Vikas dhiman
in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING At

Apeejay college of Engineering SOHNA


i ii

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Android 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

1.2 The birth of Android 1.2.1 Google Acquires Android Inc. 1.2.2 Open Handset Alliance Founded 1.2.3 Hardware 1.3 Features

2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION 2.1 Architecture 2.1.1 Linux Kernel 2.1.2 Android Runtime 2.1.3 Application Framework 2.1.4 Application Layer 2.2 Developing applications 2.2.1 Application Building Blocks 2.2.2 Application Lifecycle 2.2.3 Application Framework 2.3 Software development

4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 6 8 9

5. APPENDICES Appendix 1 Appendix 2 16 16 17 18 5.3 Market Research 2. LIST OF REFERENCES .7 Disadvantages 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 CHAPTER 3 3.4 What makes Android special? 2.1 Speculations With Cellular Carriers 2.2 Manufacturers’ War 2.4 Security issues 2.5 Android And Java ME Advantages 2.1 Software Development kit 2.5.5 Comparison 2.1 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 15 15 4.5.2.

This paper on Android deals with the history of the Android. . middleware and key applications based on Linux and Java. it was possible to port Jetty to it so that it will be able to run on theAndroidplatform. Android is a freely downloadable open source software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. a group of more than 30 mobile and technology companies working to open up the mobile handset environment. a consortium of 48 hardware. software. Google developed Android collaboratively as part of the Open Handset Alliance. and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. basic building blocks of an android application and the features of the android. and so. Android's development kit supports many of the standard packages used by Jetty. due to that fact and Jetty's modularity and lightweight footprint.ABSTRACT The unveiling of the Android platform on was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance. the early prototypes. Google has made most of the Android platform available under the Apache free-software and open source license.

and undeterred missionary zeal. steady fast determination unperturbed concentration and dedication and above all adept advice . CSE DEPT) and Mrs. CSE DEPT) in spite of their extremely busy schedule. Shikha Mishra (LECT. would not be complete without mention of the people who made it possible because success is the epitome of hard work.” We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable help and guidance received from Mrs. VIKAS DHIMAN 071114 CSE B2 . Who stood behind us like our backbone and with whom this project could never have been presented in the present form.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any task. Shweta Mishra (LECT. They not only give us their valuable time but also provide info details regarding project. We sincerely express our grateful to the staff of computer Science Deptt.So with deep gratitude we acknowledge all those for their advices and encouragement which server as beacon light.

little was known about the functions of Android Inc.2 Open Handset Alliance Founded On 5 November 2007. A 'd-pad' control zooming of items in the dock with a relatively quick response. a small startup company based in Palo Alto. was unveiled with the goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. and Chris White (one of the first engineers at WebTV). but does not support programs developed in native code. an open source mobile device platform based on the Linux operating system. At the time. software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. It was reported that Google had already lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part. other than they made software for mobile phones. the OHA also unveiled their first product.CHAPTER 1: 1. 1. T-Mobile. most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license. 1. Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile). Along with the formation of the Open Handset Alliance. Qualcomm.2 THE BIRTH OF ANDROID 1. 2008. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries. developed a Linux-based mobile device OS which they marketed to handset makers and carriers on the premise of providing a flexible. HTC. Google acquired Android Inc.1 Android Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. Android.3 Hardware Google has unveiled at least three prototypes for Android. 1. The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance. the Open Handset Alliance. at the Mobile World Congress on February 12. CA.. Intel. the team.2.2. middleware and key applications. Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications. upgradeable system. Motorola. led by Rubin. Android's co-founders who went to work at Google included Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger). Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. When released in 2008. INTRODUCTION 1. Inc). One prototype at the ARM booth displayed several basic Google applications.2. At Google. In July 2005. a consortium of 34 hardware. .1 Google Acquires Android Inc. a consortium of several companies which include Google. Sprint Nextel and NVIDIA.

tables and data are stored. From the point of security. for instance. which was designed especially for Android to run on embedded systems and work well in low power situations.0. SQLite Extremely small (~500kb) relational database management system. which is integrated in Android. showing that Android's memory requirements are reasonable. Handset Layouts .DEX) that is created through build time post processing. Integrated Browser Google made a right choice on choosing WebKit as open source web browser. They added a two pass layout and frame flattening. These features increase speed and usability browsing the internet via mobile phone.DEX format is done by included “dx” tool. such as external CSS or external JavaScript and after a while renders again with all resources downloaded to the device. Unlike other embedded mobile environments. It is also tuned to the CPU attributes. Frame flattening converts founded frames into single one and loads into the browser. Conversion between Java classes and . an applications which come with the phone are no different than those that any developer writes. Two pass layout loads a page without waiting for blocking elements. The Dalvik VM creates a special file format (. It had 128 MB of RAM and 256 MB of flash. 1.A prototype at the Google IO conference on May 28. It is based on function calls and single file. Android applications are all equal. The demo was carried out using a 3. SQLite and libc.3 FEATURES Application Framework It is used to write applications for Android. Dalvik Virtual Machine It is extremely low-memory based virtual machine. possibly we will see great applications like Google Earth and spectacular games like Second Life. where all definitions. At this moment.6 Mbit/s HSDPA connection. Optimized Graphics As Android has 2D graphics library and 3D graphics based on OpenGL ES 1. It is also supported by the Android core libraries.The framework is supported by numerous open source libraries such as openssl. This simple design is more than suitable for a platform such as Android. the shooting legendary 3D game Doom was presented using Android on the mobile phone. which come on Linux version. 2008 had a 528 MHz Qualcomm processor and a Synaptics capacitive touch screen. the framework is based on UNIX file system permissions that assure applications have only those abilities that mobile phone owner gave them at install time. and used the UMTS cellular standard.

improved support for Camera and simply GSM telephony. which is a specialized VM implementation designed for mobile device use. Messaging SMS. although not technically a standard Java Virtual Machine. and accelerated 3D graphics. Connectivity Android supports a wide variety of connectivity technologies including GSM. a huge media and connections support. GPS. and AAC. Development Environment Includes a device emulator. touchscreens. traditional smart phone layouts. 3G and Wi-Fi.The platform is adaptable to both larger.264. Bluetooth. a plugin for the Eclipse IDE. tools for debugging and plugin for Eclipse IDE.SQLite is a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications. tools for debugging. compasses. Surface Manager manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications Data Storage SQLite is used for structured data storage . VGA. Additional Hardware Support Android is fully capable of utilizing video/still cameras. for instance. GPS. JPEG. MP3. AMR. Web Browser The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit application framework. memory and performance profiling. CDMA.0 specifications. EVDO. Java Virtual Machine Software written in Java can be compiled into Dalvik bytecodes and executed in the Dalvik virtual machine. MMS. PNG. accelerometers. It includes LibWebCore which is a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web view. An underlying 2D graphics engine is also included. 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 1. Media Support Android will support advanced audio/video/still media formats such as MPEG-4. There are a number of hardware dependent features. EDGE. . and XMPP are available forms of messaging including threaded text messaging. GIF. 2D graphics library. H. A great work was done for the developers to start work with Android using device emulator.

Each section is described in more detail below.1 ARCHITECTURE The following diagram shows the major components of the Android operating system. Therefore. DETAILED DESCRIPTION 2. Figure 2. Android provides the support for the Qualcomm MSM7K chipset family.6 kernel..CHAPTER 2: 2. memory management.1. the current kernel tree supports Qualcomm MSM 7200A . process management. network stack and other important issues. the user should bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and install all the drivers required in order to run it. For instance.1 : Architecture Of Android 2.1 Linux Kernel Android Architecture is based on Linux 2. It helps to manage security.

dex file.3 Application Framework After to . The Activity Manager manages the life circle of the applications and provides a common navigation back stack for applications.2 : Conversion from . the utilities. The Package Manager keeps track of the applications. written in Java language. The Core libraries are written in Java language and contains of the collection classes. after this byte code becomes much more efficient to run on the small processors. memory and data storage are the main issues.1.2 and Wi-Fi support Digital audio support for mp3 and other formats Support for Linux and other third-party operating systems Java hardware acceleration and support for Java applications Qcamera up to 6.0 megapixels gpsOne – solution for GPS and lots of other. It was designed specifically for Android running in limited environment. 2. or applications written by Google and any Android developer. It has several components.1.jar to . which includes major features: • • • • • • • • WCDMA/HSUPA and EGPRS network support Bluetooth 1. where the main component Dalvik Virtual Machine is located. ones which come with mobile device like Contacts or SMS box. It is a toolkit that all applications use. there is Application Framework. where the limited battery.dex file As the result. it is possible to have multiple instances of Dalvik virtual machine running on the single device at the same time. Android gives an integrated tool “dx”. which are installed in the device. CPU. which are running in different processes. 2. which converts generated byte code from .chipsets. Figure 2.2 Android Runtime At the same level there is Android Runtime. but in the second half of 2008 we should see mobile devices with stable version Qualcomm MSM 7200. IO and other tools. The Windows .

of various kinds.First step for Android developer is to decompose the prospective application into the components. Generally. and it's also possible to create completely separate child processes if you need to. which are used by the final user.Manager is Java programming language abstraction on the top of lower level services that are provided by the Surface Manager.4 Application Layer At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications. The major building blocks are these: • Activity • Intent Receiver • Service • Content Provider 2. The Telephony Manager contains of a set of API necessary for calling applications.2 DEVELOPING APPLICATIONS 2.The developer can use Android plugin for Eclipse IDE or other IDEs such as intelliJ. which are supported by the platform.1 Application Building Blocks We can think of an Android application as a collection of components. These components are for the most part quite loosely coupled. Such cases are pretty uncommon though. The Resource Manager is used to store localized strings. layout file descriptions and other external partsof the application. Content Providers was built for Android to share a data with other applications. to the degree where you can accurately describe them as a federation of components rather than a single cohesive application. 2. for Mac OSX and one for Linux. Other components like Notification manager is used to customize display alerts and other functions.2. for instance. optimized and smart mobile phone.2. By installing different applications. The View System generates a set of buttons and lists used in UI. the contacts of people in the address book can be used in other applications too. bitmaps. the user can turn his mobile phone into the unique. Google provides three versions of SDK for Windows.1.2 Application Lifecycle . All applications are written using the Java programming language. It's possible (and quite common) to create multiple threads within that process. 2. these components all run in the same system process. because Android tries very hard to make processes transparent to your code.

A visible process is one holding an Activity that is visible to the user onscreen but not in the foreground (its onPause() method has been called).In Android. every application runs in its own process. if the foreground Activity is displayed as a dialog that allows the previous Activity to be seen behind it. A service process is one holding a Service that has been started with the startService() method. 3. An empty process is one that doesn't hold any active application components. so the system will always keep such processes running unless there is not enough memory to retain all foreground and visible process. Though these processes are not directly visible to the user. It is important that application developers understand how different application components (in particular Activity. Android places each process into an "importance hierarchy" based on the components running in them and the state of those components 1. 4. The only reason to keep such a process around is as a cache to improve startup time the next time a component of its application needs to run. for example. To determine which processes should be killed when low on memory. protected memory and other benefits. and BroadcastReceiver) impact the lifetime of the application's process. they are generally doing things that the user cares about (such as background mp3 playback or background network data upload or download). Therefore. Provided they implement their Activity life-cycle correctly (see Activity for more details). which gives better performance in security. . These processes have no direct impact on the user experience. the system can kill such processes at any time to reclaim memory for one of the three previous processes types. Usually there are many of these processes running. the system will often kill these processes in order to balance overall system resources between these empty cached processes and the underlying kernel caches. so they are kept in an LRU list to ensure the process that was most recently seen by the user is the last to be killed when running low on memory. Not using these components correctly can result in the system killing the application's process while it is doing important work. Such a process is considered extremely important and will not be killed unless doing so is required to keep all foreground processes running. Service. A background process is one holding an Activity that is not currently visible to the user (its onStop() method has been called). Android is responsible to run and shut down correctly these processes when it is needed. As such. This may occur. 2.

This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user. buttons. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components. grids.3 : Flowchart Showing The Lifecycle Of An Activity 2. including: 1. Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems.3 Application Framework Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications.Figure 2. any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). text boxes. including lists. and even an embeddable web browser .2. A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application.

sample projects. A Resource Manager. An Activity Manager that manages the life cycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack 2.2. Apache Ant. Partial Listing of Open Handset Alliance Participants Core Technology Vendors Figure 2. documentation. Issues cited include bugs.3 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT The feedback on developing applications for the Android platform has been mixed. 2.2 or later.3. and FAQs. lack of documentation. through the Android Development Tools Plugin. or to share their own data 3. Requirements also include Java Development Kit. a device emulator. build and debug Android applications. tutorials. graphics. The only officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse 3.The first publicly available application was the Snake game. inadequate QA .1 Software Development kit It includes development and debugging tools. Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts).2 or later.12 . and layout files 4. but programmers can use command line tools to create. and Python 2. a set of libraries. providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings.

anti-spam. such as T-Mobile and Sprint. Many of the companies listed in the LiMo Foundation have also become members of the Open Handset Alliance (OHA). A user does not need to pay for GPS mapping service anymore. Linux secure coding practice should successfully be built into the Android development process. GSM side and CDMA.But the main problem. Currently. a member of Linux Mobile (LiMo) Foundation.5. Hence SMobile Systems is ready to notify and block these secure alerts. However. used for spying and identity theft. But the truth is that it is not possible to secure your mobile device or personal computer completely. As a result. It is possible for somebody to use the GPS feature to track a person’s location without their knowledge. the main problem is availability for viruses to pose as an application and do things like dial phone numbers. One of them is security vendor McAfee. SecurityShield –an integrated application that includes anti-virus. And neither the Android phone nor other devices will prove to be the exception. 2. It is predictable. Android brings an open platform with the new rules.5 COMPARISON 2.2. open platform has its own disadvantages. particular viruses passed from friend to friend. there are two largest cellular carries AT&T and Verizon Wireless in United States. is the availability to download and use free applications that could block almost every communications product they sell. In parallel with great opportunities for mobile application developers. He can simply download a free one that taps into Google Maps. This foundation joins particular companies to develop an open mobile-device software platform.1 Speculations With Cellular Carriers Google Android enters a tangled mess of cellular carrier world. As a new player in the mobile market. On the one hand there is OHA with major companies and carries. There are several solutions nowadays to protect Google phone from various attacks.4 SECURITY ISSUES Android mobile phone platform is going to be more secure than Apple’s iPhone or any other device in the long run. such as source code vulnerability for black-hat hackers. send text messages or multi-media messages or make connections to the Internet during normal device use. firewall and other mobile protection is up and ready to run on the Android operating system. On the other hand. as it connects to the internet.that Sprint or T-Mobile will be first carriers providing devices with Google Android. which faces all the cellular carriers around the world. Another solution for such attacks is SMobile Systems mobile package. . there is an expectation for exploitation and harm. all these threats will be active for a long run. Stealthy Trojans hidden in animated images. which have a vested interest in operating systems of their own. This ensures equal development time for the networks.

Nokia. where revenue could rise 8 times more by 2012. Despite of this. published the results released October 11 2007. This nice and healthy competition is just what the mobile industry needs at the moment. In contrast. that one hundred out of least for the consumers. There is a huge flurry in the companies. This is a huge leap for mobile advertisement business. Google Android is going to present new solutions through the fast search engine. was one of the companies snubbed on the invitation list to the 34-party Open Handset Alliance that is growing daily. stays calm at this point. Google says it hopes to reach a more mainstream market by pricing Android-powered devices at around $200. However. compatible mobile phones. while Google is releasing an open platform hoping the applications and services will build themselves with the help of a strong developer community. That is plenty of time for Google to conquer the market with open Android.2 Manufacturers’ War Presently. nowadays owning some 39% market share. For instance. development contests and large alliance of grand companies. The Kelsey Group. iPhone in the US remains loyal to AT&T mobile carrier for five years.Obvious advantage of Android is cost: while iPhone is priced at a weighty $400. the current situation is not so unsophisticated.5. Despite the fact. waiting for some particular results from Google Android. which works with public opinion polls and statistics. new services and applications. 2. These users are going to explore the mobile internet afresh with its new features. selling 21 millions copies of Windows Mobile software.5.which say. Google main competitors like Nokia. Nokia is ready to combat whatever Google has to throw with Google Android in 2008.3 Market Research A new generation of mobile device users is coming in the next decade. The wars being waged between Google and the field will onlycreate better.2. Accordingly. that Google Android is in . Microsoft and Apple do not see Google Android as a serious rival or threat to their business strategies. Another company Apple has already stroked the market with iPhone and its closed operating system. Microsoft. Nokia is buying companies and dumping cash into development. which is the largest handset manufacturer in the world. cheaper handsets and more advanced applications. which are not in the list of OHA. or 20 percent of people would be interested in purchasing a Google phone. open source applications and other services.

. which was conducted in September 2007 via an online 30-question survey of 500 U. Windows Mobile.4 What makes Android special? There are already many mobile platforms on the market today. The diagram below shows the study. Linux Mobile (LiMo). so they are more interested in gravitating toward an Internet or technology company telephone Figure 2. Picasa albums and other popular services on their computers. including Symbian. BlackBerry. the results look promising. mobile phone users aged 18 and older. and more. People do not find a good Internet experience in their phones today. Java Mobile Edi-tion. and this is what they expect to have in their mobile devices in the close future. Developers like it because they know that the platform “has legs” and is not locked into any one vendor that may go under or be acquired. Android is the first environment that combines: • A truly open. This will unleash a new round of creativity in the mobile space. Google Maps.5. They use Google search. iPhone. GMail. free development platform based on Linux and open source.S. • A component-based architecture inspired by Internet mash-ups. While some of its features have appeared before. You can even replace built-in components with your own improved versions. Partsof one application can be used in another in ways not originallyenvisioned by the developer. 2. Handset makers like it because they can use and customize the platform without paying a royalty.alpha version and it is unknown for the customers and mobile market.13 because they think connectivity between devices and to the Internet is going to be much better on those phones.

Programs areisolated from each other by multiple layers of security. Automatic management of the application life cycle. low-memory devices in a fundamental way that no previous platform has attempted. Browser and Map views can be embedded directly in your applications.• • • • Tons of built-in services out of the box. touch. and AAC. • • A slower application development and performance – these are the main disadvantages Java's J2ME have for today. do not confuse it with Google Android. Support for a variety of input methods is included such as keyboard. They do not have an access to most of the low-level features. All these built-in capabilities help to raise the bar on functionality while loweringyour development costs. A full-powered SQL database lets you harness the power of local storage for occasionally connected computing and synchronization. including H.x86. Micro Edition or Java ME (previously known as Java 2 Platform. etc. external connectivity (USB) . resourceconstrained devices.5. High quality graphics and sound. J2ME apps are second-rate citizens in the phones. camera.The end user will no longer have to worry about what applications are active. and trackball. But their APIs for graphics. MP3.All your programs are written in Java and executed by Android’s Dalvik virtual machine so your code will be portable across ARM. Location based services use GPS or cell tower triangulation to let you customize the user experience depending on where they are. voice. like call API.util and java. 2. UIs. which will provide a level of system stability not seen before in smart phones. and other architectures. Smooth. Both J2ME and Android seem to share the same core Java APIs. such as java. even there are some similarities: • Eclipse plug-ins for J2ME and Android look very similar and interface very well with their respective SDKs. while J2ME is far more liberal in its specifications for the developer and mobile device manufacturer. Portability across a wide range of current and future hardware. Android seems to be more tightly integrated (up to even the OS services provided and how they interact with the APIs). Android is optimized for low-power. tilt. anti-aliased 2D vector graphics and animation inspired by Flash is melded with 3D accelerated OpenGL graphics to enable new kinds of games and business applications. or close some programs so that others can run.264 (AVC).5 Android And Java ME Java Platform. are very dissimilar and philosophies for developing applications are very different. Micro Edition or J2ME) is a specification of a subset of the Java platform aimed at providing a certified collection of Java APIs for the development of software for small. Codecs for the most common industry standard audio and video formats are built right in.

even the dialer or home screen can be replaced. 2. There is no way to replace or extend built-in phone apps like contacts. Login . Open Source . However. All applications are equal .and other.Combine information from the web with data on the phone -.7 Disadvantages • • • • Security . it just looks a lot like it. .The SDK contains what you need to build and run Android applications.Platform doesn't run on an encrypted file system and has a vulnerable log-in.nobody seems to have been able to figure out how to make the J2ME calendar interfaces work correctly on S60. • • 2.Android allows you to access core mobile device functionality through standard API calls.6 Advantages • • Open . because APIs simply do not seem to be exposed to J2ME. Android does not include a complete and compliant Java stack (neither JME nor JSE). Google has written its own virtual machine for Android most likely as a way to get around licensing issues with Sun. Fast and easy development .Making source code available to everyone inevitably invites the attention of black hat hackers.A disadvantage of open-source development is that anyone can scrutinize the source code to find vulnerabilities and write create new user experiences. There are lots of problems with Java applications on S60. Incompetence .such as contacts or geographic location -. J2ME applications in Nokia devices with S60 work great for standard tasks. including a true device emulator and advanced debugging tools.Google’s dependence on hardware and carrier partners puts the final product out of their control. even though S60 probably has one of the best Java implementations. calendar and calls. A user may find difficulties synchronizing Google Calendar with his device . only a subset and therefore it is technically not the Java platform.Android does not differentiate between the phone's basic and third-party applications -. For instance. But more advanced users find difficulties handling Wi-Fi access points with S60. Breaking down boundaries .

This provides end-users with less control over their phone's functionality than other free and open source phone platforms.CHAPTER 3: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE Android has been criticized for not being all open-source software despite what was announced by Google. that's an age away when it comes to handset design. That is. With all upcoming applications and mobile services Google Android is stepping into the next level of Mobile Internet. . and Android may well find itself competing against the forthcoming Nokia touch screen phones and maybe even the iPhone 2. This is notable contrast with Apple and other companies. Software installed by end-users must be written in Java. and some believe this is so that Google can control the platform. Android participates in many of the successful open source projects. The first Android based official devices may well be launched sometime in the early half of 2009. architect the solution for participation and the developers will not only come but will play well together. Obviously. where such architecture of participation is clearly belated. such as OpenMoko. and will not have access to lower level device APIs. Parts of the SDK are proprietary and closed source.

1 Appendix 1 Topic name Android Brief description Page no.4. documentation . which was designed especially for Android to run on embedded systems Extremely small (~500kb) 3 relational database management system. Appendices 4. Linux Kernel Android Architecture is based on 4 Linux 2. a device emulator. A JVM execute byte code compiled from programming languages Java 3 Dalvik Virtual Machine SQLite Java Virtual Machine Integrated development A IDE is a software application that environment (IDE) provides comprehensive facilities to 3 computer programmers for software development. Android is a software stack for 1 mobile devices that includes an operating system. a set of libraries. which is integrated in Android. middleware and key applications It is extremely low-memory based 2 virtual machine.6 kernel It is designed especially for android 5 running in a limited environment Android Runtime Software Development kit It includes development and 9 debugging tools.

4.1 Appendix 2 Figure Name Architecture Of Android Page to .dex file 5 Flowchart Showing The Lifecycle Of An 8 Activity Partial Listing of Open Handset Alliance 9 Participants survey of 500 U. mobile phone users aged 12 18 or older September 2007 5. LIST OF REFERENCES: .S. 4 Conversion from . Official Webpage http://code. http://www. 4.androidwiki.blogspot. http://en. 8.Open Handset Alliance Webpage http://www.wikipedia. . .org/wiki/Android_(mobile_phone_platform)–Wikipedia Information .Official Android Google Code Webpage http://www.wikipedia. 6. – Android Wiki http://googleblog. 10.itworld.Official Google Blog http://en.