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FLUID_DYNAMICS

FLUID_DYNAMICS

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FLUID DYNAMICS AND IT¶S APPLICATION ± BERNOULLI¶S THEOREM

Submitted to: Amity School of Engineering and Technology

Under the guidance of:

Submitted by: Siddharth Sharma 8001 HoorainManhas 8020 Kanchan Tanya 8022

Mr.Rajan Raman Vishwambaram

AMITY UNIVERSITY, UTTAR PRADESH

0

Acknowl

nt
Dynamics and its

We feel immense pleasure in submitting this Project on Fl i

Application- B noulli s T orem. The valuable guidance of the teaching staff made this study possible. They have been a constant source of encouragement throughout the completion of this report. We would sincerely like to thank Mr.Rajan Raman Vishwambaram for their help and support during the making of this report. This report would not have been successful without their guidance and the valuable time that they hadspent withus during the report development stages. We would like to express our immense gratitude to our parents, who have always lent us a helping hand during tough times and stood by us throughout this project and this life.

Siddharth Sharma HoorainManhas Kanchan Tanya

Certi icate

1

Siddharth Sharma. Noida. and Ms. students of B. Ms.Tech(Civil Engineering) have carried out the work presented in the project entitled³FluidDynamics and its Application. Amity University. Mr. Uttar Pradesh under my supervision.HoorainManhas.Kanchan Tanya.Bernoulli s Theorem´ as a part of Second Year programme of Bachelor of Technology in Civil from Amity School of Engineering and Technology.Rajan Raman Vishwambaram Department of Mechanical Engineering ASET oida 2 .This is to certify that Mr.

3.INDEX Page No. 9. 11. 10. Introduction Fluid dynamics Equations of Fluid dynamics Terminology in Fluid dynamics Bernoulli s Theorem. 12. 5. 2. 1. 4.An Important Application Of Fluid dynamics Incompressible Flow Equation Compressible Flow Equation Derivation of Bernoulli s Theorem Real World Application Misunderstandings in Generation of Lift Conclusion Bibliography 4 5 6 10 13 14 18 20 25 26 27 28 3 . 6. 8. 7.

For example. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids. "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required function if there is gas in it. The distinction is made by evaluating the viscosity of the substance. Solids can be subjected to shear stresses. Silly Putty can be considered to behave like a solid or a fluid. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). depending on the time period over which it is observed.INTRODUCTION A fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. and to normal stresses both compressive and tensile. compressive stress which is called pressure. with no implication that gas could also be present. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious. as demonstrated in the pitch drop experiment Fluids display such properties as:   not resisting deformation. a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid". and the ability to flow (also described as the ability to take on the shape of the container). In common usage. There are many examples of substances proving difficult to classify. 4 . ideal fluids can only be subjected to normal. to some extent. Real fluids display viscosity and so are capable of being subjected to low levels of shear stress. Liquids form a free surface (that is. These properties are typically a function of their inability to support a shear stress in static equilibrium. plasmas and. plastic solids. no matter how small. or resisting it only lightly (viscosity). gases.This also means that all fluids have the property of fluidity. A particularly interesting one is pitch. It is best described as a viscoelastic fluid. In contrast.

and temperature. understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modeling fission weapon detonation. pressure. including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). It has several subdisciplines itself. as functions of space and time. such as velocity. as well as being applied to. This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics. gases.FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating various properties of the fluid. Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure that underlies these practical disciplines. determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines. density. that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering. 5 . like magnetohydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability both also applicable in. including calculating forces and moments on aircraft. predicting weather patterns. hydrodynamics meant something different than it does today. Before the twentieth century. hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications. Historically.

all of which make them easier to solve. properties such as density. rather than discrete. The equations can be simplified in a number of ways. and are assumed to vary continuously from one point to another. the continuum assumption considers fluids to be continuous. so they are primarily of use in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Ru the ga con tant. fluids are assumed to obey the cont nuu a u pt on. temperature. They are expressed using the Reynolds Transport Theorem. and energy conservation equations. a thermodynamical equation of state giving the pressure as a function of other thermodynamic variables for the fluid is required to completely specify the problem. Fluids are composed of molecules that collide with one another and solid objects. and conservation of energy (also known as First Law of Thermodynamics). M the ola a and T ¢ ¢ te pe atu e. The fact that the fluid is made up of discrete molecules is ignored.EQUA N F FLUID DYNA IC The foundational axioms of fluid dynamics are the conservation laws s ecifically conservation of mass conservation of linear momentum (also known as Newton's Second Law of Motion). and have velocities small in relation to the speed of light. which is a non-linear set of differential equations that describes the flow of a fluid whose stress depends linearly on velocity gradients and pressure. den t . In addition to the mass. and velocity are taken to be well-defined at infinitesimally small points. the momentum equations for Newtonian fluids are theNavier-Stokes equations. An example of this would be ¥ the perfect gas equation of state y y y y y Compressible vs incompressible flow Viscous vsinviscid flow Steady vs unsteady flow Laminar vs turbulent flow Newtonian vs non-Newtonian fluids 6 ¦ ¦  § ¨ ¨¨  ¦  § ¨ ¨ ¨ § ¨ © § ¨ § ¨ ¦ ¨¨ ¦ § ¨ whe e p ¦ p e u e. For fluids which are sufficiently dense to be a continuum. pressure. . Consequently. However. These are based onclassical mechanics and are modified in quantum mechanics and general relativity. do not contain ionized species. The unsimplified equations do not have a general closed-form solution. £ ¤¤ £     ¡   In addition to the above. momentum. Some of them allow appropriate fluid dynamics problems to be solved in closed form.

an approximation in which we neglect viscosity completely. However. we may assume the flow to be an inviscid flow. Re<<1. Stokes flow is flow at very low Reynolds numbers. which is a ratio between inertial and viscous forces. such that inertial forces can be neglected compared to viscous forces. where D / Dt is the substantial derivative. to calculate net forces on bodies (such as wings) we should 7 . The Reynolds number. high Reynolds numbers indicate that the inertial forces are more significant than the viscous (friction) forces. Mathematically.. to determine whether to use compressible or incompressible fluid dynamics. incompressibility is expressed by saying that the density of a fluid parcel does not change as it moves in the flow field. whether the incompressible assumption is valid depends on the fluid properties (specifically the critical pressure and temperature of the fluid) and the flow conditions (how close to the critical pressure the actual flow pressure becomes). However. compared to inertial terms. Otherwise the more general compressible flow equations must be used. For flow of gases. especially in the case when the fluid has a uniform density. i. Vis ous vsinvis id flo Viscous problems are those in which fluid friction has significant effects on the fluid motion. in many situations the changes in pressure and temperature are sufficiently small that the changes in density are negligible. Viscosity often cannot be neglected near solid boundaries because the no-slip condition can generate a thin region of large strain rate (known as Boundary layer) which enhances the effect of even a small amount of viscosity. Acoustic problems always require allowing compressibility. For liquids.Co p essible vs in o p essible flo All fluids are compressible to some extent. On the contrary. Therefore. may require that the viscosity be included. This idea can work fairly well when the Reynolds number is high. certain problems such as those involving solid boundaries.e.3. that is changes in pressure or temperature will result in changes in density. the Mach number of the flow is to be evaluated. Therefore. and thus generating vorticity. This additional constraint simplifies the governing equations. can be used to evaluate whether viscous or inviscid equations are appropriate to the problem. since sound waves are compression waves involving changes in pressure and density of the medium through which they propagate. which is the sum of local and convective derivatives. As a rough guide. compressible effects can be ignored at Mach numbers below approximately 0. In this case the flow can be modeled as an incompressible flow.

and apparent randomness. Mathematically. For instance. When the flow is everywhere irrotational and inviscid. the mean field is the object of interest. makes it 8 . A turbulent flow can. In a frame of reference that is stationary with respect to a background flow. It is believed that turbulent flows can be described well through the use of the Navier Stokes equations. Flow in which turbulence is not exhibited is calledlaminar. in a region close to the body. This roughly means that all statistical properties are constant in time. As illustrated by d'Alembert's paradox. Often. Steady-state flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at a point in the system do not change over time. in which the flow is broken down into the sum of an average component and a perturbation component. Turbulent flows are unsteady by definition. based on the Navier Stokes equations. a body in an inviscid fluid will experience no drag force. flow is called unsteady. It should be noted. the flow is considered to be a st ady flow. laminar flow over a sphere is steady in the frame of reference that is stationary with respect to the sphere. The governing equations of a steady problem have one dimension less (time) than the governing equations of the same problem without taking advantage of the steadiness of the flow field. and this is constant too in a statistically stationary flow. especially in computational fluid dynamics. which incorporates viscosity. eddies. Such flows are called potential flows. The Euler equations can be integrated along a streamline to get Bernoulli's equation. According to Pope:[3] The random field U(x.t) is statistically stationary if all statistics are invariant under a shift in time. St ady vs unst ady flow When all the time derivatives of a flow field vanish. however. Bernoulli's equation can be used throughout the flow field. Steady flows are often more tractable than otherwise similar unsteady flows. is to use the Euler equations away from the body and the boundary layer equations. Otherwise. however. Another often used model.  Laminar vs turbul nt flow Turbulence is flow characterized by recirculation. Whether a particular flow is steady or unsteady.use viscous flow equations. The standard equations of inviscid flow are the Euler equations. that the presence of eddies or recirculation alone does not necessarily indicate turbulent flow these phenomena may be present in laminar flow as well. can depend on the chosen frame of reference. the flow is unsteady. be statistically stationary. turbulent flow is often represented via a Reynolds decomposition. Direct numerical simulation (DNS).

Reynolds-averagedNavier Stokes equations (RANS) combined with turbulence modeling provides a model of the effects of the turbulent flow.g. Such a modeling mainly provides the additional momentum transfer by the Reynolds stresses. although the turbulence also enhances the heat and mass transfer. and lubricants which are studied in the sub-discipline of rheology. especially in the guise of detached eddy simulation (DES) which is a combination of RANS turbulence modeling and large eddy simulation. which depends on the specific fluid. In order to solve these real-life flow problems. some of the other materials. Any flight vehicle large enough to carry a human (L > 3 m). These Newtonian fluids are modeled by a coefficient calledviscosity. have more complicated non-N  tonian stress-strain 9 . Transport aircraft wings (such as on an Airbus A300 or Boeing 747) have Reynolds numbers of 40 million (based on the wing chord). The results of DNS agree with the experimental data. honey. These materials include sticky iquids such as latex. given the state of computational power for the next few decades. However. turbulence models will be a necessity for the foreseeable future. Most flows of interest have Reynolds numbers much too high for DNS to be a viable option[4]. such as water and air. N wtonian vs non-N wtonian fluids Sir Isaac Newton showed how stress and the rate of strain are very close to linearly related for many familiar fluids. such as emulsions and slurries and some visco-elastic behaviours. blood. moving faster than 72 km/h (20 m/s) is well beyond the limit of DNS simulation (Re = 4 million). Restrictions depend on the power of the computer used and the efficiency of the solution algorithm. some polymers).possible to simulate turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds numbers. Another promising methodology is large eddy simulation (LES).  materials (e.

J. Pressure can be measured using an aneroid. mercury column. In incompressible flows. In particular.e. To avoid potential ambiguity when referring to temperature and density. Static temperature is identical to temperature. The temperature and density at a stagnation point are called stagnation temperature and stagnation density. Bourdon tube. A point in a fluid flow where the flow has come to rest (i. (These two pressures are not pressures in the usual sense they cannot be measured using an aneroid. A pressure can be identified for every point in a body of fluid. the concepts of total (or stagnation) temperature and total (or stagnation) density are also essential in any study of compressible fluid flows. and static density is identical to density. Some of the terminology that is necessary in the study of fluid dynamics is not found in other similar areas of study. and both can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field. Bourdon tube or mercury column. In Aerodynamics. the stagnation pressure at a stagnation point is equal to the total pressure throughout the flow field. some of the terminology used in fluid dynamics is not used in fluid statics.TERMINOLOGY IN FLUID DYNAMICS The concept of pressure is central to the study of both fluid statics and fluid dynamics. many authors use the terms static temperature and static density. is often referred to as the static pressure. but where the term pressure alone is used it refers to this static pressure. 10 . regardless of whether the fluid is in motion or not. It is of such importance that it is given a special name a stagnation point.) To avoid potential ambiguity when referring to pressure in fluid dynamics. In addition to the concept of total pressure (also known as stagnation pressure). such as air. T rminology in incompr ssibl fluid dynamics The concepts of total pressure and dynamic pressure arise from Bernoulli's equation and are significant in the study of all fluid flows. Clancy writes[5]: o distinguish it from the tota and dynamic pressures the actua pressure of the fluid which is associated not with its motion but with its state. Static pressure is identical to pressure and can be identified for every point in a fluid flow field. the temperature and density are essential when determining the state of the fluid. The static pressure at the stagnation point is of special significance and is given its own name stagnation pressure.      T rminology in compr ssibl fluid dynamics In a compressible fluid. speed is equal to zero adjacent to some solid body immersed in the fluid flow) is of special significance. or various other methods. many authors use the term static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure and dynamic pressure. L.

" " As you can see. t). denoted by the capital D. for example. The change in temperature with respect to time will depend on the local and advect ve terms. and accelerations over time.A similar approach is also taken with the thermodynamic properties of compressible fluids. As the plane takes off and begins to accelerate into the sky. The partial time derivatives only give us the rate of change of the variable at that specific spatial point. Many authors use the terms total (or stagnation) enthalpy and total (or stagnation) entropy. Because the 'total' flow conditions are defined by isentropically bringing the fluid to rest. and begins to heat the airport. The terms static enthalpy and static entropy appear to be less common. instead of particles. We can deduce characteristics of the flow field by putting several Lagrangian tracer particles in a flow. x o being the particles position at time to and t being how much time has elapsed.t). we have aEulerian description.    he Material Derivative When using Lagrangian coordinates. so the plane will experience a change in temperature due to its change in altitude. is shown below. 11 . this is a little more complicated. it is easy to find the velocity and acceration of the particle they are simply the partial time derivatives ! and In Eulerian coordinates. is made up of the local derivative plus the advective term. x being the spatial position. t). the total (or stagnation) entropy is by definition always equal to the "static" entropy. Lagrangian and Eulerian Spe ifi ations There are two ways of describing a fluid motion. This is the advect ve part of the temperature change. we can describe flow variables by F(xo. If we follow a particle through a flow. but where they are used they mean nothing more than enthalpy and entropy respectively. Variables in this description are given by F(x. The equation for the Material Derivative. To help describe this. and the prefix "static" is being used to avoid ambiguity with their 'total' or 'stagnation' counterparts. We can measure the velocity and acceleration of particles going past a specific spatial point. This is called a Lagrangian description. For example. there is a localchange in temperature at the location of the airport. and watch their positions. let s take the example of an airplane taking off from a runway early in the morning. the material derivative. the position of a particle is expressed as x(xo. which takes both of these into account. and t being time. If instead we focus on spatial points in the flow. it is traveling through a temperature gradient. As the sun comes out. velocities.

streamlines. A path line is the trajectory of a fluid particle over time. as it is a physical. there is a velocity vector at every point in a flow. Below is a photograph of streamlines for laminar flow around an object.Streamline At an instant in time. continuous line of particles. This line can theoretica lly never be crossed. A streak line is physical line of particles that have passed through some position in the flow field. and path lines coincide. and streak lines in a time dependent fluid flow. Below is a diagram illustrating particle trajectories. Think of injecting a continuous stream of dye at one point in the flow. stream lines. A curve that is everywhere tangent to the direction of the velocity vectors is called a streamline. In a steady flow. 12 . streaklines.

In fact. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for incompressible flows (e.g. Consequently. gases) moving at low Mach numbers. This states that in a steady flow the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. Bernoulli's prin iple states that for an inviscid flow.BERN ULLI S THEOREM.g. the highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest. where the speed increases it can only be because the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure and if its speed decreases. ' 13 . most liquid flows) and also forcompressible flows (e. If a fluid is flowing horizontally and along a section of a streamline. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir the sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per unit mass (the sum of pressure and gravitational potential g h) is the same everywhere. More advanced forms may in some cases be applied to compressible flows at higher Mach numbers (see the derivations of the Bernoulli equation). an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease inpressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hyd odyna $ &% # ca in 1738. within a fluid flowing horizontally. resulting in what is loosely denoted as Bernoulli's equation. Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy.AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION OF FLUID DYNAMICS In fluid dynamics. Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow. it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. and the lowest speed occurs where the pressure is highest. Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. there are different forms of the Bernoulli equation for different types of flow.

For conservative force fields. 14 . is the pressure at the point. equation (A) can be rewritten as or: ) Where is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline. For this reason the fluid in such flows can be considered to be incompressible and these flows can be described as incompressible flow.E. the mass density of a fluid parcel can be considered to be constant. and is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid. the density must remain where: is dynamic pressure. valid at ( 0 any arbitrary point along a streamline where gravity is constant. A common form of Bernoulli's equation. Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids and his equation in its original form is valid only for incompressible flow. with the positivez-direction pointing upward so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration. regardless of pressure variations in the flow. even though pressure varies. 2 By multiplying with the fluid density . is the acceleration due to gravity. Bernoulli's equation can be generalized as is the force potential at the point considered on the streamline. is the elevation of the point above a reference plane.g. for the Earth's gravity = gz.In ompressible Flo Equation In most flows of liquids. and of gases at low Mach number. is where The following two assumptions must be met for this Bernoulli equation to apply  the fluid must be incompressible 1 constant along a streamline  friction by viscous forces has to be negligible.

In liquids when the pressure becomes too low cavitation occurs.is the piezometric head or hydraulic head (the sum of the elevation z and the pressure head and is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure q). 54 In Ae odyna 3 cs. the changes in mass density become significant so that the assumption of constant density is invalid. For example. A common approach is in terms oftotal head or energy head H: The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero. The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised. in the case of aircraft in flight. Clancy writes: "To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures. L. or even zero pressure. Most often. or for sound waves in liquid. The simplified form of Bernoulli's equation can be summarized in the following memorable word equation: 7 7 7 7 stat c p essu e + dyna 7 7 Every point in a steadily flowing fluid. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared and pressure. the actual pressure of the fluid. has its own unique static pressure p and dynamic pressure q. and at even higher speeds the pressure is negative. and q is dynamic pressure. gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure. the change in the g z term along the streamline is so small compared with the other terms it can be ignored. which is associated not with its motion but with its state. is often referred to as the static pressure. Many authors refer to the pressure p as static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure p0 and dynamic pressure q. regardless of the fluid speed at that point. This allows the above equation to be presented in the following simplified form: where p0 is called total pressure. but where the term pressure alone is used itrefers to this static pressure. At higher flow speeds in gases. 7 7 7 6 8 6 68 6 c p essu e = total p essu e 15 . the change in height z along a streamline is so small the g z term can be omitted.J. The significance of Bernoulli's principle can now be summarized as total p essu e s constant along a st ea l ne. so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be valid before zero pressure is reached. Simplified Form In many applications of Bernoulli's equation. Their sum p + q is defined to be the total pressure p0.

In this case the equation can be used if th e flow speed of the gas is sufficiently below the speed of sound. or in an individual isentropic (frictionlessadiabatic) process. Only then is the original. the total pressure on every streamline is the same and Bernoulli's principle can be summarized as total p essu e s constant eve ywhe e n the flu d flow. no matter what non-zero quantity of heat is added or removed. however this ratio will vary upon compression or expansion. @ @ 9 9 @ 9 9 Appli ability of in ompressible flo equation to flo of gases Bernoulli's equation is sometimes valid for the flow of gases: provided that there is no transfer of kinetic or potential energy from the gas flow to the compression or expansion of the gas. such that the variation in density of the gas (due to this effect) along each streamline can be ignored. and thus density. unmodified Bernoulli equation applicable.If the fluid flow is irrotational. According to the gas law. For an irrotational flow. If both the gas pressure and volume change simultaneously.[11] It is reasonable to assume that irrotational flow exists in any situation where a large body of fluid is flowing past a solid body. then work will be done on or by the gas. the flow velocity can be described as the gradient equations can be integrated to:[12] of a velocity potential . The only exception is if the net heat transfer is zero. Examples are aircraft in flight. In this case. Adiabatic flow at less than Mach 0. to restore the gas to the original pressure and specific volume. and ships moving in open bodies of water.3 is generally considered to be slow enough. | is the flow speed. In that case. this point is called a stagnation point. However. However if the gas process is entirely isobaric. If the fluid flow at some point along a stream line is brought to rest. The function f(t) depends only on time and not on position in 16 . as in a complete thermodynamic cycle. Also the gas density will be proportional to the ratio of pressure and absolute temperature. an isobaric or isochoric process is ordinarily the only way to ensure constant density in a gas. (so the simple energy balance is not upset). Bernoulli's equation in its incompressible flow form can not be assumed to be valid. and even then this reversible process must be reversed. the momentum equations of the Euler which is a Bernoulli equation valid also for unsteady or time dependent flows. Unsteady potential flo The Bernoulli equation for unsteady potential flow is used in the theory of ocean surface waves and acoustics. it is important to remember that Bernoulli's principle does not apply in theboundary layer or in fluid flow through long pipes. Here / t denotes the partial derivative of the velocity potential and v = | with respect to time t. then no work is done on or by the gas. and for a constant density . and at this point the total pressure is equal to the stagnation pressure. or isochoric.

The Bernoulli equation for unsteady potential flow also appears to play a central role in Luke's variational principle. in which case f is a constant.the fluid. As a result. the Bernoulli equation at some moment t does not only apply along a certain streamline. This is also true for the special case of a steady irrotational flow. a variational description of free-surface flows using the Lagrangian (not to be confused with Lagrangian coordinates).[12] Further f(t) can be made equal to zero by incorporating it into the velocity potential using the transformation Note that the relation of the potential to the flow velocity is unaffected by this transformation: = . but in the whole fluid domain. 17 .

A very useful form of the equation is then: 18 . and compressible fluids at very low speeds (perhaps up to 1/3 of the sound speed in the fluid). with a barotropic equation of state. in addition to the terms listed above: is the ratio of the specific heats of the fluid g is the acceleration due to gravity z is the elevation of the point above a reference plane In many applications of compressible flow. elevations are generally small compared to the size of the Earth. Compressible flo in fluid dynami s For a compressible fluid. and his equation is applicable only to incompressible fluids. and the time scales of fluid flow are small enough to consider the equation of state as adiabatic. often thegravitational potential In engineering situations. each tailored for a particular application. but all are analogous to Bernoulli's equation and all rely on nothing more than the fundamental principles of physics such as Newton's laws of motion or the first law of thermodynamics. so the term gz can be omitted. There are numerous equations. and under the action of conservative forces. It is possible to use the fundamental principles of physics to develop similar equations applicable to compressible fluids. the above equation becomes (constant along a streamline) where.Compressible Flo Equation Bernoulli developed his principle from his observations on liquids. (constant along a streamline) where: p is the pressure is the density v is the flow speed is the potential associated with the conservative force field. changes in elevation are negligible compared to the other terms. In this case.

also known as the specific internal energy or "sie. The Bernoulli parameter itself. a very useful form of this equation is: where w0 is total enthalpy. When shock waves are present. suitable for use in thermodynamics. b is constant along any given streamline. For steady inviscid adiabatic flow with no additional sources or sinks of energy. An exception to this rule is radiative shocks. related to the "head" of the fluid (see below). When the change in can be ignored. the enthalpy is directly proportional to the temperature. namely the lack of additional sinks or sources of energy. More generally. when b may vary along streamlines. 19 ." The constant on the right hand side is often called the Bernoulli constant and denotedb. however. is: [15] Here w is the enthalpy per unit mass. For a calorically perfect gas such as an ideal gas. which violate the assumptions leading to the Bernoulli equation. and this leads to the concept of the total (or stagnation) temperature. in a reference frame in which the shock is stationary and the flow is steady. many of the parameters in the Bernoulli equation suffer abrupt changes in passing through the shock. it still proves a useful parameter. which is also often written as h (not to be confused with "head" or "height"). Note that where is the thermodynamic energy per unit mass.whe e p0 is the total pressure 0 A is the total density Compressible flo in thermodynami s Another useful form of the equation. remains unaffected.

ignoring viscosity. The equation of motion for a parcel of fluid. compressibility. having a length dx. moving along the axis of the horizontal pipe. with In steady flow. as seen in Venturi effect. Let the x axis be directed down the axis of the pipe. cross-sectional area A is C mass = A dx and flow velocity v = dx / dt. and thermal effects.Derivation Of Bernoulli s Theorem (i) For in ompressible fluids B The Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids can be derived by integrating the Euler equations. v = v(x) so With density constant. or applying the law ofconservation of energy in two sections along a streamline. mass density . The simplest derivation is to first ignore gravity and consider constrictions and expansions in pipes that are otherwise straight. the equation of motion can be written as 20 .

It is not a universal constant. these two masses displaced in the time interval t have G F F to be equal. and at the outflow in the volumeA2 s2 is gained.[16] In the form of the work-energy theorem. In the time interval t fluid elements initially at the inflow cross-section A1 move over a distance s1 = v1 t. The system consists of the volume of fluid. the change in gravitational potential energy Epot. no external work-energy principle is invoked. By mass conservation. but rather a constant of a particular fluid system. The displaced fluid volumes at the inflow and outflow are respectively A1 s1and A2 s2. and this displaced mass is denoted by The work done by the forces consists of two parts: y The work done by the pressure acting on the area's A1 and A2 y The work done by gravity: the gravitational potential energy in the volume A1 s1 is lost.gravity: while the force of gravity is in the negative z-direction. stating that[17] G F G the change n the net c ene gy Ekin of the syste F Therefore. the work by the force of gravity is opposite to the change in potential energy. pressure is low and vice versa. Rather. The deduction is: where the speed is large. Another way to derive Bernoulli's principle for an incompressible flow is by applying conservation of energy. Wgravity = Epot. : 21 . initially between the cross-sections A1 and A2. So. Bernoulli's principle was inherently derived by a simple manipulation of the momentum equation. The associated displaced fluid masses are when is the fluid's mass density equal to density times volume. so A1 s1 and A2 s2. the wo k done by the fo ces in the fluid = increase in kinetic energy. sometimes referred to as the Bernoulli constant.gravity in the time interval t is Now. In the above derivation. while at the outflow cross-section the fluid moves away from cross-section A2 over a distance s2 = v2 t.or where C is a constant. the work D DE D equals the net wo k W done on the syste .

2a) The middle term. Note that each term can be described in the length dimension (such as meters). z. 1) Further division by g produces the following equation. represents the potential energy of the fluid due to its elevation with respect to a reference plane. as stated in the first paragraph: (Eqn. The hydrostatic pressure p is defined as 22 .[18] So: And the total work done in this time interval t is The increase in kinetic energy is Putting these together. This is the head equation derived from Bernoulli's principle: (Eqn. Now.gravity force times change in elevation will be negative for a positive elevation change z = z2 z1. It represents the internal energy of the fluid due to its motion. expressed as a length measurement. the work-kinetic energy theorem W = Ekin gives:[16] or After dividing by the mass m = A1 v1 t = A2 v2 t the result is:[16] or. z is called the elevation head and given the designation zelevation. Or when we rearrange it as a head: The term v2 / (2 g) is called the velocity head. while the corresponding potential energy change is positive. A free falling mass from an elevation z > 0 (in a vacuum) will reach a speed when arriving at elevation z = 0.

2b) If we were to multiply Eqn. in the interval of time t. assuming this to be the case and assuming the flow is steady so that the net change in the energy is zero. and (2) conservation of energy. Conservation of energy is applied in a similar manner: It is assumed that the change in energy of the volume of the streamtube bounded by A1 and A2 is due entirely to energy entering or leaving through one or the other of these two boundaries. we obtain a simple relationship useful for incompressible fluids using the velocity head. In other words. (Eqn. Clearly. and if the pressure due to elevation (the middle term) is constant.. expressed as a length measurement. where E1 and E2 are the energy entering through A1 and leaving through A2. we would get an equation with three pressure terms: (Eqn. we know it must be due to an increase in the static pressure that is resisting the flow. such conditions are not met. or when we rearrange it as a head: The term p / ( g) is also called the pressure head. the derivation depends upon (1) conservation of mass. When we combine the head due to the flow speed and the head due to static pressure with the elevation above a reference plane. If the static pressure of the system (the far right term) increases. elevation head. if the speed of a fluid decreases and it is not due to an elevation difference. then we know that the dynamic pressure (the left term) must have decreased. and pressure head. in a more complicated situation such as a fluid flow coupled with radiation. It represents the internal energy of the fluid due to the pressure exerted on the container. 3) We note that the pressure of the system is constant in this form of the Bernoulli Equation. Conservation of mass implies that in the above figure. (ii) For Compressible Fluids The derivation for compressible fluids is similar. 1 by the density of the fluid. Nevertheless. the amount of mass passing through the boundary defined by the area A1 is equal to the amount of mass passing outwards through the boundary defined by the areaA2: . All three equations are merely simplified versions of an energy balance on a system. 23 . with p0 some reference pressure. Again. respectively.

g is acceleration due to gravity. using the previously-obtained result from conservation of mass. and z is elevation above a reference plane. and the energy entering in the form of mechanicalp dV work: where = gz is a force potential due to the Earth's gravity. this may be simplified to obtain which is the Bernoulli equation for compressible flow. the fluid thermodynamic energy entering. the energy entering in the form of potential gravitational energy of the fluid. 24 . A similar expression for E2 may easily be constructed.The energy entering through A1 is the sum of the kinetic energy entering. So now setting 0 = E1 E2: which can be rewritten as: Now.

 The maximum possible drain rate for a tank with a hole or tap at the base can be calculated directly from Bernoulli's equation. which can be placed into a pipeline to reduce the diameter of the flow. even though no real fluid is entirely inviscid and a small viscosity often has a large effect on the flow. For example. This is Torricelli's law. Subsequently Bernoulli's principle then shows that there must be a decrease in the pressure in the reduced diameter region. This phenomenon is known as the Venturi effect. in the narrow throat. the lift forces can be calculated (to a good approximation) using Bernoulli's equations[21] established by Bernoulli over a century before the first man-made wings were used for the purpose of flight. the reduction in diameter will cause an increase in the fluid flow speed.. These two devices are connected to the airspeed indicator which determines the dynamic pressure of the airflow past the aircraft. For a horizontal device.[22]  The flow speed of a fluid can be measured using a device such as a Venturi meter or an orifice plate. Bernoulli's principle is used to calibrate the airspeed indicator so that it displays theindicated airspeed appropriate to the dynamic pressure. if the air flowing past the top surface of an aircraft wing is moving faster than the air flowing past the bottom surface then Bernoulli's principle implies that the pressure on the surfaces of the wing will be lower above than below. the continuity equation shows that for an incompressible fluid. showing that Torricelli's law is compatible 25 .  Bernoulli's Principle can be used to calculate the lift force on an airfoil if you know the behavior of the fluid flow in the vicinity of the foil. To understand why.Whenever the distribution of speed past the top and bottom surfaces of a wing is known. This pressure difference results in an upwards lift force.REAL WORLD APPLICATIONS In modern everyday life there are many observations that can be successfully explained by application of Bernoulli's principle. and the Kutta Joukowski theorem. and is found to be proportional to the square root of the height of the fluid in the tank. the Kutta condition. it is helpful to understand circulation.  The carburetor used in many reciprocating engines contains a venturi to create a region of low pressure to draw fuel into the carburetor and mix it thoroughly with the incoming air. Bernoulli's principle does not explain why the air flows faster past the top of the wing and slower past the underside.  The Pitot tube and static port on an aircraft are used to determine the airspeed of the aircraft. the air is moving at its fastest speed and therefore it is at its lowest pressure. The low pressure in the throat of a venturi can be explained by Bernoulli's principle. Dynamic pressure is the difference between stagnation pressure and static pressure.

If the wind passing in front of the sail is fast enough to experience a significant reduction in pressure. but some of these explanations can be misleading. as customary state in open-channel hydraulics. MISUNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT THE GENERATION OF LIFT Many explanations for the generation of lift (on airfoils. It is not the Bernoulli principle itself that is questioned because this principle is well established.with Bernoulli's principle. and how these are produced. the sail is pulled forward. ice sailing and land sailing vehicles can travel faster than the wind. In particular. etc. In cases of incorrect (or partially correct) explanations of lift. Modern writings agree that Bernoulli's principle and Newton's laws are both relevant and correct . It was proved that the depth-averaged specific energy reaches a minimum in converging accelerating free-surface flow over weirs and flumes.  In open-channel hydraulics. there has been debate about whether lift is best explained by Bernoulli's principle or Newton's laws of motion. in addition to being pushed from behind.) can be found. the errors generally occur in the assumptions on the flow kinematics. a channel control with minimum specific energy in curvilinear flow is not isolated from water waves. 26 . a detailed analysis of the Bernoulli theorem and its extension were recently developed. in general. Further. Although boats in water must contend with the friction of the water along the hull. and some are false.  The principle also makes it possible for sail-powered craft to travel faster than the wind that propels them (if friction can be sufficiently reduced). This has been a source of heated discussion over the years. Several of these explanations use the Bernoulli principle to connect the flow kinematics to the flowinduced pressures. Viscosity lowers this drain rate. also relying at some stage on the Bernoulli principle. This is reflected in the discharge coefficient which is a function of the Reynold's number and the shape of the orifice. propeller blades.

The following thesis gives us idea of use of motion of fluid in different field of engineering and day to day life. 27 . description of all terms related equation. This project emphasis and briefly discusses about the main application of fluid dynamics i.e. formula. Bernoulli s equation and its contribution in various field of engineering. assumptions. This thesis explains all Bernoulli s theorem with its equations.CONCLUSION This research on fluid dynamic and its application provides us concept about motion of fluid and its application. with examples and provides clear understanding of the topic with proper explains.

pdf www...in faculty.co.google.wikipedia.html H y 28 .4physics.org/.trinityvalleyschool.org www.com/phy_demo/bernoulli-effect-equation./Lesson%2061D rivation%20of%20Bernoullis%20Equation.BIBLIOGRAPHY y y y www.

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