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DINA RIPSMAN EYLON
Yehudit Hendel was the first female following Israeli writer to achieve acof Israel in 1948. influYehudit claim in the decade The article examines the establishment la celebrite durant this progression and the derogative painter process. 1948. Cet article tive qu'eut israelien ence her husband, the Israeli modernist of her creative Zvi Mairovich, had on the development Zvi Mairovich.
femme ecrivain d'Israel
Hendel a ete la premiere la decennie pas
qui suivit l'etablissernent
pas ses realisations
sur son processus
son mari, Ie peintre
ehudit Hendel was the first female Israeli writer to achieve national acclaim in the decade following the establishment ofIsrael in 1948. Her writings deal with traumatic loss-of a homeland, community, family members and loved onesin wars and other calamities. Her first works took for granted gender equality and the lack of a need for a specific female voice. Only in mid-career did Hendel find a voice of her own and her work begin to exhibit feminist characteristics. The fact that Hendel's early writing career suffered from extended hiatus has rarely been discussed by her or any of her critics. This article sheds light on a feasible explanation for the gaps in Hendel's prolificacy. Was it due to innocent bouts of writer's block, or was it the result of other factors, such as the unpredictable and turbulent nature of her marriage to a modernist painter, who was obsessed with death and dying?
Hendel's initial writings followed the conventions of the period. Only after the death of her husband, did Hendel find a voice of her own and her work begins to exhibit feminist characteristics.' Despite her wide recognition in Israel, not too much of her work has been translated from the original Hebrew into English, and she is little known outside of her native land. Hendel's body of work deals with themes of death, dying and traumatic loss-of a homeland, community, family members and loved ones-in the battlefields and other devastations. Hendel's heartrending characters struggle with their traumas using various escape mechanisms: denial, amnesia and mental illness. Thematically, several of her early stories deal with the aftermath of the 1948 War ofIndependence and the social con flicts of that era. Yehudit Hendel was born in Warsaw, Poland to a Hasidic family, descendents of Rabbi Yehezkiel of Kazmir.? In 1925, Hendel's grandfather sold his large estate in Poland and along with his sons and daughters immigrated to pre-state Israel and settled in Tivon. Soon after her grandfather became one of the founders of Kfar Hasidim, a small
religious farming community near Haifa. In 1930, Hendel's family joined their relatives, settling in Tivon and later moving to the neighborhood of Nesher on the slopes of Mount Carmel. When Hendel was a young girl, her mother died of typhoid fever. The effects of this distressing event were to resurface continually in her writings. In "A Story with No Address" from her collection of short stories Small Change, the dead mother's spirit hovers over the daughter's fiction and reverberates in many of the daughter's protagonists." Hendel's family next moved to Haifa, where she attended the prestigious HaReali high school. After graduating, she enrolled at the Levinsky College of Education in Tel Aviv. The following section outlines Hendel's corpus of writings. Historical themes and events shaped the development of her literary output. Hendel is influenced by her Israeli environment; yet she is also greatly affected by the closest people in her personal life. Her choice of characters demonstrates an obvious affiliation with marginalized groups in Israeli society. In her writings, she becomes their voice. Furthermore, in rare interviews, Hendel expresses self-
As a member ofDor Ha'Palmakh, the first generation of Israeli writers, composing literature that was distinctively Israeli, Yehudit
denial and low self-esteem when comparing herself to her domineering painter-husband. Consequently, she must have identified with fictional characters that had similar traits. The proceeding chronological treatment of her works focuses on the main themes Hendel employed to consciously or subconsciously illustrate her literary preference. In the short story Small Change (1988; English 2002) the close relationship between the narrator, the protagonists, and the reader explains Hendel's rare statement during a later radio interview shortly after she had been awarded the Israel Prize for Literature." She admitted reluctantly that writing had been an existential need --she could not pass a day without writing and it has been the only thing that kept her alive. Whenever she would reach a deeper stage of the writing process, Hendel related, she felt as if the characters of the story were practically living in her home. In 1946, Hendel began publishing short stories in Hebrew dailies like "Ha'aretz" and "Davar." Even in these modest efforts, notes Dan Miron, the notable literary scholar and critic, Hendel distinguished herself from her contemporaries by her inimitable writing style and choice of subject matter. Miron suggests that whereas many of her contemporaries focused on the mainstream ofIsraeli society, Hendel preferred to show life on the periphery. This divergence would forever be her hallmark as a writer. On several occasions, Hendel indicated that she agrees with this assessment. In an interview for the daily "Dvar Ha'Shavua" in January 29, 1988, she admitted: I wrote about the people on the fringe [of society] and not the heroes of the wars. I was always attracted to the marginal aspects of life and to the
people who lived on the fringe. I wrote about the iceman from Nesher, and I wrote about the redheaded paralyzed young woman, asking to be placed in a speck of sunshine."
as their social inferiors. In a similar fashion, the author sides with the victims of war, the disabled and the displaced, becoming their champion, even though Hendel herself was a member of the Palmakh and performed
In 1950, Hendel published her first
collection of short stories, Anashim Aherim Hem (They Are Different People). The book went out of print quickly, but remarkably, fifty years later in 2000, was revised and reprinted. In the prologue of the enlarged second edition, Hendel recalls her frustrating experience with the editing of the 1950 edition. Without consulting her, the editor changed the ending of one of the stories, "Kever-Banim" ("Unmarked Communal Grave"), which deals with a father who loses his son in the War ofIndependence. In the original ending the grieving father visits his son's communal grave on a stormy day. Upon leaving the cemetery, he numbly takes off his coat and places it, along with a small rock, on the grave to protect it from the torrential rain. The story was inspired by Hendel's aunt, Pesia, who lost her son in the war and kept watch for him at her window for two years until she died of a broken heart. Written just a year after the war, this end ing represented a radical notion that ran contrary to the norm where grieving families perceived war casualties as heroic acts. In Hendel's opinion, one's loss was not to be accepted with resignation, without protest. Anashim Aherim Hem (They Are Different People), in which Hendel also exposes the social inequality between new immigrants and native-born Israelis, is the title story that differs significantly from other stories in the collection. Told from the point of view of the immigrants, Hendel depicts the prejudice and stereotypical attitudes held by the native-born Israelis toward the newcomers, whom they regard
military related activities.
In 1955, Hendel published her first novel, Rehov Ha-Madregot (translated as Street if Steps in 1963). Unlike Anashim Aherim Hem (They Are Different People), which went out of print quickly and was essentially ignored by the critics, Rehov Ha-Madregot (Street of Steps) became an instant best-seller. It won the Asher Barash Award, saw several editions, and was adapted for the stage in 1958. A story of love in modern Israel, the novel portrays discrimination and alienation between Jews of different ethnic backgrounds in the early years of the State. Against the backdrop of the hills of Haifa, two young people, Avram "Ram" Bekhar, a Sephardic Jew, and Erella "Ella" Dagan, from an Ashkenazi background, fall in love. From the outset it is obvious that their romance is ill-fated, largely due to strong opposition from Erella's father. Hendel's artistic talent intertwines a sophisticated narrative using both dynamic and one-dimensional characters. Their social status is echoed and symbolized respectively in the ascending and descending of the hundreds of steps leading from Haifa's coast to the top of Mount Carmel. Hendel published her second novel, Ha-Hatzer Shel Momo Ha-Gadola (The Courtyard of Momo the Great) in 1969. Also known in its revised edition as Ha-Hamsin Ha-Aharon (The Last Hamsin, published in 1993), it was adapted in 1971 as a television screenplay by the Israeli film director YehudaJud Ne'eman. Like her earlier works, this psychological novel is set in Bat-Galim, a small seaside neighborhood in Haifa, where Momo
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rbe Grear rents om a room to Shaul, a Holocaust survivor in his thirties. Hendel traces six smouldering summer weeks in which Shaul's world is to crumble. He starts an affair with Tamara, another tenant, who is depressed and shattered by the loss of her baby girl and by two previous divorces. Her third husband, Yoakhim, is effectively unavailable and oblivious to his wife's affair. The tale is replete with obsession, loneliness and the psychological disintegration of three lost souls, and ends with Yoakhim's suicide. Menachem Perry, the book's editor, noted that: "with her fantastic realism, which combines restraint with restlessness, Hendel writes about people who live carelessly yet try to hold onto life."? In 1985 Hendel began broadcasting a radio show called "Be'gufRishon" ("In First Person"). In its second year it featured Hendel's popular recollections from a trip to her birthplace and the remains of the Nazi concentration camps in Poland.' Years later, in 1988 Hendel published another collection of short stories, Kesef Katan (translated into English as Small Change in 2002), which is considered one of her best works and is second only to Street of Steps in the attention it attracted from both critics and the general public. B In the Jewish newspaper "Forward" (September 19,2003), Naomi Sokolof noted: "The selections illustrate many of the author's trademark qualities: her subtle rendering of inner worlds, her sensitivity to women's perceptions and fluctuating emotional states, her attention to the minutiae of passing moments." The title story, "KesefKatan" ("Small Change"), is a horrific psychological account of a father-daughter relationship. The father is a bus driver who has compulsively squirreled away small change accumulated from his fares. The daughter tells her story to a
narrator after her return from a Swiss jail, where she had been incarcerated for illegally exchanging her father's coins. The recurrent symbol of the father compulsively collecting and stacking his small change signifies the trivial things in life: actions humans do compulsively without any kind of deliberation. The narrator spends a considerable time observing and watching the pair through her apartment window. The immediate impression is that the protagonists live alongside the narrator. Another typical Hendel story in Kesef Katan is "The Letter that Came in Late." A new widow, despite keeping up normal appearances after her husband's funeral, commits suicide. She leaves behind a meticulous home, labeled belongings and a farewell letter that must reach her family at a particular time. The fuzzy line between life and death is a familiar territory for Hendel. In the last paragraph of "Small Change," the narrator says: "I would say to myself then something I learned a long time ago, that just as life carries in it death so death carries in it life." "My Friend B's Feast" follows a similar theme. In this tale, a woman dying of cancer invites her friends and relatives to a final supper. As the party proceeds, it becomes apparent that the husband has already replaced his wife with a new lover. In "Low, Close to the Floor," a dying man cannot decide with which of his two deceased wives he should be buried. In these macabre scenes, Small Change offers a glimpse into the broad showcase of contemporary Israeli women's writing and positions Hendel as the chief representative of Ecriture Feminine in modern Hebrew literature." Another novella, Har Ha-To'im (The Mountain of Losses), came out in 1991. Once again Hendel writes about bereavement and demise as a result
of the chaos of war. She describes a group of grieving parents and widows visiting the graves of their loved ones sixteen years after the Yom Kippur war. In 1996 another collection of short-stories, Aruhat Boker Temimah (An Innocent Breakfast), appeared. In this compilation the author finally asserts her feminist voice: all the stories deal with women haunted by revelations and memories from their past. Hendel's next novel, Teruf« She! Rcfe HaNifesh (Crack Up), appeared in 2002. It is another complicated psychological work in which a psychiatrist slowly loses his mind. Hendel's latest book Hamakom harek (The Empty Space), a short stories collection, was published in 2007. Again the common thread that runs through the stories is the constant preoccupation with tragic characters and with Hendel's familiar theme that the death of relatives and friends is merely physical; they continue to inhabit the thoughts of the people they left behind. In the ensuing discussion, it will become quite apparent that Hendel's choice of subject matter and characters reflects the ambiance of her personal life. As she herself has documented in her biographical novella Ha-Koah HaAher (The Other Power), she had to cope with an eccentric artist-husband, who was extremely demanding of her time and most probably caused the fluctuations in her creative flow.'?
THE PHENOMENON CREATIVE COUPLES
The Romantic movement of the late 18th and 19th centuries will always be remembered as a hotbed for creative couples. Music and poetry seemed to ignite amorous relationships between their creators. Frederic Chopin and George Sand (Aurore Dudevant) met in 1837 and carried out a tumultuous love affair for almost a decade. However, in that period they both
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produced their best work in music and the literary arts respectively. Another famous union of the era was between Mary (Wollstonecraft Godwin) Shelley, who was as well a child of two prominent writers, and Percy
Hagadola (The Courtyard of Momo the Great), is close to fifteen years. The same is true for her next book, Ha-Koah Ha-Aher (The Other Power), which appeared sixteen years after her second novel. It appears that
Ha-Aher (The Other Power), in which she bared many aspects of her life with her painter-husband. The book was published in 1984. Subsequently in 1999, it was included in an exhibition ofMairovich's paintings in the Tel
Bysshe Shelley. Least of all could we
forget the exquisite love and marriage of Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning that inspired the poetic legacies of both, in particular Barrett's Sonnets from the Portuguese." II More recently, in a magazine article entitled "Affairs of the Art: Exploring the Magic of Creative Couples," Rob Kodzis examines the phenomenon of contemporary creative couples. His article suggests that there are several constructive elements, which contribute to a successful union of two artists: added passion for the creative art, "ego and insecurity divided by two," "Role-a-coaster Ride" of emotions, honest critique, shared self-growth, "competitive inspiration," "constant refinement," and last but not least-"a solid foundation" of "love, communication, trust and mutual respect."? Conversely, the marriage between Yehudit Hendel and Zvi Mairovich displays a more complex and intriguing character. 13 Most of the evidence for their intricate and what could be defined as obscure relationship comes from Hendel's biographical novella The Other Power, in which she reveals the way she perceived her husband as an artist, struggling to convey his view of the world on canvas."
IN THE SHADOW OF A PAINTER
after the death of her husband, these
gaps closed and Hendel became more prolific. Furthermore, some critics claim that at this particular juncture her poetics changed and turned to literary impressionism." In 1947, while seeking shelter from a heavy rain at a cafe in Haifa Yehudit Hendel met the Israeli modernist painter Zvi Mairovich. More than a decade her senior, he became the most influential figure in her life. They married the following year in front of strangers." They had two children: Dorit (1950-2007) and Yehoshua (1962). From 1949 to 1950, the young couple lived in Paris. From 1950 until Mairovich's death in 1974, Hendel lived in Haifa, where much of her early fiction takes place. In April 1971, Hendel's husband the artist Mairovich suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body. Several weeks later, he started painting with his left hand but needed constant care." Hendel nursed him devotedly. On November 11,1974, in the middle of a conversation with his wife, Zvi Mairovich suddenly collapsed and died-three and a half years after suffering the devastating stroke. Following her husband's death, Hendel decided against ever publishing the manuscript she had been working on-though the movie Ztelilah Horeret (Repeated Diving, 1980, written and directed by Shimon Dotan), is based on this novel. Six years later, Hendel moved to Te/Aviv, determined never to write ag;ain. Yet, in 1976 she started to work on a semi-autobiographical piece, Ha-Koah
Aviv Museum of Art. The book
marked a turning-point in Hendel's writing career. Ha-Koah Ha-Aher (The Other Power) is a lyrical work centered on Mairovich's creative life, work and death. The various texts which compose the book were first published in the kibbutz movement literary journal Siman Kriah during 1977-1983. The intimate subject matter might be seen as an illustration of how Hendel created a coping mechanism to deal with the crisis she underwent after Mairovich's death. In these poetic and highly personal reconstructions of the painter'S career, she uncovers the meaning of living side-by-side with an artist who viewed art as an uncontrollable spiritual force, which Hendel dubs "the other power." Although they were married for twenty-eight years, Hendel always referred to her husband by his last name, and does so in the book: "For many years I called him Mairovich. The move to call him Zvi was difficult ... After all I was his wife ... it seems to me that just a few called him Zvi ... "18 As evident from the book, Mairovich was enthralled by death. One ofMairovich's more outrageous statements epitomizes the message of this atypical work: "To work is to submit to the domination or the will of some superior power, while being assailed every morning by a nameless despair." Throughout his life, he suffered from severe insomnia, phobias and c(mstan.t headaches, but had a
mesmer1:z.ln.g; \leIson.a\lt''j ana. a 'Jl'Jla.
As noted earlier, Hendel's early writing career was sporadic. The gap between her first novel, Rehov Ha-Madregot (Street of Steps), and her second, Ha-Hatzer Shel Momo
sense ol'humor. /9 f1/he/J asked how she loune. t'rte c.O\_n:c..g;e \l'Je 'Nlt'rt a man. to who talked incessantly about death, Hendel explained that her real life
began when she first met Mairovich. Her life, she continued, ended with his sudden death.s? In fact, Hendel's short stories collection Small Change deals almost exclusively with the themes of death and dying. So does her latest
of this was lost and I had a feeling that without him I would not be able to connect words."23 When hard-pressed with another question about their life together, Hendel concedes:
been writing fiction on a high level for several decades, and she would probably figure on every knowledgeable critic's list of significant Israeli writers, though she is not as well known as she might be." Nonetheless,
compilation Ha-Makom Ha-Rek (The
Empty Space, 2007). All through her work The Other Power, Hendel describes living in the shadow ofMairovich and uses the phrase "living beside him"?' as opposed to "living with him" when she refers to their relationship. Vehemently, she writes: "Life beside him wasn't easy, but also that which is beyond all predicaments. Today too I still wonder what reality means and what the meaning of the weak[er] power is."22In an interview with the Israeli magazine "Ha-'ir" (February 18, 1985), Hendel partly explains her identification with this weaker power: "I decided to place myself on the side, in the rear, in the other room, in the corridor. I wanted to convey his [Mairovich's] spiritual world as a painter ... A person who reads the book should not know anything about me." In a rare interview just before the opening of Mairovich's exhibition at the Tel-Aviv Museum of the Art, Hendel yet again reflects on her life with him. Dalia Karpel, the journalist who conducted the interview, insists on prying into Hendel's private life by asking her challenging and intimate questions. From the start, Hendel fervently denies rumors of her husband's extra-marital affairs. When asked for the reason she contemplated to stop writing after Mairovich's death, she replies: "Mairovich provided great support. He was my reader. He had exceptional senses. He was a cruel critic and never had pity on me, but he also gave me confidence that I often lacked. After his death, all
"Mairovich was a person of extreme
traits, of changing moods. You would never know how the next moment would unfold, whether he be joking, tell stories, or be gloomy and under a very terrible mood. You would never know what to expect and it was not easy. On the one hand, he had a very pessimistic view on life, and on the other hand, he was full of humor, enormous vitality and passion. He ate passionately, painted passionately and was very temperamental. A man with a rich spiritual world, who used to speak engagingly. He had a unique style of speech. He used to jump from one topic to another, touching on a thousand matters, always returning to the starting point. He was an exceptionally kind man, yet very sarcastic. It was hard to forget his insults ... "24 Explaining her statement in The Other Power about the fact that she was always "a little" afraid of her husband," she reluctantly admits: "Regarding the fear, it is possible to say that I feared his judgment and his sharp tongue." Hendel's nonlinear publishing record is mirrored in the reception and recognition she earned as a writer; her work garnered mixed reviews and captured less attention than other female writers. While her first book, Rehou Ha-Madregot (Street of Steps) got rave reviews, her second novel was ignored and only saw a modest revival twenty-four years later in a newly revised edition and title, Ha-Hamsin Ha-Aharon (The Last Hamsin). As Jeff Green wrote in the Jerusalem Post (May 3, 1996): "Hendel has
the true reason for Hendel's sporadic
publishing career might never be revealed. One could only speculate that living in the shadow of another, exceptionally temperamental artist was not in this case as conducive and prolific as might be assumed.
Y E H U D IT HEN DEL'S BOOKS IN HEBREW
Anashim Aherim Hem [They Are Different People]. Tel Aviv: Sifriat Poalim, 1950; Rehov Ha-Madregot [Street of Steps]. Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1955; Ha-Hatzer Shel Mama Ha-Gedolah [The Courtyard ofMomo the Great]. Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1969; revised and retitled as Ha-Hamsin Ha-Aharon [The Last Hamsin]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad/Siman Kriah, 1993; Ha-Koati Ha-Aher [The Other Power]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchadl Siman Kriah, 1984; Leyad Kefarim Shketim [Near Quiet Places]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad/Siman Kriah, 1987; Kesif Katan [Small Change]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchadl Siman Kriah, 1988; Har Ha-Toim [The Mountain of Loses]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchadl Siman Kriah, 1991; Aruhat Boker Temimah [An Innocent Breakfast]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad/Siman Kriah, 1996;
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Terifo Shel Ro]« Ha-Nefesli [Crack Up]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad/ Siman Kriah, 2002; Hamakom Harek [The Empty Space]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad/ Siman Kriah, 2007.
EDITIONS IN ENGLISH
Miron, Dan, 2002. Ha-koah hahalash.'iunim ba-siporet shel Yehudit Hendel
WEB 2: http://msradio.huji.ac.ill wwwroot/drama/hendeI48k.mp3. WEB 3: www.morbidoutlook.com/ nonfiction/articlesl2001_07 _couples. html, October 16,2007. WEB 4: www.bertgallery.com/blog/] October 16, 2007
[The Weak Strength: Studies in the Fiction ofYehudit Hendel]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad.
Nesvisky, Mattm 1999."Missed
Opportunity." Jerusalem Post, 19 April. Orner, Mordechai,ed, 1999. The Other Power: <vi Mairovich and Yehudi; Hendel. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv Museum of Art. Pycior, Helena, Nancy G. Slack and Pnina G. Abir-Am, ed., 1996. Creative Couples in the Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ.: Rutgers University Press. Ramras-Rauch, Gila, 1999."Six Israeli Novellas," World Literature Todqy, no. 73. Shirav, Pnina, 1998. Ketiva tamah: 'Emdat siah oe-yiizuga; nashiut biyteiratan shel Tehudu Hendel, Amaliah KahanaCarmon oe-Ruth Almog [Non Innocent Writing: Discourse Position and Female Representations in Works by Yehudit Hendel, Amalia KahanaCarmon and Ruth Almog]. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad. Sokoloff, Naomi, 2003. "Remembering the Woman: Combining the Macabre and the Everyday, One Writer Charts the Female Psychological Experience," review of Small Change: A Collection qf Stories, by Yehudit Hendel. Forward, 19 September. Whitney Chadwick and Isabelle De Courtivron, 1993. Significant Others: Creativity and Intimate Partnership, New York: Thames and Hudson.
Small Change, translated by Barbara Harshav. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2002. Street qf Steps, translated by Rachel Kats and David Segal. New York: Herzl Press, 1963; London, Thomas Yoseloff, 1964.
Dan Miron, 2002, page 11. 2 Dalia Karpel, 1999. Hendel has never disclosed her real date of birth. Yet, from all existing accounts, it appears she was born in 1925. It could also be ascertained that Hendel was born in 1921 or 1922: she is listed as a 1939 high school graduate of the Reali in Haifa; see Web1. 3 4 Web2. Ibid.
IN THE TEXT
Fenner, Andrew, 2007. "Famous and Infamous Couples of the Romantic Era." [Online] Morbid Outlook. Available http://www.morbidoutlook. com/nonfiction/articles/200l_07 _ couples.html. October 16. Gertz, Nurith, 2001. '''I Am Other:' The Holocaust Survivor's Point of View in Yehudit Hendel's Short Story 'They Are Others.'" DivergentJewish Cultures: Israel and America, edited by Deborah Dash Moore and S. Ilan Toren. New Haven: Yale University Press. Green,Jeffrey M., 1996. "Reading from Right to Left." Jerusalem Post, 3 May. Karpel, Dalia, 1999. "Kocha shel bedidut." ["The Power of Loneliness"] Haarete, 27 August. Kodzis, Rob, 2007. "Affairs of the Art: Exploring the Magic of Creative Couples." create magazine SeptemberOctober: 95-98.
5 All translations from the original Hebrew are the author's, unless otherwise stated.
Citation taken from the back cover of the book.
7 The same year, these radio talks were published as a book, Leyad Kefarini Shketim [Near Quiet Places].
The English translation of Small Change contained five short stories from the original and three from Aruhat Boker Temimah [An Innocent Breakfast] .
9 Miron, 2002, page II and Shirav, 1998, pages 48-59. 10 Although the reader of this article would be interested in an exploration of the topic of her prolificacy and any new information would contribute to a fuller understanding of Hendel's contribution to Israeli literature, information about her private life is rare and scanty at best.
WEB 1: www.harealihaivri.haifa. k 12.ill newsite/ template2. asp?typeid=3&pageid= 154
II See Andrew Fenner, "Famous and Infamous Couples of the Romantic Era," in Morbid Outlook, Web.3. See also Helena Pycior et al, 1996; and Whitney Chadwick and Isabelle De Courtivron, 1993.
16 Apparently, Mairovich did not intend to marry Hendel. However, Hendel's father objected to his daughter's "life in sin." Eventually, Mairovich complied. See Karpel's article. 17 Other creative couples whose lives
12 Rob Kodzis, 2007, pages 95-98.
13 The Bert Gallery Blog features an essay to describe one of their exhibits, Artists as Couples. The opening paragraph states: "Artists as couples pose one of the most complex of human psychological dramas. They make Freud's Oedipus complex seem like child's play. Just think ofInternational Abstract Expressionist artist couples such as Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner or Elaine and Willem de Kooning." Web.4. 14 As a literary scholar, I was trained in the school of New Criticism. Basically and very simplistically, every work of literary art is self-contained and therefore free of any relation or correlation to the writer's life or any other forms of contexts. Literary critique should be limited to close reading of the text -- "objective" reading as it was often depicted. Yet, when one examines a biographical work, such as The Other Power, it becomes extremely difficult to carryon research without considering the nitty-gritty details of the writer's private life. In the quest to find a feasible explanation for Hendel's interrupted and intermittent writing career, this study will employ some form of the nearly superseded literary theory of Biographical Criticism. 15 Borrowed from the visual arts, the term literary impressionism denotes the attempt to describe sensory and emotional perceptions of a scene, instead of recreating the objective nature of the scene.
can be compared to Hendel and Mairovich's are Esther Raab (poet) and
second husband, the painter Aryeh . Allweil; Aharon (painter) and Sabina (poet) Messeg; Lilach (poet) and Tzvi (painter-sculptor) Lachman; Bernard Horn (writer) and Linda Klein (painter); Tobi Kahn (sculptor/painter) and Nessa Rapoport (writer); T [Tcahrni] Karmi (poet, born in the USA) had even two wives-painters: his first wife was Shoshana Heiman (she illustrated his Ha-yam ha-akharon) and the second - Tamara Rikman (living now in Tel-Aviv). He divorced from both and had a younger third wife, who was just a high school teacher. Noteworthy is the example of the two poets Uri Zvi Greenberg and his wife Aliza TurMaika, who was thirty years younger than her famous husband. My thanks go to Hamutal Bar-Yosef, Anne Lapidus Lerner, Neta Stahl, Bernard Horn, Yael Feldman,Joel E. Rubin, Stanley Nash, and Zafrira Lidovsky Cohen, who kindly contributed to this list. 18 Hendel, 1984, page 16. 19 Ibid., 17. 20 Ibid., 25. 21 Ibid., 13. 22 Ibid., 92. 23 See, Karpel's interview with Hendel. 24 Hendel, 1984, pages 29, 31. 25 Ibid., 43.
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