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Published by: Vivek Mishra on Apr 10, 2011
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Project 2B/T&N

slide L3-1

Fiber Optics

project2B/T&N

Dept. of Information and Communications Technology

Project 2B/T&N

slide L3-2

Introduction 

Communications systems that carry information through a guided fiber cable are called fiber optic systems. Use of optical fibers to replace conventional transmission lines and microwave wave-guide in telecommunication systems. Light is effectively the same as RF radiation but at a much higher frequency, theoretically the informationcarrying capacity of a fiber is much greater than that of microwave radio systems.
Dept. of Information and Communications Technology  

project2B/T&N

An attenuation of less than 2dB/Km.(continued)  As they are not electrically conductive.  project2B/T&N Dept. hence very suitable for use in areas where electrical isolation and interference are severe problems.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-3 Introduction . of Information and Communications Technology .

up to 10 GHz is possible 2) Immunity to EMI . electric motors. fluorescent lights 3) Virtual elimination of cross-talk 4) Lower signal attenuation than other propagation systems project2B/T&N Dept. of Information and Communications Technology .Project 2B/T&N slide L3-4 Advantages of Optical Communications 1) Extremely wide system bandwidth .such as lightning.

of Information and Communications Technology .no hazard of short circuits nor spark will exist in optical fiber project2B/T&N Dept.principal ingredient in glass is sand which is cheap and virtually unlimited supply 8) Safety .Project 2B/T&N slide L3-5 Advantages of Optical Communications 5) Lighter weight and smaller size 6) Lower cost 7) Conversion of the earth¶s resources .

usually glass or plastic or a combination of the two. of Information and Communications Technology . transparent strand of material.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-6 Fundamentals of Fiber Optic Systems  Optical fibers guide light waves within the fiber material because light rays bend or change direction when they pass from one medium to another. that is used to carry light beams.  project2B/T&N Dept. Optical fiber is a thin. This phenomenon is called refraction.

of Information and Communications Technology .Project 2B/T&N slide L3-7 Reflection in Optical Fiber Fig 1: Fiber for light beam propagation project2B/T&N Dept.

of independent signals. the light rays are reflected from the inner walls as they propagate lengthwise along the fiber. or even thousands. of Information and Communications Technology .  project2B/T&N Dept.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-8 Reflection in Optical Fiber (continued)  From fig. 1. A single light beam can be modulated simultaneously by hundreds.

2 shows the light is bent at the interface. project2B/T&N   Dept. n is defined as the ratio between speed of light in free space and speed of light in given material. The degree to which the ray is bent depends on the index of refraction n of the denser material. of Information and Communications Technology . Fig. This reduction in speed as it passes from free space into a denser material results in refraction of the light.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-9 Refraction of Light  Light travels at approximately 3x108 m/s in free space and slower in a material denser than free space.

(continued) Fig. 2: Light refraction at an interface project2B/T&N Dept. of Information and Communications Technology .Project 2B/T&N slide L3-10 Refraction of Light .

The angle of refraction is the angle of refracted ray to the normal. of Information and Communications Technology . The angle of incidence is the angle of incident ray to the normal.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-11 hysics of Light  The normal is an imaginary line perpendicular to the interface of the 2 materials. project2B/T&N    Dept. The critical angle is the angle of incidence that will produce a 900 angle of refraction.

A2. Material 1 is more dense than material 2.(continued)  3 specific conditions are shown in Fig. A1 and the angle of refraction. so n1 is greater than n2. The angle of incidence.  project2B/T&N Dept. of Information and Communications Technology . 3.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-12 hysics of Light .

3: Index of refraction project2B/T&N Dept. of Information and Communications Technology .(continued) Fig.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-13 hysics of Light .

The light is directed along the boundary between the 2 materials. 3A shows how a light ray passing from material 1 to material 2 is refracted in material 2 when A1 is less than the critical angle. of Information and Communications Technology   . Fig.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-14 hysics of Light . Fig. project2B/T&N Dept. 3B shows the condition that exists when A1 is at the critical angle and angle A2 is at 900. 3C shows that any light ray incident at an angle greater than A1 of Fig. 3B will be reflected back into material 1 with A2 equal to A1.(continued)  Fig.

of Information and Communications Technology .Project 2B/T&N slide L3-15 Total Internal Reflection of Light Fig. project2B/T&N Dept. 4: Total internal reflection in optical fibers  Total internal reflection forms the basis for light propagation in optical fibers.

Project 2B/T&N slide L3-16 Fiber Composition Fig. 5: Optical fiber construction project2B/T&N Dept. of Information and Communications Technology .

it defines the optical boundary of the core and makes sure that total internal reflection occurs at the core outer skin.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-17 Fiber Composition . of Information and Communications Technology .typical core diameters range from 50 to 500 Qm Cladding . . Core . project2B/T&N Dept.(continued)     An optical fiber consists of 3 distinct parts: 1) the core 2) the cladding 3) the sheath (jacket or coating).it is a transmission area of fiber.it surrounds the core and has a different index of refraction than the core. The core and cladding act as an optical wave-guide. .

Project 2B/T&N slide L3-18 Fiber Composition . A 50/150 fiber means that the core is 50 Qm while the outside dimension of both the core plus cladding together is 150 Qm.(continued)  Fibers are specified by the outer diameters of the core and cladding. of Information and Communications Technology .   project2B/T&N Dept. The core and cladding are surrounded by the sheath.

with the core being more dense and having a constant or smoothly varying index of refraction. The index of refraction of the assembly varies across the radius of the cable. designated . . of Information and Communications Technology .it has a specially plastic coating that provides shock and abrasive resistance for the fiber. . designated nC project2B/T&N Dept.(continued)   Sheath .its thickness ranges from 250 to 1000 Qm. nC1 and the cladding region being less dense and having another constant index of refraction.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-19 Fiber Composition .it is not involved in the actual transmission of light.

Project 2B/T&N slide L3-20 Mode of Propagation  Mode simply means path from which light is propagated.   project2B/T&N Dept. it is called multi-mode. If there is more than one path. If there is only one path for light to take down the cable. it is called single mode. of Information and Communications Technology .

of Information and Communications Technology .Project 2B/T&N slide L3-21 Index Profile  It is a graphical representation of the value of the refractive index across the fiber. The refractive index is plotted on the horizontal axis and the radial distance from the core axis is plotted on the vertical axis. There are 2 basic types of index profiles: step and graded   project2B/T&N Dept.

of Information and Communications Technology .(continued)  A step-index fiber has a central core with a uniform refractive index.  In a graded-index fiber there is no cladding and the refractive index of the core is non-uniform. The core is surrounded by an outside cladding with a uniform refractive index less than that of the central core.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-22 Index Profile . it is highest at the center and decreases gradually with distance toward the outer edge. project2B/T&N Dept.

all light rays follow approximately the same path down the cable and take approximately the same amount of time to travel the length of the cable. of Information and Communications Technology . Consequently.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-23 Single-Mode Step-Index Fiber    It has a central core that is sufficiently small so that there is essentially only one path that light may take as it propagates down the cable. project2B/T&N Dept. The refractive index of the cladding is slightly less than that of the central core and is uniform throughout the cladding.

There are many paths that a light ray may follow as it propagates down the fiber.Project 2B/T&N slide L3-24 Multi-mode Step-Index Fiber   The light rays that strike the core/cladding interface at an angle greater than the critical angle are propagated down the core in a zigzag fashion. project2B/T&N Dept. all light rays do not follow the same path and hence do not take the same amount of time to travel the length of the fiber. As a result. of Information and Communications Technology . continuously reflecting off the interface boundary.

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