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Submitted to: Amity School of Engineering and Technology

Under the guidance of:

Submitted by: Siddharth Sharma 8001 HoorainManhas 8020 Kanchan Tanya 8022

Mr.Rajan Raman Vishwambaram

AMITY UNIVERSITY, UTTAR PRADESH

0

Acknowl

nt

Dynamics and its

We feel immense pleasure in submitting this Project on Fl i

Application- B noulli s T orem. The valuable guidance of the teaching staff made this study possible. They have been a constant source of encouragement throughout the completion of this report. We would sincerely like to thank Mr.Rajan Raman Vishwambaram for their help and support during the making of this report. This report would not have been successful without their guidance and the valuable time that they hadspent withus during the report development stages. We would like to express our immense gratitude to our parents, who have always lent us a helping hand during tough times and stood by us throughout this project and this life.

Siddharth Sharma HoorainManhas Kanchan Tanya

Certi icate

1

Ms.Bernoulli s Theorem´ as a part of Second Year programme of Bachelor of Technology in Civil from Amity School of Engineering and Technology. Uttar Pradesh under my supervision. Noida.Kanchan Tanya. Amity University. students of B.Tech(Civil Engineering) have carried out the work presented in the project entitled³FluidDynamics and its Application. and Ms.HoorainManhas.Rajan Raman Vishwambaram Department of Mechanical Engineering ASET oida 2 . Mr.This is to certify that Mr.Siddharth Sharma.

Introduction Fluid dynamics Equations of Fluid dynamics Terminology in Fluid dynamics Bernoulli s Theorem.INDEX Page No. 2. 9. 3.An Important Application Of Fluid dynamics Incompressible Flow Equation Compressible Flow Equation Derivation of Bernoulli s Theorem Real World Application Misunderstandings in Generation of Lift Conclusion Bibliography 4 5 6 10 13 14 18 20 25 26 27 28 3 . 6. 4. 11. 1. 7. 5. 8. 12. 10.

The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious. Liquids form a free surface (that is. There are many examples of substances proving difficult to classify. depending on the time period over which it is observed. plastic solids. A particularly interesting one is pitch. compressive stress which is called pressure. These properties are typically a function of their inability to support a shear stress in static equilibrium. a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. Silly Putty can be considered to behave like a solid or a fluid. ideal fluids can only be subjected to normal. with no implication that gas could also be present. 4 . It is best described as a viscoelastic fluid. and to normal stresses both compressive and tensile. "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required function if there is gas in it.INTRODUCTION A fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. In contrast. In common usage.This also means that all fluids have the property of fluidity. The distinction is made by evaluating the viscosity of the substance. Real fluids display viscosity and so are capable of being subjected to low levels of shear stress. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). no matter how small. gases. For example. as demonstrated in the pitch drop experiment Fluids display such properties as: not resisting deformation. "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid". Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids. Solids can be subjected to shear stresses. or resisting it only lightly (viscosity). to some extent. and the ability to flow (also described as the ability to take on the shape of the container). plasmas and.

pressure. hydrodynamics meant something different than it does today. as functions of space and time. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering. as well as being applied to. including calculating forces and moments on aircraft. density. Historically. such as velocity. that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure that underlies these practical disciplines. like magnetohydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability both also applicable in. This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics. predicting weather patterns. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating various properties of the fluid. understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modeling fission weapon detonation. It has several subdisciplines itself. 5 .FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. and temperature. where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid. determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines. gases. hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications. including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Before the twentieth century.

momentum. and velocity are taken to be well-defined at infinitesimally small points.EQUA N F FLUID DYNA IC The foundational axioms of fluid dynamics are the conservation laws s ecifically conservation of mass conservation of linear momentum (also known as Newton's Second Law of Motion). so they are primarily of use in Computational Fluid Dynamics. and have velocities small in relation to the speed of light. a thermodynamical equation of state giving the pressure as a function of other thermodynamic variables for the fluid is required to completely specify the problem. temperature. and energy conservation equations. These are based onclassical mechanics and are modified in quantum mechanics and general relativity. all of which make them easier to solve. However. fluids are assumed to obey the cont nuu a u pt on. . the continuum assumption considers fluids to be continuous. In addition to the mass. which is a non-linear set of differential equations that describes the flow of a fluid whose stress depends linearly on velocity gradients and pressure. M the ola a and T ¢ ¢ te pe atu e. They are expressed using the Reynolds Transport Theorem. do not contain ionized species. the momentum equations for Newtonian fluids are theNavier-Stokes equations. Fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects. Some of them allow appropriate fluid dynamics problems to be solved in closed form. and are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another. £ ¤¤ £ ¡ In addition to the above. The fact that the fluid is made up of discrete molecules is ignored. rather than discrete. For fluids which are sufficiently dense to be a continuum. The unsimplified equations do not have a general closed-form solution. An example of this would be ¥ the perfect gas equation of state y y y y y Compressible vs incompressible flow Viscous vsinviscid flow Steady vs unsteady flow Laminar vs turbulent flow Newtonian vs non-Newtonian fluids 6 ¦ ¦ § ¨ ¨¨ ¦ § ¨ ¨ ¨ § ¨ © § ¨ § ¨ ¦ ¨¨ ¦ § ¨ whe e p ¦ p e u e. den t . Consequently. pressure. Ru the ga con tant. The equations can be simplified in a number of ways. and conservation of energy (also known as First Law of Thermodynamics). properties such as density.

This additional constraint simplifies the governing equations. Vis ous vsinvis id flo Viscous problems are those in which fluid friction has significant effects on the fluid motion. Therefore. compared to inertial terms. Otherwise the more general compressible flow equations must be used. The Reynolds number. may require that the viscosity be included. i. which is a ratio between inertial and viscous forces. For flow of gases. to determine whether to use compressible or incompressible fluid dynamics.Co p essible vs in o p essible flo All fluids are compressible to some extent. This idea can work fairly well when the Reynolds number is high. Stokes flow is flow at very low Reynolds numbers. However. Therefore. Re<<1. an approximation in which we neglect viscosity completely. However. can be used to evaluate whether viscous or inviscid equations are appropriate to the problem. we may assume the flow to be an inviscid flow. On the contrary. certain problems such as those involving solid boundaries. high Reynolds numbers indicate that the inertial forces are more significant than the viscous (friction) forces. which is the sum of local and convective derivatives. the Mach number of the flow is to be evaluated. and thus generating vorticity. As a rough guide. Viscosity often cannot be neglected near solid boundaries because the no-slip condition can generate a thin region of large strain rate (known as Boundary layer) which enhances the effect of even a small amount of viscosity. in many situations the changes in pressure and temperature are sufficiently small that the changes in density are negligible. to calculate net forces on bodies (such as wings) we should 7 . In this case the flow can be modeled as an incompressible flow. whether the incompressible assumption is valid depends on the fluid properties (specifically the critical pressure and temperature of the fluid) and the flow conditions (how close to the critical pressure the actual flow pressure becomes).3. For liquids..e. incompressibility is expressed by saying that the density of a fluid parcel does not change as it moves in the flow field. Acoustic problems always require allowing compressibility. especially in the case when the fluid has a uniform density. compressible effects can be ignored at Mach numbers below approximately 0. since sound waves are compression waves involving changes in pressure and density of the medium through which they propagate. that is changes in pressure or temperature will result in changes in density. where D / Dt is the substantial derivative. such that inertial forces can be neglected compared to viscous forces. Mathematically.

Such flows are called potential flows. Otherwise. It should be noted. Turbulent flows are unsteady by definition. can depend on the chosen frame of reference. A turbulent flow can. According to Pope:[3] The random field U(x. For instance. In a frame of reference that is stationary with respect to a background flow. and this is constant too in a statistically stationary flow. in a region close to the body. When the flow is everywhere irrotational and inviscid. especially in computational fluid dynamics. however. Another often used model. turbulent flow is often represented via a Reynolds decomposition. a body in an inviscid fluid will experience no drag force. flow is called unsteady. which incorporates viscosity. and apparent randomness. The Euler equations can be integrated along a streamline to get Bernoulli's equation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS). eddies. that the presence of eddies or recirculation alone does not necessarily indicate turbulent flow these phenomena may be present in laminar flow as well. be statistically stationary. Bernoulli's equation can be used throughout the flow field. the flow is considered to be a st ady flow. in which the flow is broken down into the sum of an average component and a perturbation component. laminar flow over a sphere is steady in the frame of reference that is stationary with respect to the sphere. based on the Navier Stokes equations. Mathematically. Flow in which turbulence is not exhibited is calledlaminar. The governing equations of a steady problem have one dimension less (time) than the governing equations of the same problem without taking advantage of the steadiness of the flow field. Steady flows are often more tractable than otherwise similar unsteady flows. St ady vs unst ady flow When all the time derivatives of a flow field vanish. The standard equations of inviscid flow are the Euler equations. As illustrated by d'Alembert's paradox. Often. Steady-state flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at a point in the system do not change over time. however. the mean field is the object of interest. Whether a particular flow is steady or unsteady. This roughly means that all statistical properties are constant in time. makes it 8 . is to use the Euler equations away from the body and the boundary layer equations.t) is statistically stationary if all statistics are invariant under a shift in time.use viscous flow equations. the flow is unsteady. Laminar vs turbul nt flow Turbulence is flow characterized by recirculation. It is believed that turbulent flows can be described well through the use of the Navier Stokes equations.

moving faster than 72 km/h (20 m/s) is well beyond the limit of DNS simulation (Re = 4 million). N wtonian vs non-N wtonian fluids Sir Isaac Newton showed how stress and the rate of strain are very close to linearly related for many familiar fluids. have more complicated non-N tonian stress-strain 9 . turbulence models will be a necessity for the foreseeable future. Another promising methodology is large eddy simulation (LES). Such a modeling mainly provides the additional momentum transfer by the Reynolds stresses. which depends on the specific fluid. blood. some polymers). materials (e. Transport aircraft wings (such as on an Airbus A300 or Boeing 747) have Reynolds numbers of 40 million (based on the wing chord). However. Restrictions depend on the power of the computer used and the efficiency of the solution algorithm.g. honey. Reynolds-averagedNavier Stokes equations (RANS) combined with turbulence modeling provides a model of the effects of the turbulent flow. such as emulsions and slurries and some visco-elastic behaviours. some of the other materials. Any flight vehicle large enough to carry a human (L > 3 m). In order to solve these real-life flow problems. These materials include sticky iquids such as latex. especially in the guise of detached eddy simulation (DES) which is a combination of RANS turbulence modeling and large eddy simulation. The results of DNS agree with the experimental data.possible to simulate turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds numbers. and lubricants which are studied in the sub-discipline of rheology. Most flows of interest have Reynolds numbers much too high for DNS to be a viable option[4]. given the state of computational power for the next few decades. These Newtonian fluids are modeled by a coefficient calledviscosity. although the turbulence also enhances the heat and mass transfer. such as water and air.

10 . Bourdon tube. A point in a fluid flow where the flow has come to rest (i. speed is equal to zero adjacent to some solid body immersed in the fluid flow) is of special significance. the temperature and density are essential when determining the state of the fluid. regardless of whether the fluid is in motion or not. In incompressible flows. (These two pressures are not pressures in the usual sense they cannot be measured using an aneroid. the concepts of total (or stagnation) temperature and total (or stagnation) density are also essential in any study of compressible fluid flows.J. many authors use the terms static temperature and static density. The temperature and density at a stagnation point are called stagnation temperature and stagnation density. Pressure can be measured using an aneroid. In particular. Some of the terminology that is necessary in the study of fluid dynamics is not found in other similar areas of study. mercury column. but where the term pressure alone is used it refers to this static pressure. In addition to the concept of total pressure (also known as stagnation pressure). the stagnation pressure at a stagnation point is equal to the total pressure throughout the flow field. and both can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field. such as air. The static pressure at the stagnation point is of special significance and is given its own name stagnation pressure. is often referred to as the static pressure. T rminology in incompr ssibl fluid dynamics The concepts of total pressure and dynamic pressure arise from Bernoulli's equation and are significant in the study of all fluid flows. In Aerodynamics. Static temperature is identical to temperature. and static density is identical to density. some of the terminology used in fluid dynamics is not used in fluid statics. many authors use the term static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure and dynamic pressure. Bourdon tube or mercury column.TERMINOLOGY IN FLUID DYNAMICS The concept of pressure is central to the study of both fluid statics and fluid dynamics. L.e. Static pressure is identical to pressure and can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field. or various other methods. T rminology in compr ssibl fluid dynamics In a compressible fluid.) To avoid potential ambiguity when referring to pressure in fluid dynamics. To avoid potential ambiguity when referring to temperature and density. It is of such importance that it is given a special name a stagnation point. A pressure can be identified for every point in a body of fluid. Clancy writes[5]: o distinguish it from the tota and dynamic pressures the actua pressure of the fluid which is associated not with its motion but with its state.

it is traveling through a temperature gradient. velocities. he Material Derivative When using Lagrangian coordinates. As the plane takes off and begins to accelerate into the sky. it is easy to find the velocity and acceration of the particle they are simply the partial time derivatives ! and In Eulerian coordinates. so the plane will experience a change in temperature due to its change in altitude. " " As you can see. t). instead of particles. the material derivative. The terms static enthalpy and static entropy appear to be less common. we have aEulerian description. which takes both of these into account.t). t). The equation for the Material Derivative. We can measure the velocity and acceleration of particles going past a specific spatial point. the position of a particle is expressed as x(xo. x being the spatial position. The partial time derivatives only give us the rate of change of the variable at that specific spatial point. Because the 'total' flow conditions are defined by isentropically bringing the fluid to rest. and the prefix "static" is being used to avoid ambiguity with their 'total' or 'stagnation' counterparts. As the sun comes out. The change in temperature with respect to time will depend on the local and advect ve terms. For example. and t being time. If we follow a particle through a flow. and accelerations over time. is shown below. the total (or stagnation) entropy is by definition always equal to the "static" entropy. let s take the example of an airplane taking off from a runway early in the morning. and watch their positions. there is a localchange in temperature at the location of the airport. and begins to heat the airport. Variables in this description are given by F(x. but where they are used they mean nothing more than enthalpy and entropy respectively. 11 . This is the advect ve part of the temperature change. This is called a Lagrangian description. this is a little more complicated. If instead we focus on spatial points in the flow. Lagrangian and Eulerian Spe ifi ations There are two ways of describing a fluid motion. We can deduce characteristics of the flow field by putting several Lagrangian tracer particles in a flow. for example. Many authors use the terms total (or stagnation) enthalpy and total (or stagnation) entropy. x o being the particles position at time to and t being how much time has elapsed. denoted by the capital D. we can describe flow variables by F(xo.A similar approach is also taken with the thermodynamic properties of compressible fluids. is made up of the local derivative plus the advective term. To help describe this.

streaklines. continuous line of particles. streamlines. A streak line is physical line of particles that have passed through some position in the flow field. Below is a photograph of streamlines for laminar flow around an object. A curve that is everywhere tangent to the direction of the velocity vectors is called a streamline. In a steady flow. Below is a diagram illustrating particle trajectories. 12 . and streak lines in a time dependent fluid flow. stream lines. This line can theoretica lly never be crossed. and path lines coincide. there is a velocity vector at every point in a flow. as it is a physical. A path line is the trajectory of a fluid particle over time.Streamline At an instant in time. Think of injecting a continuous stream of dye at one point in the flow.

If a fluid is flowing horizontally and along a section of a streamline. most liquid flows) and also forcompressible flows (e. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow. there are different forms of the Bernoulli equation for different types of flow. where the speed increases it can only be because the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure and if its speed decreases. gases) moving at low Mach numbers. it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure.g. More advanced forms may in some cases be applied to compressible flows at higher Mach numbers (see the derivations of the Bernoulli equation). Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease inpressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.BERN ULLI S THEOREM. Bernoulli's prin iple states that for an inviscid flow. within a fluid flowing horizontally. the highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest. and the lowest speed occurs where the pressure is highest.g. Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. This states that in a steady flow the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for incompressible flows (e. ' 13 . This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant. resulting in what is loosely denoted as Bernoulli's equation.AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION OF FLUID DYNAMICS In fluid dynamics. In fact. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir the sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per unit mass (the sum of pressure and gravitational potential g h) is the same everywhere. Consequently. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hyd odyna $ &% # ca in 1738.

even though pressure varies. and of gases at low Mach number. and is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid. For this reason the fluid in such flows can be considered to be incompressible and these flows can be described as incompressible flow. valid at ( 0 any arbitrary point along a streamline where gravity is constant. A common form of Bernoulli's equation. For conservative force fields. the mass density of a fluid parcel can be considered to be constant. is the acceleration due to gravity. Bernoulli's equation can be generalized as is the force potential at the point considered on the streamline. the density must remain where: is dynamic pressure.E. 14 . is where The following two assumptions must be met for this Bernoulli equation to apply the fluid must be incompressible 1 constant along a streamline friction by viscous forces has to be negligible. is the elevation of the point above a reference plane. regardless of pressure variations in the flow.In ompressible Flo Equation In most flows of liquids. Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids and his equation in its original form is valid only for incompressible flow. equation (A) can be rewritten as or: ) Where is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline. with the positivez-direction pointing upward so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration. for the Earth's gravity = gz.g. is the pressure at the point. 2 By multiplying with the fluid density .

For example. which is associated not with its motion but with its state. At higher flow speeds in gases. so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be valid before zero pressure is reached. the change in height z along a streamline is so small the g z term can be omitted. the changes in mass density become significant so that the assumption of constant density is invalid. 54 In Ae odyna 3 cs. This allows the above equation to be presented in the following simplified form: where p0 is called total pressure. Many authors refer to the pressure p as static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure p0 and dynamic pressure q. the actual pressure of the fluid.J. 7 7 7 6 8 6 68 6 c p essu e = total p essu e 15 . is often referred to as the static pressure. Their sum p + q is defined to be the total pressure p0. L. A common approach is in terms oftotal head or energy head H: The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared and pressure. regardless of the fluid speed at that point. or even zero pressure. gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure. or for sound waves in liquid. Clancy writes: "To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures. the change in the g z term along the streamline is so small compared with the other terms it can be ignored. but where the term pressure alone is used itrefers to this static pressure. and q is dynamic pressure. Most often. has its own unique static pressure p and dynamic pressure q. The significance of Bernoulli's principle can now be summarized as total p essu e s constant along a st ea l ne.is the piezometric head or hydraulic head (the sum of the elevation z and the pressure head and is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure q). In liquids when the pressure becomes too low cavitation occurs. and at even higher speeds the pressure is negative. The simplified form of Bernoulli's equation can be summarized in the following memorable word equation: 7 7 7 7 stat c p essu e + dyna 7 7 Every point in a steadily flowing fluid. The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised. Simplified Form In many applications of Bernoulli's equation. in the case of aircraft in flight.

the total pressure on every streamline is the same and Bernoulli's principle can be summarized as total p essu e s constant eve ywhe e n the flu d flow. Adiabatic flow at less than Mach 0. the momentum equations of the Euler which is a Bernoulli equation valid also for unsteady or time dependent flows. and for a constant density . no matter what non-zero quantity of heat is added or removed. For an irrotational flow. Bernoulli's equation in its incompressible flow form can not be assumed to be valid. However.If the fluid flow is irrotational. In this case the equation can be used if th e flow speed of the gas is sufficiently below the speed of sound. and at this point the total pressure is equal to the stagnation pressure. | is the flow speed. an isobaric or isochoric process is ordinarily the only way to ensure constant density in a gas. and thus density.[11] It is reasonable to assume that irrotational flow exists in any situation where a large body of fluid is flowing past a solid body. then no work is done on or by the gas. the flow velocity can be described as the gradient equations can be integrated to:[12] of a velocity potential . If both the gas pressure and volume change simultaneously. The function f(t) depends only on time and not on position in 16 . Unsteady potential flo The Bernoulli equation for unsteady potential flow is used in the theory of ocean surface waves and acoustics. this point is called a stagnation point. unmodified Bernoulli equation applicable. or in an individual isentropic (frictionlessadiabatic) process. and even then this reversible process must be reversed. to restore the gas to the original pressure and specific volume. However if the gas process is entirely isobaric. Also the gas density will be proportional to the ratio of pressure and absolute temperature. (so the simple energy balance is not upset). In this case. or isochoric. In that case. Here / t denotes the partial derivative of the velocity potential and v = | with respect to time t. If the fluid flow at some point along a stream line is brought to rest. however this ratio will vary upon compression or expansion. The only exception is if the net heat transfer is zero. then work will be done on or by the gas. as in a complete thermodynamic cycle. it is important to remember that Bernoulli's principle does not apply in theboundary layer or in fluid flow through long pipes. @ @ 9 9 @ 9 9 Appli ability of in ompressible flo equation to flo of gases Bernoulli's equation is sometimes valid for the flow of gases: provided that there is no transfer of kinetic or potential energy from the gas flow to the compression or expansion of the gas. such that the variation in density of the gas (due to this effect) along each streamline can be ignored. and ships moving in open bodies of water. According to the gas law. Only then is the original. Examples are aircraft in flight.3 is generally considered to be slow enough.

a variational description of free-surface flows using the Lagrangian (not to be confused with Lagrangian coordinates). the Bernoulli equation at some moment t does not only apply along a certain streamline. This is also true for the special case of a steady irrotational flow. 17 . As a result. The Bernoulli equation for unsteady potential flow also appears to play a central role in Luke's variational principle.the fluid.[12] Further f(t) can be made equal to zero by incorporating it into the velocity potential using the transformation Note that the relation of the potential to the flow velocity is unaffected by this transformation: = . but in the whole fluid domain. in which case f is a constant.

the above equation becomes (constant along a streamline) where. and compressible fluids at very low speeds (perhaps up to 1/3 of the sound speed in the fluid). and the time scales of fluid flow are small enough to consider the equation of state as adiabatic. elevations are generally small compared to the size of the Earth. and under the action of conservative forces. but all are analogous to Bernoulli's equation and all rely on nothing more than the fundamental principles of physics such as Newton's laws of motion or the first law of thermodynamics. It is possible to use the fundamental principles of physics to develop similar equations applicable to compressible fluids.Compressible Flo Equation Bernoulli developed his principle from his observations on liquids. each tailored for a particular application. In this case. Compressible flo in fluid dynami s For a compressible fluid. with a barotropic equation of state. in addition to the terms listed above: is the ratio of the specific heats of the fluid g is the acceleration due to gravity z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane In many applications of compressible flow. changes in elevation are negligible compared to the other terms. There are numerous equations. (constant along a streamline) where: p is the pressure is the density v is the flow speed is the potential associated with the conservative force field. often thegravitational potential In engineering situations. A very useful form of the equation is then: 18 . and his equation is applicable only to incompressible fluids. so the term gz can be omitted.

also known as the specific internal energy or "sie. remains unaffected. when b may vary along streamlines.whe e p0 is the total pressure 0 A is the total density Compressible flo in thermodynami s Another useful form of the equation. For steady inviscid adiabatic flow with no additional sources or sinks of energy. When the change in can be ignored. and this leads to the concept of the total (or stagnation) temperature. The Bernoulli parameter itself. namely the lack of additional sinks or sources of energy. which violate the assumptions leading to the Bernoulli equation. is: [15] Here w is the enthalpy per unit mass. suitable for use in thermodynamics. For a calorically perfect gas such as an ideal gas. related to the "head" of the fluid (see below). When shock waves are present. many of the parameters in the Bernoulli equation suffer abrupt changes in passing through the shock. the enthalpy is directly proportional to the temperature. b is constant along any given streamline. Note that where is the thermodynamic energy per unit mass. however. a very useful form of this equation is: where w0 is total enthalpy. 19 ." The constant on the right hand side is often called the Bernoulli constant and denotedb. which is also often written as h (not to be confused with "head" or "height"). it still proves a useful parameter. An exception to this rule is radiative shocks. More generally. in a reference frame in which the shock is stationary and the flow is steady.

cross-sectional area A is C mass = A dx and flow velocity v = dx / dt. Let the x axis be directed down the axis of the pipe. or applying the law ofconservation of energy in two sections along a streamline. the equation of motion can be written as 20 . having a length dx. The simplest derivation is to first ignore gravity and consider constrictions and expansions in pipes that are otherwise straight. with In steady flow. v = v(x) so With density constant. and thermal effects. mass density . compressibility. as seen in Venturi effect. ignoring viscosity.Derivation Of Bernoulli s Theorem (i) For in ompressible fluids B The Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids can be derived by integrating the Euler equations. The equation of motion for a parcel of fluid. moving along the axis of the horizontal pipe.

but rather a constant of a particular fluid system. and this displaced mass is denoted by The work done by the forces consists of two parts: y The work done by the pressure acting on the area's A1 and A2 y The work done by gravity: the gravitational potential energy in the volume A1 s1 is lost. Wgravity = Epot. while at the outflow cross-section the fluid moves away from cross-section A2 over a distance s2 = v2 t. the wo k done by the fo ces in the fluid = increase in kinetic energy. stating that[17] G F G the change n the net c ene gy Ekin of the syste F Therefore. the work D DE D equals the net wo k W done on the syste . Rather. So. Another way to derive Bernoulli's principle for an incompressible flow is by applying conservation of energy. and at the outflow in the volumeA2 s2 is gained. sometimes referred to as the Bernoulli constant.[16] In the form of the work-energy theorem. the work by the force of gravity is opposite to the change in potential energy.gravity: while the force of gravity is in the negative z-direction. The displaced fluid volumes at the inflow and outflow are respectively A1 s1and A2 s2. By mass conservation. The associated displaced fluid masses are when is the fluid's mass density equal to density times volume. : 21 . so A1 s1 and A2 s2. the change in gravitational potential energy Epot. It is not a universal constant. pressure is low and vice versa.gravity in the time interval t is Now. Bernoulli's principle was inherently derived by a simple manipulation of the momentum equation. no external work-energy principle is invoked.or where C is a constant. initially between the cross-sections A1 and A2. In the time interval t fluid elements initially at the inflow cross-section A1 move over a distance s1 = v1 t. The deduction is: where the speed is large. In the above derivation. these two masses displaced in the time interval t have G F F to be equal. The system consists of the volume of fluid.

z. 2a) The middle term. z is called the elevation head and given the designation zelevation. It represents the internal energy of the fluid due to its motion. Now. Or when we rearrange it as a head: The term v2 / (2 g) is called the velocity head. Note that each term can be described in the length dimension (such as meters). as stated in the first paragraph: (Eqn.[18] So: And the total work done in this time interval t is The increase in kinetic energy is Putting these together. This is the head equation derived from Bernoulli's principle: (Eqn.gravity force times change in elevation will be negative for a positive elevation change z = z2 z1. The hydrostatic pressure p is defined as 22 . 1) Further division by g produces the following equation. A free falling mass from an elevation z > 0 (in a vacuum) will reach a speed when arriving at elevation z = 0. the work-kinetic energy theorem W = Ekin gives:[16] or After dividing by the mass m = A1 v1 t = A2 v2 t the result is:[16] or. while the corresponding potential energy change is positive. expressed as a length measurement. represents the potential energy of the fluid due to its elevation with respect to a reference plane.

we know it must be due to an increase in the static pressure that is resisting the flow. or when we rearrange it as a head: The term p / ( g) is also called the pressure head. (Eqn. 23 . such conditions are not met. in a more complicated situation such as a fluid flow coupled with radiation. with p0 some reference pressure. where E1 and E2 are the energy entering through A1 and leaving through A2. 2b) If we were to multiply Eqn. All three equations are merely simplified versions of an energy balance on a system.. we would get an equation with three pressure terms: (Eqn. we obtain a simple relationship useful for incompressible fluids using the velocity head. the derivation depends upon (1) conservation of mass. It represents the internal energy of the fluid due to the pressure exerted on the container. then we know that the dynamic pressure (the left term) must have decreased. Clearly. 1 by the density of the fluid. (ii) For Compressible Fluids The derivation for compressible fluids is similar. When we combine the head due to the flow speed and the head due to static pressure with the elevation above a reference plane. If the static pressure of the system (the far right term) increases. assuming this to be the case and assuming the flow is steady so that the net change in the energy is zero. and if the pressure due to elevation (the middle term) is constant. Conservation of energy is applied in a similar manner: It is assumed that the change in energy of the volume of the streamtube bounded by A1 and A2 is due entirely to energy entering or leaving through one or the other of these two boundaries. elevation head. if the speed of a fluid decreases and it is not due to an elevation difference. and pressure head. 3) We note that the pressure of the system is constant in this form of the Bernoulli Equation. In other words. Nevertheless. Again. expressed as a length measurement. the amount of mass passing through the boundary defined by the area A1 is equal to the amount of mass passing outwards through the boundary defined by the areaA2: . in the interval of time t. respectively. and (2) conservation of energy. Conservation of mass implies that in the above figure.

and z is elevation above a reference plane.The energy entering through A1 is the sum of the kinetic energy entering. using the previously-obtained result from conservation of mass. g is acceleration due to gravity. So now setting 0 = E1 E2: which can be rewritten as: Now. the energy entering in the form of potential gravitational energy of the fluid. the fluid thermodynamic energy entering. this may be simplified to obtain which is the Bernoulli equation for compressible flow. A similar expression for E2 may easily be constructed. and the energy entering in the form of mechanicalp dV work: where = gz is a force potential due to the Earth's gravity. 24 .

showing that Torricelli's law is compatible 25 . These two devices are connected to the airspeed indicator which determines the dynamic pressure of the airflow past the aircraft. For a horizontal device. To understand why. Dynamic pressure is the difference between stagnation pressure and static pressure. This is Torricelli's law. the continuity equation shows that for an incompressible fluid.Whenever the distribution of speed past the top and bottom surfaces of a wing is known.REAL WORLD APPLICATIONS In modern everyday life there are many observations that can be successfully explained by application of Bernoulli's principle.. This phenomenon is known as the Venturi effect. and the Kutta Joukowski theorem. The Pitot tube and static port on an aircraft are used to determine the airspeed of the aircraft. Bernoulli's principle does not explain why the air flows faster past the top of the wing and slower past the underside. Bernoulli's Principle can be used to calculate the lift force on an airfoil if you know the behavior of the fluid flow in the vicinity of the foil. Subsequently Bernoulli's principle then shows that there must be a decrease in the pressure in the reduced diameter region. the lift forces can be calculated (to a good approximation) using Bernoulli's equations[21] established by Bernoulli over a century before the first man-made wings were used for the purpose of flight. it is helpful to understand circulation. the reduction in diameter will cause an increase in the fluid flow speed. The maximum possible drain rate for a tank with a hole or tap at the base can be calculated directly from Bernoulli's equation. the Kutta condition. even though no real fluid is entirely inviscid and a small viscosity often has a large effect on the flow.[22] The flow speed of a fluid can be measured using a device such as a Venturi meter or an orifice plate. the air is moving at its fastest speed and therefore it is at its lowest pressure. The low pressure in the throat of a venturi can be explained by Bernoulli's principle. Bernoulli's principle is used to calibrate the airspeed indicator so that it displays theindicated airspeed appropriate to the dynamic pressure. For example. which can be placed into a pipeline to reduce the diameter of the flow. The carburetor used in many reciprocating engines contains a venturi to create a region of low pressure to draw fuel into the carburetor and mix it thoroughly with the incoming air. and is found to be proportional to the square root of the height of the fluid in the tank. in the narrow throat. if the air flowing past the top surface of an aircraft wing is moving faster than the air flowing past the bottom surface then Bernoulli's principle implies that the pressure on the surfaces of the wing will be lower above than below. This pressure difference results in an upwards lift force.

and some are false. a channel control with minimum specific energy in curvilinear flow is not isolated from water waves. It is not the Bernoulli principle itself that is questioned because this principle is well established. the sail is pulled forward. Viscosity lowers this drain rate. Several of these explanations use the Bernoulli principle to connect the flow kinematics to the flowinduced pressures. The principle also makes it possible for sail-powered craft to travel faster than the wind that propels them (if friction can be sufficiently reduced). In particular.with Bernoulli's principle. a detailed analysis of the Bernoulli theorem and its extension were recently developed. propeller blades. Although boats in water must contend with the friction of the water along the hull. MISUNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT THE GENERATION OF LIFT Many explanations for the generation of lift (on airfoils. This has been a source of heated discussion over the years. in general. This is reflected in the discharge coefficient which is a function of the Reynold's number and the shape of the orifice. ice sailing and land sailing vehicles can travel faster than the wind.) can be found. In open-channel hydraulics. If the wind passing in front of the sail is fast enough to experience a significant reduction in pressure. as customary state in open-channel hydraulics. Further. in addition to being pushed from behind. Modern writings agree that Bernoulli's principle and Newton's laws are both relevant and correct . and how these are produced. It was proved that the depth-averaged specific energy reaches a minimum in converging accelerating free-surface flow over weirs and flumes. also relying at some stage on the Bernoulli principle. there has been debate about whether lift is best explained by Bernoulli's principle or Newton's laws of motion. In cases of incorrect (or partially correct) explanations of lift. etc. the errors generally occur in the assumptions on the flow kinematics. but some of these explanations can be misleading. 26 .

The following thesis gives us idea of use of motion of fluid in different field of engineering and day to day life. 27 . description of all terms related equation. This project emphasis and briefly discusses about the main application of fluid dynamics i.e. with examples and provides clear understanding of the topic with proper explains.CONCLUSION This research on fluid dynamic and its application provides us concept about motion of fluid and its application. This thesis explains all Bernoulli s theorem with its equations. Bernoulli s equation and its contribution in various field of engineering. assumptions. formula.

wikipedia.google.html H y 28 .BIBLIOGRAPHY y y y www.com/phy_demo/bernoulli-effect-equation.in faculty.pdf www.org/.org www...co.4physics.trinityvalleyschool./Lesson%2061D rivation%20of%20Bernoullis%20Equation.

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