INTRODUCTION

MARKETING DECISION

EXPORT PROMOTION

PROCEDURE & DOCUMENTS

EXPORTS PAYMENTS

INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNIT ONE: Scope of International Marketing – International Marketing Vs Domestic Marketing – Motivation to Export – Special difficulties in International Marketing – International Marketing Environment – Features of Globalization – Essential Conditions – Pros and Cons. UNIT TWO: Marketing Selection and Entry Decision – Overseas Marketing Research – Competitive Intelligence – Standard Clauses of Sales Contract – International Trade policies – Tariffs, Subsidies and Quotas. UNIT THREE: Counter Trade – World Commodity Markets – World Trade in ServicesGATT – WTO – Institutional Infrastructure for Export promotion in India – EXIM Bank – ECGC. UNIT FOUR: Procedure for execution of Export order – Export of Goods – Export by Air and Sea – Export Documents (Quality control and Preshipment Inspection) –Marine Insurance. UNIT FIVE; Terms of Payments – Letter of Credit types – process – advantages – overview of EXIM Policy. Foreign Exchange – Exchange Rate Determination – Exchange Rate System – Fixed and Flexible Exchange – Advantages and Dis advantages. REFERENCE BOOKS:
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT – FRANCIS CHERUNILAM INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS – P. SUBBA RAO EXPORT MARKETING – RATHORE INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT – RL. VARSHNEY AND MAHESWARI.

wants and behavioral attributes. thereby involving different markets and consumers who might have different needs. it has a broader connotation in marketing literature. . Depending upon the degree of firm’s involvement. It also means entry into international markets by:  Opening a branch/ subsidiary abroad for processing. International Marketing vs. Scope of International Marketing: Though international marketing is in essence export marketing. patents. packaging. It is different from domestic marketing in as much as the exchange takes place beyond the frontiers. processes or trademarks with or without financial investment.  Establishing joint ventures in foreign countries for manufacturing and or marketing and  Offering consultancy services and undertaking turnkey projects broad.. Both in domestic marketing and international marketing success depend upon satisfying the basic requirements of consumers. This necessarily involves finding out what the buyers want and meeting their needs accordingly. viz.' International marketing can be defined as "marketing carried on across national boundaries". International marketing has also been defined as ' the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services to consumers or users in more than in one nation'.  Negotiating licensing/ franching arrangements whereby foreign enterprises are granted the right to use the exporting company's know-how's. assembly or even complete manufacturing through direct investment. there may be several variations of these arrangements. 1. Domestic Marketing: There are a number of similarities and differences between international and domestic marketing.INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNIT ONE DEFINITION OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING: Kotler defines marketing as 'human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process.

S a result. Different Monetary Systems: Each country has its own monetary system and the exchange value of each country's currency is different from that of the other. . same language and culture where as at international marketing many languages and different cultures. In the case of domestic marketing the buyers are aware of the legal systems in their country. which has not been able to do so. 5. an advertisement medium very effective in one market may not be available or may be under developed in another market. 4. particularly import controls are a very important problem which an international marketer faces. Differences in the Marketing infrastructure: The availability of the marketing facilities available in different countries may vary widely. 2. In case of domestic marketing there is only one currency prevailing in the country. This my fall in any of the following categories. Cultural Differences: In domestic marketing there is only one nation. The exchange rates between currencies fluctuate every day. They are as follows: 1. It is necessary to build goodwill both in the domestic market and international market. 3.2. Sovereign Political Entities: Each country has is a sovereign political entity and goods and services had to move across national boundaries. its tasks will be simpler than the one. 3. Different Legal Systems: Each country has its own legal system and it differs from country to country. For example. The existence of different legal systems makes the task of businessmen more difficult as they are not sure as to which particular system will apply to their transactions. there are some salient features of difference between international marketing and domestic marketing. However. If a firm is able to develop goodwill of consumers or customers. Research and development for product development and modification is necessary both for international marketing and domestic marketing. 6. Tariffs and customs duties Quantitative restrictions Exchange controls Local Taxes. they may have to face a number of restrictions. Trade Restrictions: Trade restrictions.

9. 8. They grouped as Pre-export behaviour and Motivation to Export. Degree of Risk: There is a greater degree of risk involved in international marketing than in domestic marketing due to  Large volume of transactions  Higher value of transaction  Longer time period  More time of transit  Longer credit period  Comparatively less knowledge  Exchange fluctuations. The point to be studied is what made some of these firms get involved in export business. which can come only out of basic economic necessity as perceived by the corporate unit. Pre-Export Behaviour: Every firm at some point of time starts as a non-exporter. Transport Cost: In International trade. transport cost is a major marketing expense where as in domestic trade transport cost influences only to certain extent.7. TRANSITION FROM DOMESTIC TO INTERNATIONAL MARKET The Decision to enter foreign markets must be based on strong economic factors. At international marketing multiple environments. 1. Temperamental decision to export is transient in character and totally unsuitable for export marketing. This must give a clue to the question as to whether a present non-exporter will become an exporter and if so why and when. Procedures and Documentations: Each country has its own procedures and documentary requirements and traders have to comply with these regulations if they want to export or import goods from foreign countries. can be classified under the following categories: . which influence a non-exporting firm's decision to go in for export business. The factors. 10. many of which are likely instable. Stability in Business Environment: In domestic marketing there is relatively stable business environment. Success in exporting requires total involvement and determination.

market opportunity and government's stimulation in the form of incentives and assistance. and potential export markets. (d) Level of Organizational commitment: The decision makers must agree on the level of commitment. (c) Perceived Internal Export Stimuli: This refer to the management's expectations about the effects of exports on the firm's business. optimum scale of production. the higher level of profits and the growth objectives of the firm. If the firm is manufacturing a product. hiring of consultants for carrying out overseas market potential studies etc. size and growth of the domestic market. This will reduce costs and improve the overall profitability of the firm.Motivation to Export: (Economic reasons) There are some basic economic reasons which might influence a firm decision regarding export business: These are under:  Relative Profitability: The rate of profit to be earned from export business may be higher than the corresponding rate on the domestic sales. (b) Perceived External Export Stimuli: This will include fortuitous order. . and the present and future market prospects in the domestic market are not much encouraging.  Insufficiency of Domestic Demand: The level of domestic demand may be insufficient for utilizing the installed capacity in full. Resources will be required for hiring new staff specialized in international marketing.. This is crucial because it will determine whether adequate resources will be made available for embarking on international marketing. 2. which is internationally marketable. This covers the level of capacity utilization. Export business offers a suitable mechanism for utilizing the unused capacity. Recession in the domestic market often serves as a stimulus to export ventures. the motivation of the firm to get involved in export business will be considerable.(a) Firm characteristics: Firm characteristics include product characteristics.

Secondly.  Technological improvement: Entry to export market may enable a firm to pick up new produce ideas and to add to product line. especially those in need of imported inputs. the downward fluctuations in sales in one market. therefore. Reducing business risks: When a firm is selling in a number of markets. etc. They also build up their image in domestic marketing by their export activities. geographic diversification also provides the momentum to growth in as much as a single or few markets will have only limited absortive capacity. may be fully or partly counter balanced by a rise in the sales in other markets.  Obtaining imported inputs: Nations have to pay for imports of materials. in order to import. which may be the domestic market.  Government regulations restricting imports by way of import licenses.  Social responsibility: Sometimes businessmen themselves feel a sense of responsibility and contribute towards the national exchequer by increasing their exports. if the additional capacity is utilized for exports. the firms will have to export. This will lead the firm to increase production and then move to export business. may be compelled to impose export obligations on the firms. SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING There are a number of difficulties in undertaking international business. Governments. improve its product. reduce costs and discover new applications for its product. larger markets become a necessity and exports become unavoidable.  Legal restrictions: Governments may impose certain restrictions on further growth and capacity expansion of some firms within the domestic market in order to achieve certain social objectives. In other words. . But there may not be any such restrictions. They also look at exporting to attain status and prestige. Some of them the special difficulties are as follows:  Quantitative restrictions to protect local industries.  Increased productivity: Increased productivity is necessary for ultimate survival of a firm. Then the firm may be tempted to export its products abroad. technology or processes not available within their national boundaries. To meet the increased costs of Research and Development.

 Lack of export incentives to exporters.  Lack of adequate export financing especially for small scale industries.  Lower mobility of factors of production. competition from exporters from other countries and competition from producers of goods in the importing countries. Now let us discuss these factors as follows: Controllable Factors: Control will have to be defined with reference to a company's management. There are some factors which can be controlled by the management may not be able to haves any control over them.  Trade barriers .  Competition from local exporters. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT It is necessary to know the concepts of "controllable" and "uncontrollable factors" in international marketing. .  Complications of Exporting.  Non-availability of latest information about the market conditions.  Different legal system regarding import and export of goods.  Differences in procedures and documentation. The company is in a position to control and design marketing mix elements i.Tariff and non tariff barriers.  Differences in market characteristics.  Paper work is more in export business. product. export to any place by choosing any distribution channels and follow any promotional methods. YEN in Japan.  Different monetary systems like Dollars in USA.  Cultural dimensions of international marketing.  Economic Unions.  Shipping and freight problems.  Local taxes like sales taxes on imported goods. price.e. Sterling in UK. Exchange controls. etc.

Uncontrollable Factors: There are some factors on which the company can not have any control. occasion of consumption. entrepreneurial nature and attitude. etc of a product may show wide variations between cultures. ways of conducting meetings and functions. government policies etc. So familiarity with cultural is necessary for success. political philosophies and systems. methods of showing respect. Religion and Climate . Because of cultural differences. the way the business should be organized and governed. method of consumption. the marketing strategies to be employed. government-business relations. for example . governance. a promotion strategy that is very effective in one market may utterly fail in another. legal environment. The need for good corporate governance is getting more and more recognition. Such uncontrollable factors in international marketing are described here. The ways of meeting and greeting people. the values and norms it should adhere to. vary quite widely between cultures. Etiquettes differ from culture to culture. the type of products to be manufactured and marketed. expression of appreciation or disapproval. lab our-management relations. In short. SOCIAL FACTORS: The social/cultural environment of a nation/market may profoundly influence business in different ways and dimensions. could have a social influence of them Management may undergo a social transformation. or may even result in social or legal reprisals. are all influenced by social structure and the culture of a society. table manners etc. a number of family owned business groups in India have ushered in professional management. purpose of consumption. business ethics. quantity of consumption. The tastes and preferences. values associated with consumption. The other social factors which influences the international marketing inclusive of      National legal regime Political and Financial system Marketing infrastructure Language. The attitude of workers.

POLITICAL and GOVERNMENT FACTORS: The following political and government factors must be taken into consideration by an international marketer while planning to entry any market abroad:  Consistency of government policies.  The nature of political relationship between the target country and exporter's country.  The presence or absence of controls on foreign exchange, imports, prices,etc., in the target country.  Legal restrictions on foreign investments and the patent ability of the product in the target market. The company has no control over all the above factors mentioned and hence the exporter has to adjust him to these factors. ECONOMIC FACTORS: I. Commercial policy variables e.g. tariffs, quotas, licensing or any other non-tariff barriers. II. Currency restrictions - depending on the policy of the central bank of the country. III. Internal demand management policies and instruments followed by the country. The exporters have to be thorough with the above policies and adjust them accordingly. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: Demographic factors such as size of the population, population growth rates, age composition, ethic composition, family size, family life cycle, income levels, have very significant implications for business. The demographic environment differs from country to country and from place to place within the same country or region. Further, it may change significantly over time. Because of the diversity of the demographic environment companies are sometimes compelled to adopt different strategies within the same market COMPETITON: Competition will also influence the international marketing. As like domestic marketing the trader always aware of his competitors. But the quantum of competitors is more in

international marketing than domestic marketing. Normally by the following ways the international merchant will face the competitors.    Competition vis-à-vis producers in the importing country. Competition vis-à-vis exporter from the competing countries. Competition vis-à-vis other exporters from one's own country.

The exporters have no control over these types of competition and hence they have to compete with all the three types of competitions. LOGISTICS: Logistics is that part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverses flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customers' requirements. The concept of logistics play vital role in international marketing by the ways sense.  The merchant has to seek the availability of required type of transport such as sea, air freezer space, etc.  Cost of transportation.

Unless the exporters are in a position to meet the above requirements of transport facilities and costs they cannot export their products to the target markets. RISKS: There is a greater degree of risk involved in international marketing than in domestic marketing due to  Large volume of transactions  Higher value of transaction  Longer time period  More time of transit  Longer credit period  Comparatively less knowledge  Exchange fluctuations.  Political risks  Commercial risks  Act of nature

 Act of enemies The exporters have to face these risks in the international markets. These risks can be covered by taking insurance policies from the ECGC and General Insurance.

CONCEPT OF GLOBALIZATION
"Globalization means the production and distribution of products and services of a homogeneous type and quality on a world wide basis”. Globalization also means globalizing the marketing, production, investment, technology and other activities. How do these happen? Globalization does not take place in singly instance. It takes place gradually through and evolutionary approach. FEATURES OF GLOBALIZATION     Operating and planning to expand business throughout the world. Erasing the differences between domestic market and foreign market. Buying and selling goods and services from/to any country in the world. Establishing manufacturing and distribution facilities in any part of the world based on the feasibility and viability rather than national consideration.  Product planning and development are based on market consideration of the entire world.  Sourcing of factors of production and inputs like raw materials, machinery, finance, technology, human resources, managerial skills from the entire globe.  Global orientation in strategies, organizational structure, organizational culture and managerial expertise.  Setting the mind and attitude to view the entire globe as a single market.

ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS FOR GLOBLAIZATION BUSINESS FREEDOM: There should not be unnecessary government restrictions which come in the way of globalization, like import restriction restrictions on sourcing finance or other factors fro broad foreign investments etc. FACILITIES: The extent to which an enterprise can develop globally from home country base depends on the facilities available like the infrastructural facilities.

It helps the investors to get a fair interest rate or dividend and the global companies to acquire finance at lower cost of capital. development of common facilities like infrastructural facilities. which in turn increases the global investment. Further Globalization increases capital flows from surplus countries to the needy countries. A firm may derive competitive advantage from any one or more of the factors such as low costs and price. technological superiority. R and D support. marketing strength etc. PROS AND CONS OF GLOBALIZATION ADVANTAGES: Free Flow of Capital: Globalization helps for free the flow of capital from one country to the other. RESOURCES: Resources is one of the important factors which often decides the ability of a firm to globalize. . financial market reforms and so on. after sales service. government support can encourage globalization. product quality product. Resourceful companies may find it easier to thrust ahead in the global market. product differentiation.GOVERNMENT SUPPORT: Although unnecessary government interference is a hindrance to globalization. ORIENTATION: A global orientation on the part of the business firms and suitable globalization strategies are essential for globalization. Increase in Industrialization: Free flow of capital along with the technology enables the developing countries to boost-up industrialization in their countries. Free flow of Technology: Globalization helps for the flow of technology from advanced countries to the developing countries. Government support may take the form of policy and procedural reforms. COMPETITIVENESS: The competitive advantage of the company is a very important determinant of success in global business. It helps the developing countries to implement new technology.

Increase in Production and Consumption: Increased industrialization in the globe leads increase in production and thus results in balanced industrial development along with increase in income which enhances the levels of consumption. Cultural exchange and demand for variety of products: Globalization reduces the physical distance among the countries and enables people of different countries to acquire the culture of other countries. Higher Standards of Living: Further. Increase in Employment and Income: Globalization results in shift of manufacturing facilities to the low wage developing countries. This in turn leads to the balanced development of all the countries. demand for American Pizza in India and Masala dosa and Hyderabad Briyani and Indian styled garments in USA and Europe. . As such. For example. technology and locating manufacturing facilities in developing countries. Further. leads to spread up manufacturing facilities in all the global countries depending upon the locational various favorable production factors. Balanced development of world economies: With the flow of capital. Lower prices with high quality: Indian consumers have already been getting the products of high quality at lower prices. increased production and consumption level enable the companies to produce and sell the products of high quality t lower prices.Spread up Production facilities throughout the Globe: Globalization of production. the increased economic development of the country enables the government to provide welfare facilities like hospitals educational institutes etc. the developing countries industrialize their economies. Balanced Human Development: Increase in industrialization on balanced lines in the globe. in turn makes the people to demand for a variety of products which are being consumed in other countries. improves the skills of the people of developing countries. The cultural exchange. Increased industrialization spread up of technology. which in turn contributes for the balanced human development across the globe. globalization reduces prices and thereby enhances consumption and living standards of people in all the countries of the world. it reduces job opportunities in advanced countries and alternatively creates job opportunities in developing countries.

. DISADVANTAGES: Globalization kills Domestic Business: The MNCs from advanced countries utilize the opportunities created by globalization. Exploits Human Resources: The foreign companies which are located in developing countries invariably violate the labor and environmental laws in order to have the cost advantage. it is viewed that. establish manufacturing and marketing facilities in developing countries. These companies employ child labor. competent people. people with innovative skills. However. globalization enables the developing countries to become rich and enforce the labor and environmental regulations. This results in widening the gap between have and the have-nots. The domestic business of the developing countries fails to compete with the MNCs on the technology and quality front. Transfer of natural resources: MNCs establish their manufacturing facilities in developing countries exploit their natural resources and sell the products in other . while other average people have to strive for even a minimum wage. Decline in demand for domestic products: Selling of high quality foreign products at low prices by MNCs reduces the demand for the domestic products. Decline in Income: Unemployment and decline in demand for domestic products of both industrial agricultural goods leads to reduction in income of the people. Widening gap between rich and poor: Globalization not only results in decline in income but widens the gap between rich and poor.Increase in the Welfare and Prosperity: The balanced industrial. social and economic development of the world nations consequent upon the globalization along with the welfare measures provided by the governments lead to increase in the welfare of the people and prosperity of the world countries. and ignore workplace safety and health issues. pollute environment. efficiency etc. get abnormal income. the domestic country’s operations are to be reduced. This is because. This in term leads to reduction in employment opportunities particularly in less developed countries. Therefore. Leads to Unemployment and Underemployment: MNCs produce the products in their home countries or in some other foreign countries and market in developing countries.

These are:  Marketing Decision  Marketing selection decision  Market entry decision  Marketing Mix Decision Marketing Decision: All the business involves risk. the first step is to choose the right place for the initial export venture. and the risks may be minimum. 1. the natural resources of developing countries are transferred to other countries. the marketer has to take four decisions. MARKET SELECTION DECISION To be successful in initial exports. Before taking the marketing decision of entering into international market it should satisfy itself for the following questions. money and materials to capitalize them. the firm must have the resources in men. so that the returns may be quicker and certain. No firm has unlimited resources. Through these means. it should develop a marketing strategy to be used for both domestic and foreign business. Whether it can meet the demand in domestic as well as in international market? 3. One of the risk element is sudden fall in demand. In such circumstances the firm which concentrating only domestic market will find thread about its survival. At the same time if the company is doing international trade they can concentrate for international market to balance the fall in demand in domestic market. Whether it can formulate and implement a policy and regulations pertaining to exports and imports? Even if the opportunities appear favorable. 2.countries. Whether it can adapt the product according to the needs of the consumers? 4. When a firm thinks of entering into an international market. Are there any opportunity open to firm and its product in abroad?. A proper selection of markets would ensure that time and efforts are not wasted. . UNIT TWO INTERNATIONAL MARKETING DECISION In developing a foreign operation.

    Enter the export business only when the marketer is sure of its profitability. 4) The company also has discussion with some successful exporters. avoid any trade disputes. The concerned export promotion council also publishes such statistics.   Make certain at the start that your export business is going to be profitable. this will ensure success. SELECTION OF MARKET: The company in this connection has to take the following steps so that it can ultimately choose one or two markets of its choice:1) The company should examine export statistics of the product from its country. Find a need and fill it. Collect the latest data on export surveys and commercial intelligence from India's Commercial Representatives abroad. trade associations to find out the policy. .  It is advisable to spend some time and money on visiting the overseas market. the trader should consider the following points carefully:  Select one or two markets initially so that is the activity may be within manageable units:  Smaller less obvious markets should not be overlooked. etc 6) It may also contact our Trade representative located in our Embassies and High commissions abroad. ECGC. The company can look into these statistics and find out where the products are exported. 2) It should examine import statistics of the product in the target markets.While selecting initial markets for exports. Take guidance from government and non-government institutions. settle them amicably.  Collect the address of potential customers abroad and start correspondence with them. but if such disputes arise. 3) The company can also visit some Government offices. names of importers etc. It would be unwise to sell in the more competitive European market. libraries. 5) It can also have discussions with Commodity boards. This will enable the marketer to solve many practical problems. when a less competitive Arab or African market is available. Do not enter those markets where there are a lot of import restrictions.

Further . 11) It must also decide whether it should choose one market or a few markets. some of the common elements are: (i)Size of the Market: The target territory should be one which is or has the potential to be a sizable market. 8) The company can also send some officers to the target markets to find out the market conditions there. in the case f certain products. 10) It must also find out economic. After examining various details as above the exporters have to avoid a market in the following cases: 1) If shipping costs will be far too high 2) If the investment required is more 3) Those markets where there are a lot of import restrictions. Higher scales over time become easier when the overall demand is increasing. special types of logistic infrastructure is necessary. It is easier to capture a 5 per cent of a big market than to capture a 25 per cent share of smaller market. (iii) Logistics: Dispatching the goods to the right place at the right time is the essence of all marketing. Inadequate logistic support can play havoc in the planning of export shipments. While the complete set will have to take into account the product and marketing characteristics of specific products. (ii)Growth: It is enough that the market is existing but it should also be in the growth stage. which will jeopardize any marketing efforts. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF MARKET: The marketing firm should have a set of decision criteria for selecting the target markets. . It is not enough if additional sales come at the cost of the competitions. including international marketing.7) It may also contact Foreign Embassies and High Commissions located in India. social and cultural factors in the target markets. 9) It can take part in trade fairs and exhibitions conducted by ITPO and other agencies.

The various methods of market entry open to firm in a given country are:  Indirect exporting  Direct Exporting  Licensing  Franchising  Joint Venture  Foreign subsidiaries  Special Modes INDIRECT EXPORTING: .sales services. A thorough study will have to be made to determine how the firm's product profile compares with that of the competitive product line. A good distributor is essential. such as after. the company should think twice before deciding to enter that market. The firm will have to evaluate whether it is in a position to match such competition onslaught. (v) Competition: The nature and extent of competition is a very crucial factor to reckon with. the next step relates to the decisions regarding the alternative methods of entry.(iv) Distance: The transport cost and distance are intimately correlated. the incidence of higher transport cost may reduce export competitiveness quite appreciably. (vi) Distribution System: The availability of a capable agent or distributor is a very important consideration. For low-valued items. unless it is in position to set up its own office there. The selection process of the target market will have to take this factor into account. Even if a market is otherwise promising. such as demonstration and post-selling. THE MARKET ENRTY DECISION: Once the target market has been identified. if no good distributor or agent is available. especially for products requiring pre-selling.

The indirect way of exporting is almost equivalent to domestic sales. The advantage of selling in this way is similar to what had been mentioned for exporting through export houses. The firm sells its products in its country to another party. which are willing to buy goods from the Indian manufacturers and sell them abroad. They usually have a system of gathering market information and keep a close watch on market trends. The amount of business that is conducted by such buying operations is substantial. Disadvantages of Indirect Exporting: . This can be done by: a) Selling to Merchant Exporter House in India and b) Selling to visiting/resident buyers Selling to Merchant Exporter or Export Houses in India: There are many merchant exporters and or recognized export houses in India. not in position to start an export department to like after exports sales. where he will buy and at what price. who takes the responsibility of actual export. Selling to Visiting/Resident Buyers: Many big foreign companies have their resident buying representatives in India and other countries who are entrusted with the job of procurement. Merchant exporters or export houses sell and buy on their account and thus assume the risks involved in exporting.  It carries less risk. Some other companies regularly send buying teams for the same purpose.  It requires less investment and the firm's capital is not tied up. Merchant exporters are usually well financed and maintain their branches at port towns and in important centers abroad. A merchant exporter is free to decided what he will buy.  The manufacturing firm is free to concentrate on production. and the firm does not have to spend money on market research or on setting up branches abroad. therefore. Advantages of Indirect Exporting:  It involves little time or effort because the merchant exporter takes care of all the difficulties involved and assumes all the sales and credit risks.  It makes possible the utilization of the know-how and experience of middlemen. This method of exportation is useful when the company is small and.

DIRECT EXPORTING: In case the firm decides not to operate through any of the intermediaries described in the earlier paragraphs.  The middleman. Export merchants may concentrate on the products.  Appointing home-based sales representatives. and he cannot claim or avail of export incentives given on a fairly liberal scale. and opts for direct exporting. who would travel abroad and book orders.appoint an export manager plus a clerk. Direct Exporting may also be undertaken by:  Setting up a sales branch or a subsidiary sales organization in a foreign country.   He will have direct control over the marketing operations. particularly the agent on commission basis. which offer them the greatest profit. Depending upon the firm's export sales turnover. it may make a modest start. with the result that sales may suffer. The small manufacturer's products may be ignored. the manufacturer cannot be called an exporter. existing and potential.  Indirect exporting provides little control over the operations of middlemen. Advantages of Direct Exporting:  The manufacturer will have better knowledge of customers' requirements and market conditions. For practical purposes. .  Export merchants middlemen may not be available for all the markets. which may be a substitute for. it may create/set up a separate export department or even a separate export company. He can enjoy the full returns on exports. If its export plans are ambitious and the prospects of selling in a number of markets are promising.  Selecting suitable distributors in a foreign country who would buy his product and sell it there. may not be aggressive. it will have to choose most carefully between one and or the other kind of export sales organization to be created. or suitable agents in that country who would sell it on commission basis without taking any title to it. or a supplement to the home organization. His profits will be more than selling the goods through middlemen.

Licensing mode carries low investment on Licensing agreements reduce the market the part of the licensor. Therefore one party can affect the other through their improper acts. a patent design or a trademark. Licensor can investigate the foreign market Costly and tedious litigation may crop up for both licensor and . Direct exporting is the only choice for certain products and not alternative to get success. maintain the product quality and promoting the product. opportunities licensee. It is clearly a method that involves little expense. the manufacturer enters into an agreement with a licensee in the foreign country and this gives him the right to use the manufacturing process. and avoids all distribution costs. It is often the quickest way of entering overseas markets . Licensing mode carries low financial risk Both the parties have the responsibilities to to the licensor. especially in the following cases: If the product is technically unique If middlemen decline If importers wants only direct export If costs increase because of tariffs If after sales service is a must Disadvantages of Direct Exporting:      LICENSING: Under this method.sometimes the only possible way as in centrally planned economies. Advantages and Disadvantages of Licensing Advantages Disadvantages Large financial resources needed Managerial ability is essential and more staff is required Increased distribution cost More risk Greater initial outlay before profit begins to flow in. technical information or some facility in return for some fee or royalty.

for parties misunderstanding despite the Licensing gets the benefits with less There is scope investment on research and development. Franchisor learns more lessons from the Franchising agents reduce the market experiences of the franchisees. and hurt both the parties and the market. and environment of the host country. Under franchising. information It is difficult to control the international regarding the markets. reservation service. which he opportunities for both the franchisor and could not experience from the home franchisee. . culture. FRANCHISING: Franchising is also a form of licensing. an independent organization called the franchise operates the business under the name of another company called franchisor. Franchisor can get the complicated than domestic marketing. The franchisor provides the following services to the franchisee:  Trade marks  Operating system  Product reputations Continuous support systems like advertising. The franchisor can exercise more control over the franchise compared to that in licensing. The licensee may sell the product outside the agreed territory and after the expiry of the contract. employee training. secrets of the licensor. between the effectiveness of the agreement. Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising Advantages Disadvantages Franchisor can enter global markets with International franchising may be more low investment and low risks.without much effort on his part. and quality assurance programme etc. License escapes himself from the risk of There is a problem of leakage of the trade product failure. customers franchisee.

secrets. promotion. the monarch of all that it contains. Contract Manufacturing: Some companies outsource their part of or entire production and concentrate on marketing operations. This is the culmination of international marketing. or  A domestic investor and an investor in a foreign country together start a new venture in that foreign country. Franchise gets the benefit of R & D with There is a problem of leakage of trade low cost. B.country’s market. it is called multinational company. SPECIAL MODES OF ENTRY: A. marketing activities. This takes place when:  The domestic investor buys an interest in a manufacturing unit situated in a foreign country. outsourcing. It is international production-cum marketing. He is its exclusive owner and controller. Franchisee can early start a business with Both the parties have the responsibilities to low risk as he selects an established and maintain product quality and product proven product and operating system. Franchise escapes from the risk of product failure. Management Contracts: This practice is called the contract of manufacturing or . or both. JOINT VENTURE: A joint venture involves a capital partnership and may be arranged for manufacturing activities.  Any investor of a foreign country buys an interest in a manufacturing unit of the domestic investor already existing in that country. FOREIGN SUBSIDIARIES: The marketer establishes a subsidiary manufacturing unit in a foreign country. When a company engages in such production in a number of countries.

railway lines etc. NEED FOR OVERSEAS MARKET RESEARCH :( Uses)  Market research is required to identify which markets should be selected as the target. national highways. products. air ports. pacing problems etc relating to firm's product while on the other hand market research emphasis research on the market and market segments and consumers and their behaviour. warehousing. advertisements. This agreement between these two companies is called the management contract. The research is mainly concerned with details regarding consumers. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH MARKET RESEARCH & MARKETING RESEARCH Market research is a complete analysis of the market. construct and equity a manufacturing/business/service facility and turn the project over to the purchaser when it is ready for operations for a remuneration. Then the foreign company may agree to provide technical assistance and managerial expertise. consumers. . changes in markets and various factors. Turnkey projects: A turnkey project is a contract under which firms agrees to fully design. The research is mainly concerned with details regarding consumers. affecting those changes are studies vigorously.The companies with low level technology and managerial expertise may seek the assistance of a foreign company. size. channels of distribution. Information regarding the nature. C. growth. transport. accessibility and competitive factors. profitability of different markets. organization. International turnkey projects include nuclear power plants. Marketing research covers all aspects of the marketing activities such s markets. such as economic. social and political. oil refinery. Thus the market research is only a part of marketing. The main purpose of market research is to know about the consumers and markets of the exporter's products and services. sales promotion techniques. based on the market size.

Research also helps in taking appropriate packaging decisions. Desk research and field research. The needs for research also arise when the sale of the product is showing a downward trend and the reason for the fall could not be established. Research can help to determine the positioning of the product..  Identify the information requirements to find out a solution to the problem. Pricing is crucial for success in international marketing and a blunder can mar all prospects.  It is useful in converting uncertainty into certainty. taking into account the socio-cultural factors.  Identify the gaps in information still remaining.  Identify the sources (primary and secondary) from where such information can be obtained. Considerable amount of data collection and analysis are required to arrive at pricing decisions.      Research can help prevent the use of inappropriate market entry method. METHODOLOGY FOR MARKET RESEARCH: Market research in almost all cases is carried out into two phases: viz. habits and preferences are changing very fast. Promotional campaigns should be decided only when proper research has been carried out regarding their acceptability in a given environment.  Collect and analyse the secondary source materials. Stepwise formulation of a research plan comprising both desk and field research will be as follows:  Identify the problem.  Prepare a research brief for field research to collect information on the gaps. fashion. The uncertainty is mitigated. Detailed field research investigations are required to determine the extent of product adaptation required to make the product acceptable in a given market. Marketing research by providing information on market information on market environment.   The research becomes inevitable when the income. Identification of suitable products is also dependent upon research. reduces uncertainty in it and makes the environment known. .

Chamber of Commerce . national trade statistics UN. o From whom the data were collected.  Interview the respondents. DESK RESEARCH: Desk research is the first phase of the marketing research.  Analyse and evaluate the results. INFORMATIONS Import statistics Production statistics Tariffs and quotas EXAMPLES OF SOURCES UN. External Source of Information: This information can be had from any published documents which may provide data on the problems to be analysed. Official statistical sources Embassies. Inside or Internal source of information: This information can be gathered from the following: past sales record enquires received from abroad reports from its branches and agents abroad and its officers dealing in export trade. However before relying on any published documents the researcher should consider the following points: o Exactly what products are included in the statistical classification o Who originally collected the data for what purpose.  Prepare the sample of respondents. Complaints received from foreign customers etc. It involves collection of all relevant information from known published and unpublished documentations available within and outside the organization. and how reliable the methodology might have been and o How consistent the data are with other local or international statistics. and whether thee might any motive for misrepresentation.OECD. The following table shows the agencies which can furnish the required information for desk research. Design a questionnaire.

Currency restrictions Health restrictions Political situation Domestic consumption Banks and Embassies Embassies and chamber of commerce Bank reports. in many developing countries. Field research can be conducted through personal interviews. There are two specific important steps before field research can be undertaken viz. telephone interviews and stores checks. Of the three methods. Going directly to the market may cover the gaps in information. Questionnaire and Observation method (Refer Research methodology book for further details for the above said techniques) COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE: .. Unfortunately. press reports and IMF year book Official statistics of chamber of commerce and commodity boards. design and testing of a questionnaire and preparation of a sample of respondents. daily economic newspapers on commodity prices. In order to secure the best possible return on the limited time that can be spent on export market research. FIELD RESEARCH: An analysis of data collected from desk research would reveal the gaps in information that still remain. Generally speaking product specific marketing in formations are not available from secondary (desk) sources. company catalogues. however. personal interview is the most dependable if reliable data are to be required. Identification of agents Credit and payment terms Transport cost Prices Directories. Reports of embassies and Journals Banks Freight forwarders and clearing agencies Previous market survey reports. First the recruitment of interview is difficult and ins some cultures it is impossible to recruit female interviewers at all. the personal interview presents special problems for two main reasons. Techniques of Field Research: Interview methods.

necessary for the exporter to obtain competitive intelligence and make a study about competitions for his products. It is therefore. and how good are they? What problems do the face.Modern marketing is very competitive. Modern business is a many sided game in which rivals and opponents continuously try to formulate strategies to gain advantage over one another. A marketer cannot survive under keen competitions without up to date market information particularly regarding the nature. character and size of competition to be met. and how are they trying to solve them? Are they involved in litigation? What kind? What relation do they have with government? Do they enjoy incentives or favours? Finance: What is the current financial position of the competitors? What are their investment programmes? What fees and royalties do they use? What are their financial resources and how do they finance expansion? What dividend policies do they pursue? Are they sacrificing long-term advantage for short term gains? Production: What plans do the competitors have? What production technologies are used? How efficient are the plants? What capacity of existing plant is being used? Do they have any labour problems? . Predicting the behaviour of one's competitors and outguessing of the competitor will need the services of marketing intelligence. Regarding that the trader should have answer for the following questions about his competitors: Basic Factors: What are the competitive products are sold in that particular country? Who are the competitors? What facilities do they have and where are they located? Who are their local officers.

or on the settlement of disputes. These elements are as follows:     Names and addresses of the parties . Quality of the product. however. There are. Their promotional strategies. pricing.exporters and importers The description of the product. An Indian exporter selling his product to an importer. must contend with the fact that US laws may well have some influence either on the contractual terms to be agreed upon between him and the importer. What's their market share? How was it changed over the period of time? What are their advertising media? How much cost is incurred regarding that? Supplying the market: How do the competitive products get to the market? Who are the importers and how do they operate? What credit. The function of a sales contract is to set forth in writing what one party agrees to do for the other and what each may expect of the other. . say in the USA.What's their source of manpower? What is their manufacturing cost? How's their product quality? Marketing: What marketing channels they have? Their pricing strategy. The elements or the clauses of an export contract vary depending upon the nature of product being exported. some elements that are almost universal in their application. if any arising out of the contract. and other terms are extended by foreign suppliers? STANDARD CLAUSES OF INTRNATIONAL SALES CONTACT One of the distinctive features of international marketing is that exporters have to deal with different legal systems. Price per unit.

Passing of property.                   Total value. Jurisdiction. if any Warranties . . But in case of global companies. INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICIES TRADE BARRIERS (METHODS OF PROTECTION) Managing any business strategically needs an understanding of the business policies. Documentations. Proper law of contract. They are also called the instruments of trade policy. Inspection. Currency Tax and charges Packing specifications Mode of transport Delivery: Place and schedule Marking and labeling. Government announces their trade policies with regard to the following from time to time. Subsidies and Import quotas. They are: Tariffs. Insurance. Settlement of disputes.assuring repairs over a period. Mode of payment. an understanding of trade policies is more essential. Passing of risk. International trade policies deal with the policies of the national governments relating to exports of various goods and services to various countries either on equal terms and conditions or on discriminatory terms and conditions. Credit period. Availability/ non-availability of export and import licenses.

Import duties may also enable domestic industries to absorb higher production costs. Income and Employment Effect. It is a duty or tax imposed on internationally traded commodities when they cross the national borders. IMPACT OF TARIFFS Tariff affect on economy in different ways. Thus. as a result of the protection by tariffs. Further a part of the consumer income is transferred to the exchequer by means of the tariff.TARIFFS Tariff refers to the tax imposed on imports. An import duty generally has the following effects: Protective effect: An import duty is likely to increase the price of imported goods. If the import duty causes an increase in the price of domestically produced goods. it amounts to redistribution of income between the consumers and producers in favor of the producers. Redistribution Effect. Revenue Effect: As mentioned above. This increase in the price of imports is likely to reduce imports and increase the demand for domestic goods. . domestic industries are able to expand their output. Consumption Effect: The increase in prices resulting from the levy of import duty usually reduces the consumption capacity of the people. a tariff means increased revenue for the government. The objectives of Tariffs are  To protect domestic industries from foreign competition  To guard against dumping  To promote indigenous research and development  To conserve foreign exchange resources of the country  To make the balance of payments position more favorable and  To discriminate against certain countries.

Consumption Effect: If quotas lead to an increase in prices. motor cycles. an anti-competitive effect in the sense that the protection of domestic industries against foreign competition may enable the domestic industries to obtain monopoly power with all its associated evils. Terms of trade effect: In a bid to maintain the precious level of imports to the tariff imposing country. India had quotas of imports of various goods like cars. These restrictions are imposed by issuing import licenses to certain firms and individuals to import certain quantity of the goods. quotas are helpful in improving its balance of payments position.The tariff may cause a switch over from spending on foreign goods to spending on domestic goods. QUOTAS Quota is direct restriction on the quantity of goods which are imported into a country. milk etc. in fact. IMPACT OF QUOTAS Balance of Payment Effect: As quotas enable a country to restrict the aggregate imports within specified limits. they may cause an increase in domestic prices. Competitive Effect: The competitive effect on the tariff is. Protective Effect: . Price Effect: As quotas limit the total supply. up to 31st march 2001. people may be constrained to reduce their consumption of the commodity subject to quotas or some other commodities. if the exporter reduces his prices. This higher spending within the country ay cause an expansion in domestic income and employment. the tariff importing country is able to get imports to a lower price. Import quotas provide the protection to the domestic firms from the foreign countries.

A tariff seeks to discourage imports by raising the price of imported articles. a quota is more effective than the tariff. The reactions or responses to tariffs are not clear and accurately predictable. Redistributive Effect: Quotas also have a redistributive effect if the fall in supply due to important restrictions enables the domestic producers to raise prices.  It has been argued that quotas tend to be more flexible. Quotas may affect the terms of trade of the country imposing them. Terms of Trade Effect. TARIFFS Vs QUOTAS The differences between tariffs and quotas will be clear by the following way of comparison: Let us first examine the superiority of quotas to tariffs:  As a protective measure.By guarding domestic industries against foreign competition to some extent. Tariffs are often regarded as relatively permanent measures and rapidly build powerful . It however fails to restrict imports when the demand for imports is price inelastic. quotas encourage the expansion of domestic industries. quotas are much precise and their effects much more certain.  When compared to tariffs. The effect of quotas on the terms of trade depends upon the elasticity of the foreign offer curves. the government may obtain some revenue by charging a licence fee. Revenue Effect: Quotas may also have a revenue effect. but the effect of quotas on imports is certain. The rise in prices will result in the redistribution of income between the producers and consumers in favour of the producers. more easily imposed and more easily removed instruments of commercial policy than tariffs. As quotas are administered by means of licences.

and removable as soon as circumstances warrant. . Quotas.  The effects of quotas are more rigorous and arbitrary and they tend to distort international trade much more than the tariffs. Such payments are called subsidies. If import quotas are allocated only to a few importers. which make them all the more difficult to remove. Quotas have many characteristics of a more temporary measure. they may enable them to amass fortunes by exploiting the market. government procurement of out put at a higher rate. SUBSIDIES In order to encourage domestic production or to protect the domestic producer from the foreign competitors. Subsidies are in different forms. suffer from certain effects.  Quotas tend to restrict competition much more than tariffs by helping importers and exporters to acquire monopoly power.vested interests. tax holidays. That is why GATT condemns quotas and prefers tariffs to quotas for controlling imports. however. are designed to deal only with a current problem.  Quotas may support inflationary pressures within the country by restricting supply. Similarly.  Quotas offer greater scope for corruption than tariffs. Tariffs in some respects are superior to quotas. equity participation and supply of inputs at lower prices. government pays to a domestic producers reducing operations cost. Tariffs also suffer from the same defect. loans and advances at low rate of interest. quotas tend to promote the concentration of economic power among foreign exporters. They are: Cash grants.

usually an industrial firm. the exporter.INTERNATIONAL TRADE . FORMS OF COUNTER TRADE: There are a number of forms of counter trade. the exporter sells specified goods to the importer in exchange for specified goods. on either bilateral or multilateral basis. We may examine them in detail in detail as in the following paragraphs. In other words barter involves trading goods for goods. Under this arrangement. where cash may not involve but there is always a link between the imports and exports transactions. In other words imports are paid out of exports in counter trade. For example India exports iron and steel against import of heavy machinery under a contract it is called a counter trade transaction. but the exporter transfers the purchasing commitment to a third party who may be an end user of products or a trading house. equipment or technology to an importer and agrees to accept.UNIT III COUNTER TRADE Counter Trade refers to any one of several different arrangements by which goods and services re traded for each other. Pure barter of this type is rare in now a days. in full or part considerations. There are a variety of forms of counter trade. Basically it is a barter (exchange of one type of goods for another type of goods) or quasi-barter agreement. This type of counter trade is not very common as it takes considerable time to find a suitable third party to whom the exporter can transfers the purchasing agreement. In this case no cash in involved. provide plant. Buy back arrangement: This type of arrangement sis the most popular arrangement involving a relatively large volume of trade. Compensation counter trade: Under compensation arrangement the exporter agrees to accept a part of consideration in cash and the balance in kinds. The contract period of buy back . Barter: In the barter agreement. the goods to be produced by the importer with the exporter s' equipment or technology.

However. Counter trade is . The goods purchased will not be used by the exporter himself and he will have to arrange for their sale with a third party who may market them. the exporter sells the goods.arrangements is. This is ideally suited for commodities such as sugar. REASONS FOR THE GROWTH OF COUNTER TRADE The reasons to engage in counter trade include those basic to business. In swap transactions differences in quality of the goods being substituted are worked out in swap contract. Switch: This method of counter trade is useful when international currency flow is sluggish or uneven. Russia had a clearing agreement with Australia which was buying natural gas to Russia. Under this arrangement. it paid to the western firm direct the amount equal to the price of the plant sold to Russia. chemicals and oils. Thus in a switch agreement. Such accounts are monitored by the country's bank of foreign trade that deals in foreign exchange and where the company maintains its accounts. This method of counter trade is useful when international currency flow is sluggish or uneven. One example of switch is western firm that sold a plastic manufacturing plant to the then USSR which had no cash to pay. Swap: In a swap contract two countries agree to trade. products from different locations with a view to save transportation cost. the company sells its products or services to a local foreign trade organization and purchases goods and services of its requirements form another local foreign trade organization of the equal amount. generally one year. t o enter new markets. Evidence Accounts: Under evidence accounts. considerably longer than that of counter purchase arrangements. services or technology to a foreign importer against the purchase of a specified total value of goods selected from a list that excludes those goods produced by the technology being exported. Counter purchase arrangement: This type of counter trade arrangement is also common but it is complicated. sell products and gain an edge over competition. by necessity. These kinds of transactions are set to occur over a specified period. within a specified period. the amount is paid or accepted through a third country or party. One country that is a party to a bilateral trade agreement will transfer its imbalance to a third party or nation.

. . Some other reasons for the growth of counter trade are as follows: . -Developing countries will have confident to export their products to other countries.The desire to conceal from the domestic public the fact that the sale is being made below its costs. For every 10 to 20 deals that are talked about. This requires planning and commitment. at the same time. COUNTER TRADE IN INDIA: The State Trading Corporation of India was involved since 1961 in one for or other of counter trade mechanism by way of trade promotion agreements. have resorted to counter trade for the reasons such as balance of payments difficulties. creation of overcapacity etc.  It becomes costly as the manufacturing firms will have to set up subsidiaries to handle counter trade arrangements or employ the services of trading companies specializing in such activities. perhaps one gets done.A counter trade transaction may provide some slight additional certainty in an uncertain world. arrangements extend over several years. In other worlds counter trade permits price discrimination among customers. particularly those maintaining overvalued exchange rates.  It is full of risks and uncertainties. barter deals.considered a way of overcoming of uncertainty of domestic production plans and.A counter trade transaction permits concealed discounting in a period of weak markets. of achieving bilateral balancing of trade-an important objective of foreign trade policy in the centrally planned East European countries. This motive for counter trade is important for many developing countries and also for a number of communist countries. India had long a longer Risks increase as counter trade . DRAWBACKS OF THE COUNTER TRADE Counter trade transactions are often extremely complex and difficult as compared with straightforward trade. The developing countries. shortage of foreign exchange and the desire to stimulate foreign technology inflows motivated East European countries to enter into counter trade arrangements. etc. special trading arrangements.  It is time consuming to conclude the arrangements.

The aim of this rule is to make the extent of protection clear and to Make competition possible. Protection only through tariff: Protection should be given to domestic industries only through customs tariffs and not through other commercial measures. 3. 119 governments which together account for 90 per cent of the world merchandise trade subscribe it to. Its basic aim is to liberalize trade and for the last 45 years it has been concerned with negotiating the reduction of trade barriers and with international trade relations. The rapid and uninterrupted growth in the volume of international trade till 1992 provides a good testimony for the success of the GATT. A Stable basis of trade: The binding of the tariff levels negotiated among the contracting countries provides a stable predictable basis for trade. especially for export-oriented projects. It came into force in January 1948. Although provision is made for the renegotiation of bound tariffs. Exception is. however. Expectations to this basic rule are allowed only in the case of regional trading arrangements and the developing countries.history in the use of buy-back arrangements. a return tariffs is discouraged by the requirement that any increase be compensated for. Binding of tariffs means that these cannot be increased unilaterally. Basic Principles of GATT: 1. This technique is being increasingly applied for importing technology. All contracting parties are bound to grant to each other treatment as favourable as they would to any country (most favoured nation) in the application and administration of import and export duties and charges. 2. . Trade without discrimination: Trade must be conducted on the basis of nondiscrimination. GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT) The General Agreement on Tariff and Trade is a multilateral treaty that lays down agreed rules for conducting international trade. made in the case of developing countries where the demand for imports by development may require them to maintain quantitative restrictions in order to prevent an excessive drain on their foreign exchange resources.

As a result of these negotiations. 4. The average level of tariffs on manufactured goods in industrial countries was bout 3 per cent now as compared to about The principal emphasis was on tariff . The eight round (Uruguary Round ) started in 1986 and was concluded in April 1994. 7. Tokya Round) centred on the negotiation of additional tariff cuts and developed a series of agreements governing the use of non-tariff measures. 2.4. Part III: Conditions for membership and withdrawal. They can call on GATT for a fair settlement of cases in which they feel that their rights under the GATT are being withheld or compromised by other members. The fourth round in 1956 (Geneva) proceeded along the same track as earlier rounds. 6. 5. England) continued accession and tariff reduction negotiations. The fifth round in 1960-61 (Geneva. the tariff rates for thousands of items entering into world trade were reduced or bound against increase. and Part IV: Expansion of trade of developing countries through special concessions. The third round in 1951 (Torquay. The second round in 1949 (Annecy. negotiations. The agreement consists of four parts: Part I: Main obligations of the contracting parties. Dillon Round) involved further revision of the GATT and the addition of more countries. Part II: A code of fait trade practices to guide members in their commercial policies. The seventh round in 1973-79 (Geneva. The first round in 1947 (Geneva) saw creation of the GATT. 8. 3. The sixth round in 1964-67 (Geneva Kennedy Round) was hybrid of earlier product by product approach with across the board tariff reductions. Trade Negotiations under GATT: Eight major trade negotiations took place under the GATT auspice as follows: 1. Consultation: A basic principle of GATT is that member-countries should consult one another on trade matters and problems. France) involved negotiation with nations that desired GATT membership.

Under GATT. As on 6th November 2000. 1995 WTO is the embodiment of the Uruguary Round results and the successor to GATT. WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION Established on January 1. Its essential functions are as follows. To introduce the idea of 'sustainable development' in relation to the optimal use of the world resources and the need to protect and preserve the environment in a manner consistent with the various levels of national economic development. 1. So the trade gap for the developing countries has become more unfavourable. However. 4. the membership of the WTO stood at 139. T is not a simple extension of GATT. To achieve greater coherence in global economic-policy making in cooperation with World Bank and IMF. A search for a new institutional arrangement. The present membership accounts for more than 90 per cent of world trade. 5. WEAKNESS OF GATT: The weakness of GATT is that its benefits have mainly gone to the industrialized countries. given its provisional nature and the limited field of action. 76 Governments became members of the WTO on its first day. the success of GATT in promotion and securing liberalisation of much of world trade over 47 years was incontestable. 3. The WTO is based in Geneva. To administer the trade policy mechanism. Developing countries were disappointed with Kennedy round and the Tokyo Round. To provide a forum for negotiations among its members concerning their multilateral trade relations in matters dealt with in the agreements. 2.40 percent in the immediate second world was years. led to the formation of united Nations Committee on Trade and Development in 1946. To administer the understandings on Rules on Procedures governing the settlement of disputes. especially one which one would tackle the problems of the global trade of developing countries. Most negotiations and tariff reductions have taken place in respect of manufactured goods. Switzerland. it completely replaces its predecessor and has a very different character. . Many more countries have requested to WTO.

trade related in investment measures and trade related intellectual property rights. (v)The WTO dispute settlement system is faster. and therefore selective. To recognize that there is a need for positive efforts to ensure that the developing countries. The agreements which constitute the WTO are almost all multilateral and thus involve commitments for the entire membership. . The WTO is also a management consultant for world trade. (iii)The GATT rules applied to trade in merchandise goods. HOW IS THE WTO DIFFERENT FROM THE GATT? (a) The GATT was a set of rules. Trade disputes that cannot be solved through bilateral talks are adjudicated under the WTO dispute settlement 'court'.6. after more than 40 years. The WTO is a permanent institution with its own secretariat. a multilateral agreement with no institutional foundation with only a small associated secretariat. (iv)While GATT was multilateral instrument by the 1980s many new agreements had been added of plurilateral. They are: Trade without discrimination Predictable and growing access to markets. nature. The WTO commitments are full and permanent. especially. The mandate of the WTO includes trade in goods. (vi)The WTO is more global in its membership than the GATT. In addition to goods. A number of simple and fundamental principles run throughout all of the instruments which. governments chose to treat it as a permanent commitment. (ii) The GATT was applied on a "Provisional basis" even if. the least developed countries secure a better share of the growth of the international trade. together. regularly examine the trade regimes of individual members. trade in services. It economists keep a close watch on the pulse of the global economy and provide studies on the main trade issues of the day. the WTO covers trade in services and trade related aspects of intellectual property. make up the multilateral trading system . more automatic and thus much less susceptible to blockages than the old GATT system. WTO is a watchdog of international trade.

Encouraging development and economic reform. CHARACTERISTICS: (a)Those that necessarily require the physical proximity of the provider and the user. Service sector refers providing services and exchanging services to the public as well as society.- Promoting fair competition. and (b) Those that do not. WORLD TRADE IN SERVICES The industrial sector can be classified as production sector and service sector. Services make up a major share of the invisible account in the Balance of payments of a country. The most important services in international trade include:         Transport Travel Communication Media Business services Insurances Engineering and constructions services Banking Financial Services Characteristics and Categories of Services: An important characteristics of services that has far reaching implications for marketing of services is their inseparability. though such physical proximity may be useful. The services where physical proximity is essential fall into three categories: . however mean that all services require the physical proximity of the provider and user. The value of the international trade in services comes to about one fourth of the value of the value of the trade in goods. This does not. The growing importance of services is reflected in the international trade also. That is services cannot be sepearated from their providers. whether they are persons or machines. Production sector refers the industries that are engaged in production and supply of goods.

For example a patient who wants an open-heart surgery will have to go to a hospital where the required facilities are available. investment regulations.-The mobile provider and immobile user categorize the first category. It is therefore. OBSTACLES OR RESTRICTIONS IN SERVICE SECTOR: Due to the special characteristics and the socio economic and political implications of certain services. For example the technical people of L & T Company in India goes to Srilanka and do the construction work. In this case either the provider going to the user or the user going to the provider may achieve proximity. user goes towards the provider. television.e. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR EXPORT PROMOTION IN INDIA The Government of India has set up a number of institutions whose main functions are to help an exporter in its export efforts. radio. marketing regulations. transportation. restrictions on the employment of foreigners. film and other forms of communications and so on. necessary for the exporters to acquaint themselves with these institutions and the nature of help they can render to them so that they can initially contact them to get whatever help they could get from these institutions in exporting their products. I.DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE: .Mobile user and immosbile provider characterizes the second category. compulsion to use local facilities etc. -The third category consists of of mobile user and mobile provider. For example dry-docking facilities for ships. they are generally subject to various types of national restrictions. . Protective measures include visa requirements. Heavily protected r restricted services in different countries include banking and insurance. Similarly a technician may have to go a plant abroad to rectify a problem with the plant. In this case the provider goes into the place of user and doing services. 1.

External Affairs and Textiles d.The Department of commerce in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry is the Primary Government agency responsible for evolving and directing foreign trade policy and programmes. including commercial relations with other countries. It has its members as follows: a. Export Processing Zones d. 3. Indian Government Commercial Representatives Abroad 3. Additional secretaries and a number of other senior officers functioning as Divisional heads. Presidents of FICCI.AUTONOMUS BODIES: . Directorate General of Foreign Trade b. International Trade Policy Division Foreign Trade Territorial Division Export Products Division Export industries Division Export Service Division Economic Division 2. Secretaries of Commerce and industry. Finance. The department consisting of the following Divisions concerning with various subjects connected with exports and imports.ATTACHED AND SUBORDINATE OFFICES a.ADVISORY BOARDS Board of Trade : The Board of Trade is the highest advisory body under the Department of commerce to deliberate on policy matters. Leading industries c. ASSOCHAM and FASSI b. This department is headed by a Secretary and he is assisted in the discharge of duties by a Special Secretary . Chairman of ITPO/MD of ECGC Export Promotion Board: under the chairmanship of cabinet Secretary. Director General of commercial Intelligence and Statistics c.

carpet. The department of commerce provides necessary financial assistance in relation to their export promotion work. Registration of fishing vessels. electronics and computer software. cotton textiles. . processing plants. handlooms. plastics.sea fishing in all its aspects and conservation and management of off-shore and deep-sea fisheries. tobacco and spices.(I) Export Promotion Councils: There are 20 export promotion councils covering the following products: Apparels. 2. synthetic . chemicals. handicrafts. assist manufacturers and exporters to overcome the various constrains and extend to them the full range of services for the development of market overseas. These councils advise the Government regarding current developments in the export sector and measures the necessary to facilitate future growth in exports. tea. marketing etc. silk. shellac. The councils also conduct market surveys. (II) Commodity Boards: There are 9 Statutory Boards for the following commodities: Handicrafts and Handloom. leather. Silk. In respect of commodities concerned. Sponsor trade delegations and guide newcomers in the export trade. rubber. construction. These councils are registered under the companies Act as non-profit making agencies. they act themselves as if they were the Export Promotion Councils. The commodity boards del with the entire range of problems of production. Power loom. cashew. development. pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.. coffee. coir. The councils also perform certain regulatory functions as they have the power to register and issue Registration cum-membership certificate under the Export and Import policy and also de-register errant or defaulting exporters. (III) Marine Products Export Development Authority: The main functions of the Authority are: 1. Some of these Boards have opened their branch in foreign countries in order to promote the consumption of the commodities under their jurisdiction. gem and jewellery. Development of off-shore and deep. storage premises and exports with a view to promote a healthy development. assist in product development. poweerloom. sports goods and wool and woolens.

the corporation assists the exporters through special schemes such as packing credit guarantee. To suit varying needs of exporters. (VIII) Export credit and Guarantee Corporation: The ECGC a Government of India undertaking has been established for minimizing the risk element in export business and to facilitate the flow of finance from the banks to exporters. seminars and conferences on matters related to trade and commerce. 4. Publish papers. chamber of commerce etc. post shipment credit guarantee and export production finance guarantee. periodicals and other literature having a bearing on trade and commerce. This is registered under the Societies Act. regulatory bodies. In addition to the normal risk policies. (IV) Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (V) Indian Institute of Foreign Trade The Indian Institute of Foreign Trade is functioning under the Ministry of commerce. processing and marketing. the corporation provides different types of cover which may be divided into the following three broad groups: Standard polices .3. Organize training. (VI) India Trade Promotion Organization (VII) National Centre for Trade Information (NCTI): The main functions of NCTI inclusive of Create database at national and international levels for export promotion Collect information on various aspects of trade and commerce on different countries. 5. Arranging for training in different aspects connected with export with special reference to fishing. Rendering financial assistance. Laying down standards and specifications for marine products for the purpose of export. Establish linkages with trade promotion bodies.

As per this act The Government of India has established the Export Inspection Council. It extends finance to exporters of capital and manufactured goods. 1982 for the purpose of financing. In order to ensure the quality of the products exported. ECGC bears the main risks and pays the exporter 90% of his loss on account of commercial risks and Political risks.Financial guarantees Special policies Under its policies intended o protect the exporters against overseas credit risks. facilitating and promoting foreign trade of India. The functions of this council are generally to advise the central government regarding the measures for the enforcement of quality control and inspection in relation to commodities intended for export and draw up a programme therefore. a legislation entitled "Export (Quality control and Inspection) Act" was enacted by the Indian Parliament in 1963. (X) Export Inspection Councils: Quality control and pre shipment inspection is one of the important factors in the export marketing. (XI) Indian Institute of Packaging (XII) Indian Council of Arbitration (XIII) Federation of Indian Export Organization Other Institutions concerned with export promotion: Office of the Textile Commissioner. Kolkatta Indian Jute Mill Association. . exporters of soft wares and consultancy services and overseas joint ventures and construction projects abroad. Bombay Office of the Jute Commissioner. The bank is the principal financial institution in India for coordinating the work of institutions engaged in financing export and import trade. The EXIM bank concentrates mainly on medium and long term credit for export of goods and services on deferred payment terms. (IX) Export-Import Bank: The EXIM Bank was established on January 1. Kolkatta.

The board of directors manages the EXIM BANK with representation from government financial institutions. This enables Indian exporters of consultancy and technology services to extend term credit to overseas importers.  Pre-shipment credit: This enables Indian exporters to buy raw materials and other inputs for fulfilling export contracts involving cycle time exceeding six months.  Finance for deemed exports.ROLE OF EXIM BANK OF INDIA Objectives: The Export-Import Bank of India was set up[ the Government of India in 1982 as a public sector financial institution under an Act passed in the parliament for the purpose of financing. Services Offered to Indian Exporters:  Underwriting: This enables the Indian exporters to raise finance from capital markets with the backing of EXIM Bank's underwriting commitment. banks and business community.  Forfeiting: This Indian exporters to convert sale to cash on without recourse basis.  Guarantee Facility: To execute export contracts and import transactions. R & D for exports. FUNCTIONS: Lending Programmes to Indian Exporters:  Suppliers credit: This enables the exporters to extend credit to overseas importers of eligible Indian goods.  Finance for consultancy and technology services.  Finance for EOU and EPZ Units  Software Training Institutes  Export marketing finance  Export-Product Development Finance: This Indian firms to undertake product development.  Business Advisory and Technical assistance . facilititating and promoting foreign trade of India.

These units have to operate under custom bond and achieve the level of value addition fixed by the Board of Approval.  It provides information to potential exporters about projects abroad specially about multilaterally agencies.  It also entertains proposals for various facilities under he European Community Investment Partners like feasibility studies for setting up export units. In order to enable them to operate successfully in the international market such units are allowed to import machinery. Some of the modifications done to facilitate the exporting units in the EOUs are as follows:    Simplification of customs/excise procedures Automatic approval under certain conditions to proposal for setting up units. flexibility of operations and incentives. components and consumable at free of custom duties.. For Commercial Banks:  Refinance of Export credit  Bulk import finance  Guarantee cum Refinance supplier's credit Other activities:  The bank helps Indian companies go global by setting up subsidiaries and joint ventures abroad. Cooperation arrangement with African Management Services. At present more than 500 units are in operation under the EOU scheme. . Leasing of capital goods from domestic companies by EPZ\EOU has been permitted. 100% EXPORT-ORIENTED UNITS The scheme of 100 EOU's were introduced in 1980 with a view to generating additional production capacity for exports by providing an appropriate policy frame work. raw material.  The bank introduced the "cluster of Excellence" programme for up gradation of quality standards and obtaining ISO certification.  It also helps companies in preparing bids according to strict condition prescribed by the multilateral agencies.

 EOU units may import/procure from Domestic Tariff Area without payment of duty.1 crore and above in building. ROLE OF EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE CORPORATION (ECGC) The risk element in export business is greater than the risk involved in domestic tradebecause the two parties of the export contract (exporter and importer) belong to different countries. In the context of growing competition no exporter can manage without selling goods on credit.  By products may also be sold in the domestic tariff are subject to achievement of positive net foreign exchange on payment of applicable duties within the overall entitlement. Only project having an investment of Rs. Giving credit poses two problems to an exporter: He should have enough money to offer credit to his overseas buyers and . The entire production of EOU units shall be exported subject to the following:  Rejects may be sold in the domestic tariff area on payment of duties on prior intimation to the customs authorities.  Scrap/waste arising out of production process or in connection therewith may be sold in the domestic tariff area on payment of duties within the overall ceiling of 50% FOB value of exports.  An EOU unit may import without payment of duty for all type of goods. including capital goods required by it for its activities provided they are not prohibited items of imports. The following privileges are enjoyed by the Export Oriented Units:  An EOU unit may export all goods and services except the items prohibited by the exim policy.   Second hand capital goods may also be imported duty free without any age limit. plant and machinery shall be considered for establishment under EOU scheme. Application for setting up of units under EOU scheme may be approved by the units Approvals Committee within 15 days. Encouragement of agro and electronic units by providing higher domestic access. EOU unit shall be positive net foreign exchange earner.

Commercial Risk: a. . COVERS ISSUED BY ECGC: The covers issued by ECGC may be divided broadly into four groups as follows: a) Standard policies issued to exporters to protect them against the risk of not receiving payments while trading with overseas buyers on short term credit. RISKS COVERED UNDER STANDARD POLICIES: Under its policies to protect the exporters against overseas credit risks. c) Financial guarantees issued to banks against risks involved in providing credit to exporters. Joint ventures and overseas investment. buyer's failure to accept the goods. b) Specific policies designed to protect Indian Firms against the risk of not receiving payments in respect of Export on deferred payment terms Services rendered to foreign parties and Construction work-undertaken abroad. In some special circumstances specified in the policy. which may wreck his fortunes. Political Risk: a. Restriction on remittance in the buyer's country or any government action which may block or payment to the exporter. The buyer's protracted default to pay c. The insolvency of the buyer b. Exporting on credit is not without risk. The overseas buyer may default. there may be earthquake or typhoon. A. The ECGC. when non-acceptance is not due to the exporter's actions. he may go bankrupt. ECGC bears the main brunt of the risks and pays the exporter 90 per cent of his loss on account of commercial and political risks. and d) Special schemes viz: Transfer Guarantee. a Government of India undertaking. covers the exports against these risks. a war in his country. Insurance cover for buyer's credit. Line of credit. The ECGC also provides guarantees to the financing banks to enable them to provide adequate finance to the exporters.- He should be prepared to take the credit risks.

Flucturations in exchange rates (except under Exchange Fluctuation Risk over Schemes)and g. Loss or damage to goods which can be covered by general insurers: f. however. does not cover risks of loss due to: a.Insolvency or default of any agent of the exporter or of the collecting banks: . Commercial disputes. Causes inherent in the nature of goods: c.b.Failure of the exporter to fulfill the term of contract or negligence on his part. C. SPECIFIC POLICIES Contracts for export of capital goods or projects for construction works and for rendering services abroad are insured by ECGC on case to case basis under specific policies.g. And beyond the control of both the exporter and the buyer. not normally insured by commercial insurers.SMALL EXPORTER'S POLICY . including quality disputes raised by the buyer unless the exporter obtains a decree from a competent court of law in buyer's country in his favour. b. New import licensing restrictions or cancellation of a valid import license in the buyer's country: e. revolution or civil disturbances in the buyer's country c. Cancellation of export license or imposition of new export licensing restrictions in India (under contracts policy) d.e. War. Additional handling transport or insurance charges due to interruption or diversion of voyage which cannot be recovered from the buyer: and f. Any other cause of loss occurring outside India. RISKS NOT COVERED ECGC. B. Special mention may be made of the services policy to protect Indian firms against payment for their services policy to protect Indian firms against payment for their services policy o protect Indian firms against payment for their services and the construction works policy to cover all payments that fall due to a contractor under a composite contract for execution of services as well as supply of material.Buyer's failure to obtain import or exchange authorization from the appropriate authority: d.

purchasing or packing of goods meant for export against a firm order or letter of credit qualifies for packing Credit Guarantee. The premium payable for a small exporter's policy is less than the standard policy. Post-shipment Export Credit Guarantee: 4. Packing Credit Guarantee: 2. The Corporation has evolved the following types of Guarantees. It will be issued to exporters whose anticipated export turnover for the next 12months does not exceed Rs. EXPORT PRODUCTION FINANCE GUARANTEE . The Export Credit Guarantee Corporation. FINANCIAL GUARANTEE TO BANKS Timely and adequate credit facilities. in order to encourage small exporters to obtain and operate the policy. The Guarantee is issued for a period of 12 months against a proposal made for the purpose and covers all the advances that may be made by the banks during the period to a given exporter within an approved limit. Export Performance Guarantee: 6. granted to all its customers on an all India basis. Export Finance (Overseas lending ) Guarantee 1. To banks. To meet the varying needs of exporters. D. PACKING CREDIT GUARANTEE Any loan given to an exporter for the manufacture processing. Export Finance Guarantee 5.25 lakes. 1.The small exporter's policy is basically the Standard Policy. 2. incorporating certain improvements in terms of cover. Export Production Finance Guarantee. (ECGC) has designed a scheme of Guarantees to Banks with a view to enhancing the credit worthiness of the exporter so that they would be able to secure better and large facilities from their bankers. at the pre-shipment as well as post-shipment stage. be able to obtain such facilities from their bankers for several reasons. which undertake to obtain cover for packing credit advances. however. Exporters my not. 3. Are essential for exporters to realize their full export potential.

The Premium rate for this Guarantee is 7paise per Rs. Banks having WTPCG are eligible for concessionary premium rate and higher percentage cover. It is necessary however. POST -SHIPMENT EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE Post-shipment finance given to exporters by banks through purchase. 5.The purpose of this Guarantee is to enable banks to sanction advances at the pre-shipment stage to the full extent of cost of production when it exceeds the FOB value of the contract/order. Premium rate will be 0. EXPORT FINANCE (OVERSEAS LENDING) GUARANTEE If a bank financing an overseas project provides a foreign currency loan to the contractor. EXPORT PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE Exporters are often called upon to execute bonds duly guaranteed by Indian banks at various stages of export business. he may have to furnish bank guarantees to foreign buyers to ensure due performance or against advance payment or in lieu of retention money or to a foreign bank in case he has to raise overseas finance for his contract. The Premium rate for this Guarantee is 7 paise per Rs. it can protect itself from the risk of non-payment by the contractor by obtaining Export Finance Guarantee. 3. An exporter who desires to quote for a foreign tender may have to furnish a bank guarantee for the bid bond. If he wins the contract. The extent of cover and the premium rate are the same as packing Credit Guarantee. 100/-per month The percentage of loss covered under the individual post-shipment Guarantee is 75% 4. 100 per month and the cover is 75 percent. etc. negotiations or discount of export bills or advances against such bills qualifies for the Guarantee. that the exporter concerned should hold suitable policy of ECGC to cover the overseas Credit risks. EXPORT FINANCE GUARANTEE This guarantee covers post-shipment advance granted by banks to exporters against export incentives receivable in the form of duty drawback. 6. Banks having WTPSG are eligible for concessional rate of premium and higher percentage of cover. the difference representing incentives receivable.09% per annum for .

Under the Libralised Exchange Rate Management System (LERMS) exporters will get benefit when rupee depreciates while importers will lose. -Concessional rate of customs duty on imports of selected items of machinery for export production under EPCG scheme. EXPORT ASSISTANCE AND EXPORT PROMOTION MEASURES Export assistance has become an important tool in any developing country to motivate the manufacturer and businessmen to enter the international market. HHC of the Income Tax Act allows a deduction of the whole of the profit derived from the export of goods or merchandise. . However. When rupee appreciates the balance of benefits will the just the reverse.08% per annum for 90% cover. Most developing countries have resorted to a number of export promotion measures. export incentive system in India has been made very simple. (ii) Fiscal concession: The different types of fiscal concessions are as follows: In the computation of total income Sec. These are (i)Market-based Exchange Rate: Since March 1993 the exchange rate of the rupee is fully determined by the demand and supply condition in the market as the rupee was made fully convertible for export-import transactions in March 1993. -Exemption from taxation 50 per cent of royalty.75% cover and 1. fees or any similar payment obtained from the exports of technical know-how and technical services. available to exporters. There are essentially three major incentives. India has also been providing export assistance for the past about forty years.Exemption from taxation of the profits from over seas projects to the extent of 50 percent. . Premium is payable in Indian Rupees. the budget for the year 20002001 has reduced this exemption by 20% every year to be phased out in five years. Claims under the guarantee will also be in Indian rupees. . commission.A 10 year tax holiday for 100 per cent export oriented units and for units located in Free trade zone/Export processing zones. From 1922.80. This benefit is also available to supporting manufacturers exporting through Export/ Trading Houses provided that the amount of deduction claimed is retained as a reserve for the purpose of the business of the assessee.

In export business also finance plays an important role. refund of terminal excise duty. e. EPCG Scheme Duty Exemption Scheme Export Houses/Trading Houses Export processing Zones 100 % Export oriented units (iv)Other facilities available to exporters: In addition to the above mentioned incentives. which have gone into the production of exported products. industrialists and others require finance for their day-to-day activities. Certain transactions in which goods supplied do not leave the country and the payment for the goods which is received by the suppliers sin India have been treated as deemed exports and are entitled some benefits such as duty exemption in respect of deemed export categories. c. deemed export drawback. An exporter needs finance for processing or manufacturing or assembling or procuring or packing the goods for export. etc EXPORT FINANCE Businessmen. The commercial banks which give credit to exporters can also get guarantee from ECGC. (a)Duty Drawback: This is a refund of import duty or excise duty paid on the raw materials and components. After the shipment is made exporter will have to give credit the exporter has to wait till the documents reach the importer and he makes the payment. Export finance starts as soon as the exporter gets an order to export. It will take some more time . (d)Insurance of credit risk: The ECGC is willing to cover 90% of the political and commercial risks of export operations. special import license. b. d. (e)Deemed exports. Preshipment finance is provided to the exporter to meet such requirements.(iii)Facilities available under the Export-Import Policy for Export: a. the Central Government is offering the following facility to exporters. (b)Rebate of excise duty: If the goods exported attract central excise duty either the duty is exempted or refunded if already paid ©Export Finance: Exporters are allowed to get export finance both pre-shipment and post shipment credit at concessional rate of interest.

customs and shipping agent's charges Freight and insurance charges if the contract is either CIF contract or C&F contract and Export duty or tax. or Personal bond in the case of party's already known to the exporter. The banks on the basis of the following give the packing credit.before the advice of payment is finally. normally finance the post-shipment credit in one the following ways: (i) Negotiating export bills under letter of credit The banks . or Any other evidence of an order for exports of goods from India having been placed on the exporter or Relevant policy issued by the ECGC. PRE-SHIPMENT CREDIT OR PACKING CREDIT Export packing credit is a loan or any other credit given by a bank to an exporter for financing (a) procuring raw materials and components to manufacture the product or (b) processing or assembling or packing the goods for export. 2. communicated to the exporter.POST SHIPMENT CREDIT Post-shipment finance is required by the exporters to bridge the gap between the time of shipment of goods and the actual payment for the goods exported. Post shipment credits are given by commercial banks Against the security of approved shipping documents tendered against-letters of credit or otherwise. It is also provided at concessional rate of Interest. Cost of purchase or production Packing including any special packing for export Costs of special inspection or tests required by the importer Internal transport costs Port. A letter of Credit (L/C) opened in favour of the exporter by the importer's bank: A confirmed or irrevocable order for the export of goods from India having been placed on the exporter. 1. if any. COSTS COVERED BY PRE-SHIPMENT FINANCE Pre-shipment finance would normally cover the following costs. Post-shipment finance is therefore provided to the exporter to meet his needs for funds during the intervening period between the shipment of the goods and the receipt of payment therefore.

TYPES OF POST -SHIPMENT CREDIT Post shipment credit may be of three types: (i) Short term: The short term credit is usually for 6 months and provided by banks. and (iii) An advance against bills under collection. (iii) Long term: Long term loans are provided in the case of sale of capital goods complete plants and turnkey jobs. (ii) Medium term: Medium term loans are offered for a period beyond 6 months and up to 5 years. The period of credit is usually more than 5 years. Guarantees provided by ECGC where a substantial part of the risk is covered by the ECGC. The rate of interest on post-shipment credit is also charged at concessional rate. Banks enjoy certain benefits for advancing loans to exporters. These loans are also provided by commercial banks in collaboration with EXIM Bank of India. They are as . Banks usually charge a commission according to the rates prescribed by the Foreign Exchange Dealer's Association of India. 3. follows.(ii) Discounting of bills drawn against shipment of goods-discounting of usance bills (D/A Bills ) drawn against shipment of goodsdiscounting of bills is usually done under limits sanctioned to different customers. The bill of exchange accepted by the importer is surrendered to the forfeiting agency which pays him in cash after deducting a fee. FORFAITING Forfaiting enable an exporter to convert an overseas credit sale into a cash sale through the process of discounting of export receivables. (i) (ii) Refinance by EXIM Bank of India. Medium term loans are provided for in the case of durable consumer goods and light capital goods. The understanding is that the agency will collect the dues from the importer on expiry of the said period.

4. engineering items. Contracts for export of goods against payment to be received fully or partly after the expiry of the stipulated period for the realization of export proceeds are treated as deferred payment export contract. gems and jewellery. at low cost. To earn foreign exchange 2. power. This enables the products of EPZ to be competitive. To facilitate transfer of technology by foreign investment and other means. FREE TRADE ZONE (EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES) These are also referred to as Export Processing Zones. To contribute to the overall development of the economy. EPZ operating units broadly under the product groups of electronics. India has seven EPZ at different parts of our country. In addition customs clearance is arranged within the zone at no extra charge. components and consumables and export of finished products shall be exempt from central levies. water supply and drainage. Extension of long term export credit has become an accepted export market strategy and therefore. textiles. garments. Provision is made for locating banking\post office facilities and offices of clearing agents in the service centers located in each of the zones. roads. 4. provision has been made for the extension of medium and long term credit to finance the sale of Indian capital goods and related services. in the international market. chemicals and allied products. The objectives of these units are: 1. standard design factory buildings. both quality wise and price wise.FINANCE FOR EXPORTS ON DEFERRED PAYMENT TERMS Our exchange control regulations stipulate that exporter should realize the foreign exchange for their exports within 180 days from the date of shipment. Entitlement for EPZ Units: Each of the zones provides basic infrastructure such as developed land for construction of factory sheds. Foreign equity up to 100% is permissible in the case of EPZ units Procurement of raw materials. . plastics and rubber products. To generate employment opportunities 3. are set up with the intension of providing an internationally competitive duty free environment for export production.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE – UNIT FOUR PROCEDURE FOR EXECUTING AN EXPORT ORDER The following the parties and agencies involved in executing an export order: 1. The following documents have to be prepared. Shipping company 5. Exporter 2. Port Trust 11.  Bill of Exchange (if D/A or D/P bill)  Commercial invoice  Bill of lading . 3. Importer. Customs House 10. Reserve Bank of India 7.The exporter should scrutinize the export order with reference to the terms and conditions of the contract. Insurance company 6. The order should specify the mode of payment such as letter of credit. document against acceptance or document against payment. Inspection Agency 12. Directorate General of Foreign Trade 9.Exemption from industrial licensing for manufacture of items reserved for SSI sector. ECGC 8. The negotiating bank 4. Clearing Agents Procedure for executing an export order: The exporter has to process the export order in the following manner: 1. and the terms of conditions as specified in the letter of credit.

in the case of shed cargo. They will obtain the marine insurance cover for the goods. After the shipping ill has been passed by the customs. 6. Thereafter. Export inspection agency should be approached. 4.Thereafter the works manager sends a dispatch advice to the export department. Marine insurance  Packing list  Certificate of orgin  Export inspection certificate 2. 3. Then the exports department sends the following documents to its clearing and forwarding agents along with detailed instructions: Commercial invoice Original export order Original L/C Packing list Certificate of inspection Endorsement regarding floor price 5. Where the the .A delivery note (in duplicate) is to sent to the works manager or factory manager giving the description of goods to be exported along with the copy of the instruction given by the importer.As soon as the goods are manufactured and kept ready for shipment following have to be done: Clearance of the excise authority has to be obtained. Thereafter he prepares requisite copies of shipping bill and submits them to the Export Department of the Customs house along with necessary documents mentioned above. The clearing and forwarding agent takes delivery of the consignment and arranges its storage in the warehouse. Goods should be dispatched to the port of shipment. the clearing and forwarding agents presents the Port Trust copy of the shipping bill to the respective authorities. AR-4 form has to be prepared. the Dock challan is prepared.

After paying all the port dues. 13. The clearing and forwarding agent forwards the following documents to the exporter: Full set of bill of lading.Finally the exporter will get the value of the value of export consignment against the above-mentioned documents.The original copy of the bank certificate along with attested copies of the commercial invoice are returned to the exporter. As soon as the exporter receives the above documents from the clearing and forwarding agent. In response to that the Ship's Export Clerk calls for cargo from shed or boat and after loading prepares the Mate Receipt. The negotiating bank transmits duplicate copy of the GR form to the exchange control department of the Reserve Bank of India after receipt of the export proceeds. Customs invoice. He will present the following documents to the negotiating bank. description of packages. berth. 12. the dock charges are indicated in the shipping bill itself and therefore. original export order. the clearing agent collect the mate receipt from the Port Trust Authorities. Certificate of origin. The mate receipt is first handed over to the Port Trust authorities so that the exporter may pay all the port dues. EXPORT PROCEDURE FOR SENDING GOODS An outline of the important steps in exporting the goods is as follows: IEC NUMBER: .The passed Shipping Bill including dock challan will be submitted to the Port Commissioners.  GR Form. marks and numbers. 9. he completes the remaining formalities. 8. date of shipment. Marine insurance policy and Bank certificate 11. Packing list. A mate receipt is a receipt issued by the commanding office of the ship when the cargo is loaded on the ship and contains information about the name of the vessel.ship loads overside. condition of the cargo at the time of receipt on board the ship etc. no dock challan is prepared. copies of customs invoice. The duplicate copy of the bank certificate is forwarded to the office of the DGFT in the area. 7. export promotion copy of the bill. 10.

the exporter would have to make an offer to the foreign customer. their description. which is necessary document required for export to certain countries. may be in the form of a letter. productivity council or any other trade promotion organization recognized by the Ministry of Commerce. Members of EPC will receive different kind of assistance and services in respect of the export business. It may contain full details of the goods required. The offer. his quotation and other relevant information. sizes. There are specified Export Promotion Councils . becomes an order. The regional licensing authorities normally allot the IEC number. Exporters are advised to become members of local chamber of commerce. the buyer may place an order with the exporter. catalogue numbers or grades. Membership of such bodies will help the exporters in different ways. time and method of delivery etc. MEMBERSHIP CUM REGISTRATION: Membership of certain bodies will help the exporters in a number of ways. including obtaining the certificate of orgin. Serious and sincere care should. therefore. CONFIRMATION OF ORDER: Once the negotiations are completed and the terms and conditions are acceptable to the buyer and seller. This code number is required to be incorporated in the various export documents submitted to the authorities for purposes of export. The exporter should bear in mind that the foreign buyer have a large number of prospective suppliers in a number of countries and thus he is in a very competitive situation. As a starting point of the negotiations. INQUIRY AND OFFER: An inquiry is a request from a perspective importer to be informed of the terms and conditions of sale. As soon as the exporter receives a business inquiry from party abroad. be exercised in dealings with foreign country customers. An offer is a proposal in which an exporter submits. it should be promptly attended to. when accepted by the foreign buyer. weights or other distinguishing features. The exporter .Every person importing or exporting goods require and Importer-Exporter Code number. commodity boards and export development authorities for various products.

though many items are permitted to be exported freely. The confirmation of the order usually takes the form of a contract. PACKING AND MARKING: Once the goods re ready. he should take the necessary steps to obtain it. If there are no such instructions. If the exporter is not a manufacturer. it should be ensured that the packing and marking are of the standards recommended or specified. EXPORT LICENSE: These exports of some items are banned and of some items controlled by means of licenses. they should be followed accordingly. Needless to say. the exporter should make sure that the item sought to be exported is not one. If the buyer has given instructions about packing and marking. the exporter should contract the shipping companies which have sailings for the port to which goods have be sent and book the required shipping space. he should contract with his suppliers and ensure timely availability of the goods of the buyer's specifications. On the exporter's application or on the application of the freight broker on the exporter's behalf. QUALITY CONTROL AND PRE-SHIPMENT INSPECTION: . which falls in the banned list. it is necessary to obtain it before finalizing the contract. the exporter should take necessary steps to ensure the timely availability of the goods of the specifications required and execute the export order promptly. PRODUCTION/PROCRUMENT OF GOODS: Once the order is confirmed. For the confirmation of the order. the proforma invoice is generally sent in triplicate to the buyer. FINANCE: If the exporter requires pre-shipment financial assistance.should immediately confirm the order by sending this acceptance. The exporter should again send once copy to the importer with the exporter's signature to confirm the acceptance of the order. and the buyer is asked to return two copies signed by him. they are marked and marked properly. If the item to be exported requires a license. SHIPPING SPACE: As soon as the export order is confirmed. the shipping company issues sits acceptance if the space applied for is given.

They are as follows:  Export Inspection Agency  AGMARK Authorities  Textile committee . EXCISE CLEARANCE: the As a matter of policy.  Any other authorities authorized for this purpose. Some times with specification the goods are allowed to export without payment of duty on execution of a bond with sufficient surety and security in the prescribed bond. Shipping Bill Declaration regarding truth of statement made in the shipping bill Invoice GR form Export license (if required) Quality control Original contract Letter of credit (if applicable) Certificate from quality control authorities Marine insurance policy Certificate of orgin Mate receipt or bill of lading Packing list AR-4 Form . For this purpose.Thereafter get the goods inspected by the inspecting authorities under compulsory quality control and pre-shipment inspection. Excisable goods may be exported either under claim for rebate of excise duty or in bond. the duty is first paid and its refund is claimed. the government has granted excise duty exemption for the export products. the exporter (or the clearing and forwarding agent on behalf of the exporter) should present the following documents to the customs authorities. CUSTOMS FORMALITIES: Goods may be shipped out of India only after the customs clearance has been obtained.for textile goods. In the case of export under claim for refund of excise duty.

APPLYING FOR REFUND (if any) Then appropriate steps to be taken by way of applying to get the Duty Draw bank from customs and other assistance. prima-facie. Nowa-days all types of products like food.- Any other documents The customs authorities scrutinize the shipping bill and other requisite documents. are sent by air freight. if any from Government. They are as follows: A uniform system of documentation for air cargo. IATA has made rapid expansion because of three developments for which it has been responsible. subject to a physical examination by the staff of the customs.. they pass it for export. for permission to bring in the cargo for export. gems and jewellery. the exporter should arrange to obtain payment for the exports by negotiation with the relevant documents through the bank. The shipping bill passed by the exporter department has to presented to the cargo supervisor or the steamship company or the shed manager. electronic products etc. . A standard system of rate making and inter airline agreements on rates. NEGOTIATION OF DOCUMENTS: After shipping the goods. who is the port official. So that the importer get ready for his actions. readymade garments. and if. EXPORT BY AIR AND SEA EXPORTS BY AIR In international trade the use of air-freight is increasing day by day. ADVANTAGES: A clearing house. SEND THE SHIPPING ADVICE TO THE IMPORTER: Once all the said above process are over and as and when goods are loaded into cargo or ship. satisfied. International Air Transport Association was set up in 1945. finished leather and leather products. the exporter will inform the importer about the dispatch of goods and departure of the ship.

such as the price per unit at a particular location. total value. Breakage is neglible. EXPORT BY SEA If the goods are sent by sea the exporter has to obtain/submit the following documents: Bill of Lading Marine Insurance Policy EXPORT DOCUMENTS DOCUMENTS RELATED TO GOODS INVOICE: An invoice is the seller's bill for merchandise and contains particulars of goods. Thus the advantage of exports by air may be summarized as follows: 1. quantity. Good service to customers without having any warehouse. 4. at least for certain categories of merchandise. Related surface transport costs are reduced. The loss due to rough handling and pilferage is reduced to the minimum. Deterioration is avoided. 5. Insurance premium is reduced. Speed of delivery 2. packing . ordering etc. A satisfying customer. are minimized.           Low inventory carrying costs Decreased capital costs of goods in transit Less packing lowers cost and reduces chargeable weight. Obsolence is eliminated. The reasons are as follows. Greater security and protection during transit. Costs related to administration.Basically. there are ten reasons which can make total distribution costs cheaper through the use of air transport. Savings in cost 3.

. This certificate is a necessity where a country offers a preferential tariff to India and the former is to ensure that only goods of Indian Orgin benefit from such concession. which specifies the country of the production of the goods. as the name indicates. while the packing list is a consolidated statement of the contents of a number of cases or packs. name of the ship etc. Such invoices are known as consular invoice. the name and address of the exporter. is a certificate. identification marks of the package . and various trade associations that have been authorized by the government. of its imports for purpose of assessing importing duties and also for statistical purposes. the order number. for the customs law of the country may require this procedure. date. terms of sale. Apart from the details in the packing note. The main purpose of a consular invoice is to enable the authorities of the importing country to collect accurate information about the volume. case number to which the note relates. grade. destination. shipment per bi. the name and address of the importer. name and address of the importer.specifications. quality. and the contents of the goods is in terms of quantity and weight. A certificate of orgin may be required when goods of a particular type from certain countries are banned. bill of lading number. a packing list should also include item wise details. value. A certificate of orgin from may be obtained from chambers of commerce. CERTIFICATE OF ORGIN: A certificate of orgin. the date of packing. Some importing countries insist that the importing country's consul located in the exporter's country should sign the invoice. A packing note should include the packing note number. sources etc. marking numbers. export promotion councils. bill of lading number and date. This certificate has also to be produced before clearance of goods and assessment of duty. PACKING NOTE AND LIST: The difference between packing note and a packing list is that the packing note refers to the particular of the contents of an individual pack.

the port at which goods are to be discharges. etc. the country of final destination. the port of destination and the number of the vehicle carrying the cargo. date of shipment. the name of the vessel. CART TICKET A cart ticket also known as a cart chit. allows it to pass the gate. marks and numbers. flag. After paying all the port dues. It also contains details of the packages and the goods. and when the vehicle is brought at the port gate. their total weight and value etc. it should be presented to the gate warden/inspector along with other shipping and port documents.DOCUMENTS RELATED TO SHIPMENT MATE RECEIPT A mate receipt is a receipt issued by the commanding office of the ship when the cargo is loaded on the ship. description of packages. the shipping bill number. master or agents. berth. quantity details about each case. the merchant or the gent may collect the mate receipt from the Port Trust authorities. marks and numbers. The inspector. CERTIFICATE OF MEASUREMENT . The driver of the vehicle carrying cargo should posses the ticket. whether Indian or foreign merchandise to be re-exported. such as number and description. is prepared by the exporter and includes details of the export in terms of the shipper's name. The mate receipt is first handed over to the Port Trust authorities so that all the port dues may be paid by the exporter. real value as defined in the sea customs act. after satisfying himself that the vehicle is carrying the cargo as mentioned in the document.. The bill of lading prepared by the shipping agent after the mate receipt has been obtained. SHIPPING BILL The shipping bill is the main document on the basis of which the customs' permission for export is given. condition of the cargo at that time of receipt on board the ship. and contains information about the vessel. the exporter's name and address. The shipping bill contains particulars of the goods exported. vehicle and gate pass. etc. total number of packages. the number of packages.

and. the gross eight and net weight. However. the amount of freight etc. the name and destination of the vessel. A Bill of lading acknowledging receipt of the goods apparently in good order and condition and without any qualification is termed as a clean bill of lading. the marks and numbers. the weight declared by the shipper may be accepted. The information contained in the Bill of lading includes the date and place of shipment.Freight is charged either on the basis of weight or measurement. is a receipt issued by an airline for the carriage of goods. When it is charged on the basis of weight. and (iii) as a contract for the transportation of goods. "one box damaged" etc. Each shipping company has its own Bill of lading. as such. AIRWAY BILL An airway bill. each has its own airway bill. . it is termed as a claused bill of lading. The exporter prepares the Bill of lading in the forms obtained from the shipping company or from the agents of the shipping company. the name of the consignor. also called an air consignment note. As each shipping company has its own bill of lading. BILL OF LADING The Bill of lading is a document where in the shipping company gives its official receipts of the goods shipped in its vessel and at the same time contracts to carry them to the port of destination. A Bill of lading serves three main purposes: I) As a document of title to the goods' (ii) as a receipt from the shipping company'. the number of packages.. the description. quality and destination of the goods. a certificate of measurement from the Indian chamber of commerce or other approved organization may be obtained by the shipper and given to the shipping company for calculation of the necessary freight. the invoice number and the date of export. is freely transferable by endorsement and delivery. if a Bill of lading is qualified with certain adverse remarks such as 'goods insufficiency packed in accordance with carriage of goods by Sea Act". It is also an document of title to the goods.

cashew. footwear and footwear components. EEC. In-Process Quality Control . (ii) OTHER AGENCIES: Government has also recognized 21 private inspection agencies and 7 government inspection agencies to supplement the work of quality certification. Consignment-Wise Inspection 2. SYSTEM OF INSPECTION Three Systems of inspection are in operation at present.. and  To arrange pre-shipment inspection of notified commodities for export. cochin. USA and East European countries. The Export inspection agencies have also been authorized by the Government of India to issue certificates of orgin under the Generalised system of preferences for export to Japan. chennai. The Export Inspection Council (EIC) consists of a Chairman appointed by the Central Government. 4 ex-officio members and 15 members nominated by the central government. They are: 1. are under the compulsory quality control inspection system. About 1000items under produce group heads of engineering.QUALITY CONTROL AND PRESHIPMENT INSPECTION The Export Inspection council of India was set up by the Government f India in 1963 to provide for sound development of export trade through quality control and preshipment inspection. jute and jute products. the Government of India has established five export inspection agencies one each at Calcutta. MACHINERY FOR QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION: (i) EXPORT INSPECTION AGENCIES: For carrying out pre-shipment inspection of export of goods. Delhi and Mumbai under the technical and administrative control of the EIC. chemicals and allied products. The main functions of EIC as assigned are:  To advise the central government regarding measures for enforcement of quality control and inspection in relation to commodities intended for export and to draw up programmes therefore. food and agricultural products. fish and fishery products etc.

There are five important parties to a bill of exchange: The Drawer The Drawee The Payee . defines the bill of exchange as " an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order. or t the order of. signed by the maker. SELF-CERTIFICATION: Under this system the manufacturing units fulfilling the norms prescribed are authorized by the central government to issue certificates of inspection under the Act by themselves for their products. directing a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to. Self-certification CONSIGNMENT-WISE INSPECTION: Under consignment-wise inspection. a certain person or the bearer of the instrument. 1881.3. each export consignment is inspected and tested by the recognized inspection agencies by selecting consignments on the basis of statistical sampling plan to satisfy conformity of the products with the prescribed standards. DOCEMENTS RELATED TO PAYMENTS LETTER OF CREDIT A letter of credit is a document containing the guarantee of a bank to honour drafts drawn on it by an exporter. The certifications of inspection in favour of units approved under the scheme are issued by the Export Inspecting Agencies. provided that the beneficiary fulfils the stipulated conditions BILL OF EXCHANGE The Negotiable Instruments Act. These units are under the supervision by the Export Inspection Agencies through random spot checks. under certain conditions and up to certain amounts . IN-PROCESS QUALITY CONTROL: This system lays emphasis on the responsibility of the manufacturers and processors in ensuring consistent quality during each stage of production by exercising checks on materials. components through inspecting process centers.

damage or detention or incur in respect thereof. the importer is allowed to sell the imported goods by acting as an agent of the bank. all sums received from the sale of goods must be credited to the bank until such settlement is made. Utmost Good Faith: It is the duty of the proposer to disclose clearly and accurately all material facts related to the risk. Under this arrangement. but the retains ownership of the merchandise until the importer has made full settlement. MARINE INSURANCE Insurance granted to cover loss or damage to ships or goods in transit either by sea. This is a sort of blanket document which shipping documents. LETTER OF HYPOTHECATION A letter of hypothecation is a document signed by the customer conveying to a banker the full ownership of goods at the port of destination in respect of which he has made advances either by loan or by acceptance or negotiation of bills of exchange. demands from a customer to give him recourse son the bills and control of the documents. The fundamental principles of marine insurance are explained below:: Insurance Interest: A person has an insurable interest in a thing if he will be benefited by its safety or due arrival or be prejudicial by its loss.The Endorser The Endorsee TRUST RECEIPT If the importer is unable to take possession of the documents by making the payment on the D/P bill following the arrival of the goods. BANK CERTIFICATE OF PAYMENT It is a certificate issued by the negotiating bank of the exporter certifying that the bill covering particular consignments has been negotiated and that the proceeds received in accordance with exchange control regulation in the approved manner. the merchandise may be made available to the importer by his bank under an arrangement whereby the importer signs a trust receipt. . Insurance of ships is called " Hull Insurance" while cover provided in respect of goods sis termed as cargo insurance. air or land is called Marine Insurance.

collision and damage by sea water when caused by perils such as opening of the seams of the vessel by collision. to protect and indemnity the shipper or the owner of the goods against loss or damage or expense in connection with the goods at the risk. Whereas in specific policy the insurance will be made by shipment wise. without the intervention of any force started and working actively from a new and independent source. How to Insure: Under marine insurance the policy will be taken by two ways. Barratry: Barratry is the willful misconduct of master or crew and would include theft. . Fire: Fire includes both direct fire damage and also consequential damage as by smoke or stream. In open policy the insurance will be made for all the shipments made in a period. Assailing thieves: This refers to a forcible taking rather than clandestine theft or mere pilferage. One is open policy and another one is specific policy. RISKS COVERED: Perils of the Sea: It includes out-of-the ordinary wind and wave action. and loss resulting from efforts to extinguish a fire. lightning. Subrogation: The insurer upon payment of loss is entitled to the benefits of any rights against third parties that may be held by the assured himself. Contribution: If there are more than one insurer it is desirable not only to ensure that the insured does not receive more than indemnity but that any loss is fairly spread between all the insurers involved. if the damage is caused by perils specified in the contract known of policy of the insurance. usually to lighten the ship in times of emergency. which brings about a result. wrongful conversion. intentional casting a way of vessel or any breach of trust with dishonest intent. Jettison: Jettison is the throwing of articles over board. Proximate Cause: Proximate cause means the active efficient cause that sets in motion a train of events.Indemnity: Marine insurance is a contract of indemnity whereby the underwriter or assurer or the insurance company agrees for a stated consideration known as premium.

All other perils: This clause does not mean all the perils that be fall a shipment, but sea perils of the sort listed in the clause. RISKS NOT COVERED: Marine insurance does not cover the losses or damages expected to occur in the following cases: Under Normal Conditions: Because of the nature of goods themselves their inherent vice such as breakage of fragile glasses packaged inadequately. Damage caused by original packing is excluded no matter when the damage itself may occur. Leakages or hook losses on goods packed in bags, solidification of palm and coconut oil unless heated storage is provided. Delay: This means that loss of market and loss, damage or deterioration arising out of delay in transit are not covered. Ordinary unavoidable Trade Losses: These losses such as shrinkage and evaporation in bulk shipment are also not covered unless specially insured. Wars, Strikes and Commotions: Such as these perils are commonly excluded unless endorsed. Dangerous Drugs Clause: The dangerous drugs clause stipulates that losses connected with the shipment of optimum and other dangerous drugs will not be paid for unless certain specified conditions are met. IMPLIED CONDITIONS: In a contract of marine insurance the following conditions are implied: i. that the assured will exercise utmost good faith in disclosing the actual facts. ii. That the generally accepted usages of trade applicable to the insured subject-matter are followed; and iii. That the assured shall not contribute to the loss through willful fault or negligence. HOW MUCH TO INSURE FOR? In a marine insurance the polices are normally 'valued'. That is insurance is done at the agreed value, i.e. Cost of the price of the cargo plus freight and all charges plus an allowance for normal expected profit. Normally, the expected profit is calculated at 10%

of CIF value, but this figure may be increased upon the consignee's specific request.In the case of total loss, the agreed price is paid and in the case of partial loss, a percentage of the total insured value is recoverable. HOW TO MAKE A CLAIM WHEN LOSS ARISES: Duties of Assured: Before making a claim the assured must perform certain duties. They are:The assured must make reasonable effort to minimize the loss. o He must immediately inform the nearest agent of his underwriter, arrange for a survey of the damage and supply the necessary commercial documents. o He must make timely written claim upon the carrier for the loss or damage within a reasonable time with the necessary documents. The following documents are usually sent with the claim application.  Original and duplicate copies of the marine insurance policy or the certificate.    Ocean bill of lading Original shippers invoice Packing list, weight certificate or other evidence of the nature and conditions of the goods at the time of shipment.   Survey report of the underwriter's re[representative . Claim bill: This sets out the actual claim giving the details of the loss or damage of the cargo. TOTAL LOSS: A total loss may be actual or constructive. An actual total loss may occur when the goods are destroyed or when they arrive so damaged as to cease to be a thing of the description insured. A constructive total loss occurs when the expenses of recovering or repairing the goods would exceed their value after the expenditure has been incurred. PARTIAL LOSS: If loss is less than total it is called average in insurance term. Average may be particular or general. PARTIAL: There are two types of particular average losses.i.e. Total loss of a part of the goods and goods arrived in a damaged condition. That means when a part of the

total consignment is completely lost, the insured value of such goods shall be calculated proportionately. condition. The second type is that the part goods are arrived with damaged

INTERNATIONAL TRADE - UNIT FIVE

EXPORT TERMS OF PAYMENT AND LETTERS OF CREDIT

The exporter has to receive payment for the goods he supplied to the importer. How it is to be paid can be decided by the exporter and importer before the shipment is made. Generally there are five methods of export payment and they are explained below:

PAYMENT IN ADVANCE: This type of payment is most uncommon. However, if thee is heavy demand for the goods and the goods are tailor-made for the customer, the exporter may get payment in advance. Under this method, the exporter receives a bank or a bank advice either on confirmation of the order or at any time before shipment. This is the most advantageous form of payment as the exporter does not have any risk but, as we have already observed, it is not very common. OPEN ACCOUNT: Under this method, the exporter sends the documents directly to the importer with a covering letter asking for the invoice value to be remitted to him. In this case the exporter does not draw any bill of exchange. Hence, there is no evidence of the obligation to pay. Though this method is simple and less expensive the exporter carries the burden of finance and it also involves real risk for the exporter. The exporter may accept this method of payment if there is keen competition and there is a long and established relationship between and the importer. DOCUMENTARY BILLS: This method of payment finances a large proportion of overseas trade. These bills act as a bridge between the exporter's willingness to part with his money unless he is paid

On the due date of payment. . SHIPMENT ON CONSIGNMENT BASIS In this case. but retains the title to the goods as also the risk attendant thereto. On payment of the bill of exchange the bank will deliver the documents to the importer so that he can take possession of the goods. the exporter's bank will send the documents to its correspondent bank in the importer's country. The payment for the goods shipped is made only when the agent ultimately sells the goods to other parties. If the agent fails to sell the goods. Under this method of payment the exporter agrees to submit documents to his bank along with the bill of exchange. the exporter makes shipment to the overseas consignee/agent. The documents include bill of lading. The commercial banks that deal in foreign exchange provide a via media by giving the necessary assurances to both the parties. LETTRS OF CREDIT A letter of credit is a document containing the guarantee of a bank to honour drafts drawn on it by an exporter. the bank will again present the bill to the importer who then makes the payment. under certain conditions and up to certain amounts. The money received is remitted through usual banking channels to be credited to the exporter's account. Under D/P bills.for and importer's unwillingness to part with his money unless he is sure of receiving the goods. involve and a marine insurance policy. which will present the documents to the importer and ask him to pay the money for the goods exported. he may return the goods at any time without any liability and at the seller's expense. In case of D/A bills. even though the overseas consignee will have the physical possession of the goods. the correspondent bank will submit the bill of exchange to be signed by the importer t indicate his acceptance of the payment obligation. Under this method there are two types of payments viz: Documents against payment (D/P) and documents against Acceptance (D/A). provided that the beneficiary fulfils the stipulated conditions (Detailed explanation for letter of credit was given separately). After the importer accepts the bill he will get possession of the documents for taking delivery of the goods.

which guarantees the credit at the request of the issuing bank. a letter of credit ensures him payment for the goods he sells.LETTER OF CREDIT A letter of credit is a document containing the guarantee of a bank to honour drafts drawn on it by an exporter. The confirming bank undertakes all the obligations of the issuing bank as a primary party to the credit. and even if the issuing bank fails during the currency of the credit. The Beneficiary: The beneficiary is the party in whose favour the credit is issued. As far as the seller is concerned. The paying bank may be the issuing bank. The letter of credit is opened at the initiative and request of the buyer. the buyer is assured that the shipment will be made by the date specified in the letter of credit. 3. provided. provided that the beneficiary fulfils the stipulated conditions. that is the beneficiary is the seller or exporter. Further. The confirming Bank: The confirming bank is a bank in the exporter's country. . The Paying Bank: The paying bank is the bank on which the draft or bill of the exchange is to be drawn under the commercial credit. The letter of credit offers advantages to both the seller and buyer. 6. also called the opening or issuing bank. The Opener: The opener is the buyer(importer). or else the credit will expire. PARTIES TO THE LETTER OF CREDIT: 1. of course. Though the buyer has to have the botheration of arranging for the letter of credit. that he follows the instructions. is the bank in the importer's country issuing the letter of credit at the request of the importer. The Issuer: The issuer. the confirming the bank advises the beneficiary accordingly. notifies the beneficiary that the credit has been opened in his favour. which. 5. it may enable him to obtain more liberal discounts and a lower price from the seller. at the request of the issuing bank. the confirming bank or the notifying bank. 4. under certain conditions and up to certain amounts. The Notifying Bank: The notifying bank is the bank. the confirming bank is obliged to honour its commitment. If the letter of credit is confirmed. 2.

After the bank has accepted it. 4. it becomes the negotiating bank. KINDS OF LETTER OF CREDIT 1. which cannot be revoked. which pays or accepts the drafts of the exporter. Non-Assignable Credit: As opposed to the assignable credit. which may be readily discounted or sold by the exporter to the accepting bank. The great advantage of this type of credit. the exporter may draw a sight draft on the bank. If no paying bank is specified in the credit. amended or modified by the issuing bank without the express consent of all the parties concerned. the draft becomes a bank acceptance. 7. Revocable credit: The revocable letter of credit may be revoked or cancelled at any time without the consent of.7. 3. 2. under the cash credit. therefore. the named beneficiary of a non-assignable L/C cannot transfer his rights to another party. the beneficiary may go the any bank and present the draft and related documents under the credit. . Assignable Credit. 6. the draft must be accompanied by the documents specified in the letter of credit. Documentary Letter of Credit: Under this. 5. to other banks or to exchange dealers. either within a stated period or before the expiry date of the credit. 8. the beneficiary may assign his rights to another beneficiary. is that the beneficiary will receive cash for his draft as soon as the goods are ready for shipment and the relevant documents in proper order are represented to the bank. Clean Letter of Credit: This kind of letter of credit may be negotiated against a clean draft. Acceptance Credit: Under this arrangement. Cash credit. the bank merely 'accepts' the drafts drawn by the exporter. The Negotiating Bank: The negotiating bank is the bank. As the revocable L/C does not adequately protect the beneficiary on the basis of this type of L/C are not common. and without notice to. Irrevocable Credit: An irrevocable L/C is one. and if the bank agrees to negotiate the documents. the beneficiary. A clean draft is a draft without any documents attached to it. Under this kind of L/C.

He presents these to the correspondent bank. 10. the beneficiary of the credit (exporter). Confirmed Credit: If a bank in the beneficiary country confirms the L/C. 12. Red Clause Credit: The red clause L/C enables the beneficiary to draw a predetermined value of the L/C as its established. Revolving Credit: A revolving credit is designed to obviate the need for establishing new credit for each shipment when the transactions are more or less continuous. 00. viz. makes the shipment of he cling fns and gets the shipping documents and other related documents. Under the revolving credit. The original credit backs another credit and facilitates the purchase of the goods from a local supplier by the beneficiary of the original L/C. On receipt of this advice from the local correspondent bank in India. Back-to-Back Credit: A back-to back credit is essentially a secondary credit. the applicant for the credit (importer).. The step-by-step procedure involved can be discussed by taking an example. normally four parties are involved. provision may be made for making available the credit again as soon as the importer reimburses the issuing bank with the drafts already negotiated by the paying bank. The conditions on which such advances may be made are incorporated in the L/C.2.9. The red clause is an authority to the negotiating bank to make advances to the beneficiary for the purpose of purchasing the relevant merchandise. in favour of a domestic supplier. In this case. it becomes a confirmed credit. which scrutinizes the . the bank issuing the L/C sends it through its branch or correspondent bank located in the beneficiary's country with the request to add its confirmation to the credit. STEPS IN THE OPERATION OF LETTER OF CREDIT: In Letter of credit. Once the contract is duly signed the Nigerian bank then sends instructions to its correspondent bank to the credit and the advice the Rainbow limited accordingly. The total value of the contract is Rs. M/S Rainbow limited. opened by a bank on behalf of the beneficiary of an original credit.000. Chennai has secured a contract for the supply of 200 ceiling fans to a Nigerian importer. the Rainbow limited. It has been decided that the terms of payment will be a confirmed irrevocable letter of credit. 11. the issuing bank and the advising bank incase of unconfirmed credit or the confirming bank in case of confirmed credit.

presentation of documents and the process of payment.. The entire scheme of operation can be easily visualized with reference to the Flow chart given below. opening of credit. it will accept the documents and make the payment to the exporter.documents. ADVANTAGES OF LETTER OF CREDIT: 1. SALES CONTRACT BUYER CONFIRMATI SELLER ISSUING OPENING ADVICE ISSUING BANK DOCUMENTS CONFIRMING BANK The straight lines show the flow of the credit. who do not know him and may rely upon his standing. The issuing bank in turn presents the documents to the importer and debits his account for the corresponding amount. . therefore. The documents are then forwarded to the issuing bank. Payment after satisfying conditions: The importer is assured in case of documentary letter of credit that the exporter cannot obtain any benefit under the letter of credit without actually shipping the merchandise and handing over the documents to the bank. which reimburses the amount to the correspondent bank. Purchase without cash: The importer can purchase goods on credit from foreign merchants. If these are in full conformity with the terms of the credit. relate to three distinct activities. 2. viz. on the banker's credit issuing the letter of credit. The steps involved. The dashed lines shows the flow of the documents and the dotted lines show the process of payment.

COMMODITY BOARDS The government of India has established a number of commodity boards to be responsible for the production. Some of them are 1. shipping documents are surrendered to him in return for his trust receipt. TEA BOARD: The Tea Boards head office is in Calcutta. the Tea Board runs various development schemes. In order to increase the production. 5. which is otherwise not possible.Tea plantation finance scheme. tea bags and instant tea. Provide financial assistance and grants for tea research institutes Promote research activities on the allied subjects like packaging of tea. because of the firm undertaking given by the opening banker.Special area development scheme etc. New tea unit finance scheme. 4. coffee. who is able to secure terms of trade from the foreign supplier. development and export of some commodities like tea. These boards are statutory bodies. . tobacco spices etc. rubber. Discount facilities: The bills of exchange drawn under the letter of credit are readily discounted with the advising/confirming banker or any other banker. Release against trust receipt: When banks are willing to assume credit risk of the importer.3. The functions of these boards includes It looks after the production and marketing of tea in India. Better terms of trade: The issuing banker lends the advantage of his own credit to the importer. 7.Credit facilities: The exporter can secure loans from his bank to buy or manufacture the goods to be supplied on the strength of the letter of credit. Small growers development scheme. the letter of credit provides an absolute assurance that the bills of exchange drawn under the letter of credit will be honoured. 6. and the goods released. The export promotion activities are undertaken to popularize Indian tea and consumer level with special promotion programme to promote India teas in value added for like packet tea. Certainty of Payment: Though the importer and the exporter are not known each other.

Germany. Studies on diseases of coffee and their control were carried out. training programme was conducted.. For improving the productivity and quality of coffee. balanced fertilization.- For promotion of tea as beverage the tea board also participates in the generic promotion programme conducted by tea council at U. COFFEE BOARD: The functions of coffee board includes The coffee board participates in selected international exhibitions and trade fairs for highlighting the high quality and excellent flavour of Indian coffee for the awareness of importers and roasters from different countries. Improvement of curing and storing facilities by conservation of energy by roof insulation of tobacco barns. Improving tobacco grading through establishment of community grading centers. SPICES BOARD: . TOBACCO BOARD:The following are the functions rendered by tobacco board to promote export of tobacco: Allowing exports to countries facing foreign exchange crunch on long term credit terms. Improving yield and quality of tobacco through control of diseases in tobacco nurseries. and Canada and is also member of the International Tea committee. pest and disease control. Allowing exports of tobacco to Russia through debt repayment route. US. supply of tarpaulins and supply of coal for curing.K. Sponsoring delegations abroad and participation in international trade fairs. Keeping view the production of quality coffee at estate level. contact programme was launched in 4 regions covering a total number of 1018 growers. which have potential markets for Indian coffee. Special advertisements on the excellence of the Indian coffee were released in important coffee trade journals and magazines in countries.

Each council is responsible for the promotion of a particular group of products. The spices board has a scheme to promote a "logo mark" as a mark of quality and Indian ness of spices. grant of Spice House certificate etc. Logo Promotion: In the exports of spices. Logo Promotion. The logo mark is awarded to exporters of spices in consumer packs who fulfill certain stipulated conditions of hygiene/processing/packaging and product quality. Logo is registered in six countries and would be registered in another 14 countries. interest free long-term loans up to a maximum of 50% of the promotion cost for a period of three years are provided to the exporters of spices in consumer packs for promoting their individual brands in overseas markets. 2. Certificates have been awarded to many manufacturers/processors of spices. Organizing training programmes for growers for quality improvement and post-harvest techniques. EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCILS The basic objective of Export Promotion Councils is to promote and develop the exports of the country. quality is a key element. They are explained below: Brand Promotion: Under this scheme. There are 20 EPCs and a number of specified agencies/boards which shall be regarded as EPCs under the Export and Import Policy. Providing assistance to marginal growers in non-traditional areas. They issue Registration cum membership certificate to exporters. projects and services. 3. Replantation of old and diseased plants. 1. Spice House Certificate: The Board has introduced a concept of 'Spice House' and it is awarded only to those exporters who fulfill the prescribed quality standards and have necessary processing infrastructure for production of clean quality process. Production and supply of quality material and rooted cutting. .The Spices Board has number of schemes of assistance to spice exporters such as Brand promotion. spices board has been supplementing activities of Ministry of Agriculture with a number of schemes that include: 1. Apart from those schemes.

Some of the modifications done to facilitate the exporting units in the EOUs are as follows:   Simplification of customs/excise procedures Automatic approval under certain conditions to proposal for setting up units. These units have to operate under custom bond and achieve the level of value addition fixed by the Board of Approval..  To offer professional advice to their members in areas such as technology up gradation.  To organize visits of delegations of its members abroad to explore overseas market opportunities. product development. raw material.  To build a statistical base and provide data on the exports and imports of the country. quality and design improvement. innovation etc. The major functions of the EPCs are as under:  To provide commercially useful information and assistance to their members in developing and increasing their exports. exports and imports of their members. In order to enable them to operate successfully in the international market such units are allowed to import machinery. as the case may be. components and consumable at free of custom duties.The main role of EPC is to project India's image abroad as a reliable supplier of high quality goods and services. flexibility of operations and incentives. . as well as other relevant international trade data. exhibition and buyer seller meets in India and abroad.  To promote interaction between the exporting community and the Government both at the Central and State levels. The Export promotion councils are non-profit organizations registered under the Companies Act or the Societies Registration Act. 100% EXPORT-ORIENTED UNITS The scheme of 100 EOU's were introduced in 1980 with a view to generating additional production capacity for exports by providing an appropriate policy frame work.  To organize participation in trade fairs. standards and specifications. At present more than 500 units are in operation under the EOU scheme.

plant and machinery shall be considered for establishment under EOU scheme.  Encouragement of agro and electronic units by providing higher domestic access.  An EOU unit may import without payment of duty for all type of goods.   Second hand capital goods may also be imported duty free without any age limit. Application for setting up of units under EOU scheme may be approved by the units Approvals Committee within 15 days. Leasing of capital goods from domestic companies by EPZ\EOU has been permitted. including capital goods required by it for its activities provided they are not prohibited items of imports. The entire production of EOU units shall be exported subject to the following:  Rejects may be sold in the domestic tariff area on payment of duties on prior intimation to the customs authorities. 1992 the Central Government has notified the Export and Import Policy for the period 2002-2007 which .  By products may also be sold in the domestic tariff are subject to achievement of positive net foreign exchange on payment of applicable duties within the overall entitlement.1 crore and above in building. The following privileges are enjoyed by the Export Oriented Units:  An EOU unit may export all goods and services except the items prohibited by the exim policy. Only project having an investment of Rs.  Scrap/waste arising out of production process or in connection therewith may be sold in the domestic tariff area on payment of duties within the overall ceiling of 50% FOB value of exports. EOU unit shall be positive net foreign exchange earner.  EOU units may import/procure from Domestic Tariff Area without payment of duty. OVERVIEW OF EXPORT AND IMPORT POLICY OF INDIA I POLICY AND ITS OBJECTIVES: Under the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act.

 To provide consumers with good quality goods and services at internationally competitive prices while at the same time creating a level playing field for the domestic producers. as specified in ITC. published and notified by DGFT. and to encourage the attainment of internationally accepted standards of quality. The item wise export and import policy shall be.  To stimulate sustained economic growth of providing access to essential raw materials.  To enhance the technological strength and efficiency of Indian agriculture. c) The provisions given in Handbook shall govern import of samples. This number shall be issued by DGFT. The principles objectives of this policy are:  To facilitate sustained growth in exports to attain a share of at least 1% of global merchandise trade. f) All export contracts currency and invoices shall be denominated in freely convertible currency or Indian Rupees but the export proceeds shall be realized in freely convertible currency. d) Import of gifts shall be permitted where such goods are otherwise freely importable under this policy. industry and services. intermediates. components.came into force with effect from 1 st April 2002 and shall remain in force up to 31st March 2007. b) Any person without an importer-exporter code number shall make no export or import unless specifically exempted. thereby improving their competitive strength while generating new employment opportunities. II GENERAL PROVISIONS REGARDING IMPORTS AND EXPORTS a) Exports and Imports shall be free except in cases where they are regulated by provisions of this policy or any other law. e) Export of samples and Free of charge goods shall be governed by the provisions given in the Hand Book. . The following are the salient features of the policy as amended up to 31 st March 2003. consumables and capital goods required for augmenting production and providing services.

industrial parks etc.Towns of Export Excellence: The industrial cluster towns that export substantial portion of their products.00. III PROMOTIONAL MEASURES: 1. actual user. participation in international trade fairs.1. buyer-seller meet etc.g) Goods including edible items of value not exceeding Rs. The states shall utilize this amount for developing complementary and critical infrastructure such as rods connecting production centers and creation of new state level economic processing zones. on the basis of the competitive merits of proposal received in this regard for marketing studies on country product focus approach basis. h) Goods imported may be exported in the same or substantially the same form without a license/certificate/permission provided that the item to be imported or exported is not mentioned as restricted for Import or Export in the ITC.Central Assistance to States: State governments shall be encouraged to fully participate in encouraging exports from their respective states. the value of addition to be achieved if any. suitable provisions shall be made in the Annual Plan of the Department of commerce for allocation of funds to the states on the twin criteria of gross exports and the rate of growth of exports from different states. 2. description and value of goods. seminars.1000 crores or more will be notified as Towns of Export Excellence on the basis of Potential for growth in exports. i) A license shall contain such terms and conditions as may be specified by the licensing authority may include the quantity. j) Every license shall be valid for the period of validity specified in the license. .in a licensing year. Selected towns producing goods of Rs. should be granted recognition with a view to maximize their export profile. For this purpose. The common service providers in these towns should be entitled for facility under different schemes offered by the Govt. which are world class. industry and trade associations etc..000/.Market Access Initiative: Financial assistance shall be available under this scheme to the Economic Processing Zones. for export promotion. 3. may be exported as a gift.

15 crores during the preceding three licensing years. 5. Under EPCG scheme. which mostly employs artisan and rural people. Packing. storage and related R & D etc.Status Certificate: . contributes significantly to this effort. 6.Special Focus on Cottage and Handicraft sector: The small-scale sector along with the cottage and Handicraft sector has been contributing to more than half of the total exports of the country. these units will not be required to maintain average level of exports.  The units shall be entitled to the benefit of export house status on achieving lower total export/deemed export performance of Rs. the following facilities shall be extended to this sector. Units Agri export zones would be entitled for all the facilities available for exports of goods in terms of provisions of the respective schemes. 7.Brand Promotion and Quality: The central government will extend support and assistance to trade and industry to launch a nationwide programme on quality awareness and to promote the concept of total quality management. The cottage and handicraft sector.   The units shall be eligible for funds from Market Access Imitative scheme.Agri Export Zones: The services.4.. In recognition of the export performance of this sector and to further increase its competitiveness. The Regional Sub-Committee on quality complaints shall investigate quality complaints received from foreign buyers.  They are also entitled to duty free imports of specified items upto 3% of FOB value of their exports. rendered to Agri Export Zones which would be managed and coordinated by state government would include provision of pre/post harvest treatment and operations plant protection. processing.

by making the duration of the policy 5 years. It also recogninses the need for reasonable stability of the policy. service providers. 9. Apart from the above provisions. 8.Merchant as well as manufacturer exporters. the EXIM policy since 1992 acknowledges that the trade can flourish in a regime of substantial freedom. Export Oriented Units shall be eligible for such recognition.Service Exports: The Service providers shall be entitled for all the facilities mentioned in the policy. however. Alls status certificates shall be valid from 01-04-2002 to 31-03-2007.   Enhancement in normal repatriation period from 180 days to 360 days.Electronic Data Interchange: Applications received electronically shall be cleared within 24 hours. Exemption from compulsory negotiation of documents through banks. The remittance. Indian firms will have to gear up themselves to survive and to become successful in the emerging borderless world. The status holders shall be eligible for the following new\special facilities:  License/certificate/Permissions and customs clearances for both imports and exports on self-declaration basis. within 60 days.   Fixation of input-output norms on priority. Duty free import entitlement for status subject to some conditions. The implication of the new policy is that survival of a firm will depend on its competitiveness in the globalising environment and the competitive firms will have plentiful opportunities. benefits and facilities the new Export and Import Policy showed its emphasis through the following schemes:     CONCLUSION In short. Duty Exemption Scheme Duty Remission Scheme Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme . would continue to be received through banking channels.

cheques and foreign drafts.48 or Rs. components of foreign exchange market rate include: the buyers. The equilibrium exchange rate is the rate at which demand for foreign exchange and the supply of foreign exchange are equal. ` The Foreign exchange is bought and sold in foreign exchange markets. The price of US $ is fixed in Indian Rupees. viz.02 Exchange rate in a free market is determined by the demand and the supply of exchange of a particular country. This foreign exchange is the money in one country for money or credit or goods or services in another country. acceptance houses and Central Bank of the country. buying and selling foreign currency take at a rate which is called exchange rate. 1 = US$ 0. Foreign exchange includes foreign currency. The exchange rate can be quoted in two ways namely  One unit of foreign money to a number of units of domestic currency. For example. The market intermediaries of foreign exchange market include Exchange banks dealing in foreign exchange. This currency which facilitates the payment to complete the transaction is called foreign exchange. Exchange rate determination: The transactions in the foreign exchange market.. the sellers and the intermediaries. Exchange rate is the price paid in the home currency for a unit of foreign currency.FOREIGN EXCHANGE The importing country pays money to the exporting country in return of goods either in its domestic currency or the hard currency.  A certain number of units of foreign currency to one unit of domestic country.  The exchange rate between Indian Rupees and US $ dollars can also be determined by demand for and supply of Indian Rupees by Americans or in USA. . Equilibrium exchange rate can be determined by two methods:  The Exchange rate between US dollars and Indian Rupees can be determined by demand for and supply of US dollars in India or by Indians. 1 US$ = Rs. bill brokers.

.  Other payments involved in international transactions like payments of Indian Government to various foreign governments for settlement of their transactions.  Fixed exchange rates promote long-term investments by various across the globe.The price of Indian Rupee is determined in US dollars. Supply of Foreign Exchange: Supply of Foreign Exchange of a particular country indicates the availability of foreign currency of a particular country to the country concerned (i. India) in its foreign exchange market.  Other types of inflow of foreign capital like remittances by the Non-Resident Indians. donations received etc.  Inflow of foreign capital  Payments made by the foreign governments to Indian governments for settling their transactions. Demand for Foreign Exchange: The demand for foreign exchange is determined by the country’s  Import of goods and services  Investment in foreign countries i.e. The supply of foreign exchange includes:  Country’s exports of goods and services to foreign countries.e. But the prices are same in both these methods.  Other types of foreign capital like giving donations etc. EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEM: Fixed Exchange Rates: Under this system. The central bank of country purchases the foreign currency when the exchange rate falls and sells the foreign exchange when the exchange rate increases. The countries follow fixed exchange rates due to its advantages. the governments used to fix the exchange rate and the central bank to operate it by creating ‘exchange establishment fund’. They are:  Fixed exchange rates ensure certainty and confidence and thereby promoters international business. establishment of an industry by Indians in USA.

 Long-term foreign capital may not be attracted as the exchange rates are not pegged permanently. These economies prefer flexible exchange rate system. Despite these advantages. Most of the world currency like US dollar areas and sterling pound areas prefer fixed exchange rates. Flexible exchange rates are determined by market forces like demand for and supply of foreign exchange. The managed flexibility system needs large foreign exchange reserves to buy or sell foreign exchange in order to manage the exchange rate.  Fixed exchange rates stabiles international business and avoid foreign exchange risks to a greater extent.  Deficit of balance of payments of most of the countries increases under fixed exchange rate system as the elasticities in international markets are too low for exchange rate exchanges. Maintenance of greater reserves aggravate the problem of international liquidity. IMF permits occasional changes in the system. Fixed exchange rates system may result in a large scale destabilizing speculation in foreign exchange markets.  Fixed exchange rates result in economic stabilization. In such case. As such the small but international business oriented countries like UK and Demark prefer fixed exchange rate system. if the supply . most of the world countries at present are not in favour of this system because of the following reasons. Under this system. the exchange rate system does not work. Either the government or monetary authorities do not interfere or intervene in the process of exchange rate determination.  The economic policies and foreign exchange policies of the countries are rarely coordinated. The system is changed into managed flexibility system.  Most of the economies in recent years are liberalized and globalize.  Due to problems with the fixed exchange rate system. Flexible Exchange Rates: Flexible exchange rates are also called floating or fluctuating exchange rates.

 The system helps for the promotion of foreign trade. This system does not result in deficit or surplus of foreign exchange.  Stability in exchange rate in the long-run is not possible even in fixed exchange rate system. Most of the countries in recent times are in favour of flexible exchange rates due to their advantages.  This system is simple to operate.  Under flexible rate system.  Under this system a reduction in exchange rates leads to a vicious circle of inflation. The disadvantages of this system include:  Market mechanism may fail to bring about an appropriate exchange rate. The exchange rate moves automatically and freely. Under flexible exchange rate system. speculation adversely influences fluctuations in supply and demand for foreign exchange.  This system also confers more independence on the government regarding their domestic policies. .   It is rather difficult to define flexible exchange rate. These frequent changes result in exchange risks. this system provides the same benefit like fixed exchange rate system for long term investments. the exchange rate changes quite frequently.  The adjustment of exchange rate under this system is a continuous process. breed uncertainty and impede international trade and capital movements.  This system eliminates the expenditure of maintenance of official foreign exchange reserves and operation of the fixed exchange rate system.of foreign exchange is more than that of demand for the same. Disadvantages: However this system is also not free from the disadvantages. the exchange rate is determined at a low rate and vice versa.  This system permits the existence of free trade and convertible currencies on a continuous basis. The equilibrium exchange rate may fail to give correct signals to correct the balance of payments position. Hence.

Write a note on Pros and Cons of Globalization. How domestic marketing does differs from international marketing? 3. Why more and more Indian manufacturers taking recourse to direct marketing? (Advantages of direct exporting and limitations of indirect marketing) 2.Despite the advantages of fixed exchange rate and the disadvantages of floating exchange rate system. Narrate the scope of International Marketing. Explain the concept of Globalization. In addition. Define International Marketing. 7. UNIT TWO 1. it is viewed that the flexible rate system is suitable for the globalization process. the convert ability also helps the floating rate system and the globalization of foreign exchange process. Discuss the criteria involved in International Marketing in respect of market Selection decision.41303 QUESTION BANK UNIT ONE 1. INTERNATIONAL TRADE . 2. How do controllable and uncontrollable factors affect the environment of international marketing? 6. What are the advantages that a firm can derive by going into international? (Ans: motivation for exports and advantages of globalization) 4. Why the task of international marketing is is more difficult than that of domestic marketing? (Ans: Difficulties of international marketing) 5. .

(export assistance and export promotion measures) 9. How WTO differ from GATT? 7. List the importance of /uses of/need for international Marketing research. subsidies and quotas) 8. 8. Give a critical evaluation of various strategy alternatives for selection and entry in the international marketing. What are its basic principles? 4. List out the functions of GATT. Write a explanatory not on trade barriers. List out the standard clauses of International Sales Contract. What are the different methods of protection made our government for the sake of domestic merchants? (tariffs. Write a note on world trade services.(post shipment credit and pre shipment credit). Evaluate the institutional and infrastructure facilities available for export promotion in India. What do you mean by counter trade? Is it advantageous? 2. UNIT THREE 1. Describe briefly the various measures taken by Government of India to help Indian Exporters. 10. How would GATT agreements help in reducing trade barriers? 5.3. 3. 9. 4. Critically examine the contributions by the commercial banks in Export promotional efforts in India. What are the different forms of counter trade? 6. What are the various aspects of International Marketing Research. 6. Bring out the impact of Tariffs & Quotas. 5. . What is meant by competitive intelligence? How do firms acquire it? 7.

7. 11. Briefly discuss the functions of commodity boards. 4. Examine the salient features of India’s latest EXIM Policy. Describe the stages of processing an export order. . What are the uses of Letter of Credit? Briefly explain the various types of Letter of Credit. UNIT FOUR 1. UNIT FIVE 1. Discuss the role of EXIM bank in International Trade context. Write a note 100% Export Oriented Units (EOU) and its obligations. What are the machineries available for quality control and inspection? 8. 13. 3. Explain the fundamental principles of marine insurance and discuss the extent of coverage available under different forms of marine insurance. State the steps involved in the operation of Letter of Credit. 6. 3. 12. Explain how payments are settled in International Trade. Write short notes on Export by Air Export by sea 4. Present a detailed account of the procedure for export of goods.10. Make a critical appraisal of working of the Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation. What are the advantages of export of goods by air? 5. What are the risks that are covered under marine insurance? Explain the procedure and documents used when the loss occur 9. Explain the significance of documents used in export trade related to shipment of goods and payment. 2. 2. Explain the role of FTZ.

How the foreign exchange rate will be determined? 6.Examine the extent to Exports? which the direct Export subsidies have methods exports? 11.Critically .Formulate a stategy to increase exports of India's SSI sector? . Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different exchange rate system. Explain the salient features of the EXIM policy of our country Give suggestions to further improve the competitiveness of Indian 10. What are the major Exports of India? 8. 5.5. Write short note on IMF. Explain the main features of India's foreign trade? 4. Present an overview of India’s latest Export -Import policy. INTERNATIONAL TRADE GENERAL QUESTIONS 1.what other prove effective in encouraging more examine the Indias export performance causes for the existing situation and improvement. Trace the recent trends in Indian foreign trade. 3.Describe the could helped the Indian Exporters. State Indias 6. Explain the advantages of Regional Economic groupings? 9.Assess the impact of recent liberalisation measures on India's International marketing? 13. What are in your opinion reasons for sluggishness in Foreign Trade? various assistance available to Indian Exporters? 7. give suggestions to 12. 2.

As a marketing manager .in the context of International Trade? 25.Formulate a strategy to increase exports of India's small scale 22.What other methods do you suggest? 16.What are the various export Govt.What other methods encouraging more exports? could prove effective in 21.Explain Indian the role the validity of the statement in the of export subsidies in promoting exports.What do you mean by 'Marketing mix .Briefly describe the recent experience of Non tariff barriers.Examine the extent to which the direct export subsides have helped the Indian exporters." Quality industry sector.14.Discuss the Indian context. improvements are essential to boost exports". 20. 26. between 'desk research and field .of India to boost Exports? incentives provided by 19.Distinguish research'.What are the main issues that should be considered while framing the multinational marketing plan.how problems of your choice. validity of the statement in the 23.Discuss Indian context? 15.How does International economy? Trade contribute to the countries 17."Quality improvements are essential to boost exports". will you go about the finding overseas market for a product of 24.Write a detailed note on Project exports of India? 18.

.What are the major export items of India ? Who are the major competitiors of these items ?Discuss. outline helps india 31.Under FOBcontract .What ?Briefly exports. 29.what are the duties of the exporter and importer ? do you understand how by it Medical Transcription in service 30.Discuss the issue 'standardisation Vs localisation in international marketing.What are the different market entry strategies available to MNC to expand their international trade ? 28.27.

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