are used instead of the name of that person. I.). Present perfect simple and continuous. e. Also a group of words that together have a particular meaning. Phonology noun. I don’t have much time. ‘Whose book is it?’ ‘It’s Sue’s’. I have a lot of books. place or thing and can be regular or irregular. Possessive adjective A possessive adjective shows who something belongs to. ‘at’ symbol (@) and speech marks (“ ”). they. e. we. reflexive pronoun. Quantifier A word or phrase such as much. Present perfect continuous.g.g. you.g. See demonstrative pronoun. our. apostrophe (‘). capital letter (A). personal pronoun. progressive I have been studying for three years. comma (. progressive: see tense. the green car. Present perfect simple I have known him for a long time. full stop (. e. progressive: see tense. relative pronoun. e. she. Pronoun A word that replaces or refers to a noun or noun phrase just mentioned. progressive I am working in London now. possessive pronoun. e. he. Personal pronoun Personal pronouns are words. e. e. Third person – the person spoken about. phonological adjective The study of sounds in a language or languages. on Friday morning are phrases.g. Present simple and continuous.g.g. phrases and sentences to make the meaning clear. Plural noun A plural noun is more than one person. me (object pronoun). Robert. Punctuation The symbols or marks used to organise writing into clauses.g. e. exclamation mark (!). progressive for future He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow. my.g. Possessive ‘s’ and whose Ways of showing or asking who something belongs to. Second person – the person spoken to. He was in the garden. e. Preposition A word used before a noun. Present continuous. few or a lot of which is used with a noun to show an amount. I (subject pronoun).

Reporting verb A verb such as tell. See indirect speech. e. boy. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 © UCLES 2009 . Subject This is the noun or phrase that goes before the verb to show who is doing the action in an active sentence.g. present perfect continuous/progressive. he walks. or who the action is done to in a passive sentence. isn’t it? Reflexive pronoun A reflexive pronoun is used when the object of a sentence refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence. past continuous/progressive. I will meet you after the lesson. She wrote a letter. Subordinate clause: see clause. such as after. future with present continuous.g. e.g. e. Jane advised John to study harder. Sarah”. past perfect simple. Time expression A word or phrase that indicates time.g. If a learner writes I walks. How are you? Question tag A phrase such as isn’t it? or doesn’t he? that is added to the end of a sentence to make it a question. Speech marks Punctuation mark (“ ”) They are written before and after a word or a sentence to show that it is what someone said. then it is wrong because there is no subject-verb agreement. e. Reported speech. e. She said she was sorry. question When someone’s words are reported by another person. past perfect continuous/progressive. Regular verb A regular verb changes its forms by adding -ed in the past simple and past participle. Superlative adjective A superlative adjective compares more than two things. Second conditional: see conditional (forms). question.g. present perfect simple. John plays tennis every Saturday. walked.g. e. It’s very cold. See object. e. He is the tallest boy in the class. He cut himself. John said “Hello. Relative pronoun A relative pronoun introduces a relative clause.g. reported speech to report what someone has said. See future with going to. past simple. I walk.g. e.g. statement. advise.g. park.g. the book which I’m reading is interesting.g. suggest used in indirect.g. future with present simple.g. present continuous/progressive. Subject-verb agreement When the form of the verb matches the person doing the action of the verb. or to check that someone agrees with the statement just made. walk Relative clause: see clause. present or future. bicycle. last weekend. e. e. Singular noun A singular noun is one person. e. place or thing. e. Third conditional: see conditional (forms). the food was cooked yesterday. Tense A form of the verb that shows whether something happens in the past. e. e.Question mark A punctuation mark (?) used in writing after a question. e. Transitive Is used to describe a verb which takes a direct object.g.

but which has a different meaning. whose.g.words introduce wh. See prefix. e.questions start with a wh.questions and indirect questions.Uncountable noun An uncountable noun does not have a plural form. We went the wrong way NOT We went the incorrect way. not just yes or no. base form of a verb. Verb pattern The form of the words following the verb. but now I live in Paris.g. long-legged. She felt under the weather means that she felt ill. I bought a new book. e. e. Base word: see root word. e. Affixation is the process of adding a prefix or suffix to a word.word Wh. suffix.question Wh. idioms. He advised me to get there early. e.questions expect information in reply. I like cheese. See auxiliary verb. Antonym The opposite of another word. e. verbs.g. phrasal verbs. e. interview. information. depend on. when. Collocations may also be lexical when two content words are regularly used together. Where do you live? I live in France. Collocation Words which are regularly used together. Compound Nouns. Wh. Wh.g when certain verbs collocate with particular prepositions. Wh. make a plan.g. False friend A word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the same meaning as a similar word in the learners’ first language but does not.g. modal verb. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 © UCLES 2009 . Used to A structure that shows something happened in the past but does not happen now. I used to live in London. e.g. hot is an antonym of cold. adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two or more words and have one unit of meaning.g. e. e.word. you do not buy books but borrow them instead.words include who. (advise + object pronoun + to + base form). e. Chunk Any pair or group of words commonly found together or near one another. good at or when a verb like make or do collocates with a noun. In a library in English. I knew he had won. what. where. but has a different meaning or spelling.g. fixed expressions. why. do the shopping. In French ‘librairie’ is a place where people can buy books. e. idiomatic adjective A group of words that are used together. assistant office manager. bit (past tense of ‘bite’) and a bit (a little). event or process. Idiom noun. The relation between the words may be grammatical. e. e. infinitive. irregular verb. which. Homophone A word which sounds the same as another word. collocations.g. He speaks Italian. e.g. Wh.g.g. LEXIS Affix verb.g. e. state. whom. in which the meaning of the whole word group is different from the meaning of each individual word. e. affixation noun A meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word.g. regular verb.g.g. which can be a different part of speech from the original word. Homonym A word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word. interviewer. Verb A word used to show an action.

economy.g. multi-word verb/unit A verb/any part of speech which is made up of more than one word (e. base word The basic word or part of a word from which other words can be made by adding a prefix or suffix.g. a verb + adverb particle or preposition) which has a different meaning from each individual word. look after – A mother looks after her children.g. you have = you’ve. stress. It was my AUNT who bought the car (not my uncle) or My aunt bought the CAKE (not the biscuits)! Contraction A shorter form of a group of words. It involves stressing the important word according to the different meanings. noun. Diphthong A vowel combination which is pronounced by moving from one vowel to another. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 © UCLES 2009 . e. study. tongue. Prefix A prefix is a meaningful group of letters added to the beginning of a root/base word to make a new word which can be a different part of speech from the original word. e. Root word. Synonym A word which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. e. it is = it’s.g. Any letter of the English alphabet which represents these sounds. / aˆ / as in my is pronounced by moving from / æ / to / ˆ /. Consonant A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips.Lexical set A group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or subject. weak forms. e. Phrasal verb. Suffix A suffix is a meaningful group of letters added to the end of a root or base word to make a new word which can be a different part of speech from the original word. d /d/.g.g. wind. homework. linking. Word family A group of words that come from the same root or base word. Is he busy / ˆzi…bˆzi… /. get dressed.g. e. nice is a synonym of pleasant. e. to rain. adverb. e. Contrast To compare the differences between two things. e. whiteboard. care – careful.g. See contraction. e.g. Lexis.g. In connected speech some sounds in words may be left out or may be pronounced in a weak way.g. photograph is the root or base word of photographer and photographic. weather – storm. e.g. economist. vocabulary Individual words or sets of words.g. verb. e. Vocabulary: see lexis. preposition. pronoun. e. Multi-word verb: see phrasal verb. PHONOLOGY Connected speech Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds. e. be on time. teeth etc.g. conjunction. Contrastive stress Contrastive stress is used to express an unusual or emphatic meaning in a sentence. See vowel. adjective. appear – disappear. Part of speech A way of categorising words according to their grammatical function and meaning.g. which usually occurs in auxiliary verbs. e. cloudy. c /k/. economic or by topic (see lexical set).

emphatic adjective When special force or attention is given to a word or information because it is important. Stress Primary. distinguish To identify the difference between two or more things. Linking The way different sounds can link into each other in connected speech. in I can play tennis can is pronounced / kWn / the weak form / W / is a feature of this sentence. each of which represents one sound. to show meaning such as how they feel about something. Emphasis noun. hit / hˆt / . particularly minimal pairs. e.Discriminate. Phonemes have their own symbols (phonemic symbols). Words that sound similar because they have the same ending. emphasise verb.g. It is a feature of weak forms.g. Identification noun.g. I want to start the lesson at SIX o’clock not seven o’clock. e. not/lot. / dÅktW / – doctor.g.g.g. e. Phonemic transcription is used in dictionaries to show pronunciation. Phoneme The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning e.g.g. I believe I can touch the sky. it ’s a good day – / ˆtsW˝¨deˆ /. e. Main stress: see stress. identify verb To recognise something. Minimal pair Two words which are different from each other by only one meaningful sound. If I were YOU. if they are angry or pleased or to make speech sound polite in English. e. hat. indiVIDual. e.g. e. Sentence stress: see stress. /p/ in pan.g.g. main stress The main stress on a word. /b/ in ban. Primary stress: see stress. e. Secondary stress: see stress. cat. Rhythm The rhythm of speech is the way that some words in a sentence are emphasised or stressed to produce a regular pattern. e. Intonation The way the level of a speaker’s voice changes. e. Intonation can be rising or falling or both. Secondary stress Stress on a syllable or word in a sentence that is less strong than the primary (main) stress. Rhyme 1.g. The primary stress on a word is marked in the dictionary as follows 'difficult. A song or poem with words that sound the same at the end of each line I believe I can fly. e. heat /hi…t /. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 © UCLES 2009 . Schwa The / W / sound is called the schwa. of connected speech) A feature of something is an interesting or important part or characteristic of it. /»kÅntrW«v±…ßWl/ which has the primary or main stress on / v±… / and the secondary stress on / kÅn /. e. / kWn / in I can play tennis. Words can be presented in phonemic script (usually International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA).g.g. sound discrimination is hearing the differences between sounds. e. I’d GO by BUS.g. DIFFicult. 2. Feature (e.

e.Sentence stress refers to the way some words in a sentence are stressed.g. French. e.g. no voice is used. Word boundary Where one word ends and the next one begins. especially in connected speech. Express intention. umbrella = three syllables – um/brell/a. is probably on the word perfect.g. pen = one syllable. the main stress. replying. e. Stress can therefore be used to show meaning. the weak form of vowels may be used. English and Spanish. /p/ in pad. The letters a. Unvoiced sound To produce an unvoiced sound. appropriate/inappropriate adjective Language which is suitable in a particular situation. when spoken. I’m planning to visit him next year.g. and the temperature was perfect. Colloquial Language normally used in informal conversation but not in formal speech or writing. e. I’m sorry but I can’t. e. I can swim. umbrella / √m«brelW /. Word stress: see stress. teacher = two syllables – teach/er. /b/ in bad.g. FUNCTIONS Candidates should already be familiar with common functions such as asking. e. You must wear a seatbelt. He needs to get a new passport. thanking and suggesting.g. See register.g. Express ability. See weak form. then the strong form is used. o. Weak forms If a word is unstressed. I can /kaen/ speak a little Spanish in an emergency. /d/ in dentist. e.g. No movement or vibration can be felt in the throat. Appropriacy noun. lips. See strong form. and the pronunciation changes. e. Strong form If a word is important.g. The sound / W / is called schwa. the voice is used. In English these are usually the information-carrying words. teeth etc.g. e.g. Vowels in English are voiced. What time does the train leave? Express To show or make known a feeling or an opinion in words.g. to emphasise a particular point or feeling. In the sentence It was a lovely evening. e. i. e. Enquire To ask for information.g. Express necessity. e. refuse an invitation To say that you will not accept an invitation. /t/ in tomorrow. e. Give Gran a ring. Vowel A sound in which the air is not blocked by the tongue. u and sometimes y are used to represent these sounds. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11 © UCLES 2009 . Voiced sound To produce a voiced sound. OK? Decline. Movement or vibration is felt in the throat because the voice is used. e. I can (/ kWn /) speak Italian. Express obligation. telling. Syllable A part of a word that usually contains a single vowel sound. Movement or vibration can be felt in the throat. Word stress is the pronunciation of a syllable with more force or emphasis than the surrounding syllables which are said to be unstressed.

g. Function The reason or purpose for communication.g. Please could you open the window? Speculate To guess something based on information you have. e.g. Neutral A style of speaking or writing that is neither formal nor informal. e. Negotiate To discuss with someone to reach an agreement. e. Hi John. See formal language. Formal register or language is used in serious or important situations. Hello. A text or language can be abstract. You can have a look at my book. Express probability. e. See register. Yours faithfully. e. Express prohibition. e.g. e. but in between. often with words. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 © UCLES 2009 . e. Please turn to page 12 and do exercise 1.g. He should be in later.g. If you help me now. making a suggestion. See function. e. You mustn’t use your mobile phone while driving. It is appropriate for most situations.g.g. See appropriacy. Register The formality or informality of the language used in a particular situation. Informal language Language used in informal conversations or writing.. how are you? Inappropriate Language which is not suitable in a particular situation. basic. I’ll help you next week. Formality (level of): see register. Instruct To order or tell someone to do something.g. Greet To welcome someone.Express permission. Concepts and terminology for describing language skills Abstract Relating to complex thoughts and ideas rather than simple. e. e. Informality (level of): see register. concrete concepts. e. make a (polite) request To ask someone politely to do something.g. Predict To guess or say what you think may happen.g. I think it might be an easy test. e. I think the story will end happily. e.g.g. e.g. See concrete. in a job application. giving advice. informal language. I’d rather have coffee than tea. words to express thoughts or feelings are often abstract words. See register.g. Functional exponent A phrase which is an example of a function and shows the purpose of what the speaker is communicating.g. with family or friends. Request. This phrase is one way to make a suggestion. e. Express preference.g. e.. It is an example (or exponent) of the function of suggesting. Formal language Language used in formal conversations or writing. Let’s . Informal register or language is used in relaxed or friendly situations.

Van must be some kind of vehicle because you drive it and park it. Teachers do this in class by providing activities which focus on skills development. and may be changed. conjunctions (Firstly.g. Extract Part of a text which is removed from an original text. e. Deduce meaning from context To guess the meaning of an unknown word by using the information in a situation and/or around the word to help. teachers and learners typically focus on using and producing language. Cohesion noun. although etc. Context 1. spelling and pronunciation. words for real objects like clothes. See re-draft.). next. See oral fluency. Coherence noun. and so are logical and make sense to the listener or reader. animals that can be seen or touched. this). cohesive adjective The way spoken or written texts are joined together with logical grammar or lexis.g. lexical sets. e. Develop skills To help learners to improve their listening. Extensive listening/reading Listening to or reading long pieces of text. Draft noun + verb A draft is a piece of writing that is not yet finished. such as stories or newspapers. See intensive listening/reading. feelings. coherent adjective When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly. Comprehension Understanding a spoken or written text. of conjunctions (however. e. Complex Complicated. reading. Authenticity: see authentic material. coherent adjective When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly. him. A writer drafts a piece of writing. That is. a story about a holiday experience could be used as the context to present past tenses. etc.g. e. Concrete Relating to real or specific ideas or concepts. words to express thoughts. of referencing words (pronouns – he.Accuracy The use of correct forms of grammar. The words or phrases before or after a word in discourse which help someone to understand that word. In an accuracy activity. or abstract. use of topic-related vocabulary throughout a text. e. not simple.g.). Coherence noun.). and so are logical and make sense to the listener or reader. of sequencing words (then.g. e. Lexis can be concrete. I drove my van to the town centre and parked it in the central car park. Cohesive device A feature in a text which provides cohesion. secondly). ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13 © UCLES 2009 . spelling correctly.g. vocabulary. after that etc. them. food. Edit To shorten or change or correct the words or content of some parts of a written text to make it clearer or easier to understand. See deduce meaning from context. complex ideas. 2. writing and speaking ability. Discourse Spoken or written language in texts or groups of sentences. The situation in which language is used or presented. which cannot be seen or touched. referring words (it. they write it for the first time but not exactly as it will be when it is finished.

Key word A word in a piece of discourse or text. When a writer is paragraphing. Paraphrase can also be used to describe what a learner does if he/she is not sure of the exact language they need to use. Listen/read for detail To listen to or read a text in order to understand most of what it says or particular details. especially in speaking. explain their meaning using different language. Interactive strategies are the means used.g. Infer attitude. mood To decide how a writer or speaker feels about something from the way that they speak or write. Listen/read for mood To read or listen to a text in order to identify the feelings of the writer or speaker. Listen/read for gist. writing. feeling. Oral fluency The use of connected speech at a natural speed with little hesitation. See infer attitude. i. feeling. See accuracy. rather than trying to be correct. e. See extensive listening/reading. interact verb. Paraphrase noun + verb To say or write something that has been read or heard using different words. Gist. It starts on a new line and usually contains a single new idea. predict verb A technique or learner strategy learners can use to help with listening or reading. he/she is creating paragraphs. Prediction noun. functions such as repeating.g. or reader and text. e. Paragraph noun + verb A paragraph is a section in a longer piece of writing such as an essay. This makes it easier for them to understand what they read or hear. In a written or spoken fluency activity. without paying attention to specific details. Integrated skills An integrated skills lesson combines work on reading. global understanding To understand the general meaning of a text. Certain texts have special layouts. which is important for understanding the text. listening and speaking. Learners think about the topic before they read or listen. fossilised errors The process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be corrected. letters and newspaper articles. eye contact. repetition or self-correction. to keep people involved and interested in what is said or to keep communication going. mood. Layout The way in which a text is organised and presented on a page. learners typically give attention to the communication of meaning.e. See topic sentence. using clues like headlines or pictures accompanying the text or their general knowledge about the text type or topic.Fossilisation. asking for clarification. take notes verb To take notes means to listen and write down ideas from the text in short form. They try to imagine what the topic will be or what they are going to read about or listen to. Intensive listening/reading One meaning of intensive listening/reading is reading or listening to focus on how language is used in a text. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14 © UCLES 2009 . use of gestures. global listening/reading: see listen/read for gist/global understanding. rather than from what they openly say. Process noun + verb To actively think about new information in order to understand it completely and be able to use it in future. This is how intensive listening/reading is used in TKT. Interaction noun. Note-taking noun. interactive strategies Interaction is ‘two-way communication’ between listener and speaker.

which thinks of writing as a process which includes different stages of writing such as planning. This is usually the opening sentence in a paragraph. speaking. Product writing An approach to writing which involves analysing and then reproducing models of particular text types. finding a phone number in a phone book. Receptive skills When learners do not have to produce language. proofreading. guided writing.Process writing An approach to writing. use of language.g. Speaking and then allowing another person to speak in reply is called ‘turn-taking’. a written text may have different versions. scan. reading and writing. See listen/read for gist. re-drafting. Theme noun. Speaking and writing are productive skills. a text or a lesson. turn-taking When someone speaks in a conversation this is called a turn. drafting. Summary noun. Turn. Relevance noun. e. emails. summarise verb To take out the main points of a long text. Productive skills When learners produce language. e. that make them part of a recognisable type of text. an essay typically has an introduction. global understanding. See productive skills. See receptive skills. letters.g. e. Subskill Each of the four language skills can be divided into smaller subskills that are all part of the main skill. listening and reading are receptive skills. Topic sentence A sentence that gives the main point or subject of a paragraph.g. Skim To read a text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about. Version A particular form of something in which some details are different from an earlier or later form of it. a main section and a conclusion. Scan To read a text quickly to pick out specific information. punctuation etc. editing. thematic adjective The main subject of a conversation. relevant adjective The degree to which something is related to or useful in a situation. See product writing. grammar. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15 © UCLES 2009 . clear way. For example. e. See process writing. A writer’s first draft may be re-drafted. Text type Texts that have specific features. Re-draft When a piece of writing is changed with the intention of improving it.g. identifying text organisation (reading). See draft. Skill The four language skills are listening. Text structure The way a text is organised. Proofread To read a text in order to check whether there are any mistakes in spelling. layout. Topic The subject of a text or lesson.g. listen/read for detail. identifying word stress (listening). e. and rewrite or retell them in a short. news reports.

Teachers often do activities that help learners to feel more confident about their own ability. confident adjective The feeling someone has when they are sure of their ability to do something well. something done successfully. Factor A fact or situation which influences the result of something. Expectation A belief about the way something will happen. achieve verb. A developmental error is an error made by a second language learner which could also be made by a young person learning their mother tongue as part of their normal development. This is the way people usually learn their first language. Auditory learner: see learning style. Conscious (of) To know that something exists or is happening. Effective Having the intended or desired result. Developmental error: see error. Something which is achievable for learners is something they can succeed in. Exposure noun. Clue A piece of information that helps someone to find the answer to a problem. Demotivate: see motivation. Confidence noun. English-medium school A school in a non-English speaking country. Attention span How long a learner is able to concentrate at any one time. acquire verb To learn a language without studying it. Acquisition noun. just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. a teacher could give the first letter of a word she is trying to elicit as a clue to learners to help them find the word. First language: see mother tongue. See slip. in which all subjects are taught using English. Cognitive (processes) The mental processes involved in thinking. achievable adjective Something reached by effort. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 © UCLES 2009 .g. understanding or learning. or to have knowledge or experience of something. to be aware.Background to language learning Achievement noun. e. Learners often have expectations about what and how they should learn. Error A mistake that a learner makes when trying to say something above their level of language or language processing.g. expose verb When learners listen to or read language without being consciously aware of it. the factors which decide whether someone learns a language successfully or not.g. e. e. I goed there last week (I went there last week). L1/L2.

books. L1/L2 L1 is the learner’s mother tongue or first language. target An aim that a learner or teacher may have. Kinaesthetic learner: see learning style. Guidance noun. e.Focus on form Paying attention to the words/parts of words that make a language structure or to spelling or pronunciation. Learner autonomy noun. Interlanguage is constantly changing and developing as learners learn more of the second language. Learner training The use of activities to help learners understand how they learn and help them to become autonomous. learners could carry out research on a topic using reference resources. Ignore (errors) To choose not to pay attention to something such as an error made by a learner. CDs etc. e. autonomous adjective. ‘Learn by heart’ To learn something so that you can remember it perfectly. Interlanguage Learners’ own version of the second language which they speak as they learn. e. This could be done at home or with minimum involvement of the teacher in class. A teacher may do this if he/she wants to help the learner with fluency. e. predicting content before reading. L2 is the learner’s second language. Intensive course A course which takes place over a short period of time.g. guide verb Help given by a teacher with learning. age. but the L1 grammatical pattern is not appropriate in L2. Many activities in coursebooks help learners to be more independent by developing learning strategies and focusing on learner training. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17 © UCLES 2009 . computers. learning style. independent learners. not accuracy.g. or with doing a task. Learning strategies The techniques which a learner consciously uses to help them when learning or using language. Learner independence: see learner autonomy. L1. Independent study Studying without a teacher present or without the teacher monitoring and directing the learning very closely. Language awareness A learner’s understanding of the rules of how language works and his/her ability to notice language. Goal. but which consists of a high number of hours. Learner characteristics The typical things about a learner or learners that influence their learning. they are autonomous and independent.g.g. past learning experience. Learning resources The materials or tools which help learners learn. Interference When the learner’s mother tongue affects their performance in the target language. A learner may make a mistake because they use the same grammatical pattern in the target language as they use in their mother tongue. learner independence When a learner can set his/her own aims and organise his/her own study. deducing the meaning of words from context.

Learning style The way in which an individual learner naturally prefers to learn something. motivate verb Motivation is the thoughts and feelings which make us want to do something and help us continue doing it. This type of learner may like the teacher to say a new word aloud and not just write it on the board. something which is easy to remember. memorable adjective To learn something so that you can remember it later. Three of them are below. texts or grammar to their own life. just by hearing and/or reading and then using it. e.g. Needs The language. topics. Also called L1 or first language. Notice language When a learner becomes aware of the language the speaker or writer uses to express a particular concept or meaning. Maturity noun. Some language items are learned before others and it can be difficult for teachers to influence this order. they behave in an adult way. which is usually the language spoken to you by your parents. A learner’s maturity (physical. If a learner is mature in attitude. Proficiency noun. having no motivation. participate verb To take part in something. This type of learner may like to move around or move objects while learning. emotional and mental) influences a teacher’s approaches and/or decisions. Unmotivated adjective Without motivation. Demotivate verb demotivated adjective To make someone lose motivation. Literacy The ability to read and write. e. speaking English.g. a lesson or classroom activity. language skills or learning strategies a learner still has to learn in order to reach their goals. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18 © UCLES 2009 . There are many learning styles. See acquisition. Mother tongue The very first language that you learn as a baby. Auditory learner A learner who remembers things more easily when they hear them spoken. This type of learner may like the teacher to write a new word on the board and not just say it aloud. mature adjective Fully grown or developed. Natural order Some people believe there is an order in which learners naturally learn some items in their first or other languages. personalise verb When a teacher helps a learner to connect new words. proficient adjective Level of ability. or the conditions they need to help them learn. Participation noun. Personalisation noun. Pick up To learn language without studying it. Memorise verb. to be very good at something because of training and practice. Visual learner A learner who finds it easier to learn when they can see things written down or in a picture. Linguistic Connected with language or the study of language. Motivation noun. Kinaesthetic learner A learner who learns more easily by doing things physically.

See error. different vocabulary or grammar may be used. Visual learner: see learning style. English.g.Silent period The time when learners who are beginning to learn a first (or second) language prefer to listen (or read) before producing the language.g. Slip When a learner makes a language mistake that they are able to correct themselves. e.g. e. but the English spoken may be slightly or significantly different in each country or in different parts of one country. present perfect. Work language out When learners try to understand how and why a particular piece of language is used. Unmotivated: see motivation. or the specific language that a teacher wants to focus on in a lesson. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19 © UCLES 2009 . e.g. Varieties of English English is spoken as a first or second language in many countries around the world. Target language culture The traditions and culture of the country whose language is being studied. An example of this is the English spoken in the USA and that spoken in the UK. Target language The language a learner is learning. e. babies have a silent period when they listen to their parents before starting to try to speak themselves.

e.g. 2. See set the scene. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) An approach in which a foreign language is used as a tool in the learning of a non-language subject in which both have a joint role. The rules of language used in the activity are looked at either after the activity or not at all. They do not practise communication and there is little focus on speaking. head. Guided discovery A way of teaching in which a teacher provides examples of the target language and then guides the learners to work out the language rules for themselves. Concept checking is the technique of asking concept questions or using other techniques to check that learners have understood a new structure or item of lexis. define verb An explanation of the meaning of a word.Background to language teaching PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES.g. well Functional Approach A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on functions. rather than giving the class the information. e. See Grammar-Translation method. Contextualise To put new language into a situation that shows what it means. It aims to develop learners’ ability in both the content subject and the language. hand. ah. e. a school subject in the second language. a task followed by drilling. Elicit When a teacher thinks that some learners will know a piece of language or some information. Words/sounds used to avoid pauses when speaking.g. e. Filler 1.g. A short activity between the main stages of a lesson used for reasons such as time management or to provide a change of pace etc. APPROACHES AND INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES Activity-based learning A way of learning by doing activities. Concept questions. Concept question – Does he live in Paris now? Answer – No. Grammar-Translation method A way of teaching in which learners study grammar and translate words and texts into their own language or the target language. Gesture noun + verb A movement with part of the body. Definition noun. Communicative approaches A way of teaching and practising language which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully involves communication rather than just memorising a series of rules. e. Eclectic An approach to language teaching in which the teacher uses techniques and activities taken from different methods together in one lesson. context. Content-based learning An approach to teaching that focuses on teaching content. rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes.g. erm. Concept Idea or meaning. Teachers try to focus on meaningful communication. See communicative approaches. the new language structure – used to – He used to live in Paris. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20 © UCLES 2009 . in a dictionary. which is used to convey meaning. e. he/she asks targeted questions or gives clues to get learners to give the information. concept checking A concept question is a question asked by the teacher to make sure that a learner has understood the meaning of new language. A teacher presents a grammar rule and vocabulary lists and then learners translate a written text from their own language into the second language or vice versa.g.

through a text or via electronic means. often by using the board and speaking to the whole class. Structural Approach A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on grammatical structures. a teacher may choose to give thinking time to learners before they speak. Introductory activity An activity which takes place at the beginning of a lesson. Presentation. multi-word units.g. an activity can be meaningful if it is useful for learners in the real world outside the classroom or is relevant to them. Situational presentation A way of presenting new language through a simple story or situation. which is used to help learners to pronounce particular language. Practice and Production (PPP) A way of teaching new language in which the teacher presents the language. The order in which the language is presented is usually based on how difficult it is thought to be. e. Illustrate meaning To show what something means. e. Meaningful 1. Teaching strategy A procedure or technique used by a teacher in the classroom to encourage learning. collocations and fixed expressions rather than grammatical structures. e. When a learner or learners gives a talk to their class or group. teaching. Input noun + verb Information which is given to learners by the teacher. e. Introductory activities often include warmers and lead-ins.g. but the main focus for learners is on the task itself. drilling is an example of a teaching technique. Methodology Methods or procedures used in a particular activity.g. The teacher may use pictures or other aids to help him/her create the situation. gets learners to practise it in exercises or other controlled practice activities and then asks learners to use or produce the same language in a communicative and less controlled way. Presentation noun. When the teacher introduces new language usually by focusing on it formally. present verb 1. After this the teacher may ask learners to think about the language they used while doing the tasks.g. Technique A way of achieving a purpose.Ice-breaker An introductory activity that a teacher uses at the start of a new course so that learners can get to know each other. Lexical Approach A way of teaching language that focuses on lexical items or chunks such as words. Task-based Learning (TBL) A way of teaching in which the teacher gives learners meaningful tasks to do. 2. Mime noun + verb Body movements used to convey meaning without using words. Project work is often task-based. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 21 © UCLES 2009 . something which shows the meaning of language.

This way of approaching teaching target language can be helpful if the teacher thinks the learners may already know some of the target language. I bought a pen.g. learners might categorise a list of different foods into groups (categories) such as fruit and vegetables. For example.g. then asks the learners to do another task using the new language correctly (this is the second test). In a choral drill the teacher says a word or sentence and the learners repeat it together as a class. Warmer noun. sentence. Brainstorm noun + verb To think of ideas (usually quickly) about a topic (often noting these down). What did you have for breakfast? Toast. Total Physical Response (TPR) A way of teaching in which the teacher presents language items in instructions and the learners have to do exactly what the teacher tells them. In an individual drill the teacher says a word or sentence and one learner repeats it.Test-teach-test A way of teaching new language. verse. See open question. in a regular rhythm. warm up verb An activity that a teacher uses at the beginning of a lesson to give the class more energy.g. The teacher asks learners to do a task to see how well they know a certain piece of language (this is the first test). Categorisation noun. rhyme. as it allows them to have a silent period and can make fast progress. colleges and universities.g. Open the window! Stand up! This method can be good for beginners when they start to learn a new language. e. Communicative activity A classroom activity in which learners need to talk or write to one another to complete the activity. Teacher: Learner: I bought a book. See energy levels. It helps the teacher diagnose what the learners need to learn so that he/she can focus only on what learners need to learn in the presentation (teach). I went to the cinema. Didn’t I didn’t go to the cinema. category noun To put things into the group (category) to which they belong. Closed question A question which leads to a yes/no answer or another very short response. e. Controlled practice: see practice. It involves guided repetition or practice. e. Pen. This is often done as preparation before writing or speaking. usually with others. PRACTICE ACTIVITIES AND TASKS Academic adjective Relating to schools. poem or song. The teacher then presents the new language to the learners (teach). e. In a transformation drill the teacher says a word or a sentence and the learner answers by changing the sentence into a new grammatical structure. Didn’t I didn’t buy a pen. categorise verb. or connected with studying and thinking. Did you come to school by bus? Yes. stage. Choral drill: see drill. Chant noun + verb To repeat a phrase. In a substitution drill the teacher provides a sentence and a different word or phrase which the learner must use (or substitute) in exactly the same structure. Drill A technique teachers use for encouraging learners to practise language. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 22 © UCLES 2009 . Teacher: Learner: Teacher: Learner: I bought a pen.

This is often used for restricted practice or for focusing on a specific language point. a text in which the paragraphs or sentences are not in the correct order. Problem-solving activities usually help to develop oral fluency. Guided writing A piece of writing that learners produce after the teacher has helped them to prepare for it by. freer practice When learners use the target language but have more choice of what they say and what language they use. e. Information-gap activity A classroom activity in which learners work in pairs or groups. Jumbled letters. Jigsaw listening/reading A text is divided into two or more different parts.g. The teacher and learners focus on accurate use of the target language. e. they have to find out the missing information from each other. giving the learners a plan to follow. See cloze test. extended adjective An activity which gives learners further or extended practice of the target language or the topic of the lesson or additional skills work.g. the text is made into an information-gap activity. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 23 © UCLES 2009 . Learners listen to or read their part only. Individual drill: see drill. How did you spend last weekend? Why do you think many people prefer to drive rather than use public transport? Open-ended (task. pictures. Less controlled. restricted practice When learners use the target language repeatedly and productively in situations in which they have little or no choice of what language they use. In this way. Label noun + verb To match the name of an object to the object. extend verb. Less controlled practice: see practice. paragraphs.g. Prioritising: see rank ordering. but which allows learners to offer their own opinions and ideas or to respond creatively.Extension task. Why do you think the writer likes living in Paris? Picture stories Stories that are shown in pictures instead of words. Practice Controlled practice. Freer practice: see practice. text or pictures into the correct order. Open question A question which can lead to a long response. Learners are given a task. words. or ideas for the type of language to use. This is different from a cloze test which can focus on reading ability or general language use. The learners put the letters. then share their information with other learners so that in the end everyone knows all the information. sentences. a sentence in which the words are not in the correct order. to complete the task. e. Mind map: see word map. or a series of pictures that are not in the correct order. words A word in which the letters are not in the correct order. Problem solving Learners work in pairs or groups to find the solution to a problem. questions) A task or question that does not have a right or wrong answer. but they are given different information and. Gap-fill An activity in which learners fill in spaces or gaps in sentences or texts.

functions or pronunciation. solve verb An answer to a problem. Target language 1. A task usually focuses on communication. lexis. a prioritising or rank ordering activity is a communicative activity in which learners are given a list of things to put in order of importance. Swap To change one thing for another. Transformation drill: see drill. It could be grammar. matching. It involves discussion. problem-solving activities or information-gap activities are tasks.g. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 24 © UCLES 2009 . Revise. Review noun + verb When a learner or teacher looks again at language or skills that have already been taught in order to remember this language better. prioritising Putting things in order of importance. 2. Restricted practice: see practice. agreeing/disagreeing and negotiating. Recall noun + verb To remember. Role-play A classroom activity in which learners are given roles to act out in a given situation. Learners sometimes do some work by themselves. e. sometimes outside the classroom.g. Rank ordering. For example. The language being studied. in class a teacher could ask learners to swap partners so that they can work with someone different. Solution noun. gap-fill. e. e. Task An activity that learners complete. Task-type A set of questions that are all of one kind. Substitution drill: see drill. Teachers often do this in the classroom to help learners to prepare for a test.g. In the classroom.Project work An activity which focuses on completing an extended task or tasks on a specific topic. L2. a job interview role-play where one learner would be the interviewer and the other learner would be the interviewee. The language which is the focus of the lesson or a part of the lesson. Role-plays are usually done in pairs or groups. multiple choice. revision: see review. Substitution table A grid giving a choice of grammatical forms: I You He/she/it We You They go goes go to work by car Do you Does he/she/it Do you/they go by car? Survey Learners find out information from others by asking questions or using questionnaires in order to practise speaking skills and/or specific language. Learners may work in groups to create something such as a class magazine. See Task-based learning. Task may also be used as another word for activity.

learning strategies. See gap-fill. every seventh word. ‘Can-do’ statements Sentences that describe language learners’ language use or an aspect of it on a scale of proficiency. A cloze test is used for testing reading ability or general language use. or whether a course is successful or not. use of vocabulary. Visualisation can help learners to remember new words or can be used for creative story-telling. mind map A diagram which is used to make a visual record of vocabulary on the same topic. e. Diagnostic test noun. e. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 25 © UCLES 2009 . visualise verb To form a mental picture of something.Visualisation noun. Word map. which can focus on practising or testing a specific language point.g. Continuous assessment: see assessment. to say how successful or unsuccessful they have been. proficiency or progress either formally or informally. For example. The missing words are removed regularly from the text. This learner CAN express simple opinions or requirements in a familiar context. May also include regular monitoring of classroom performance and contribution. Cloze test A task-type in which learners read a text with missing words and try to work out what the missing words are. It is different from a gap-fill activity. Some or all of the work that learners do during a course is considered by the teacher on a regular basis and contributes to the final grade given to learners. performance. Peer assessment When learners give feedback on each other’s language.g. Formal assessment When a teacher judges learners’ work through a test and then gives a formal report or grade to learners. (Open) Comprehension questions A task-type in which learners read or listen to a text and answer questions (using their own words). e. by observing learners rather than setting a test or writing an official report or giving a grade. Self-assessment When learners decide for themselves how good they think their progress or language use is. organisation of ideas.g. Assessment noun. assess verb To discover. See summative test. Continuous assessment A type of testing which is different from a final examination. Formative assessment When a teacher uses information on learners’ progress during a course to adapt their teaching or to give learners feedback on their learning. spelling and punctuation. Informal assessment When a teacher decides whether a learner is doing well or not. work. car transport train plane bus ASSESSMENT Achievement test: see test. assessment criteria for judging learners’ writing may be: accuracy of grammar. diagnose verb: see test. Assessment criteria The qualities against which a learner’s performance is judged for assessment. A classroom activity where learners close their eyes and create mental images. judge or form an opinion on or test learners’ ability.

Informal assessment: see assessment. A purposeful document. Formal assessment: see assessment. Achievement tests are often at the end of term or end of the year and test the main points of what has been taught in that time.g. It’s too cold to play tennis. regularly added to that may be part of continuous assessment. e. Subjective test: see test. Peer assessment: see assessment. Self-assessment: see assessment. using specific target language. importance or effectiveness of something. Summative test: see test. (enough) It isn’t warm enough to play tennis. At the weekend. e. Placement test: see test. I enjoy … . Oral test A test of speaking ability. Item 1. and are asked to complete the sentence. It ____________ to play tennis. In the evenings. e. Test A formal assessment of a learner’s language. the beginning or the end. They choose the correct answer from the options they are given.g. e. Sentence transformation A task-type in which learners are given a sentence and a prompt.g. Portfolio A collection of work that a learner uses to show what he/she has done during a particular course. I love … . The questions in a test to which a learner has to respond.g.g. Proficiency test: see test. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 26 © UCLES 2009 . Multiple-choice questions A task-type in which learners are given a question and three or four possible answers or options. An achievement test is used to see how well learners have learned the language and skills taught in class. Formative assessment: see assessment. Objective test: see test. e. or a word with a picture. evaluate verb To assess or judge the quality. Sentence completion A task-type in which learners are given parts of a sentence.Evaluation noun. Teachers may evaluate learners’ progress or strengths and weaknesses. Matching task A task-type in which learners are asked to pair related things together. a vocabulary or a grammar item. and have to make a second sentence using the prompt so that it means the same as the first. Progress test: see test. A piece of language. match two halves of a sentence. 2.

True/false questions A task-type in which learners read or listen to a text and decide whether statements are correct (true) or not correct (false). A mark or grade is given. English for general communication. An objective test is marked without using the examiner’s opinion. e. It helps the teacher to plan what to teach.g. compositions. interviews. marking written stories. The teacher diagnoses the language problems learners have. A proficiency test is used to see how good learners are at using the target language. Tutorial When a teacher talks to a learner individually or to a small group of learners to discuss their learning and give feedback on their progress in class. It can also be used to diagnose learner strengths. true/false questions. in future. A progress test is used during a course in order to assess the learning up to a particular point in the course. but no other feedback. or what not to teach. See formative assessment/evaluation. Cambridge ESOL First Certificate in English (FCE) and IELTS are examples of proficiency tests. e. A subjective test is marked using the examiner’s opinion about the quality of the answer. A placement test is often used at the beginning of a course in a language school in order to identify a learner’s level of language and find the best class for them. multiple-choice questions. The answer is not simply right or wrong. story-telling.g. There is a clear right answer. e. English for hotel receptionists. conversations. English for studying at university. The contents of a proficiency test are not chosen according to what has been taught. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 27 © UCLES 2009 . A summative test is used at the end of a course.A diagnostic test is used to identify problems that learners have with language or skills. but according to what is needed for a particular purpose.g.

MODULE 2 Lesson planning Aids Aids are the things that a teacher uses in a class. See confidence. For example. timing. to provide controlled practice of the present perfect or to develop listening for gist. e. Components (of a lesson plan) The main parts of a lesson plan. strengths and weaknesses in language and skills. e. e. A personal aim is what the teacher would like to improve in his/her teaching. a teacher plans to teach the present simple using the context of jobs and daily routines. e. Arouse. Encouragement noun. For example.g. e. ability.g. interaction patterns. learner profile A description of all the learners and any other information related to their learning in a class or each learner.g. pictures. generate.g. handouts. procedure. anticipated problems. Analyse language To think about language. less important than the main aim. the teacher’s main aim in a lesson could be to teach the present perfect or develop listening skills. The main aim is the most important aim. Class. They may also think about how learners’ previous learning experience may affect their learning in a specific lesson. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 28 © UCLES 2009 .g. timetable fit. The teacher may make the assumption that learners will know basic job vocabulary and so knows he/she will not need to spend time in the lesson presenting these words. Enable To help someone be able to do something. stimulate interest To get learners interested in a task or topic.g. e.g. When teachers plan lessons they think about what aids they will need. assumptions. flashcards. personal aims. including their age. A subsidiary aim is the secondary focus of the lesson. Assumptions When teachers think about what they believe their learners will or will not know or how they will behave in a particular lesson. step or short section of a lesson. e. learners can consolidate a grammar point by doing extra practice. It could be the language or skills learners must be able to use in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson or a skill or language area which is practised while focusing on the main aim. what the form of the structure is and why it is being used in this way in this situation. Anticipate (language) problems When teachers are planning a lesson. they think about what their learners might find difficult about the language or skills in the lesson so that they can help them learn more effectively at certain points in the lesson. A stage aim is the aim or purpose of a stage. aims. To reduce the time I spend writing on the whiteboard. aids. to examine it and to break it into parts in order to understand it. encourage verb When a teacher helps learners to succeed by giving them confidence. Consolidate To return to something in order to allow learners to understand and remember it more completely. Aim What the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson or in the course. ‘Of course you can do it! You’re doing very well ’.

g. the teacher can teach key vocabulary from the text which they think the learners do not already know and which is necessary to understand the main points of a text. give feedback. Highlight 1. Focus on To pay attention to something. This could be at a certain point in the course.g. Peer feedback Feedback given to a learner by another learner in the class. they think about interaction patterns and write them on their plan. When teachers plan lessons.Feedback noun + verb. 1. in pairs or groups or teacher to learner. Objective Lesson objectives are specific learning targets that help achieve a lesson’s aims. To mark words on paper. lead in verb The activity or activities used to prepare learners to work on a text. e. Logical Based on reason. Pace The speed of the lesson. A lead-in often includes an introduction to the topic of the text or main task and possibly study of some new key language required for the text or main task. Teachers need to be flexible and to be prepared to change or adapt if the lesson is not going to plan. Main aim: see aim. e. This is what the teacher hopes will be the result in terms of learning at the end of the lesson. 2. learners practise the language of complaints in a role-play in pairs. To tell learners how well they are doing. A lesson is logical if the stages follow an order which makes sense and if one stage leads clearly and obviously to another. topic or main task. to highlight a mistake by underlining it. learners will be able to understand the gist of the text. Lead-in noun. Interaction patterns The different ways learners and the teacher work together in class. 2. Peer feedback: see feedback. if you teach learning strategies. To communicate to a speaker that you understand (or not) what they are saying. conduct. Procedure The details of exactly what is going to happen in each stage of a lesson. on the board or on a computer screen using a colour or underlining so that they are easier to notice. To draw attention to or focus on something so that learners realise it is important. to highlight something. For example. A teacher can vary the pace in a lesson by planning different activities in order to keep the learners’ attention. Outcome Result. in open class. e.g. Flexible Something or someone that can change easily to suit new situations. learner to learner. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 29 © UCLES 2009 . to notice something. Personal aim: see aim. or after an exercise that learners have just completed. Pre-teach (vocabulary) Before introducing a text to learners. Raise awareness To help learners to start to understand something that they may not already know by drawing attention to it.g. e. it can raise learners’ awareness of how to learn.

the following lesson. Aims are specified at the beginning of a lesson plan and for individual stages in the lesson. i. for revision and more practice. how what goes before a particular lesson links to. When teachers plan a lesson. step A section of a lesson. Its aim is to try to ensure that lessons fit logically together. Learner-centred When the learners are at the centre of the activities and have the chance to work together. they think about a rationale for activities and procedures. Reinforce: see consolidate. controlling the lesson often from the front of the classroom. presentation. learning To think about a lesson after teaching it or to think about learning in order to decide what worked. which follow each other in a logical order. the context To explain or present the context of something learners will read. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 30 © UCLES 2009 . Reflect on teaching. what did not work and how to improve teaching/learning in the future. to make the situation clear for them. Sequence noun + verb A sequence is a series of things. Recycle To focus on words or structures that have been taught before. Report back When a learner tells the whole class what was discussed in group or pairwork. Stimulate (discussion) To encourage learners to talk about something.Rationale The reason for doing something. Learners can sequence pictures in a story. See teacher-centred. compared with the total time the learners speak. aims. This can be done in different ways such as through a text or a picture.e. and helps learners with. Subsidiary aim: see aim. Teacher-centred When the teacher is at the centre of most stages of the lesson. talk or write about. make choices and think for themselves in a lesson. e.g. test To give learners a question to answer or a task or test to do. Set the scene. before playing a recording a teacher might tell learners who the people are on the recording and where they are. to give the teacher clear goals and to try to ensure a balance of language. controlled practice etc. to specify (aims) verb. Specification noun. the rationale for pre-teaching vocabulary before learners read a text is to help learners read the text more easily. Set a question. e. e. See learner-centred. Stage. task. skills. Syllabus This describes the language and skills to be covered on a course. Timetable fit How a lesson fits logically into a sequence of lessons. Scheme of work A basic plan of what a teacher will teach for a number of lessons.g. put them in order. specific adjective A clear and exact description of something. topics and activities over a number of weeks or months. and the order in which they will be taught. Lessons work through different stages or steps such as lead-in.g. Teacher talking time The total time in a lesson that a teacher speaks. hear.

and not needing much physical and mental effort: an easy job. Phonemic chart A poster or large diagram of the phonemic symbols arranged in a particular order. adv. Headword A word whose meaning is explained in a dictionary. pacing or timing into a lesson. See bilingual dictionary. easy / i…zˆ / adj. teachers can use board games for controlled language practice or oral fluency. going faster than you can walk. resources The materials which teachers and learners can use to find or check information. See monolingual dictionary. Entry An item. teachers and learners might consult a dictionary or grammar book. Teachers try to include variety in their lesson. so that learners stay interested.Timing The likely time different activities or stages in a lesson plan should take. run to move using your legs. definitions. Reference materials. e.g. They may be taken from newspapers. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 31 © UCLES 2009 . dictionaries or CD-ROMS. 1.g. for example a piece of information that is written or printed in a dictionary about a word. When teachers plan lessons. Audio script: see tapescript. Board game A game played by two or more players on a board using dice. vary verb To introduce different things such as different types of activities or tasks. not difficult. Cross reference A note that tells the reader of a book to go to another place in the book to get more information. grammar books. when a learner lands on a square. run is the headword. radio etc. Teaching materials and aids Activity book: see book.g. so that it is suitable to use with a particular class. they think about how long each activity will take and they usually write this on their plan. e. Thesaurus A type of dictionary in which words with similar meanings are grouped together.g. By writing different instructions in the squares. e. e. Variety noun. Consult To get advice or information from someone or something.g. in a dictionary entry for early it might say: early arriving before the planned time. Reference resources Bilingual dictionary This uses translation from one language into another language for definitions and examples.g. Authentic material Written or spoken texts which a first language speaker might read or listen to. The language in the texts is not adapted or made easier for learners or the language learning process. Adapt (material) To change a text or other material. This is a cross reference showing the reader that there is information about late in another entry. It usually appears in bold at the top of a dictionary entry. they say a daily routine using the present simple. Monolingual dictionary This uses only the target language for headwords. e. OPP LATE. interaction patterns. Players throw the dice and move around squares on the board. e. examples etc. language skills.

A teacher’s book accompanies the coursebook. Coursebook unit: see book. Crossword puzzle A word game in which learners complete a grid. vocabulary and skills work and follows a syllabus. A coursebook or textbook is used regularly by learners in the class. Learners have to respond to the cue card using I like + ing or I don’t like + ing. Graph A drawing that uses a line or lines to show how two or more set of numbers are related to each other. Chart Information in the form of diagrams. lists or drawings often placed on the classroom wall for learners to refer to such as irregular verb forms or prepositions. Exploit (material) To use material for a particular purpose. reading etc). Coursebook: see book.g. Grid A pattern of straight lines that cross each other to make squares. e. Dice Small blocks of plastic or wood with six sides and a different number of spots on each side. audio scripts and answers to coursebook activities. They are used in board games. Brochure: see leaflet. It generally contains grammar. Cue card. Learners write the answers to clues in the squares on the grid. Flashcard A card with words. Graded reader A book which has language that has been made easier for learners. prompt card A card on which there is/are (a) word(s) or picture(s) to prompt or encourage learners to produce particular language. Dialogue A conversation between two or more people. a teacher presenting I like + ing / I don’t like + ing could have a number of picture cue cards with different activities (swimming. Flipchart A pad of large sheets of paper fixed to a stand. teach vocabulary etc. A coursebook unit is a chapter of a coursebook. e. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 32 © UCLES 2009 . often during a controlled practice activity or drill.g. e.g.Book An activity book or workbook has extra practice and is often used for homework. which teachers use for presenting information to the class. tell a story. A teacher can use these to explain a situation. It is often used to revise vocabulary. It usually accompanies a coursebook. and contains teaching ideas. sentences or pictures on it.

Resources: see teaching aids. brochure A piece of printed paper that gives information or advertises something. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 33 © UCLES 2009 . It can be used in a classroom instead of a whiteboard or blackboard. Teacher’s book: see book. charts. See realia and learning resources. supplement verb The books and other materials which teachers can use in addition to a coursebook. Puppet A model of a person or animal often made of paper or cloth.g.Handout. Visual (aid) A picture. These can often be found in a teacher’s book or at the back of the learner’s book. activities or tasks on it that a teacher gives to learners for a range of reasons during a class or for reference or homework. menus. e. audio script. reference materials. Language laboratory A room in a school where learners can practise language by listening to tapes or CDs and by recording themselves speaking. Rubric Written instructions for an exercise or activity. Teaching aids Any materials or resources a teacher uses in the classroom. Supplementary material noun. Tapescript. learning resources. learning centre A place with learning resources such as books. Learning centre: see self-access centre. OHP. Textbook: see book. a leaflet with information about local places of interest. Sticker A label with a picture or message on it that has ‘glue’ on the back of it. e. which a teacher or learners can move by putting their hand inside it.g. (Video) clip Part of a video or DVD that can be used in class. Overhead transparency (OHT) The plastic sheet a teacher can write on and use with an overhead projector (OHP). Teachers may use stickers to keep things on the classroom wall or on the board. Overhead projector (OHP) A piece of equipment that makes images appear on a wall or screen. This is one example of realia. a diagram or anything else the learners can look at which can help teachers illustrate form or meaning. Transcript: see tapescript. timetables and leaflets that can be brought into the classroom for a range of purposes. e. worksheet A piece of paper with exercises. Self-access centre. Puppets are often used when teaching young learners. Realia Real objects such as clothes. computers and cassettes where learners can study by themselves. Leaflet. pronunciation practice materials. resources. transcript The written version of the words learners hear when doing a listening activity.g.

Workbook: see book.Wordsearch A grid in which each square has a letter of the alphabet. Worksheet: see handout. Words are hidden in the grid and learners have to find them. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 34 © UCLES 2009 .

If a teacher is focusing on the target language of a lesson. Hesitation noun. e. That ’s excellent. Facial expression A person can show how they feel through their face. because they need more time to think. Model noun + verb A clear example of the target language for learners to repeat or write down or save as a record. Teachers often narrate stories to young learners.g. e. Convey meaning To express or communicate meaning. An exchange can also be used to refer to the part of spoken interaction in which one person speaks and another responds to what they said. in the classroom. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 35 © UCLES 2009 . 2. I want to work in an office. Well done! Prompt verb + noun To help learners think of ideas or to remember a word or phrase by giving them a part of it or by giving another kind of clue.g. Teachers focus on conveying meaning when they present new language. A narrative is another word for a story.MODULE 3 Teachers’ and learners’ language in the classroom Candidates should be familiar with common terms such as ask. The teacher often models the language as well. tell. Praise To tell someone they have done well.g. What do you mean? Clarify To make clear what you mean.g. Acknowledge To show that you have seen or understood something. e. he/she usually chooses a model sentence.g. reply. hesitate verb A pause before or while doing or saying something. To tell a story or talk about something that has happened. e. To give something to another person and receive something in return. smiling.g. the teacher acknowledged the learner’s answer with a gesture. e. learners can contribute to a discussion by taking part and giving their ideas. by saying it clearly before drilling the learners. When a teacher suggests a word that the learner hasn’t remembered. Contribute To give or add something. Narrative noun + adjective. showing surprise. Teacher: Work? Learner: Yes. Exchange verb + noun 1. 2. e. Er and um are conversational fillers.g. narrate verb 1. Learners often hesitate if they are trying to find the correct words to say. Learner: I want to …… in an office. e. Ask for clarification To ask for an explanation of what a speaker means. which he/she writes on the board. Filler A word or sound used between words or sentences in spoken English when someone is thinking of what to say. When I went to London … um … I think it was about … er … 4 years ago.

Teacher: Oh. Learners can refer to someone or to a dictionary to get advice or information. simplify verb To make something easier. refer to verb To mention something or someone. e.. Recast To reword a sentence or phrase to improve it. Why not? Teachers recast language which may not contain errors but which is inappropriate for the context it is being used in. Over-application of the rule. ‘Tomorrow’ is an utterance here. Utterance A complete unit of speech in spoken language. e. (incorrect plural form – not appropriate for man). Compare with Reformulate. a teacher can indicate that a learner has made a mistake by repeating the mistake with rising intonation. grammar. point out. Terminology The technical words used in a particular subject. Learner: He don’t like it. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 36 © UCLES 2009 . Simplification noun. Learner: I find myself unable to accept your statement. a smile. There were three girls (correct plural form used for most nouns) and two mans. Echo correct When learners make a mistake. a learner says. Response noun. Word prompt: see prompt.g. the teacher repeats the mistake with rising intonation encouraging learners to correct themselves.g. T = tense mistake. make known. Finger correction This is a way of drawing attention to where a learner has made a mistake. e. similar in meaning to comment. Teacher: Don’t? Learner: He doesn’t like it. Teacher: Grammar. you don’t agree. e.A teacher can also use a word prompt to correct a learner. An utterance can be shorter than a sentence. Teachers and learners may respond to each other in writing. A teacher may use her fingers to show that a mistake has been made with word or sentence stress. word order. e.g. P = punctuation mistake. Learner: He don’t like that. saying something. Also. Reference noun. but uses it in situations when it is not needed or appropriate. over generalisation When a learner uses a grammatical rule he/she has learned. e. speech or in the form of a facial expression.g. Indicate To show.g.g.g. e. Learner: Sorry – he doesn’t like that. The teacher counts out the words a learner has said on her fingers. respond verb A reply or reaction to communication such as a laugh. The fingers represent words and the teacher can show clearly in which word (finger) the mistake was made. A: When’s he coming? B: Tomorrow. pronunciation of sounds etc. Learners’ mistakes and correction strategies Correction code A series of symbols a teacher may use to mark learners’ writing so that they can correct mistakes by themselves.

Past Now Future --------------------------------------Present perfect tense See tense. different types of activities. Time line A diagram that shows learners the relationship between tense and time. passive role When learners think about their own learning and what their own needs are and try to help themselves learn more. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 37 © UCLES 2009 . co-operate verb. differentiate verb To make or see a difference between people and things.g. this can have a special meaning relating to dealing with mixed ability learners in one class. Differentiation noun. A passive role is the opposite of an active role when learners want to be taught and to acquire language without making their own decisions about their needs and learning. Closed pairs When learners in the class do pairwork with the person sitting next to them but not in front of the class. then the energy levels are high. the learning and the learners. If a particular learner is dominant in class. the teacher can provide different tasks. If a teacher dominates. Enable. Class dynamics: see group dynamics. dominant adjective To have a very strong influence over what happens. This is usually the way parents ‘correct’ their young children’s language mistakes. e. e. It is often used in language teaching to present the use of a new tense or to correct learners when they use tenses wrongly. Classroom management The strategies used by a teacher to organise the classroom. verb To make something possible. the lesson is teacher-centred. activities. Dominate verb. In teaching. co-operative adjective Working together and helping each other. teacher roles and interaction patterns. perhaps with some help from the teacher. such as seating arrangements. This is often done in drills. Discipline noun + verb The system of rules used to maintain control of learners in the classroom. See open pairs. but without drawing the learners’ attention to their mistake. In some group work activities learners co-operate to find the answer or solve a problem. if learners are bored or tired then the energy levels are low.g. they are taking an active role.Reformulation noun. reformulate verb When a teacher corrects what a learner has said by repeating the sentence correctly. Co-operation noun. Classroom management Active role. Energy levels If learners are interested and working hard. Self-correction When learners correct language mistakes they have made. then other learners get less chance to participate actively. often for practice. Repetition To say something again. Using a correction code on learners’ writing enables learners to improve their work. texts or materials for different learners in the class according to their ability.

Teachers try to build or create a good rapport or relationship with their learners. Routine Something which is done regularly such as a teacher setting writing homework every Friday. self-monitor 1. rather than working alone or in groups. whole class When the teacher leads the class and each learner is focusing on the teacher. See graded reader. Group. being involved in it. Mixed ability. Grade (language) To use language that is at the correct level for the learners and is not too easy or difficult. Observed lesson A lesson that is watched by a teacher trainer or a colleague. Get learners’ attention To make learners listen to the teacher after they have been doing group or pairwork or at the start of the lesson. Involvement Taking part in an activity actively. mixed level The different levels of language or ability of learners studying in the same class. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 38 © UCLES 2009 . To listen to/read your own language to see if it is accurate and effective. To watch over learners in order to make sure that they are doing what they have been asked to do. noun facilitate. Rapport. Open class.Establish. This technique is useful for showing how to do an activity and/or for focusing on accuracy. One-to-one A teaching situation which involves only one teacher and one learner. See enable. always asking learners to record new words with their meaning and an example sentence. what the teacher will do and what the learners will do to help the learners to learn). When learners respond. Learning contract An agreement between the teacher and the learners about their roles and responsibilities (i. and help them if they are having problems. such as open class. they do so in front of everyone in the class.e. one pair does a pairwork activity in front of the class. Monitor. verb To make something possible. Interaction patterns The ways in which learners work together in class. 2. Teachers facilitate learning by planning and delivering lessons and maintaining discipline in the classroom. e. See closed pairs. group work and individual work.g. class dynamics The relationship between learners in the group or class. Nominate To choose and name one learner to speak or do a particular task. build rapport The relationship between the teacher and learners. verb To discover or get proof of something. pairwork. Teachers try to develop some routine habits in the classroom. Assessing learners can establish the progress they have made. Passive role: see active role. Open pairs In open pairs. Mingle noun + verb A mingle is an activity which involves learners having to walk round the classroom talking to other learners to complete a task. Facilitator.

Teaching space The areas in the classroom that can be used for teaching. the open floor. the lessons and procedures in the classroom. effort and contribution. Language resource Clarifying language. Personalising language.g. Providing opportunities for individual learning. Demonstrating tasks and activities. Teachers create a supportive atmosphere in their classes. the walls. A plan of where the learners should sit in the classroom. Showing understanding of issues learners bring to the classroom from outside. Diagnostician Diagnosing. Providing feedback on work. a teacher can choose to take a controlling role. in a circle around the teacher. Helping learners to access resources. Modelling language. in rows. giving directions or instructions at the front of the class or to take a less controlling role. Reflector Thinking about his/her own performance.g. Selecting materials and texts for lessons. e. Encouraging learners. progress. participating in discussions. e. Deciding on a methodology for lessons. Counsellor Giving learners advice on difficulties they may have outside of their language class. Designing and adapting texts and materials for lessons. Unsupportive Not being helpful or encouraging. e. Evaluating learners’ performance. behaviour. Giving instructions. behaviour and contribution. Contributor Contributing ideas or information other than language. Responding to classroom problems as they happen. Explaining language. Preparing texts and tasks for learners. Manager Managing the learners. e. Deciding on interaction patterns. Consolidating learner language. The opposite of supportive is unsupportive. monitoring learners as they work. Checking understanding. Supportive Providing help or encouragement. Teacher roles Assessor Assessing learners’ performance. Providing language input. Testing learner progress and level. Narrator Narrating stories and things that have happened.g. Correcting learner language. and contribution. See supportive. the desks. Developing rapport. Whole class: see open class. evaluating learners’ needs and difficulties.g. Motivating learners. the board. Reflecting on learners’ progress. Eliciting language. Teacher role The way a teacher chooses to manage the classroom. Keeping a written record of learners’ work. Planner Anticipating problems. Monitor/Observer Monitoring. Contextualising language. behaviour. Maintaining discipline. observing and collecting information about learner performance. contribution and effort and progress. Facilitator Developing learner autonomy. behaviour. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 39 © UCLES 2009 .g. Controlling the group dynamic. Enabling learners to fulfil their potential.Seating arrangement. in groups around different tables. seating plan The way the learners sit in the classroom. Praising learners. e.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 40 © UCLES 2009 .

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