MANUAL TO
CALCULUS
AN INTUITIVE AND PHYSICAL 2ND ED BY MORR IS Ku NE APPROACH
JOHN WILEY NEW YORK ' LONDON
&
SONS) INC, ' SYDNEY , TORONTO
This material may be reproduced for testing or instructional purposes by people using the text. Printed
ISBN 0 471 02396
in the
United
5
States
of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Inttoduction
1
1. The Solutions In This Manual. The solutions of all the exercises in the text are given in full. The primary reason is to save professors' time. Choosing exercises for homework assignments can be a laborious matter if one must solve fifteen, twenty or more to determine which are most suitable for his class. A glance at the solutions will expedite the choices. The second reason is that in many institutions calculus is taught by teaching assistants who have yet to acquire both the training and experience in handling many of the mathematical and physical problems. The availability of the solutions should help these teachers. 2. Suggestions For The Use Of The Text. The onevolume format of this second edition should give professors more latitude in the choice of topics which might be suitable to the interests of the students or to the length of the course. Several types of choices might be noted. Because precalculus courses have become more common since the pUblication of the first edition, some of the analytic geometry topics may no longer have to be taught in the calculus course. The most elementary topics of analytics have been put in an appendix to Chapter 3, Section 4 of Chapter 4, Section 5 of Chapter 7, and the Appendix to Chapter 7. If familiar to the students, all or some can be omitted. Though I believe strongly in the importance of physical and, more generally, real applications to supply motivation and meaning to the calculus, again class interests and available time must enter into determining how many of these applications can be taken up. I have therefore starred all Lhose sections and chapters which can be omitted without disrupting the continuity. The last chapter, which is intended as an introduction to the theory or rigor, can be taken up at almost any point after Chapter 10. However, I personally believe that the intuitive approach should be maintained throughout and that this chapter should be left for the last and then taken up only if time permits. The complete text is intended for a three semester, three hours a week course. However, in view of the number of sections and chapters that are not essential to the continuity the text can be used for shorter courses including those offered in the fourth high school year. 3. Some Additional Topics. Some physical applications which were included in the first edition were omitted in,the second one and replaced in the text proper by applications to economics and to other social science areas. A few of those omitted are reproduced here. They may be useful as suggestions
2
for additional work which bright or somewhat advanced students can undertake, as fillins for periods which for one reason or another cannot be used for regular work, or as material for a mathematics club talk. Exercises and solutions relevant to these additional topics are also included here. A. The Hanging Chain.
In the text proper we derived the equation of the chain or cable suspended from two points (Chap. 16, Sect. 4) on the assumption that the weight per unit length of the cable is the same all along the cable. However, the theory developed there can be used to solve more general problems. One is to determine the shape of the cable if the weight per unit length or, one can say, the density per unit length is specified. The second is, given the desired shape of the cable, how can we fix the distribution of the mass along the cable so that it assumes the desired shape? Both of these problems are readily solved with the theory at hand. The derivation of (21), the equation of the cable, in the text proper, presupposed that the weight of the cable per unit foot is constant all along the cable, Let us now see what we can do when we let the weight of the cable vary from point to point. Let us denote by w(s) the function that gives the weight per unit foot at point s. Then (11) and (13) still hold, but (14) must be changed to read
(I)
If we divide obtain (2) this
T
y
=
fw(s)dx by
+
o.
that T /T is y', we yx
equation y'
(11) and use the fact
=
Tl fw(s)ds
where 0' is O/TO' If the function w(s) is given, we can calculate !w(s)ds, The quantity 0' can now be fixed by letting s be 0 at y' O. We now have y' as a function of s. Next we may proceed as we did in the case where w(s) is a constant and seek to obtain s as a function of x through
o
+ 0'
=
ds = dx
11 + y'2
but y' is now given by (2), If the integration can be performed and s is obtained as a function of x, we can substitute this value of s in (2) and attempt to obtain y as a function of x. We can also solve the second problem. Suppose that we wish to distribute weight along the cable so that the cable hangs in a given shape; that is, we presume that we know the equation of the cable and we wish to find w(s). To solve this problem, we differentiate (2) with respect to x. On the left side differentiation with respect to x produces y", On the right side to differentiate with respect to x we use the chain rule and differentiate with respect to s and multiply by ds/dx. The derivative of !w(s)ds with respect to s must be w{s) because the integral is that function whose derivative is w(s). Thus our result is
3
(3 )
y" = l:.wts)~. TO dx
Because we presume that we know the equation of the curve, we can calculate y" and ds/dx. Hence we can find w(s), that is, the variation of weight along the curve that produces the particular~shape of the hanging cable. Of course, the shape of the cable need no longer be a catenary. It is often called a nonuniform catenary. The theory presented in this section is useful under more general conditions than those so far described. In the derivations of the text and of (2), we attributed the weight to the cable. However, the weight w(s) might be the load on the cable, that is, the load of the bridge itself, if the cable's weight is negligible, or the combined weight of cable and load. In the case of the theory in the text this load would have to be proportional to the arc length of the cable; that is. the load would have to be the same for each unit of length of the cable. In the case of (2), the load could vary along the cable or the combined weight of load and cable could vary along the cable, and the function w(s) would have to represent the variation of the total weight with arc length. Exercises: 1. Find the law of variation of the mass of a string suspended from two points at the same Ie vel and acted upon by gravity so that it hangs in the form of a semicircle. Suggestion: Take the semicircle to be the lower half of X2+y2 = 2ay and use (3). 2. The derivation given in (2) for a cabJe whose load varies with arc length applies also to a cable whose load varies with horizontal distance from, say, the lowest point. Thus T = T and (1) becomes of the cable. 2)/12T Ans. y = (ax +6bx . o 3. A heavy chain is suspended at its two extremities and forms an arc of the parabola y = x2/4p. Show that the weight per horizontal foot is constant. Suggestion: Use (3).
4
y per horizontal
T
=
Jw(x)dx+D.
Then foot
(2) is y'
=
x
0
(l/T )fW(X)+D'.
0
Given
that
the load
is w(x)
=
ax2+b,
find
the equation
Solutions: 1. The lower half of the semicircle is given y' = x(a2_x2)1/2 and y" = a2(a2_x2)3/2, Then from (3), w(s) = aTo/(a2xZ). integrations by y ds/dx
= a/a2x2• Then = Il+y,2:;a(a2_x2)1/2.
that y' and yare Now use
2. Carry out the obvious o at x = O.
and use the facts
3. We can think of w(s)ds/dx as a function w(x) of x since (3). Since y = x2/4p, y" = ~p, and w(x) is a constant. B. Projectile Motion in a Resisting Medium.
s is.
After taking up projectile motion in a vacuum (Chap. 18, Sect. 4) one can take up the case of motion in a resisting medium. Since the
where x and yare functions of t that represent the horizontal and vertical motion and the dot means differentiation with respect to t. Suppose that the projectile is shot out with an initial velocity of magnitude V inclined at angle A to the ground. there is a horizontal force acting at any time t. and Euler. the horizontal acceleration is the time derivative of the horizontal velocity so that x y. we obtain (1) x = kx. Hence the air resistance. is no more than what was taken up in Chapter 12. equation by m and again replace both sides of this Kim by k. In the case of the vertical motion there are two forces acting at an¥ time t.3 2m If we divide we obtain (2 ) . namely. the combination of the two and the implications for projectile motion are new and provide an interesting comparison with projectile motion in a vacuum. mx = Kx. This initial velocity does give the projectile a constant horizontal velocity of V cosA but no acceleration in the horizontal direction and therefore no continuously acting force in the horizontal direction. the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity at any point of the projectile's path are and respectively. the mathematics involved. Ky. that the net force acting must equal the mass times the acceleration of the projectile. we use Newton's second law of motion. should have the components Kx and Ky. To obtain the parametric equations of the motion. of the air resistance (the upward direction is positive). If we divide both sides by m and replace Kim by k. by Newton's second law. the force of gravity which is 32m and the vertical component. However. Since x = (1) we first write x dv dt = kv x . we shall apply Galileo's principle and consider the horizontal and vertical motions separately. Now. apart from the use of parametric equations. Hence the differential equation for the vertical motion is. y= To integrate vx' we have 32  kyo it in a more familiar form. Hence Newton's second law says for the horizontal motion that ma = KX. the resistance of the air is proportional to the velocity and directed opposed to that velocity.4 analysis of projectile motion breaks down into a separate consideration of the horizontal and vertical motions. where horizontal and vertical motion in a resisting medium were considered independently. However. We shall suppose that as the projectile travels through the air. Sections 6 and 7. The effect of air resistance on the motion of projectiles was first investigated seriously by Newton. However. my = _. As in the text. because it is oppositely directed. namely the air resistance Kx. where K is the proportionality constant. Huygens.Ky. We shall apply this law to the horizontal and vertical motions separately.
Now v x = x = V coks (1 _ ek t) . Substi tution of these values yields + 32. and so (5) becomes (6) Vy = V sin Aekt. y We know that v = V sin A when t_ o = kVsinA = o. since x = 0 when t = 0. Then Vy = f(Oekt32l. = 0. by solving for v v where D = e c (3 ) x x = kv x x 1 I 1 log v + x k C ktc kt c kt . e =e =e = De Because v v x = V cos A when t x .5 The righthand side contains the dependent variable. . + 3k2ekt _ 3'. V co s Ae k t . so we convert to dt dv Then t= or. We write y as vy' Then (2) reads dt = dV~3 By integration 1 32+kv y or 32 + kv where 0 = e (5 ) kC y = e ktkC = De kt . A This equation should be compared with (7) of the text. (4 ) of the text proper. Equation (3) should be compared with (6) dx/dti hence. By one more integration we obtain . To integrate (2) we perform similar steps. In (3) and (4) we have the formulas for the horizontal velocity and horizontal distance traveled as functions of t..
.~ k k2e . be interesting to determine what effect air resistance has by comparing results obtained here with the results obtained for projectile motion without air resistance.?\ (1 _ kt) Y=. at a fixed angle. Moreover. of course. Sect. 1). It would. 0= 32t k + C. We solve for C and substitute its value in the preceding equation. and moving in the resisting medium as opposed to a vacuum takes less time to reach maximum height. A few of these comparisons will be left fo~ the exercises.A to the ground. v sin A k _ k 3~ + C. to the gun (Fig. and attains less maximum height than if fired in a vacuum. the maximum height H2 is attained beyond the midpoint of the range.6 y . (See also the work on infinite series in Chap. The first part of the path is straighter than in a .) At the moment we might mention that the projectile fired with a fixed initial velocity V. Then v sin A kt k e  kTe 32 kt ]( 32t + V sin A k + 0 32 We have in (6) and (7) the formulas for the vertical velocity and height above ground of the projectile. y= or (7) 32t + (V sin A + l. 12. 20.: v sin A e kt k Because y = 0 when t = 0. reaches maximum height closer s Path in vacuum Figure 1. These formulas should be compared with (8) and (9) respectively of the text.
2.ekt)/k and y = 32(ekt . Suggestion: Compare (15) of the text and the value of x2 in Exercise 3.2) k x VcosA 32 kX) + 2 1 og ( I k VcosA . the maximum range is obtained at an angle of fire of less than 45°. 7. (x2'Y2) of the highest point of the projectile's 2 A . Finally. Using the result of Exercise 1.7 vacuum and the latter part steeper. Ans. Find the direct equation relating y and x by eliminating t between (4) and (7). As a check on the results in Exercises I and 3. (a) What is the terminal horizontal velocity. (b) What is the terminal vertical velocity? Ans. where k is a proportionality constant. respectively_ 9. t2 = ~ log (1 + kV ~~n A) • 3. 32/k. show that the path of the bomb t seconds after its release will be inclined to the horizontal at the angle tanl [32(ekt l)/kU]. V Sl. (c) Using the results of parts (a) and (b). 4. If the air resistance of the bomb is km times the velocity. . that is. the velocity as t becomes infinite. describe the path as x approaches the value (V co s A) /k. where k is a proportionality constant.V sinAcosA ~x232+kvsinA'Y2 _ VsinA k 32 k2"log (l+kv~~nA). y = (. If the air resistance is km times the velocity. Calculate dy/dx from the result in Exercise I. 6. substitute in it the value of x2 given in Exercise 3. The projectile strikes the ground at a steeper angle and with less speed than that with which it was fired. we could do the following. Ans. An airplane flying horizontally with speed U releases a bomb of mass m.1 + kt)/k2. O. We know that the slope of the projectile's path is a at the maximum height. show that the horizontal and vertical distances traveled by the bomb in time t are x = U(l . 5. describe the path as t becomes infinite. Find the coordinates path. and "see if the slope is O. Show that the projectile moving in the resisting medium attains its maximum height at a value of x closer to the starting point than it does when shot out at the same angle A and with the same initial velocity V in a vacuum. Exercises 1. Doe s the resuLt agree with the answer to par t (c) of Exercise 6? 8. Find the time t2 it takes the projectile to reach the highest point of its path. of the projectile motion discussed in the text? Ans.D A 3 + . A bomb is released from an airplane traveling horizontally at a speed of U ft/sec and at an altitude of H feet.
sin 2A/ (64 + 2kV sin A). Vx = U. Rewrite the first of these quantities as V2. = x 0 (which means x is measured from the point where the bomb is released.sin 2A/64. v proaches O. kt Hence in our case v = Ue . 5.32ekt)/kUekt• yx the derivation of (5) we obtain = = C. Then the direction of the bomb is given by tan e = v /v = (32 . Since y 0 when kt)/k. sin 2A/64.Dekt)/k. If we measure distance downward as positive we have for the vertical motion as in (2) (except for sign) = +32 . integrating. ekt approaches O.8 Solutions to the Exercises on Projectile Motion 1. and using x = a when t y approaches 32/k. (c) Since the horizontal velocity approaches 0 and the vertical velocity approaches a constant the path must approach more and more a vertical straight line.ekt = Jex/VcosA and t = (l/k)log(lkx/VcOSA). 8. 4.ekt)/k. We start with (1) as in the text here. The rest is straightforward to get the text's results. we get the result for y. Then.sin A cos A/ (32 + kV sin A) is less than V2. Following the suggestion we must show that V2. Hence use (6) to solve for t when Vy = O. However. Mere algebra shows dy/dx = O. As x approaches V(cosA)/k.e kt = kV sin A/ (32 + kV sin A). Hence I . one of the famous ones in the history of mathematics. the expression is less than V2. 2. by (3). At the highest point ~ or Vy is O. We have from Exercise 2 that e (4) ekt is the reciprocal. 9. like the preceding topic. t = 0. Calculate dy/dx from the result in Exercise 1 and substitute for x the value of x2 given in Exercise 3. Inserting these values in (7) gives the text's answer. 0 = 32 and y = (32 . The Brachistochrone Problem. when t = 0. Use the value of t2 obtained in Exercise 2 and substitute for t in kt = (32 + kV sin a) /32 and and (7). 18).ky and so by using the method of the text here in y y (32 . We may take over from Exercise 8 that v = uekt and v = (l/k) x Y (32 32e kt). 7. This problem. belongs under the subject of rectangular parametric equations (Chap. From (4) we have 1 . y in Exercise 1 approaches 00 This agrees with 6(c). we get x = U(l . the text proper takes up tangential and normal acceleration along curves and arrives at the formula (78): (1) :F  64 (y 0 y) • . Vx ap (b) By (6). Since 2kV sin A is positive.32eIntegrating and using 'y = 0 when t = 0. 6 (a) As t becomes infinite. In Section 8. 3. Then.
This curve would indeed furnish the shortest distance from 0 to B.We chao se the coordinate axes so that y is positive downward. If the incipient velocity is greater and because the particle gains velocity as it travels along the curve. and therefore the velocity acquired will be greater at least at the outset.y) is the vertical distance traveled by the particle if it starts from rest. then by (I) (2) ds dt =: v= SlY . If a curve is used that is steeper at a than the line OB. but it certainly does not incorporate any condition about the curve being the one for which the time of travel is least. a curve from a to B. . it may still take less time to traverse a curved path from 0 to B even though this curved path is longer than the straight line path from 0 to B. Because our particle starts from rest at a and y : 0 at 0. true for any curve. This equation is correct. suppose that light were to travel from a to B with a variable velocity v given by (2). We learned in (1) that the velocity along the curve at a point (x. light always takes the . then. Let us can sider. It is. the _o~ x y Figure 2 tangential acceleration caused by gravity will be greater. (The arc length s is measured from (xo'Yo»' With this result at our disposal we can examine the proof that John Bernoulli (16671748) gave in 1697 of the brachistochrone property of the cycloid. 2) from a to B under the action of gravity. in fact. What should the shape of the curve be in order that the time of travel be least? One's first thought is that the curve joining 0 and B should be a straight line. The term brachistochrone means shortest time and it enters in the following way. but it need not be the one that makes the time of travel least. According to Fermat's principle. Suppose that a particle starts from rest and is allowed to slide along a curve (Fig. Here John Bernoulli applied a brilliant thought. He said.9 This says that the velocity acquired by an object which slides along a curve under the action of gravity and starts at the point (xo'Yo) with zero velocity is dependent only on the vertical distance fallen and is independent of the shape of the curve.
Now light changes speed when it passes from one medium into another. Bernoulli wished to consider the behavior of light when it travels with a continuously changing velocity. 4) within each of which the velocity is constant. Perhaps if we analyzed how light travels when the velocity varies. to the (i+l)st layer in which the velocity o Vi B Figure 4 .10 least time. 3. Suppose now that light passes from the ith layer in which the velocity is v. However. Note that if v2>v2' a2>u1• The law of refraction applies when there is a sudden or discontinuous change in the velocity of light. we showed (formula (16) of Chapter 8) that when light passes from a medium in which its velocity is v to another in which its veloc1 ity is v2' then (3) Figure 3 = where ul and u2 are the angles of incidence and refraction and are the angles shown in Fig. This is Snell's law of refraction of light. Indeed. He therefore supposed that the space from 0 to B was broken up into a series of layers (Fig. we might obtain the clue to the solution of our problem.
and we have in place of (4) that (5) sin I) =: v constant where a and v are now fUnctions of y.y) is the angle that the tangent to y Figure 5 the curve at (x. the direction 0 of the incident and refracted light at any point (x. ~ =: constant.y) makes with the vertical. If the number of layers becomes infinite. each horizontal line between the horizontal through 0 and the horizontal through B becomes a boundary. 5 that sin ex=: so that (5) becomes dx ds However. if we think of light as following the curved path DB (Fig. Moreover. V. so that =: 2 =. we also see from . Let us now increase the number of layers between the level of 0 and the level of B. Fig. This equation holds at the boundary of each layer. a.11 is vi+l' Let I)ibe the angle of incidence and Then according to (3) 0 1+1 the angle of refraction. 5).= v sin 2 C't n =v n sin C't what this equation says is that (4 ) sin a. Then (4) will hold at each boundary.
Y.J dx 2 I~ we solve for dy/dx.y In view of the presence of the radical. let us invert and write dx_~ dy so that x= Because the right side is a function 'II b y J ~ry~= dx 10 . We now try to integrate (6).::::=::::. of y.cos 2u)/2 so that f Sin u 2D sin u cos u du cos u . let us use the change of variable (7) Then x= or x = f20 sin2u duo The integral is readily evaluated by changing sin2u to (1 . (9. We now use this fact in (2) and write C = elY .12 dx ds = constant v o~because dx/ds = l/(ds/dx).:: '\j C /1 + (~) dx 2 where B is some constant and C = liB. Thus through the study of light we have learned something about v. we obtain (6) where 0 is a new constant.:::::::. v= 1 B ds dx = .
which is an extension of the calculus.yl). x = 2'(2u . Exercises 1.sin e 1) . If the coord i. time.Y1) when 8 "" 61. Yl ""R(I . let 2u = e and let D/2 = R so that the equations become (9) x = R (e  We can sin e) y = R (l . we did seek something that would make time of travel least. That is. We do want the curve to pass through the given point B. x = o when y = 0 and when y= 0.na es of Bare t (xl'Y 1)' we want the eve 10id which for some va 1ue of e and some value of R yields (Xl. However. is least.cos e) and we can now see that the curve is a cycloid. u Now. This problem is a peculiar one insofar as the calculus is concerned. in fact. Such problems cannot usually be done with the calculus and. Would you say that Bernoulli used an entirely mathematical argument to solve the brachistochrone problem? .cos 81) These equations do determine R and do it so that for this value of R the equations (9) will pass through (xl.cos 2u) 2 D as the parametric equations of the curve with u as the parameter. D = O.13 x = ~(2u2 sin 2u) + C.sin2u). we must have xl"" R (o 1 . we did not. The solution of the brachistochrone problem by means of the calculus proper was possible only because Bernoulli used an ingenious argument.sin 2u) y = D sin2u = ~(l . find a value of x at which some dependent variable y is least.ng x and y. as one does in the usual maxima and minima problems. we can equally well take the equations x = 2(2U . We found a curve for which the dependent variable. We note that it is a kind of minimum problem. That is. Thus John Bernoulli showed that the cycloid is the curve along which a particle slides under the action of gravity from one point to another in least time. Then C = o and (8) We could now solve (7) for u and put this value of u in (8) to obtain the equation rel~. must be handled with the techniques of a branch of mathematics called the calculus of variations. However.
14
2. would you say that Bernoulli was able to solve the brachistochrone by relying entirely upon mathematics and concepts of mechanics such as velocity and acceleration? 3. Specifically,'what did Bernoulli accomplish by introducing the motion of light? 4. What is the essence of the argument that the cycloid requires least time? Solutions 1. No. He used the physical fact that light takes the path requiring least time to obtain an important fact about the velocity of motion. 2. No.He used the principle of least time which as Bernoulli used it, is a principle of optics, not mechanics. 3. The key fact obtained by studying the motion of light is that v = C/Il+(dy/dx)2. This tells us how the velocity of the motion must be related to the slope of the curve along which the motion takes place if the time of travel is to be least. 4. There are two key ideas in Bernoulli's proof. The first is that for motion along a curve under the action of gravity (starting from rest) the velocity attained is v = where y is the vertical distance fallen. However, as the text points out, this fact holds for any curve. The problem is to single out the curve requiring least time. Here Bernoulli calls upon the behavior of light. The principle of least time implies the law of refraction (Chapter a, formula (16». The law of refraction extended to a continuous change ip the medium implies v = c/ll+(dy/dx)z. This equation relates the slope of the curve requiring least time to the velocity. However, the velocity is not uniquely fixed by this last equation. If we now add that the velocity at any level is 8/y, that is, the velocity determined by gravity, to the condition which least time imposes, we get enough information to determine the unique curve along which the particle must move.
alY
D. Kepler's
Laws. at formula (35), namely
In the text we arrived
(1)
p
=
l+e cos (9+a) ,
as the equation of the path of a planet which is attracted to the sun in accordance with the law of gravitation. We then sought to determine e, primarily, so that we could learn which conic section is the actual path. To simplify the work we adopted the initial conditions that at time t = 0 the planet is on the polar axis at a distance Po from the pole (which is the location of the sun) and that the planet has at t = 0 a velocity v which is perpendicular to the polar axis. These initial o conditions enabled us to determine the nature of the conic section and it turns out that whether the conic is an ellipse, parabola or hyperbola depends on the value of va.
15
One can, with the mathematics at our disposal, deduce a more general result which is of value to mathematical astronomers. Instead of supposing that Vo is perpendicular to the polar axis we allow it to make an angle A to that axis. The position of the planet at time t = 0 will still be on the polar axis at a distar.ce p from the sun. Moreover, o we do not suppose that the line from focus to directrix is the polar axis so that a need not be 0 or u. Under these more general initial conditions we can still determine e, as ~;e]l as a and h and we arrive at the surprising conclusion that only the magnitude of Vo but not the direction A wbich it makes with the polar axis determines the particular conic section. The derivation of this conclusion under the more general initial conditions is somewhat lengthy but elementary. Let us suppose that the planet starts out at some paint Po in space (fig. 6) whose distance Po from the sun at 0 is known. Further at Po supPolar axis Po
pose the planet has an initial spped Vo whose direction makes an angle A with the line joining
0 to P.
o
We
choese the polar axis of our polar coordinate system to be the line OP so that e is measured What these at from OP clockwise. (2)
a
tells
Figure
6
o initial conditions
counter
us is that
e
= 0, component of the velocity and v p
is the radial
(3 )
• isp,
then
where since then
(4 )
the subscript v sin A
0
in Po denotes
the value
of p at
e = O.
Likewise. and ve
is the transverse
component
of the velocity
=
p8
We must
8 is 0 but e is the time rate of change a 0 of e at e = 0 and this is not zero. We can determine h at once. By (19) of the text proper h = p2e. Since h is a constant we can use its value at 0 = O. Then by (4), understand in (4) that
(5)
enable
h
=
p v sin A . a0 involving a and e which e = 0 and so p = Po will
We are now going to obtain relations us to determine both. From (1) when
16
Po == GM (1+e cos from which \)e have, by solving h2 GMPo
p
cd
for e cos a,
e cos a == Then,
(6 )
 l.
in view
of
(5)
,
e cos a ==
o
v2sin2A 0
GM

1. to
If we could get a value for e sin a we would be able to use it and (6) find e and a separately. To involve sin a we go back to (I) and differentiate. The algebra is simpler if we first write (I) as
1
p
=
GM [ I +e co s (e +0,) ]
h
Now
(7 )
 fj'T de ==  'jiT e s a,n (8+0'.) •
8
1~
GM
.
By setting would ever,
=
0 we
can get an expression we do not know of Po or ~
but this for e sin 0'. the value at of O.
expression Howthat
do no good we have in
because that
(3) the value
e=
9.E. de
at
e = O.
suggests
This
we use the fact
~
By
de
=~
dt
dt de
•
(19) of the text
Q..e. _
proper,
dp
de  dt 11
result in
p2
Substitution
of this dp dt
(7) gives
=
GhM e sin (e +0'.).
and at
e=
0
Po
=
GM
h
e sLn
«
Then e sin 0'.
17
ar.d in view of (5) and (3)
(8)
esinct =
p "zsin A cos A
o
0
GM We square (6) and (8) and add. Then
With
(9 )
(6) and (8) we can obtain e.
GM To obtain a. we have but to divide (8) by (6).
( 10)
+
Thus
tan ct=
r: o v0s in A co s Z
A
Having obtained We can write (9) as
( 11)
(9) and {lOl, let us try to profit from them.
1+
P
v? sin 2 A
00
P VZ (....£._Q2). GM
Gl'1
If P v2/GM < 2, the quantity in parentheses will be negative, and because all other quantities are positive, e2, which is necessarily positive, will lie between 0 and 1. Then the conic section will be an ellipse. We may put this statement thus: (l2a) From (12b)
'f l..
o
0
v
o
j¥;GM < ,
Po
the path is an ellipse.
oa
(11) we also see that if P v2/GM  2 = 0, then e = 1, or if v
>
a
=~
l'
'V
Po
, the path is a parabola.
Finally, if p v2/GM
a
0
2, then e > 1, or o
> _/2GM
(12c)
if v
Po
, the path is a hyperbola.
We see, then, that only the magnitude of the initial velocity but not the direction determines the particular conic section that the attracted body follows. The shape and location of the particular conic section does depend on angle A but the fact that it is an ellipse, say, does not.
18
The problem solved in the text proper under the more specialized initial conditions or the same problem with the more general initial conditions treated here is known as the simplified or modified twobody problem. The simplification consists in assuming that the sun is fixed and that a single planet is attracted to the sun. Actually each body, sun and planet, attracts the other and both move. This more general problem and extensions to the threebody and nbody problems are treated in texts on celestial mechanics but the mathematics involves far more of the sUbject of differential equations than can be taken up in the calculus. Moreover, exact solutions cannot be obteined. August 1976 New York City Morris Kline
1'(3) = 26. SECOND SET 2. 5. 3. The graph consists of two half lines emanating from the origin and extending diagonally upward to the left and to the right.0).7h. (a) A = TIr2. 12. £(2) = 5/3.+h) (x+h)a .7x .3) with the point (3. No. The graph is the same as for y = [x]. 30 miles per hour is 30'5280/60·60 or 44 it/sec.) = O. Hence fex) = f{x). 2. SECTION 1.1 except that (1.3) is not on the graph. 8. g(x) = (x) 3 = _x3 = g (x). Hence p = 2x + 2(4/x). Hence £(2) . £(17) has no value. f(g2) = (glf+ 32)/(g2 + 4). £(0) = 9/7. Graph is the same as for k = h .0) and (0. (b) f (l/x) = (1/>.14x. 0) is not included. f(2) = 22. CHAPTER 2. f(O) = 0.(l/x3). 11.(l/x).0). Graph is the same as for k = 9 + h2 except that (0. Graph is the same as for k = 9h + h2 except that (0. t = v/32.(l/x) = x + l/x. SECTION 2 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. The limit is 3. fex) = x . This is not a function of sin x alone but of x and sin x.g(2) = 135.. Graph is the same as for k = h2 except that (0. no. £(9) = 162. £(9. Independent variable is ni dependent variable is A.7 (x+h) = = x2+ 2xh + h2 . Yes. 2.9) is not included. £(0) = 8. 16) is not included. f'C. 6. f(2) = 9 and g{2) = 15.:) 1/ (l/x) = l/x . x = ±/y/S.0) is not included. Repl~ce a in answers given by xo' 4. radius 1. f(4) = 6. (a) f(x) = x .x = £ (x). (a) Parabola.7 (2x) = 4x2 . the positive root because real ~adii are positive lengths. Hyperbola with asymptotes x = 3. ~ Hence d = 44t. opening upwards. (b) A = TId2/4.. center (0. 6. £(2) = 14. Graph is the same as for k = 16 + h except that the point (0. radius 1. feI) = 2.0). Upper half of circle. g(x) = (_X)4 + 2(_X)2 + 1 = x" + 2X2 + 1 = g(x) 13. £(2) = 5/3. 3. Y = 0. r = ±/A/TI.0) is not included. center (0. f(l/x) = 3/(1/x) . 4 . SECTION 1 1 1. 8. (b) (c) (d) (g) (h) (rn) vertex (0. Lower half of circle.3. 7. See (3) of the text. CHAPTER 2. Other side is 4/x. f (2x) = (2x)2 . 9. . 5.6) omitted. Caution: The point (1. The fallacy is that we cannot choose f(sin x) to be x sin x.(l/x)s = 3x . Straight line through (3. 10.Solutions Solutions to Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2.
the limit of h2 as h approaches 0 is 0. S2. 0. t2 = 5. The limits are 0. etc. Let the position be Sl at time t1 and S2 at time t2. The result should be the same as that obtained in the text. The method is the same as in (a). For the purpose of finding the limit of 3h2/h2 as h approaches 0. ° ° ° . (a) The limit of 3h2 as h approaches (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) is 0. the speed may change at any instant or instants during the next hour.Sl. 1. namely 128 ft/sec. %.t1) == 80 ft/sec. To find the limit of the quotient we may divide numerator and denominator by h.2 CHAPTER 2. Same method as in (a). Sl = 16(3)2. t1 == 3. 7. CHAPTER 2. because there is less and less time for the speed to change prior to the third second. Same method as in (a). 5 to 5. 128 ft/sec. SECTION 4 1. Not necessarily. the rate of change of distance or average speed is 128 ft/sec. 0. The average speed is the distance traveled during some interval of time divided by the interval. The limits are 0. SECTION 3. The limit as h approaches is 1. The limits are 0.01. The quotient after division of numerator and denominator by h is 3h2 + 3h + 1. Instantaneous speed is the speed at an instant of time and is obtained as a limit of average speeds as the interval of time which starts or ends at the instant approaches 0.t. we may divide numerator and denominator by h2.Sl)/(t2 . S = 5. The limit. obtaining 3h + 1. Thus distance traveled from t = 3 to t = 5 is 256 ft. In the notation of Exercise 3. (a) t1 = 0.t1) = 144 ft/sec. is 160 ft/sec. S2 = 16(5)2. 40 50 6. (b) t1 = 4.1.Sl)/(~ . The change in distance is 2. 0. The quotient is 3 and the limit of this quotient as h approaches is 3 because the quotient is always 3. Yes. 0. The limit as h approaches 0 is 1.).Sl)/(~ . Use (a) as the model. 5 to 5. 2. The limit concept. the rate of change of distance is (S2. SECOND SET 1. determined at this stage only by seeing what number the average speeds seem to be approaching. hence (S2. The limits of the numerator and the denominator are 0 and 0. t2 = 5. CHAPTER 2. 0. (c) Calculate the average speed for the interval 5 to 6. SECTION 3. hence (S2. As in (a) the limits of numerator and denominator are 0. FIRST SET 1. and 0.
6(4 + At)2 . 3.3 2. (a) The value of s when t = 3 is 240 ft. = 32t1At + 16(At)2. As == 16(5 + .e . S3 + k = 128(3 + h) . S5 = 16(5)2. 83. however. As.16' 42 = 68.6(4)2 . The limit as h approaches 0 of 192 + 16h is 192. 4.8 and the I" irm it 4. 3.6ot)2 16 • 52 = 160At + 16(At)2" as/At as At approaches 0 is 160.. (c) We go through the method of increments. of whatever small quantity we wish. here. 16 20 (a) As. Be = 16(6)2.16' 32 .3) = (256 . The limit of 96 + 16h as h approaches 0 is 96. (a) No. The limit of 160 + 16h as h approaches 0 is 160. AS/At Iirnit as At approaches 0 is 20. 6. The limit of k/h as h approaches o is 32. and k/h = 192 + 16h. however. (b) Yes.16h. (c) As = 16(4 + ~)2 . Moreover we can get 16at as close to 0 as we wish by taking At small enough.tbe Y. Ss = 240.. SECTION 10 Certainly 5 as at becomes smaller and smaller. because to determine the limit as h approaches 0 we consider the values of either function as h takes on values closer and closer to 0 but we do not consider the value h > O.::::16(3 + 1)2. = 160 + l6at = 20.8.6At and th . h Vi1""+4 + 2 _ h (Jll+If + 2) "" " 5.s3)/(4 . Paraphrase what is done in Section 4.:::: 16(5 + h)". and k/h. 42 = 144. 83 + k = 16(3 + h)2. (b) The same process as in (a).2 vh + 4 + 2 h " To obtain the Itmit as h approaches o.. o we may divide numerator and denominator by h. This gives vh + 4 + 2. Specifically we have but to let . and k/h = 32 . CHAPTER 2. Now vh + 4 approaches . (a) In the notation of the text. (b) (S4 .:::: 160 + 16h.f4 + 2 or 4.f4 so that the limit is . AS/At = 32t + 16dt and the I" "t as at approaches 0 is 32t1• 1 inn 5.::::16(t1 + At)2 .. they differ at h = O. l6at becomes smaller and smaller.16.vh + 4 . here.:::: 20. + 2.:::: 16'32 = 144.6(At)2.2.240)/1 = 16 ft/sec.:::: 112.16t. to have 16at be that small quantity.6. . ~s:= 2. S5 + k .8At + 2. S6 + k = 16(6 + h)2. (b) As = 16(4 + 1)2 .16(3 + h) 2. (c) The same process as in (a). and k/h = 96 + l6h.
h) Xl' 2. In each case use formula (30). A limit is a constant or fixed number. 9. Compare the discussion of (28) in the text. ~s/ ~t :::: 4 + ~t and the limit as 2 2 ~t approaches 0 is 24. ~y. yl::::2x1. A limit is an exact value. SECTION 6 1. . 50 A:::: S2. 4 %. Hence AI:::: 2s1• The result is intuitively reasonable because it says that the area increases at the rate which is fixed by the lengths of two adjacent sides. £1 (xo) or yl or dy/dx evaluated at Xo. 10.01 and calculating ~s/ ~t. the effect of the constant factor a in the a function is that it multiplies the derivative of x2. 1 1 2 4. ~x is the independent variable and ~y/~x is the dependent variable. 7. Al :::: Tr2. 8. d) 160. The answers not in the text are: b) 128. Thus (a) zxs > 4(3 + ~t)2 . ~y/~x. ~s:::: 432(5 + ~t)2 .4(3)2 :::: 4~t + (~t)2. s'= 2ax. the change ~A = ~~w. Use the method of increments in each case and at the value of t stated. 3. D 6. The third sentence merely rephrases the problem in mathematical terms. The answer not in the text is b) 60 ft/sec.4 ~s/ ~t :::: 320 + 432~t and 4 the limit as ~t approaches 0 is 4320. 11. f) 26. A1 + ~A :::: T(r1 t ~r)2. 7 By taking ~t be 0. 60 Since A = f_ wand f_ is kept fixed dA/ dw = I/" Geometrically. As these sides increase the area of the whole square increases and the rate of increase depends on the lengths of these two sides. 10. The in~tantaneous rate of change A depends then on the length of t at the value Wl of w at which the rate is computed. (d) 10. CHAPTER 2. (b) (c) O. Use formula (30). 8. Hence ~A :::: 1Trl~r + 1T(~r)2 ::::21001T ft. if t is kept fixed and w changes by an amount ~w. 9.432(5)2 :::: 320~t + 432(~t)2. The derivative of y = f(x) at x = Xo. Since for y :::: x".
6y = 0. Since v = 32t. Hence s= 3ax2. 6y/6x = 3. etc. hence s = 58 and ds/de = 5. 5. (b) Same as (a) except that 5t replaces 32t. Y + L1y = c. The derivative of a function which is always constant (or of a constant term in a function) is O.X)3. lim L1ylL1x = O. (d) The instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at any value of x is 4x. Y ~y/L1x = b.6.x b . SECTION 7 1. (c) The instantaneous rate of change of velocity with respect to time (or acceleration) at time t is 32. It is true that the derivative of any function is defined at a fixed value of x and the function is constant at the value of x but if the function varies as x changes the function is not a constant for all values of x and its derivative need not be O. (c) dy/dx = kx.x)3.. SECTION 8 1. dV/dr = 4nr2.6. Subtract y = c. Ay/ Ax = 3axi + (3ax1 + aAx)Ax. I1x+o O. 8..y= 3ax~6. to x (j) dy/dx = 15x. (b) dy/dx = kx. 9. Alternative characterizations are. Y1 + . Then is a constant. 2. (a) The velocity (or instantaneous rate of change of distance with respect to time) at time t is 32t. 6. (a) dy/dx = ny.. The method of increment gives Ay/. = O. (b) s = 6ti (d) dy/dx = 16x. the surface area of a sphere of radius r. Acceleration equals v. f) s = O. Here r = 5. b) y'=4x. Thus 1'= 4ax3. The correct conjecture is that the derived function is obtained from the given function by multiplying by the exponent 4 and lowering the exponent by one to 3. Hence . dy/dx 6y = bL1x and lim L1y//J. 4. The formula for arc length is s = re where r is the radius of the circle and e is the central angle in radians. (f) (1) yl = 21Tx. Hence Subtract since b y = bx.. ds/dt = v = lOt. That is. dy Idx = y' = b. (d) dA/dr = kr. 10. v = 32.X= 4ax~ + [6axi + 4ax1Ax + a(Ax)2]Ax from which the result follows. d) d = 9. L1x+o =:.6. for example: The derived function of s is 32t. The argument is false. (fl The instantaneous is 3x. 3. Y1 = ax]. 2. + 6y = b(x+6x).6. (el The instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x is 8x. y' CHAPTER 2. 7.y= a(x1 + .CHAPTER 2. Then = yl That is. rate of change y' of f(x) with = 2Xi (h) respect = 54x.x + 3ax1(Ax)2 + a(6.
No. dP/dx = 4x .T/. = 18 . and 4 respectively. f' (2 ) ::: . f' (x) s =' 20ti (e) y' "" 2x7. 3.6. dC/dx:::: lOx + 15. S = 328 ft/sec.2 dollars.6. His profit may be declining when dP/dx is negative but he may still be making money. = 2axl + b.4 • For both functions y'= 2x. Hence we get the answers to (a). S ::::100 + 32t. + The method of increments gives ~y/~x dy/dx = 2ax t b. At all values of x. As x increases by the is amount . x 8. A low marginal cost means a cheap cost of production and so is desirable. 7. . a 6. 5. At x = 15. Hence the temperature must deT crease as the altitude increases. since the formula gives the amount being produced of the third substance a negative rate is physically meaningless. Since T'is the limit of . dC/dx = 6x .. 9.. dC/dx = 165.6..x.6.x negative. SECTION 9 (b) (h) 2.6t. f ' (2) = 4. The second reason is that the addition of a constant to x2 does not change the rate at which x2 varies because the constant does not change and so does not contribute to the rate of change.4. 11.004x. Yes. 3. We have some evidence to the effect that the derivative of x2 + 5 is the sum of the derivatives of T and 5 and the derivative of 5 is O. y' = 6/2'"x 13.. must then be negative.. As for (d). At t = 4.6 CHAPTER 2. 4. When x = 1200. (b) and (c) by letting t be 2. T' or dT/ctx :::: 0. If after a certain value of t the combination of the two separate substances stops and thereafter the third substance decomposes into the original two and if the original formula holds for the decomposition a negative rate could mean physically the rate at which the third substance is decreasing because it is decomposing.6. We can argue that this must be the case for either of two reasons.xnd T'ls negative it must be that . . (g) s ' = 7. dC/dx = 6 .6.004. dC/dx = 1.T/. (f) y' = 2x+14.6. 10. Hence = 2x . No.
v for all parts. (e) y" = 8. SECTION 10 3. 5. = a = y = 6. d2s/dt2 ==32. d2s/dt2 = = . 40 y" = d2y/dx2 = O. (h) y"  2~. 8==32. (g) y" = 0.7 CHAPTER 10 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2. v==6==32. (b) s >= a = 32. S = 2. Same answer s ==32t s for s. hence ==32. 32. {d) (j) § v + 100. . ==kv.32. d2s/dt2 is an alternate notation 6==v==32.
:0 CHAPTER 3. C ::::1600. the height is 200 in the positive di. Choosethe downward direction as positive for distance traveled. . 50 As in Exercise 1. Hence v :::: 50 at t :::: and C :::: 50. 0 :0 s . The distance fallen in t seconds is the position at time t minus the original position and so is equal to (16t2 + 50) . O v == . At t = 0. v :::: 00 When t :::: . 40 As in exercise 1.50 :::: 6t2..320. Then a :::: == 32 and v = 32t + C. Hence a = 32. Thus C ::::0 and s :::: 6t2. The velocity at this time is v = 32(%JTIf) = 80mft/sec. s == 1000. then when t = 0. 6. (c) s == 8t2 + 50t + C. 0 1 C = . Then s 16t2 + 50. At t == 0.3.%/3x + C.50t + C.32t 0 2 .Solutions to Chapter CHAPTER 3~ SECTION 1 3 1. Then C = 100 and s ::::OOt + C.50t + 200. v = 32t + C. 1 3.3t. below the roof). v :::: 2t and s = 16t2 + C.J1000/16 == 5. v = . l 70 As in Exercise 3.(12/2) x2 + 8x + C. (1) s 5 2 + 1. 2.~X2 + C. Then C = 0. v :::: 00. Hence s = 16t2 . Then at t :::: . s :::: (5. The object is at a height of 500 feet in. As in Exercise 3. If s is to be 1 O l distance traveled then s = 0 at t == O. a positive velocity of 100 is 0 imparted to the object. Hence s:::: 16t2 + lOOt + C. If s 0 is measured from the point at which the object is released then s = 0 at t == O. Thus s ::::OOt. v :::: 5. Since v :::: at t :::: 0 (the time of release). Since s :::: at t :::: . Distance is measured from the ground upward. 8. we V have v :::: when t'= O. hence s = 1000 at t = O. (f) y 3.320t + 1600.320.JTO/2. (f) y = .[3t2+ 5t + C. Then v = . (d) Y == ~X2 + 7x + C.1. Since the initial speed is 100.25t . Thus s :::: 16t2 . (p) Y ::::f6x2 ::::("rz/2) t2 + 50t + C.32t + C. Thus s = . Thus s = 50 when t = 0 and so C = 50.3x + C. As in No. v = 32t + C.32t + C.the positive direction at t = O. (b) y:::: 5x + C. (h) Y ::::25x2. S == 200 and so C = 200.a.(12/2) t2 + C. a :::: 5. At the instant of release. a speed of 50 is imparted in the negative direction.320t + C. Then s = 16t2 + C. and s = 16t2 + 1000. Hence v = 0 at t :::: .3/2)t2 + 500. 1 thus t = . (g) (g) y = 50x. (k) s :::: 0t . (0) y ::::. Then a = 0 and v = = C. (n) s :::: 1. 2. Then s = 16t2 . The balloon is stationary and the object is dropped. SECTION 2 1. (d) v == . the object 3 is 50 feet in the positive direction (t. v = 32t + Co Since at t :::: . Then C = 100 and v :::: 2t 1 3 + 100. Distance is measured upwards. There is no acceleration.50 and s :::: 16t rection. Then C ::::1000. Measuring t from the instant of release.{x2 + C. Thus C = 0 and v = S == 32t.6t + C.3/2)t2 + C. When the object reaches ground. C = 0 and s :::: 6t2 0 0 1 + lOOt. Since s = 0 at 3 t = 10.(5.32t and s :::: 16t2 + C. Then v :::: 2t .
66. between t = 0 and t r= T is (0 + 32T)/2 := 16T. the distance fallen in time T is s == 16T2.v = vo. Hence C = (5/2)vo + 100 and s = 16t2 + vot . But v = when t = 1.BOt + C. If we measure time from the instant the brakes are applied then v = 66 when t= and C = 66. thus s = 16t2• For the second drop. When the plane stops. This occurs when t = 49. Then v = 4f3 t + C. Thus s = . Then v = 32t + vo . At t = 2 (i. 11. e. 13.22 . Hence C = . 14.a and a positive and obtain the same result. Denote the unknown acceleration by a. If we measure s from the point at which the brakes are applied then s = when t= and C = 0. Then f 16(12. v = 32t + C.. This problem 100 Yes. At t = 1. Hence C = 16. Then s = 16t2 . 45 miles per hour is 66 ft/sec. We measure time from the instant the first body is dropped.5 ft.5 the two distances fallen must be equal. This yields a = 20. hence the deceleration is 20.000 nn /hr". Now s = 16t .5)80{12. a = %.22 . thus t = 100/a. For the first drop we have v = and s = at t = 0. At t = 5/2.5) = 16(12. s = O.66t I. The second body is projected downward with some initial velocity Vo at t := 5/2. Since the body is dropped the time to fall 100 feet is given by 100 = 16t2 or t = 5/2. With this mean or average velocity the distance traveled in T seconds is 16T· T and this is the same result.5 sec.80. Now when t = 12. At t := 5/2.32 and so 2 v = 32t . v = 0.C. Integrating gives s = l6t2 + vot . We could start with . Thus v =%t I. Hence Vo = 32(5/2) + C or C := Vo . 1 second after the second drop is released) we have 16.5)2 + vo(12. We have for it a := 32. v :=:: at + 100 and s = % at" + lOOt.% t2 + 66t. Now taking the positive direction of distance to be that in which the train is running. The train runs until v = 0.000. By Exercise ° ° ° °° ° .32.5)(5/2)vo+l00.32·2 + 16) = 48 ft. 12.(16. V. Then s =_%t2 I. hence v = 32t := C. The mean velocity.32t + 16. At this time s = l/a.80. 9. Measuring t and s from the time and point when the plane touches ground.32t + C.9 is a rewording of exercise 1. s = O. hence we obtain the equation l/a = V2 a(1 00/ a)2 + 100 (1 DO/a) for a.SOt (5/2)vo + 100. Hence Vo = 90 ft/sec. 1. If we substitute this value of t in the expression for s we obtain s = 1633.
The wheel comes to rest when w = 0 and t = . Hence 100 = 600a or .21T/ a.0' = % rt /sec". Since == 0 when t = 0 then C = O. The wheel stops when t = 21T/a and ()= 10· 21T. Then a = 21T rad/sec2 and at t = 5. e = 21T' 5 = 101T rad/sec. (b) From = RB we have = RiJ = Ro. Then v = % t and () . W == at + C. Now w == B. Here when t = 5. = a. (a) Since s = RG. v = = 1· at. If we measure () from the instant when the friction applies (t = 0) then C == 0 and () = (a/2)t2 + 21Tt. () = 12. At t == 0. Then B = at and () = (a/2)t2 + C. W = 21T. v = % ft/sec and ()= % rad/sec. () = 3600· 21T radians. ~ : tOO ft/sec. (e) w = a. Hence iJ = at. Hence an equation for a is 10· 21T = 1/2 a(.. = at and ()= (Q1/2)t2. (d) As in part (c).5(21T). Let e be measured from the position of the object at t = O. At t = 15. Then 72001T = (a/2)(120)2 or a = 1Tr ad Zsec".Ya t. Then B = at + C. (f) W= a. (e) &. Hence ()= V2 at2 + 21Tt + C. For t = 10 min = 600 sec.21T/ a) or a = 1T /10. Then B = 0 when t = 0 and () = (a/2)t2• When t = 120 sec. s = Re. s s e e Re .10 15. hence W = at + 21T.21T/ a)2 + 21T(.
Then v :::: 5. 8 except that g > 32. As in the derivation of (2 5) and (27) v s= .3/2)t2 0 + 96t + C. Hence C:::::: 360. .. the ground. We obtain t == 4 and 8. Hence the object has just returned to the ground. If s is measured from the ground up.16t2• When t:::::: 20. Hence s = 16t2 + 360t . Follow the derivation of (27) except that Vo replaces 128 and g replaces 32. v:::::: 96. Note that this is the same as the initial velocity but of opposite sign.32t + 96 and s = 16t2 + 96t.3 if we take the upward direction as positive. Then v = 32t 2 + 460.3t + C and since v::::96 when t :::: . v > . hence at t == 9. v =32 and so v =32t + C.5. 9. 7. Thus at t = 5 this height is 240 ft. v :::::: 300.5). But at t:::: 9. the object is headed downward. i. Then v :::::: 32t + 360 and s == 16t2 + 360t + C. v = 144 ft/sec. s == 15. 11. 5. Formula (27) gives the height above ground. At this value of t.3 sec approx. at t = 5. Hence C:::::: 460. v = 200. the two avalues are 16t equal. 3.1400 :::::: 16(t . s = 0 when t = 5. s r= . 2 . 320 10. 6.625 ft. If we substitute this value of t in either formula for s we obtain 606 ft approx. At t:::: 5. If s is measured from the surface then s == 0 when t = O. When the stone reaches the ground s :::::: O. Then C :::::: 1400. When the two objects meet. For the second objeet.3t + 96. Here a > V :::::: 5. hence the distance traveled is the maximum hei9ht plu~ the distance traveled downward after reaching the max~mum he~ght or 272 ft (compare figure 33).e. s:::::: Then C = 1900 and s 5 O.16t + 1000t. The object is at a height of 512 ft both on its ascent and on its descent. Thus s » vot .32t + 1000. By following the derivation of (27)except that 96 replaces 128 we have v == .1 sec.1900.32t. O. At t:::::: .5)2 + 200(t . 4. Hence C :::: and S:::::: .(5. v == S = 144 .5 ft. Maximum height occurs when v == 0.32 and and so v==32t + C. at t = lUO%2 and at this value of t. At t = 6.3/2)t2 + 96t. Then s = . SECTION 3 1. Now s =16t + 460t + C. Follow the der ivation of (27) except that 160 r eplac es 128. V:::::: . However. Then t:::: 7.(5. Hence t:::::: and t:::::: The value t = 6 is the value at which the stone hits 0 6.16t2 + 200t. At the maximum height v:::::: or t = 96/5.11 CHAPTER 3. Let s == 512 and solve for t. s :::::: Hence vo:::::: ft/sec. Here at t == 5. For the first object if we follow the derivation of (27) except that 200 replaces 128 we have s::::. Use the result of Ex. 8. :::::: 2 + 460t . This is the number of seconds after the first object is thrown up. s = 869. s = O.3 0 0 = 18.
32t + 176.6t2 + 20t. a = 32. (b) When the ball reaches the ground s = O. s = 352 ft.000ft is to be the maximum height. If distance is measured from the point where deceleration begins then s = 0 when t = 0 and C = O. For this value of s. We found in the text that it takes 4 seconds for the ball to reach maximum height. Then s = _1~t2 + 88t. t = 7. We have 'Ii = 12 and v = 12t + Cp Let us measure t from the instant the deceleration begins. If time is measured from the instant the fuel is exhausted. Hence it takes 4 seconds to go from maximum height to the ground. 17. v = 176 when t = O. v .16(V/32)2 + V(V132) = V2/64. From (29)we have 0 = 16t2 + 128t or t = B. 14. 19. Then C = 112. If height is measured from the ground and since t is already measured from the instant the ball is thrown up. Thus C = 52800 and s = 16t2 + 176t + 52800. 13. v = 32t + C. When the object comes to rest. s = 16t2+ Vt. Thus the total distance traveled is 25 + 20tl + 504 and this equals 400 ft. Then t = 8 and for this t. 180 (a) v = . Then s = . Then s = .6(%)2+ 20(%) = 5%. Then s = 16t2 + 96t. 20. As in the derivation of (25) and (27) except that V replaces 128 we obtain v =32t + V. the additional distance covered is 81 = 20tl. a = 'Ii = 11. After the fuel is exhausted. If we measure s from the first station s = 0 when t = 0 and so s = 4t2. when s = 0.32t + 96. 15. Then v = 8t and s = 4t2 + C. t = 7. Then s = 16t2 + 176t + C. Then v = 11t + C. The other root t = 1 has no physical significance here. There v = 0 so that t = vo/32. This Exercise is just a rewording of Exercise 12. Then when t = 0. When it reaches the ground s = O. Then tl = 21%2'The total time traveled is % + 21%2 51s = 22%2 sec.12 12. Thus v =12t + 20 and s =6t2 + 20t + c. Since s = 16t2 + 96t + 112. If the distance is measured from the ground then s = 52BOO when t = O. Hence Vo= BOliO ft/sec. As in the derivation of (25) and (ZJ) except that Voreplaces 128 we have v = 32t + Voand s = 16t2 + vot. The height of 1. S is to be 1000. Hence 1000 = 16(vo/32)2 + vo(vo/32). v = O. At the maximum height v = 0 and t = V/32. Then v = l1t + 88 and s = _1l~t2 + 8Bt + C. At this value of t. s = 112 when t = O. We start with = a so that v = at + C. During the second portion of the trip which lasts for some unknown time tl. If we measure this s from the point where the deceleration begins then s = 0 when t = 0 and so C = O. (b) When the ball reaches the ground s = 112. If t is measured from the instant deceleration begins then v = 88 when t = 0 and so C = 88. (a) We follow the derivation of (25) and (27) except that 96 replaces 128 and height is measured from the roof. Then s = 16t2 + 96t + C. + 16. Since the train starts from rest v = 0 when t = 0 so that C = O. v = 20 and C = 20. The deceleration stage of the trip is best treated separately. When v = 20. The train comes to rest when v = 0 and so t = % and s = . t = % and s = 25. Then C = 176 and v = .
000)2 or about 24 miles. 24.32t + 1500. C == 184 and v == 32t + 184. 4. then C == At t == x = 25% 0. v==20 and so C=20.304. v = Vowhen t == O. After braking v = a and v =:= at + C. When 32 t=O. For the second part of the trip. a =32. s = 0 when t = 0 and so s = ato/2 + vot. 0 0 0 In this time the distance traveled is 193. 25. IfJw. a = r and v = rt + C. 27. Here a = .3 sec appr ox. (a) a == 32 and so v == 32t + C. If we measure height from the ground then s == 10000 when t == 0 and so s == 16t2 + 1500t + 10000. When the bomb reaches the ground s =:. (after the first body is dropped).20t.2gso.000)2 + (10.gt2/2. s == 2 + 300. If time is measured from the instant of braking v == when t = 0 and so v ==5t + 44. When the trip ends v == or rt + (f + r)tl == O. gms.1(120. approx. When the car stops v == and t =:. For the first body.Jvg .(ti /2)(f + r). If we solve for t we obtain about 100 sec. namely. If time is measured from the instant the brakes are applied.000 ft. 22. The numerical values of v are the same. If distance is measured from the point where the brakes are applied. For this second body s == 16t when t = 2 and so C = 304.13 21. Now t is specified so that 0 tl == rt/(t + r) . if time is measured from the instant it is dropped and distance from the ground up. Hence its distance from the bomb will be given by the Pythagorean theorem.5t2/2 + 44t. that is. v =32t + C and since v == 120 when t = 2. x = 9t . Suppose the first part of the trip lasts t1 seconds. For this t either formula for s gives 126 ft. 26. (vo But v= Vo. Hence C == 1500 and v == . Then s == 2 + 184t .e select any value So of s and solve for t we obtain t == ± ". When t == s == tv ft~/2. v == 32t. During the first part of the a == f.2gso)/g. If we substitute the two values of t in the formula for v we obtain v = ± . Then 5 == 2 + 184t + C. During the one second of reaction time the car travels Vo T.304. Then s =5t2/2 + 44t + C. We can use the general result of Exercise 8. Then when t == v == and so C = (f + r)tl. When t == 0 (the instant the bomb is released) v = 1500. 28. Then t = 3. Then v = at + Voand s = aF/2 + vot + C. away horizontally from the point at which the bomb is released and 10.gt. The car stops when v = 0 or t = vola. If s is measured from the balloon then at t == s == and C = O.O.32. Then for this t. Hence 16t2 + 300 == 2 + 184t 16t .000 ft above the ground.5 and v == 5t + C.vg. Then s == 16t2 + 1500t + c. s = .(t3/6) + C and since x == when t = 0. s = vot . When t = 6.6 ft. Then v = rt + (f + r)tl tv ftl and s == rta/2 + (f + r)tl t + C. When the two 16t bodies meet their avalues are equal. 23. s == 16t 456 ft. a = . Then v==32t20 and s=16t220t+C.441s. == 2 . Then C == . . Take the downward direction as positive. (b) Mter 100 sec the bomber will be 120. Note that ° ° ° . a == so that v = 32t + C.(a/2) (vo/a)2 + vo(vo/a) = v~/2a. For the 16t second body. Then s 0. v == and s == ft ft2/2 if time is measured from the beginning of the trip and distance likewise. If 44 distance is measured from the point at which the brakes are applied then s == when t == and s = . If we substitute this value of tl in the expr esston for s we obtain s > [fr/(f + r)Jt2/2.
At x = 2. At x r= 0. However y = _x2 in the interval from _00 to 0 isa better example. s': 16. f' (~) ch~nges from negative to positive. Hence there is a relative minimum of O. Hence there 1. (xI). Hence there is a relative maximum of 4. Hence there is a relative maximum there. s' changes from + to . Hence the 0 relative maximum of 16 is also the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum is 7. At x = 0. We see that (x .1)2/3 is positive for every value of x and this is subtracted from 3. However the function may have a relative maximum or minimum where the derivative fails to exist. f~ (x) is negative.2x) (xI)2.y/is as at x = 1 and the relative minimum is again 0.sa relat1.. Hence there are no maxima and minima. y = 12. This is the absolute maximum. s= 2(x l)(x + 1)2 + 2 (x + 1)(x . . Hence at x = 0 there is a relative minimum. As x increases or decreases from the value of 1. Hence x = 1 and x = 1 are possible values. £' (x) = (x/2/xl) + lxI.ve mJ. the behavior of. at x = 1 there is a relative maximum.46 2. At x :::: .= 3x(x 2).nimum there. fl (x) changes from positive to negative. fl (x) is positive and for x slightly more than 1. f' (x) changes from negative to positive. At x = 2. Here y/= . This is the absolute minimum. s' changes from . ft (x) = 1 . (a) The function y = x is an example. At ~ = 2. f~ (x) does change from negative to positive around x = O. hence there is a relative minimum at x ~ 1.to +.to +. At x = 1. Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 16. f' (x) = 4xa• Hence x = 0 is a possible value. s' changes from + to . say 5/4. (i) f(x) = xixI.1). Y = 20. The absolute maxima and minima may occur at the end values 0 and 5.2/3(x . f'(x) actually de a relative maximum: at x = 1 there is a relative maximum. But the function has no real value at x = 2/3.1)2 = 4x(x + l)(x . (j) f (x) = x2. Then y = 3 is a relative maximum. y = 7 and at x = 5. 4.1)1/3~ This y'is never O. say 3/4. Hence there is a relative minimum and its value is 0. Here as x increases. Hence there is a relative maximum at x = l~ At x =1.l/x2. f I (x) = (x2. y continually decreases. (h) f(x) = x + l/x.~or x slightly less than 1. At x = 4. 5. Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 1. Hence x = 3 is a possible relative maximum or minimum. Possible values / / are x = 0 and x = 2. s' changes from + to . At x = 0. 3. y'changes from . (b) '1. Now f' (x) = 0 at x = 2/3. (g) f(x) = x~. (a) v= 2x + 6. At x = 3. At x = 1. The least we can subtract is 0 and this occurs when x = 1.
7.gt and at the maximum height v = 0 so that t = vo/g. namely. 7). 5 (a). SECTION 4 1. By Ex. 9. s = 16t2sin A. . Since sin 15° = . 29. If we consider circles with 0 as highest point (so that the diameters are all vertical line segments from 0 downward) the smallest of these circles which reaches C is the one which first touches it as the circles expand from O. /t 4. The distance OQ that the obJect sl1des 1n time t is OQ = 16(OP/16)sin A. that is. But the argument in Ex. 10. Then sin A = OQ/OP. Yes. 3. Qi1. s = O. .2588 to calculate t. The time for a bead to fall straight down will be least for this circle as compared with larger ones because for anyone circle there is a time value to reach it and the time increases with the diameter (See Ex. The result is approximately 10 sec.Ji1. In this time the object sliding from 0 to Q will reach Q. Suppose Q is not on 1 the circle but R on OP 1 is. Q lies on a circle with OP as diameter. Hence Q = Rand Q lies on the circle. Then sin A = OR/OP. 1. At t = 0. (a) 6. Here if the value of t were calculated very accurately we would get the same 80 ft/sec as in Ex. 2 v = va. We use (35) in which sin A = h/£ and s = t . 7. Then X OPR is A by the use of right triangles. Hence sin 15° = 100/S. t1= £1/4.Ji1 and t2 = _e_. v = Vo .. Bur sin A = OQ/OP. Then C = Vo and v = 32t sinA + Yo' Integrating gives s = 16t sin A + vot + C. If s is the distance the object slides.14 So must be a value actually attained by the object or the values of t and of v will be complex. At any given time t the bead which falls straight down falls some distance OP.use (3~). 4. 7 was not restricted to any specific angle A. The only change over Exercise 2 is that A is 15°. To calculate the velocity we use (34)wherein A =. To attain twice this maximum height we must replace Vo by v'2vo• CHAPTER 3. From the formula s = 16t2 we find that the time to fall the distance OP is tl = /iJP/4. Then £ = 16t2h/£ or t = Q /4vh. Then v = 32tsinA + C. 6(b) below.2588.: 8. 5 (b) both velocities are Svh. Hence s = 16t2 sin A + vot. Now use (35) with s = 386 and A = . Then v = s.gto/2 we find that the maximum height is v~/2g.J41h.2588 and t = 10. 2. 0.30° and t = 5. See Ex. then sin 30° = 100/s or s = 200 ft. Note that the velocity at the bottom is the same if the height from which the object descends is the same. Hence v = 80 ft/sec. In (35) s = 200 and A = 30 Hence 200 ::= 8t2 and t = 5 sec. (b) We use (34) in which sin A is now h/£ and t ~. s = 386. £/4111. 5. The rest is the same as in Exercise 1. (a) By Ex. For the motion along Op' we. Hence Q'. We then use (34) with sin A = . Here sin A = h/~. We use (35) to calculate the time. Since s = vot . . Again from Exercise 8. At t =0. a= 32 sinA. Then t1 2 = £2/£1' (b) By Ex. We start with (33). ••• all lie on the same circle.
AB = 10. Xl 2. 4. (d) JUf. SECTION 2 1. Be = 1125. 3AI.IS CHAPTER 3. locate the midpoint (Xg. Further Yg is the median of the isosceles trapezoid RP1P28 and so is (Yl + y2)/2. AC = 1125. If we use Fig. Formula (1) is unaltered if x2 and and Y2 and Yl are interchanged. 134 and 1:36. 3. Then it must cut the other transversal RS in half and so Xg == [(X2 . The lengths are 134. APPENDIX.J89. Ya) on the line segment P1P2' and draw Ya we find that Yl. . 5. Ya and Y2 are parallel lines and Yg cuts PlP2 in half. (b) .xl)/2] + Xl == (xl + x2)/2.
SECTION 5 1. The given line has slope 1. APPENDIX. (b) 3/4. In each case we have but to find the angle whose tangent is given. 3. CHAPTER 3.). APPENDIX. 3/7 t 2. reciprocals of each The slopes are 6/5. 6. CHAPTER 3. SECTION 4 1. 1. 4/9.. SECTION 3 10 Formula (2) applies in each case: (b) (d) (f) No slope. %. 9. ~21a. Then the inclination is 59° (approx. Hence 153°30' . then the perpendicular line has slope lor inclination 135°. 2. 9j4. The slope of the perpendicular is . . Hence any perpendicular has slope % or 1. 4. If two sides have slopes which are negative other (a) (d) (5135) / (5/J5). 1. The given line has slope 0/. (5+513) / (55/:5). 3. 4/3. (c) 1/2. 4/9.. APPENDIX. The slope of each line is found by using formula (2) and we then find the angle A whose tangent is the slope.1666. Thus only (b) is a right triangle.). 7. By using (2) we find that both lines have a slope of % and so are parallel. %. the triangle is a right triangle. In each case we have but to find the tangent of the given angle. The slope of the first line is 3~ and the slope of the second one is Each slope is the negative reciprocal of the other.~ and the inclination is the angle whose tangent is ~ or the angle whose supplement is 26°30' (approx. The slopes of the sides' are 3/7 f 2. 5.16 CHAPTER 3. 2.
3. By comparison. We find the equation of the line determined by (3. . The slope is 1 and so the equation is y . Then tan B ==3.8) lies on this line we substitute 5 for x and 8 for y. SECTION 7. Use (7) with ffi:l = % and .5). The slopes of the two given lines are % and %. The slope of the first line is A/B and of the second a/b.0 + C = 0. 2. 0 + B . Then the equality of these two slopes gives the result. 1 and use (7). The given line has slope . 5. (b) We substitute 2 for x and 3 for y in y . (c) As in (a).3) does not lie on the line. with y = lUX + b we have the answers. Let 002 == . by (9). (a) The desired line must also have slope 2.0) must lie on Ax. %. then y = %x (b) 2.7).1). SECOND SET 1. In (9) b is 5. (a) (b) CHAPTER 3. The first line has slope 1 and the second. 4. Hence by (8). SECTION 6 Use formula (7) with ffi2 = 4 and m. let 001 = 13/3 and m2 = 1. These slopes are negative reciprocals. have slopes 3 and 2. To show that (5. The two given lines have slopes of % and 10. (a) Use (8).¥s and ffi1::::. Since the given lines. y :=: %x . y =_3/4X. (b). = 3. ill l = 1. + By + C == 0. and () == 105°. CHAPTER 3.17 CHAPTER 3. 3. For (a).2 ::::. Then m =_8/4 and b = 0. 9. 4.6 == 1(5 . Then the desired equation is y + 1 = 1/3(X .6) and (4. The slope is Hence find e for which tan e = Hence e += 146° 20' (approx. and (c) use (8) and merely substitute the given values. Now use (8). The line 3x + y + 7 = 0 has slope . Parallel to the xaxis and 3 units above it. SECTION 7. FmST SET 1. 6. . (b) The desired line must have slope %.1).3.). 1.4). 8. . Then 8 .3).'Ys. The result can be obtained from a figure at once. Hence the desired line is y . Then m = % and b = .3) and the equation is satisfied.%. Then find B. A. y . APPENDIX. 2. As in (a). Since tan 30° = 13/3 and tan 135° = 1. now use (7) with m1:=: 3 and ffiz = 2. Hence the desired line has slope %.3.6 = 1(x . and use (7). Since (0.2 == 1/a(x . (c) Let ffi2 == 2 and ffi1 = 3 and use (7). (a) We solve the given equation for y.7 approx.71t.0. The equation is 5(x not satisfied and so (2'. 5. (d) use (8) or (9). APPENDIX.%. %. 7. APPENDIX.2 = 3(x .
Only in (a) do the three given points lie on one line. Y ::::.. SECTION 8 1. and C ::::. APPENDIX. Hence r is not fixed as we choose different (x. . 2. In each case we use formula (14). B == 1. r must change with x and y if any given x and yare r2. (a) A/B ~ 3/2~ (b) A ~ (1/4)C and B ~ 1/3C~ (e) C ~ O~ 12.18 10. (d) A = O~ (e) B~ O.. substituted in the equation. CHAPTER 3. 4. y and constants. For a fixed curve only x and y can vary.. 11. The equation of a curve (including straight lines)isan equation involving x. Thus for (b). In the equation x2 + y2::::. l Xl ::::. 3. y)'s along the straight line. A::::. A method is given in the problem.. 2..
These values also distinguish the sense of the motion.). Y = 9 has slope . y'= O. 6.9. The value of the slope of the tangent to the curve at any point x is given by 2x. Y '= 8. 3. y' =6. SECTION 3 2. The slope is given by the derivative.4. the slope is 48. 5. SECTION 4 1. S = 16. (al p = 5/2. then increases to zero at the trough. At x = 2.3. At x = 3.4 or at the point (. this is also the slope at x = . 7. 12. At t = 0. The derivative is positive at x = a. Thus (a) s = 8t and at t = 2. 9. At x = 3. (d) O. and then becomes positive. In each case find the slope of the tangent and since m = tan A.== %0' (b) x = 5.6.. (b) 4. 3. (d) 0°. hence y = (1/6)x z . hence y == (l/lO)xz. 11. (b) p = 1. The slope of the tangent at any point x is 3x2• At x = 4. (b) Y = . then find A. For (a) y I = x/50. Thus (a) y l= 2x.6(x + 3) or y = 6x . at t = b.Solutions to Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4. 8. This function does not have the same value for two distinct values of x. the values of y' at x = 0. 1. Then tan A = 6 and A = 80° 32' (approx. Le . at x = 3. 3. (e) 0 The direction of motion is given by the slope or the inclination of the tangent. 13. 14. (a)y'=x. the notion of slope presupposes that we consider whether the line rises or falls as we go from left to right. Since y '= 8x + 16. and '1 are 0. Hence the equation of the tangent is y . At any given x value their tangents are parallel. The two curves are the same except that one is 5 units above the other. 0 • CHAPTER 4. (c) 104°2'. (b) 89° 7'.4. y'= 8 + 16. decreases to zero at the crest. perpendicular to the wall and so direct impact. at maximum point. 10. Thus at this point the object is moving horizontally. y . (b) y=k(yl)Z (C)yf=l~(y/X). Then the inclination is 97°7'. then becomes negative. Since y'= 3x2.64). Thus the tangent thru x = . 4. (c) 2. .2x . Hence the object is moving downward at x = 3.5. that is. (a) y' = 2x. In each case find the derivative at the given value of the independent variable.9 = .
P = 1/3. One would expect that y should be replaced by y in (9). (b) Draw the straight line between the points (xo. 6. 415 = = = 9.4)2 + (y .20 2. latus rectum 4/3. 12. (a) All the yvalues of y = x2 + 6 are 6 units above those of y = x2.1/3).21%5' The roadway lies along y = . latus rectum 8. P = 1/2. with Fig.0). 4. focus {O.25.OOO. Hence the clearance is only 32%5 feet. Then v(x . focus (2. Thus y = (x + 6)2 is obtained from y = X'2 by shifting or translating the latter 6 units to the left. y) be any paint on the parabola. Then the directrix is y = 3. Compare formula (9). we let y::: 3 in y = 1/12x2 and obtain x = 6. P = 2~ (e) Form is x = (1/4p)y2.6. the focus is at (O.4" directrix y = 4.p). 3. p = 3. (c) x = (2/9)y2.xo). 5. directrix x 2.0)2 = Y + 8.x~/4p) and (xo/2. If the axes are chosen so that the origin is at the center (top) of the arch. (a) Form is x = (1/4p)y2~ P = 5~ (b) Form is y = (1/4p)x . 415 ar e p less than those in Fig. latus rectum 16.25) lies on the arch.0)2 + (y . 11. y) are the coordinates of any point on the parabola then . focus (0. 0). (b) Each yvalue of y = 3x2 is 3 times as large as the yvalue of y = x2 for the same xvalue . One would expect that the x and y axes are interchanged in (9). To obtain the equation directly let (x. This line cuts p) the xaxi s at x = xo/2 because y::::0 there. P = 9/8. Then y = 37x2/490. and we solve for x. The width across the entire parabola at the height of the focus is then 12. 4. focus (9/8. Simplifying gives the answer in the text. Then the yvalue of the point on the arch whose x value is 23 is . = . (a) y = (1/16)x2. (a) The tangent line at x = Xo is Y.0)2 Y + 2p. Hence the focus is (0. (b) x (1/8)y2. Then y = (1/4p)x2. latus rectum 9/2~ (d) y = (3/4)x2.12 we see that the yvalues in Fig. whereas the truck needs 10 ft.3) and Since the focus is (0. Then one point on the parabola is x :::: 400 and y = 148. 412. Since the form of the 1 equation is y::: (1/4p)x2. directrix x = 9/8. 4p = 25 and the equation of the arch is y::::x2/25. The righthand wheels of the truck are at x r= 23. 13. Since the point (25.p.0). Then each xvalue is 6 units to the left of the x'value. (c) If we write y = (x + 6)2 as y = X'2 where x' = x + 6 we see that x = x'. 7. substitute 1400 for x and 148 for y to determine p. If we compare Fig. If (x.f(x . 8.(xg/4 = (xo/2p)(x .3). The points on the parabola at the same height are obtained by letting y = p in the equation so that x = ± 2p. the equation of the arch is of the form y =x2/4p. directrix y = 1/3. P 2.. Then the width of the parabola is 4p.3) and the righthand point on the parabola at that height is (x. 10. Choose axes so that the origin is at the lowest point or vertex of the parabola. P = 4. For any parabola of the form y = (1/4p)x2.
423) FP is a ray starting from the focus. If these lines are perpendicular then x/2p >/ = . 1.p = (.xo).x.x~/4p :::: (Xl2p)(x .x~/4p = (2p/xoHx . 15. We solve these last two equations simultaneously for their point of intersection. Thus the midpoint of QT has coordinates (0. In finding the slope of the tangent line to the parabola. 16.x~/4p + 2p) and hence RQ has length 2p.0) which is the vertex.Yo) on the parabola has slope xo/2po The perpendicular from the focus to any tangent line has slope 2p/xo' The equation of the tangent line is y . (a). (b) The normal has slope 2p/xo and passes thru (xo. Then ~e remaining angle at R must also be 90°.21 14. The tangent at any point (xo.2p/xo or Xl = . The point Q has coordinates (0. Thus the equation of the normal is y .Yo= (xo/2p)(x . No.x~/4pL The tangent P is y . . The tangent line at x = Xo is Y. It is better to take the parabola in the position shown here. If we use the fact that Yo= x~/4p we find that y = 0 or the two lines intersect on the xaxis. By the law of reflection onehalf of this sum lies inside the triangle QPR. CHAPTER 4. Suppose (Fig. It then'follows that the coordinates of R are (0.x~/4p = (xo/2p)(x .xo) and the equation of the perpendicular is y . Choose the coordinate system so that the parabola is given by y = (1/4p)X2. We showed merely that the parabola does have the reflection property.4p2/xo' Now solve the first two equations simultaneously and use the relation between Xo and Xl" When solving take the value of X from one equation and substitute in the other. Then p = 15.x~/4p) while T (the intersection of the tangent with the yaxis has coordinates (0. 4. 417 with Fig. All we need to show is that the yvalue of the point of intersection is po 17.xo). The tangent at the vertex is y = 0 or the xaxis. Compare Fig. 3 we find that tan a = 2p/Yl and tan S = 2p/YL' Hence a = S. fi2 = slope of t = 2p/YLi m3 = slope of s = 4PYl/{yi = 4p2). Then fil ~ slope of t ~ 0. Likewise QDP is parallel to the axis. Assume that the coordinate system is as in Exercise 12. Then the sum of the supplement of LD'QF and the supplement of LDPF is 180°.xo)' Similarly the tangent at x = Xl is Y. To do this take the value of x from the second equation and substitute it in the first one.0).). hence y = x2/60..(x~/4p) = (xo/2p)(x .x~/4p). SECTION 5.2p/xo)(x . 3. where R is the intersection of the tangents. Now by using formula 7 of the Appendix to Chap. FrnST SET 2.x~/4p). Let P have coordinates (xo. Then PD is the reflected ray and this is parallel to the xaxts. Thus LDiQF +LDPF = 180°. 412.
w = U. this answer is correct only to the right of the origin. SECONDSET 1.0). There is no derivative at (0. where we now calculate T at x = 60. Since y = x2/240.jx2+4y2. However. 4. The point (60.0). 2. 1. €. we can substitute in the formula for T of Exercise 2. Yes as long as the weight of the roadway per horizontal foot (that is.0). Yes. CHAPTER 4. 3. We can determine C as in the text to be O. To the left the answer is y = 5x3/3Tc because x is negative. Then from Exercise 2. We see that T increases with x and is a maximum at x = ± 60 and a minimum at x = O. 2. not along the curved roadway) is constant. y '= 0 and for x> 0. 5.()/u!O = % tons/ft. T = (wx/2ry). SECTION 6 1. . y I:.15) lies on the parabola. Y = 15.22 CHAPTER 4. We can use (17) but in place of wx we must use 5x2• Then y' = 5x2/Tc and y = (5x3/3To)+C. Or we may say that y' = 5x2/Tc because y' is negative and so obtain y for negative x. Then T = (w/2). No. Then for x < 0. The graph consists of the negative xaxts and the ray which starts at the origin and lies in the first quadrant and makes an angle of 450 with the positive xaxis. (b) T sin e = wx.j(240)2 + 4x2. 3. No because there is no unique slope at (0. (a) Tcas e = To = constant. The equation of the cable is of the form y::: x2/4p. SECTION 5. Tangent exists everywhere except at (0. we have T = 75/5 tons.
Ax}) and (xo.xapproaches o and the entire quantity approaches f' (xo)' Analytically the first quotient is in the form of fly/ ~x (see also Exercise 7) and surely approaches f'(xo}.f(xo ~x AX)] . f (xo + 6. f(x~6x» 5.f(xo) + f(xo) .\x) • and 2~x and this equals 1/ [f(Xo + ~x) 2 Ax . f (xo .Ax) . f(xo)) as .f(xo)]/Ax and this approaches f'(XO). To write the second quotient in the customary form of [f{x + ~x) .x» and the second quotient is the slope of the secant joining (xo .\x.23 4. Then our quotient becomes [f(xo + Ax) .6.f (xo) + f (xo) . f (xo+l. let us first write [f(xo .x can be negative.x approaches 0 through positive or negative values.Ax. Let us use a new Ax which is the negative of the old Ax. We can see geometrically that apart from the factor % the first quotient is the slope of the secant joining (xo.f (xo~~) (xo+l. f (xo» .f (xo» and (xo + x. Both slopes approach the slope of the tangent at (Xo.f(x))/ Ax. Now in the definition of the derivative 6. H we add and subtract f{xo) in the numerator we have f (xo + ~x) . The slope of the chord or secant joining (xo~x. because Ay/AX must have the same limit when t:. even though this Ax is negative.f(xo)]/(AX). .
If we use the suggestion we get 2[£(x+t)f{x)]/t. (b) Y = xlf/4+C.(b) Y= xlf/4+C. Yes and because nxnL is 0 as it should be when y = 1. SECOND SET 1. (g) y = fix) = 2x (h) y = fix) = X2+C. (c) y = 3x2/2+C. ( d) y I = 20 X If. 1 . = 5. Then the answer in the text is obvious. Use the method in the text which leads to (9).24 Solutions to Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5. (b) y' (g) y' = "" 8x7. that ~x{nl) IAI approaches 0 as ~x does would not be possible. 8. 4. (e) y = x6/6+C. Hence 2f'(x). If n were any other kind of number the binomial expansion would contain an infinite number of terms and the statement on line 4 of p. This is the derivative of y = x3 at x = a. (el y = x+C. . The limitation to a positive integral value of n is necessary because after step (8) we use the fact that there are (nl) terms in the brackets. ( e) y' = lOx 9 • (h) y' = (7/2)x6• j 2. 1. Here n = 3. SECTION 2. This is so because when n is a positive integer the binomial expansion in (5) has n+l terms. 3. (f) y = 7x1Vll+C. V = x3• Then dV/dx = 3x2• 2 6. (d) Y = x /2+C. 2 2. SECTION 2. (il y = fix) = 4x3/3+C. We can think of p as Xo and q as ~x. CHAPTER 5. FIRST SET (c) y' 5x If. Hence 3a • 7. 6/3+C.
The root which is approximated depends on which root the choice of Xl is close to. (b) y = 2Xl 2+C. 4.999. 6Y/6X == [1/(xo+6x) . 2 l 2. etc. For the upper half of the £_<lrabola y = 18&. By repeating the method used to derive (15) but with y:::: X2 = % [2Xl + (a/xm. 6. . then a is a better approximation to r than al• 2 CHAPTER 1. dv/ds = 4/18 and as s increases.5)/(3x~ . x2 % [Xl + (5/xl)]. (d) s == 2tl/2+C. y' = 1. The equation of the tangent at al is Y. 10. At x = 4. Then the equation of the ta~~ent is (y8) = l(x4). (n) f' (x) = (5/3) x21 3+3 • 2. s = 3tl 3+C. (j) 5 = (3/2)t(1) s = (1/3)t 2 3. set y = a and solve for x.:0 . The method applies. The variable may be taken on the values .99. dT/af = (2rr/I32) (1/2)tI/2 = (n/412)t1/2• Yes. No. For the lower half of the parabola y = 4xll and y' = _2x1/2. 3. (n ) f (x) == }4/ 3) X 3 2 + 2 x 1 I 2 +C • 3. At x = 4. / (TlJ) f(x) = (3/8)x8 3+(2/5)xs 2+C. y' = 2XI/2. 7. Then x2 =:.7x + 5. y' = 1. the slope decreases from 00 to O.7) 2 3 t (i) s = (5/8) t S 5+ (k) s / (8/3) t 3 2 +C . . As x ~ncreases from 0 to 00. (e) s = (9/S)tSj3+C. 6.7). As x approaches 0./3+c.4) y' = 12/12 = 1.9. For the lower half of the parabola y' = _12112. y = {15/4)x. 7.YI= fl (al)( X~l)' TO obtain the point where the tangent cuts the xaxis. One obtains x2 = (2x~ . At (2. _ 5 we obtain =:. . See the answer to exercise 7. For the upper half of the parabola y = 4Xl/2. No. Then x == a2 == alf(al)/f' (al)' Under proper theoretical conditions. (f) y' "" (1/4)x 'Ii (g) :(' (p/3)~ / ". 40 Repeat the work of Exercise 3 with a replacing 5. the values of l/x2 become arbitrarily large. = = 9. i 9. SECTION 3 2. Then x2 = (l/n)[(n _ l)x1 + (a/xfl)].4). that f(a~) and f"(a) have the same sign and f"(x) does not change s~gn in aI _ <IX _< r.25 CHAPTER 5. y' = }. Let y = f(x). 11. y' = {5/3)t 3 . s = (3/./ (p /3) 1 (5/3)Xh 3. namely. 5.. f' (x) = (5/3) X2! 3. No. (d) (i) (m) (c) (f) (1) y' 5. 5. 12. O. 'I'h'ey' = (18/2) X1/2 = n 2x1/2. dv/ds decreases. %[x1 + (a/xl)]' 8. Hence y' l/x~ for x Q f:. At (2. SECTION = 4 2/ . 8. Repeat the method used to derive (15) but work with y = x" . The equation of the tangent is (y+8) = 1 (x4) . Take al to be an approximation to a root of f(x)=O and let y = f(al). (d) y = (3/5)x5~3+C.1/xo]/6x l/xo (Xo+6X). (f) s = (5/8)ts/s+C. One uses the method used to derive (15) but applied to y = X3 . By repeating the derivation of (15) with a replacing 5 we obtain x.a.
26
Solutions to Chapter 6
CHAPTER 6, SECTION 2
1. (a) Continuous for all x; (b) continuous for all Xj (c) continuous where defined, t.e ., for x s 1; (d) continuous except x = OJ (e) continuous where defined, I.e., for x :;z:: 3j (f) continuous where defined, Le., for x ;:z" 1. 2. No; it jumps from 00 to 1800 as P crosses the maximum point of the curve. 3. Yes, because the slope is at first positive, then 0 at the maximum point, and then negative.
CHAPTER
6, SECTION
3
(d)
1. (b) y' = 2% Xl/3; (f) Y'= 21x2 + 14x;
(i) (1) 3.
4.
5.
6.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
+ (ifO/3)x2/3• s'> {'(x)  g'(x). s= cf'(x). (a) y'= 30x  3x2; for x == 2; Y'=48 it/mile. (e) The slope of the graph is, of course, the value of Y' • (d) Yes. By contrast in the vertical motions discussed in Chap. 3 the graph is not a picture of the motion. The rate of change of the volume of a sphere at any value of the radius is the surface area of the sphere. Since V == % 1Tr3, VI = 41Tr2 and this is the value of the surfacezarea.
Xl/2
r=
s= 4x1I2;
(h) (j)
y' = 20x3 + %x2/3j y' = 3x2  4x  3; y' = 2x1/2 + 2x2/3;
dC/dx = x + 2. 2 P = (xSO)/10. R = xp = x /10 + 8x. dR/dx = (x/5) + 8, 2 dR/dx = 2 12x  6x.g 2 P(x) = x + 4x  x /3  2x  4. dP/dx = x + 2x. dC/dx = 3 + 4x. When x = 50, dC/dx = 203. This is the cost of producing the 51st unit.
CHAPTER
6, SECTION 4
1. (a) Use (31); (b) Use (32); Ans. s= 4x3 + 6x2  2x  2; (c) Use (40); (d) Use (40); Ans. yl= (x2 + 6x + 1)/(x + 3)2; (e) Use (40); (f) Use (40) first, but to differentiate x(x2  1) in the numerator one must use (31); Ans, s= (2x3 + 9x2  3)/(x + 3)2; (g) Use (40); (h) Differentiate the sum and use (40) to differentiate the second term; Ans. Y'== 14x  3/(x  1)2.
27
3. y' = [g (x ) f' (x) f (x) g' (x) ] /g2 (x) • 4. f{x)g{x) x4(2x)+(2x+7)4x3 2X5+8i4+28X3) .. 5. y rx/x2+1). y' = [(x2+1) (l/2)x1 2_ IX(2x) ]/(x2.+1) 2. [(3/2)x3/2.+(1/2)x1/2.]/(X2+1) 2. 6. y' [2x/(x+l)2]1/x1• 7. Just to use the product law y' = (1/2/)X1/2(1/X)  X1/2(_1/x2). This can be simplified to (1/2) (l/x 3 2). 8. C (2500+3x+7x2)/(100+2.5x2) dC/dx I (100+2. 5x2) (3+l4x)  (2500+3x+7x2) (5x) J / (100+2. 5x2) • This can be simplified to (7.5x26100x+300)/(100+2.5x2) 2.
0:: 0:: 0:: 0:: 0:: 0:: 0::
9. Yes. The argument is the same.
10. Starting with the step y:::= == . Xk1 we may apply the result (31). Now Xk x y'== xd(xk1)/dx + Xkl. 1. By the hypothesis of the mathematical induction process y'= x(k:  1)xk2 + Xk1 == kXkl. Since the result holds for n =k on the
assumption that it holds for n = k  1 and since it holds for (, = 1, the result holds for all positive integral n.
11. R xp. By using (31) we have dR/dx x{dp/dx)+p. 12. A C(x)/x. By using (40) we have dA/dx x{dC/dx)C(x»/x~ dC/dx is M. 13. V 2500(1+t)1~ dV/dt 2500/(1+t)2. Clearly dV/dt is greatest when t = O. 14. R xp [640x/(x+9)]40x. dR/dx = [5760/(x+9)2]40. Now dR/dx> 0 when [5760/{x+9)2]40 > O,or 5760 > 40(x+9) 2,or x < 3.
=
0::
0::
=
0::
=
0::
0::
CHAPTER 6, SECTION 5 1. (a) By Theorem 8 we may integrate x2 and multiply the result by 8. (b) Same argument as in (a). Use (37) of Chap. 5 to integrate. and use Theorem 8 and (37) of Chap. 5. (d) Use Theorem 9 and the results of (b) and (c) (e) Using Theorem 9, we may integrate each term separately (f) y'= /4,fX = 2X1/2. Then y == 'Ysx3/2+ C. (g) Integrate each term separately. Ans. y =  %X3  3x2 + 3x + C. (h) First divide through so that y'= x2 + 3. (i ) Fir st divide through so that y' = x 7/Z + 3x3i 2. Ans, y = % x9/2 + % Xs/2 + C. {j) Since a, band c are constants we may use Theorem 9. (k) Use Theorem 9 and integrate each term separately. Ans. y::: %x5  %X3 + %X2 ~ 6x + C.
2. (b) y (e) y (h) y
y = Zl~X513 + C. (c) Write yl as I8fX = ,f8x1/2
Ans,
=
=
=
14x1/2.+C; (x3/3)(21/5)xs/3+c;
t32t2+C.
(c) y (f) y
= =
7x+(8/3)x3+C; (2/3)X3/2+{9/5)X5/3+C;
28
CHAPTER 6~ SECTION 7 1. (a)
(c) (d) (e) Use (52); (b) Use (52), v= %X5I2; We can write y = 2x1 and use (52) or differentiate as a quotient; Write y = x1I2. Then by (52), yl::::: _~X3/2; Write y = (1/V3}x1/2; Write y = XI + 7x2; then yl= x2  14x3• One can also differentiate as a quotient. Use (5"3). (b) Use (53). Ans. y = 2Xl/2 + C. y'= xU2; now use (b). (d) y.l= %x2; by (53) y =: %x1 + C. 1/2; then y = (2/v'S)xU2 + C. s= (1/v'a)Xy = (1/4 l x4/_2x1/ 2+C; (c) y = 4x1/ 4+Ci s y = (2/S)x2+C; (fl y = (3/2)xZ2x1+C.
(f)
2. (a) (c) (e)
(b ) (d)
3.
The tangent at any point Xo is y  l/xo = (l/xg)(x  xo). Hence in Figure 68 the coordinates of the points K, P, L are respectively (0, 2/xo), (xo, l/xo), (2xo, 0) from which the result follows at once. S. Using Figure 68, the area cut off is l~OK' OL = 1/2(2/xo)(2xo) = 2 = constant. 6. Since 1==A/41Tr2 = (A/41f)r2, 1'= (A/21f)r3• Now let r = 20 and then r = 200 to obtain the text's answers, When r is very large, a small change in r causes very little change in the value of I because I varies inversely as the square of r or, speaking physically, I is spread out over such a large sphere that per unit area I is very small and changes very little as r changes.
4. 7, dC/dx
When x = 100, dC/dx = 1/201/2000. Yes. Even under efficient production it must cost more to produce additional units of a commodity.
=
(1/2)Xli2(1/2)x3i2.
CHAPTER 6, SECTION 8 1. By (59), W = GmM[(l/r)
2. 3. 4.  (l/rl)] where r is the final distance of the object from the center of the earth. Here r = R. Using (61) the result follows. Use the formula of Exercise 1 with m = 100, R = 4000 x 5280 and r1 == 4500 x 5280. Ans. (22,528' 106)/3 ftpdl. 8,448' 105 ftpdl. It is greater because for paints above the surface the force of gravity is actually less than 32 m. The work done in raising the satellite is numerically the same as the work done by gravity in pulling the satellite down. Hence use the formula in Exercise 1 with ~ = 1000 and r1 = 1500·5280 ft. The result is 18,432.107 ftpdl. By (58), W = GmM/r + C. Since W == 0 when r = R, C =GmM/R and W = GmM/r  GmM/R. Using (61),W =32mR[(R/r) 1]. Measure r downward from the top of the well. Then the force on a length of cable of length r is the force (weight) per unit length times r. Thus F == 32 mr = 64r. Using the relation dW/dr=F derived in the text, we find
5. 6.
29
7. 8. 9. 10.
(since W = 0 for r = 0), W = 32r2. Thus the work to lift the entire cable is 32(200)2= 1,280,000 ftpdl. In addition to the work done in Exercise 6, we must lift 300 lbs a distance of 200 feet. Thus the additional work is 32(300) x 200 ftpdl and so the total work is 3,200,000 ftpdl. a) yes; repeat the derivation of (59) verbatim. b) Repeat the derivation of (59) and Exercise 1 with 32 replaced by 5.3 and R being the radius of the moon. Ans. W = 5.3 mR(l  R/rJ. Use the answer to Exercise 8 with m = 100, r 1 = 500' 5280, and R = 1100·5280. Ans. 96,195.104 ftpdl. Use the result of Exercise 8 with m = 1000, r1 = 1500·5280 and R = 1100· 5280.
dW/dr=wSinA in the text.Thus and W= (w sinAl r+C where r is
11. a) Use the relation dW/dr=F derived
the distance the object is pushed. At r = 0, W = 0, hence C = O. If the length of the plane is denoted by R, we have W = wR sinA. From the figure sin A = h/R, thus W = who A
h
b) Notice that this is the same result as would be obtained if the object were lifted straight up against gravity!
Solutions to Chapter 7
CHAPTER 7, SECTION 3
1. (a)
(b) (c) d) (
ee}
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Let u = XS + 1. Then y = u". Apply (12),! )3() Let u = x2  7x + 6, Then y = u4 and by (12), dy dx = 4(x2  7x + 6 2x  7 , Let u =.tZ5 and ap~ly (12). Then ds/dt "" 8 (t2S) t. Write as (a2_x2)_ and let u = a2_x2. Apply (12). Then dy/dx = 4x(a2x~) 3. Differentiate asa quotient of two functions and in differentiatin~ S2x let u = 52x. Likewise for 5+2x. Ans. lO/(S2x) • Letu=x2+1. Then Y=Ul/3• Apply (12). Let u = x/ex + 1). Then y = u", Ana, dy/dx = 4x3/(x + 1)5, Let u = x2  x. Then y = Ul/2, Apply (12). Fir st differ entiate as a pr oduct so that dy / dx == ";x2  x • 2x 2 + (X2 + 1) d(Ix2  x}/dx. To differentiate IX2  x, let u = x  x and let z = u1l2, Then calculate dz/dx = (dz/du)(du/dx) and substitute the result in the expression for dy/dx. Ans. dy/dx = (6X3  5x2 + 2x  1)/2..fx2  X. Let u x/(1 + x). Then y U1/2. Apply (12). One can write y ='.,)1  x2. Let u = 1  x2. Then y =: Ul/2, Apply (12), Ans. dy/dx = x/J1 X2, Let u = y' . Then y = u2• Then dy/dx = 2y'y".
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2. We are given w as a function of x and are told that x is a function of t. We want dw /dt. Now dw /dt = (dw!dx)(dx!dt). We can calculate dw /dx from the given formula and we have that dx/dt == 100. 3. R = x i2509x = x(2509x) 1/2. dR/dx = (2509x) 1/2 + x(1/2) (2509x)_1/2 (9). 4. (al Differentiate first as a product. y' = (x2+2) 3(1) + (x3)d(x2+2) 3/dx. Now let u = x2+2 and apply (12). Then y' = (x2+2) 3+(x3)3(x2+2) 22x. One can simplify the result to get the text's answer. (b) Let u = (xl)!(x+l) so that y = U1/2• Then by (12) y' = (1/2lu1/2du/dx. To find du/dx use the quotient rule. du/dx = 2/(x+l)2. (c) Let u = 5x2+1. Then by (12) y' = (2/3) (5x2+1) 5/3 (lOx).
5) is 2p/yo. 2.(dy/dx)+x2y(dy/dx)+y2+dy/dx+2 ~ 0. Here dy/dx = 2p/y and at (xo'Yo)' dy/dx = 2p/yo. If we substitute the value of yl in this last equation we get the textls answer.y~/2p. Hence dy/dx = l. 6. 2 4. The latter (Exer. At P. (a) x(dy/dx)+y "" 0.:: and y :.31 CHAPTER 7. 7. In differentiating dy/dx ::::: we must regard y as a function of xlv x and differentiate the right side as a quotient. Now use the pointslope form of the equation of the straight line. (b) 2x+2y(dy/dx) ::::: (c) 6x+4y{dy/dx) == 0. The slope of the normal is the negative reciprocal of the slope of tangent. Hence d2Y/dx2 = (yxyl)/y2. If we set y=O in the answer to Exercise 5 and solve for x we obtain x:::: xo . hence dy/dx ~ (2xy)/(x+2yt (e) 3y2. 0.:: Then dy/dx = 4/y. Cd) 2x+x(dy/dx)+y+2y(dy/dx) = 0. x :.:: On the lower half of the circle we must take O. To obtain the xintercept.:: 4. Hence the equation of the normal is y _ y ::::. SECTION 4 1. 3. 0 .(Yo/2p)(x . 2y(dy/dx) :.Xo). set y == 0 and solve for x.:: !25xz.:: 8. 5. But Y5 ::::Apxo' y :. (f) 2y{dy/dx) :. 2x+2y(dy/dx) :. 4.
2a =.a2 = b2. Then 2y:::: 2b2/a . Now use (37)./2. Since c2 . 7. 5.c2.y) on 2. Since c ::::. b:::: V60. that the two slopes are 3.a2)(b2/a2).b2. By comparison with (27) we C both sides by BO so that x2/10 + y2/B ::::1. Since c2::: a2 + b2. see that a:::: 4 and b:= 3. y2:::: (a2 . so that c ::::10. (d) 2a:::: 12 and 2b:= B.a2. 17 . Divide ::::. e:::: f5/5.. c = ill. c = 5. 2/64 + y2/60 = 1. Then (a .c)/(a + c) ::::2%0' Divide numerator and denominator by a. e:::: cia :::: 17/4.c2) (b2/a2) 2. c::::. Now use (37). 6.Jf. all we can conclude is that a may be greater than. (b) 2c = 20.c and the greatest distance is a + c. a ::::.  8. b:::: v'B. Now follow Exercise 1. Since (7. We may use (27). We want twice the yvalue at x ::::c. 13. Take any point (x. (a) By (27) we get the text answer. By (37) at x = C. Slope of AC = y/(x+l).. Slope of BC = y/(xl).. 2a = 12 and 2b = 6. through by 30 we have x2/10  r/B = 1. Ans. (b) Here 2c ::::4 and since b2 ::::a2 . Since a:::: 6 and b:::: M. x2/25b2 + y2/b2 ::::1. SECTION 5 the circle and use the pythagorean theorem. e = 3/15. 12. (c) Use (37).. Now repeat Exercise 11 . By (27) when x ::::c.flO. b:::: 18. Repeat the derivation of (27) but with x and y interchanged. 10.32 CHAPTER 7. Here 2a == 50 and b:::: 25. Then x (b) We have by (27). y2 = (c2 . 11. 16 • We want twice the yvalue at x = c. Since for the hyperbola a2 + b2 = c2 and a < c.. 14. 9. . But y = I~ so the negative reciprocals of each other. b = 6. equal to or less than b. Repeat the derivation of (37) but with x and y interchanged. 2) lies on the curve we may substitute 7 for x and 2 for y and b2:::: 149~5' Hence x2/149 + 25y2/149 ::::1. The least distance is a . (d) 2a = 12 and 2b == 8. cia = If we divide sla. Ifwe compare with (37) we have a = 4 and b::: 3. Since b2 = c2 . a::::..e)/(l + e) = 2%0' Solve for e. = bo/a 4. (a) Use (37). Then (1 .j10. 15 . 1.12 and 2b:::: 2v'1O./a2 . Now use (27). y:::: b2/a.
Hence Y'f ill == ± (2//3')(x . To apply this argument correctly in the present case we should consider the product (5x + 2y .a2y2+ b2xc)/ (a2xy. The line FP has the slope deter mined by (x. From the given equation yl"". 3. Now use the pointslope form of the equation of the straight line.b2x2.Ix2a2 that y' = (b/a)x/v'x2 . (b) The law of reflection for light says that the reflected ray will travel toward F. In the numerator we use the fact that b2x2 + a2y2= a2b2 and in the denominator we use the fact that a2 . The method is the same as in Exercise 2. 2. Hence we apply (7) with rn2 = . using the pointslope form gives Y'f 6v'5= ± (2/5/15)(x + 1). Y= ±ill. 4x/5y. At x = a the slope is infinite. CHAPTER 7. 4. We find from y= (b/a). Here x = . y) and (c. 8x + 10yy'= 0 so that yl= 4x/5y. 5.2y .. At x =. At x = 1.a2 approaches 1 because x is very large compared to a. (a) We shall show that the angle between FP and the tangent equals the angle between F'P and the tangent by using formula (7) of the Appendix to Chap. Y= ± 6/15.4y2. From the given equation we have. Hence. and take the negative of the result. 6.5).. The method is the same as in Exercise 5. Then application of (7) gives for the fir st angle (. 2) is yl= ± (2JD/15). Hence the two angles are equal. SECTION 6 1.aZ.b2 = c2• Then the fraction becomes b2jyc.b2xy).16) and conclude that the equation 25x2. as above.25)(5x . In using formula (7) to get the angle between F'P and the tangent we must remember again that the formula gives the tangent of the angle between the upward directions of the two lines. As x increases the slope decreases and as x becomes infinite the quantity x/vx2 .205x + 18y + 400 == 0 represents the two lines. In using formula (7) we must remember to let m2 be the slope of the line with the larger inclination and that our formula gives the tangent of the angle between the upward directions on the lines.5. At x = 1.b2x/a2y and ffi1 = y/(x + c). 3.a2yc . by differentiating. The tangent line has the slope . This negative is also b2!yc.c).33 18. y'= ±2/f3.b2x/a2y. At x = 5. . The slope (see Exer. 7. Y= ± 6/J5 and yl= 'f (2/5/15). 0) and so y/ (x . This angle is the supplement of the one we are interested in and the tangent of the latter is the negative of the one we find by formula (7). The argument given in connection with (38) rests on the fact that if a product vanishes then one of the factors must vanish. Then the slope approaches b/a which is the slope of the asymptote y =bx/a.5.
The tangent line to the ellipse at (xoYo)may be written as b2xoX+ a2yoy ::::b2xg + a2yg == a2b2. which product is .k) . To make the algebra easier all we need show is that the product of the slopes of the ellipse and hyperbola. 9. The slope of the tangent line at (xo. As k varies from to b2. (c. For k = b by (a2 . Then the slope of the ellipse is . The student could be asked to show that a confocal ellipse and hyperbola can be represented in the form given in Exercise 8.Yo) of a hyperbola is s'= lJ2xola2yo.ay = 0 and bx + ay == O.b2)x2/a2(a2 . Multiplying out. reverting to the usual x and Y.k){b2 . y) to the line is (b2xoX+ a2yoy . which does not restrict A because k is still arbitrary.k).a2 + k) = lor.b2)/ (a2 .o).y2/{k . The points of intersection of ellipse and hyperbola are obtained by solving the two equations simultaneously and they are given by x2 :::a2 (a2 . except that for the hyperbola a2 > k >b2. The slope at any point (xo.k) .k) = 1. That is. which is the xaxts).k)y2 has the value 1 at the points of intersection. Thug the hyperbola becomes X2/(a2 . If we substitute the x2 and y2 of the points of intersection we do obtain 1. Thus if x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1 is the equation of an ellipse and x2/A2 .k) / (a2 .b2 in the numerator and a2(a2Y5)== a2(a2b2 :b2X5) in the denominator. The method is precisely the same as in Exercise 7. 10. If we write A2 = a2 . The equations of the asymptotes are bx . For k between b2 and a2 we have a hyperbola.b2).b2{k .y2/(c2 .ro/2p. ° .Yo== (b2xola2yo)(x . 11.b2) ::::1 or x2/(a2 . a hyperbola confocal with an ellipse can be represented with an a2 and lJ2 which differ from those of the ellipse by the quantity k.c2 and B2::::c2 .a2b2)/v'(b2xo)2 + (a2YoJ2.b2x/a2y and the slope of the hyperbola is x(k .Yo== (2p/yo)(x .xo) or b2xoX. y2::: b2 (k .b2)/y(a2 .xo)' Let y =0 and solve for x.k) + y2/(lJ2 . 13. x2/(a2 . Then the distance from (xo.k. Thus the distance of any point (x.Yo) is s'= 2p/yo' The equation of the tangent line is y .b2). this fraction reduces to b2. The problem assumes that a2> b2. For k > a2 there is no locus. 12. Thus the product under consideration is given by (a2b2 .Yo) to each point of intersection is the same. Then x = Xo. We find the point of inter section of the tangent and the first asymptote and the same for the second. as before) the yaxis. then B2 = c2 .A2 if the two curves have the same toct.y2/B2 = 1 is the equation of a hyperbola we know that b2 = a2 . using c2 = a2 . the locus is 2 there is no locus (though if we multiply through first an ellipse.a2 + k.a2yoy = b2x5 .k) we get y = 0.o).a2y~. For k== a2 there is no locus (or.b2xoc)(a2b2 + b2xoc)/(b4xg + aVo). One need watch only the differences in signs.The foci have coordinates (e . But ro/2p = 2xo.34 a. The equation of the tangent at that point is y .
Set y == 0 in the equation of the normal. Hence write dy/dx = 1/3(23x)1/2(3). Then (48) yields y = 1/2[1+(x/2)]4+C. the fact that b2xg + a2Y5::::: 2lfl. . Hence we write dy/dx = 1/2 {x2+6x)4 (2x+6). Then we have the form (47). Then 2)] ::::: 2/a2) == e2xo' x == Xo . If we do let u = 4+5x'then dy/dx This expression is still = lu(u4)/S = (1/S)uS/2(4/5)u1/2.(b2/a2)xo = xo[1 . Then du/dx = 3. is . Yo) 2yo) and the equation of the tangent is y . Then (48) gives the text's answer.xo)' The length OG is the x. Then apart from the constant factor 4 which can be temporarily ignored. dy/dx = (x2+4)3/2X = 1/2{x2+4)3/22x. If we write dy/dx = (x2+6)52x and let u: x2+6 we have the form (47). Since the slope of the tangent to the ellipse at P which has coordinates (xo. the slope of the normal is a2Yo/b2xo and the equation of the normal is y . (a) Ignore (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) ( k) (1) (m) temporarily the factor 4. The slope of the tangent to the ellipse at P. Ans. Set y ==0 and solve for x. dy/dx = (1+SX)1/2 • Now use the method of (h) to obtain the text's answer.Yo:::::(a2YoIb2xo)(x .(b2/a xo(c 15. is b2xo/a2yo. (x We can write the given dy/dx as dy/dx = 1/2(x2+l)32x. then we need 2x+6 as our du/dx. Now ignore the 1/2 for the moment and we have the form (47). which has coordinates (xo. The 4'5 cancel and the text's answer results. and (48) gives y ::::: 2 + 1)4 + C. We could expand (1+SX)5.Y"'" (1+Sx)6/30+C. Let u = x2+4. ON·OT ==a2yg/i>2 +x5. y = (x2+7x)4+C. Since ON ==xo. dy/dx = (x2 +6x) 5 /lO+C. If we add and use. Then x == a2yg. The second part of the problem calls for the same procedure except that ot is the yintercept of the tangent and OM ==Yo' 7 ~ SECTION 7 CHAPTER 1. Hence write dy/dx = 1/5 (l+Sx)55 and so except for the constant factor 1/5 we have the form (47).Xu). Same as (d) except for the factor 4. Let u = 23x. The length OT is the xintercept of the tangent.intercept of the normal.35 14. Let u = (x2+7x). by (48). But it is easier to let u = l+Sx. Then. Then du/dx = 5. dy/dx = (23x)1/2. . We can write dy/dx = 2(1+x/2) 3(1/2). Yo). Then by (48). Then (48) and the factor 1/2 yield the text's answer. If we let u = X2+~X.(b2xo/a ::::: (b2xo/a2YoHx . In this exercise the choice of u is not obviously helpful and must be regarded as a'trial. Then by (48) y = 2/3 (23x)1/2+C. Let u:::::x2 + 1.b2xo + xo' This is OT. say. Then apart from the constant factor 1/2 we have (47) and (48) gives the text's answer. dy/dx is in the form (47).Yo say. Now let u = 1+x/2. Now except for the constant factor 1/2. Then if u::::: (x2 + 1) we have the form (47) and (48) gives the integral. we a have the result. our dy/dx is in the form (47).
3.32R2 r1 :::. Then the least velocity with which the object should be shot up is given by (65) with R:::. W = k[p2+(C~ )2]1/2_k(p2+C2)1/2. If we expand (2x .X + C. (f) Let u = x2+7x. The arithmetic gives 3200.4000· 5280. 720 we see that W = k/bk/a. The two results seem to differ by %.8000· 5280. Then the integral is in the form (48). SECTION 8 not in the form (47) because each term lacks the factor du/dx ors and so we write dy/dx = (1/2S)u3/2S(4/2S)Ul/2S. yields the text's answer. apart from a constant facto~is in the form (47) and (48) applied to each term. The answer is (1/2' (X2+S)1+C.1)0/8we get 2X4 4x8 + 3x2. Hence C = k'(p2+C2)1/2. By (48). When x = 9. Let u = x2+S. (g) write the given integral as 1/2 f(x2+2x)2(2x+2)dx and let u = (x2+2x). The answer a s (3/2) (x2+2x1+C.1)8 we get 8xs . 4. From Fig. (d) write the given integral as (3/2)'{<X2+S. Then v' =u(du/dx) and we have the form (47). (c) write the given integral as (X2+S)2X dx and apply the method of (b). That is. (h) write the given integral as (3/2) I(x +2X)2(2x+2)dx and use (48)with u = x + 2x. the two solutions differ seemingly by 1/8 but the constant of integration can always be adjusted to take into account any constant. y = (u2/2)+ C = {[g(x)]2/2} + C. Now each term. Now x varies from 0 to ~. If we use the fact that f(x) = g'(x) then y' = g(x)g'(x). Then dW/dx = k[p2+(CX)2]3/2(CX). But the constant of integration in the second case can be taken to be 1/8 + C' where C" is some new constant. Then dW/dx = (k/2)u3/2du/dx. (e) Let u = x3+ x2• Then the integral is in the form (48). By (48) the answer is (1/2) (x2+2x)l+C. The answer is (3/2) (x2+5 l+C. By (47) W = kU1/2+C = k[p2+(CX)2]1/2+C. As the text points out. and R = 4000' 5280. (a) Let u = x2+S. because the constant of integration is an arbitrary value. CHAPTER 7. The answer is 2 (x2+7x)1/2+C.1 and if we integrate we get 2X4 4x8 + 3x2. Let q = p2+ (CX)2.22X dx and proceed as in (cl.J66 ft/sec. 2. The rest is just arithmetic to get the text's answer. .X + % + C for the integral. if we shoot an object up from the surface with the velocity acquired in falling to the surface it will arrive at height r 1 (above the center of the earth) with 0 velocity. GM:::. S. Formula (65) gives the velocity acquired in falling from rest or zero velocity and from the height r 1 above the center of the earth to the surface.12x2+ 6x . Then we have the form (48) and the answer is (1/2) (x2+S)3/3 = (1/6)(x2+S) 3+C. When x = 0. W = O. Using the suggestion in the text we get dW/dx = k(cX)/[p2+(CX)2]3h. Then we have the form (48). 2.  L We have but to apply (65) in which r1 = 5000' 5280. . Now let u = g(x).36 On the other hand if we expand (2x . such as the % here. Then du/dx = g'(x). GM:::. (b) Write the given integral as (1/2)f(x2+S) 22x dx. Then du/dx = 2(cx).32R2.
The initial velocity must be such that it supplies the loss in v which is due to gravity and still leave a velocity of 1000 at the height of 8000 miles from the center. In Exercise 3 we calculated the velocity required to send an object 4000 miles up if the acceleration of gravity were 32 ft/sec2 all the way. This value is larger than the value in Exercise 2. However GM/r . we seek Vo =+. Then v~/2 = GM/2R or v~ = 32R in view of (58). 5~ According to (68) the escape velocity is 8v'R.2GM!r l' the minus entering because a downward v should be negative.37 3. Or we can use the technique ot this chapter to argue that v =32 and. 4.32r + 16R. 10. For the particle which falls under the true acceleration of gravity. 6. We seek the value of v when r = O. If we measure r from the surface of the earth (which we may do in this problem as opposed to the use of (59)) then w hat we want is that v should be 0 when r = 4000' 5280.. To obtain the velocity acquired by a particle falling from rest with the acceleration of 32 ft/sec2 we may use the reasoning of Exercise 3 which leads to v2/2 =. the vevelocity on reaching the earth's surface is given by (65)where r1 = 2R. since R = 4000·5280.J(15/324)(2GM!R). Again use (65) with Vo = 5280 and R = 4000·5280 and solve for rl• The answer is about 84 miles. This is 6400/33ft/sec. by (61). Then C = 32(4000·5280) and v2/2 = 321' + 32(4000·5280).This is the value of 8. See for example Exercise 12 there. Section 3.32r + C. The calculation yields 26. We could solve this problem by the methods of Chapter 3.000. as it should to produce a larger v. 12. and R = 4000·5280 and solve for rl" The answer is 320 miles approximately..J(2GM!81)(15!4R) . The object will certainly never return.32 is larger than the true acceleration of gravity and so more initial velocity is required to have the object reach a height of 4000 miles. That is. as it should be. R = 4000·5280 and r1 = 8000·5280. Now M = . In the theory of the section we have but to let M stand for the mass of the moon and R stand for the radius of the moon. Hence the two velocities are equal.GM/r1 + V2/2. When the object reaches the surface r = 0 and v~= 32R. v(dv/dr) =32 so that v2/2 =32r + C. In view of the answer to Exercise 11.. 8. Then y2/2= GM/r1 + C or v2/2 = GM/r . Use (65) with Vo = 10. There we obtained 6400133.GM/r1 is positive because r < r1• Then the value of this difference adds to V2. The velocity of 1000 it/sec.. In mathematical terms lim GM/rl > O. Since in the determination of Conly y2 enters we cannot be sure that the signs are correct.2GM!r1 where V = 1000. Now v = 0 when r = R/2 so that C = 16R and v2/2 = . When r = R we obtain v = . Then Vo = . We may use the result (63) but must now determine C by the condition that at r = rv v = Y. Hence the velocity we seek is really the opposite sign from that calculated in the latter part of Exercise 6.vV2+ 2GM!R . r_ l oo 11.fR. is in the upward (positive) direction.016 ft/sec. The problem assumes the body has a velocity V in the downward direction. 7. 9.Jy2 + 2GM!R . we can use (67) if we let M = M/81 and R be 4R/15. because the acceleration of .
(a) The given differential equation in the Suggestion replaces (59) and the reason is that two accelerations both in the direction of negative r act on the object and so the accelerations add..106 mi. To calculate Vowe use the fact that S := 330. and integrate with respect to r. 15.. 18. on the accuracy to which the calculations are carried. We can use (68).38 13...99 times the more accurate value than the 7 mi/sec. We can see by looking at the value of Vo in Exercise 12. 5280). Then v~ = 2G(M/81){15/4R) ~G (M/81)(1/ 6R)..j59/60. since .93 mi/sec. The precise answer depends.000M and d = 93.. Then v2/2 = GM/r + GS/ (r + d) + C. 17. The equation involving rs says that the earth's gravitational attraction on the mass m just equals the moon's gravitational attraction of the mass m. From the data of Exercise (12) we know that M = M/81 and R = 4R/15. the result is about = 6.. and R still refer to the mass and radius of the earth. The object must be shot up from the moon to just reach the point which is 6R from the moon's surface. 6. R being the radius of the earth.j2GM/R = 7. The arithmetic gives.000.j2GM/R.2GM/54R = (2GM/R)(1 . Then C = (v~/2). . the radius of the moon. The result in the text. of course. We use (65) with M = M/8! and R = 4R/15 and r1 = 6R. We use (65) with r1 = (240. is .. This latter velocity is also the velocity with which the object must be shot up from the surface of the earth to just reach r r(b) As in the derivation of (67) we use (1) above in which r = Rand r 1 becomes infinite. The result is 1.000M/(R + 93· 106)].000/[1 + (93' 106/R)]} = (2GM/R)(15. as justified in (61).49 mi/sec approximately.50 mi/sec approx.88 mi/sec.21. Or v~ = (2GM /R) (15/432 . This gives the value of C so that (1) v2/2 = GM(l/r .99(6.3 mi/sec. that the value here will be slightly less than the value there. Since 8. We use (65) so that v~ = 2GM/R .. Hence Vo= .000){5280) and R = (4000){5280)to calculate vo' The arithmetic yields 8. To integrate we replace d2r/dt2 by v(dv/dr). This is the velocity acquired in falling from rest at the distance r 1 from the surface of the earth to the distance r from the surface. We want v to be when r = r1. namely. Then. the mass of the moon. Hence we must now calculate the velocity required to shoot an object up from the surface of the earth to just reach the point r1 = 54R.40 mi/sec.1/ (r 1 + d)]. Then (65) reads: vg/2 = (GM/81){15/4R) . as noted in the text. Vo= 27.j2GM/R = .000 mi. or v~ = (2GM/R){1 + 330.j2GM/R. Substituting this value for C in (63) gives the text's answer.J53/54 = 7(. R.115/324 .JR 7 mr/sec.%4)' Then Vo= .JR. Then the escape velocity Vo is given by vg/2 = GM/R + GS/(R + d). Then v2 := (2GM/R) + [2G· 330. Then Vo= 1. 14.86. rs = 54R.2).21(7mi/sec) = 1. 16.93). so that Vo= . and r1 = 240.1/r1) + GS[ 1/ (r + d).. Here we use (65) but with M.%86) = (2GM/R) (. We start with (63) and let v = Vowhen r = R. The velocity acquired on reaching the surface of the earth is obtained by replacing r by R. ° .(GM/81){1/240.99} = 6.038).(GM/R)..
The distance r between them is given by the Pythagorean theorem. Then substituting in dW/dt gives (40/41)2 times the preceding result. r changes during the next second. we have dA/ dt = 211T / dt. Now depending on the accuracy of the calculation one obtains v = 6. dV/ dt = 411"r2dr/dt. then v is in ft/sec. . 5.. At the surface of the earth r = Rand GM/R2 = 32. We may use the text result of Sect. SECTION 9 L Since V = e3. r = . Since V = 41Tr3/3.59)(8/9.1)2= .54R. Then dr/dt = k and r = kt + C. then the acceleration due to the earth's attraction is negative and is GM/r2• The moon's attraction is in the positive direction and when the object is r units from the earth's center it is 60R . When t = 0.t/24) + %. dA/dt = 2sds/dt.jCGM/81\ (60Rx)2(1)dr + C or v2/2 = GM/r + (GM/81)/{60Rr) + C.96 mi/sec. Hence v2/2 = (GM/R) (1+(1/81. r certainly changes from instant to instant and dr /dt may also change from one instant to another.in/min. CHAPTER 7. m = 10. The distance the first ship sails east is 20t. (a) From A = 1TrZ.8 namely dW/dt =(GmM/r2)dr/dt.. Then r = kt + %.9837) .1250t + 625.1). Then dA/dt = 10 sq ft/ min.r units from the moon's center because the distance between centers is 60R. (d) No. These two accelerations act at all distances r from the earth's surface to the moon's surface. 6. First one obtains v2/2 =: (GM/R) (. If one uses GM = 32R2. Then the acceleration due to the moon is G(M/81)/(60R . Since A = S2. Weare given that dV/dt = 1728. 7. We are given that r = h/3 so that V = 1Th3j27.r)2. The suggestion is to assume that dV/ dt = kA. Now de/dt = 0. 4. Then dh/dt = 1296/~ in/min. Then dr/dt = 285/. The volume of a cone is V = ll'r2h/3.05 and thus the text answer. When t = 6.54R. (b) The differential equation of the text can be written as v (dv/dr) = . This yields C = 8GM/9.8GM/9. r = 1/4 so that k = _l. cu.000. where t is measured from noon. Just to compare results write r = (4100/R)R where R = 4000 miles. We now wish to find v when r = R. dr (b) Here r = 5 and dr/dt = 1/2 so that dA/dt = 511" sq ft/sec.39 If r is measured positively in the direction up from the earth's surface toward the moon.[89 ft/sec. We now require that v = 0 at the stagnation point where r = 54R.Also A = 411"r2.I(20t}2 + 252(t. Integration yields v2/2 = CM/T .{W Then r = (. hen dV/dt = (1Th2/9)dh/dt. r = 4100.. Hence the differential equation in the text takes into account the continuing accelerations of the earth and moon. dV/dt := 3e2de/dt. Now let t = 2. Then dr /dt = (1025t .625)/rl/2.I1025t2 . Then dW/dt = 8'106• At the height of 100 miles. because even if dr/dt is constant. 2.GM/r2 + CGM/81)/C60Rr) 2.3 T 3. when h = 6. r = 1/2.. and dr/dt = 25. Let s = 5 and ds/dt = 1. so that v2/2 = GM/r + GM/81{60Rr) .54)).. Thedistance the second ship sails south in t hours is 25(t . (c) No.
[3 x' .2y') and y = (1/. We now use the equations (6) on p. 187. Hence when li == 6. that 2e == 900 and e = 450• Then sine = /2/2 and cos e = 12/2. dh/dt == 40/4911' ft/min . At x = 9 and dx/dt = 2. Then tan 28 ==. Then dr/dt = (dr/dx)(dx/dt) = [(x + 2)/t/x2 + 4x]dx/dt. Xi2 . Substitution in the given equation yields 3X'2 . Since tan (180 . Then dz/dt = .y') and y == (.. Then x = (l/v'5)(x' .J3/2.186 .28 = 60 Then 26 = 120 and e = 60 Then sin e = .yT) and y = (v'272)(Xi + y').4y'2 = 10.J3.r and h is V. (c) The angle of rotation is given by tan 2 e = . Since y2 = 4x. 9. 3.. x == (1/IIO) (X' . Substitution in the given equation yields the text's answer.fS(2 and cos 6 ::::1/2' By (6) of p.z.17). as in (b).j2x. From (6) on p.1/1024 unit/min. B == 2. Then z == (2X)U2 and dz/dt = .4xy + 10 =0.f3y'). SECTION A2 0 • 1. (b) The angle of rotation is given by tan28 = 16/(17 . In this case we may recognize at once or see from the trigonometric tables that 2 e = 600 and so e == 30 Then sin 8 == 1~ and cos e = . 186.2y') and y = (1/15)(2x' + y').. r == Jx2 + 4x. CHAPTER 7. Substitution in the given equation yields 9X'2 + 25y'2 = 225.7y'2 = 10.f3.y') and y = 1/2(X' + .(b). The volume of water at any . Now let x > 32 and dx/dt > 1/2. (a) The distance r from the station is r = Jx y2.. (b) When x is large the length r is nearly horizontal and increases at about the same r ate as x does. (d) Tan2e = 4/(11). 186. From y2 == 2x we have y'= l/y = 1/. Then. y = (1/JI0)(3x' + y'). Substitution in the given equation yields X'2 = O. Then V == 491Th8/432 and dV /dt == 49/1447Th2 dh/dt. (a) We use equations (6) on p. x = (12/2) ~x' . At any value of the water height h and the radius r of the water surface r /h = %2 by similar triangles. Substitution in x2 +4xy + y2 = 16 gives the text answer. This means.3y'). as pointed out in the text. The net change in dV /dt is 10. We substitute these values in 3x2 . x = (12/2) (x' .y2 == 5 yields 3X'2 .J5)(2x' + y').{2/2) (x' + y') . Substitution in the given equation yields the text answer.2 e) :::: tan 26. APPENDIX.f3 and C = 1. dr/dt = 22/ill7 unit/min.s" = 16.y') and y = %(x' + {3 y'). 2 10.186 with e = 45 Then x = (J2/2)(x' .40 8. Ans. tan (180 . (c) If tan e = 3 then sin e = 3/110 and cos = 1/. e 0 • % 0 • 0 • . in 3x (d) As in (b).(1/J8xS)(dx/dt). Yes because the points of the circle have the same position with respect to the new axes that they do with respect to the old.% (2x)s12[d(2x)/~(dx/dt) = .. Then x = (I3x' . In this exercise A = 1. (b) If tan e = 2 then sin e = 2/15 and cos e = 1/15.y') and y= (/2/2)(x' +y'). 2. Think of y' as some new variable z. x = (1//5) (x' . Substitution 2 .:1Tr2h/3. x == %(. This means 28 = 90° and e:::: 45°.28) = v'3 and 180 . (a) To determine the angle of rotation we use (10) on p. Now use (6) on p.3xy .JIO.. Now proceed as in parts (a) and .
take s the terms involving x' and set the coefficient equal to 0. Then 2B = 90° and B = 45°.J2/2)(x' +y').2. The resulting equation is in the text. (e) The method is the same as in (d). Yes. 2. The resulting equation is s" . (h) The method is as in (a). We find that h = 4 and k = 77/4. Likewise if we set the coefficient of y' :::: we find k = 2. The final equation is X'2+ 4y'2 .212. (j) The method is as in (f). and B:::: 45°. (i ) If we replace x by x' + hand y by s' + k we find that we can take k to be 0 and so eliminate the y' term. We find that h = 1 and k = 5.41 (e) Tan 2B :::: . Graph the new equation with respect to the new axes and then put in the (x. y)axes. (c) Use the method of (a).23/4. (g) Tan26 == 14/(25 . SECTION A3 1. This is obvious geometrically because the line would go through the new origin. By (6) of P. CHAPTER 7. We find that h = 1 and k = 3. APPENDIX.axis parallel to the straight line we could put its equation in the form s' = d. we find h = 16.4 and k = 7. (d) If we replace x by x' + hand y by y' + k we can set the coefficient of x' = 0 and find that h::::: 3.11 :::O. We find that h::: 2 and k :::3/4. Now set the sum of the constant terms equal to 0. (a) If we let x y::::: ' + k. x = (. The resulting equation is X'2+ s" = 25. (f) The method is the same as in (e) except that now we first find k to eliminate the s' term and then set the constant equal to 0 to determine h. The resulting equation is y'2::: 8x'. By choosing new axes with origin at any point on the line we can eliminate the constant term. The equations (6) are as in (e) and substitution in the given equation yields the text's answer.6x' = O. this yields k = . We find that h =. The transformed equation is 3X'2+ 4y'2 . The 0 sum of the constant terms in the new equation becomes . (b) The method is the same as in (a). Then 2B:::: 90.2/(1 . The r esulting equatio n is that in the text. substitute in the given equation.0) or 2B == 90° and B == 45°. Substitution in the given equation yields the text's answer. (g) The method is as in (a).25). We find that h =.s" = 24.1).y') and y == (. If we took an x'. Graph as recommended in (a). (f) Tan2B == 1/(0 .186 .29/4 = O. We find that h = 3 and k = . The resulting equation is as in the text. Yes. The equations (6) are as in (e) and substitution in xy = 12 yields X'2. The resulting equation is in the text. Setting the constant term equal to 0 given h = 2.5 and k =: 3.J2/2)(x' . 4. Hence the answer in the text. = x' + hand .
(y . After completing the square the equation becomes (x + 3)2/16. The answers are in the text.225 or 16(x . Now complete the square in each parenthesis and compensate by adding the equivalent term on the right side. These are the x' and y' of the focus. Then the equations for translation are x =x/+3 and y=y'2. This means .42 3.b/2a. Then the coordinates of the vertex in the xysystem are (b/2a.3)2/25 + (y + 6)2/36= 1. since p = 1/4a. a = 6 and b = 6. In each of the parts of Exercise 5. we could follow the method used in Exercise 1 of replacing x by x' + hand y by y' + k to eliminate the x and y terms. (a) Completing the square yields (x . (b) Use the method in (a).l64 .4 and y = s' + 5 the coordinates x and y of the center are (4. According to Exercise 17 on p~64 . (4ac .4)2/80 = 1 and. (a) If we substitute x = x' + hand y = y'+ k in the given equation we find that we can eliminate the x' term by setting its coefficient equal to 0. 4. This gives h = . We note here that the larger number of 25 and 36 is under the y2 term. The given equation can be put in the form (x + 4)2/16.25y'2 = 400 or x'o/25 .. The x' and y' of the center is (0. k = (4ac . The coordinates of the focus with respect to the new axes are (0.0). (c) Use the method of (a).4)2.J8O and the xycenter is (.25(y2+ 6y + 9) = 369 + 256 . is v' = 1/4a.3 and v' = Y + 2 the equation reduces to the standard form. (e) Use the method in (a). (d) The numerical answers in this exercise would be simpler if the constant on the right side were changed to 288. However it is well to teach the method of completing the square which in this exercise and the next one also gives the answers we want more readily. 1/4a). Then if we let x' = x .b2)/4a. 4).equation becomes (x . Hence the x and y of the center are (4. This gives k = ah" + bh + c.8x) .p) or for the equation y' = axf2 at (0.3). Then the x and y of the focus are (b/2a. b = .to x'2/45 . 6.(y .b/2a.(y . Since x' = x . (b) The focus of y = x2/4p is at (O.5). We see that a = 5 and b = 4.5). The translation determined in (a)'is x = x' .b2)/4a). b = 4 and the center is (4. (a) Write the given equation as l6(x2 .y'2/36 = 1. According to Exercise 17 on p.25(y + 3)2= 400..b2 . The coordinates of the vertex of y' = ax? are (0. We see by inspection that if we let x' = X . Thus 16(X2 ax + 16) .25(y2+ 6y) = 369. a = 5. 5.4)2/36. The new equation becomes y' = ax" which is of the form y = x2/4p with a = 1/4p.b2)/4a. Now we can fix k so that the constant term is 0.b2 + 1)/4a). y = y' + (4ac .5)2/25= l. See the introduction to Exercise 5.4 and y' = y + 3 we have 16x'2.(y + 5)2/36 = 1 and the translated equation is x'2/36 .2)2/36 = 1.y'2/80 = 1.0).6.1)/4a. Then the method of (a) leads to (x + 6)2/45. Then a = ill. (4ac . and in view of the value of h.y'2/16 = 1. (c) The directrix of y = x2/4p is Y= po Then for y' = ax'2 the directrix.1/4a). To obtain the equation of this line in the xysystem we have that y = y' + k = (4ac . The.
jI3 and cos 8 = J(1i3 + 3)/2JI3. Hence a = 7. b = 3 and the center is (.13). 163) that the foci are on y' axis. SECTION A4 1. Substitution in the given equation yields 8X'2+ 2y'2 + 8v2x' . To avoid decimals we shall use the formulas on the bottom of P. B = 4.96y .2)2/16 = 1. cos 28 = 3/m.! (% . No further simplification by translation can be obtained. Hence the equations for rotation are the same as in (c). Then sin e = 2//5 and cos 8 = 1/15".J::. . Proceed as in (b). Then a = 6.27 = O.3)/2. Since there is no xyterm we need apply only translation.1412 y' + 21 = O. We obtain just by rotation X'2 .3. 2). Hence a = 5. Tan 28 = %. CHAPTER 7. Completing the square yields (x + 2)2/25 + (y + 3)2. h = .3)2/49 = 1. APPENDIX. This fact is confirmed by the answer in (a). Tan 28 = 6/(5 .9= 1.196x . The equations for rotation are x = (1/15)(x' . We find that cos 28 = 3/5.43 (b) (c) (d) (e) 7. Hence e = 45°.444 = O. Hence 8 = 45°.2)2/16 + (y . Completing the square yields (x . Thus in (a). 1//5)(2x' +y').4AC to each part of Exercise 7 of the preceding list.4 = O. Translation of axes must now be applied to eliminate the linear terms. Also sin e cos 8 =l/ffi. b = 4 and the center is (3. Completing the square yields (x . Substitution uf the equations (6) for rotation yields x':. k = 1. The result of the rotation is 18x'2 . The result of the substitution gives (2 + 11/ill)x'2 + (2 . b = 5 and the center is (3.1. Now translate axes. Proceed as in (b). The equations for rotation are x = (v'2/2)(X'. Now translation of axes gives the text result.189 . Substitution in the given equation gives the final ( result. 3). A = 1 and C = 4.11/ill)y'2 + linear terms.3). Tan2e = 10/(13 . Then B2 .8y'2 . No translation of axes need be applied.3)2/9= 1. We have but to apply B2. Tan28 =4/3. Hence a = 6. The result is in the text.4AC = 0 and the curve is a parabola.1). Tan28 = %.3/2 } .2v'2s'= o. Hence 8 = 45° and we proceed as in (b). We rotate first. Completing the square yields (x + 3)2/36 + (y . the minus entering because 28 is a second quadrant angle. Then sin 8 = Jun .3. The exercise is 49x2+ 16y2.y') and y = (v2/2)(x' + y').2y') and y. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) that (see Exercise 8 on p.3)2/25 + (y . We can determine h to eliminate the xterm and then determine k to eliminate the constant. Tan2e = 2/(1. To avoid decimals use the formulas on the bottom of p.89 . Tan2e =2/(11).18x' + 24y' . Here as in (a) the teet are on the (new) y' axis.5).6). Hence the results in the text. Hence e = 45°. b = 4 and the center is (2.{f5/2 ) + y'2(% + {f.
Ii we now calculate tan e = (m~. The reason is the same as in Exercise 4(a). (b) If we substitute equations (6) in y = mx + b we have x' sin e + y' cos e = m(x' cos e . (b) Replace y and x in y = mx + b by y' + k and x' + h. 5.m~)/(l + m~m~)we obtain tan e = (m. Slope of a line is defined relative to the xaxis.of its distance from the origin. Yes. respectively. the graph consisting of two intersecting straight lines must be classed among the hyperbolas if we are to include all second degree equations among the conic sections. (a) Yes. The equation represents 3.y' Sin e) + b. 6. Then x2 + y2 the ~ X/2 + v". ITwe rotate the x. a degenerate hyperbola. 4. . 8. If we now write this equation in the form y' = m'x' + b' we obtain the slope ill' relative to the new axis . That is. 9.sin e)/(cos (:J + ill2 sin e). (b) Replace x and y by the values given by (6). . The latter (see Exercise 3(a» is not invariant under rotation. because under translation the distance of the point from origin changes.44 2. Under rotation this distance remains the same. cos e .sin e)/(COB + m1 sin e) and e m~ = (m. because for any (x. respectively. (a) Yes. (a) No. m~ = (m. (b) If we have two lines y = m1x + b1 and y = m2x + b2 and rotate axes. cos e . (a) Yes. (a) No.axis the slope must change. Under translation the Xi axis is parallel to the xaxis and so the inclination of the line and therefore its slope remains the same.m1)/(l + m1m2). (b) Replace x and. The angle is a geometric fact about the two lines and so is independent of the choice of axes. The slope of a curve is defined to be the slope of the tangent line. according to Exercise 3(b). y) the expression x2 + y2 represents the square . Then determine the slope in the transformed equation. We find that x2 + y2 = X'2+ s".y by x' + hand y' + k. No. 7.
0.3 . y' = 6x2+8. At x=I.. At x = 1 there is a maximum of 20 and at x = . y' changes from + to . y'is negative and for x > 4. Then y/is o at x = 1 and x = . y' = 0 when x = 1/6.to +. y = 2x36x. hence at x = 1. s' changes from . y' is positive and for x slightly greater than 1. yl is negative.to +. Hence at x = 1/6. y/=O at x=l. y' is negative and for x slightly greate~y' is positive. Hence no relative maxima or minima. and 1 we see that at x = 0. y' is negative and for x slightly greater. say 3/4. y' is positive. I. hence at x = 0 there is a maximum which is O. there is a minimum of 1. Hence no relative maxima or minima. Hence at x = 4. However. y/changesfrom . y' is not 0 for any real values of x. By testing each in turn for a change in s~gn in y' at 0. For x < 1. (a) 6x2 18x 24 = 6(x + 1)(x 4). Here y' = 8 and is never O. At x = 1. Here y/= 3(x + 3)(x . y' = 6x26. Hence there is a minimum whose value is 2. We see that r= 0 at x = 4 and x = 1. say.4x = 4x(x .to +. s' changes from . Hence y has a maximum at x = 1 and the yvalue is 1. y' = 4x34x = 4x(xl) (x+l). y has a relative minimum. (d) y'=2x2x1. y' does not change si1n at x = o.1)(x + 1).1).to + . SECTION 2 1. For x slightly less than 1. (a) y = 163x9x2 . y = x3 . hence there is a minimum whose value is 3. Hence there is a minimum whose value is 2. For x slightly less than 4. y' = 3x2 • y' = 0 when x = O. y' is negative. Substitute x = 1/6 in the function to find the minimum yvalue. At x = 1. yl = 318x. At x = 1. For x slightly less than 1/6. Likewise at x = 1. Y = 2x3+8x+3.Solutions to Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8. (c) The method is the same as in (a). yl is positive. Hence x = 0. Hence y has a relative maximum at x = 1. s': CHAPTER 8. v= 0 when x = 1 and when x = + 1. Hence no relative maxima or minima. y' = 0 when x = +1 and x = 1. there is a minimum which is 1. Y has a minimum of 124. hence there is a maximum whose value is 3. yl is positive and for x slightly greater than 1 . say 5/4. For x slightly less than 1. Hence at x = 1 the function has a relative minimum. s' changes from . SECTION 3 1. (b) The method is the same as in (a). there is (b) (c) (d) (e) ( f) .3 there is a minimum of 12. At x = 1. 1 and 1 are possible values. y = 8x~2. At x = 0. yl changes from + to . r= 4x3 . y = x'+2x +12. (e) r= 6(x 1)(x + 1)/(x2 + 1)2.
(j) f (x) = x2. y'changes from . s' changes from + to .sa relat1. Hence there is a relative maximum there. (g) f(x) = x~. Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 16. Then y = 3 is a relative maximum. At x r= 0. The least we can subtract is 0 and this occurs when x = 1. As x increases or decreases from the value of 1. s' changes from + to . y = 7 and at x = 5. Here y/= . Hence at x = 0 there is a relative minimum. At ~ = 2. Hence there is a relative maximum at x = l~ At x =1.y/is as at x = 1 and the relative minimum is again 0. f'(x) actually de a relative maximum: at x = 1 there is a relative maximum. Hence there 1. At x = 2. This is the absolute minimum. At x = 1.l/x2. At x = 4. Hence there is a relative maximum of 4.. the behavior of. £' (x) = (x/2/xl) + lxI. At x = 0.1). f' (~) ch~nges from negative to positive. s= 2(x l)(x + 1)2 + 2 (x + 1)(x . hence there is a relative minimum at x ~ 1. .to +.2/3(x . At x :::: . At x = 3.1)2/3 is positive for every value of x and this is subtracted from 3. 4. (i) f(x) = xixI. Hence the 0 relative maximum of 16 is also the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum is 7. fl (x) changes from positive to negative. Here as x increases. fl (x) is positive and for x slightly more than 1. (xI). s': 16. Hence there is a relative minimum and its value is 0. Hence there is a relative minimum of O. ft (x) = 1 . (b) '1. (a) The function y = x is an example. at x = 1 there is a relative maximum. say 3/4. However y = _x2 in the interval from _00 to 0 isa better example. (a) v= 2x + 6. Now f' (x) = 0 at x = 2/3. 5. Hence there are no maxima and minima. This is the absolute maximum. The absolute maxima and minima may occur at the end values 0 and 5.~or x slightly less than 1. Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 1. y continually decreases. f~ (x) does change from negative to positive around x = O. However the function may have a relative maximum or minimum where the derivative fails to exist.= 3x(x 2).1)2 = 4x(x + l)(x . f I (x) = (x2. f' (x) changes from negative to positive. Hence x = 3 is a possible relative maximum or minimum. Possible values / / are x = 0 and x = 2. s' changes from . y = 12. At x = 1. Hence x = 1 and x = 1 are possible values.1)1/3~ This y'is never O. Y = 20. (h) f(x) = x + l/x. f' (x) = 4xa• Hence x = 0 is a possible value.nimum there. say 5/4. 3.to +.46 2.2x) (xI)2. But the function has no real value at x = 2/3. At x = 2. We see that (x . f~ (x) is negative. At x = 0. s' changes from + to .ve mJ.
y/~ 12x2 . The example of y = XS at x = shows that y increases there but y~ O. hence a maximum which is 81/16. s" is negative. y~ 12x2 . s= Z/= (h) y'= 3x2 . y"is positive. At x = %. hence a minimum which is 9. hence a maximum which is 12.3)(x + 1).12x2 72x = 12x(x . v'> (_ax2 + as)/(x2 + a)2. y'= 4x3 . hence a minimum which is _1/2. v" is negative. . At x = 1.4aSx)/(x2 + a2 At x = a. ° CHAPTER 1. At x = 1. 0 for x =1. yfliS positive. Hence a minimum which is 4.6. y"is negative. (c) Consider an interval to the left of a point where f(x) has a minimum. There f'(x) is increasing but f(x) is decreasing.4. Hence x = 1 is a maximum for z and this f t maximum is 12. hence a minimum which is 0. No. At x = % y"is negative.1). s" is positive.4x = 2x(2x + l)(x . At x = 0. y"is positive. 11= 36x2 . y11is negative. Hence a minimum which is 1%6' At x = 2. y/lis positive. s= 4xs . hence a minimum Which" is 129. creases. s": 4(x + 1) (x . y""is positive.2)(2x . Hence there is a minimum at x = 2 and y = 12.24x 72.2) + 2 (x + 1)(2x . In fact in an interval to the left of any relative maximum we have another example. y'/is negative. At x = 2.6. Call y~ z and find the maximum value of z. Hence there are possible maxima or minima at x = 1. Hence a minimum occurs at x = 3 and this minimum is 25.2).3)(x + 2). hence a minimum which is O.6x2 . SECTION 4 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 2. There are no real roots. At x = 1.9 = 3(x . v"> 6x . s= 2(x + l)(x .1 + 2(x . (a) 8. y/=O at x=2. y"'=2+32xs• At x=2 y"ispositive. At x = 0.12x . Z/= 6x I.4x = 4x(x . Hence a maximum occurs at x = 1 and this maximum is 7. At x = a. x = % and x = 2. At x = 3.l)(x + 1). s= 12x3 . yltis positive. y"is positive. At x = 1. y11iS positive. hence a minimum which is 9. hence a maximum which is 10.6x .6. At x=:3. y'l= (2ax3 . hence a maximum which is 60. (b) The latter two examples in (a) answer this point. 3x2 + 6x + 9. y'=2x16£3. At x = 0. The possible maxima and minima occur at x = 3 and x = 1.2)(2x 1). z " = 6. Y = 3 (x2 + 2x +3). Hence a maximum which is 1.4. y11is positive. hence a minimum which is 7. At x = 2.
Jx2 + y2 = 10 we have y == 5V2. Let (x. Then x = 2 5 and y =: 50. Since 2s == a + b + c . x = . To save work we can argue that to minimize D is also to minimize 1)2. we have b == c. If the sides have length x and y.p)2 + y2 + .a) + (y ..c) where only c is variable./x2 + y2 = 10. that ts. Let a be the given base and set b == 2s . One finds that y . where A is constant. Hence y == fA. + We wish to minimize D == Jx2 + y2 with xy = A.b)". However the numerator (x .a r= O. However in the first radical we can replace y2 by 4px and obtain D == P + x + ./s(s .JI00 . Hence at t.48 CHAPTER 8.ac. 10. == . Since xy == 864. Then P == 3x + 2y.. Let x and y be the lengths of the sides.4x. 7. Call D2. It:::= a implies x == 5/2. h =: 80 .::o2Y2there is a maximum which is 100. The area A == xhoo .x2. Hence A = 100x . Then y =: 36../(x a)2 + (y . Then h == 1/1Tr2and A = == 21Tr2 2/r.fA give the minimum. 4./(x.x2. The surface area A == 21Tr2 + 21Trh. fi =: 32.. Then dD/dx == 1 + [(x . If x and yare the dimensions of any rectangle p. One could test dD/dx to see that it changes sign at y == b but this step is often omitted in physical problems and would be lengthy in this one. Then the distance in question is D == .. We also have the condition that xy= A where A is constant. dA/dc == 0 implies 2s .b)jj//(x . z. Hence dD/dx::= 1 + (1) == O.b is a factor of the equation and so y =: b is a root. Let the distance from the foot of the altitude to B be denoted by t. Hence z" == 2x .a)2 + (y ~ b)2.. 3.a) /J(x ..aHa + c .1728x2• pI == 0 implies x =: 24.Jh2 + (2a .x2 . Alternatively.::o2x + 2y. We may then use the method of Exercise 7 with 10 replaced by 2. Then p' == 3 .t)2. then . CA = . Now J(x ..a)2 + (y . p'= 0 implies t = a from which CB = CA follows. the diameter is 2. If we substitute b for y in dD/dx we get dD/dx ::= 1 + (x .a)2 == I x . 6. Then from . Set dD/dx =" 0.2A2/x3 and Zl == 0 implies x = fA./(x. Since the rectangles are inscribed in a circle.b)2. 2. p/= 0 implies x = ±lA.2c .a I because the radical sign stands for a positive value. y := 864/x and p!== 3x + 1728/x.t)2 and P = 2a + Jh2 + t2 + Jh2 + (2a . Then z == x2 + y2 and y = A/x. Thus for least perimeter x = fA and y = A/x = fA. Alternatively we can keep x and y and regard y as a function of x. Then A . X == 0 implies the answers in the text. To make D a function of one variable we can use the fact that y2 == 4px and we can replace x by its value in terms of y or y by its value in terms of x. To solve put the term 1 on the other side of the equation and then square both sides. 9. Then A == . we have the square. one knows that y == b should be a value of y at which dD/dx::= O.x2/JlOO . so that z = x2 + A2/x2.s)(s . SECTION 5 1. Then y =: A/x and po::: 2(x + A/x).32t. The result is a square with side f2. y) be any point on the parabola. replace y/by 2p/y and solve for y. 11.2X2 and K= 100 .a)". But 1Tr2h 1.a) is negative because x necessarily lies to the left of a. A = xy and 2x + y = 100. Then CB = ylh2 + t2. 8. 5.
This expression is least when ex is as close to a2 as possible and this is when x is a for x in tit domain .: 300. Hence A::::(100 + x)(50 . D If we eliminate x from D we have D =: .x) =: 5000 . by eliminating y we have D x: "/(X . Since s> 3x2.b2 := c2. However. If we use the test that s' change sign at x := 0 we see that it does not. The dimensions are 50 by 100.x2• Then yf= 0 when x == 1 and x:= +1.1J2 + y2.. The domain of possible values for x is 0::$ x . Since :. aVt} .11~y2 and z ::. Let z =' D2.c)2 + y2. this value of x is larger than a and so lies outside the domain of admissible x.a y/= 0 implies x =b/2a.1)2 + 4x. Then x::: O. The minimum value is 2 and larger than the maximum. 9 and 19 let us work with 1)2 or z.x2'. This does furnish the relative minimum though the testing b zit is lengthy (and can be ignored).l]Y + 2y and Zl:. 0. Since Zll:::. z/::: 0 when x > a2/c. Then z:= (x . The rectangle will have dimensions 100 + x and y. Z == (x . Then A::::(100 + x)y.X2). we calculate dF /dr we see that it is never zero. Since y2 = 4~.with y::::. 17.x.2(b2/a2}x. O.j[(y2/4) . x := 1.<. The assertion is false. However x = 1 does not correspond to 2(x any point on the parabola and so there is no relative minimum for xvalues of points on the parabola. The perimeter of the entire rectangle will be 200 + 2x + 2y :::.::./(x.: 3y2/4 + 1 we see that zt1is positive when y = O.x2).1) + 4. y/= 3X2 + 2bx + 3. As in Exercises minimum. The discriminant of this quadratic is 4t2 . Here D == . y'(fis negative.14. Then 1 b i must be less than 3. Since y'': 2_X"swe see that at x = 1. O.1}2 + 4x and Zl ::. 18. If (x.:: .C)2 + (b2/a2)(a2 . Then dA/dx::::' 502x and there is no positive value of x which maximizes A.a to a. . However z can be put in the form (ex .36 and we wish this to be negative. As noted in Exercise 9 we can minimize 1)2 in place of D.'(x:1""")2::+y"2. Since y2 = (iY'/a2)(a2 . When Z. In this domain the maximum value of A is given by x='O because A decreases as x increases from 0 on.yI~/b and differentiate I)2 we find that the only real root of z is y::::. If we eliminate y from [)2 after writing IY = x2 ~ 2cx + ell + y2 by x ::::. Since a2 .c) . y~is positive and so there is a minimum there. Hence y == 0 furnishes a If 20.$ 50.::. Consider y = x .is also 0 and so we have no text. y/is 0 at x. 16. 15. y) is any point on the parabola then D = . We wish to have no real roots. Then Z/= [(yl'!4) . the value b/2a yields a maximum if a < O. Q when y == O. The domain of x is x ?:: O.50x . Then z'= 2(x . We see from the expression for z that z = (x + 1)2 and the smallest value occurs at x :::: . Hence at x := 1 there is a maximum whose value is O. Then x = 0 and y = 50.50 .11= 2a. y'. At x:::: 1. However because the function is always increasing there is an absolute maximum at x ::::4. For the given function s= 1. 19.a2)2/a2.::. Hence there is no relative maximum.. However there may be an absolute minimum. the function is always increasing. Moreover since y ~s positive to the left and right of x = 0. Since ale> 1..:: [(y2/4) .
50 21. Hence the minimum S occurs at x = 3 or when P is at C.X)2.. Then S = 21x2 + 62 + 3 . Hence at t = 4. If we let AC = x. m. 23.. + (m. If we set dt/dx = 0 and solve for x ..Ja2 + x2 = (d . In Exercise 27 we prove that the time AP + PB is least but as the suggestion points out this also means least distance. 2 2 d s/dt is negative in a < t < 0. dt/dx = x/3J1 + x2 .m2) +. 25.)2 which is less than %. 24.Jb2+ (d . We could test d2t/dx2 to see that x = 3/4 furnishes a minimum. . 1.. If we set this expression equal to 0 and solve for x we obtain x = 3/4.. S.Ja+ x2 + Ib2 + (d ... To minimize I. There t = 4.. x s 1... Since x cannot be larger than 1. The left Side = cos APR and the right side = cos QSB.) + (m . However the man does save time by rowing as much as possible even to reach a point % of a mile from A. because x/ . Hence x/4. Alternatively.x)/. R and the foot of the perpendicular from B to EF.[2 for O:S X :. Then dS/dm = 0. In place of the previous dt/dx we have dt/dx = x/4. implies (m ..1/5. Hence the problem reduces to minimizing AP + QB. this value of x does not furnish a minimum in the domain 0 :. 22. Hence the problem is the same as Exercise 27 with just a different physical interpretation.m. 27. 29.m)" + (m2.. + m2 + .J1 + x2 . + (m ~) = 0 or m = = (m. Hence the diagonal path PB is best. Hence he should certainly save as much time as possible by rowing to B. 28. Then AP + QB = I_ 2 = . 30. Since dS/dx = 2X/Ix2+ 62 . then the time for the trip as t = 11+ x2/3 + (1 . we obtain x = %. Let x denote RP. Find ds/dt and set it equal to 0.X)2.09 C the . Then QS = d . Let PA + PB + PC = S..x.1.X)2.3 and so S decreases as x increases. No matter where the bridge is placed the distance PQ must be covered in any case. Hence we end up with sin a/sin 13 = V/Vl and so Q = 13. +~)/n. There is no relative minimum for P on CD. x :::. It is obvious in this case that using the diagonal saves as much time as possible since he can row as fast as he can walk. specific weight is a maximum. .. Label the foot of the perpendicular from A to CD..x. Then LAPR = Lms and AP and QB are parallel.j1 + x2 < 1/4. then S = (m. There is no relative maximum or minimum.1/5.. we calculate dl.Jb2+ (d . However dS/dx is negative for 0:. let it be d. Denote the sum by S. dS/dx = 0 at x = This value of x does not yield a point on CD.j1 + x2 < 1/.09°Centigrade.(d .x)/5.m)2 +.. This derivative set equal to 0 gives x/. 26.x)/. Hence t decreases and is least when x = 1. Here B lies on the same side of CD as A does and vl = v2. The distance RS is fixed. we can see that dt/dx is negative for 0 :S X :5 1./dx which is x/Ia2 + x2 . The maximum and minimum values occur at the end values x = r and x = r of the permissible xvalues.m)". Follow the method in the text used to derive (16). Let AR be a and let BS be b.
rhe height is immaterial. Mult~ly through by X3/2. we find that it is negative so that x = 7 yields a maximum profit.20x.. x2 = 10. Then if the cost per foot of the side walls and back is d.. When dP/dx = 0. Let x be the number of articles to be produced. dC/dx = 6.. x aX Hence the minimum A is 326. The cost per mile times the miles per hour = cost per hour. Practically one would choose 2 or 3. P = 88. x = 250. Hence dP/dx = dR/dxdC/dx. 2 Hence y = 10.03S. 11. Henee Xl 2 =a/e or x = a2/e2• 8.OOOd/x+3dx. The return to the bank will be R = .000/3. The average cost is A = C/x = lOO/x+~x/100. v = ~ = S ~. If we test d2p/dx2 at x = 7. When dA/dx = 0.07kxkx2. _ 300000x _ 30x f(x) . Then ~ = 2x6 = 0 so that x = 3 for minimum A. S. The dollars D attracted will be D = kx. C = a+clX. When dP/dx = 0. Setting dA/d~/f 0 gives a/x2c~xS/2 = O. The number of barrels of oil produced per well will be lOO3x. 6.OOO+Sx+x2 (in pennies). x = . (b) To maximize the percentage of profit we wish to maximize the return each year divided by the total cost.3+1S or 6. e = 2dy+dx+2dx. Hence the cost per mile or M = c/v = 125/v+(ILIO)v2 Then dM/dv = 125/v2+(2/10)v. Let x be the interest rate offered. dP/dx = (9/2)x+63. dA/dx = a/x2c/2xs/2. Profit = RC and R = Px.000/x and e2= 20. When x = 7. Then A = C/x = a/x+c!lX. Hencewh~n dT/dx = 0. The income is 100x. + 100000x. The interest paid by the bank will be xD = kx2• The profit is P = .51 CHAPTER 8. x = 1 and x = 7. The maximum profit which occurs when x = 14 is (9/4)(14)2+63'143S0 = 92 dollars. FIRST SET 1. x = 2~. Now dC/dx = 3x2l2x+1S.lOx)lOOOSOx = 1000+SOx. Let the dimensions of the floor be x and y. Let x be the number of cards to be printed. 13. 10.000 and x = /20. 3. 3x = 20.07D.50000x2 . P = pxC = 7Sx2x2 . At speed v the miles per hour is v. WhenaMTdv = 0. Hence when dP/dx = 0. using f(x) for the percentage. (a) Suppose the building contains x floors. When dC/dx = 0. 7.lOx2. We find dPjdx and x when dP/dx = 0. Then dP/dx = 3x2+24x21. The profit P after the first year is P = 300000x . When dP/dx = 0.07k2kx. dP/dx = .500000+50000xz+soooOx . Then the number of wells will be 2S+x. 12. = O. When dP/dx = 0.500000 . Then the cost is C = SOOOOO + 100000 + 200000 + .000. 4. P = 20 and this would mean a deficit. At x = 1. P = x(lOO. SECTION 6. A = £ = x26x+1S. Hence P = SSx3x2xs+1Sx276x10 = x3+12x221x10. dP/dx = lOOS2x. Then a/x e = 0 or aexl .14 = 47. 2. with x the front and back lengths. Then.SO+Sx+Sx2 . P = RC. At x = 3. x = 14. The total number of barrels T is T = (25+x)(1003x) = 2500+2Sx3x2.3S0l2x2/4 = (9/4)x2+63x3S0. Then the total cost of x articles is C = 100+x/2+x2/lOO. x = 47~. Hence the profit p = 100xlO. dC/dx = 20.OOO~Sxx2..000 or x = 100.OOOd/x +3d. Then dP/dx = SO. The cost C = lO. x = 25/6. The price at maximum profit is 7S2. Then C = SOOOOO + 100000~1+2+ . 9. But xy = 10. dA/dx = lOO/x2+1/100. At speed v the cost per hour is C = 12S+(1/lO)vs. dT/dx = 2S6x.SOOOOx.+x) or C = SOOOOO + 100000[Z(1+x)1 or C = SOQOOO + SOOOOx + 50000x. dR/dx = dC/dx. When dP/dx = 0. Let x be the number of new wells produced.
Hence P(x) = x(4/S) (103x)3x = 5x(12/5)x2• Then PI(X) = 5(24/5)x and pl(X) = 0 for x = 25/24. The maximum profit is 125/48 and the corresponding price p is 11/2 without sales tax.52 Using the quotient rule gives l500150x2 f 1 (x ) '" (50+5x+5x2)2 Then fl (x) = 0 gives x = IIU. (Of course since 3x = lO(5/4)p. Then dC/dx ~ 1000/x2+2.x). Using the same method as in #15. Hence the demand changes because the price is higher. The corresponding price p is $11. The cost per hour is C = 10+x2/50. Under nc tax P(x) = 10x3x 3x2= 7x3x2. P(x) '"x(lO/ll) (204x) 4x. SECTION 6. Then pI (x) = 76x and x = 7/6. x = 1500. The quantity sold comes from solving p = (10/11)(204x) for x when p = ~ll. for a given price p the demand will be less than under 3x = 10p. CHAPTER 8. The new demand function can be obtained from the old one by replacing p by (5/4)p so that (5/4)p = 103x or p = (4/5) (103x). At x miles per hour the number of hours required to make the 100 mile trip is 100/x. 4.10. R = 100x +lO[(25x)/2]x or R '" lOOx+125x5x2. When dR/dx '" 0. The revenue is still xp where p = 103x. 14. 15. At dC/dx = 0.) The cost function for the producer remains the same. Again practically x would be 3 or 4. . For each $2 in 30x there will be ten more sales. Let x be the sale price. SECOND SET 1. Then dR/dx = 22S10x.x) = xpC = 10x3x25x = 5x3x2• pI (x) = 56x and this is a maximum when x = 5/6 and the price at which the commodity will be sold is p '" 103(5/6) = 15/2. Now the consumer must pay 125% of what he previously paid. Hence the additional sales are 10(30. P I (x) = (200/11)(80/11)x4. 3.95. The solution follows that of exercise 3 except that 5/4 is replaced by 11/10. x '"approximately 2. This exercise and the next one follow the second illustrative example. 2. Then dR/dx = 25010x and when dR/dx = 0. Thus the new demand function is p = (lO/11)(204~ and since C(x) = 4x. x = 25 dollars. pi (x) ~ 0 when x = 1. The revenue will be R = 500x + (10/2) (30x)x or R = 500x+150x5x2 = 250x5x2.50. Hence the cost of the trip is C = 1~0 (10 + ~~) = 10~0 + 2x. 16.lO. The cost function becomes C(x) = 3x+2x. Hence the profit is P. x = $22. Then the reduction in price will be 30x. The price p = 103(7/6) = 13/2.
we take the value of x from the second one and substitute in the first One.9)/(x + 3). yllis negative from A to C. There is no point of inflection. y" = 8/(x + 4)3. There is a relative minimum at x = 1.r3). (b) and (c). positive from C to E. The curve is always concave upward. There is a relative maximum at x = O. There are no inflection points.2x/~"J. yll=2x(x2. Then y goes to a minimum of %6 at x = 1 and increases gradually to y = 1. As x approaches .ntis of inflection at x '" :: 0/1/3 and y approaches 0 as x approaches +co and 00. The zeros are clearly x = a and x = 4. As x approaches . (d) s'= % x2/s. (11) (f) and (g) See (a)./s.r1 . Using the factored form of y we find s" • 2a(3x .4. Hence the inflection point is x = (r 1 + r 2 + r 3) /3. (j) y'= 4/(x + 4)2. Also y" changes sign at x = 0 and x = 4.3)(X2 + 1)/(x2 + 1)4. X :::' v3 and x = [3 (i ) yl= (9x . Then JJ2 . Find the relative maxima and minima and points of inflection and use these as aids to plotting. No relative maxima or minima.53 CHAPTER 8. Hence yll = x(x4}.3ac = O. Since yll. As x approaches . (b) and (c) . (e) y' = . (x2 + 1)/(x2 + 1)2. There are points of inflection at x = 0.3 from the left y approaches +co. y is close to +1.4 from the left y approaches +co. 5. y is infinite at x = . y approaches 2 as x approaches +00 or 'i<l. 4. (a).4 from the right y approaches co. negative from E to G. No relative maxima or minima and no points of inflection. When x is very large and positive or negative. SECTION 7 1. As x approaches 3 from the right y approaches +00. positive from G to 1.o (6x _2)/(xF+l)3 there are poi. The horizontal tangent occurs at yt = 0 or 3ax2 + 2bx + c = O. y" = 12x248x.+1)2. The point of inflection occurs at y" = 0 or 6ax + 2b = O. Point for point plotting with some attention to the behavior of y' and yll is all one can apply. There is a relative minimum at x = 1 and a relative maximum at x =+ 1. y'= 2 2. y"= 36/(x + 3)2.r2 . y"= 1% xJ. 3. Since these equations hold at the same value of x.
6.1 + (1/1.6.6..x + = .6. Sn = l.x[n + .x]2. Divide up the interval from x = 1 to x = 5 into n equal parts.75 approx...6..6. Divide up the interval from x = 0 to x = 5 into n equal parts.6..x= 4/n.. As n becomes infinite the limit is 12%.x(2 + 4 + .X)2+ . Hence we get (4/n)[n + 4(n .6..X ..6..x(n. Divide up the length from x = 1 to x = 5 into n equal parts ..1).... + 3[1 + (n . Then Sn = 3(1 + . + (n ..xF..1) + 16(n/3 .6.6.1)2(.x + 3 (..6..X (3.1) + (1/1.x) x + + = 1 = (.6.1}n + (.6..x)2(1 + 4 + .6.x= 3n...6.X)2.6..x + (1 + 2.6.x)2.55) = 0...6.l)n/2..6..6.6.x)2[1 + 2 + . As n becomes infinite the limit is 12%.6.6.6.X ..x)2] = .. x = 1 to x = 5 into n equal parts ..6.6..x).x 3(1 + 2.1(1 + 1 + . + 100].81}(...n2/2 + n/6)]. + (2.. S10 = (%)3(100% + 50 + %) = 6.6.x .x.x (... Since .x + (1 + . Then 1 1 1 Sn = l.01)(.x)2[1 + 2 + .. Divide up the interval 385/ Is' from x = 0 to x = 1 into 10 equal parts...x).x .x)2n(n + 1)/2. Since x = 5/n..6. Then using the smallest yvalue in each subinterval. S.1) + . As n becomes infinite the limit is 36..6. since .6. + 2n ..6.2) + (.6......x + + = 3n..x+ .X 1 + (2.6.x[l + 1 + 2.. + 1+(=9. Sn = .....6.9 + . Divide up the length from 2.1}....04)(.6... Since .x)..x). + 3(1 + n.1)] = 3n...Ih + 1/6n) = 4 + 16 .6.6.6. 5. Let us divide up the interval from x = 0 to x = 5 into 10 equal parts..x (. + . we have 3n(4/n) + 3(4/n)2(n2/2 .6.x + 4(. 3..6.6.X)2 1 + 4..64/2n + 64/6n2].16/n + 6% ..x. Then S10 = (..86 + . + 1 + 2(n .x + 3(...6. As n becomes infinite the limit is 36.. 2.6.x)2.6.96+ . Now x = 4/n. + n] = 3n.x+ 3(1 + .. + [1 + (n . n2] = (.6.xl· ..6.. Then we have 3.6. Then Sn 2.X..x + + (n .x)..6.6.x 3(1 + 2..x + (..6... Since ..6.6...X)2. + (10.6.6.x)2(n.6.x + 3(.6...x= %0= %..6.6. SECTION 2 9 1. Then .n/2} = 12 + 24 .x= 0..X)2. To get x) x + = the sum of the squares from 1 to 100 we use (11) with n = 10..x+ .x)2(n3/3 .X)2.Solutions to Chapter CHAPTER 9.6.1)...x=)2 + .6.x + + 3(..6. + (n ...•.X)2. we have 125(lj3 + 1/2n + 1/6n2).6..6... 4. = . + (1/1. + (n.x + 1 + (.l).6.x)3[1+ 4 + . Then SlO = 100% + 50 + % and now.6.x)3[ + 4 + 9 + ..6.6..X)2...1}2)] = Ax[n + ..x= 4/n we have 3n(4/n) + 3(4/n)2(n2/2 + n/2) = 12 + 24 + 24/n.24/n. + (2.6..1.x)3(n3/3 + n2/2 + n/6).6.
. Cd) from x = ~l to x = 4. (f) The terms approach O. :=: (fl 215 20/50/3 i x2+5x) = 4 120. (i) 5x2/2x3/3! 2. Then the fraction approaches O.25. (c) 2 + (1/2TI). %. (d) (l)n+l(l/n).6//3.5//2. (b) It is easier to see the limit if one divides numerator and denominator by n.4. but the signs alternate so that there is no limit. (e) The terms become infinite. (a) 2. (c) Y3'%. 16. . s 1 (b) x4/41 1 o S = o '"' 1/4. f 2 lO x/x22  dx. SECTION 4 3 1 ~3 (a ) x3/31 (d) (g) = = 26/3. and the ordinates at x = 2 and x = 5. . 2. the xaxis. 9 . (e) The area bounded by the straight line y = x+3. (d) The magnitudes of the terms approach 1. %1' %. (d) 4. (c) Write as (n + 1)/n and divide numerator and denominator by n.%. X3 6 2 x 2 dx ~ /3 6 1 2 = 69 1/3. no limit. (j) 5. 6. (a) The area bounded by the parabola y = X2. SECTION 3. the ordinates x = 1 and x = 3. (a ) A = J 1 ~ 33/2. and the xaxis from x3 and the xaxis parabola y2 = x. FIRST SET 1. f 1 5 3x2dx. hence the limit is 1. (g) The area bounded by the upper half of the the xaxis and the ordinate at x = 5. SECOND SET CHAPTER 1. (h) If we divide numerator and denominator by n we see that the fraction becomes infinite as n does. SECTION 3.. 4. and the xaxis. (c ) _xII 2 '= 1 1/2. (f) The area bounded by the straight line y = from x = 3 to x = 8. 3. 9.55 CHAPTER 9. %. the ordinate x = 5 and the xaxis. CHAPTER l. (e) l/n(n + 1). (b) A = 83/343/3 = 448/3. . 10 32 X / /31 . 7/14. (b) The area bounded by y = x". (4x+l) 3/2/6)5 I (213/2_53/2)/6. %. (b) 1. 35/3. (i) Divide numerator and denominator by n. 8/n.9. Cd) The area bounded by y = x2 and the xaxis (e) The area bounded by the parabola y = 9x2 x = 1 to x = 3.= 0 x3/312 X 3 (e l 3x4/41 (h) 1875/4. (g) Each term is 1.
A = 6. f 3XdX o 2. The geometrical 2 5 1. = 1 3x dx. 4 lies below = 5 {1/Z)f {2x+1)1/22dx 1 = area dx (1/3) (2X+l)3/21 is the positive = 1 The geometrical 3 result. A f2 Q 38 X1/3dx = 3X4/3/418 = x3/31 5 0 z = 1Z3·Z1/3/2.fa n_oo dx. f5_{2x+l)1/2dx _(113/2_33/2)/3. 5 !1 10.~Sn = iss 2x dx. 4. 3 The area of the trapezoid ~ 1/2{2) (6+4)=10 = = = f 9xdx 6 = 9x2/21 6 = = 63/Z.=.56 3. A ~ 4. 5 2 1 Then A(x) = x3 and A = x3 1 = 124. . .[: 3x2 dx. f3_X2dX _3 = x3/31 3 = 9{+9) area = 18. ~!. the xaxis the geometrical 5 3 (b) Since the entire area is 18. A 7. ~~I!.~ 9 Z7 = Zl/2. f (x3) (x2) (x+l) dx = f 4 (x _4X2+x+6) o J2_ f3 + f4 = Z2/3 {7/lZ)+47/l2 = 2 3 0 = fj 71/6.16 . A f 6xdx 4 = xZ/21 6 4 ~ 10. 3.3/Z)/3. 27/2 + 24. 5 1 f5(X+l)1/2dX 1S X = 2{X+l)3/2/31 = 2{63/2_Z. / f5X2dX 1 1Z5/3. __ . Then A(x) = Ys(x2 2)3/2 and CHAPTER 9. 5. Lim Sn n_"_~ = )2 .Sn = 11.2X215 = 2 0 area is 75/2. Then A(x) = 2 X S and A = x31~2 = 216  (. ~l~Sn = . (a) (b) ~ = . By the fundamental theorem A(x) = x4f 4. Then A(x) = 2xs/3 and A = 2xS/31: = 126. 8. However. SECTION 5 75/2.. J J43XdX ~ 0 3xdx ~Z14 2 _3 4 + 3XdX = =~ J 2. the geometrical area 3 0 2 + 24.8) = 224.Jx2 rIO 2 xdx. Then A = x4f 4 9. LimSo !~ % . 5.  12.
BCDE = ACDF .J~5x 3 dx = 156 + 36 .41 % = 150%. 3.ABEF = .5 • ABC D = .C 9 dx . 1 .Va + 1 :=: % y Fig. 2 .SECTION 6 dx + 1 0 1.x2) dx o = 119 dx 1 = 9x 11  = 20/ 3 h 5 (XS + 9  2 X) dx = J/ X 3 dx + . _h4 (x2 + x") dx = _h4X2 0 J/ x+dx x2 dx = xo/31: 0 + x'Y41: = xSf311 0 2 84%.57 CHAPTER 9 . 2. 4.(43 .23) :=: 37% % (4 23) y Fig. • 11 (9 .
OS] = % Fig.OS) = % 7.6.lis (2S .ABODE = lBn y c y = 9 .. 5 2 3.ODBC = (22 .x2 Fig. 4 8 • OBCD = ABCDE .02) . OABD = OABC .ODBC = %J5[(~'5)S/2 y .OS/2J  % [(0/5)S . OABD = OABC ./2 o ..
ODBC = 8%5 Y Fig.ABFDE y ID I I I I I Fig.59 9' = 32v'3 BCDF::: ABCDE . 8 . 7 11. BCDF = ABCDE . 6 O~~~~~~4 +2yi I I IE 10.ABFDE = 102~ y Fig. OABD::: OABC .
then x ::::1 and subtracting the second result from the first. This area is 81/4.60 of y =x3 . However when writing y = x1/n for the inverse function its graph is merely the interchange of x and y y= x" /. d d~ 16. Then the area between y = xl/n and y = x equals the area between y = x and y = x".ax by letting x = 2. This gives . This area is obtained from A = xo/4 .y= /' /' /' /' /' X y = xllll y in x = yl/n. the area between x = 1 and x = 2 lies below the xaxis . where y(xl is the given function of x.F(a) ] := C Ia b y dx. The graph of the inverse function x = y1/n is the graph of y = x"./. The function y = x" is shown in the figure. Then 14. Here x = s'" l fc is the equation of the curve with y as the independent variable. The area above the xaxis lies between x :::: and x = 3.8 cuts the xaxis at x = 2. We have to show that x" dx = (l/a) a xdy where x = yl/a. We have but to integrate by the use of inverse of the power rule and the result follows. = x and v = x2• 15. Hence the given area is twice the area of the triangle bounded by y = x. Hence the graph of y = xl/n is symmetric to that of y = x" about the line y = x. the xaxis and x = 1 or the area is 1. Let 11 12. 2 1:L Let F(x) be any indefinite integral of y('X). . Since the curve Ia b cy dx = cF(x) I: = cF(b)  cF(a) = c [F(b) .41/4. Hence the physical area is 121~.
08. Yl = f(2) = 4.61 CHAPTER 9. Here n = 4 and h = . 2. Yl = f(.25. Here h =. Substitution in (32) yields 0. Y3 = f(4) = 16 and Y4 = f(5) = 25.693. Y4 = f(2) = 3.5) = 1.+2. Hence we can substitute at once in (32). Here n = 6 and h = 1. SECTION 8. Then d2g/dx2 ~ (1/2) (x2+2)1/2(2x). The yvalues are Yo = f(O) = 1. Y = f(l) = 1.06. By (29) dg/dx:::: 1XT.25. The exact value is also 124/3 because we are dealing with a parabola y = x2 to start with and Simpson's rule fits a parabola to each arc of y = x2• 3. The values of f(O).06. fell = 1. a fZ o dg/dx = (dg/dz) (dz/dx) = f(z)2x = f(x2)2x. Ya = f(4) = 16 and Y4 =of(5) = 25.16. Yz = f(3) = 9.3) = 1/1. Here h = 1 and n :::: Also Yo = f(l) = 1. Y1 = f(2) = 4.25+1/1.41. We use (36).06. 4.34.29.39. f(l) .75) = 1/1. Substitution in (36) yields 37. Use of the fundamental theorem gives f1 s x2dx = x3/31 5 1 = 411/3' 2.2) = 1/1. Y~ = f(2.03) = 7. Substitution in (32) yields 42.01.5)+4(1/1. Yl = f(. 5.f(lO) are given. Here h = 1/2 and yo = f(O) = 1. FIRST SET 1. substitution in (36) gives (1/3) [1+25+2(9)+4{4+16)] = 124/3. Y3 = f(. SECTION 8. Y2 =:: f(. Yl = f{1/2) = 1. Substitution in (36) yields 1/6(44. Yl = 38. £(. Let z = x.l) = 1/1.08. Y4 = £(1) = 1/2. f{.Y6 = 38. Thus yo = 32. Substitution in (36) yields (. . Y 4. SECOND SET 1.5) = 1/1.1· Then Yo = f(O) = 1.4) = 1/1. One cannot regard an area as a sum of line segments.25/3) [1+1/2+2(1/1."'. The result is 10.75. SECTION 7 1. f(2) = 3.41. 4. The function values are given by the table. Here the h is evidently 1 and there are 10 subintervals.25) = 1/1. Y6 = f(3) = 5.09.25. CHAPTER 9. Ya = f{l. Y2 = f(l) = 1.09..33.75») = .5) = 1/1. By (29) the answer is x3• If we evaluate we get u4/41x ~ x4/4a4/4 and by differentiating with respect to x we again get x3• 3.5. f(. CHAPTER 9. 3. £(3/2) = 2. Then g(z) :::: f(u)du. Yo = f(O) = 1. 4.09. f(5/2) = 4. f(. In this example h = 1/2 and n = 6. The definite integral is a constant. Y2 = f(3) = 9.S) = 2. f(3} = 5. Here n = 4 and h = 1. O.29.·•. Yl = f{.04.463. Check by letting feu) = x to convince students. Substitution in (32) yields 7.s) = 4. 2.
Y1 = f(1/8) = = 1/(1+9/64). Here n = 4 and h = 1/8. 1/(1+1/64). . Y2 = £(1/4) = 1/(1+1/16). Y3 = f(3/8) Y4 = f(1/2) = 1/(1+1/4). Using (36) gives (1/24) [1+4/5+2(16/17)+4(64/65+64/73)] = 0.464.62 5. Here Yo = f(O) = 1.
(d) lim (1 . (a) (b) Let u = 2x and apply the chain rule.0.axis.5 sin 5x.0 lim lim xs o as x . o = 1. 5. Then lim sin2x/x(1 + cos x) = Iim stn x/xlim 1·0 = O. Sketch y::::X and y = . Sketch y:::: x2 and y = stn x and then add ordinates at a number of values of X· CHAPTER 10.= lim [(1.1. Let u = 5x and apply the chain rule. The final curve oscillates between these two lines with zeros at the usual zeros of y = sin x. (e) lim tanx/x == lim sinx/x cosx == lim sinx/x xo x_a x_a lim l/cosx = 1 . o xa xa lim 1/(1 + cosx) x... the answer is 2. SECTION 4 1... y I = . x_a sin x/(l + cos x) :::: xa xa 2.63 Solutions to Chapter 10 CHAPTER 10. a (c) A sine curve with period 1f and amplitude of 3 (d) A sine curve with period 7r /2 and amplitude of 2 (e) A sine curve which is displaced 1T/2 units to the left of the normal y = sm x.cosx)(l + cosx)]/x2(1 + cos x) xa xo lim sin2x/x2(1 + cosx) = lim sinx/x· lim sinx/x x . 3..1.x as just a variable z. (a) x_a sin 2x/x = x_o 2 sin 2x/2x = 2 lim sin z/z with z = 2x. (c) The constant 3 merely multiplies the derivative of y::::cos 2x. x_a CHAPTER 10. (h) Graph y = 2 sin 3x and turn it 1800 about the x. 2 . By following the method indicated we have (1 .%. (c) Think of 6. SECTION 2 1.cos xj /x.. (b) A sine curve with period 271"nd amplitude of 3. Then the limit is 1. Let u :::: x and apply the chain rule. (a) A sine curve with period 2rr /3 and amplitude of 1. (b) Use the same method as in (a) except that a replaces 2. (f) A sine curve which is raised 1f /2 units above the normal sine curve (g) A sine curve which is displaced one unit to the right of y = sinx.cos" x)/x (1 + cos x) = sin2x/x(1 + cosx).x. Since z . SECTION 3 1. Ans.
Same method as in Exercise 3. Ans. Hence y/.x/2)[sin (6.x = [2 cos (xo + 6. R' = 0 implies cos" A = sin2 A and so A = 11'/4. Let u == 2 . To differentiate cos (l/x) use the method of (h). Now let v = cosx. 2.cosx = 1 + sinx. (d) Write y = sin1lsx and let u = sinx.sinxs. If we form 6.x. 7.cos x. (e) As in (c). Then y'= cos u(l). yt::::= . The quantity 2 . 5.A . Then s'= cos x.y/6. (f) Differentiate as a product of two functions.y I6. Then y = u". Then y = sin u.sin2 A).sin2x). (h) Let u = l/x. To find du/dx apply the chain rule again to sin 2x. 12. Then y = u". Then y'= cosx.x = cos (xo + 6. (i ) Treat as a product. 11.x for the function y 7" sin 2x we get the expression in the text. (k) Let u r= sinx. Then y = u". Then y'= 1/2UU2. y = cos x and y' = . Then y = cos u. Let u = rr/2 . 5 (e) Let u == 4x and apply the chain rule. (1) (k) 1 + tanx == sec+x. y::::=inx and yl= cosx.cos.coss x = 1 + 1 . d(2 . Then l= % uU2. Differentiate with respect to u and multiply by du/dx.cos+x and apply the chain rule. y == sin2 x(3 coax .64 (d) Let u r= 5x. The result is (26). Then y::::= tan u. (m) Since sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. To find du/dx apply (f). 8. Ans. 'But cos (tr/2 . Then y = l/cos 2u. R = (V2/16) (cos. s (j) 1 . y = 2 cos" x. Ans. Let u = cos x. Same method as in Exercise 3. (g) Let u = 2x. (j) Let u = stnx". y/~ .x/2) sin (6. 4. The limit as 6. s'» cos x/3 (sin x)2/s. (h) Since cot x = cos xl sin x. (a) Let u = sin x. Hence y = sinx and y'= cos x .x/2). 240.sinx.sinx. (1) y = 1. (c) Let u = sin 2x. Hence s'> O. (2 cos x sinx). If we use the identity We have 6. Ans. let u = cos 2x. 3. Same method as in Exercise 3. The result is (29) or the last line on p. y = 1. (b) Differentiate as a product and use (a) to handle sin3x.sin2 x + cos'' x. yI = . = (g) Since cot 2x == 1/tan 2x.2 cos 2x. yJ= 3x2 cos x3/2".x approaches 0 is the definition of the derivative of sin 2x. Differentiate the quotient by the theorem on a quotient of two functions.x/ 2)]/ 6.coss x = sinx. Apply the chain rule. Then y = u1l2. (i ) Since tanx = sinx/cosx.. 6. y = cos U (1/x2) = (1/x2) cos (l/x).xr/dx. Ans. 10. (f) Let u s= x3• Then y = sin u and s' = cos U(3X2) 3x2 cos xs. Apply the chain rule. .x) = sin x. y{= 30 sec25x. To differentiate u apply the chain rule again to cos 2x. Then y = sin u. The result is (20).x/2)]/(6. The result is (23).
and by Newton's second law (2) 32mM = mao Hence by adding (1) and (2) (3) 32m32M sin A = (M+m)a. by Newton's second law. The length of the plane to be covered is h/sin A. If we express 1:::. There is another possible root. Then t =:V4. Now let 1:::. a force of 32M sinA pulling the mass M down the plane.. Integrate again and apply the initial condition x = 0 when t = O.. db/dt::::T/5 ft/sec. When dt/dA == 0. and hence Newton's second law says (l) T32M sin A = Ma.x /1:::..y/1:::. This force is transmitted directly to the mass M and pulls itupward. From (3) we see that the acceleration of the whole system is a = (32m32M sin A)/(M+m). Hence we get + "'" x the expression in the text.32M stn A.xfunction y == sinx at the value xo:::: of x for the 1(/2 we obtain {sin[(1(/2) !:::. Moreover A = 90° is another situation entirely.x] sin (1T/2)}/1:::.1x/sinA. x=: 1612 sinA..1T/2. However limit of 1:::.But the distance x to be covered is d/cos A. x =. The net upward acceleration by F ~ (M+m)a. a = (32m32M sin A)/(M+m)...4 cos A.65 13.x approaches is the derivative of y:::: sinx at x :::: Hence the answer is cos (1T/2) or O. since a = d2x/dt2. 1 dt/dA (by letting u == sin A cos A). sin * Ar 16. At A:::: 0° and for dA/dt = 18° :::: rad. The total forces acting on mare 32mT. The force F acting on the whole system acts on both masses m and M and this is why we must write F = {m+M)a. 15. 3 1T/10 per sec. 1T/2. Another way to see this is to take into account the tension T in the string. 1 .x.. If we now find dt/dA (by letting u = the quantity in the brackets and applying the chain rule we find from dt/dA = 0 that sin A = m/2M. Hence dh/dt = 4 sin A dA/dt. Then if x is measured from the point along the Inclmed line.x. The mass m is pulled downward with a force (itsweight) of 32m. we integrate and apply the initial condition = a when t = O. Then h/sin A = l6(mM sin A)t2/ (M+m). 3) there is an acceleration of 32 sin A and therefore. 1). If we let x represent the variable distance up the plane measured from the bottom then. But m need not be > M. Picture the pendulum making an angle A with the vertical. A is measured from the horizontal disd tance d clockwise and so is also the inclinationof the inclined line on which the particle slides. Hence t l2 = Vid/sin A cos A = (V'd/4)(sinAcos /• Now find Fig. Then the height of the pendulum above the level of its lowest position is h == 4 .. 14..yas 1:::. Let A be the angle of inclinationof the desired straight line (Fig.. The forces acting on Mare T32M sin A. However (see (33) of Chap. it need only be greater than M sin A to provide an acceleration up the plane.32 sinA and Since x = 0 when t == 0 and x == 0 when t == 0. This gives x = l6(mM sin A)t2/(M+m}. cos" A :::: 2 A and A = 17/4. namely cos A = 0 and A = 90° but this answer cannot be considered because it gives an imaginary value for t unless m > M. Thus the time to travel up the plane is t = Ih(M+m)/4[sin A(mM sin A]1/2. Hence the net upward force on M is 32m .
. This gives sin e = %..AC' = .OB)cos e. Then we have the proper du/dx to apply the inverse of the power rule.. Then x = [27 . Then v= 1/2. 19. SECTION 5 1. (b) Here cos A = 36°%800 = 3/4. we have that at thtsvalue of t./(1 cos 2x)/2. In the second term let u = 2x and use (38). dx/dt = 27T/3mi/min. (c) Use sinx = . 21. (g) Write s'= secx secx tanx and let u = secx. We need 3 cos 3x for our du/dx. (f) Let u = sin 3x.(8/sin e)l_pose = 27 cos e '8 cot e. Then tan cp:= BD/ AB = % and sin 1> = 0. We use the suggestion that we need consider only those situations in which the destroyer heads straight for the battleship./5 ft.25 cos A. Measuring the distance. Hence x = 14. Then h = 25 (ill/5)1T .2 esc.A dA/dt.. Take A to be the angle which the line from the center of the wheel to the cab makes with the vertical from the center of the wheel to the ground. Hence dx/dt = x = 3600 sec" A· A. 0 0 CHAPTER 10.. Then the height of the passenger above the ground is h = 30 . Then s'> u2 du/dx. (d) The method is the same as in (c) except cos = . 20.1/4 cos (2x)2. However. then x = 2 cot A. + Ans. (a) Here A = 0 and cosA = 1. along the shore from the foot of the perpendicular from the beacon to the shore and taking A as the angle between this perpendicular and the beam. (b) Write y'= Y4 sin (4x)4 and let u = 4x. Then Y"= u2 cos 3x. Now A is constant and is 41T rad/min. Answer. Hence dx/dt = ./(1 cos 2x)/2. the destroyer does not know at what angle 1> to head.. A is a second quadrant angle. BD = lOt = %./5/3 and the minimum possible value of x is 5. If we dif+ ferentiate with respect to t and set the derivative equal to 0 we get t = 0/15' To find what cp is.66 17. From Fig. c'n r AD ./4 100t2 .. (e) Let u:= sinx.lO12. cos A = . . Use (38). Then y = t/g sins 3x + C..10/25 = .400 1T/cos2A.8. x.8t. When A = 30 and dA/dt = 15 = 1T/12 rad/sec.2/5. We find dx/de and set it equal to O. Hence write y'= l/S u2 cos 3x· 3 == Ysu2du/dx. we have x = 3600 tanA. and s in A = ill/5.) A is 7T rad/min. y == _1/4 cos 4x + C. 18. (When h is increasing and above 30. But OB = 8/sin e.% cos 2x = 1/2 . Then cos e = . Hence h = 25(sin A)A. If A is the angle of elevation of the plane at any time and x is the horizontal distance traveled by the plane (measured from directly above the observer) when the elevation is A. x = OA cos e = (27 . When h = 40. Let us determine 1> by the condition that C'D is to be a minimum.. (a) Write s'= % cos (3x)3 and let u == 3x.. y = x/2 +(sinx cosx)/2 + C. Integrate and use sin2x ::= 2 sinx cos x to get the text's answer.
y/:::: 1 + cosx is periodic. In particular f' (x) will be the same in the two periods because f' (x) depends only on the values of f(x). Let u::::cot 2x. 6.sin x) 8. Then du/dx = 2 sec22x.cscx. 4. Let u==tanx + 3. Then du/dx = +cscvx. Hence y:::: 2(tan x + 3)1/2 + C. C 3.2 esc" 2x. Hence write y'== . Then du/dx = . A A du/dx. The two constants differ in value. Then s= +u+du/dx. 5. Write i= % u4du/dx.. TT/3 J 0 'If/2 sin2x dx = f TT/2 (Icos 2x)dx/2 = .(1/a)u3 du/dx. (1) Write s'= esc+ax cscax cotax. I 7r = 13/2 + (TI/2 . (k) Write v' ~ COp/2 X cscx. so that x = 'If/3. However y = x + sinx and this is not periodic. Yes. Hence f(x) = 1/2 sin u + C = = J o TT sin xdx = cos xl 11" o = (1)+1 = 211" 2.67 (h) Let u = cotx. Now use 1/2 sin x2+C. In fact if we let C' :::: + 1/2 we get the first answer. (0) Let u==x2• Then f I (x) = (cos u) x = 1/2 (cos u) 2x = 1/2 cos u The constant of integration has been ignored. Then du/dx:::: sec/x. Then du/dx= . cos x dx f TT/a o cos x dx 11"/2 J 3TT/Z cos X dx 3TT/2 TT/Z +f = 3TT/2 + sin xl = 10(11)+(0(1») =4 'If/2 31r/2 ~he two curves y = cos x+1 and y = 3/2 intersect at cos x = 1/2 7. Let u==cotx.1/4 sin 2xl TT/2 0 0 . Hence y :::: (cot5x/5) + C.TI/6 + 13/2) x/2 = 13+ IT/6. Then y = 1/4cot22x + C = 1/4 tan" 2x + C. Then du/dx ::::a esc ax cot ax. Whatever behavior f(x) has in one period it will have in another. Hence write Y' = U3/2du/dx and integrate. Let u==cscax. Then f (x) "" 1/(4a) esc+ax + C. Exercises l(c) and l(d) above give other examples. Then y is as in the text. (m) Write s'= sec=x secx tanx and let u = secx. 0 sin xl A 2TT =J o 11"/3 [(cos x+1)3/2]dx + TT/3 f TT f3/2(cos TT/6 x+l)dx = TT/3 sin x . 2. (j) Write s= cors 2x csc22x. y::: (sin2x)/2 + C in one case and y:::: (cos2x}/2 + C' in the other. Hence write yl:::: _1/2u3 du/dx. = IT/4. (38). (n) Write v'= (tanx + 3t1/2secx.Y = 3/2 are the coordinates of the point of intersection. Its graph is that of cos x but raised one unit above the xaxis. Then the area must be broken up into two points thus: sin xl .x/21 0 + x/2 . (t ) Let u « tan2x.
The acceleration. 4. sin(x/2) is negative an one mus sin(x/2) . Now we introduce an angle cp whose cosine JS /Qv'Vgm/k + 02 and whose sine is D/lv~m/k + D2. y must be O.or when t == 2n71v'm/k. Then A = 5vm/k.= 5.4n). From (60) we have y = Dv'k/ill sin v'k/m t.JV~m/k+ D2sin ( k m t . In (2n. 0 = Cv'k/m cos cpo The right side can be 0 if C is 0 or ¢ = 1T/2. Then so far y = A sin v'k/mt. FIRST SET 1. The area under y::::sec+x from x = 0 to x:::: 1T/3 is obtained from if. use CHAPTER 10. Then Al = 8 sinx.. Then t = v'm/k (7T/2) 2n1Tvm!k.:: Av'k/m cos v'k/m t.(D/v'v~k7m + 02) cos v'k/m t]. SECTION 6. ° . y.Then y = . Then A2 = tan x. is greatest when the + cosine function is 1 or v'k/m t = + 2n71. The amplitude is the radical. 2. A2 = 13.) we must have at t = 0. We must find the point of intersection of y = secx and y = 8 cosx.. Then A = Al . At t = 0 we must have D = C sin¢. To write (61) in the form (55) we rewrite (61) as y = v'vgm/k + D2[(vo/v'v~m/k+ D2) sin v'k/m i. This velocity y is greatest when the sine function is 1 or v'k/mt = rr/2 + 2n1T. Hence ¢ = 1T/2 and C = . The area under y = 8 cos x from x = 0 to x = 71/3 is given by integrating ./3.1». Now substitute 71/3 and 0 and subtract the second result from the first. Again substitute 11'/3and 0 and subtract the second from the first. (55) reduces to y = 5v'm/k sin v'k/m t and the amplitude is 5v'm/k.A! = 8 cosx. Solving simultaneously gives x = 1T/3. From (55) we have 0 = B cosO. The error is replacing v(lcos x)/2 by +sin(x/2) in thde entire t interval (O. With these values of A and B. given by y.4n). At t = 0..~ = 3v'3. Hence B = O. But C = 0 will not satisfy the first condition.68 9. where n is any integer. 3. Then Al = 4v'3. At t = 0. = sec" X. Since y = CVk/m cos (Vk/mt + 4. Since tan (1T/3) =. Then y ..D satisfies both initial conditions. Y 7r/3 10.
to the right of O. as Fig 10'16 shows.2k/mt. Then the pull to the left is the amount of stretch in the left hand portion of the string. By Newton's second law. We are told that a = 1T/2 and 21T /b = 1/2 so that b = 41T. Since (51) remains the same the solution is still (52). Then. Then ~ = 21T2 cos 41Tt and =87T3 sin41Tt. we have y = D when t = 0 and y = 0 when t = O. We are also told that m = 1/4 and d = % ft.1!. Similarly. Hence by arguing as in Exercise 6 or by using (60) with .x and the force pulling the object to the right is k(a . k = 768. e . The period of the motion is 21T/16 or about 0. y = 1. Then (50) is irrelevant and (51) remains the same except that y now means displacement from the: end of the unextended spring. Hence the equilibrium position is %4 ft. Since the amplitude is % it will fall % ft or 3/1. Hence in place of (60) we get y = 1/6 cos v'k/m t.2k/mt + B cos"'.P.£ .768/4t. Hence by (50). The mass will fall until it reaches the lowest point on the cosine curve. d = 1~4 ft. The initial conditions here are y = 0 when t = and y = 1 when t = O.393 sec. k = 768. If we let (} be the angular displacement then e is of the form e = a sin bt. Then as on p. or %4 ft.£ and by pulling the particle a distance x more to the right the stretch is a .192. Hence A = 1/"'. The net force (in the positive xdirection) is k(a .2kx:. 9. The only difference from what was done on p.£ . 253 we can determine that A = D and ° ° 10.£ + x). 253 in applying the initial conditions there is that in the present exercise y = 2 in. Suppose. the stretch of the right hand portion is a .x). + x. Then y = A"'. As in Exercise 7.192cosv'192 t. When m = 1. the particle is a distance x. Then y = (1/"'. below the lower end of the unextended spring. say. Now if the particle is pulled initially a distance D to the right.When t = 2. and then released. Hence we may use (52) with 2k replacing k and y = A sin"'. If gravity is ignored the spring is not extended by the addition of the mass m to the lower end.x) . .k(a .192)cos. We may start from (52) and then use the initial conditions. Hence the final formula is y = % cosv'96t. + x) = . Hence by (50).256 t = Va cos 16t. By placing the mass on the spring and then releasing it suddenly we are fixing the initial condition that y = %4 when t = O. it will stretch I1/2 in. When the particle is at 0 the stretch (extension over the normal length £) is already a .ff92t. 7. B=O. m:X =2kx.P.D replaced by %4' with k = 768 and m = 3 we have y = %4 cos"'. y = A Sin"'. then by Hooke's law the force pulling the particle to the left is k(a . 8. When t = 0.5. We may first of all determine k by the use of (50). If the "spring" constant is k. When the mass of 3 pounds is attached to the spring. or % ft when t = O. If we use (52) and apply the condition y = 0 when t = we get B = O. Then 8 = (1T/2) Sin 41Tt.k (Vs) = 32(V4) or k =: 24. so far. If we compare this equation with (51) we see that it is of the same form with 2k replacing k. 6. ~ = 27T2 rad/sec and jj = O.
Hence the object acquires more velocity.f£732· sin I327it + 0.70 CHAPTER 10. SECOND SET 1.32/£ t . The maximum value occurs at t == 0 or any multiple of 21T. 293 ) we have.f327l. The period does not depend on the mass of the bob.05 when t == O. 10. From (70) we have e == .. (Compare Exercise 3. We use (66) with the initial conditions e == 0 when t = 0 and e = 0. This shows that. 9.f£732.05. The motion is given by (76) with Xo== 100 and k is the constant GM/R3. When the bob is at its highest point. At such values is 311'2/64.1.100.!k. To meet the second condition we first obtain from (66) that B ==' /32lff_ Acos '.J327£t. by a factor of 4. Since B == . 5. As painted out in the text. The period is given by (67). Since s == £ (J (p.05. Mathematically we see from (76) that x == xo.0.0. From (67) we see that . SECTION 6. We saw in the derivation in the text that the component of the force of gravity which causes the motion (p. as t increases the velocity depends on xo..f327l. Hence x == 100 cos vk t. 2.1fl732. The path is longer but the greater velocity acquired compensates.Jf732 == 4/31T so that f327I == 31T/4. though the velocity is 0 at t == 0. CHAPTER 10. its linear and angular velocities are O. 4.32/£ t.1 cos I327it. 2.1 when t = O. Now follow the method of Exercise 2.Ji{ sin v'k t. 7. The maximum velocity is the amplitude. Moreover its velocity is small near that point of its path.1v'32/i and the period is 21TvV32. Hence the bob is momentarily stationary.) Then (a) 8 == (1T /16) sin (3rt/4) (b) The angular velocity is == (31T2/64) cos (31Tt/4). In a longer tunnel x varies over a longer range of values and the motion starts out with a larger acceleration. Hence the angular velocity varies sinusoidally with an amplitude of 0.1.. Then x == . by (66).. We find that B = 0 and A == 0.. This equation is of the form (51) or (65). 100. s == £ A sin f327i_ t + £ B cos '. Sin v'327'£ t. We have as our initial conditions that e == 0. If we use (51) we see that k in the present case replaces kim there. Then 8 = 0. The amplitude is 1T/16 and the period is % seconds. s ttl.298 ) is PQ == kmx. . 6.J'k sinv'kt. 8.05 when t = 0 A = 0. If we now assume that the pendulum started from the equilibrium position with some initial velocity then we may use the form 8 =: A sin. THIRD SET 1. The first condition substituted in (66) gives B ==' 0. namely.1 when t == 0 and == 0. We use (66). SECTION 6. 3. To make T twice as large we must increase 1!.l) sin~t. Then from (70) S = e e e t:: JI.J"2/ft. B sin. (O.
.. If we start with (75) and apply the initial conditions x== 0 at t :=0 and x := 0 at t:= 0 we get in place of (76) just x :=O.. If we start with (75) and apply the initial conditions x = x when t = 0 and and x = 0 when t = 0 we get x = x cos Ii{ t in place of (76)...9921Tt. This is the analogue of the downward force exerted in the case of the spring.99211.9921Tt. Then y =2 cos. Then. cause the period is the same as when the object traverses the entire path UV. Then T = 21T/v'k 21T/.}4.Ik. Thus for every value of x except 0.99211 t + B cps. The initial conditions are that y =2 when t = 0 and y = 0 when t = O. Equation (a) is the analogue of (50). Before we applied any initial conditions we derived (75).3R2/R3 ::::= == := 27rV'R/v'5. When the cylinder rises above the equilibrium position.71 3. If in the next to the last expression one replaces 5. 5. We start with the formula T:= 21T /Jk where k = GM/R3. Then y = A sin . R by 3R/11 and then 32R2 by GM one obtains an answer in terms of the k of the text where M and R refer to . T = 21T/v'(GM!Sl)/(3R!11)3=(54v'31T/1lv'li)(1/v'k).61TY. The resulting differential equation is the analogue of (51) and is 100y::::= 32' 15. Equation (b) is the analogue of (49). and k still stands for GM/R3 but M and R refer to the moon. the force is the weight of the bob minus the upward pull of the spring.}5. Now our initial conditions are x e= xo/3 when t :=0 and x :=0 when t := O. The period is still 211" This last fact is interesting be/.3 by 32/6. Here when the cylinder is depressed below its equilibrium position the buoyant force of the water replaces the upward pull of the spring.}GM!R3 211"/. 4. we can use (52) with k/ m replaced by 4.lkt.3R2. in which case GM = 5.}4. If we follow the procedure of fixing A and B that was used in the text. 6.3. Since the differential equation (my = net force) is y = 4. the period is 21T/1k.}4.. For x = 0 the period is 0 (as in Exercise 4).This is also a correct answer.. One may choose to let M and R stand for the mass and radius of the moon.99211Y.. And the quantity (c) is the quantity +ky below (50). but with no point on the line segment at x:= O. The physical phenomenon discussed here is best compared with the phenomenon of the bob on the spring. Since the theory of the text does not restrict M and R to be the mass and radius of the earth we may let them be the mass and radius of the moon. when the yvalue is positive but less than d. Hence the graph of period versus x is a line segment parallel to the x axis and extending from xo to +x. letting the letters M and R still stand for values of the earth's mass and radtus . we obtain x := (xo/3) cos.. 7. there is a downward force which is its weight in air minus the buoyant force on the portion of the cylinder still in the water.
where T is the period. Of course the replacement of 5. 2. Then y = a(21T/r) cos [(2'll/T)t +cp). . if we use the more convenient form (80)..72 values for the earth.J21l/v'l1k.3 by 32/6 is an approximation. This latter answer can be put in the form T = 6. CHAPTER 10. The maximum value of y occurs when the cosine is 1 and then y is 21Ta/T. Then 2 = 21Ta/Ysand a = 1/51T. FOURTH SET L The function. SECTION 6. From Exercise 1 we see that the maximum velocity is the amplitude a times 21T/r. Here k has the value GM/R3 where M and R stand for the earth's values. is y == a sin [(21T/r)t + CP].
Since l/x2 is also positive we must write s= (III x I) (1/V2x . (k) Use (25) with u = 3x2• Then y' = ±1/.Jx . 3. SECTION 3 1. (h) 1. obtain first y'= {I/"1 [(x . (d) (h) 180°.l)/x. Then s'= . We. CHAPTER (d) 1200. (b) 1T/2. Then yf = ± 1/3x. Then f' (x) = (x/II+x2) (1/ (2+X2) 1 • (g) Use (22) with u = cos x.1. Then dy/dx ==csc2x. (i ) Use (26) with u = 3x. 2 . respectively. See Figure 1. Then y' = 6x/(1+9x4. 2. )3/2. Start with y:= cot x. Hence dx/dy =1/csc2x = 1/(1 + cot=x) == 1/(1 +y2). 2.. 4.1)z/x2J) (1/x2). 2/rs..73 Solutions to Chapter 11 CHAPTER II. 3. (e) v'3/2. SECTION 2 1. (b) 30°' . Changing to x and y for independent and dependent variables. (f) 0.sinx/I sin x ] .Jx2 + 1.J9x 1 (j') Use (26) with u = 2x3. (b) J3/2. In taking the x2 out of the radical we must write I x 1 because the value of the entire radical is positive. (h) Use (24) with u ==.l. Solve for x. Then y/= . Then f (x) = 1/2xlxT .5.1). (c) (f) 17° 27'· .. +_Lx . (b) Use (23) with u = X2. (d) Use (22) with u = (x .X4.2x/V1 . 11.  11' I rt __________________ ~ ) \ 1f 2 ~~~1 1 The slope is always positive. (e) First f' (x ) = 2 sinlexd(sin1)/dx.f~3xx_'L=2. we have dy/dx = 1/(1 +x"). (c) Use (24) with u == l/x. (a) Use (22) with u = x/3. (f) Use (24) with u = ..
(3x/4)2). Ans.J5. (k) (1/3) sin. . Then li!8tanlx/x 7. [ (x2) 2+3J. Let u == bx/a. SECTION 4 1. Then y = % sec12x + C. we have the text result. (0 Write v= (1/v'5)(1/v'l . e e CHAPTER 11. (a) tarrx/x = (tarr+x ~ tan= d(tan1x)/dx (b) x~ at x == O. Hence write yI= %[1/(u'. . Hence y = % secJx + C. Y = 11/2~ x. B = tarr ' (gt2/2a).x +C. (e) Except for the factor ~.sin IJ)e = . (b) Let u = xS. (c) Write yl = (1/a){1/[1 + (x/a)2]). Then du/dx = b/a. B.(4x2/5). Also dy/dt = v. Here B is a function of t. . the s' is in the form (32) (or (33}J. = (13/6)tanl (x2/13)+c. 9. Then du/dx = 2. 10)/(x . (i ) yl is in the form (32) [or (33)J with u = 2x. 6. Use Now use f (x) (28).0).1 . (g) Write v= 1~6{1/[1+ (3x/4)2]). Then du/dx = 2/. To find () use (24) with u = gt2/2a. The answer is in the text. 1112 we see that e = tan ' (y/a).h Y Y' (dy/dx).y = ::. dy/dx = 1/(dx/dy). Since dy/dx =l/(dx/dy). Then y' is in the form (28) with u = 2x/v'5. This constant factor can be introduced and the resnlt is in the text. Hence y = (1/ab) tarr" (bx/a) + C. (a) Let u = x2• Then we have the form (28). Now to differentiate with resp~ct/to2 x. to (b): x = O.74 4. except for the factor %. Now lJ = dB/dt = (v/a)2 cos 8(.[(reg:~/dd ~)//(ddxy/ads )2J' a function of y with y as a function of x. For 0 ~ x s 11/2. From Fig. for 11"/2 x s 311"/2.' 5.for 31T/2 ~ x ~ 21T. except for the factor %. Hence iJ == (vfa) eos" B. f (x ) = fxdx/ (x4+3) = (1/2) f2xdx/ = (30).u2 .(2v2/a2) cos" B sin B. Then the text answer follows at once and to find jj merely differentiate with respect to t. Hence write y/= (1/ab){1/[1 + (bx/a)2]}{b/a). From (24) we see that the answer is 1. (d) Write s'» (1/a2){1/[1 + (bx/a)2J}. Then yl is in the form (30) with u = 3x/4. Then yl is in the form (28) with u = 3x/4. Now = dB/dt = (dB/dy)(dy/dt). From (24) we find that dB/dy = a/(a2 + y2) = cos" B/a. In each case find d2y/dx2 and set it equal to 0 to fwd the abscrssa of the point of inflection. 11"/2. (j) Let f (x) u = x3 and write 1 2 f(x) = (1/3)f3x2dx/f~1~(x3)2. Then we have the form (28). Then d y dx = d. (11) Write v= 1/4(1/'. Y = 51T/2 ~ x. . The idea here is the same as in (a) except that we have the derrvative of tan " x at x = 1. The answer is in the text. From (24) we see that the answer is %. Then we have the form (30) with u = x/a.1)](du/dx).
Then y = (1/6)tan1 [2sec(x/3)]+C. 2. Now let u = (x+5)/1S and use (30).75 (t) Write the given integral as (1/2)!2sec xtan xdx/132+(2sec x)z. Our method of finding areas is to start with dA/dx = y. (n) Write the given integral as dx/I(x+5) 2+5] = (1/5)Jdx/I«x+5)/i5)2 +1]. Then with CHAPTER 11. But tan1 (13/3) = tanl (/3/3) . Then y = 8 + C or y = strr" (x/3) + C.x2• The integral in view of (53) is (ab/2) sin"! (x/a) + (bx/2a)"'. The first integral is evaluated by letting u = lx2 and using the inverse of the power rule. Then dy/ d8 = (dy/ dx}(dx/ de) =: 1/4(1/ cos e) 7'8 cos e. (m) Break up the given integral into !xdx/. Hence read off the answer from (52). By our formula for area.x2• U we now substitute a for x and then o for x and subtract the second result from the first we get nb/4. The second integration uses (28). (b) Let x = ¥a sin O. (d) This is (48) with a = 3. 13 J 13 dx/(9+x2).9 . Hence y = 8/3 + C = Ys sm " (3x/4) + C. Then y = ~+3 sin1x+C. (a) This can be done by factoring the 9 out of the radical and thus reducing to (28). 3. NOw substitute 13 and 13 for x and subtract. The two answers agree because sin1 (x/a) and cos"! (x/a) differ by a constant. But to use change of variable let x = 3 sin O. Here y = (b/a) la 2 _b2• Hence we must integrate (b/a)Ja2 . Then y = (~/5)tanl [(y+5)/~]+C. 2. Use (30). Hence A = (1/3)2 tan1 (13/3). (c) Let x = 4/3 tan e and follow the procedure of (a) or (b).9 sin2 8) 3 cos 0 = 1. The steps parallel those of the text where the substitution x = a sin 8 was used.r=xr + 3 Jdx/lf=XT. We can use the table to find that tanl (13/3) = n/6 or happen to remember this. Thus A = 1/3 [tanl (13/3)tan1(13/3)]. Whenever a radical occurs a change of variable which eliminates the radical is usually helpful. . SECTION 5 1. A = 1/3 tanl (x/3). Then dy/cW = (dy/ dx)(dx/ dO) = (1/"'. Then A = n/9. dA/dx = y or A = (30).a2.
(h) Let x = 5 sine. Use of (70) gives 98 sec. O 2 + 3R/2. SECTION 6 L Use (69) with r1 = R + 2000·5280 == 3R/2 and r = R. Following the suggestion we start with v2/2 = vU2 + GM/r . Then dy/d() :::: 6 sin" (). Then y = (1/a2) sin 8 + C.. :::: /a x (g) Let x = 4 sin O..sirr ' (x/5) + C.J2GM!r. The procedure is the same as in Exercise 2. Then since v == dr/dt.000 miles to the surface of the earth.2R3/2/3.j2GM/R. The calculation is extensive and the accuracy of the answer will depend on how many decimal plac es are carried.. 2.GM/R.8dS = J(sec2S1)d8 = tar.ja2 + x2• (f) Let x :::: sin 8. As in Exercise 3 the time required is the same as if an object falls from a height of 240. If we let t = 0 when r == R. A result between 1250 and 1300 seconds is good enough for present purposes.jR!32 = 812 Hence s = 16t seconds. To calculate the time we use the method of Chapter 3. This gives e = 86020' approx. (i ) Let x = 5 sin e. Thus.cos 2e)/2. If tan 8 = x/a then sin 8 = x/. We could also use (7 a) and calculate the e for which R == (3R/2)cos2 e and then substitute in (70) .ja2 . 5. lengthy and the accuracy depends on the number of decimal places carried. 4. In either case r1 = 240. The time of flight is the same as if the object were dropped from a height of 100. as in Exercise 1. Here Vo is the velocity at the surface of the earth and v is the velocity at the distance r from the center of the earth. In either case r1::::4000 . 1 Then y = se . Since an acceleration of 32 ft/sec2 is greater than the actual gravitational acceleration the object will acquire greater velocity and take less time to fall 2000 miles. (e) If CHAPTER 11. we can use (69) or (70).j2GM. C = 0 because v = 0 when t == O. dt/dr = r1f2/.J2GM and t = %r3/2/. The text answer is approximate.J2GM+ C. 3. Replace sin2() by (1 . v » 32t + C. Then y = J (c s c ' 8··1) d8. Let us use (7 O~ Then we must first use (65) to find the value of e when r == 4000 ·5280.j2GM and so t = 2r3/2/3. S8.J2GM.000 miles == 60R and r == The arithmetic is again R.000 and r 4000·5280.. Then v2/2 = GM/r and v > .. Then t = . 5280 + 100. a == 32. s = 3R/2 when t :::: . C ==2R3/2/3. then dyIde = [1/(a2 + a2 tan28)3f2]a sec20 = \1/a2) cos 8. Again the accuracy will depend on the number of decimal places carried. Then y = cot 8S Transforming back to x gives y:::: (v'25.4 sin2e. Then y "" !tan2. Now calculate t when s = R..76 x == a tan B.xi/x) . We can use (69) or (70). y:::: (1/a2) tan () a 2. approx. Now transfor m back to x. That is. . We let Vo be the escape velocity .000 ft and traveled to the surface of the earth.x2 + C. Then dyIde ::::(1/a2) sec28. Replace sin261 by 2 sin e cos e and transform back to x. However instead of the end values a and 0 we have here 2 and O.. 4. Then s == 2 + C 16t and if s is measured from the height of 2000 miles.
starting with (62). 8. . Hence C :::: and v 0 G sign enters because v is negative. the minus infinite. but replace GM by Gm/4. Then. dt/dr ::::rl/2/v'2GM. (c) We see from the expression for v that v is infinite when r is O. This would not happen physically because the body never reaches the center. according to the law of gravitation.77 6. sec. The force of attraction acting say on the sphere to the right is. 3/2/v'2GM Then t ::::%r + C. v dv/dr == GM/r2. Then 0 0 r :::: . starting from r :::: for t:= 0. wherein now M. is . then t :::: when r :::: and C = O. . r must decrease with Increasmg t. it is negative previously. 7.Gm2/4x2 or x == Gm/4x2. (a) We cannot use (69) because letting r1 be infinite does not give a clear value for t. The factor (3/2)213 is positive. If we agree to measure time from the instant the body reaches the center. the object 0 would have to move away from the center in the direction of incr eastng r as t increases. (e) Since r increases with t. Since t is 0 when the object reaches the center. following the suggestion. we take over the theory of the text.=. Then v::::v'GM/r. We may then go directly to (69) and replace GM there by Gm/4.3/2)2/!f(2GM)1I3 t2l8. Hence in the present situation the formula has no physical meaning for positive t. We must understand t to be negative as the ( formula for t shows. and the distance between the cenm ters of the two spheres is 2x. The answer of two hours is approximate because the accuracy of the answer depends on the number of decimal places carried. 7.. Then rnX == . Hence it takes an infinite time to reach the center.=. That is. by taking the acceleration negative and then the velocity negative.Gm2/4x2. Now our initial condition is that v ::::: when r becomes G 0 2/2 :::: M/r. Integrating gives v2/2 :::: M/r + C. (b) We see from the expression for t that when r is infinite (and positive) t is . For positive t values r is positive. In our case r1 == and r == because 3 1 the spheres are in contact when each is 1 foot away from the origin. (d) Yes. Since v::::dr /dt. We start with a == 2r/dt2 ==GM/r2 and write dv/dt :=GM/r2• d Then as in Chap.
(a) If x = loge3. (e) 9. x is somewhat greater than 1. 1.:=. 5. by (a).697 . (logx)/x.x.6931. The curve of y :=: og (5 . (d) 2. 4. . We now know that the integral of log x is x logx .x. l 7. 2 (c) Let u s= x/(1 + x). Then logee£ = loge am = m logea:=: log jx log . CHAPTER 12. ) (e) log21 = log 7 + log3. 6.10. (c) Since 34:=:81. (b) 2. Then y'1=[1/(x2 + 3x»)(2x + 3). Then y'~ (l/sinx) cos x::. Then 1= (l/logx)(l/x). log3 = 1/2 log 9. Ans. (a) 0.x) translated 5 units to the right. e4 < 81. Compare Figs. 1. hence 4 is a good estimate. Let e1l :::: m = x. 2.7535.8451 2. Yes. (d) 2. Hence y'= (1 . (c) O. (g) In view of (f). Then y'= (l/u) du/dx = [(1 + x)/x][1/(1 + X)2]. 9. 1. Then if y:=: log. 121 and 12~2. (d) The curve is that of lug x translated 2 units to the left and with each yvalue then multiplied by 3.5353.600. (f ) Differentiate as a product. (b) loge 9 = 2 loge 3.7. 3.» logea.8451. SECTION 2. (d) 7. Then y'. y' = log x + 1. SECTION 3 (p. (d) Let u s= sinx. (a) Let u e= x2 and use the chain rule (20). (d) Log of 1 to any base is O. then eX= 3.]8 Solutions to Chapter 12 CHAPTER 12. y"'=logx. (e) Log (x) is the reflection in the yaxis of logx. (h) Differentiate as a quotient.307 .94444. (b) 2. (b) 2.:cotx. Hence s'= l/x log ea. Hence a logex :=: og . the integral part is at least 2. y :=:(1/logea)logex. (b) Let u== logx. Since e is about 2. (e) Let u = x2 + 3x. (a) The yvalues of 3 Iog x are three times as large as those of log x.log xj /x". (c) 30.10:=:0.x) is the curve of y:=:log (. I 8. (c) The curve of y:=:log (x + 3) is the curve of y:=:log x translated 3 units to the left. (i ) Let u = logx.«. (b) 4.3222. (b) Add 2 to each y value of y = logx.
. . Hence apply (21). Then du/dx = 2x. (i ) (j) (k) (1) II. (f).6x + 10.6). Then du/dx = cosx. Then (1/2)logj2x51{1/2)logI2x+31+c = /tan{x/2)dx = !sin(x/2)dx/cos{x/2). Then dk+I(logx)/dxk =: (1)k. Then du/dx :::: sinx.sin x). (h) See (g). Let u = x2+2x+S. Multiply the numerator of the given integral by 2 and divide outside by 1/2. Since O! is defined to be 1. Then du/dx :::: . 15. u = tanx.t derivative of Iog x at x =: 1.6x + 10)](2x . Since it is true for n = 1 it is true for all positive integral n. 2 + 1.I(k. We see that if the theorem is true for n = k it is true for n => k + 1. Multiply numerator of integral by 1/2 and outside by 2. 14.79 10. write the given integral as 3/2!2xdx/(x2+2). or s= l/x at x = 1 or 1. lim1 logx/(x .cos x. Then du/dx = 1/x.. then the answer is (1/3)log!lx3j+C. 13. Then du/dx = sin x. Then y = 1~ log (x2 + 1) + C. Then du/dx = 2x+2.1) = lim (logx log l)/(x . Break up into a difference of integrals. Hence 21oglcos{x/2) i+c = 2loglsec(x/2) I+c. Since du/dx = 3x2. Hence (l/2)log (x2 +2x+S) +C. Hence by (21) y = log (1. Apply (21). Then du/dx = sec+x. (a) (b) See Let Let Let y= u = 1 . Hence apply (21).cosx) + C.30260 = 2. Write y'= . 10 10 12. d (logx)/dx = klog S+C. Let u = 2x5 in the first and u = 2x+3 in the second. the theorem holds for n = 1. (f) (g) Let u = cos x. (c) Let u = x 2 (d) Let u = x2 + 1. Apply (21). Then du/dx == 2x .. Then du/dx = (1/2)sin{x/2). u = Iog x. Let u = cos (x/2). = 1/x.1). Multipl¥ numerators by 2 and divide outside by 1/2.(l/cosx) (. log (logx) + C.1)! /x". dR/ds = k/S. The absolute value takes care of values of x for which lx3 > 0 and lx3 < O. (c) (d) Jr~~:~ I +C. 1 (b) Let u == x + 2.3026. Let u = sinx.1)! (k)Xk1. (a) Keeping aside the factor % we can apply (19). Write y'= (1/logx)(1/x). Apply (21) or more generally (31). A = r 1 dx/x = log xl R 1 = 2.6. Apply (21) or (31). (e) Let u = x2+2. Then du/dx = 2x. Hence {3/2)log(x2+2)+C. Then du/dx == 2x. Write y'= % [1/(x + 1)]2x. Now assume for n = k that dk [log xr/dx" =: (_1)kl(k . (e) Let u == x2 . For n = 1. Write 1= % [1/(X2. 3• Let u = lx Multiply the numerator by 3 and divide outside the integral sign by 1/3. Apply (21) or more generally (31).. y = log (x + 2) + C. This is the expression for the x"" x .