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SOLUTIONS
MANUAL TO
CALCULUS
AN INTUITIVE AND PHYSICAL 2ND ED BY MORR IS Ku NE APPROACH
JOHN WILEY NEW YORK ' LONDON
&
SONS) INC, ' SYDNEY , TORONTO
This material may be reproduced for testing or instructional purposes by people using the text. Printed
ISBN 0 471 02396
in the
United
5
States
of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Inttoduction
1
1. The Solutions In This Manual. The solutions of all the exercises in the text are given in full. The primary reason is to save professors' time. Choosing exercises for homework assignments can be a laborious matter if one must solve fifteen, twenty or more to determine which are most suitable for his class. A glance at the solutions will expedite the choices. The second reason is that in many institutions calculus is taught by teaching assistants who have yet to acquire both the training and experience in handling many of the mathematical and physical problems. The availability of the solutions should help these teachers. 2. Suggestions For The Use Of The Text. The onevolume format of this second edition should give professors more latitude in the choice of topics which might be suitable to the interests of the students or to the length of the course. Several types of choices might be noted. Because precalculus courses have become more common since the pUblication of the first edition, some of the analytic geometry topics may no longer have to be taught in the calculus course. The most elementary topics of analytics have been put in an appendix to Chapter 3, Section 4 of Chapter 4, Section 5 of Chapter 7, and the Appendix to Chapter 7. If familiar to the students, all or some can be omitted. Though I believe strongly in the importance of physical and, more generally, real applications to supply motivation and meaning to the calculus, again class interests and available time must enter into determining how many of these applications can be taken up. I have therefore starred all Lhose sections and chapters which can be omitted without disrupting the continuity. The last chapter, which is intended as an introduction to the theory or rigor, can be taken up at almost any point after Chapter 10. However, I personally believe that the intuitive approach should be maintained throughout and that this chapter should be left for the last and then taken up only if time permits. The complete text is intended for a three semester, three hours a week course. However, in view of the number of sections and chapters that are not essential to the continuity the text can be used for shorter courses including those offered in the fourth high school year. 3. Some Additional Topics. Some physical applications which were included in the first edition were omitted in,the second one and replaced in the text proper by applications to economics and to other social science areas. A few of those omitted are reproduced here. They may be useful as suggestions
2
for additional work which bright or somewhat advanced students can undertake, as fillins for periods which for one reason or another cannot be used for regular work, or as material for a mathematics club talk. Exercises and solutions relevant to these additional topics are also included here. A. The Hanging Chain.
In the text proper we derived the equation of the chain or cable suspended from two points (Chap. 16, Sect. 4) on the assumption that the weight per unit length of the cable is the same all along the cable. However, the theory developed there can be used to solve more general problems. One is to determine the shape of the cable if the weight per unit length or, one can say, the density per unit length is specified. The second is, given the desired shape of the cable, how can we fix the distribution of the mass along the cable so that it assumes the desired shape? Both of these problems are readily solved with the theory at hand. The derivation of (21), the equation of the cable, in the text proper, presupposed that the weight of the cable per unit foot is constant all along the cable, Let us now see what we can do when we let the weight of the cable vary from point to point. Let us denote by w(s) the function that gives the weight per unit foot at point s. Then (11) and (13) still hold, but (14) must be changed to read
(I)
If we divide obtain (2) this
T
y
=
fw(s)dx by
+
o.
that T /T is y', we yx
equation y'
(11) and use the fact
=
Tl fw(s)ds
where 0' is O/TO' If the function w(s) is given, we can calculate !w(s)ds, The quantity 0' can now be fixed by letting s be 0 at y' O. We now have y' as a function of s. Next we may proceed as we did in the case where w(s) is a constant and seek to obtain s as a function of x through
o
+ 0'
=
ds = dx
11 + y'2
but y' is now given by (2), If the integration can be performed and s is obtained as a function of x, we can substitute this value of s in (2) and attempt to obtain y as a function of x. We can also solve the second problem. Suppose that we wish to distribute weight along the cable so that the cable hangs in a given shape; that is, we presume that we know the equation of the cable and we wish to find w(s). To solve this problem, we differentiate (2) with respect to x. On the left side differentiation with respect to x produces y", On the right side to differentiate with respect to x we use the chain rule and differentiate with respect to s and multiply by ds/dx. The derivative of !w(s)ds with respect to s must be w{s) because the integral is that function whose derivative is w(s). Thus our result is
3
(3 )
y" = l:.wts)~. TO dx
Because we presume that we know the equation of the curve, we can calculate y" and ds/dx. Hence we can find w(s), that is, the variation of weight along the curve that produces the particular~shape of the hanging cable. Of course, the shape of the cable need no longer be a catenary. It is often called a nonuniform catenary. The theory presented in this section is useful under more general conditions than those so far described. In the derivations of the text and of (2), we attributed the weight to the cable. However, the weight w(s) might be the load on the cable, that is, the load of the bridge itself, if the cable's weight is negligible, or the combined weight of cable and load. In the case of the theory in the text this load would have to be proportional to the arc length of the cable; that is. the load would have to be the same for each unit of length of the cable. In the case of (2), the load could vary along the cable or the combined weight of load and cable could vary along the cable, and the function w(s) would have to represent the variation of the total weight with arc length. Exercises: 1. Find the law of variation of the mass of a string suspended from two points at the same Ie vel and acted upon by gravity so that it hangs in the form of a semicircle. Suggestion: Take the semicircle to be the lower half of X2+y2 = 2ay and use (3). 2. The derivation given in (2) for a cabJe whose load varies with arc length applies also to a cable whose load varies with horizontal distance from, say, the lowest point. Thus T = T and (1) becomes of the cable. 2)/12T Ans. y = (ax +6bx . o 3. A heavy chain is suspended at its two extremities and forms an arc of the parabola y = x2/4p. Show that the weight per horizontal foot is constant. Suggestion: Use (3).
4
y per horizontal
T
=
Jw(x)dx+D.
Then foot
(2) is y'
=
x
0
(l/T )fW(X)+D'.
0
Given
that
the load
is w(x)
=
ax2+b,
find
the equation
Solutions: 1. The lower half of the semicircle is given y' = x(a2_x2)1/2 and y" = a2(a2_x2)3/2, Then from (3), w(s) = aTo/(a2xZ). integrations by y ds/dx
= a/a2x2• Then = Il+y,2:;a(a2_x2)1/2.
that y' and yare Now use
2. Carry out the obvious o at x = O.
and use the facts
3. We can think of w(s)ds/dx as a function w(x) of x since (3). Since y = x2/4p, y" = ~p, and w(x) is a constant. B. Projectile Motion in a Resisting Medium.
s is.
After taking up projectile motion in a vacuum (Chap. 18, Sect. 4) one can take up the case of motion in a resisting medium. Since the
we shall apply Galileo's principle and consider the horizontal and vertical motions separately.Ky. we obtain (1) x = kx. Since x = (1) we first write x dv dt = kv x . the horizontal acceleration is the time derivative of the horizontal velocity so that x y. Hence Newton's second law says for the horizontal motion that ma = KX. where K is the proportionality constant. The effect of air resistance on the motion of projectiles was first investigated seriously by Newton. and Euler. Huygens. If we divide both sides by m and replace Kim by k. the resistance of the air is proportional to the velocity and directed opposed to that velocity. namely the air resistance Kx. Suppose that the projectile is shot out with an initial velocity of magnitude V inclined at angle A to the ground. the combination of the two and the implications for projectile motion are new and provide an interesting comparison with projectile motion in a vacuum. In the case of the vertical motion there are two forces acting at an¥ time t. As in the text. where horizontal and vertical motion in a resisting medium were considered independently. of the air resistance (the upward direction is positive). However. that the net force acting must equal the mass times the acceleration of the projectile. apart from the use of parametric equations. We shall suppose that as the projectile travels through the air. there is a horizontal force acting at any time t. Now. Ky.3 2m If we divide we obtain (2 ) . namely. we use Newton's second law of motion. However. This initial velocity does give the projectile a constant horizontal velocity of V cosA but no acceleration in the horizontal direction and therefore no continuously acting force in the horizontal direction. Hence the differential equation for the vertical motion is. Sections 6 and 7. the mathematics involved. Hence the air resistance. is no more than what was taken up in Chapter 12.4 analysis of projectile motion breaks down into a separate consideration of the horizontal and vertical motions. because it is oppositely directed. mx = Kx. We shall apply this law to the horizontal and vertical motions separately. should have the components Kx and Ky. To obtain the parametric equations of the motion. equation by m and again replace both sides of this Kim by k. where x and yare functions of t that represent the horizontal and vertical motion and the dot means differentiation with respect to t. the force of gravity which is 32m and the vertical component. the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity at any point of the projectile's path are and respectively. by Newton's second law. y= To integrate vx' we have 32  kyo it in a more familiar form. However. my = _.
We write y as vy' Then (2) reads dt = dV~3 By integration 1 32+kv y or 32 + kv where 0 = e (5 ) kC y = e ktkC = De kt .5 The righthand side contains the dependent variable. V co s Ae k t . A This equation should be compared with (7) of the text. e =e =e = De Because v v x = V cos A when t x . since x = 0 when t = 0. . Now v x = x = V coks (1 _ ek t) . (4 ) of the text proper. by solving for v v where D = e c (3 ) x x = kv x x 1 I 1 log v + x k C ktc kt c kt .. To integrate (2) we perform similar steps. so we convert to dt dv Then t= or. = 0. By one more integration we obtain . and so (5) becomes (6) Vy = V sin Aekt. y We know that v = V sin A when t_ o = kVsinA = o. In (3) and (4) we have the formulas for the horizontal velocity and horizontal distance traveled as functions of t. + 3k2ekt _ 3'. Substi tution of these values yields + 32. Then Vy = f(Oekt32l. Equation (3) should be compared with (6) dx/dti hence.
(See also the work on infinite series in Chap. A few of these comparisons will be left fo~ the exercises. 1). to the gun (Fig. 20. We solve for C and substitute its value in the preceding equation.A to the ground. It would.. and moving in the resisting medium as opposed to a vacuum takes less time to reach maximum height. Moreover. Sect.) At the moment we might mention that the projectile fired with a fixed initial velocity V. of course. reaches maximum height closer s Path in vacuum Figure 1.?\ (1 _ kt) Y=. y= or (7) 32t + (V sin A + l.6 y . and attains less maximum height than if fired in a vacuum.: v sin A e kt k Because y = 0 when t = 0. v sin A k _ k 3~ + C. at a fixed angle. These formulas should be compared with (8) and (9) respectively of the text. be interesting to determine what effect air resistance has by comparing results obtained here with the results obtained for projectile motion without air resistance. the maximum height H2 is attained beyond the midpoint of the range. 12. 0= 32t k + C. The first part of the path is straighter than in a .~ k k2e . Then v sin A kt k e  kTe 32 kt ]( 32t + V sin A k + 0 32 We have in (6) and (7) the formulas for the vertical velocity and height above ground of the projectile.
2) k x VcosA 32 kX) + 2 1 og ( I k VcosA . describe the path as t becomes infinite. A bomb is released from an airplane traveling horizontally at a speed of U ft/sec and at an altitude of H feet. (c) Using the results of parts (a) and (b). show that the horizontal and vertical distances traveled by the bomb in time t are x = U(l .7 vacuum and the latter part steeper. Finally. t2 = ~ log (1 + kV ~~n A) • 3. Doe s the resuLt agree with the answer to par t (c) of Exercise 6? 8. V Sl. the maximum range is obtained at an angle of fire of less than 45°. The projectile strikes the ground at a steeper angle and with less speed than that with which it was fired. Calculate dy/dx from the result in Exercise I.ekt)/k and y = 32(ekt . Ans. (x2'Y2) of the highest point of the projectile's 2 A . If the air resistance of the bomb is km times the velocity. we could do the following. describe the path as x approaches the value (V co s A) /k.V sinAcosA ~x232+kvsinA'Y2 _ VsinA k 32 k2"log (l+kv~~nA). of the projectile motion discussed in the text? Ans. . Find the coordinates path. show that the path of the bomb t seconds after its release will be inclined to the horizontal at the angle tanl [32(ekt l)/kU]. Show that the projectile moving in the resisting medium attains its maximum height at a value of x closer to the starting point than it does when shot out at the same angle A and with the same initial velocity V in a vacuum. As a check on the results in Exercises I and 3. where k is a proportionality constant. the velocity as t becomes infinite. 6. and "see if the slope is O. that is. Find the time t2 it takes the projectile to reach the highest point of its path. 5. 2. O. If the air resistance is km times the velocity. Ans. Exercises 1. where k is a proportionality constant. respectively_ 9. An airplane flying horizontally with speed U releases a bomb of mass m. Find the direct equation relating y and x by eliminating t between (4) and (7). 7.D A 3 + . substitute in it the value of x2 given in Exercise 3. Using the result of Exercise 1. 32/k. y = (. (a) What is the terminal horizontal velocity. 4. (b) What is the terminal vertical velocity? Ans.1 + kt)/k2. Suggestion: Compare (15) of the text and the value of x2 in Exercise 3. We know that the slope of the projectile's path is a at the maximum height.
we get the result for y. Calculate dy/dx from the result in Exercise 1 and substitute for x the value of x2 given in Exercise 3. Then. Vx = U. Vx ap (b) By (6). Hence I . ekt approaches O. The rest is straightforward to get the text's results. 8. We start with (1) as in the text here.ekt = Jex/VcosA and t = (l/k)log(lkx/VcOSA). by (3). 4. Use the value of t2 obtained in Exercise 2 and substitute for t in kt = (32 + kV sin a) /32 and and (7).e kt = kV sin A/ (32 + kV sin A). belongs under the subject of rectangular parametric equations (Chap. y in Exercise 1 approaches 00 This agrees with 6(c). integrating. Following the suggestion we must show that V2. v proaches O.32ekt)/kUekt• yx the derivation of (5) we obtain = = C. At the highest point ~ or Vy is O. Rewrite the first of these quantities as V2. Hence use (6) to solve for t when Vy = O. sin 2A/64. 0 = 32 and y = (32 . = x 0 (which means x is measured from the point where the bomb is released.sin A cos A/ (32 + kV sin A) is less than V2. We may take over from Exercise 8 that v = uekt and v = (l/k) x Y (32 32e kt). We have from Exercise 2 that e (4) ekt is the reciprocal. 9.ky and so by using the method of the text here in y y (32 . 5. Since y 0 when kt)/k. t = 0. Since 2kV sin A is positive. From (4) we have 1 . Then.8 Solutions to the Exercises on Projectile Motion 1. 7. one of the famous ones in the history of mathematics. (c) Since the horizontal velocity approaches 0 and the vertical velocity approaches a constant the path must approach more and more a vertical straight line. In Section 8. 2. However. we get x = U(l . The Brachistochrone Problem. like the preceding topic. and using x = a when t y approaches 32/k.32eIntegrating and using 'y = 0 when t = 0.ekt)/k. As x approaches V(cosA)/k. 3.Dekt)/k. Mere algebra shows dy/dx = O.sin 2A/ (64 + 2kV sin A). Inserting these values in (7) gives the text's answer. This problem. the expression is less than V2. If we measure distance downward as positive we have for the vertical motion as in (2) (except for sign) = +32 . 6 (a) As t becomes infinite. kt Hence in our case v = Ue . Then the direction of the bomb is given by tan e = v /v = (32 .sin 2A/64. when t = 0. 18). the text proper takes up tangential and normal acceleration along curves and arrives at the formula (78): (1) :F  64 (y 0 y) • .
suppose that light were to travel from a to B with a variable velocity v given by (2). but it need not be the one that makes the time of travel least. This curve would indeed furnish the shortest distance from 0 to B. It is. This equation is correct. a curve from a to B. What should the shape of the curve be in order that the time of travel be least? One's first thought is that the curve joining 0 and B should be a straight line. According to Fermat's principle. and therefore the velocity acquired will be greater at least at the outset. Suppose that a particle starts from rest and is allowed to slide along a curve (Fig. Here John Bernoulli applied a brilliant thought. He said. Let us can sider.9 This says that the velocity acquired by an object which slides along a curve under the action of gravity and starts at the point (xo'Yo) with zero velocity is dependent only on the vertical distance fallen and is independent of the shape of the curve. but it certainly does not incorporate any condition about the curve being the one for which the time of travel is least. We learned in (1) that the velocity along the curve at a point (x. then. If a curve is used that is steeper at a than the line OB. The term brachistochrone means shortest time and it enters in the following way. (The arc length s is measured from (xo'Yo»' With this result at our disposal we can examine the proof that John Bernoulli (16671748) gave in 1697 of the brachistochrone property of the cycloid. in fact. Because our particle starts from rest at a and y : 0 at 0. the _o~ x y Figure 2 tangential acceleration caused by gravity will be greater. If the incipient velocity is greater and because the particle gains velocity as it travels along the curve.y) is the vertical distance traveled by the particle if it starts from rest. it may still take less time to traverse a curved path from 0 to B even though this curved path is longer than the straight line path from 0 to B. . light always takes the .We chao se the coordinate axes so that y is positive downward. 2) from a to B under the action of gravity. then by (I) (2) ds dt =: v= SlY . true for any curve.
4) within each of which the velocity is constant. to the (i+l)st layer in which the velocity o Vi B Figure 4 . we showed (formula (16) of Chapter 8) that when light passes from a medium in which its velocity is v to another in which its veloc1 ity is v2' then (3) Figure 3 = where ul and u2 are the angles of incidence and refraction and are the angles shown in Fig. However. Indeed. This is Snell's law of refraction of light. Now light changes speed when it passes from one medium into another. Bernoulli wished to consider the behavior of light when it travels with a continuously changing velocity. He therefore supposed that the space from 0 to B was broken up into a series of layers (Fig. we might obtain the clue to the solution of our problem. Perhaps if we analyzed how light travels when the velocity varies.10 least time. Note that if v2>v2' a2>u1• The law of refraction applies when there is a sudden or discontinuous change in the velocity of light. Suppose now that light passes from the ith layer in which the velocity is v. 3.
11 is vi+l' Let I)ibe the angle of incidence and Then according to (3) 0 1+1 the angle of refraction. Then (4) will hold at each boundary.y) is the angle that the tangent to y Figure 5 the curve at (x.= v sin 2 C't n =v n sin C't what this equation says is that (4 ) sin a. a. Let us now increase the number of layers between the level of 0 and the level of B. ~ =: constant. V. 5 that sin ex=: so that (5) becomes dx ds However. If the number of layers becomes infinite. each horizontal line between the horizontal through 0 and the horizontal through B becomes a boundary. so that =: 2 =. This equation holds at the boundary of each layer. we also see from . Moreover. if we think of light as following the curved path DB (Fig. Fig. and we have in place of (4) that (5) sin I) =: v constant where a and v are now fUnctions of y. the direction 0 of the incident and refracted light at any point (x.y) makes with the vertical. 5).
v= 1 B ds dx = .:: '\j C /1 + (~) dx 2 where B is some constant and C = liB. We now try to integrate (6).cos 2u)/2 so that f Sin u 2D sin u cos u du cos u . let us use the change of variable (7) Then x= or x = f20 sin2u duo The integral is readily evaluated by changing sin2u to (1 . of y.Y.J dx 2 I~ we solve for dy/dx. we obtain (6) where 0 is a new constant. We now use this fact in (2) and write C = elY . Thus through the study of light we have learned something about v.12 dx ds = constant v o~because dx/ds = l/(ds/dx).y In view of the presence of the radical.::::=::::. (9.:::::::. let us invert and write dx_~ dy so that x= Because the right side is a function 'II b y J ~ry~= dx 10 .
is least.cos 2u) 2 D as the parametric equations of the curve with u as the parameter. we must have xl"" R (o 1 . D = O. we did seek something that would make time of travel least. time. u Now. However. If the coord i. We do want the curve to pass through the given point B.Y1) when 8 "" 61.sin2u).cos 81) These equations do determine R and do it so that for this value of R the equations (9) will pass through (xl. x = o when y = 0 and when y= 0. which is an extension of the calculus.ng x and y. must be handled with the techniques of a branch of mathematics called the calculus of variations. let 2u = e and let D/2 = R so that the equations become (9) x = R (e  We can sin e) y = R (l . We note that it is a kind of minimum problem.na es of Bare t (xl'Y 1)' we want the eve 10id which for some va 1ue of e and some value of R yields (Xl.sin e 1) .13 x = ~(2u2 sin 2u) + C. Would you say that Bernoulli used an entirely mathematical argument to solve the brachistochrone problem? . However. in fact. Exercises 1. That is. we can equally well take the equations x = 2(2U . Then C = o and (8) We could now solve (7) for u and put this value of u in (8) to obtain the equation rel~. This problem is a peculiar one insofar as the calculus is concerned. we did not. Thus John Bernoulli showed that the cycloid is the curve along which a particle slides under the action of gravity from one point to another in least time. x = 2'(2u . We found a curve for which the dependent variable. as one does in the usual maxima and minima problems.cos e) and we can now see that the curve is a cycloid. That is.sin 2u) y = D sin2u = ~(l . Such problems cannot usually be done with the calculus and. find a value of x at which some dependent variable y is least.yl). The solution of the brachistochrone problem by means of the calculus proper was possible only because Bernoulli used an ingenious argument. Yl ""R(I .
14
2. would you say that Bernoulli was able to solve the brachistochrone by relying entirely upon mathematics and concepts of mechanics such as velocity and acceleration? 3. Specifically,'what did Bernoulli accomplish by introducing the motion of light? 4. What is the essence of the argument that the cycloid requires least time? Solutions 1. No. He used the physical fact that light takes the path requiring least time to obtain an important fact about the velocity of motion. 2. No.He used the principle of least time which as Bernoulli used it, is a principle of optics, not mechanics. 3. The key fact obtained by studying the motion of light is that v = C/Il+(dy/dx)2. This tells us how the velocity of the motion must be related to the slope of the curve along which the motion takes place if the time of travel is to be least. 4. There are two key ideas in Bernoulli's proof. The first is that for motion along a curve under the action of gravity (starting from rest) the velocity attained is v = where y is the vertical distance fallen. However, as the text points out, this fact holds for any curve. The problem is to single out the curve requiring least time. Here Bernoulli calls upon the behavior of light. The principle of least time implies the law of refraction (Chapter a, formula (16». The law of refraction extended to a continuous change ip the medium implies v = c/ll+(dy/dx)z. This equation relates the slope of the curve requiring least time to the velocity. However, the velocity is not uniquely fixed by this last equation. If we now add that the velocity at any level is 8/y, that is, the velocity determined by gravity, to the condition which least time imposes, we get enough information to determine the unique curve along which the particle must move.
alY
D. Kepler's
Laws. at formula (35), namely
In the text we arrived
(1)
p
=
l+e cos (9+a) ,
as the equation of the path of a planet which is attracted to the sun in accordance with the law of gravitation. We then sought to determine e, primarily, so that we could learn which conic section is the actual path. To simplify the work we adopted the initial conditions that at time t = 0 the planet is on the polar axis at a distance Po from the pole (which is the location of the sun) and that the planet has at t = 0 a velocity v which is perpendicular to the polar axis. These initial o conditions enabled us to determine the nature of the conic section and it turns out that whether the conic is an ellipse, parabola or hyperbola depends on the value of va.
15
One can, with the mathematics at our disposal, deduce a more general result which is of value to mathematical astronomers. Instead of supposing that Vo is perpendicular to the polar axis we allow it to make an angle A to that axis. The position of the planet at time t = 0 will still be on the polar axis at a distar.ce p from the sun. Moreover, o we do not suppose that the line from focus to directrix is the polar axis so that a need not be 0 or u. Under these more general initial conditions we can still determine e, as ~;e]l as a and h and we arrive at the surprising conclusion that only the magnitude of Vo but not the direction A wbich it makes with the polar axis determines the particular conic section. The derivation of this conclusion under the more general initial conditions is somewhat lengthy but elementary. Let us suppose that the planet starts out at some paint Po in space (fig. 6) whose distance Po from the sun at 0 is known. Further at Po supPolar axis Po
pose the planet has an initial spped Vo whose direction makes an angle A with the line joining
0 to P.
o
We
choese the polar axis of our polar coordinate system to be the line OP so that e is measured What these at from OP clockwise. (2)
a
tells
Figure
6
o initial conditions
counter
us is that
e
= 0, component of the velocity and v p
is the radial
(3 )
• isp,
then
where since then
(4 )
the subscript v sin A
0
in Po denotes
the value
of p at
e = O.
Likewise. and ve
is the transverse
component
of the velocity
=
p8
We must
8 is 0 but e is the time rate of change a 0 of e at e = 0 and this is not zero. We can determine h at once. By (19) of the text proper h = p2e. Since h is a constant we can use its value at 0 = O. Then by (4), understand in (4) that
(5)
enable
h
=
p v sin A . a0 involving a and e which e = 0 and so p = Po will
We are now going to obtain relations us to determine both. From (1) when
16
Po == GM (1+e cos from which \)e have, by solving h2 GMPo
p
cd
for e cos a,
e cos a == Then,
(6 )
 l.
in view
of
(5)
,
e cos a ==
o
v2sin2A 0
GM

1. to
If we could get a value for e sin a we would be able to use it and (6) find e and a separately. To involve sin a we go back to (I) and differentiate. The algebra is simpler if we first write (I) as
1
p
=
GM [ I +e co s (e +0,) ]
h
Now
(7 )
 fj'T de ==  'jiT e s a,n (8+0'.) •
8
1~
GM
.
By setting would ever,
=
0 we
can get an expression we do not know of Po or ~
but this for e sin 0'. the value at of O.
expression Howthat
do no good we have in
because that
(3) the value
e=
9.E. de
at
e = O.
suggests
This
we use the fact
~
By
de
=~
dt
dt de
•
(19) of the text
Q..e. _
proper,
dp
de  dt 11
result in
p2
Substitution
of this dp dt
(7) gives
=
GhM e sin (e +0'.).
and at
e=
0
Po
=
GM
h
e sLn
«
Then e sin 0'.
17
ar.d in view of (5) and (3)
(8)
esinct =
p "zsin A cos A
o
0
GM We square (6) and (8) and add. Then
With
(9 )
(6) and (8) we can obtain e.
GM To obtain a. we have but to divide (8) by (6).
( 10)
+
Thus
tan ct=
r: o v0s in A co s Z
A
Having obtained We can write (9) as
( 11)
(9) and {lOl, let us try to profit from them.
1+
P
v? sin 2 A
00
P VZ (....£._Q2). GM
Gl'1
If P v2/GM < 2, the quantity in parentheses will be negative, and because all other quantities are positive, e2, which is necessarily positive, will lie between 0 and 1. Then the conic section will be an ellipse. We may put this statement thus: (l2a) From (12b)
'f l..
o
0
v
o
j¥;GM < ,
Po
the path is an ellipse.
oa
(11) we also see that if P v2/GM  2 = 0, then e = 1, or if v
>
a
=~
l'
'V
Po
, the path is a parabola.
Finally, if p v2/GM
a
0
2, then e > 1, or o
> _/2GM
(12c)
if v
Po
, the path is a hyperbola.
We see, then, that only the magnitude of the initial velocity but not the direction determines the particular conic section that the attracted body follows. The shape and location of the particular conic section does depend on angle A but the fact that it is an ellipse, say, does not.
18
The problem solved in the text proper under the more specialized initial conditions or the same problem with the more general initial conditions treated here is known as the simplified or modified twobody problem. The simplification consists in assuming that the sun is fixed and that a single planet is attracted to the sun. Actually each body, sun and planet, attracts the other and both move. This more general problem and extensions to the threebody and nbody problems are treated in texts on celestial mechanics but the mathematics involves far more of the sUbject of differential equations than can be taken up in the calculus. Moreover, exact solutions cannot be obteined. August 1976 New York City Morris Kline
f(g2) = (glf+ 32)/(g2 + 4). The fallacy is that we cannot choose f(sin x) to be x sin x. 0) is not included. 5. The graph is the same as for y = [x]. f(4) = 6. Graph is the same as for k = h2 except that (0.7h.) = O.3) with the point (3.0).:) 1/ (l/x) = l/x .7 (2x) = 4x2 .+h) (x+h)a . (b) (c) (d) (g) (h) (rn) vertex (0. 16) is not included. 2. (b) A = TId2/4. 30 miles per hour is 30'5280/60·60 or 44 it/sec.(l/x)s = 3x . Graph is the same as for k = 9h + h2 except that (0. radius 1. f(2) = 22. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. Hence p = 2x + 2(4/x). fex) = x .1 except that (1.7x . £(9) = 162.14x. no. the positive root because real ~adii are positive lengths. 5. Graph is the same as for k = 16 + h except that the point (0. Upper half of circle. 9. £(2) = 5/3. £(17) has no value. £(2) = 14. CHAPTER 2. CHAPTER 2. £(9. Graph is the same as for k = h . 4 . 8. (a) A = TIr2. 10.7 (x+h) = = x2+ 2xh + h2 . 3. f (2x) = (2x)2 . SECTION 2 1. The limit is 3. See (3) of the text. Lower half of circle. . g(x) = (_X)4 + 2(_X)2 + 1 = x" + 2X2 + 1 = g(x) 13. Hence £(2) .(l/x) = x + l/x.(l/x). f(2) = 9 and g{2) = 15.Solutions Solutions to Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2.g(2) = 135. g(x) = (x) 3 = _x3 = g (x). Graph is the same as for k = 9 + h2 except that (0. feI) = 2. SECTION 1 1 1. £(0) = 9/7. r = ±/A/TI.0) is not included. Yes. Independent variable is ni dependent variable is A. Y = 0.9) is not included.x = £ (x).0) is not included. 6. opening upwards. t = v/32. Caution: The point (1.6) omitted. f'C. 12. 11. Hyperbola with asymptotes x = 3. 7. Repl~ce a in answers given by xo' 4. (a) Parabola. £(2) = 5/3. f(l/x) = 3/(1/x) . (b) f (l/x) = (1/>. 3.. Straight line through (3.3. Hence fex) = f{x). No. (a) f(x) = x .0) and (0. £(0) = 8. center (0. x = ±/y/S. radius 1.0).(l/x3). SECOND SET 2. f(O) = 0. 2. ~ Hence d = 44t.3) is not on the graph. center (0. 8. This is not a function of sin x alone but of x and sin x.0). Other side is 4/x. SECTION 1. The graph consists of two half lines emanating from the origin and extending diagonally upward to the left and to the right. 6..1'(3) = 26.
Sl)/(~ . (b) t1 = 4. because there is less and less time for the speed to change prior to the third second. CHAPTER 2. the limit of h2 as h approaches 0 is 0.Sl)/(t2 . The change in distance is 2. The limit concept. The average speed is the distance traveled during some interval of time divided by the interval. Thus distance traveled from t = 3 to t = 5 is 256 ft. the speed may change at any instant or instants during the next hour. 5 to 5. is 160 ft/sec. SECOND SET 1. t1 == 3. 128 ft/sec. CHAPTER 2. The result should be the same as that obtained in the text. The limit as h approaches is 1. For the purpose of finding the limit of 3h2/h2 as h approaches 0. 0. The limit. 0. Same method as in (a). 7. S = 5.t1) = 144 ft/sec. %. and 0. (c) Calculate the average speed for the interval 5 to 6. The quotient after division of numerator and denominator by h is 3h2 + 3h + 1. In the notation of Exercise 3. hence (S2. The limits are 0. the rate of change of distance is (S2.Sl. 40 50 6. SECTION 4 1. Sl = 16(3)2. Yes. To find the limit of the quotient we may divide numerator and denominator by h. 5 to 5. determined at this stage only by seeing what number the average speeds seem to be approaching. The limit as h approaches 0 is 1. 0.Sl)/(~ . S2 = 16(5)2. 2. The limits of the numerator and the denominator are 0 and 0.2 CHAPTER 2. The quotient is 3 and the limit of this quotient as h approaches is 3 because the quotient is always 3. S2. 0. Use (a) as the model.t. 0. The limits are 0. obtaining 3h + 1. t2 = 5. we may divide numerator and denominator by h2. SECTION 3. Same method as in (a).t1) == 80 ft/sec. Instantaneous speed is the speed at an instant of time and is obtained as a limit of average speeds as the interval of time which starts or ends at the instant approaches 0. Let the position be Sl at time t1 and S2 at time t2.). 1. SECTION 3. ° ° ° .1. hence (S2. namely 128 ft/sec. etc. As in (a) the limits of numerator and denominator are 0. (a) The limit of 3h2 as h approaches (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) is 0. The limits are 0. (a) t1 = 0. the rate of change of distance or average speed is 128 ft/sec. t2 = 5. The method is the same as in (a).01. Not necessarily. FIRST SET 1.
and k/h. and k/h = 192 + 16h. Moreover we can get 16at as close to 0 as we wish by taking At small enough.. 83.2 vh + 4 + 2 h " To obtain the Itmit as h approaches o. h Vi1""+4 + 2 _ h (Jll+If + 2) "" " 5. 16 20 (a) As. 4. The limit of 160 + 16h as h approaches 0 is 160.6At and th . (b) Yes. S3 + k = 128(3 + h) . This gives vh + 4 + 2.6(At)2. AS/At Iirnit as At approaches 0 is 20. here. (a) The value of s when t = 3 is 240 ft.6(4)2 . 42 = 144. AS/At = 32t + 16dt and the I" "t as at approaches 0 is 32t1• 1 inn 5. o we may divide numerator and denominator by h. however. . of whatever small quantity we wish.240)/1 = 16 ft/sec.2. however. (b) As = 16(4 + 1)2 . The limit of k/h as h approaches o is 32. Specifically we have but to let . S5 = 16(5)2. Paraphrase what is done in Section 4.::::16(t1 + At)2 . SECTION 10 Certainly 5 as at becomes smaller and smaller. = 160 + l6at = 20. (c) As = 16(4 + ~)2 .:::: 112. 3.8. here.:::: 16'32 = 144.:::: 160 + 16h.16h. they differ at h = O.::::16(3 + 1)2. = 32t1At + 16(At)2. l6at becomes smaller and smaller. As == 16(5 + . 6.f4 so that the limit is .3) = (256 . S5 + k . Now vh + 4 approaches . S6 + k = 16(6 + h)2.. 3.8At + 2. The limit of 96 + 16h as h approaches 0 is 96.vh + 4 .6ot)2 16 • 52 = 160At + 16(At)2" as/At as At approaches 0 is 160. because to determine the limit as h approaches 0 we consider the values of either function as h takes on values closer and closer to 0 but we do not consider the value h > O.16' 42 = 68. 83 + k = 16(3 + h)2..tbe Y.6(4 + At)2 . CHAPTER 2. As.16(3 + h) 2. ~s:= 2. (c) We go through the method of increments.3 2.:::: 20.:::: 16(5 + h)". The limit as h approaches 0 of 192 + 16h is 192. and k/h = 32 .16. and k/h = 96 + l6h.e . (b) The same process as in (a).16' 32 . to have 16at be that small quantity. Ss = 240. + 2.16t..6.8 and the I" irm it 4. (b) (S4 . (a) In the notation of the text.s3)/(4 .f4 + 2 or 4. (c) The same process as in (a). (a) No. Be = 16(6)2.
f) 26. The answer not in the text is b) 60 ft/sec. h) Xl' 2. ~x is the independent variable and ~y/~x is the dependent variable. D 6. The in~tantaneous rate of change A depends then on the length of t at the value Wl of w at which the rate is computed. the change ~A = ~~w. Hence AI:::: 2s1• The result is intuitively reasonable because it says that the area increases at the rate which is fixed by the lengths of two adjacent sides. 10.4(3)2 :::: 4~t + (~t)2. SECTION 6 1. Compare the discussion of (28) in the text. (b) (c) O. Thus (a) zxs > 4(3 + ~t)2 . 7 By taking ~t be 0. 3. A limit is a constant or fixed number. CHAPTER 2. 8. if t is kept fixed and w changes by an amount ~w. 1 1 2 4. . Since for y :::: x".01 and calculating ~s/ ~t. A limit is an exact value. (d) 10. ~y. 7. 11. The derivative of y = f(x) at x = Xo. yl::::2x1.432(5)2 :::: 320~t + 432(~t)2. £1 (xo) or yl or dy/dx evaluated at Xo. d) 160. ~s:::: 432(5 + ~t)2 . A1 + ~A :::: T(r1 t ~r)2. Al :::: Tr2. 60 Since A = f_ wand f_ is kept fixed dA/ dw = I/" Geometrically. 10.4 ~s/ ~t :::: 320 + 432~t and 4 the limit as ~t approaches 0 is 4320. Hence ~A :::: 1Trl~r + 1T(~r)2 ::::21001T ft. In each case use formula (30). the effect of the constant factor a in the a function is that it multiplies the derivative of x2. Use formula (30). ~y/~x. 4 %. Use the method of increments in each case and at the value of t stated. s'= 2ax. ~s/ ~t :::: 4 + ~t and the limit as 2 2 ~t approaches 0 is 24. 9. The third sentence merely rephrases the problem in mathematical terms. 50 A:::: S2. As these sides increase the area of the whole square increases and the rate of increase depends on the lengths of these two sides. 8. 9. The answers not in the text are: b) 128.
Y + L1y = c. d) d = 9. 7. the surface area of a sphere of radius r. 2. Hence Subtract since b y = bx. 4. 3. SECTION 7 1. (b) Same as (a) except that 5t replaces 32t.y= a(x1 + . Hence . + 6y = b(x+6x). ds/dt = v = lOt. hence s = 58 and ds/de = 5. Y1 + . (d) The instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at any value of x is 4x. 9.. The derivative of a function which is always constant (or of a constant term in a function) is O. lim L1ylL1x = O. (fl The instantaneous is 3x. L1x+o =:. dy/dx 6y = bL1x and lim L1y//J.CHAPTER 2. 6y/6x = 3. etc. rate of change y' of f(x) with = 2Xi (h) respect = 54x. Alternative characterizations are. (b) dy/dx = kx. = O. (c) The instantaneous rate of change of velocity with respect to time (or acceleration) at time t is 32. dV/dr = 4nr2. dy Idx = y' = b.6.x + 3ax1(Ax)2 + a(6. Then = yl That is.. The method of increment gives Ay/. (b) s = 6ti (d) dy/dx = 16x.x b . Ay/ Ax = 3axi + (3ax1 + aAx)Ax. 8. Here r = 5. Y1 = ax].x)3. Hence s= 3ax2. (a) The velocity (or instantaneous rate of change of distance with respect to time) at time t is 32t. (c) dy/dx = kx.X= 4ax~ + [6axi + 4ax1Ax + a(Ax)2]Ax from which the result follows. SECTION 8 1. to x (j) dy/dx = 15x. Subtract y = c. 10.X)3. (d) dA/dr = kr. Thus 1'= 4ax3. The argument is false.6. (el The instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x is 8x.. b) y'=4x. Acceleration equals v. The correct conjecture is that the derived function is obtained from the given function by multiplying by the exponent 4 and lowering the exponent by one to 3. It is true that the derivative of any function is defined at a fixed value of x and the function is constant at the value of x but if the function varies as x changes the function is not a constant for all values of x and its derivative need not be O. Then is a constant. v = 32. 6y = 0.. f) s = O.6.y= 3ax~6. (a) dy/dx = ny.6. Since v = 32t. for example: The derived function of s is 32t. 5. 2. (f) (1) yl = 21Tx. The formula for arc length is s = re where r is the radius of the circle and e is the central angle in radians. Y ~y/L1x = b. I1x+o O. y' CHAPTER 2. That is. 6.
Yes. When x = 1200. At x = 15.2 dollars. f' (2 ) ::: . His profit may be declining when dP/dx is negative but he may still be making money. No.6. SECTION 9 (b) (h) 2.6t. + The method of increments gives ~y/~x dy/dx = 2ax t b. We can argue that this must be the case for either of two reasons. S ::::100 + 32t.6 CHAPTER 2.T/. = 18 . Since T'is the limit of .6. (g) s ' = 7. dC/dx:::: lOx + 15. 5. As x increases by the is amount . since the formula gives the amount being produced of the third substance a negative rate is physically meaningless. . dP/dx = 4x .4 • For both functions y'= 2x. dC/dx = 1..004x. 7. must then be negative. 3. S = 328 ft/sec. As for (d). 9.. a 6. = 2axl + b. y' = 6/2'"x 13. At t = 4. (b) and (c) by letting t be 2. f' (x) s =' 20ti (e) y' "" 2x7.6.. . dC/dx = 6x .x negative.4.6. We have some evidence to the effect that the derivative of x2 + 5 is the sum of the derivatives of T and 5 and the derivative of 5 is O. 4. Hence the temperature must deT crease as the altitude increases. and 4 respectively. x 8. 10. The second reason is that the addition of a constant to x2 does not change the rate at which x2 varies because the constant does not change and so does not contribute to the rate of change. 11. f ' (2) = 4. dC/dx = 165.004. Hence we get the answers to (a). dC/dx = 6 .6. A low marginal cost means a cheap cost of production and so is desirable.6.. 3. If after a certain value of t the combination of the two separate substances stops and thereafter the third substance decomposes into the original two and if the original formula holds for the decomposition a negative rate could mean physically the rate at which the third substance is decreasing because it is decomposing.T/. Hence = 2x . T' or dT/ctx :::: 0. At all values of x. (f) y' = 2x+14.x. No.xnd T'ls negative it must be that ..6.
8==32. v==6==32. v for all parts. . SECTION 10 3. 32. {d) (j) § v + 100. (b) s >= a = 32.32. 40 y" = d2y/dx2 = O. (g) y" = 0. ==kv.7 CHAPTER 10 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2. (h) y"  2~. hence ==32. Same answer s ==32t s for s. d2s/dt2 ==32. d2s/dt2 is an alternate notation 6==v==32. S = 2. d2s/dt2 = = . = a = y = 6. 5. (e) y" = 8.
When the object reaches ground.3x + C. Hence s = 16t2 . Then C ::::1000. The object is at a height of 500 feet in. Since s :::: at t :::: . Thus C = 0 and v = S == 32t.1. v = .JTO/2. 0 :0 s .50t + C. a speed of 50 is imparted in the negative direction. Then s = 16t2 . Distance is measured from the ground upward. hence s = 1000 at t = O. O v == . v :::: 00. Hence s:::: 16t2 + lOOt + C. C = 0 and s :::: 6t2 0 0 1 + lOOt. the object 3 is 50 feet in the positive direction (t. s :::: (5. (n) s :::: 1.%/3x + C. Then v = .3/2)t2 + C. 2. Then C = 100 and s ::::OOt + C. As in No.3/2)t2 + 500. (d) Y == ~X2 + 7x + C. Then s 16t2 + 50.32t 0 2 . 8.(5.50 and s :::: 16t rection. The distance fallen in t seconds is the position at time t minus the original position and so is equal to (16t2 + 50) .a.320t + C. :0 CHAPTER 3. The balloon is stationary and the object is dropped. l 70 As in Exercise 3. Then v :::: 2t . s == 1000. 2. (0) y ::::. Since s = 0 at 3 t = 10. Thus s :::: 16t2 . v = 32t + C. The velocity at this time is v = 32(%JTIf) = 80mft/sec. There is no acceleration. (c) s == 8t2 + 50t + C. C ::::1600.Solutions to Chapter CHAPTER 3~ SECTION 1 3 1. At t = 0. S == 200 and so C = 200.32t + C. Thus C ::::0 and s :::: 6t2. a :::: 5. v = 32t + Co Since at t :::: .32t and s :::: 16t2 + C.25t . then when t = 0. v :::: 5.32t + C. and s = 16t2 + 1000. Then s = 16t2 + C. Hence a = 32. Then C = 100 and v :::: 2t 1 3 + 100. As in Exercise 3. SECTION 2 1. Choosethe downward direction as positive for distance traveled.the positive direction at t = O. 1 thus t = . Then at t :::: . Distance is measured upwards. At the instant of release. below the roof). Then a :::: == 32 and v = 32t + C.3. (d) v == . Measuring t from the instant of release. (g) (g) y = 50x. (f) y 3. we V have v :::: when t'= O. Thus s = 50 when t = 0 and so C = 50.50t + 200.~X2 + C. the height is 200 in the positive di. v :::: 00 When t :::: .J1000/16 == 5.320. Since v :::: at t :::: 0 (the time of release). v = 32t + C. 0 1 C = . Hence v :::: 50 at t :::: and C :::: 50. (p) Y ::::f6x2 ::::("rz/2) t2 + 50t + C.6t + C. 40 As in exercise 1. (f) y = . Thus s ::::OOt. 6.(12/2) x2 + 8x + C.{x2 + C. a positive velocity of 100 is 0 imparted to the object.50 :::: 6t2.. Then C = 0.(12/2) t2 + C. v :::: 2t and s = 16t2 + C. If s 0 is measured from the point at which the object is released then s = 0 at t == O.[3t2+ 5t + C. (k) s :::: 0t . 50 As in Exercise 1. (1) s 5 2 + 1. . Hence v = 0 at t :::: . Then a = 0 and v = = C.3t. (b) y:::: 5x + C.320. Since the initial speed is 100.320t + 1600. If s is to be 1 O l distance traveled then s = 0 at t == O. At t == 0. Thus s = . (h) Y ::::25x2. 1 3.
Then f 16(12.C. 13. Then v = 4f3 t + C. Hence C = (5/2)vo + 100 and s = 16t2 + vot . We have for it a := 32. At this time s = l/a. If we measure s from the point at which the brakes are applied then s = when t= and C = 0. Hence Vo = 32(5/2) + C or C := Vo .66.32.5)(5/2)vo+l00.5)80{12.v = vo. This yields a = 20. v = 0. For the first drop we have v = and s = at t = 0. 45 miles per hour is 66 ft/sec. At t = 2 (i. Measuring t and s from the time and point when the plane touches ground. At t = 1. We measure time from the instant the first body is dropped. This problem 100 Yes. If we substitute this value of t in the expression for s we obtain s = 1633. 9. Hence C = 16. At t := 5/2. v :=:: at + 100 and s = % at" + lOOt.5 sec.32 and so 2 v = 32t .5) = 16(12. 11. thus t = 100/a. When the plane stops. This occurs when t = 49. thus s = 16t2• For the second drop.000 nn /hr". Then s =_%t2 I. Denote the unknown acceleration by a. hence the deceleration is 20. s = O. With this mean or average velocity the distance traveled in T seconds is 16T· T and this is the same result. s = O.. We could start with . e.a and a positive and obtain the same result. Now when t = 12. Thus v =%t I. 14.5)2 + vo(12.80. 1 second after the second drop is released) we have 16.9 is a rewording of exercise 1.22 . Hence Vo = 90 ft/sec.(16. The mean velocity.BOt + C. the distance fallen in time T is s == 16T2.% t2 + 66t.80. between t = 0 and t r= T is (0 + 32T)/2 := 16T.66t I. The second body is projected downward with some initial velocity Vo at t := 5/2. hence v = 32t := C. Now taking the positive direction of distance to be that in which the train is running.SOt (5/2)vo + 100. If we measure time from the instant the brakes are applied then v = 66 when t= and C = 66. Hence C = . hence we obtain the equation l/a = V2 a(1 00/ a)2 + 100 (1 DO/a) for a.000. Thus s = . By Exercise ° ° ° °° ° . v = 32t + C.32t + 16.5 the two distances fallen must be equal. The train runs until v = 0.22 . Since the body is dropped the time to fall 100 feet is given by 100 = 16t2 or t = 5/2. 1. At t = 5/2.32t + C.32·2 + 16) = 48 ft. Then v = 32t + vo . a = %. V. Then s = 16t2 . Integrating gives s = l6t2 + vot . Now s = 16t . But v = when t = 1.5 ft. 12.
5(21T).21T/ a)2 + 21T(. Let e be measured from the position of the object at t = O. s s e e Re . (e) &. Since == 0 when t = 0 then C = O. If we measure () from the instant when the friction applies (t = 0) then C == 0 and () = (a/2)t2 + 21Tt. () = 12. W == at + C. Hence ()= V2 at2 + 21Tt + C. At t = 15.0' = % rt /sec". (a) Since s = RG. Then B = 0 when t = 0 and () = (a/2)t2• When t = 120 sec. ~ : tOO ft/sec. Now w == B. (b) From = RB we have = RiJ = Ro. Then 72001T = (a/2)(120)2 or a = 1Tr ad Zsec". Then a = 21T rad/sec2 and at t = 5. Hence an equation for a is 10· 21T = 1/2 a(. e = 21T' 5 = 101T rad/sec. s = Re. Then B = at + C. The wheel stops when t = 21T/a and ()= 10· 21T. (d) As in part (c). Hence 100 = 600a or . Then B = at and () = (a/2)t2 + C. The wheel comes to rest when w = 0 and t = .21T/ a) or a = 1T /10. Hence iJ = at. hence W = at + 21T.10 15. (f) W= a. = a.Ya t. W = 21T. v = = 1· at.21T/ a. v = % ft/sec and ()= % rad/sec.. Then v = % t and () . = at and ()= (Q1/2)t2. Here when t = 5. (e) w = a. For t = 10 min = 600 sec. At t == 0. () = 3600· 21T radians.
Follow the derivation of (27) except that Vo replaces 128 and g replaces 32. Then v = 32t 2 + 460.1400 :::::: 16(t . Hence C:::::: 360. Hence C :::: and S:::::: .(5. The object is at a height of 512 ft both on its ascent and on its descent. At t:::::: .(5. 3. v =32 and so v =32t + C.3 sec approx.11 CHAPTER 3.16t2 + 200t.32t + 96 and s = 16t2 + 96t. SECTION 3 1. Hence t:::::: and t:::::: The value t = 6 is the value at which the stone hits 0 6. Use the result of Ex. s = O. But at t:::: 9. Follow the der ivation of (27) except that 160 r eplac es 128. Then s = . 320 10.3t + C and since v::::96 when t :::: . As in the derivation of (2 5) and (27) v s= . Maximum height occurs when v == 0. 11. . By following the derivation of (27)except that 96 replaces 128 we have v == . Hence C:::::: 460.5 ft. :::::: 2 + 460t . V:::::: . the two avalues are 16t equal. Thus at t = 5 this height is 240 ft. i. s = 869. hence the distance traveled is the maximum hei9ht plu~ the distance traveled downward after reaching the max~mum he~ght or 272 ft (compare figure 33). s = 0 when t = 5. O. 4. v :::::: 300. 6. s == 15. v > .1900. v = 200. Hence the object has just returned to the ground.3/2)t2 + 96t. 8 except that g > 32. At t:::: 5.5. v == S = 144 . However.5). at t = lUO%2 and at this value of t. Now s =16t + 460t + C.e. Hence s = 16t2 + 360t . We obtain t == 4 and 8. 8. 2 . at t = 5. If we substitute this value of t in either formula for s we obtain 606 ft approx. At the maximum height v:::::: or t = 96/5. Then t:::: 7. Here at t == 5.1 sec. v:::::: 96. s:::::: Then C = 1900 and s 5 O. At this value of t. If s is measured from the ground up. hence at t == 9. For the second objeet. 5. Then v :::::: 32t + 360 and s == 16t2 + 360t + C.32t + 1000.32 and and so v==32t + C. Then C :::::: 1400. This is the number of seconds after the first object is thrown up. If s is measured from the surface then s == 0 when t = O. Thus s » vot .. Let s == 512 and solve for t. Note that this is the same as the initial velocity but of opposite sign.16t + 1000t.625 ft.3 0 0 = 18. At t = 6. the ground. Formula (27) gives the height above ground. s :::::: Hence vo:::::: ft/sec.3/2)t2 0 + 96t + C. Here a > V :::::: 5.16t2• When t:::::: 20.3t + 96. When the two objects meet. For the first object if we follow the derivation of (27) except that 200 replaces 128 we have s::::.3 if we take the upward direction as positive.5)2 + 200(t . 9. 7. s r= . the object is headed downward. When the stone reaches the ground s :::::: O. Then v :::: 5. v = 144 ft/sec.32t.
The train comes to rest when v = 0 and so t = % and s = . As in the derivation of (25) and (ZJ) except that Voreplaces 128 we have v = 32t + Voand s = 16t2 + vot.16(V/32)2 + V(V132) = V2/64. Then s = 16t2 + 176t + C. 17. when s = 0. 180 (a) v = . For this value of s. The height of 1. 20. At this value of t. t = 7. 15. Hence Vo= BOliO ft/sec. Since s = 16t2 + 96t + 112. At the maximum height v = 0 and t = V/32. During the second portion of the trip which lasts for some unknown time tl. After the fuel is exhausted. Thus v =12t + 20 and s =6t2 + 20t + c. (b) When the ball reaches the ground s = O. Then s = 16t2 + 96t. a = 'Ii = 11. From (29)we have 0 = 16t2 + 128t or t = B. When it reaches the ground s = O. v = 176 when t = O. Then v = 8t and s = 4t2 + C. The deceleration stage of the trip is best treated separately. Then s = . Then s = . s = 16t2+ Vt. If we measure this s from the point where the deceleration begins then s = 0 when t = 0 and so C = O. v = 20 and C = 20. Since the train starts from rest v = 0 when t = 0 so that C = O. Then when t = 0. s = 112 when t = O. Then t = 8 and for this t. Then C = 112. If distance is measured from the point where deceleration begins then s = 0 when t = 0 and C = O. We start with = a so that v = at + C. (b) When the ball reaches the ground s = 112. 13. t = % and s = 25. Thus the total distance traveled is 25 + 20tl + 504 and this equals 400 ft.6t2 + 20t.000ft is to be the maximum height. This Exercise is just a rewording of Exercise 12. Hence 1000 = 16(vo/32)2 + vo(vo/32). Thus C = 52800 and s = 16t2 + 176t + 52800. The other root t = 1 has no physical significance here. (a) We follow the derivation of (25) and (27) except that 96 replaces 128 and height is measured from the roof. v = O. Then s = _1~t2 + 88t. When v = 20. If t is measured from the instant deceleration begins then v = 88 when t = 0 and so C = 88. the additional distance covered is 81 = 20tl. If time is measured from the instant the fuel is exhausted.6(%)2+ 20(%) = 5%. Hence it takes 4 seconds to go from maximum height to the ground. Then v = 11t + C.12 12. s = 352 ft.32t + 176. If we measure s from the first station s = 0 when t = 0 and so s = 4t2. When the object comes to rest. Then v = l1t + 88 and s = _1l~t2 + 8Bt + C. If the distance is measured from the ground then s = 52BOO when t = O. As in the derivation of (25) and (27) except that V replaces 128 we obtain v =32t + V. 19. We found in the text that it takes 4 seconds for the ball to reach maximum height. a = 32. There v = 0 so that t = vo/32. We have 'Ii = 12 and v = 12t + Cp Let us measure t from the instant the deceleration begins. t = 7. + 16. v . S is to be 1000. 14.32t + 96. If height is measured from the ground and since t is already measured from the instant the ball is thrown up. v = 32t + C. Then tl = 21%2'The total time traveled is % + 21%2 51s = 22%2 sec. Then C = 176 and v = . Then s = 16t2 + 96t + C.
v == and s == ft ft2/2 if time is measured from the beginning of the trip and distance likewise.000 ft above the ground. Then s 0.(t3/6) + C and since x == when t = 0. a =32. 27. 23. approx. If we substitute the two values of t in the formula for v we obtain v = ± . For the second part of the trip. v == 32t. 24. For this t either formula for s gives 126 ft.vg. The numerical values of v are the same. Here a = . Note that ° ° ° . During the first part of the a == f.441s. During the one second of reaction time the car travels Vo T. Then t = 3. away horizontally from the point at which the bomb is released and 10. Then s == 2 + 184t . s == 16t 456 ft. (vo But v= Vo.3 sec appr ox. x = 9t .32t + 1500. When t == 0 (the instant the bomb is released) v = 1500. v = Vowhen t == O. When the two 16t bodies meet their avalues are equal. s = vot . When the trip ends v == or rt + (f + r)tl == O. C == 184 and v == 32t + 184. Take the downward direction as positive.2gso)/g. Then 5 == 2 + 184t + C. that is. When the car stops v == and t =:. Then s == 16t2 + 1500t + c. == 2 .304. a = r and v = rt + C.e select any value So of s and solve for t we obtain t == ± ".2gso. namely. When t == s == tv ft~/2.000 ft. Suppose the first part of the trip lasts t1 seconds. . IfJw. Then C == . Then v = at + Voand s = aF/2 + vot + C.32. Then s =5t2/2 + 44t + C. (b) Mter 100 sec the bomber will be 120.gt. 26. If distance is measured from the point where the brakes are applied. 4. 22.gt2/2. If we solve for t we obtain about 100 sec.6 ft.5 and v == 5t + C. then C == At t == x = 25% 0. v =32t + C and since v == 120 when t = 2.000)2 or about 24 miles. gms. When t = 6. After braking v = a and v =:= at + C.1(120. Hence its distance from the bomb will be given by the Pythagorean theorem. Then v==32t20 and s=16t220t+C.000)2 + (10. s == 2 + 300. Then when t == v == and so C = (f + r)tl. a == so that v = 32t + C. If we measure height from the ground then s == 10000 when t == 0 and so s == 16t2 + 1500t + 10000. For the first body.(a/2) (vo/a)2 + vo(vo/a) = v~/2a. When the bomb reaches the ground s =:.13 21.304. Hence 16t2 + 300 == 2 + 184t 16t . s = 0 when t = 0 and so s = ato/2 + vot. (a) a == 32 and so v == 32t + C. Hence C == 1500 and v == . 0 0 0 In this time the distance traveled is 193. 28. If s is measured from the balloon then at t == s == and C = O. If we substitute this value of tl in the expr esston for s we obtain s > [fr/(f + r)Jt2/2. v==20 and so C=20. If time is measured from the instant the brakes are applied.Jvg . if time is measured from the instant it is dropped and distance from the ground up.20t. s = . a = .5t2/2 + 44t. If 44 distance is measured from the point at which the brakes are applied then s == when t == and s = .(ti /2)(f + r). When 32 t=O. For the 16t second body. For this second body s == 16t when t = 2 and so C = 304. We can use the general result of Exercise 8. If time is measured from the instant of braking v == when t = 0 and so v ==5t + 44.O. Then for this t. (after the first body is dropped). 25. Now t is specified so that 0 tl == rt/(t + r) . Then v = rt + (f + r)tl tv ftl and s == rta/2 + (f + r)tl t + C. The car stops when v = 0 or t = vola.
Hence at x = 0 there is a relative minimum. (i) f(x) = xixI.46 2. At x = 2. s= 2(x l)(x + 1)2 + 2 (x + 1)(x .2x) (xI)2. Hence there is a relative minimum of O. say 3/4. Hence there 1. s': 16. Possible values / / are x = 0 and x = 2. £' (x) = (x/2/xl) + lxI. fl (x) changes from positive to negative.l/x2. At x :::: .sa relat1. Hence there are no maxima and minima. y continually decreases.1)2/3 is positive for every value of x and this is subtracted from 3. the behavior of. Hence there is a relative maximum of 4.1)1/3~ This y'is never O. f' (x) = 4xa• Hence x = 0 is a possible value. At x = 3.2/3(x . But the function has no real value at x = 2/3. f~ (x) does change from negative to positive around x = O. f'(x) actually de a relative maximum: at x = 1 there is a relative maximum. (a) The function y = x is an example. say 5/4.1)2 = 4x(x + l)(x . 4. s' changes from + to . at x = 1 there is a relative maximum.= 3x(x 2). At x r= 0. At x = 0. This is the absolute maximum. (g) f(x) = x~. However the function may have a relative maximum or minimum where the derivative fails to exist. The least we can subtract is 0 and this occurs when x = 1. hence there is a relative minimum at x ~ 1. Hence x = 3 is a possible relative maximum or minimum. 3. At ~ = 2. As x increases or decreases from the value of 1. 5. (j) f (x) = x2. f' (x) changes from negative to positive.to +. Hence the 0 relative maximum of 16 is also the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum is 7. y = 7 and at x = 5. y = 12. s' changes from + to . Hence there is a relative maximum at x = l~ At x =1. ft (x) = 1 . y'changes from . At x = 1. Hence x = 1 and x = 1 are possible values.nimum there. Then y = 3 is a relative maximum. At x = 1. s' changes from + to . Hence there is a relative minimum and its value is 0. Y = 20. At x = 0.to +. fl (x) is positive and for x slightly more than 1. f' (~) ch~nges from negative to positive. f I (x) = (x2. The absolute maxima and minima may occur at the end values 0 and 5. Here as x increases. Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 1. At x = 2. s' changes from .. Now f' (x) = 0 at x = 2/3. Here y/= . We see that (x .ve mJ. f~ (x) is negative.~or x slightly less than 1. (a) v= 2x + 6. However y = _x2 in the interval from _00 to 0 isa better example.y/is as at x = 1 and the relative minimum is again 0. (b) '1.1). This is the absolute minimum. (xI). . At x = 4. Hence there is a relative maximum there. (h) f(x) = x + l/x. Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 16.
Bur sin A = OQ/OP. At any given time t the bead which falls straight down falls some distance OP. Note that the velocity at the bottom is the same if the height from which the object descends is the same. t1= £1/4.: 8. 6(b) below. (b) We use (34) in which sin A is now h/£ and t ~. that is. . 7 was not restricted to any specific angle A.14 So must be a value actually attained by the object or the values of t and of v will be complex. Since s = vot . The distance OQ that the obJect sl1des 1n time t is OQ = 16(OP/16)sin A. Then t1 2 = £2/£1' (b) By Ex.2588 and t = 10. Yes.2588 to calculate t. 5 (b) both velocities are Svh. If s is the distance the object slides.Ji1 and t2 = _e_. 9. In this time the object sliding from 0 to Q will reach Q. By Ex.Ji1. . We start with (33). Hence v = 80 ft/sec. Then sin A = OQ/OP. £/4111. But the argument in Ex. Then v = s. For the motion along Op' we. To calculate the velocity we use (34)wherein A =. We use (35) to calculate the time. The result is approximately 10 sec. Again from Exercise 8. To attain twice this maximum height we must replace Vo by v'2vo• CHAPTER 3. Then X OPR is A by the use of right triangles. Now use (35) with s = 386 and A = . At t = 0. At t =0. Hence Q = Rand Q lies on the circle. ••• all lie on the same circle. 29. The only change over Exercise 2 is that A is 15°. 4. a= 32 sinA. s = 16t2sin A. s = 386. Q lies on a circle with OP as diameter. In (35) s = 200 and A = 30 Hence 200 ::= 8t2 and t = 5 sec.gt and at the maximum height v = 0 so that t = vo/g.30° and t = 5. 7. namely. 0. 5. We use (35) in which sin A = h/£ and s = t . 1. SECTION 4 1. . 7). Suppose Q is not on 1 the circle but R on OP 1 is. 3. Here sin A = h/~.. The rest is the same as in Exercise 1. s = O. If we consider circles with 0 as highest point (so that the diameters are all vertical line segments from 0 downward) the smallest of these circles which reaches C is the one which first touches it as the circles expand from O. 5 (a). /t 4. We then use (34) with sin A = .gto/2 we find that the maximum height is v~/2g. 7. Since sin 15° = . (a) 6.2588.J41h. Hence Q'. See Ex. Hence sin 15° = 100/S. 10. v = Vo . 2. From the formula s = 16t2 we find that the time to fall the distance OP is tl = /iJP/4. The time for a bead to fall straight down will be least for this circle as compared with larger ones because for anyone circle there is a time value to reach it and the time increases with the diameter (See Ex. Then sin A = OR/OP. Then £ = 16t2h/£ or t = Q /4vh. Qi1. Then C = Vo and v = 32t sinA + Yo' Integrating gives s = 16t sin A + vot + C. Hence s = 16t2 sin A + vot. Then v = 32tsinA + C. (a) By Ex. Here if the value of t were calculated very accurately we would get the same 80 ft/sec as in Ex. then sin 30° = 100/s or s = 200 ft. 2 v = va.use (3~).
. If we use Fig. 3AI. The lengths are 134. APPENDIX.xl)/2] + Xl == (xl + x2)/2. AB = 10.J89. 5. Ya and Y2 are parallel lines and Yg cuts PlP2 in half. (d) JUf. 134 and 1:36. 4. Xl 2. Then it must cut the other transversal RS in half and so Xg == [(X2 . Further Yg is the median of the isosceles trapezoid RP1P28 and so is (Yl + y2)/2. Be = 1125. (b) . SECTION 2 1. locate the midpoint (Xg. Formula (1) is unaltered if x2 and and Y2 and Yl are interchanged. AC = 1125. 3.IS CHAPTER 3. Ya) on the line segment P1P2' and draw Ya we find that Yl.
4/9. %. 5.. 2. (5+513) / (55/:5). APPENDIX.). In each case we have but to find the tangent of the given angle. Thus only (b) is a right triangle. SECTION 5 1. %. Then the inclination is 59° (approx. The slope of the perpendicular is . APPENDIX. If two sides have slopes which are negative other (a) (d) (5135) / (5/J5). 4/3. 4/9. CHAPTER 3. the triangle is a right triangle. SECTION 3 10 Formula (2) applies in each case: (b) (d) (f) No slope. 1. 1. 9.. APPENDIX.16 CHAPTER 3. CHAPTER 3. The slope of each line is found by using formula (2) and we then find the angle A whose tangent is the slope. 9j4. 3. The slope of the first line is 3~ and the slope of the second one is Each slope is the negative reciprocal of the other. .). SECTION 4 1. 3. (b) 3/4. 2. Hence any perpendicular has slope % or 1. In each case we have but to find the angle whose tangent is given. By using (2) we find that both lines have a slope of % and so are parallel. The slopes of the sides' are 3/7 f 2. 6. Hence 153°30' . then the perpendicular line has slope lor inclination 135°. The given line has slope 0/. 4.1666. 7. ~21a. The given line has slope 1. (c) 1/2. reciprocals of each The slopes are 6/5. 3/7 t 2.~ and the inclination is the angle whose tangent is ~ or the angle whose supplement is 26°30' (approx.
(a) (b) CHAPTER 3. (a) We solve the given equation for y. The result can be obtained from a figure at once.). CHAPTER 3. with y = lUX + b we have the answers.3) does not lie on the line.3. and () == 105°.6 = 1(x . (b).8) lies on this line we substitute 5 for x and 8 for y. 1.0) must lie on Ax. APPENDIX. FmST SET 1. y =_3/4X. Then find B. 5. Hence the desired line has slope %.4).1). (c) Let ffi2 == 2 and ffi1 = 3 and use (7).6) and (4.2 = 3(x .7). Then tan B ==3. SECTION 7. (b) We substitute 2 for x and 3 for y in y . The given line has slope . Since (0. ill l = 1. 1 and use (7). 4. The equation is 5(x not satisfied and so (2'. The slope is Hence find e for which tan e = Hence e += 146° 20' (approx. SECOND SET 1. 7. . (c) As in (a). . The slopes of the two given lines are % and %. 9. and (c) use (8) and merely substitute the given values. As in (a). (d) use (8) or (9). Then m = % and b = .%.7 approx.17 CHAPTER 3. %.5). We find the equation of the line determined by (3.3). Since tan 30° = 13/3 and tan 135° = 1. Let 002 == . The slope is 1 and so the equation is y . y :=: %x . 3.1). Then the desired equation is y + 1 = 1/3(X . Then m =_8/4 and b = 0. For (a). then y = %x (b) 2. 8. Hence the desired line is y . To show that (5. SECTION 6 Use formula (7) with ffi2 = 4 and m. 0 + B . SECTION 7. (b) The desired line must have slope %.3) and the equation is satisfied. 2. Use (7) with ffi:l = % and . APPENDIX. 2.6 == 1(5 . 3. Then 8 .2 == 1/a(x . The line 3x + y + 7 = 0 has slope . Now use (8). %. By comparison. Since the given lines. APPENDIX.%.¥s and ffi1::::.'Ys. 4. The two given lines have slopes of % and 10. The first line has slope 1 and the second.0. let 001 = 13/3 and m2 = 1. Parallel to the xaxis and 3 units above it. These slopes are negative reciprocals. (a) Use (8). 5. (a) The desired line must also have slope 2. now use (7) with m1:=: 3 and ffiz = 2. = 3. + By + C == 0. The slope of the first line is A/B and of the second a/b. y . A. have slopes 3 and 2.71t.3. 6. Hence by (8). Then the equality of these two slopes gives the result.0 + C = 0. and use (7). . by (9). In (9) b is 5.2 ::::.
. l Xl ::::. y)'s along the straight line. A::::. The equation of a curve (including straight lines)isan equation involving x..18 10. 4. 2.. 3. Hence r is not fixed as we choose different (x. For a fixed curve only x and y can vary. (a) A/B ~ 3/2~ (b) A ~ (1/4)C and B ~ 1/3C~ (e) C ~ O~ 12. Thus for (b). substituted in the equation. B == 1. and C ::::. y and constants. A method is given in the problem. (d) A = O~ (e) B~ O. 2. In the equation x2 + y2::::. r must change with x and y if any given x and yare r2. APPENDIX. In each case we use formula (14). CHAPTER 3... 11. Y ::::. SECTION 8 1. . Only in (a) do the three given points lie on one line.
then find A. decreases to zero at the crest. perpendicular to the wall and so direct impact. In each case find the slope of the tangent and since m = tan A. 9. the values of y' at x = 0. The slope is given by the derivative. Hence the object is moving downward at x = 3.6(x + 3) or y = 6x . (d) 0°. (b) Y = .5. this is also the slope at x = . the slope is 48. SECTION 4 1. 3. (al p = 5/2. Thus at this point the object is moving horizontally. then increases to zero at the trough. Since y'= 3x2. For (a) y I = x/50.6. then becomes negative. Thus (a) y l= 2x.Solutions to Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4.4.3. (c) 104°2'. (d) O.2x . 3.4 or at the point (.4.9. Y = 9 has slope .== %0' (b) x = 5. 5. Thus the tangent thru x = . the notion of slope presupposes that we consider whether the line rises or falls as we go from left to right. Then tan A = 6 and A = 80° 32' (approx. y' =6. 7. . Y '= 8. Then the inclination is 97°7'. Le . 0 • CHAPTER 4. (c) 2. 3. S = 16. y'= O. At any given x value their tangents are parallel. 8. and then becomes positive. Thus (a) s = 8t and at t = 2. 4. 14. The derivative is positive at x = a. 10. (b) 89° 7'. that is. and '1 are 0. 6.9 = . hence y == (l/lO)xz. This function does not have the same value for two distinct values of x. at t = b. (a)y'=x. At x = 3. at maximum point. The slope of the tangent at any point x is 3x2• At x = 4. (a) y' = 2x. At x = 3. at x = 3. 1.. The value of the slope of the tangent to the curve at any point x is given by 2x. 11.). Since y '= 8x + 16. In each case find the derivative at the given value of the independent variable. These values also distinguish the sense of the motion. y'= 8 + 16. (b) p = 1. 12. y . Hence the equation of the tangent is y . The two curves are the same except that one is 5 units above the other. (e) 0 The direction of motion is given by the slope or the inclination of the tangent. At x = 2. (b) y=k(yl)Z (C)yf=l~(y/X). At t = 0. SECTION 3 2. (b) 4.64). 13. hence y = (1/6)x z .
4)2 + (y . latus rectum 8. substitute 1400 for x and 148 for y to determine p. P = 1/2. 415 ar e p less than those in Fig. Then the width of the parabola is 4p. (c) x = (2/9)y2. 0). Hence the focus is (0.20 2. 8.4" directrix y = 4. focus (9/8. Then one point on the parabola is x :::: 400 and y = 148.0). and we solve for x. Hence the clearance is only 32%5 feet. To obtain the equation directly let (x. y) are the coordinates of any point on the parabola then . (a) The tangent line at x = Xo is Y. (b) x (1/8)y2. the focus is at (O. P = 2~ (e) Form is x = (1/4p)y2. directrix x = 9/8.0)2 = Y + 8. (b) Draw the straight line between the points (xo. 13. The width across the entire parabola at the height of the focus is then 12.p. directrix y = 1/3.6. Then y = 37x2/490.21%5' The roadway lies along y = . The righthand wheels of the truck are at x r= 23. latus rectum 9/2~ (d) y = (3/4)x2. (b) Each yvalue of y = 3x2 is 3 times as large as the yvalue of y = x2 for the same xvalue . Then v(x . = . Simplifying gives the answer in the text. latus rectum 4/3. 412. 415 = = = 9. P = 1/3. 6. If the axes are chosen so that the origin is at the center (top) of the arch. The points on the parabola at the same height are obtained by letting y = p in the equation so that x = ± 2p. 4. directrix x 2.x~/4p) and (xo/2. (a) y = (1/16)x2.. Since the form of the 1 equation is y::: (1/4p)x2. y) be any paint on the parabola. Since the point (25. 7. Thus y = (x + 6)2 is obtained from y = X'2 by shifting or translating the latter 6 units to the left. If (x.f(x . One would expect that y should be replaced by y in (9). Then each xvalue is 6 units to the left of the x'value.25. focus {O. For any parabola of the form y = (1/4p)x2. 11. Then y = (1/4p)x2. P 2. latus rectum 16.3). 3. Then the yvalue of the point on the arch whose x value is 23 is .0)2 + (y . 4p = 25 and the equation of the arch is y::::x2/25. (a) All the yvalues of y = x2 + 6 are 6 units above those of y = x2. focus (2. 4.p). One would expect that the x and y axes are interchanged in (9). the equation of the arch is of the form y =x2/4p. 12. This line cuts p) the xaxi s at x = xo/2 because y::::0 there.25) lies on the arch. (c) If we write y = (x + 6)2 as y = X'2 where x' = x + 6 we see that x = x'.xo). P = 9/8. focus (0. 5. Then the directrix is y = 3.0)2 Y + 2p. with Fig.0). whereas the truck needs 10 ft. 10. p = 3. Choose axes so that the origin is at the lowest point or vertex of the parabola. P = 4. (a) Form is x = (1/4p)y2~ P = 5~ (b) Form is y = (1/4p)x .OOO. If we compare Fig.3) and Since the focus is (0. we let y::: 3 in y = 1/12x2 and obtain x = 6.3) and the righthand point on the parabola at that height is (x.12 we see that the yvalues in Fig.(xg/4 = (xo/2p)(x .1/3). Compare formula (9).
In finding the slope of the tangent line to the parabola.x~/4p).xo). (a). Then the sum of the supplement of LD'QF and the supplement of LDPF is 180°. If we use the fact that Yo= x~/4p we find that y = 0 or the two lines intersect on the xaxis. Then fil ~ slope of t ~ 0.xo) and the equation of the perpendicular is y . SECTION 5. 3 we find that tan a = 2p/Yl and tan S = 2p/YL' Hence a = S. Then PD is the reflected ray and this is parallel to the xaxts. fi2 = slope of t = 2p/YLi m3 = slope of s = 4PYl/{yi = 4p2). Suppose (Fig. (b) The normal has slope 2p/xo and passes thru (xo.xo). Then ~e remaining angle at R must also be 90°.x~/4p = (xo/2p)(x . hence y = x2/60. No. The tangent line at x = Xo is Y. . It is better to take the parabola in the position shown here. 15. Thus the equation of the normal is y . 423) FP is a ray starting from the focus.x~/4p = (2p/xoHx . To do this take the value of x from the second equation and substitute it in the first one. Let P have coordinates (xo. Assume that the coordinate system is as in Exercise 12. 417 with Fig.(x~/4p) = (xo/2p)(x . All we need to show is that the yvalue of the point of intersection is po 17. 412. where R is the intersection of the tangents.4p2/xo' Now solve the first two equations simultaneously and use the relation between Xo and Xl" When solving take the value of X from one equation and substitute in the other. CHAPTER 4. 1. Thus LDiQF +LDPF = 180°. It then'follows that the coordinates of R are (0.0) which is the vertex.. 4. By the law of reflection onehalf of this sum lies inside the triangle QPR.0). FrnST SET 2. Likewise QDP is parallel to the axis. The point Q has coordinates (0. We solve these last two equations simultaneously for their point of intersection. We showed merely that the parabola does have the reflection property.x~/4p). The tangent at the vertex is y = 0 or the xaxis.x~/4p :::: (Xl2p)(x .x~/4p) while T (the intersection of the tangent with the yaxis has coordinates (0. Choose the coordinate system so that the parabola is given by y = (1/4p)X2.21 14. 3. Then p = 15.2p/xo or Xl = .x~/4p + 2p) and hence RQ has length 2p. The tangent at any point (xo.x~/4pL The tangent P is y .Yo= (xo/2p)(x .2p/xo)(x . If these lines are perpendicular then x/2p >/ = . Now by using formula 7 of the Appendix to Chap.p = (.).x.xo)' Similarly the tangent at x = Xl is Y. Thus the midpoint of QT has coordinates (0. Compare Fig. 16.Yo) on the parabola has slope xo/2po The perpendicular from the focus to any tangent line has slope 2p/xo' The equation of the tangent line is y .
3. We can use (17) but in place of wx we must use 5x2• Then y' = 5x2/Tc and y = (5x3/3To)+C. Since y = x2/240. Yes. y '= 0 and for x> 0. w = U. There is no derivative at (0. Then T = (w/2). Y = 15. SECTION 6 1. The point (60.jx2+4y2. No because there is no unique slope at (0. We see that T increases with x and is a maximum at x = ± 60 and a minimum at x = O. Then from Exercise 2. 3. CHAPTER 4. 4. we have T = 75/5 tons. SECONDSET 1. (a) Tcas e = To = constant.15) lies on the parabola. y I:. 2. The equation of the cable is of the form y::: x2/4p. Yes as long as the weight of the roadway per horizontal foot (that is. 2.j(240)2 + 4x2. SECTION 5. 1.22 CHAPTER 4.()/u!O = % tons/ft. 5. We can determine C as in the text to be O. where we now calculate T at x = 60.0). Then for x < 0. Tangent exists everywhere except at (0. To the left the answer is y = 5x3/3Tc because x is negative. (b) T sin e = wx. €. T = (wx/2ry). we can substitute in the formula for T of Exercise 2.0). However. . this answer is correct only to the right of the origin. The graph consists of the negative xaxts and the ray which starts at the origin and lies in the first quadrant and makes an angle of 450 with the positive xaxis. not along the curved roadway) is constant.0). Or we may say that y' = 5x2/Tc because y' is negative and so obtain y for negative x. No.
Ax.f(xo) + f(xo) . Now in the definition of the derivative 6.Ax}) and (xo. To write the second quotient in the customary form of [f{x + ~x) . even though this Ax is negative. We can see geometrically that apart from the factor % the first quotient is the slope of the secant joining (xo.\x) • and 2~x and this equals 1/ [f(Xo + ~x) 2 Ax . Let us use a new Ax which is the negative of the old Ax. f(x~6x» 5.f (xo) + f (xo) . .6.xapproaches o and the entire quantity approaches f' (xo)' Analytically the first quotient is in the form of fly/ ~x (see also Exercise 7) and surely approaches f'(xo}.f (xo~~) (xo+l.f(xo ~x AX)] .x can be negative.Ax) . f(xo)) as .f (xo» and (xo + x. because Ay/AX must have the same limit when t:.23 4.x» and the second quotient is the slope of the secant joining (xo . f (xo» . Both slopes approach the slope of the tangent at (Xo.f(x))/ Ax.f(xo)]/Ax and this approaches f'(XO). Then our quotient becomes [f(xo + Ax) . f (xo+l. The slope of the chord or secant joining (xo~x.f(xo)]/(AX). H we add and subtract f{xo) in the numerator we have f (xo + ~x) .x approaches 0 through positive or negative values. f (xo + 6. f (xo . let us first write [f(xo .\x.
Use the method in the text which leads to (9). CHAPTER 5. Then the answer in the text is obvious. Hence 2f'(x). (el y = x+C. V = x3• Then dV/dx = 3x2• 2 6. (il y = fix) = 4x3/3+C. SECTION 2.24 Solutions to Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5. (e) y = x6/6+C. This is so because when n is a positive integer the binomial expansion in (5) has n+l terms. The limitation to a positive integral value of n is necessary because after step (8) we use the fact that there are (nl) terms in the brackets. FIRST SET (c) y' 5x If. 1 . 2 2. (b) y' (g) y' = "" 8x7. (c) y = 3x2/2+C. 4. This is the derivative of y = x3 at x = a. that ~x{nl) IAI approaches 0 as ~x does would not be possible. (d) Y = x /2+C. If we use the suggestion we get 2[£(x+t)f{x)]/t. If n were any other kind of number the binomial expansion would contain an infinite number of terms and the statement on line 4 of p. SECOND SET 1. (g) y = fix) = 2x (h) y = fix) = X2+C. We can think of p as Xo and q as ~x. 3. ( e) y' = lOx 9 • (h) y' = (7/2)x6• j 2. = 5. . Yes and because nxnL is 0 as it should be when y = 1. Hence 3a • 7. 1. (f) y = 7x1Vll+C. (b) Y = xlf/4+C. 8. ( d) y I = 20 X If. SECTION 2. 6/3+C. Here n = 3.(b) Y= xlf/4+C.
(b) y = 2Xl 2+C. (f) y' "" (1/4)x 'Ii (g) :(' (p/3)~ / ". (d) (i) (m) (c) (f) (1) y' 5.5)/(3x~ . then a is a better approximation to r than al• 2 CHAPTER 1.. The equation of the tangent is (y+8) = 1 (x4) . (e) s = (9/S)tSj3+C. y' = 1. Then x == a2 == alf(al)/f' (al)' Under proper theoretical conditions. The variable may be taken on the values ./3+c. y' = 2XI/2. (d) s == 2tl/2+C. . 8. Take al to be an approximation to a root of f(x)=O and let y = f(al). 5. See the answer to exercise 7. The equation of the tangent at al is Y. No. 7. namely. 40 Repeat the work of Exercise 3 with a replacing 5. For the upper half of the parabola y = 4Xl/2. 4. 3. s = (3/.999. etc. Repeat the method used to derive (15) but work with y = x" . 5. 6. dv/ds decreases. _ 5 we obtain =:. 10. The method applies. (n ) f (x) == }4/ 3) X 3 2 + 2 x 1 I 2 +C • 3. 6Y/6X == [1/(xo+6x) .7) 2 3 t (i) s = (5/8) t S 5+ (k) s / (8/3) t 3 2 +C . Then x2 =:.99. (j) 5 = (3/2)t(1) s = (1/3)t 2 3. 'I'h'ey' = (18/2) X1/2 = n 2x1/2. that f(a~) and f"(a) have the same sign and f"(x) does not change s~gn in aI _ <IX _< r. As x ~ncreases from 0 to 00. set y = a and solve for x. dT/af = (2rr/I32) (1/2)tI/2 = (n/412)t1/2• Yes. 7. Let y = f(x). No. 12. No. For the upper half of the £_<lrabola y = 18&.7). 11. Hence y' l/x~ for x Q f:. (d) y = (3/5)x5~3+C. x2 % [Xl + (5/xl)]. O. For the lower half of the parabola y' = _12112. = = 9. By repeating the method used to derive (15) but with y:::: X2 = % [2Xl + (a/xm. Then x2 = (l/n)[(n _ l)x1 + (a/xfl)]. SECTION 3 2. the values of l/x2 become arbitrarily large. y' = }./ (p /3) 1 (5/3)Xh 3.9. s = 3tl 3+C. the slope decreases from 00 to O. One uses the method used to derive (15) but applied to y = X3 . One obtains x2 = (2x~ . i 9. (n) f' (x) = (5/3) x21 3+3 • 2. At (2.a.1/xo]/6x l/xo (Xo+6X). . (f) s = (5/8)ts/s+C. .7x + 5. By repeating the derivation of (15) with a replacing 5 we obtain x. 2 l 2.:0 .YI= fl (al)( X~l)' TO obtain the point where the tangent cuts the xaxis. / (TlJ) f(x) = (3/8)x8 3+(2/5)xs 2+C. SECTION = 4 2/ . 6. As x approaches 0.4). y' = 1. The root which is approximated depends on which root the choice of Xl is close to. At x = 4. At x = 4. At (2. y' = {5/3)t 3 . For the lower half of the parabola y = 4xll and y' = _2x1/2.4) y' = 12/12 = 1.25 CHAPTER 5. f' (x) = (5/3) X2! 3. y = {15/4)x. Then the equation of the ta~~ent is (y8) = l(x4). dv/ds = 4/18 and as s increases. %[x1 + (a/xl)]' 8.
26
Solutions to Chapter 6
CHAPTER 6, SECTION 2
1. (a) Continuous for all x; (b) continuous for all Xj (c) continuous where defined, t.e ., for x s 1; (d) continuous except x = OJ (e) continuous where defined, I.e., for x :;z:: 3j (f) continuous where defined, Le., for x ;:z" 1. 2. No; it jumps from 00 to 1800 as P crosses the maximum point of the curve. 3. Yes, because the slope is at first positive, then 0 at the maximum point, and then negative.
CHAPTER
6, SECTION
3
(d)
1. (b) y' = 2% Xl/3; (f) Y'= 21x2 + 14x;
(i) (1) 3.
4.
5.
6.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
+ (ifO/3)x2/3• s'> {'(x)  g'(x). s= cf'(x). (a) y'= 30x  3x2; for x == 2; Y'=48 it/mile. (e) The slope of the graph is, of course, the value of Y' • (d) Yes. By contrast in the vertical motions discussed in Chap. 3 the graph is not a picture of the motion. The rate of change of the volume of a sphere at any value of the radius is the surface area of the sphere. Since V == % 1Tr3, VI = 41Tr2 and this is the value of the surfacezarea.
Xl/2
r=
s= 4x1I2;
(h) (j)
y' = 20x3 + %x2/3j y' = 3x2  4x  3; y' = 2x1/2 + 2x2/3;
dC/dx = x + 2. 2 P = (xSO)/10. R = xp = x /10 + 8x. dR/dx = (x/5) + 8, 2 dR/dx = 2 12x  6x.g 2 P(x) = x + 4x  x /3  2x  4. dP/dx = x + 2x. dC/dx = 3 + 4x. When x = 50, dC/dx = 203. This is the cost of producing the 51st unit.
CHAPTER
6, SECTION 4
1. (a) Use (31); (b) Use (32); Ans. s= 4x3 + 6x2  2x  2; (c) Use (40); (d) Use (40); Ans. yl= (x2 + 6x + 1)/(x + 3)2; (e) Use (40); (f) Use (40) first, but to differentiate x(x2  1) in the numerator one must use (31); Ans, s= (2x3 + 9x2  3)/(x + 3)2; (g) Use (40); (h) Differentiate the sum and use (40) to differentiate the second term; Ans. Y'== 14x  3/(x  1)2.
27
3. y' = [g (x ) f' (x) f (x) g' (x) ] /g2 (x) • 4. f{x)g{x) x4(2x)+(2x+7)4x3 2X5+8i4+28X3) .. 5. y rx/x2+1). y' = [(x2+1) (l/2)x1 2_ IX(2x) ]/(x2.+1) 2. [(3/2)x3/2.+(1/2)x1/2.]/(X2+1) 2. 6. y' [2x/(x+l)2]1/x1• 7. Just to use the product law y' = (1/2/)X1/2(1/X)  X1/2(_1/x2). This can be simplified to (1/2) (l/x 3 2). 8. C (2500+3x+7x2)/(100+2.5x2) dC/dx I (100+2. 5x2) (3+l4x)  (2500+3x+7x2) (5x) J / (100+2. 5x2) • This can be simplified to (7.5x26100x+300)/(100+2.5x2) 2.
0:: 0:: 0:: 0:: 0:: 0:: 0::
9. Yes. The argument is the same.
10. Starting with the step y:::= == . Xk1 we may apply the result (31). Now Xk x y'== xd(xk1)/dx + Xkl. 1. By the hypothesis of the mathematical induction process y'= x(k:  1)xk2 + Xk1 == kXkl. Since the result holds for n =k on the
assumption that it holds for n = k  1 and since it holds for (, = 1, the result holds for all positive integral n.
11. R xp. By using (31) we have dR/dx x{dp/dx)+p. 12. A C(x)/x. By using (40) we have dA/dx x{dC/dx)C(x»/x~ dC/dx is M. 13. V 2500(1+t)1~ dV/dt 2500/(1+t)2. Clearly dV/dt is greatest when t = O. 14. R xp [640x/(x+9)]40x. dR/dx = [5760/(x+9)2]40. Now dR/dx> 0 when [5760/{x+9)2]40 > O,or 5760 > 40(x+9) 2,or x < 3.
=
0::
0::
=
0::
=
0::
0::
CHAPTER 6, SECTION 5 1. (a) By Theorem 8 we may integrate x2 and multiply the result by 8. (b) Same argument as in (a). Use (37) of Chap. 5 to integrate. and use Theorem 8 and (37) of Chap. 5. (d) Use Theorem 9 and the results of (b) and (c) (e) Using Theorem 9, we may integrate each term separately (f) y'= /4,fX = 2X1/2. Then y == 'Ysx3/2+ C. (g) Integrate each term separately. Ans. y =  %X3  3x2 + 3x + C. (h) First divide through so that y'= x2 + 3. (i ) Fir st divide through so that y' = x 7/Z + 3x3i 2. Ans, y = % x9/2 + % Xs/2 + C. {j) Since a, band c are constants we may use Theorem 9. (k) Use Theorem 9 and integrate each term separately. Ans. y::: %x5  %X3 + %X2 ~ 6x + C.
2. (b) y (e) y (h) y
y = Zl~X513 + C. (c) Write yl as I8fX = ,f8x1/2
Ans,
=
=
=
14x1/2.+C; (x3/3)(21/5)xs/3+c;
t32t2+C.
(c) y (f) y
= =
7x+(8/3)x3+C; (2/3)X3/2+{9/5)X5/3+C;
28
CHAPTER 6~ SECTION 7 1. (a)
(c) (d) (e) Use (52); (b) Use (52), v= %X5I2; We can write y = 2x1 and use (52) or differentiate as a quotient; Write y = x1I2. Then by (52), yl::::: _~X3/2; Write y = (1/V3}x1/2; Write y = XI + 7x2; then yl= x2  14x3• One can also differentiate as a quotient. Use (5"3). (b) Use (53). Ans. y = 2Xl/2 + C. y'= xU2; now use (b). (d) y.l= %x2; by (53) y =: %x1 + C. 1/2; then y = (2/v'S)xU2 + C. s= (1/v'a)Xy = (1/4 l x4/_2x1/ 2+C; (c) y = 4x1/ 4+Ci s y = (2/S)x2+C; (fl y = (3/2)xZ2x1+C.
(f)
2. (a) (c) (e)
(b ) (d)
3.
The tangent at any point Xo is y  l/xo = (l/xg)(x  xo). Hence in Figure 68 the coordinates of the points K, P, L are respectively (0, 2/xo), (xo, l/xo), (2xo, 0) from which the result follows at once. S. Using Figure 68, the area cut off is l~OK' OL = 1/2(2/xo)(2xo) = 2 = constant. 6. Since 1==A/41Tr2 = (A/41f)r2, 1'= (A/21f)r3• Now let r = 20 and then r = 200 to obtain the text's answers, When r is very large, a small change in r causes very little change in the value of I because I varies inversely as the square of r or, speaking physically, I is spread out over such a large sphere that per unit area I is very small and changes very little as r changes.
4. 7, dC/dx
When x = 100, dC/dx = 1/201/2000. Yes. Even under efficient production it must cost more to produce additional units of a commodity.
=
(1/2)Xli2(1/2)x3i2.
CHAPTER 6, SECTION 8 1. By (59), W = GmM[(l/r)
2. 3. 4.  (l/rl)] where r is the final distance of the object from the center of the earth. Here r = R. Using (61) the result follows. Use the formula of Exercise 1 with m = 100, R = 4000 x 5280 and r1 == 4500 x 5280. Ans. (22,528' 106)/3 ftpdl. 8,448' 105 ftpdl. It is greater because for paints above the surface the force of gravity is actually less than 32 m. The work done in raising the satellite is numerically the same as the work done by gravity in pulling the satellite down. Hence use the formula in Exercise 1 with ~ = 1000 and r1 = 1500·5280 ft. The result is 18,432.107 ftpdl. By (58), W = GmM/r + C. Since W == 0 when r = R, C =GmM/R and W = GmM/r  GmM/R. Using (61),W =32mR[(R/r) 1]. Measure r downward from the top of the well. Then the force on a length of cable of length r is the force (weight) per unit length times r. Thus F == 32 mr = 64r. Using the relation dW/dr=F derived in the text, we find
5. 6.
29
7. 8. 9. 10.
(since W = 0 for r = 0), W = 32r2. Thus the work to lift the entire cable is 32(200)2= 1,280,000 ftpdl. In addition to the work done in Exercise 6, we must lift 300 lbs a distance of 200 feet. Thus the additional work is 32(300) x 200 ftpdl and so the total work is 3,200,000 ftpdl. a) yes; repeat the derivation of (59) verbatim. b) Repeat the derivation of (59) and Exercise 1 with 32 replaced by 5.3 and R being the radius of the moon. Ans. W = 5.3 mR(l  R/rJ. Use the answer to Exercise 8 with m = 100, r 1 = 500' 5280, and R = 1100·5280. Ans. 96,195.104 ftpdl. Use the result of Exercise 8 with m = 1000, r1 = 1500·5280 and R = 1100· 5280.
dW/dr=wSinA in the text.Thus and W= (w sinAl r+C where r is
11. a) Use the relation dW/dr=F derived
the distance the object is pushed. At r = 0, W = 0, hence C = O. If the length of the plane is denoted by R, we have W = wR sinA. From the figure sin A = h/R, thus W = who A
h
b) Notice that this is the same result as would be obtained if the object were lifted straight up against gravity!
Solutions to Chapter 7
CHAPTER 7, SECTION 3
1. (a)
(b) (c) d) (
ee}
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Let u = XS + 1. Then y = u". Apply (12),! )3() Let u = x2  7x + 6, Then y = u4 and by (12), dy dx = 4(x2  7x + 6 2x  7 , Let u =.tZ5 and ap~ly (12). Then ds/dt "" 8 (t2S) t. Write as (a2_x2)_ and let u = a2_x2. Apply (12). Then dy/dx = 4x(a2x~) 3. Differentiate asa quotient of two functions and in differentiatin~ S2x let u = 52x. Likewise for 5+2x. Ans. lO/(S2x) • Letu=x2+1. Then Y=Ul/3• Apply (12). Let u = x/ex + 1). Then y = u", Ana, dy/dx = 4x3/(x + 1)5, Let u = x2  x. Then y = Ul/2, Apply (12). Fir st differ entiate as a pr oduct so that dy / dx == ";x2  x • 2x 2 + (X2 + 1) d(Ix2  x}/dx. To differentiate IX2  x, let u = x  x and let z = u1l2, Then calculate dz/dx = (dz/du)(du/dx) and substitute the result in the expression for dy/dx. Ans. dy/dx = (6X3  5x2 + 2x  1)/2..fx2  X. Let u x/(1 + x). Then y U1/2. Apply (12). One can write y ='.,)1  x2. Let u = 1  x2. Then y =: Ul/2, Apply (12), Ans. dy/dx = x/J1 X2, Let u = y' . Then y = u2• Then dy/dx = 2y'y".
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2. We are given w as a function of x and are told that x is a function of t. We want dw /dt. Now dw /dt = (dw!dx)(dx!dt). We can calculate dw /dx from the given formula and we have that dx/dt == 100. 3. R = x i2509x = x(2509x) 1/2. dR/dx = (2509x) 1/2 + x(1/2) (2509x)_1/2 (9). 4. (al Differentiate first as a product. y' = (x2+2) 3(1) + (x3)d(x2+2) 3/dx. Now let u = x2+2 and apply (12). Then y' = (x2+2) 3+(x3)3(x2+2) 22x. One can simplify the result to get the text's answer. (b) Let u = (xl)!(x+l) so that y = U1/2• Then by (12) y' = (1/2lu1/2du/dx. To find du/dx use the quotient rule. du/dx = 2/(x+l)2. (c) Let u = 5x2+1. Then by (12) y' = (2/3) (5x2+1) 5/3 (lOx).
set y == 0 and solve for x. If we set y=O in the answer to Exercise 5 and solve for x we obtain x:::: xo . Hence dy/dx = l. If we substitute the value of yl in this last equation we get the textls answer. 0. 5) is 2p/yo. 7. But Y5 ::::Apxo' y :. 2x+2y(dy/dx) :. 6. Here dy/dx = 2p/y and at (xo'Yo)' dy/dx = 2p/yo.Xo).:: 8. Hence d2Y/dx2 = (yxyl)/y2. 2y(dy/dx) :.y~/2p.:: and y :.:: 4. (b) 2x+2y(dy/dx) ::::: (c) 6x+4y{dy/dx) == 0. (a) x(dy/dx)+y "" 0. 4. hence dy/dx ~ (2xy)/(x+2yt (e) 3y2. The latter (Exer. 2 4. The slope of the normal is the negative reciprocal of the slope of tangent. In differentiating dy/dx ::::: we must regard y as a function of xlv x and differentiate the right side as a quotient. (f) 2y{dy/dx) :.31 CHAPTER 7. At P. SECTION 4 1.(Yo/2p)(x . Hence the equation of the normal is y _ y ::::.:: On the lower half of the circle we must take O. 5. 0 . Cd) 2x+x(dy/dx)+y+2y(dy/dx) = 0. Now use the pointslope form of the equation of the straight line. 3.(dy/dx)+x2y(dy/dx)+y2+dy/dx+2 ~ 0. To obtain the xintercept.:: Then dy/dx = 4/y.:: !25xz. x :. 2.
The least distance is a . SECTION 5 the circle and use the pythagorean theorem. Divide ::::.c)/(a + c) ::::2%0' Divide numerator and denominator by a. (a) Use (37). Now use (37). 5. e:::: f5/5. 13. y2:::: (a2 . 12. We may use (27). Since for the hyperbola a2 + b2 = c2 and a < c. By (27) when x ::::c. Since c2::: a2 + b2.c2.flO. 10. (d) 2a = 12 and 2b == 8.b2. 2a = 12 and 2b = 6. see that a:::: 4 and b:= 3. through by 30 we have x2/10  r/B = 1. 2a =. Now use (27). b:::: V60. Since (7. e:::: cia :::: 17/4.. Since a:::: 6 and b:::: M. 11. (c) Use (37)./a2 . Since c2 . Repeat the derivation of (27) but with x and y interchanged. equal to or less than b. Now use (37). Then (1 .c2) (b2/a2) 2./2. y:::: b2/a. c = ill. (b) Here 2c ::::4 and since b2 ::::a2 . .12 and 2b:::: 2v'1O. Repeat the derivation of (37) but with x and y interchanged. 2) lies on the curve we may substitute 7 for x and 2 for y and b2:::: 149~5' Hence x2/149 + 25y2/149 ::::1.Jf. But y = I~ so the negative reciprocals of each other. Then x (b) We have by (27). Slope of BC = y/(xl). Then 2y:::: 2b2/a .y) on 2. c::::. 1. By comparison with (27) we C both sides by BO so that x2/10 + y2/B ::::1. Since c ::::..c and the greatest distance is a + c.. a::::. Take any point (x. (b) 2c = 20. c = 5.. that the two slopes are 3.a2)(b2/a2). a ::::. Now follow Exercise 1. 14. Now repeat Exercise 11 . We want twice the yvalue at x ::::c. 7. 16 • We want twice the yvalue at x = c.a2 = b2.e)/(l + e) = 2%0' Solve for e. = bo/a 4. By (37) at x = C. b:::: 18. 6.. Then (a . all we can conclude is that a may be greater than. Slope of AC = y/(x+l). 17 .j10. so that c ::::10. 15 . b = 6. Ifwe compare with (37) we have a = 4 and b::: 3. b:::: v'B.32 CHAPTER 7. x2/25b2 + y2/b2 ::::1. e = 3/15. (d) 2a:::: 12 and 2b:= B.  8. (a) By (27) we get the text answer. Here 2a == 50 and b:::: 25.a2. 2/64 + y2/60 = 1. y2 = (c2 . Ans. Since b2 = c2 .. 9. cia = If we divide sla.
aZ. As x increases the slope decreases and as x becomes infinite the quantity x/vx2 . At x = 1. To apply this argument correctly in the present case we should consider the product (5x + 2y . We find from y= (b/a). 2) is yl= ± (2JD/15). At x = 5. From the given equation yl"".. 4x/5y. as above. 3.a2yc . 4. Hence we apply (7) with rn2 = . Here x = . This angle is the supplement of the one we are interested in and the tangent of the latter is the negative of the one we find by formula (7). The tangent line has the slope . 6. Then the slope approaches b/a which is the slope of the asymptote y =bx/a.b2xy). Y= ± 6/J5 and yl= 'f (2/5/15). y) and (c. The method is the same as in Exercise 2. Hence Y'f ill == ± (2//3')(x . The line FP has the slope deter mined by (x.a2y2+ b2xc)/ (a2xy.c). by differentiating.a2 approaches 1 because x is very large compared to a. In using formula (7) we must remember to let m2 be the slope of the line with the larger inclination and that our formula gives the tangent of the angle between the upward directions on the lines. 8x + 10yy'= 0 so that yl= 4x/5y.4y2. At x =. In the numerator we use the fact that b2x2 + a2y2= a2b2 and in the denominator we use the fact that a2 . Then application of (7) gives for the fir st angle (.2y . and take the negative of the result. (a) We shall show that the angle between FP and the tangent equals the angle between F'P and the tangent by using formula (7) of the Appendix to Chap.5.5. 0) and so y/ (x .25)(5x . (b) The law of reflection for light says that the reflected ray will travel toward F. The slope (see Exer. 7. The method is the same as in Exercise 5. 5. 2.b2x2. Now use the pointslope form of the equation of the straight line.b2x/a2y and ffi1 = y/(x + c).16) and conclude that the equation 25x2. SECTION 6 1.b2 = c2• Then the fraction becomes b2jyc. In using formula (7) to get the angle between F'P and the tangent we must remember again that the formula gives the tangent of the angle between the upward directions of the two lines. At x = a the slope is infinite.5). Y= ± 6/15.33 18.b2x/a2y. Y= ±ill.. . y'= ±2/f3. The argument given in connection with (38) rests on the fact that if a product vanishes then one of the factors must vanish. Hence the two angles are equal. From the given equation we have. 3. At x = 1.Ix2a2 that y' = (b/a)x/v'x2 . This negative is also b2!yc. Hence.205x + 18y + 400 == 0 represents the two lines. CHAPTER 7. using the pointslope form gives Y'f 6v'5= ± (2/5/15)(x + 1).
ay = 0 and bx + ay == O. Thus the product under consideration is given by (a2b2 .b2x/a2y and the slope of the hyperbola is x(k . For k = b by (a2 . Thug the hyperbola becomes X2/(a2 . 11.Yo) to each point of intersection is the same. y) to the line is (b2xoX+ a2yoy . then B2 = c2 .34 a. Then the distance from (xo. except that for the hyperbola a2 > k >b2.Yo== (b2xola2yo)(x . The points of intersection of ellipse and hyperbola are obtained by solving the two equations simultaneously and they are given by x2 :::a2 (a2 . The method is precisely the same as in Exercise 7. ° .y2/(c2 .a2yoy = b2x5 . reverting to the usual x and Y.o). The tangent line to the ellipse at (xoYo)may be written as b2xoX+ a2yoy ::::b2xg + a2yg == a2b2.a2y~. (c. For k== a2 there is no locus (or. That is. 9.k) . For k > a2 there is no locus.b2).ro/2p. The equation of the tangent at that point is y . Multiplying out.a2b2)/v'(b2xo)2 + (a2YoJ2. For k between b2 and a2 we have a hyperbola. a hyperbola confocal with an ellipse can be represented with an a2 and lJ2 which differ from those of the ellipse by the quantity k.k.xo)' Let y =0 and solve for x.y2/{k .b2).k) we get y = 0.k) .b2)/y(a2 . which does not restrict A because k is still arbitrary. To make the algebra easier all we need show is that the product of the slopes of the ellipse and hyperbola.k)y2 has the value 1 at the points of intersection. Thus if x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1 is the equation of an ellipse and x2/A2 . Thus the distance of any point (x.y2/B2 = 1 is the equation of a hyperbola we know that b2 = a2 .a2 + k. If we write A2 = a2 .b2)/ (a2 .k) / (a2 . As k varies from to b2. We find the point of inter section of the tangent and the first asymptote and the same for the second. Then the slope of the ellipse is .k) = 1.b2)x2/a2(a2 .k).k){b2 .xo) or b2xoX.A2 if the two curves have the same toct.Yo== (2p/yo)(x . If we substitute the x2 and y2 of the points of intersection we do obtain 1.Yo) is s'= 2p/yo' The equation of the tangent line is y . 13. 12. the locus is 2 there is no locus (though if we multiply through first an ellipse.b2) ::::1 or x2/(a2 .b2xoc)(a2b2 + b2xoc)/(b4xg + aVo). which product is . The equations of the asymptotes are bx . using c2 = a2 . y2::: b2 (k . The problem assumes that a2> b2. x2/(a2 .k) + y2/(lJ2 . But ro/2p = 2xo.o).a2 + k) = lor. this fraction reduces to b2.Yo) of a hyperbola is s'= lJ2xola2yo.The foci have coordinates (e . 10. as before) the yaxis. One need watch only the differences in signs. Then x = Xo.b2{k .c2 and B2::::c2 . The slope at any point (xo. which is the xaxts). The student could be asked to show that a confocal ellipse and hyperbola can be represented in the form given in Exercise 8. The slope of the tangent line at (xo.b2 in the numerator and a2(a2Y5)== a2(a2b2 :b2X5) in the denominator.
y = (x2+7x)4+C. Let u = (x2+7x). dy/dx = (1+SX)1/2 • Now use the method of (h) to obtain the text's answer.b2xo + xo' This is OT. we a have the result. . Then x == a2yg. Set y ==0 and solve for x. If we let u = X2+~X. Then. our dy/dx is in the form (47). Hence write dy/dx = 1/3(23x)1/2(3).Yo:::::(a2YoIb2xo)(x . the fact that b2xg + a2Y5::::: 2lfl. Let u:::::x2 + 1. Hence we write dy/dx = 1/2 {x2+6x)4 (2x+6). Then (48) yields y = 1/2[1+(x/2)]4+C. the slope of the normal is a2Yo/b2xo and the equation of the normal is y . Let u = 23x. Hence write dy/dx = 1/5 (l+Sx)55 and so except for the constant factor 1/5 we have the form (47).xo)' The length OG is the x. Then if u::::: (x2 + 1) we have the form (47) and (48) gives the integral. (x We can write the given dy/dx as dy/dx = 1/2(x2+l)32x. Since the slope of the tangent to the ellipse at P which has coordinates (xo. Then (48) and the factor 1/2 yield the text's answer. Since ON ==xo. The length OT is the xintercept of the tangent. We could expand (1+SX)5.Xu). If we write dy/dx = (x2+6)52x and let u: x2+6 we have the form (47). dy/dx = (x2+4)3/2X = 1/2{x2+4)3/22x. Then by (48).(b2/a2)xo = xo[1 . dy/dx is in the form (47). Then (48) gives the text's answer. . is b2xo/a2yo. In this exercise the choice of u is not obviously helpful and must be regarded as a'trial. The 4'5 cancel and the text's answer results. then we need 2x+6 as our du/dx. Let u = x2+4. (a) Ignore (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) ( k) (1) (m) temporarily the factor 4. Same as (d) except for the factor 4. The second part of the problem calls for the same procedure except that ot is the yintercept of the tangent and OM ==Yo' 7 ~ SECTION 7 CHAPTER 1. But it is easier to let u = l+Sx. is . If we add and use. Then du/dx = 5. Now ignore the 1/2 for the moment and we have the form (47). Then du/dx = 3. Set y == 0 in the equation of the normal. Yo) 2yo) and the equation of the tangent is y .Yo say. We can write dy/dx = 2(1+x/2) 3(1/2). say. The slope of the tangent to the ellipse at P. Now let u = 1+x/2.Y"'" (1+Sx)6/30+C. Now except for the constant factor 1/2. which has coordinates (xo.intercept of the normal. dy/dx = (x2 +6x) 5 /lO+C. Then by (48) y = 2/3 (23x)1/2+C. Then 2)] ::::: 2/a2) == e2xo' x == Xo . by (48). dy/dx = (23x)1/2. If we do let u = 4+5x'then dy/dx This expression is still = lu(u4)/S = (1/S)uS/2(4/5)u1/2. and (48) gives y ::::: 2 + 1)4 + C. Yo). Then we have the form (47). Ans. ON·OT ==a2yg/i>2 +x5.(b2xo/a ::::: (b2xo/a2YoHx .(b2/a xo(c 15.35 14. Then apart from the constant factor 1/2 we have (47) and (48) gives the text's answer. Then apart from the constant factor 4 which can be temporarily ignored.
Then v' =u(du/dx) and we have the form (47). The answer is (3/2) (x2+5 l+C. apart from a constant facto~is in the form (47) and (48) applied to each term. Then the integral is in the form (48).8000· 5280. By (47) W = kU1/2+C = k[p2+(CX)2]1/2+C. W = O. 4. Then we have the form (48).1 and if we integrate we get 2X4 4x8 + 3x2.32R2.1)8 we get 8xs .X + C. Formula (65) gives the velocity acquired in falling from rest or zero velocity and from the height r 1 above the center of the earth to the surface. When x = 9. The two results seem to differ by %. (h) write the given integral as (3/2) I(x +2X)2(2x+2)dx and use (48)with u = x + 2x.1)0/8we get 2X4 4x8 + 3x2. When x = 0. 720 we see that W = k/bk/a. y = (u2/2)+ C = {[g(x)]2/2} + C. The answer is 2 (x2+7x)1/2+C.36 On the other hand if we expand (2x . By (48) the answer is (1/2) (x2+2x)l+C. The arithmetic gives 3200. yields the text's answer. . and R = 4000' 5280. Then dW/dx = (k/2)u3/2du/dx. 3. 2. if we shoot an object up from the surface with the velocity acquired in falling to the surface it will arrive at height r 1 (above the center of the earth) with 0 velocity.  L We have but to apply (65) in which r1 = 5000' 5280. As the text points out. because the constant of integration is an arbitrary value. SECTION 8 not in the form (47) because each term lacks the factor du/dx ors and so we write dy/dx = (1/2S)u3/2S(4/2S)Ul/2S. The rest is just arithmetic to get the text's answer.J66 ft/sec. (a) Let u = x2+S. Then the least velocity with which the object should be shot up is given by (65) with R:::. (c) write the given integral as (X2+S)2X dx and apply the method of (b). Let u = x2+S. Now each term. S. (b) Write the given integral as (1/2)f(x2+S) 22x dx. (g) write the given integral as 1/2 f(x2+2x)2(2x+2)dx and let u = (x2+2x).32R2 r1 :::.4000· 5280.12x2+ 6x . If we use the fact that f(x) = g'(x) then y' = g(x)g'(x). GM:::.22X dx and proceed as in (cl. Then we have the form (48) and the answer is (1/2) (x2+S)3/3 = (1/6)(x2+S) 3+C. (d) write the given integral as (3/2)'{<X2+S. From Fig. Now let u = g(x). If we expand (2x . Then du/dx = g'(x). (f) Let u = x2+7x. Hence C = k'(p2+C2)1/2. 2. Now x varies from 0 to ~. . The answer is (1/2' (X2+S)1+C. Then dW/dx = k[p2+(CX)2]3/2(CX). By (48). W = k[p2+(C~ )2]1/2_k(p2+C2)1/2. Then du/dx = 2(cx). Let q = p2+ (CX)2.X + % + C for the integral. the two solutions differ seemingly by 1/8 but the constant of integration can always be adjusted to take into account any constant. But the constant of integration in the second case can be taken to be 1/8 + C' where C" is some new constant. (e) Let u = x3+ x2• Then the integral is in the form (48). such as the % here. GM:::. The answer a s (3/2) (x2+2x1+C. Using the suggestion in the text we get dW/dx = k(cX)/[p2+(CX)2]3h. That is. CHAPTER 7.
The problem assumes the body has a velocity V in the downward direction. This value is larger than the value in Exercise 2.37 3. There we obtained 6400133. Then Vo = . In mathematical terms lim GM/rl > O. the vevelocity on reaching the earth's surface is given by (65)where r1 = 2R. Then v~/2 = GM/2R or v~ = 32R in view of (58). R = 4000·5280 and r1 = 8000·5280. Now M = . r_ l oo 11. Since in the determination of Conly y2 enters we cannot be sure that the signs are correct. 5~ According to (68) the escape velocity is 8v'R. The initial velocity must be such that it supplies the loss in v which is due to gravity and still leave a velocity of 1000 at the height of 8000 miles from the center.016 ft/sec. as it should be.Jy2 + 2GM!R . Hence the two velocities are equal. 12. The object will certainly never return.vV2+ 2GM!R . However GM/r . we can use (67) if we let M = M/81 and R be 4R/15. The velocity of 1000 it/sec. Then y2/2= GM/r1 + C or v2/2 = GM/r . For the particle which falls under the true acceleration of gravity. 4. That is. and R = 4000·5280 and solve for rl" The answer is 320 miles approximately. In view of the answer to Exercise 11. When r = R we obtain v = .GM/r1 + V2/2.J(15/324)(2GM!R). The calculation yields 26..32r + 16R. In the theory of the section we have but to let M stand for the mass of the moon and R stand for the radius of the moon. since R = 4000·5280.2GM!r1 where V = 1000. Then C = 32(4000·5280) and v2/2 = 321' + 32(4000·5280). as it should to produce a larger v. To obtain the velocity acquired by a particle falling from rest with the acceleration of 32 ft/sec2 we may use the reasoning of Exercise 3 which leads to v2/2 =.32r + C. Use (65) with Vo = 10..2GM!r l' the minus entering because a downward v should be negative. is in the upward (positive) direction.GM/r1 is positive because r < r1• Then the value of this difference adds to V2. We seek the value of v when r = O. We could solve this problem by the methods of Chapter 3. Again use (65) with Vo = 5280 and R = 4000·5280 and solve for rl• The answer is about 84 miles. Now v = 0 when r = R/2 so that C = 16R and v2/2 = . If we measure r from the surface of the earth (which we may do in this problem as opposed to the use of (59)) then w hat we want is that v should be 0 when r = 4000' 5280. by (61).This is the value of 8. 10. In Exercise 3 we calculated the velocity required to send an object 4000 miles up if the acceleration of gravity were 32 ft/sec2 all the way. we seek Vo =+. 7.. 6. Section 3. See for example Exercise 12 there. We may use the result (63) but must now determine C by the condition that at r = rv v = Y. Hence the velocity we seek is really the opposite sign from that calculated in the latter part of Exercise 6. because the acceleration of . This is 6400/33ft/sec.fR. When the object reaches the surface r = 0 and v~= 32R. 8. v(dv/dr) =32 so that v2/2 =32r + C. Or we can use the technique ot this chapter to argue that v =32 and.000.J(2GM!81)(15!4R) . 9..32 is larger than the true acceleration of gravity and so more initial velocity is required to have the object reach a height of 4000 miles.
93 mi/sec. and r1 = 240. Or v~ = (2GM /R) (15/432 . as justified in (61). From the data of Exercise (12) we know that M = M/81 and R = 4R/15. on the accuracy to which the calculations are carried. or v~ = (2GM/R){1 + 330.j2GM/R.j2GM/R = . Then v2/2 = GM/r + GS/ (r + d) + C. 15. the mass of the moon. The object must be shot up from the moon to just reach the point which is 6R from the moon's surface.99} = 6. We can use (68). Hence we must now calculate the velocity required to shoot an object up from the surface of the earth to just reach the point r1 = 54R. To integrate we replace d2r/dt2 by v(dv/dr). The precise answer depends.99(6.. We use (65) so that v~ = 2GM/R .%4)' Then Vo= . 14..000){5280) and R = (4000){5280)to calculate vo' The arithmetic yields 8.21. The equation involving rs says that the earth's gravitational attraction on the mass m just equals the moon's gravitational attraction of the mass m. We use (65) with r1 = (240. This gives the value of C so that (1) v2/2 = GM(l/r . R.21(7mi/sec) = 1. The velocity acquired on reaching the surface of the earth is obtained by replacing r by R.1/r1) + GS[ 1/ (r + d).93). R being the radius of the earth. Since 8. so that Vo= . We want v to be when r = r1.50 mi/sec approx.99 times the more accurate value than the 7 mi/sec.JR. 16. 6.. Then (65) reads: vg/2 = (GM/81){15/4R) .000M/(R + 93· 106)]. We use (65) with M = M/8! and R = 4R/15 and r1 = 6R.40 mi/sec.j59/60. This is the velocity acquired in falling from rest at the distance r 1 from the surface of the earth to the distance r from the surface. the radius of the moon. We start with (63) and let v = Vowhen r = R.106 mi.3 mi/sec. The arithmetic gives. 5280). ..j2GM/R.. Substituting this value for C in (63) gives the text's answer. and R still refer to the mass and radius of the earth. Then Vo= 1.000/[1 + (93' 106/R)]} = (2GM/R)(15. Then. (a) The given differential equation in the Suggestion replaces (59) and the reason is that two accelerations both in the direction of negative r act on the object and so the accelerations add. The result in the text. that the value here will be slightly less than the value there. Then v~ = 2G(M/81){15/4R) ~G (M/81)(1/ 6R). Then C = (v~/2).038).49 mi/sec approximately.. ° .000M and d = 93. the result is about = 6.. To calculate Vowe use the fact that S := 330.000.J53/54 = 7(. We can see by looking at the value of Vo in Exercise 12. is . This latter velocity is also the velocity with which the object must be shot up from the surface of the earth to just reach r r(b) As in the derivation of (67) we use (1) above in which r = Rand r 1 becomes infinite.88 mi/sec. namely.JR 7 mr/sec. as noted in the text... and integrate with respect to r. The result is 1.(GM/81){1/240. 18. Vo= 27.. Then v2 := (2GM/R) + [2G· 330..000 mi.38 13.1/ (r 1 + d)].j2GM/R = 7.86.2GM/54R = (2GM/R)(1 . of course. rs = 54R. Here we use (65) but with M.115/324 . since .2). 17.%86) = (2GM/R) (. Hence Vo= .(GM/R). Then the escape velocity Vo is given by vg/2 = GM/R + GS/(R + d).
dr (b) Here r = 5 and dr/dt = 1/2 so that dA/dt = 511" sq ft/sec. Let s = 5 and ds/dt = 1. The suggestion is to assume that dV/ dt = kA. 4.05 and thus the text answer. First one obtains v2/2 =: (GM/R) (.r)2. (b) The differential equation of the text can be written as v (dv/dr) = . hen dV/dt = (1Th2/9)dh/dt. SECTION 9 L Since V = e3. Hence the differential equation in the text takes into account the continuing accelerations of the earth and moon. dV/ dt = 411"r2dr/dt. We may use the text result of Sect. m = 10. so that v2/2 = GM/r + GM/81{60Rr) . 2. then the acceleration due to the earth's attraction is negative and is GM/r2• The moon's attraction is in the positive direction and when the object is r units from the earth's center it is 60R .625)/rl/2.Also A = 411"r2. CHAPTER 7. dA/dt = 2sds/dt. 6. These two accelerations act at all distances r from the earth's surface to the moon's surface.r units from the moon's center because the distance between centers is 60R.t/24) + %.{W Then r = (. The distance r between them is given by the Pythagorean theorem.jCGM/81\ (60Rx)2(1)dr + C or v2/2 = GM/r + (GM/81)/{60Rr) + C. Now de/dt = 0. Weare given that dV/dt = 1728.1250t + 625. (c) No. We are given that r = h/3 so that V = 1Th3j27. (d) No.GM/r2 + CGM/81)/C60Rr) 2.. we have dA/ dt = 211T / dt.3 T 3. Then dh/dt = 1296/~ in/min. where t is measured from noon. Then dr/dt = 285/. r = 1/4 so that k = _l. Now let t = 2. We now wish to find v when r = R. This yields C = 8GM/9.[89 ft/sec.1)..8 namely dW/dt =(GmM/r2)dr/dt. 7. Integration yields v2/2 = CM/T .96 mi/sec. 5. when h = 6.in/min.54R. because even if dr/dt is constant.1)2= . Then the acceleration due to the moon is G(M/81)/(60R . r = 1/2. (a) From A = 1TrZ. r = . cu.I(20t}2 + 252(t. and dr/dt = 25. r certainly changes from instant to instant and dr /dt may also change from one instant to another. Now depending on the accuracy of the calculation one obtains v = 6. The volume of a cone is V = ll'r2h/3. Thedistance the second ship sails south in t hours is 25(t .I1025t2 . Since A = S2. If one uses GM = 32R2. . Then dr /dt = (1025t .59)(8/9. dV/dt := 3e2de/dt. Hence v2/2 = (GM/R) (1+(1/81.54)).8GM/9.54R.. At the surface of the earth r = Rand GM/R2 = 32. Then dW/dt = 8'106• At the height of 100 miles. Since V = 41Tr3/3. When t = 6. Just to compare results write r = (4100/R)R where R = 4000 miles.000.9837) . Then dr/dt = k and r = kt + C. Then dA/dt = 10 sq ft/ min. r = 4100. Then substituting in dW/dt gives (40/41)2 times the preceding result. We now require that v = 0 at the stagnation point where r = 54R. then v is in ft/sec.. The distance the first ship sails east is 20t. When t = 0. r changes during the next second.39 If r is measured positively in the direction up from the earth's surface toward the moon.. Then r = kt + %.
Now use (6) on p.. 2. Substitution in the given equation yields 9X'2 + 25y'2 = 225. (c) The angle of rotation is given by tan 2 e = .(1/J8xS)(dx/dt). From y2 == 2x we have y'= l/y = 1/.r and h is V..2y') and y = (1/15)(2x' + y').(b). Since y2 = 4x. 2 10. 9. The net change in dV /dt is 10.z. in 3x (d) As in (b).f3y').17). (d) Tan2e = 4/(11).2 e) :::: tan 26. Then tan 28 ==. 186.2y') and y = (1/.y') and y == (. B == 2. Hence when li == 6. (c) If tan e = 3 then sin e = 3/110 and cos = 1/.7y'2 = 10.:1Tr2h/3. x == %(. r == Jx2 + 4x. The volume of water at any .JIO. Now proceed as in parts (a) and .. x = (12/2) (x' . We substitute these values in 3x2 .40 8.. Yes because the points of the circle have the same position with respect to the new axes that they do with respect to the old. Substitution in the given equation yields the text's answer.y') and y= (/2/2)(x' +y').186 with e = 45 Then x = (J2/2)(x' .J3.s" = 16. Then z == (2X)U2 and dz/dt = .3y'). SECTION A2 0 • 1. (a) The distance r from the station is r = Jx y2. Substitution in x2 +4xy + y2 = 16 gives the text answer. dr/dt = 22/ill7 unit/min. This means 28 = 90° and e:::: 45°. Substitution in the given equation yields 3X'2 . that 2e == 900 and e = 450• Then sine = /2/2 and cos e = 12/2.28) = v'3 and 180 .4xy + 10 =0. 186.J3/2. y = (1/JI0)(3x' + y').fS(2 and cos 6 ::::1/2' By (6) of p. (b) When x is large the length r is nearly horizontal and increases at about the same r ate as x does. CHAPTER 7. (a) We use equations (6) on p.y') and y = %(x' + {3 y').J5)(2x' + y'). In this exercise A = 1. Now let x > 32 and dx/dt > 1/2. tan (180 . (a) To determine the angle of rotation we use (10) on p. Then dr/dt = (dr/dx)(dx/dt) = [(x + 2)/t/x2 + 4x]dx/dt.{2/2) (x' + y') . This means.f3 and C = 1. At x = 9 and dx/dt = 2. x == (1/IIO) (X' . Substitution in the given equation yields X'2 = O. as in (b).28 = 60 Then 26 = 120 and e = 60 Then sin e = . Then x = (I3x' .. APPENDIX.1/1024 unit/min. 187. Substitution 2 .y2 == 5 yields 3X'2 . e 0 • % 0 • 0 • .[3 x' . Think of y' as some new variable z. We now use the equations (6) on p.y') and y = 1/2(X' + . Then dz/dt = .3xy . (b) The angle of rotation is given by tan28 = 16/(17 . x = (1//5) (x' .. 3. (b) If tan e = 2 then sin e = 2/15 and cos e = 1/15. In this case we may recognize at once or see from the trigonometric tables that 2 e = 600 and so e == 30 Then sin 8 == 1~ and cos e = . dh/dt == 40/4911' ft/min .% (2x)s12[d(2x)/~(dx/dt) = . Then. At any value of the water height h and the radius r of the water surface r /h = %2 by similar triangles. Substitution in the given equation yields the text answer. From (6) on p. as pointed out in the text.f3. x = (12/2) ~x' . Since tan (180 . Ans. Then V == 491Th8/432 and dV /dt == 49/1447Th2 dh/dt. Then x = (l/v'5)(x' .186 . Xi2 .yT) and y = (v'272)(Xi + y').4y'2 = 10.j2x.
We find that h::: 2 and k :::3/4. (a) If we let x y::::: ' + k. Then 2B = 90° and B = 45°. The resulting equation is X'2+ s" = 25. Graph as recommended in (a). (g) The method is as in (a). The resulting equation is as in the text. (e) The method is the same as in (d). By choosing new axes with origin at any point on the line we can eliminate the constant term. (h) The method is as in (a). (g) Tan26 == 14/(25 . Yes. CHAPTER 7.212. Likewise if we set the coefficient of y' :::: we find k = 2. We find that h = 1 and k = 5. x = (. Then 2B:::: 90. (f) The method is the same as in (e) except that now we first find k to eliminate the s' term and then set the constant equal to 0 to determine h.186 .5 and k =: 3. We find that h = 4 and k = 77/4. (b) The method is the same as in (a).axis parallel to the straight line we could put its equation in the form s' = d. The 0 sum of the constant terms in the new equation becomes .0) or 2B == 90° and B == 45°.25). This is obvious geometrically because the line would go through the new origin. (i ) If we replace x by x' + hand y by s' + k we find that we can take k to be 0 and so eliminate the y' term. We find that h =. (c) Use the method of (a).s" = 24. Yes.J2/2)(x' +y'). = x' + hand . Setting the constant term equal to 0 given h = 2. SECTION A3 1. we find h = 16. We find that h = 1 and k = 3. 2. The final equation is X'2+ 4y'2 . If we took an x'. Hence the answer in the text. The equations (6) are as in (e) and substitution in xy = 12 yields X'2. We find that h = 3 and k = . substitute in the given equation. Substitution in the given equation yields the text's answer. Now set the sum of the constant terms equal to 0. The transformed equation is 3X'2+ 4y'2 . By (6) of P. this yields k = .1). We find that h =.J2/2)(x' .4 and k = 7. and B:::: 45°.29/4 = O.41 (e) Tan 2B :::: .2/(1 . (d) If we replace x by x' + hand y by y' + k we can set the coefficient of x' = 0 and find that h::::: 3. The equations (6) are as in (e) and substitution in the given equation yields the text's answer. The resulting equation is s" . APPENDIX.y') and y == (. Graph the new equation with respect to the new axes and then put in the (x.23/4. (j) The method is as in (f). (f) Tan2B == 1/(0 . y)axes. The resulting equation is in the text. 4. take s the terms involving x' and set the coefficient equal to 0. The resulting equation is y'2::: 8x'.11 :::O. The resulting equation is in the text.2.6x' = O. The r esulting equatio n is that in the text.
(y .equation becomes (x .b2)/4a. Then a = ill.4)2/80 = 1 and. We note here that the larger number of 25 and 36 is under the y2 term. This gives h = . b = 4 and the center is (4. 4). (b) The focus of y = x2/4p is at (O. These are the x' and y' of the focus. After completing the square the equation becomes (x + 3)2/16. (a) Write the given equation as l6(x2 . (d) The numerical answers in this exercise would be simpler if the constant on the right side were changed to 288. The answers are in the text. Thus 16(X2 ax + 16) . (4ac .to x'2/45 . The translation determined in (a)'is x = x' ..5)2/25= l. (4ac .5). To obtain the equation of this line in the xysystem we have that y = y' + k = (4ac .4)2.. is v' = 1/4a.y'2/36 = 1.3)2/25 + (y + 6)2/36= 1.b/2a. Now we can fix k so that the constant term is 0.225 or 16(x .y'2/16 = 1. and in view of the value of h.b2 .0). This gives k = ah" + bh + c. We see by inspection that if we let x' = X . k = (4ac . This means .4 and y' = y + 3 we have 16x'2. According to Exercise 17 on p.42 3. (a) If we substitute x = x' + hand y = y'+ k in the given equation we find that we can eliminate the x' term by setting its coefficient equal to 0.4 and y = s' + 5 the coordinates x and y of the center are (4.4)2/36. since p = 1/4a.b2)/4a.(y .(y . Now complete the square in each parenthesis and compensate by adding the equivalent term on the right side. Then if we let x' = x .25(y2+ 6y + 9) = 369 + 256 . The coordinates of the focus with respect to the new axes are (0. 4.b2)/4a). (e) Use the method in (a). Then the equations for translation are x =x/+3 and y=y'2. (b) Use the method in (a). Then the x and y of the focus are (b/2a. (c) Use the method of (a). Hence the x and y of the center are (4. a = 5. The coordinates of the vertex of y' = ax? are (0.b2 + 1)/4a). (a) Completing the square yields (x .1/4a). The given equation can be put in the form (x + 4)2/16.1)/4a. (c) The directrix of y = x2/4p is Y= po Then for y' = ax'2 the directrix.5).J8O and the xycenter is (. The x' and y' of the center is (0. See the introduction to Exercise 5.(y + 5)2/36 = 1 and the translated equation is x'2/36 . According to Exercise 17 on p~64 .l64 .25(y + 3)2= 400.6. Then the coordinates of the vertex in the xysystem are (b/2a.3). y = y' + (4ac . The. b = . 1/4a). Since x' = x . In each of the parts of Exercise 5. However it is well to teach the method of completing the square which in this exercise and the next one also gives the answers we want more readily. we could follow the method used in Exercise 1 of replacing x by x' + hand y by y' + k to eliminate the x and y terms.25y'2 = 400 or x'o/25 .8x) .p) or for the equation y' = axf2 at (0.2)2/36 = 1. Then the method of (a) leads to (x + 6)2/45. a = 6 and b = 6.0).y'2/80 = 1. We see that a = 5 and b = 4.3 and v' = Y + 2 the equation reduces to the standard form.25(y2+ 6y) = 369. 6. The new equation becomes y' = ax" which is of the form y = x2/4p with a = 1/4p. 5.b/2a.
No translation of axes need be applied. cos 28 = 3/m. Completing the square yields (x + 2)2/25 + (y + 3)2.3). b = 4 and the center is (2.27 = O.1). Proceed as in (b).1412 y' + 21 = O. Then a = 6. Then sin 8 = Jun . APPENDIX.6). Tan2e =2/(11). (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) that (see Exercise 8 on p. Thus in (a). Tan28 = %. b = 5 and the center is (3.2)2/16 + (y . Completing the square yields (x . b = 3 and the center is (. SECTION A4 1. Hence e = 45°.2)2/16 = 1. Substitution uf the equations (6) for rotation yields x':. 2).13). 3). The result is in the text. .444 = O.1.{f5/2 ) + y'2(% + {f. h = . The result of the substitution gives (2 + 11/ill)x'2 + (2 . Hence a = 5.3)2/9= 1. Tan28 =4/3.9= 1. the minus entering because 28 is a second quadrant angle.3)2/25 + (y . Tan 28 = %.! (% . Substitution in the given equation gives the final ( result. CHAPTER 7.3/2 } .18x' + 24y' . To avoid decimals use the formulas on the bottom of p. B = 4. Now translate axes.3.11/ill)y'2 + linear terms. Completing the square yields (x . Hence the results in the text. The equations for rotation are x = (v'2/2)(X'. Tan2e = 10/(13 .8y'2 .4AC to each part of Exercise 7 of the preceding list. Proceed as in (b). 1//5)(2x' +y'). The equations for rotation are x = (1/15)(x' . Hence a = 7.4AC = 0 and the curve is a parabola. Now translation of axes gives the text result. Completing the square yields (x + 3)2/36 + (y . We find that cos 28 = 3/5. Also sin e cos 8 =l/ffi. The result of the rotation is 18x'2 . Tan2e = 2/(1.5). Hence the equations for rotation are the same as in (c). Here as in (a) the teet are on the (new) y' axis. We can determine h to eliminate the xterm and then determine k to eliminate the constant.3)2/49 = 1. We obtain just by rotation X'2 . A = 1 and C = 4. 163) that the foci are on y' axis.4 = O.43 (b) (c) (d) (e) 7. Substitution in the given equation yields 8X'2+ 2y'2 + 8v2x' .J::. k = 1. Hence e = 45°.196x .89 . Hence 8 = 45° and we proceed as in (b). The exercise is 49x2+ 16y2.3. We have but to apply B2. This fact is confirmed by the answer in (a).3)/2. b = 4 and the center is (3. Hence a = 6.96y . Hence 8 = 45°. Then sin e = 2//5 and cos 8 = 1/15". Translation of axes must now be applied to eliminate the linear terms.189 . We rotate first. Then B2 . To avoid decimals we shall use the formulas on the bottom of P.2v'2s'= o. No further simplification by translation can be obtained. Tan 28 = 6/(5 .jI3 and cos 8 = J(1i3 + 3)/2JI3.y') and y = (v2/2)(x' + y'). Since there is no xyterm we need apply only translation.2y') and y.
a degenerate hyperbola. according to Exercise 3(b).sin e)/(cos (:J + ill2 sin e). Then x2 + y2 the ~ X/2 + v". (b) If we have two lines y = m1x + b1 and y = m2x + b2 and rotate axes. If we now write this equation in the form y' = m'x' + b' we obtain the slope ill' relative to the new axis . The slope of a curve is defined to be the slope of the tangent line. because for any (x.44 2. 5. The latter (see Exercise 3(a» is not invariant under rotation. (a) Yes. 9. .m1)/(l + m1m2). cos e .axis the slope must change. ITwe rotate the x. We find that x2 + y2 = X'2+ s". respectively. No. Under translation the Xi axis is parallel to the xaxis and so the inclination of the line and therefore its slope remains the same. y) the expression x2 + y2 represents the square . That is.m~)/(l + m~m~)we obtain tan e = (m. 7. 4. the graph consisting of two intersecting straight lines must be classed among the hyperbolas if we are to include all second degree equations among the conic sections.y' Sin e) + b.y by x' + hand y' + k. The angle is a geometric fact about the two lines and so is independent of the choice of axes. (a) Yes. respectively. because under translation the distance of the point from origin changes. (a) No. The equation represents 3. . (b) Replace x and. Ii we now calculate tan e = (m~. (a) No. Slope of a line is defined relative to the xaxis. (a) Yes. cos e . (b) Replace y and x in y = mx + b by y' + k and x' + h. m~ = (m. Under rotation this distance remains the same.sin e)/(COB + m1 sin e) and e m~ = (m. (b) Replace x and y by the values given by (6). The reason is the same as in Exercise 4(a).of its distance from the origin. (b) If we substitute equations (6) in y = mx + b we have x' sin e + y' cos e = m(x' cos e . Yes. 8. Then determine the slope in the transformed equation. 6.
However. y' = 6x2+8. Hence y has a maximum at x = 1 and the yvalue is 1. y = x3 . For x slightly less than 1.1)(x + 1). Hence no relative maxima or minima. Hence at x = 4.3 there is a minimum of 12. say. At x = 0.. 1 and 1 are possible values. Here y/= 3(x + 3)(x . Here y' = 8 and is never O. (b) The method is the same as in (a). At x = 1 there is a maximum of 20 and at x = . yl changes from + to . By testing each in turn for a change in s~gn in y' at 0. hence there is a minimum whose value is 3. At x = 1. For x slightly less than 1/6. say 3/4.to +.Solutions to Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8.4x = 4x(x . y' is not 0 for any real values of x. y' is positive and for x slightly greater than 1. y/changesfrom . s' changes from . y' = 4x34x = 4x(xl) (x+l). yl = 318x. (e) r= 6(x 1)(x + 1)/(x2 + 1)2. say 5/4. Substitute x = 1/6 in the function to find the minimum yvalue. Hence there is a minimum whose value is 2. y' does not change si1n at x = o. Hence y has a relative maximum at x = 1. y' = 3x2 • y' = 0 when x = O. and 1 we see that at x = 0. For x slightly less than 1. there is (b) (c) (d) (e) ( f) . At x = 1. SECTION 3 1. y has a relative minimum. Hence there is a minimum whose value is 2. For x slightly less than 4. Hence at x = 1/6. Y = 2x3+8x+3. v= 0 when x = 1 and when x = + 1. y/=O at x=l. yl is positive and for x slightly greater than 1 . Y has a minimum of 124. y' changes from + to . Hence no relative maxima or minima. Likewise at x = 1. (d) y'=2x2x1. (a) 6x2 18x 24 = 6(x + 1)(x 4). y = 2x36x. y' is positive. We see that r= 0 at x = 4 and x = 1. y' is negative and for x slightly greate~y' is positive. y' = 6x26. r= 4x3 . y' is negative and for x slightly greater. I. s' changes from . hence at x = 0 there is a maximum which is O. At x=I. Hence no relative maxima or minima. For x < 1. y' = 0 when x = 1/6. Then y/is o at x = 1 and x = . 0. At x = 1. y' is negative. (a) y = 163x9x2 . yl is positive. s': CHAPTER 8. y = x'+2x +12. hence at x = 1.to + . Hence at x = 1 the function has a relative minimum.to +.to +. s' changes from .3 . hence there is a maximum whose value is 3. yl is negative. there is a minimum of 1. y'is negative and for x > 4. Hence x = 0. At x = 1. there is a minimum which is 1.1). y = 8x~2. y' = 0 when x = +1 and x = 1. (c) The method is the same as in (a). SECTION 2 1.
We see that (x . f~ (x) does change from negative to positive around x = O.. (a) The function y = x is an example. say 3/4.sa relat1. Here as x increases. Possible values / / are x = 0 and x = 2. fl (x) changes from positive to negative.46 2. f' (x) changes from negative to positive. The absolute maxima and minima may occur at the end values 0 and 5. .to +. At x r= 0. At x :::: . Hence x = 1 and x = 1 are possible values. f I (x) = (x2. y = 7 and at x = 5. f'(x) actually de a relative maximum: at x = 1 there is a relative maximum. As x increases or decreases from the value of 1. hence there is a relative minimum at x ~ 1. say 5/4. Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 16. the behavior of. Hence the 0 relative maximum of 16 is also the absolute maximum and the absolute minimum is 7. At x = 0.ve mJ. (j) f (x) = x2. Now f' (x) = 0 at x = 2/3. s= 2(x l)(x + 1)2 + 2 (x + 1)(x . 5. f' (x) = 4xa• Hence x = 0 is a possible value. (a) v= 2x + 6.1). Hence there is a relative maximum whose value is 1. Hence there is a relative maximum of 4. However the function may have a relative maximum or minimum where the derivative fails to exist. This is the absolute maximum. Here y/= .1)1/3~ This y'is never O.to +. At x = 2. y continually decreases. £' (x) = (x/2/xl) + lxI. Hence there are no maxima and minima. s' changes from . Hence x = 3 is a possible relative maximum or minimum.~or x slightly less than 1. s' changes from + to . At x = 4. f~ (x) is negative. The least we can subtract is 0 and this occurs when x = 1. Hence there is a relative minimum of O. s': 16. This is the absolute minimum. Hence there is a relative minimum and its value is 0. Hence there is a relative maximum at x = l~ At x =1. s' changes from + to .2x) (xI)2. (g) f(x) = x~. ft (x) = 1 . Then y = 3 is a relative maximum. fl (x) is positive and for x slightly more than 1.2/3(x . 4. (i) f(x) = xixI. Hence there 1. But the function has no real value at x = 2/3. Y = 20.y/is as at x = 1 and the relative minimum is again 0.nimum there. At x = 1. at x = 1 there is a relative maximum. (b) '1. y = 12. Hence at x = 0 there is a relative minimum.= 3x(x 2). However y = _x2 in the interval from _00 to 0 isa better example.1)2/3 is positive for every value of x and this is subtracted from 3.1)2 = 4x(x + l)(x . Hence there is a relative maximum there. s' changes from + to . At x = 2. At x = 0. (xI). y'changes from . f' (~) ch~nges from negative to positive. At ~ = 2. At x = 1. (h) f(x) = x + l/x. At x = 3.l/x2. 3.
. Hence x = 1 is a maximum for z and this f t maximum is 12. Call y~ z and find the maximum value of z. Hence a minimum which is 1%6' At x = 2.12x2 72x = 12x(x . y11is negative. y'/is negative. Hence a maximum which is 1. There f'(x) is increasing but f(x) is decreasing. y'=2x16£3. 11= 36x2 . hence a maximum which is 81/16. s" is positive.2) + 2 (x + 1)(2x .9 = 3(x . No. At x = 0.4x = 4x(x .2)(2x 1). z " = 6.6. v" is negative.6x . Hence there is a minimum at x = 2 and y = 12. y"is negative. x = % and x = 2. y'l= (2ax3 . hence a minimum which is 7. (c) Consider an interval to the left of a point where f(x) has a minimum. At x = 0. y"'=2+32xs• At x=2 y"ispositive. Y = 3 (x2 + 2x +3). SECTION 4 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 2. Hence a minimum occurs at x = 3 and this minimum is 25.4aSx)/(x2 + a2 At x = a.4. yfliS positive. (a) 8. hence a minimum which is 9. s= 2(x + l)(x . s= 4xs .3)(x + 1). yltis positive. hence a minimum which is _1/2. The possible maxima and minima occur at x = 3 and x = 1. Hence there are possible maxima or minima at x = 1. Z/= 6x I. The example of y = XS at x = shows that y increases there but y~ O. s": 4(x + 1) (x .4x = 2x(2x + l)(x . At x = a. s" is negative. At x = % y"is negative. 3x2 + 6x + 9. y"is positive. y11iS positive. v"> 6x . At x = 2. At x = 3.6x2 . hence a maximum which is 60.2). y/=O at x=2. hence a maximum which is 12. y""is positive. hence a maximum which is 10. At x = 1. At x = %.12x . s= Z/= (h) y'= 3x2 .24x 72. v'> (_ax2 + as)/(x2 + a)2. s= 12x3 .6. At x = 2. hence a minimum which is 9. At x=:3. creases. At x = 0.4. y/~ 12x2 . y~ 12x2 . 0 for x =1. hence a minimum which is O. Hence a maximum occurs at x = 1 and this maximum is 7. hence a minimum Which" is 129. At x = 1. In fact in an interval to the left of any relative maximum we have another example. hence a minimum which is 0. y11is positive.l)(x + 1). y'= 4x3 . (b) The latter two examples in (a) answer this point. y"is positive. At x = 1. At x = 1.3)(x + 2). Hence a minimum which is 4. y/lis positive.1 + 2(x . There are no real roots. y"is positive.2)(2x .1).6. ° CHAPTER 1.
JI00 .x2/JlOO . Alternatively. Then P == 3x + 2y. p/= 0 implies x = ±lA. One could test dD/dx to see that it changes sign at y == b but this step is often omitted in physical problems and would be lengthy in this one. Let a be the given base and set b == 2s . To solve put the term 1 on the other side of the equation and then square both sides.x2.aHa + c . we have the square. We also have the condition that xy= A where A is constant. where A is constant. Then the distance in question is D == .p)2 + y2 + . h =: 80 . 3. If the sides have length x and y. Thus for least perimeter x = fA and y = A/x = fA. X == 0 implies the answers in the text.2c .. Set dD/dx =" 0.ac.Jx2 + y2 = 10 we have y == 5V2. Let the distance from the foot of the altitude to B be denoted by t. However in the first radical we can replace y2 by 4px and obtain D == P + x + . Then A . Hence at t..a)2 + (y .2X2 and K= 100 .. 8. Then h == 1/1Tr2and A = == 21Tr2 2/r. dA/dc == 0 implies 2s . y) be any point on the parabola.::o2Y2there is a maximum which is 100. y := 864/x and p!== 3x + 1728/x. To save work we can argue that to minimize D is also to minimize 1)2. == .a) /J(x . that ts. Then A == .a) is negative because x necessarily lies to the left of a.48 CHAPTER 8.a)". the diameter is 2. Then p' == 3 . Then z == x2 + y2 and y = A/x. A = xy and 2x + y = 100..2A2/x3 and Zl == 0 implies x = fA.Jh2 + (2a .a) + (y . Since the rectangles are inscribed in a circle. Call D2.. Since 2s == a + b + c . so that z = x2 + A2/x2. Then y =: 36. we have b == c.b)2.b)jj//(x . p'= 0 implies t = a from which CB = CA follows.a)2 + (y ~ b)2.. z.1728x2• pI == 0 implies x =: 24. If we substitute b for y in dD/dx we get dD/dx ::= 1 + (x . Then from .4x. one knows that y == b should be a value of y at which dD/dx::= O. If x and yare the dimensions of any rectangle p. 10./s(s .s)(s ./(x a)2 + (y . Hence z" == 2x . Let (x. The area A == xhoo .x2 .a I because the radical sign stands for a positive value.c) where only c is variable.a)2 == I x . Then CB = ylh2 + t2.a r= O.32t. 5. Then dD/dx == 1 + [(x . Hence dD/dx::= 1 + (1) == O. x = . The surface area A == 21Tr2 + 21Trh. fi =: 32. 9. However the numerator (x . then . The result is a square with side f2. + We wish to minimize D == Jx2 + y2 with xy = A. 7. Hence A = 100x . CA = .b is a factor of the equation and so y =: b is a root. We may then use the method of Exercise 7 with 10 replaced by 2./(x. 6. Now J(x . But 1Tr2h 1. SECTION 5 1. Let x and y be the lengths of the sides./(x.fA give the minimum. To make D a function of one variable we can use the fact that y2 == 4px and we can replace x by its value in terms of y or y by its value in terms of x. 4.. replace y/by 2p/y and solve for y. Since xy == 864../x2 + y2 = 10. Alternatively we can keep x and y and regard y as a function of x. Then x = 2 5 and y =: 50.x2.b)".::o2x + 2y. It:::= a implies x == 5/2. Then y =: A/x and po::: 2(x + A/x). 2. One finds that y .t)2. Hence y == fA.t)2 and P = 2a + Jh2 + t2 + Jh2 + (2a . 11.
The perimeter of the entire rectangle will be 200 + 2x + 2y :::.: 3y2/4 + 1 we see that zt1is positive when y = O. Hence at x := 1 there is a maximum whose value is O. . 0.36 and we wish this to be negative. Here D == . This does furnish the relative minimum though the testing b zit is lengthy (and can be ignored). Hence there is no relative maximum. In this domain the maximum value of A is given by x='O because A decreases as x increases from 0 on. y/= 3X2 + 2bx + 3. This expression is least when ex is as close to a2 as possible and this is when x is a for x in tit domain . At x:::: 1.a to a.::. For the given function s= 1.x2• Then yf= 0 when x == 1 and x:= +1. The discriminant of this quadratic is 4t2 . 9 and 19 let us work with 1)2 or z. Then x = 0 and y = 50.14.<.11= 2a. Since y2 = (iY'/a2)(a2 . y/is 0 at x.yI~/b and differentiate I)2 we find that the only real root of z is y::::.'(x:1""")2::+y"2. However z can be put in the form (ex . Since y'': 2_X"swe see that at x = 1. We see from the expression for z that z = (x + 1)2 and the smallest value occurs at x :::: .c) . If we use the test that s' change sign at x := 0 we see that it does not. Then dA/dx::::' 502x and there is no positive value of x which maximizes A.x2).50 . the value b/2a yields a maximum if a < O. The assertion is false.X2). Z == (x . The domain of possible values for x is 0::$ x . However x = 1 does not correspond to 2(x any point on the parabola and so there is no relative minimum for xvalues of points on the parabola. Then z'= 2(x . this value of x is larger than a and so lies outside the domain of admissible x. The dimensions are 50 by 100. Then x::: O.:: [(y2/4) . z/::: 0 when x > a2/c.a y/= 0 implies x =b/2a.is also 0 and so we have no text. When Z. x := 1. However there may be an absolute minimum. Hence y == 0 furnishes a If 20.: 300.::.1) + 4. However. Since s> 3x2. However because the function is always increasing there is an absolute maximum at x ::::4.a2)2/a2. Q when y == O.x.with y::::. by eliminating y we have D x: "/(X . the function is always increasing.1)2 + 4x. y) is any point on the parabola then D = . Let z =' D2. 15. As in Exercises minimum. If (x.l]Y + 2y and Zl:.c)2 + y2./(x. As noted in Exercise 9 we can minimize 1)2 in place of D. Then A::::(100 + x)y.. O. y~is positive and so there is a minimum there. 19.x) =: 5000 . 16. 18.:: . Then 1 b i must be less than 3. Since :.11~y2 and z ::. y'(fis negative.. The domain of x is x ?:: O.1J2 + y2. Then z:= (x .2(b2/a2}x. Since y2 = 4~..50x . Hence A::::(100 + x)(50 . Since a2 . D If we eliminate x from D we have D =: . O. we calculate dF /dr we see that it is never zero.x2'. aVt} .C)2 + (b2/a2)(a2 . The rectangle will have dimensions 100 + x and y. Since Zll:::. We wish to have no real roots. y'.b2 := c2. Moreover since y ~s positive to the left and right of x = 0.$ 50.j[(y2/4) . Consider y = x . Since ale> 1. The minimum value is 2 and larger than the maximum. If we eliminate y from [)2 after writing IY = x2 ~ 2cx + ell + y2 by x ::::.1}2 + 4x and Zl ::. 17.::. Then Z/= [(yl'!4) .
However the man does save time by rowing as much as possible even to reach a point % of a mile from A. Let PA + PB + PC = S. Hence the minimum S occurs at x = 3 or when P is at C.. There is no relative minimum for P on CD. Then AP + QB = I_ 2 = .Jb2+ (d . Hence x/4. It is obvious in this case that using the diagonal saves as much time as possible since he can row as fast as he can walk.m)" + (m2. Since dS/dx = 2X/Ix2+ 62 . Hence he should certainly save as much time as possible by rowing to B. x :::. In place of the previous dt/dx we have dt/dx = x/4. 29. dt/dx = x/3J1 + x2 . Follow the method in the text used to derive (16). +~)/n.j1 + x2 < 1/.x)/5.(d . We could test d2t/dx2 to see that x = 3/4 furnishes a minimum. 25. Then S = 21x2 + 62 + 3 . 23...X)2.Ja+ x2 + Ib2 + (d . we calculate dl.50 21..1/5. R and the foot of the perpendicular from B to EF. 30.m)". 27. The distance RS is fixed.Jb2+ (d . S. Then QS = d . . because x/ . Find ds/dt and set it equal to 0..x. 26. Since x cannot be larger than 1.m2) +. There is no relative maximum or minimum. + m2 + . Here B lies on the same side of CD as A does and vl = v2. Hence the problem reduces to minimizing AP + QB. . Denote the sum by S. Alternatively. Hence t decreases and is least when x = 1.. this value of x does not furnish a minimum in the domain 0 :. Hence the problem is the same as Exercise 27 with just a different physical interpretation.J1 + x2 .. + (m ~) = 0 or m = = (m.09°Centigrade. Then dS/dm = 0.1. In Exercise 27 we prove that the time AP + PB is least but as the suggestion points out this also means least distance. 2 2 d s/dt is negative in a < t < 0. then S = (m. implies (m . Hence at t = 4.. Hence the diagonal path PB is best.. Let x denote RP. However dS/dx is negative for 0:...x)/.m.) + (m ./dx which is x/Ia2 + x2 . This derivative set equal to 0 gives x/. Hence we end up with sin a/sin 13 = V/Vl and so Q = 13. then the time for the trip as t = 11+ x2/3 + (1 . Then LAPR = Lms and AP and QB are parallel. 24. If we set this expression equal to 0 and solve for x we obtain x = 3/4.m)2 +. If we let AC = x.j1 + x2 < 1/4..X)2. x s 1.)2 which is less than %.x)/.3 and so S decreases as x increases. we can see that dt/dx is negative for 0 :S X :5 1. dS/dx = 0 at x = This value of x does not yield a point on CD. m. 22. To minimize I. specific weight is a maximum.Ja2 + x2 = (d . 1.x. No matter where the bridge is placed the distance PQ must be covered in any case. + (m. There t = 4. let it be d.[2 for O:S X :. 28. Let AR be a and let BS be b.1/5. Label the foot of the perpendicular from A to CD.. The maximum and minimum values occur at the end values x = r and x = r of the permissible xvalues.. we obtain x = %. If we set dt/dx = 0 and solve for x .. The left Side = cos APR and the right side = cos QSB.09 C the ..X)2..
x = 1 and x = 7. Let x be the number of new wells produced. The interest paid by the bank will be xD = kx2• The profit is P = .50000x2 . x = 250. dC/dx = 6. We find dPjdx and x when dP/dx = 0. 7.3+1S or 6.. Then ~ = 2x6 = 0 so that x = 3 for minimum A. P = x(lOO. The cost C = lO. A = £ = x26x+1S. (b) To maximize the percentage of profit we wish to maximize the return each year divided by the total cost. dT/dx = 2S6x. Let x be the number of cards to be printed. x = 47~. At x = 1. = O. 6.20x. Let x be the interest rate offered.07k2kx. x = 25/6. P = 88.500000 .. x aX Hence the minimum A is 326. dP/dx = .07kxkx2. using f(x) for the percentage. Then dP/dx = SO. Then dP/dx = 3x2+24x21. The price at maximum profit is 7S2. The total number of barrels T is T = (25+x)(1003x) = 2500+2Sx3x2. Profit = RC and R = Px. 2 Hence y = 10. When dP/dx = 0. Hence dP/dx = dR/dxdC/dx. P = RC. C = a+clX. P = pxC = 7Sx2x2 . FIRST SET 1. Then. with x the front and back lengths. Then if the cost per foot of the side walls and back is d. dP/dx = (9/2)x+63. rhe height is immaterial. Henee Xl 2 =a/e or x = a2/e2• 8. x = 14. At speed v the cost per hour is C = 12S+(1/lO)vs. _ 300000x _ 30x f(x) . If we test d2p/dx2 at x = 7. The cost per mile times the miles per hour = cost per hour. The number of barrels of oil produced per well will be lOO3x. Let x be the number of articles to be produced. Practically one would choose 2 or 3.lOx2. The profit P after the first year is P = 300000x . The average cost is A = C/x = lOO/x+~x/100. + 100000x. Then C = SOOOOO + 100000~1+2+ . Then the cost is C = SOOOOO + 100000 + 200000 + . The return to the bank will be R = . S. 3x = 20. When dP/dx = 0. v = ~ = S ~.OOOd/x+3dx. Hence the profit p = 100xlO. 11. Mult~ly through by X3/2. dA/dx = a/x2c/2xs/2.07D. When dA/dx = 0. we find that it is negative so that x = 7 yields a maximum profit. x2 = 10. Setting dA/d~/f 0 gives a/x2c~xS/2 = O.000 or x = 100. 9. 10.. The maximum profit which occurs when x = 14 is (9/4)(14)2+63'143S0 = 92 dollars. Then a/x e = 0 or aexl . dC/dx = 20. When dP/dx = 0.03S. At x = 3. When dP/dx = 0.000/x and e2= 20. 4. dR/dx = dC/dx. Hence P = SSx3x2xs+1Sx276x10 = x3+12x221x10. Then the total cost of x articles is C = 100+x/2+x2/lOO. But xy = 10.OOO+Sx+x2 (in pennies). 3. P = 20 and this would mean a deficit. Then the number of wells will be 2S+x. x = 2~. The dollars D attracted will be D = kx. Hence when dP/dx = 0.000. At speed v the miles per hour is v.14 = 47.000 and x = /20. x = .500000+50000xz+soooOx .+x) or C = SOOOOO + 100000[Z(1+x)1 or C = SOQOOO + SOOOOx + 50000x.OOOd/x +3d.3S0l2x2/4 = (9/4)x2+63x3S0. dP/dx = lOOS2x. 12. Then A = C/x = a/x+c!lX. When dP/dx = 0. 13. When x = 7. Hence the cost per mile or M = c/v = 125/v+(ILIO)v2 Then dM/dv = 125/v2+(2/10)v. SECTION 6. Let the dimensions of the floor be x and y. e = 2dy+dx+2dx.SOOOOx. (a) Suppose the building contains x floors.51 CHAPTER 8.. Hencewh~n dT/dx = 0.lOx)lOOOSOx = 1000+SOx.SO+Sx+Sx2 .OOO~Sxx2. 2.000/3. dA/dx = lOO/x2+1/100. WhenaMTdv = 0. The income is 100x. Now dC/dx = 3x2l2x+1S. When dC/dx = 0.
Then dC/dx ~ 1000/x2+2. x '"approximately 2. x = $22. Then the reduction in price will be 30x. The new demand function can be obtained from the old one by replacing p by (5/4)p so that (5/4)p = 103x or p = (4/5) (103x).) The cost function for the producer remains the same.50. pi (x) ~ 0 when x = 1. Under nc tax P(x) = 10x3x 3x2= 7x3x2. Hence the cost of the trip is C = 1~0 (10 + ~~) = 10~0 + 2x. x = 25 dollars. x = 1500. 15. The quantity sold comes from solving p = (10/11)(204x) for x when p = ~ll. Let x be the sale price. . SECTION 6. 4.10. At x miles per hour the number of hours required to make the 100 mile trip is 100/x.x). Now the consumer must pay 125% of what he previously paid. Then pI (x) = 76x and x = 7/6. Hence the additional sales are 10(30. This exercise and the next one follow the second illustrative example. The price p = 103(7/6) = 13/2. Hence the demand changes because the price is higher. When dR/dx '" 0. P I (x) = (200/11)(80/11)x4.95. for a given price p the demand will be less than under 3x = 10p. Again practically x would be 3 or 4. The maximum profit is 125/48 and the corresponding price p is 11/2 without sales tax. At dC/dx = 0. Hence the profit is P. SECOND SET 1. The revenue is still xp where p = 103x. CHAPTER 8. Thus the new demand function is p = (lO/11)(204~ and since C(x) = 4x. The cost per hour is C = 10+x2/50. For each $2 in 30x there will be ten more sales. Then dR/dx = 25010x and when dR/dx = 0. P(x) '"x(lO/ll) (204x) 4x. (Of course since 3x = lO(5/4)p. Then dR/dx = 22S10x. The corresponding price p is $11. The cost function becomes C(x) = 3x+2x.52 Using the quotient rule gives l500150x2 f 1 (x ) '" (50+5x+5x2)2 Then fl (x) = 0 gives x = IIU. 14. 16. 3. 2. Hence P(x) = x(4/S) (103x)3x = 5x(12/5)x2• Then PI(X) = 5(24/5)x and pl(X) = 0 for x = 25/24.x) = xpC = 10x3x25x = 5x3x2• pI (x) = 56x and this is a maximum when x = 5/6 and the price at which the commodity will be sold is p '" 103(5/6) = 15/2. The revenue will be R = 500x + (10/2) (30x)x or R = 500x+150x5x2 = 250x5x2.lO. R = 100x +lO[(25x)/2]x or R '" lOOx+125x5x2. Using the same method as in #15. The solution follows that of exercise 3 except that 5/4 is replaced by 11/10.
3. No relative maxima or minima.+1)2. The horizontal tangent occurs at yt = 0 or 3ax2 + 2bx + c = O.2x/~"J. positive from G to 1. 5. (11) (f) and (g) See (a)./s. There is a relative maximum at x = O. There is no point of inflection. The curve is always concave upward.4 from the left y approaches +co. (e) y' = . yll=2x(x2. As x approaches 3 from the right y approaches +00. yllis negative from A to C. 4.9)/(x + 3). There are no inflection points. (d) s'= % x2/s. (a). y is close to +1. y" = 12x248x.o (6x _2)/(xF+l)3 there are poi. y is infinite at x = . Since yll. y" = 8/(x + 4)3. Find the relative maxima and minima and points of inflection and use these as aids to plotting. y"= 1% xJ. Hence the inflection point is x = (r 1 + r 2 + r 3) /3. The point of inflection occurs at y" = 0 or 6ax + 2b = O. Using the factored form of y we find s" • 2a(3x . The zeros are clearly x = a and x = 4. There is a relative minimum at x = 1.r3). Then y goes to a minimum of %6 at x = 1 and increases gradually to y = 1. we take the value of x from the second one and substitute in the first One.4 from the right y approaches co. y approaches 2 as x approaches +00 or 'i<l. As x approaches .ntis of inflection at x '" :: 0/1/3 and y approaches 0 as x approaches +co and 00. y"= 36/(x + 3)2. Since these equations hold at the same value of x. positive from C to E. No relative maxima or minima and no points of inflection. Then JJ2 . As x approaches .53 CHAPTER 8. (b) and (c). SECTION 7 1. (b) and (c) .r2 . y'= 2 2. Point for point plotting with some attention to the behavior of y' and yll is all one can apply.r1 . (x2 + 1)/(x2 + 1)2.3 from the left y approaches +co. (j) y'= 4/(x + 4)2. When x is very large and positive or negative. Also y" changes sign at x = 0 and x = 4. negative from E to G. X :::' v3 and x = [3 (i ) yl= (9x . There are points of inflection at x = 0.4. As x approaches . There is a relative minimum at x = 1 and a relative maximum at x =+ 1.3)(X2 + 1)/(x2 + 1)4.3ac = O. Hence yll = x(x4}.
.. + 1 + 2(n ... + (10.6.X 1 + (2. = .6.x)2.16/n + 6% . + (2.6.x + 3 (.x[n + .6..6..64/2n + 64/6n2].x= %0= %...x + = ... + (n . Since ....xl· .6.x).x= 4/n we have 3n(4/n) + 3(4/n)2(n2/2 + n/2) = 12 + 24 + 24/n...01)(.96+ .9 + .. Now x = 4/n...x)2[1 + 2 + .6.6.6. Divide up the interval 385/ Is' from x = 0 to x = 1 into 10 equal parts.6.6.6. As n becomes infinite the limit is 12%.6. To get x) x + = the sum of the squares from 1 to 100 we use (11) with n = 10.x + 1 + (.x + 4(...6.. S10 = (%)3(100% + 50 + %) = 6.6. Divide up the interval from x = 1 to x = 5 into n equal parts....•.6. Then we have 3.6.xF.. Then Sn 2...X.1) + .x)2[1 + 2 + .x. 3.6.6..6. Since x = 5/n. since . SECTION 2 9 1..x + (.6.X .x (. Divide up the length from x = 1 to x = 5 into n equal parts .x)2(1 + 4 + .75 approx.x)2..X (3.6.X)2 1 + 4....6.x)2(n..86 + ..x= 3n..X)2... Let us divide up the interval from x = 0 to x = 5 into 10 equal parts.6.6..x).6....x= 0.6.x[l + 1 + 2.X)2. 4. Since .6.x]2.x= 4/n.6.6...x 3(1 + 2..x(n. + 3[1 + (n . Divide up the interval from x = 0 to x = 5 into n equal parts. Divide up the length from 2.81}(..l).6.x+ ..x + 3(.6.x)3(n3/3 + n2/2 + n/6).6.1) + 16(n/3 ..1)2(.. Then 1 1 1 Sn = l.. Then S10 = (. Then SlO = 100% + 50 + % and now.Solutions to Chapter CHAPTER 9.n/2} = 12 + 24 . + 100].1.04)(. we have 3n(4/n) + 3(4/n)2(n2/2 .x)2n(n + 1)/2..6.x=)2 + .x) x + + = 1 = (.x + + = 3n..6.x + 3(.l)n/2. As n becomes infinite the limit is 36.x).6.x)3[1+ 4 + .. Sn = .24/n..6. As n becomes infinite the limit is 36. + (n.2) + (. As n becomes infinite the limit is 12%. 2. + [1 + (n .6. Sn = l.6. Hence we get (4/n)[n + 4(n .6...6.Ih + 1/6n) = 4 + 16 ..X)2.6.x + (1 + . + (2.6.6.x .6.x + + (n .x)..6.6.x 3(1 + 2. + 1+(=9. Then using the smallest yvalue in each subinterval..x)2] = ..x + + 3(.6.1). + .....1}2)] = Ax[n + . 5.x (.6.6...x+ 3(1 + .6.x .6....6.6.6.6..X)2+ .. Since .. Then Sn = 3(1 + . x = 1 to x = 5 into n equal parts ..X)2.1)] = 3n. + n] = 3n.n2/2 + n/6)].. n2] = (.X .1}n + (...1(1 + 1 + .6.X)2.x)...6.x)3[ + 4 + 9 + ...6.1 + (1/1.55) = 0...1}..6.x)2(n3/3 . + (n .6. S.6....X)2.6..6. + 3(1 + n.6..6.x + (1 + 2.x(2 + 4 + .6. we have 125(lj3 + 1/2n + 1/6n2). Then .. + (1/1.x.6...6....6.1)..x+ . + 2n ...1) + (1/1..
(i) 5x2/2x3/3! 2. (d) (l)n+l(l/n). (a) The area bounded by the parabola y = X2. f 2 lO x/x22  dx. (a ) A = J 1 ~ 33/2.%.55 CHAPTER 9. 6. the xaxis. Cd) from x = ~l to x = 4. . but the signs alternate so that there is no limit. (f) The area bounded by the straight line y = from x = 3 to x = 8. SECOND SET CHAPTER 1. 3. and the xaxis from x3 and the xaxis parabola y2 = x. 4. (e) The area bounded by the straight line y = x+3.4. (b) 1. (d) 4. no limit. (g) Each term is 1.. 9.25. hence the limit is 1. f 1 5 3x2dx. SECTION 3. 10 32 X / /31 . 35/3. 16. FIRST SET 1. %. and the ordinates at x = 2 and x = 5. SECTION 4 3 1 ~3 (a ) x3/31 (d) (g) = = 26/3. .9. (c) 2 + (1/2TI). Cd) The area bounded by y = x2 and the xaxis (e) The area bounded by the parabola y = 9x2 x = 1 to x = 3. (a) 2. the ordinate x = 5 and the xaxis. 8/n.5//2. Then the fraction approaches O. 2. (h) If we divide numerator and denominator by n we see that the fraction becomes infinite as n does. (e) l/n(n + 1). s 1 (b) x4/41 1 o S = o '"' 1/4. the ordinates x = 1 and x = 3. %1' %. (g) The area bounded by the upper half of the the xaxis and the ordinate at x = 5. (f) The terms approach O. SECTION 3. (b) It is easier to see the limit if one divides numerator and denominator by n. 7/14. %. (e) The terms become infinite. X3 6 2 x 2 dx ~ /3 6 1 2 = 69 1/3.. (j) 5. and the xaxis. (i) Divide numerator and denominator by n. (c) Y3'%. :=: (fl 215 20/50/3 i x2+5x) = 4 120. (c) Write as (n + 1)/n and divide numerator and denominator by n. 9 . (b) A = 83/343/3 = 448/3. (d) The magnitudes of the terms approach 1. %. (c ) _xII 2 '= 1 1/2. CHAPTER l. . (4x+l) 3/2/6)5 I (213/2_53/2)/6.= 0 x3/312 X 3 (e l 3x4/41 (h) 1875/4.6//3. (b) The area bounded by y = x".
 12. By the fundamental theorem A(x) = x4f 4.Jx2 rIO 2 xdx. the geometrical area 3 0 2 + 24.Sn = 11. However. 4 lies below = 5 {1/Z)f {2x+1)1/22dx 1 = area dx (1/3) (2X+l)3/21 is the positive = 1 The geometrical 3 result. 3 The area of the trapezoid ~ 1/2{2) (6+4)=10 = = = f 9xdx 6 = 9x2/21 6 = = 63/Z. f (x3) (x2) (x+l) dx = f 4 (x _4X2+x+6) o J2_ f3 + f4 = Z2/3 {7/lZ)+47/l2 = 2 3 0 = fj 71/6.=. Then A(x) = 2 X S and A = x31~2 = 216  (. ~l~Sn = . .16 .8) = 224. 5 !1 10. A ~ 4. The geometrical 2 5 1. Then A = x4f 4 9.56 3. .2X215 = 2 0 area is 75/2. 27/2 + 24. 8.~ 9 Z7 = Zl/2. SECTION 5 75/2. f5_{2x+l)1/2dx _(113/2_33/2)/3. A f 6xdx 4 = xZ/21 6 4 ~ 10. 5 2 1 Then A(x) = x3 and A = x3 1 = 124. Then A(x) = Ys(x2 2)3/2 and CHAPTER 9. Then A(x) = 2xs/3 and A = 2xS/31: = 126. f3_X2dX _3 = x3/31 3 = 9{+9) area = 18. 4. A = 6. LimSo !~ % . ~~I!.3/Z)/3. A f2 Q 38 X1/3dx = 3X4/3/418 = x3/31 5 0 z = 1Z3·Z1/3/2. (a) (b) ~ = . ~!.~Sn = iss 2x dx. 3.[: 3x2 dx. Lim Sn n_"_~ = )2 . 5 1 f5(X+l)1/2dX 1S X = 2{X+l)3/2/31 = 2{63/2_Z. = 1 3x dx. 5. 5. f 3XdX o 2..fa n_oo dx. the xaxis the geometrical 5 3 (b) Since the entire area is 18. J J43XdX ~ 0 3xdx ~Z14 2 _3 4 + 3XdX = =~ J 2. __ . A 7. / f5X2dX 1 1Z5/3.
5 • ABC D = . 3.C 9 dx .23) :=: 37% % (4 23) y Fig. 2 . 1 . 4. • 11 (9 .ABEF = .57 CHAPTER 9 .Va + 1 :=: % y Fig.SECTION 6 dx + 1 0 1.x2) dx o = 119 dx 1 = 9x 11  = 20/ 3 h 5 (XS + 9  2 X) dx = J/ X 3 dx + . 2. _h4 (x2 + x") dx = _h4X2 0 J/ x+dx x2 dx = xo/31: 0 + x'Y41: = xSf311 0 2 84%.(43 . BCDE = ACDF .41 % = 150%.J~5x 3 dx = 156 + 36 .
.OS] = % Fig.x2 Fig./2 o .6.OS) = % 7.lis (2S . 4 8 • OBCD = ABCDE .02) .ABODE = lBn y c y = 9 . OABD = OABC .OS/2J  % [(0/5)S . 5 2 3.ODBC = %J5[(~'5)S/2 y .ODBC = (22 . OABD = OABC ..
ABFDE y ID I I I I I Fig. BCDF = ABCDE .ABFDE = 102~ y Fig. 8 . OABD::: OABC .59 9' = 32v'3 BCDF::: ABCDE .ODBC = 8%5 Y Fig. 7 11. 6 O~~~~~~4 +2yi I I IE 10.
The graph of the inverse function x = y1/n is the graph of y = x". Then 14. Here x = s'" l fc is the equation of the curve with y as the independent variable. Hence the graph of y = xl/n is symmetric to that of y = x" about the line y = x. d d~ 16. Since the curve Ia b cy dx = cF(x) I: = cF(b)  cF(a) = c [F(b) . . The function y = x" is shown in the figure. The area above the xaxis lies between x :::: and x = 3. Let 11 12. Hence the physical area is 121~. This area is obtained from A = xo/4 .y= /' /' /' /' /' X y = xllll y in x = yl/n. then x ::::1 and subtracting the second result from the first. = x and v = x2• 15. However when writing y = x1/n for the inverse function its graph is merely the interchange of x and y y= x" /.ax by letting x = 2. where y(xl is the given function of x./.41/4. the xaxis and x = 1 or the area is 1. Then the area between y = xl/n and y = x equals the area between y = x and y = x". the area between x = 1 and x = 2 lies below the xaxis . This area is 81/4. 2 1:L Let F(x) be any indefinite integral of y('X).8 cuts the xaxis at x = 2.60 of y =x3 . We have to show that x" dx = (l/a) a xdy where x = yl/a.F(a) ] := C Ia b y dx. We have but to integrate by the use of inverse of the power rule and the result follows. This gives . Hence the given area is twice the area of the triangle bounded by y = x.
The exact value is also 124/3 because we are dealing with a parabola y = x2 to start with and Simpson's rule fits a parabola to each arc of y = x2• 3.08.39. Y2 = f(3) = 9.06.25. fell = 1. Y2 =:: f(.5) = 1/1.25+1/1. Yz = f(3) = 9. Substitution in (36) yields (. Substitution in (32) yields 7. 3. a fZ o dg/dx = (dg/dz) (dz/dx) = f(z)2x = f(x2)2x. Then g(z) :::: f(u)du. CHAPTER 9. Substitution in (32) yields 42.S) = 2.25.34. By (29) dg/dx:::: 1XT. Ya = f{l. The definite integral is a constant.2) = 1/1. By (29) the answer is x3• If we evaluate we get u4/41x ~ x4/4a4/4 and by differentiating with respect to x we again get x3• 3. Here h =.04. 2. Y2 = f(l) = 1.16. Yo = f(O) = 1.25. f(2) = 3. O. Let z = x. Here n = 4 and h = . Here n = 4 and h = 1. Yl = f(.f(lO) are given. f(. Y = f(l) = 1.. Yl = f{.41. f(5/2) = 4. The yvalues are Yo = f(O) = 1.09.06.25) = 1/1.693.75. 5.463. f(.1· Then Yo = f(O) = 1.3) = 1/1. Y~ = f(2. FIRST SET 1.09. The function values are given by the table. We use (36). SECTION 8. Yl = f{1/2) = 1.5) = 1. 4. substitution in (36) gives (1/3) [1+25+2(9)+4{4+16)] = 124/3. 4. Y6 = f(3) = 5.Y6 = 38. Ya = f(4) = 16 and Y4 =of(5) = 25.01. The result is 10.29.25/3) [1+1/2+2(1/1. SECTION 7 1.08.+2.29.61 CHAPTER 9.09. Yl = f(.5. Here the h is evidently 1 and there are 10 subintervals. Y3 = f(4) = 16 and Y4 = f(5) = 25. Use of the fundamental theorem gives f1 s x2dx = x3/31 5 1 = 411/3' 2.75») = . Y4 = f(2) = 3. . Substitution in (32) yields 0. Substitution in (36) yields 37.06."'. £(3/2) = 2. Check by letting feu) = x to convince students. Substitution in (36) yields 1/6(44.l) = 1/1. Y1 = f(2) = 4.5)+4(1/1.41. 2.4) = 1/1. Y3 = f(. Here h = 1/2 and yo = f(O) = 1. f(l) . Yl = f(2) = 4.75) = 1/1.s) = 4. 4. SECOND SET 1.33.·•. Hence we can substitute at once in (32). f(3} = 5. Y 4. The values of f(O). £(. One cannot regard an area as a sum of line segments.03) = 7. Yl = 38.5) = 1/1. Then d2g/dx2 ~ (1/2) (x2+2)1/2(2x). CHAPTER 9. Here n = 6 and h = 1. Here h = 1 and n :::: Also Yo = f(l) = 1. SECTION 8. Thus yo = 32. Y4 = £(1) = 1/2. f{. In this example h = 1/2 and n = 6.
Here n = 4 and h = 1/8. 1/(1+1/64). Using (36) gives (1/24) [1+4/5+2(16/17)+4(64/65+64/73)] = 0. Here Yo = f(O) = 1. . Y3 = f(3/8) Y4 = f(1/2) = 1/(1+1/4). Y1 = f(1/8) = = 1/(1+9/64).62 5.464. Y2 = £(1/4) = 1/(1+1/16).
3.cosx)(l + cosx)]/x2(1 + cos x) xa xo lim sin2x/x2(1 + cosx) = lim sinx/x· lim sinx/x x ..0...cos" x)/x (1 + cos x) = sin2x/x(1 + cosx).cos xj /x. Let u :::: x and apply the chain rule.. SECTION 3 1. the answer is 2. Then the limit is 1. o xa xa lim 1/(1 + cosx) x.= lim [(1. By following the method indicated we have (1 . a (c) A sine curve with period 1f and amplitude of 3 (d) A sine curve with period 7r /2 and amplitude of 2 (e) A sine curve which is displaced 1T/2 units to the left of the normal y = sm x.x as just a variable z.. Sketch y::::X and y = .0 lim lim xs o as x . (c) The constant 3 merely multiplies the derivative of y::::cos 2x. (b) A sine curve with period 271"nd amplitude of 3.63 Solutions to Chapter 10 CHAPTER 10. Sketch y:::: x2 and y = stn x and then add ordinates at a number of values of X· CHAPTER 10.x.1.%. Then lim sin2x/x(1 + cos x) = Iim stn x/xlim 1·0 = O. x_a CHAPTER 10. SECTION 2 1. Let u = 5x and apply the chain rule. y I = . o = 1. 5. (f) A sine curve which is raised 1f /2 units above the normal sine curve (g) A sine curve which is displaced one unit to the right of y = sinx. (a) (b) Let u = 2x and apply the chain rule. SECTION 4 1. The final curve oscillates between these two lines with zeros at the usual zeros of y = sin x. (b) Use the same method as in (a) except that a replaces 2.1.axis.. (a) A sine curve with period 2rr /3 and amplitude of 1. (a) x_a sin 2x/x = x_o 2 sin 2x/2x = 2 lim sin z/z with z = 2x. 2 . (e) lim tanx/x == lim sinx/x cosx == lim sinx/x xo x_a x_a lim l/cosx = 1 . (h) Graph y = 2 sin 3x and turn it 1800 about the x. Ans. Since z . x_a sin x/(l + cos x) :::: xa xa 2. (c) Think of 6. (d) lim (1 .5 sin 5x.
(c) Let u = sin 2x. (2 cos x sinx). The result is (29) or the last line on p. let u = cos 2x. Then l= % uU2. Then y = u".A . y/~ . The limit as 6. Same method as in Exercise 3. (g) Let u = 2x. To differentiate cos (l/x) use the method of (h).x/2). Let u = rr/2 . To find du/dx apply (f). Then y = sin u. (a) Let u = sin x. yt::::= .sinxs. y == sin2 x(3 coax . 2. R = (V2/16) (cos. Same method as in Exercise 3.x) = sin x.x approaches 0 is the definition of the derivative of sin 2x.sin2 x + cos'' x. Ans. (h) Let u = l/x. 10.y/6.64 (d) Let u r= 5x. Then y'= 1/2UU2. = (g) Since cot 2x == 1/tan 2x. (b) Differentiate as a product and use (a) to handle sin3x. yI = .cos+x and apply the chain rule. (i ) Since tanx = sinx/cosx. Apply the chain rule. 7.2 cos 2x. Let u = cos x. To find du/dx apply the chain rule again to sin 2x. R' = 0 implies cos" A = sin2 A and so A = 11'/4. (k) Let u r= sinx. Then y'= cos u(l).cosx = 1 + sinx.sinx. Then y = cos u. The result is (20).sin2x). (i ) Treat as a product. 240. y = 1. 12. 6. 5. 11.x = cos (xo + 6. (1) (k) 1 + tanx == sec+x. Then y = u1l2. Then y'= cosx. The result is (23). To differentiate u apply the chain rule again to cos 2x. y = 2 cos" x. 3. Ans. Hence y = sinx and y'= cos x . Then y = u". s (j) 1 . Then s'= cos x. y = cos U (1/x2) = (1/x2) cos (l/x).x/2)[sin (6. Then y = u".cos. y = cos x and y' = . If we use the identity We have 6.x/ 2)]/ 6. Differentiate the quotient by the theorem on a quotient of two functions.x for the function y 7" sin 2x we get the expression in the text. Let u == 2 . (f) Let u s= x3• Then y = sin u and s' = cos U(3X2) 3x2 cos xs. If we form 6. (m) Since sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x. (d) Write y = sin1lsx and let u = sinx. (e) As in (c). s'» cos x/3 (sin x)2/s. Ans. 8. .cos x.. 'But cos (tr/2 . Differentiate with respect to u and multiply by du/dx. Then y::::= tan u. Hence y/. 5 (e) Let u == 4x and apply the chain rule. Then y = l/cos 2u. The quantity 2 . Same method as in Exercise 3.sin2 A). y{= 30 sec25x. Now let v = cosx.xr/dx.y I6.sinx. (j) Let u = stnx". Then y = sin u.x/2)]/(6. Ans.coss x = sinx. d(2 . (f) Differentiate as a product of two functions. Apply the chain rule. 4. Hence s'> O. (1) y = 1.x. y::::=inx and yl= cosx. yJ= 3x2 cos x3/2".x/2) sin (6. Ans. The result is (26). (h) Since cot x = cos xl sin x.x = [2 cos (xo + 6.coss x = 1 + 1 .
At A:::: 0° and for dA/dt = 18° :::: rad. The forces acting on Mare T32M sin A.But the distance x to be covered is d/cos A. However (see (33) of Chap.yas 1:::. x =. Let A be the angle of inclinationof the desired straight line (Fig. and by Newton's second law (2) 32mM = mao Hence by adding (1) and (2) (3) 32m32M sin A = (M+m)a. we integrate and apply the initial condition = a when t = O.4 cos A. There is another possible root. 14.x approaches is the derivative of y:::: sinx at x :::: Hence the answer is cos (1T/2) or O.x] sin (1T/2)}/1:::. Then the height of the pendulum above the level of its lowest position is h == 4 . a force of 32M sinA pulling the mass M down the plane. sin * Ar 16. Then if x is measured from the point along the Inclmed line. Hence the net upward force on M is 32m .. Thus the time to travel up the plane is t = Ih(M+m)/4[sin A(mM sin A]1/2. x=: 1612 sinA. namely cos A = 0 and A = 90° but this answer cannot be considered because it gives an imaginary value for t unless m > M. Hence dh/dt = 4 sin A dA/dt. When dt/dA == 0. 15. But m need not be > M. 1T/2. Hence t l2 = Vid/sin A cos A = (V'd/4)(sinAcos /• Now find Fig.x /1:::. 3 1T/10 per sec. Then t =:V4. cos" A :::: 2 A and A = 17/4.. If we express 1:::. Picture the pendulum making an angle A with the vertical. This gives x = l6(mM sin A)t2/(M+m}.. The force F acting on the whole system acts on both masses m and M and this is why we must write F = {m+M)a. The total forces acting on mare 32mT. This force is transmitted directly to the mass M and pulls itupward.32 sinA and Since x = 0 when t == 0 and x == 0 when t == 0. Then h/sin A = l6(mM sin A)t2/ (M+m)...x. by Newton's second law. and hence Newton's second law says (l) T32M sin A = Ma. 1 dt/dA (by letting u == sin A cos A).65 13. Moreover A = 90° is another situation entirely. A is measured from the horizontal disd tance d clockwise and so is also the inclinationof the inclined line on which the particle slides. From (3) we see that the acceleration of the whole system is a = (32m32M sin A)/(M+m). since a = d2x/dt2. Another way to see this is to take into account the tension T in the string. Now let 1:::. Hence we get + "'" x the expression in the text.xfunction y == sinx at the value xo:::: of x for the 1(/2 we obtain {sin[(1(/2) !:::. The net upward acceleration by F ~ (M+m)a. However limit of 1:::. If we let x represent the variable distance up the plane measured from the bottom then. The mass m is pulled downward with a force (itsweight) of 32m. it need only be greater than M sin A to provide an acceleration up the plane..y/1:::. 1).x. 1 . If we now find dt/dA (by letting u = the quantity in the brackets and applying the chain rule we find from dt/dA = 0 that sin A = m/2M.1T/2. The length of the plane to be covered is h/sin A..1x/sinA.. db/dt::::T/5 ft/sec.32M stn A. a = (32m32M sin A)/(M+m). 3) there is an acceleration of 32 sin A and therefore. Integrate again and apply the initial condition x = 0 when t = O...
Then the height of the passenger above the ground is h = 30 . and s in A = ill/5. 19. cos A = . SECTION 5 1./4 100t2 ./5 ft. Then we have the proper du/dx to apply the inverse of the power rule. 0 0 CHAPTER 10. BD = lOt = %. If we dif+ ferentiate with respect to t and set the derivative equal to 0 we get t = 0/15' To find what cp is. dx/dt = 27T/3mi/min. (b) Here cos A = 36°%800 = 3/4.lO12. If A is the angle of elevation of the plane at any time and x is the horizontal distance traveled by the plane (measured from directly above the observer) when the elevation is A. (When h is increasing and above 30. Measuring the distance.25 cos A./5/3 and the minimum possible value of x is 5. Then v= 1/2../(1 cos 2x)/2. In the second term let u = 2x and use (38). A is a second quadrant angle. Now A is constant and is 41T rad/min.. c'n r AD . (a) Write s'= % cos (3x)3 and let u == 3x. (a) Here A = 0 and cosA = 1. Then s'> u2 du/dx. We need 3 cos 3x for our du/dx. Then x = [27 . + Ans. Take A to be the angle which the line from the center of the wheel to the cab makes with the vertical from the center of the wheel to the ground.. Hence dx/dt = .) A is 7T rad/min. (g) Write s'= secx secx tanx and let u = secx. From Fig. (f) Let u = sin 3x. x = OA cos e = (27 .. we have x = 3600 tanA. .10/25 = . We use the suggestion that we need consider only those situations in which the destroyer heads straight for the battleship. Hence h = 25(sin A)A. Then cos e = . x. 21. Integrate and use sin2x ::= 2 sinx cos x to get the text's answer. Then Y"= u2 cos 3x. Let us determine 1> by the condition that C'D is to be a minimum.% cos 2x = 1/2 . We find dx/de and set it equal to O. Answer. y = x/2 +(sinx cosx)/2 + C. y == _1/4 cos 4x + C.8t.8.. (c) Use sinx = .A dA/dt. Hence x = 14.AC' = . Use (38). (e) Let u:= sinx. Then tan cp:= BD/ AB = % and sin 1> = 0. the destroyer does not know at what angle 1> to head.2 esc. But OB = 8/sin e. along the shore from the foot of the perpendicular from the beacon to the shore and taking A as the angle between this perpendicular and the beam. This gives sin e = %. then x = 2 cot A. (b) Write y'= Y4 sin (4x)4 and let u = 4x.400 1T/cos2A.OB)cos e.. When A = 30 and dA/dt = 15 = 1T/12 rad/sec.66 17./(1 cos 2x)/2. Then h = 25 (ill/5)1T . 20. we have that at thtsvalue of t.2/5. Then y = t/g sins 3x + C. However... When h = 40.(8/sin e)l_pose = 27 cos e '8 cot e. 18.1/4 cos (2x)2. Hence write y'= l/S u2 cos 3x· 3 == Ysu2du/dx.. (d) The method is the same as in (c) except cos = .. Hence dx/dt = x = 3600 sec" A· A.
Then y is as in the text. Hence write Y' = U3/2du/dx and integrate. (k) Write v' ~ COp/2 X cscx. Now use 1/2 sin x2+C. Then du/dx = +cscvx. Then s= +u+du/dx. 5.1/4 sin 2xl TT/2 0 0 . y/:::: 1 + cosx is periodic.67 (h) Let u = cotx. (n) Write v'= (tanx + 3t1/2secx. Let u==cotx. A A du/dx. (38). Hence f(x) = 1/2 sin u + C = = J o TT sin xdx = cos xl 11" o = (1)+1 = 211" 2. (t ) Let u « tan2x.sin x) 8. = IT/4.2 esc" 2x. (j) Write s= cors 2x csc22x. cos x dx f TT/a o cos x dx 11"/2 J 3TT/Z cos X dx 3TT/2 TT/Z +f = 3TT/2 + sin xl = 10(11)+(0(1») =4 'If/2 31r/2 ~he two curves y = cos x+1 and y = 3/2 intersect at cos x = 1/2 7. Then y = 1/4cot22x + C = 1/4 tan" 2x + C. The two constants differ in value. Hence y :::: (cot5x/5) + C. Then the area must be broken up into two points thus: sin xl . Then du/dx ::::a esc ax cot ax. Let u==cscax. (m) Write s'= sec=x secx tanx and let u = secx. Exercises l(c) and l(d) above give other examples.cscx. 4. In fact if we let C' :::: + 1/2 we get the first answer.(1/a)u3 du/dx. I 7r = 13/2 + (TI/2 . 6. (1) Write s'= esc+ax cscax cotax. Its graph is that of cos x but raised one unit above the xaxis. so that x = 'If/3. Let u==tanx + 3. Hence write y'== . 2. Then du/dx = . 0 sin xl A 2TT =J o 11"/3 [(cos x+1)3/2]dx + TT/3 f TT f3/2(cos TT/6 x+l)dx = TT/3 sin x . (0) Let u==x2• Then f I (x) = (cos u) x = 1/2 (cos u) 2x = 1/2 cos u The constant of integration has been ignored. Then f (x) "" 1/(4a) esc+ax + C. Whatever behavior f(x) has in one period it will have in another. Let u::::cot 2x.Y = 3/2 are the coordinates of the point of intersection.. y::: (sin2x)/2 + C in one case and y:::: (cos2x}/2 + C' in the other. Yes.TI/6 + 13/2) x/2 = 13+ IT/6. Hence write yl:::: _1/2u3 du/dx. Then du/dx= . C 3.x/21 0 + x/2 . In particular f' (x) will be the same in the two periods because f' (x) depends only on the values of f(x). TT/3 J 0 'If/2 sin2x dx = f TT/2 (Icos 2x)dx/2 = . However y = x + sinx and this is not periodic. Hence y:::: 2(tan x + 3)1/2 + C. Write i= % u4du/dx. Then du/dx = 2 sec22x. Then du/dx:::: sec/x.
Then A = 5vm/k. use CHAPTER 10. Then A2 = tan x.A! = 8 cosx. 4. The error is replacing v(lcos x)/2 by +sin(x/2) in thde entire t interval (O./3.(D/v'v~k7m + 02) cos v'k/m t].. where n is any integer. Then y . Hence ¢ = 1T/2 and C = .. This velocity y is greatest when the sine function is 1 or v'k/mt = rr/2 + 2n1T. We must find the point of intersection of y = secx and y = 8 cosx. Now we introduce an angle cp whose cosine JS /Qv'Vgm/k + 02 and whose sine is D/lv~m/k + D2. Hence B = O. FIRST SET 1. A2 = 13. sin(x/2) is negative an one mus sin(x/2) .1»..68 9. Then A = Al . ° . In (2n. (55) reduces to y = 5v'm/k sin v'k/m t and the amplitude is 5v'm/k. Then Al = 4v'3. From (60) we have y = Dv'k/ill sin v'k/m t. = sec" X. Solving simultaneously gives x = 1T/3. The area under y = 8 cos x from x = 0 to x = 71/3 is given by integrating . y must be O.) we must have at t = 0. y.JV~m/k+ D2sin ( k m t . SECTION 6. But C = 0 will not satisfy the first condition. Then Al = 8 sinx. 0 = Cv'k/m cos cpo The right side can be 0 if C is 0 or ¢ = 1T/2. is greatest when the + cosine function is 1 or v'k/m t = + 2n71. Since tan (1T/3) =. At t = 0 we must have D = C sin¢.D satisfies both initial conditions.Then y = .4n). From (55) we have 0 = B cosO.~ = 3v'3. Y 7r/3 10. 3. To write (61) in the form (55) we rewrite (61) as y = v'vgm/k + D2[(vo/v'v~m/k+ D2) sin v'k/m i.:: Av'k/m cos v'k/m t.or when t == 2n71v'm/k. given by y. Then t = v'm/k (7T/2) 2n1Tvm!k.4n). Again substitute 11'/3and 0 and subtract the second from the first. Then so far y = A sin v'k/mt. The area under y::::sec+x from x = 0 to x:::: 1T/3 is obtained from if. 2.= 5. With these values of A and B. Now substitute 71/3 and 0 and subtract the second result from the first. At t = 0.. The amplitude is the radical. Since y = CVk/m cos (Vk/mt + 4. The acceleration. At t = 0.
If we compare this equation with (51) we see that it is of the same form with 2k replacing k. B=O. Then y = (1/"'.P.768/4t.k(a .1!. e . The period of the motion is 21T/16 or about 0. it will stretch I1/2 in. m:X =2kx.x). Similarly.When t = 2. 9. k = 768.£ and by pulling the particle a distance x more to the right the stretch is a . ~ = 27T2 rad/sec and jj = O.192cosv'192 t. y = 1. Then as on p.192)cos. Hence by (50). Then y = A"'.393 sec. Hence by (50).x and the force pulling the object to the right is k(a . or % ft when t = O. Hence by arguing as in Exercise 6 or by using (60) with . Hence A = 1/"'. By Newton's second law. When m = 1. Since (51) remains the same the solution is still (52).£ . y = A Sin"'. 8. Suppose.192. Hence in place of (60) we get y = 1/6 cos v'k/m t. When the mass of 3 pounds is attached to the spring.£ + x). 6. When the particle is at 0 the stretch (extension over the normal length £) is already a . say. The net force (in the positive xdirection) is k(a . Then. . If the "spring" constant is k. then by Hooke's law the force pulling the particle to the left is k(a . Then the pull to the left is the amount of stretch in the left hand portion of the string. we have y = D when t = 0 and y = 0 when t = O. The only difference from what was done on p. Then (50) is irrelevant and (51) remains the same except that y now means displacement from the: end of the unextended spring. If gravity is ignored the spring is not extended by the addition of the mass m to the lower end.D replaced by %4' with k = 768 and m = 3 we have y = %4 cos"'. The mass will fall until it reaches the lowest point on the cosine curve.x) . Then ~ = 21T2 cos 41Tt and =87T3 sin41Tt. We are also told that m = 1/4 and d = % ft.5. We may start from (52) and then use the initial conditions. + x) = . the particle is a distance x. as Fig 10'16 shows. the stretch of the right hand portion is a .ff92t. d = 1~4 ft. + x.2k/mt. Hence we may use (52) with 2k replacing k and y = A sin"'. Hence the final formula is y = % cosv'96t.£ . k = 768. As in Exercise 7. and then released.256 t = Va cos 16t.2kx:. 253 in applying the initial conditions there is that in the present exercise y = 2 in. When t = 0.P. We may first of all determine k by the use of (50). Then 8 = (1T/2) Sin 41Tt. The initial conditions here are y = 0 when t = and y = 1 when t = O. Hence the equilibrium position is %4 ft. 253 we can determine that A = D and ° ° 10. We are told that a = 1T/2 and 21T /b = 1/2 so that b = 41T. to the right of O. Now if the particle is pulled initially a distance D to the right. If we let (} be the angular displacement then e is of the form e = a sin bt. Since the amplitude is % it will fall % ft or 3/1. so far. 7. or %4 ft. below the lower end of the unextended spring. If we use (52) and apply the condition y = 0 when t = we get B = O.2k/mt + B cos"'. By placing the mass on the spring and then releasing it suddenly we are fixing the initial condition that y = %4 when t = O.k (Vs) = 32(V4) or k =: 24.
s == £ A sin f327i_ t + £ B cos '.1fl732. 293 ) we have. We have as our initial conditions that e == 0. (Compare Exercise 3.!k.0.1. Hence the angular velocity varies sinusoidally with an amplitude of 0. by (66).1v'32/i and the period is 21TvV32. At such values is 311'2/64. Now follow the method of Exercise 2.05 when t == O. We saw in the derivation in the text that the component of the force of gravity which causes the motion (p.05. When the bob is at its highest point. its linear and angular velocities are O. 9.. Since B == .32/£ t. We use (66) with the initial conditions e == 0 when t = 0 and e = 0. To make T twice as large we must increase 1!. SECOND SET 1. CHAPTER 10.32/£ t . Since s == £ (J (p. though the velocity is 0 at t == 0. SECTION 6. The amplitude is 1T/16 and the period is % seconds.0. Sin v'327'£ t. Hence x == 100 cos vk t. 2.70 CHAPTER 10. as t increases the velocity depends on xo. As painted out in the text..100. 3. SECTION 6.05 when t = 0 A = 0.. If we use (51) we see that k in the present case replaces kim there. by a factor of 4. 4.f327l. The first condition substituted in (66) gives B ==' 0.f£732. In a longer tunnel x varies over a longer range of values and the motion starts out with a larger acceleration. The maximum velocity is the amplitude. 5.1 when t == 0 and == 0. Then x == . THIRD SET 1.1 cos I327it. The period does not depend on the mass of the bob. Hence the object acquires more velocity.l) sin~t.1. 100.f327l. The maximum value occurs at t == 0 or any multiple of 21T.1 when t = O. We find that B = 0 and A == 0. 2. 6. Then from (70) S = e e e t:: JI.) Then (a) 8 == (1T /16) sin (3rt/4) (b) The angular velocity is == (31T2/64) cos (31Tt/4). Moreover its velocity is small near that point of its path. namely. The path is longer but the greater velocity acquired compensates. Then 8 = 0. To meet the second condition we first obtain from (66) that B ==' /32lff_ Acos '. . The motion is given by (76) with Xo== 100 and k is the constant GM/R3. s ttl.Jf732 == 4/31T so that f327I == 31T/4..05. This equation is of the form (51) or (65).f£732· sin I327it + 0. From (67) we see that .Ji{ sin v'k t. This shows that. We use (66). If we now assume that the pendulum started from the equilibrium position with some initial velocity then we may use the form 8 =: A sin. (O.. Mathematically we see from (76) that x == xo. From (70) we have e == . 7.J'k sinv'kt.J327£t.298 ) is PQ == kmx. 8. Hence the bob is momentarily stationary. The period is given by (67). 10.J"2/ft. B sin.
letting the letters M and R still stand for values of the earth's mass and radtus . The physical phenomenon discussed here is best compared with the phenomenon of the bob on the spring. And the quantity (c) is the quantity +ky below (50). If we start with (75) and apply the initial conditions x== 0 at t :=0 and x := 0 at t:= 0 we get in place of (76) just x :=O.}GM!R3 211"/.61TY. there is a downward force which is its weight in air minus the buoyant force on the portion of the cylinder still in the water.3.lkt. R by 3R/11 and then 32R2 by GM one obtains an answer in terms of the k of the text where M and R refer to ..}4.. the period is 21T/1k. 4. we can use (52) with k/ m replaced by 4.9921Tt.9921Tt. when the yvalue is positive but less than d.}4. If we follow the procedure of fixing A and B that was used in the text. The period is still 211" This last fact is interesting be/.. Before we applied any initial conditions we derived (75). For x = 0 the period is 0 (as in Exercise 4). Then T = 21T/v'k 21T/. We start with the formula T:= 21T /Jk where k = GM/R3. T = 21T/v'(GM!Sl)/(3R!11)3=(54v'31T/1lv'li)(1/v'k).Ik. 7.3R2. Equation (a) is the analogue of (50). The initial conditions are that y =2 when t = 0 and y = 0 when t = O. but with no point on the line segment at x:= O.}4. Hence the graph of period versus x is a line segment parallel to the x axis and extending from xo to +x. This is the analogue of the downward force exerted in the case of the spring. When the cylinder rises above the equilibrium position. in which case GM = 5.}5. One may choose to let M and R stand for the mass and radius of the moon. Since the differential equation (my = net force) is y = 4. Equation (b) is the analogue of (49). Here when the cylinder is depressed below its equilibrium position the buoyant force of the water replaces the upward pull of the spring. we obtain x := (xo/3) cos.. the force is the weight of the bob minus the upward pull of the spring. cause the period is the same as when the object traverses the entire path UV. Since the theory of the text does not restrict M and R to be the mass and radius of the earth we may let them be the mass and radius of the moon. 5. 6..71 3.3R2/R3 ::::= == := 27rV'R/v'5. If in the next to the last expression one replaces 5..99211Y. and k still stands for GM/R3 but M and R refer to the moon.. If we start with (75) and apply the initial conditions x = x when t = 0 and and x = 0 when t = 0 we get x = x cos Ii{ t in place of (76). Now our initial conditions are x e= xo/3 when t :=0 and x :=0 when t := O.99211. Then y =2 cos.This is also a correct answer.3 by 32/6. Then.. The resulting differential equation is the analogue of (51) and is 100y::::= 32' 15. Thus for every value of x except 0.99211 t + B cps.. Then y = A sin .
if we use the more convenient form (80). Then 2 = 21Ta/Ysand a = 1/51T. . From Exercise 1 we see that the maximum velocity is the amplitude a times 21T/r. The maximum value of y occurs when the cosine is 1 and then y is 21Ta/T. SECTION 6. FOURTH SET L The function.J21l/v'l1k.3 by 32/6 is an approximation. Here k has the value GM/R3 where M and R stand for the earth's values. 2. CHAPTER 10. This latter answer can be put in the form T = 6.72 values for the earth. Then y = a(21T/r) cos [(2'll/T)t +cp). where T is the period. Of course the replacement of 5. is y == a sin [(21T/r)t + CP]..
Start with y:= cot x. Then f' (x) = (x/II+x2) (1/ (2+X2) 1 • (g) Use (22) with u = cos x. Changing to x and y for independent and dependent variables. In taking the x2 out of the radical we must write I x 1 because the value of the entire radical is positive.5. Hence dx/dy =1/csc2x = 1/(1 + cot=x) == 1/(1 +y2). (c) (f) 17° 27'· . Since l/x2 is also positive we must write s= (III x I) (1/V2x .1. Then y' = 6x/(1+9x4. Then f (x) = 1/2xlxT . 2/rs. (f) Use (24) with u = . we have dy/dx = 1/(1 +x").. (b) Use (23) with u = X2.J9x 1 (j') Use (26) with u = 2x3. )3/2. Then y/= .2x/V1 .f~3xx_'L=2. Then yf = ± 1/3x..l. 11.  11' I rt __________________ ~ ) \ 1f 2 ~~~1 1 The slope is always positive.1)z/x2J) (1/x2). SECTION 3 1. (k) Use (25) with u = 3x2• Then y' = ±1/. (b) J3/2. (b) 30°' . See Figure 1. (h) Use (24) with u ==. 2. (e) v'3/2. (h) 1. (b) 1T/2.. (c) Use (24) with u == l/x. Solve for x.Jx . (f) 0. +_Lx .X4.1). (d) (h) 180°.. 4. 3. 2. We.sinx/I sin x ] .l)/x. (e) First f' (x ) = 2 sinlexd(sin1)/dx. respectively. (i ) Use (26) with u = 3x. obtain first y'= {I/"1 [(x . Then s'= .73 Solutions to Chapter 11 CHAPTER II. 3. (d) Use (22) with u = (x . Then dy/dx ==csc2x. CHAPTER (d) 1200.Jx2 + 1. (a) Use (22) with u = x/3. SECTION 2 1. 2 .
Then yl is in the form (30) with u = 3x/4. (c) Write yl = (1/a){1/[1 + (x/a)2]).h Y Y' (dy/dx). Then du/dx = 2. .1)](du/dx).for 31T/2 ~ x ~ 21T. Since dy/dx =l/(dx/dy).' 5. Hence iJ == (vfa) eos" B.(4x2/5). Then yl is in the form (28) with u = 3x/4. except for the factor %. for 11"/2 x s 311"/2. To find () use (24) with u = gt2/2a.[(reg:~/dd ~)//(ddxy/ads )2J' a function of y with y as a function of x.x +C. Then we have the form (28). (d) Write s'» (1/a2){1/[1 + (bx/a)2J}.0). . Now to differentiate with resp~ct/to2 x.J5. (g) Write v= 1~6{1/[1+ (3x/4)2]). 9. Then y = % sec12x + C. The idea here is the same as in (a) except that we have the derrvative of tan " x at x = 1. (i ) yl is in the form (32) [or (33)J with u = 2x. to (b): x = O. From (24) we see that the answer is %. Y = 11/2~ x. (k) (1/3) sin. Hence y = % secJx + C. From (24) we see that the answer is 1. except for the factor %. In each case find d2y/dx2 and set it equal to 0 to fwd the abscrssa of the point of inflection.(3x/4)2).1 . 11"/2. This constant factor can be introduced and the resnlt is in the text. e e CHAPTER 11. (11) Write v= 1/4(1/'. Then d y dx = d. Hence write yI= %[1/(u'. we have the text result. The answer is in the text. Then du/dx = b/a. (e) Except for the factor ~. Then we have the form (30) with u = x/a. 1112 we see that e = tan ' (y/a). Y = 51T/2 ~ x. From (24) we find that dB/dy = a/(a2 + y2) = cos" B/a. Use Now use f (x) (28). Also dy/dt = v. Then du/dx = 2/.y = ::. (a) tarrx/x = (tarr+x ~ tan= d(tan1x)/dx (b) x~ at x == O. Then the text answer follows at once and to find jj merely differentiate with respect to t. f (x ) = fxdx/ (x4+3) = (1/2) f2xdx/ = (30). Now = dB/dt = (dB/dy)(dy/dt).(2v2/a2) cos" B sin B.sin IJ)e = . . Now lJ = dB/dt = (v/a)2 cos 8(. dy/dx = 1/(dx/dy). Let u == bx/a.u2 . (0 Write v= (1/v'5)(1/v'l . = (13/6)tanl (x2/13)+c. B. Ans. 6. [ (x2) 2+3J. B = tarr ' (gt2/2a). Hence y = (1/ab) tarr" (bx/a) + C. .74 4. the s' is in the form (32) (or (33}J. 10)/(x . For 0 ~ x s 11/2. Then y' is in the form (28) with u = 2x/v'5. (b) Let u = xS. The answer is in the text. Here B is a function of t. (a) Let u = x2• Then we have the form (28). (j) Let f (x) u = x3 and write 1 2 f(x) = (1/3)f3x2dx/f~1~(x3)2. Hence write y/= (1/ab){1/[1 + (bx/a)2]}{b/a). Then li!8tanlx/x 7. From Fig. SECTION 4 1.
a2. SECTION 5 1. (n) Write the given integral as dx/I(x+5) 2+5] = (1/5)Jdx/I«x+5)/i5)2 +1]. By our formula for area. The second integration uses (28). 3. 2. Our method of finding areas is to start with dA/dx = y. dA/dx = y or A = (30). We can use the table to find that tanl (13/3) = n/6 or happen to remember this. 2. (m) Break up the given integral into !xdx/.x2• U we now substitute a for x and then o for x and subtract the second result from the first we get nb/4. Hence A = (1/3)2 tan1 (13/3). Then y = (~/5)tanl [(y+5)/~]+C. 13 J 13 dx/(9+x2).75 (t) Write the given integral as (1/2)!2sec xtan xdx/132+(2sec x)z. Hence read off the answer from (52). (c) Let x = 4/3 tan e and follow the procedure of (a) or (b).9 .x2• The integral in view of (53) is (ab/2) sin"! (x/a) + (bx/2a)"'. Then A = n/9. The first integral is evaluated by letting u = lx2 and using the inverse of the power rule. Hence y = 8/3 + C = Ys sm " (3x/4) + C.9 sin2 8) 3 cos 0 = 1. Whenever a radical occurs a change of variable which eliminates the radical is usually helpful. Thus A = 1/3 [tanl (13/3)tan1(13/3)]. A = 1/3 tanl (x/3). Use (30). The steps parallel those of the text where the substitution x = a sin 8 was used. Here y = (b/a) la 2 _b2• Hence we must integrate (b/a)Ja2 . (b) Let x = ¥a sin O.r=xr + 3 Jdx/lf=XT. . Then y = 8 + C or y = strr" (x/3) + C. Then y = (1/6)tan1 [2sec(x/3)]+C. Then with CHAPTER 11. NOw substitute 13 and 13 for x and subtract. But to use change of variable let x = 3 sin O. (a) This can be done by factoring the 9 out of the radical and thus reducing to (28). Now let u = (x+5)/1S and use (30). The two answers agree because sin1 (x/a) and cos"! (x/a) differ by a constant. But tan1 (13/3) = tanl (/3/3) . Then dy/ d8 = (dy/ dx}(dx/ de) =: 1/4(1/ cos e) 7'8 cos e. (d) This is (48) with a = 3. Then y = ~+3 sin1x+C. Then dy/cW = (dy/ dx)(dx/ dO) = (1/"'.
(i ) Let x = 5 sin e.J2GM and t = %r3/2/. Let us use (7 O~ Then we must first use (65) to find the value of e when r == 4000 ·5280.4 sin2e. 2. Replace sin261 by 2 sin e cos e and transform back to x. If we let t = 0 when r == R. Then y "" !tan2. C ==2R3/2/3. The text answer is approximate. Since an acceleration of 32 ft/sec2 is greater than the actual gravitational acceleration the object will acquire greater velocity and take less time to fall 2000 miles. as in Exercise 1.sirr ' (x/5) + C.000 miles == 60R and r == The arithmetic is again R. Again the accuracy will depend on the number of decimal places carried. Replace sin2() by (1 . then dyIde = [1/(a2 + a2 tan28)3f2]a sec20 = \1/a2) cos 8. . 4. 4. 5280 + 100. The time of flight is the same as if the object were dropped from a height of 100. a == 32.xi/x) . We could also use (7 a) and calculate the e for which R == (3R/2)cos2 e and then substitute in (70) . The procedure is the same as in Exercise 2. The calculation is extensive and the accuracy of the answer will depend on how many decimal plac es are carried.j2GM. As in Exercise 3 the time required is the same as if an object falls from a height of 240.. we can use (69) or (70). To calculate the time we use the method of Chapter 3. O 2 + 3R/2.2R3/2/3. s = 3R/2 when t :::: .000 ft and traveled to the surface of the earth. S8. 5.GM/R. Thus. 3.000 miles to the surface of the earth. Here Vo is the velocity at the surface of the earth and v is the velocity at the distance r from the center of the earth.j2GM and so t = 2r3/2/3. 1 Then y = se . (e) If CHAPTER 11. :::: /a x (g) Let x = 4 sin O..J2GM+ C. Then since v == dr/dt.000 and r 4000·5280. If tan 8 = x/a then sin 8 = x/.j2GM/R...8dS = J(sec2S1)d8 = tar. dt/dr = r1f2/. lengthy and the accuracy depends on the number of decimal places carried. Then dyIde ::::(1/a2) sec28. Following the suggestion we start with v2/2 = vU2 + GM/r . That is. Use of (70) gives 98 sec.jR!32 = 812 Hence s = 16t seconds. SECTION 6 L Use (69) with r1 = R + 2000·5280 == 3R/2 and r = R. This gives e = 86020' approx.cos 2e)/2.. A result between 1250 and 1300 seconds is good enough for present purposes. However instead of the end values a and 0 we have here 2 and O.. Then y = cot 8S Transforming back to x gives y:::: (v'25.J2GM!r. In either case r1::::4000 . y:::: (1/a2) tan () a 2.J2GM. We let Vo be the escape velocity . approx. Then dy/d() :::: 6 sin" (). Then y = (1/a2) sin 8 + C.x2 + C.76 x == a tan B.ja2 + x2• (f) Let x :::: sin 8.ja2 . Now calculate t when s = R. Then v2/2 = GM/r and v > . v » 32t + C.. (h) Let x = 5 sine. We can use (69) or (70). Then t = . Then s == 2 + C 16t and if s is measured from the height of 2000 miles. C = 0 because v = 0 when t == O. In either case r1 = 240. Then y = J (c s c ' 8··1) d8. Now transfor m back to x.
(b) We see from the expression for t that when r is infinite (and positive) t is . following the suggestion. then t :::: when r :::: and C = O. 3/2/v'2GM Then t ::::%r + C. This would not happen physically because the body never reaches the center. The force of attraction acting say on the sphere to the right is. Then 0 0 r :::: . starting from r :::: for t:= 0. Hence in the present situation the formula has no physical meaning for positive t. (c) We see from the expression for v that v is infinite when r is O. r must decrease with Increasmg t. the object 0 would have to move away from the center in the direction of incr eastng r as t increases. Then rnX == . and the distance between the cenm ters of the two spheres is 2x. We must understand t to be negative as the ( formula for t shows. Since t is 0 when the object reaches the center. Integrating gives v2/2 :::: M/r + C. by taking the acceleration negative and then the velocity negative. . Then.3/2)2/!f(2GM)1I3 t2l8. For positive t values r is positive. according to the law of gravitation. Hence it takes an infinite time to reach the center.Gm2/4x2. v dv/dr == GM/r2. but replace GM by Gm/4. (d) Yes.77 6. (e) Since r increases with t. 8. (a) We cannot use (69) because letting r1 be infinite does not give a clear value for t. sec. Now our initial condition is that v ::::: when r becomes G 0 2/2 :::: M/r.. 7. dt/dr ::::rl/2/v'2GM. 7. is . The factor (3/2)213 is positive.Gm2/4x2 or x == Gm/4x2. . Since v::::dr /dt.=.=. Then v::::v'GM/r. The answer of two hours is approximate because the accuracy of the answer depends on the number of decimal places carried. wherein now M. We may then go directly to (69) and replace GM there by Gm/4. In our case r1 == and r == because 3 1 the spheres are in contact when each is 1 foot away from the origin. We start with a == 2r/dt2 ==GM/r2 and write dv/dt :=GM/r2• d Then as in Chap. That is. it is negative previously. Hence C :::: and v 0 G sign enters because v is negative. the minus infinite. starting with (62). If we agree to measure time from the instant the body reaches the center. we take over the theory of the text.
6.» logea. Then y'= (l/u) du/dx = [(1 + x)/x][1/(1 + X)2]. log3 = 1/2 log 9. . The curve of y :=: og (5 . (logx)/x.697 . (b) 4.307 . Then y'~ (l/sinx) cos x::. by (a). Hence a logex :=: og . (d) Log of 1 to any base is O. y :=:(1/logea)logex. (a) If x = loge3. (b) 2. Then if y:=: log. SECTION 3 (p. then eX= 3.600. y' = log x + 1. (d) 7. (b) Add 2 to each y value of y = logx. 3. Then y'1=[1/(x2 + 3x»)(2x + 3). y"'=logx.]8 Solutions to Chapter 12 CHAPTER 12. Hence y'= (1 .10. (b) Let u== logx. (e) Let u = x2 + 3x. 2. We now know that the integral of log x is x logx . Let e1l :::: m = x. (b) loge 9 = 2 loge 3. I 8.6931. (b) 2. hence 4 is a good estimate.x) is the curve of y:=:log (.:=. Ans. Compare Figs. 1. (a) Let u e= x2 and use the chain rule (20). e4 < 81. 9. (d) The curve is that of lug x translated 2 units to the left and with each yvalue then multiplied by 3. (d) 2. x is somewhat greater than 1. 2 (c) Let u s= x/(1 + x). Yes. 1. Then y'. (d) 2. (e) 9. 121 and 12~2. (a) The yvalues of 3 Iog x are three times as large as those of log x.8451. (d) Let u s= sinx.10:=:0. (c) The curve of y:=:log (x + 3) is the curve of y:=:log x translated 3 units to the left.log xj /x".x. (b) 2.3222. (i ) Let u = logx.x) translated 5 units to the right. (h) Differentiate as a quotient. Since e is about 2.7535. (e) Log (x) is the reflection in the yaxis of logx. SECTION 2. Then logee£ = loge am = m logea:=: log jx log .94444. CHAPTER 12. 4.:cotx. l 7. (c) Since 34:=:81. (c) O.«.x. (a) 0. Hence s'= l/x log ea. 5. ) (e) log21 = log 7 + log3. the integral part is at least 2.5353.7. (g) In view of (f). 1. Then 1= (l/logx)(l/x). (c) 30.8451 2. (f ) Differentiate as a product.
Let u = sinx. dR/ds = k/S. (a) (b) See Let Let Let y= u = 1 . then the answer is (1/3)log!lx3j+C. y = log (x + 2) + C. Then du/dx = 2x. Write y'= % [1/(x + 1)]2x. For n = 1.cosx) + C. 1 (b) Let u == x + 2. Hence apply (21). Write y'= (1/logx)(1/x). u = Iog x. (e) Let u = x2+2. Let u = 2x5 in the first and u = 2x+3 in the second. Write 1= % [1/(X2. The absolute value takes care of values of x for which lx3 > 0 and lx3 < O.t derivative of Iog x at x =: 1. Then du/dx = sec+x.6x + 10)](2x . (f) (g) Let u = cos x. Then du/dx :::: . Let u = cos (x/2). 10 10 12. Now assume for n = k that dk [log xr/dx" =: (_1)kl(k . Multiply numerator of integral by 1/2 and outside by 2.. Apply (21). Apply (21) or more generally (31). Then du/dx = 2x. Hence {3/2)log(x2+2)+C. Then du/dx = 1/x.1). write the given integral as 3/2!2xdx/(x2+2). Apply (21) or more generally (31). Then du/dx == 2x . Then dk+I(logx)/dxk =: (1)k. 14. Write y'= . u = tanx. 15. Then du/dx = sin x. This is the expression for the x"" x . or s= l/x at x = 1 or 1.1) = lim (logx log l)/(x .6.1)! /x".6x + 10. Then du/dx == 2x. A = r 1 dx/x = log xl R 1 = 2.sin x). Then (1/2)logj2x51{1/2)logI2x+31+c = /tan{x/2)dx = !sin(x/2)dx/cos{x/2). Then du/dx :::: sinx. Since du/dx = 3x2. Multipl¥ numerators by 2 and divide outside by 1/2. Hence apply (21). Then du/dx = cosx. (h) See (g). Apply (21) or (31).cos x. d (logx)/dx = klog S+C. Hence by (21) y = log (1. . (f).. Multiply the numerator of the given integral by 2 and divide outside by 1/2. Break up into a difference of integrals.(l/cosx) (. (c) Let u = x 2 (d) Let u = x2 + 1.79 10..I(k.1)! (k)Xk1. Then du/dx = 2x+2. 3• Let u = lx Multiply the numerator by 3 and divide outside the integral sign by 1/3. Hence 21oglcos{x/2) i+c = 2loglsec(x/2) I+c. the theorem holds for n = 1.30260 = 2. (a) Keeping aside the factor % we can apply (19). Then y = 1~ log (x2 + 1) + C. Apply (21). Let u = x2+2x+S. (e) Let u == x2 . Since O! is defined to be 1. (c) (d) Jr~~:~ I +C. = 1/x. We see that if the theorem is true for n = k it is true for n => k + 1. (i ) (j) (k) (1) II. Since it is true for n = 1 it is true for all positive integral n.. Then du/dx = (1/2)sin{x/2).3026. 13. 2 + 1. log (logx) + C. Hence (l/2)log (x2 +2x+S) +C. lim1 logx/(x .6).