ISBN 9781440079078

This is a FREE e-book from The first 15 pages of this e-book are high-quality, all other pages are low quality.

Also available in print as high-quality paperback from

The vertical black lines appearing on most pages are deliberate. This is required to stop people from selling printed copies of our e-books. Our own printed books do not have these watermarks.

This e-book may be distributed royalty-free. This e-book may not be modified in any way. This e-book may be printed for personal use only. No pages may be extracted or removed from this e-book. This e-book may not be included in any commercial package. This e-book may not be sold.

Copyright © 2010 Forgotten Books AG





You can read literally thousands of book for free at
(please support us by visiting our web site)


to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY




Forgotten Books takes the uppermost care to preserve the entire content of the original book. However, this book has been generatedfrom a scan of the original, and as such we cannot guarantee that it isfreefrom errors or contains thefull content of the original. But we try our best!

Truth may seem, ntit



Rl~I.Jtity .(lJ'I:19', tesr 'h~ l~or .~hl.~; Tr-~~lll ((a(/ b(!((((ljl &ur-kd nc. '1:U Ihil:' urn kl Ihos8 repair 'l1.iat GlTB ~th8r rrue or [air; dead hi1'J~ ~h .(l prayeJ"_

1'0;" tM.8f!


to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY





to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY





to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY








to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY



org to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY .forgottenbooks.Rdftion 1908 Second Edition HIH ']'hird E diiio» HI~l Pint Join www.HIGH-QUALITY SAMPLE PAGE .

which I have rewritten in accordance with sllggestions made by 111' to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY .HIGH-QUALITY SAMPLE PAGE PREFACE TO THE THIRD E ITION No extensive changes have been made in this ition. I have made some attempt to meet this objection in § 158 and Appendix III. THE SECOND EDITIO HE principal changes made in this editio are as follows. Pollard. in Chapter VI some additional matter concerning the integration of algebraic I functions j and in Chapter VII a section on differentials.R. G. I need hardly say hat 1 find such criticisms very gratifying. as the best evidence t at the book has to some extent fulfilled the purpose with which it was written. EXTRACT FROThI THE PREF . and the fund mental theorem concerning implicit functions. I have inserted in Chapter I a sketch of edekind's theory of real numbers.H. T G. h is curious to note how the character of the criticisms I have had to meet has changed. These changes have natu ally involved a large number of minor alterations. in Chapter V a proof of the' Heine-Borel Theorem Heine's theorem concerning uniform continuity. The most important are in §§ 80-82. I h e also rewritten in a more general form the sections which dea with the definition of the definite integral. In order to fin space for these insertions I have deleted a good deal of the an lyrical geometry and formal trigonometry contained in Cbapte s II and III of the first edition.. OctobfJr 1914 Join www. and a proof of Weierstrass's th orem concerning points of condensation.B.forgottenbooks. in Chapter IVan sec unt of 'limits of" indetermination' and the' general principle of convergence '. 'l'he earlier editions contained no sabiefacbo account of the gene8is of the circular functions. A pendix IV is also an add ition. I was too meticulou and pedantic for my pupils of fifteen years ago: I am altogether t 0 popular for the Trinity scholar of to-day.

forgottenbooks.'CvY and UY $ ':l '0 In the last two chapters I have occasion once or twice to inte rate a power-series. but it is this class whose wants I It is in any case a book for mathematicia made any attempt to meet the needs of stu or indeed any class of students whose intere T to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY . where a. But I have done my best to a anything that involves really difficult ideas. September 1908 Join www. full and adequate di cession of all these points win be found. infinite products. I make niform convergence. Anyo e who has read this book will be in a position to rend with P ant Dr Bromwich's Infinite Series. wherever space permitt solution. special discussion in each instance. no use of the' principle of convergence': double series. an outline of the aid the inclusion of i or instance. I regard the book being really ele plenty of hard examples (mainly at the ends these I have added. s: I have nowhere ents of engineering ts are not primarily HIS book has been designed primarily year students at the Universities wh approach something like what is usually des standard'. There are of the chapters): to d. ded to: and I prove in version of limit• '02/ U. I hope that it may be useful readers.HIGH-QUALITY SAMPLE PAGE EXTRAOT FRO}'1 THE PREF OE TO THE FIRST EDITION for the use of first se abilities reach or ibed as •scholarship to other classes of ave considered first. are never all no general theorems whatever concerning th operations-I never even define ~ as icntary. but I have confined myself to the very sim lest cases and given a.

23. 31 CHAPTER }'U~CTIONS OF REAL JI VAnT. 3 13 15 17 19 19 23 26 27 29 30 ~. 18. 32. of condensation. iscellaneous Examples Decimals. 20 Importa'in inequalities. Dedekind's Theorem. 32. 28-29. to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY .2. 2. Cubic and other surds. I l'AGE VARIABLES 1-2. Tbe -aphical representation Polar Poly coord inatss . 31. 10-11. 24-25. Sehwnl'z's Inequality.forgottenbooks. \ The i ea of a. Gauss's Theorem. 6. mials . 9. Ratio al functions Alge raical functious Tran cendental functions Grap ical solution of equations Func ions of two variables and 6 ntation 47 49 52 li8 their graphical rcpre· (HI Join www. Graphical solution of quadratic sqnationa. 3-7. Poin cie 'Y nal numbers umbers ns of magnitude between real numbers -aical operations with real numbers umber '2 atic surds • ontinuum ontinuous real variable ns of the real numbers. Relati Algeb The Quadl 'I'he The Secti 1 15. 33. 16. 21. Ratio al numbers. 19.HIGH-QUALITY SAMPLE PAGE CONTENTS CHAPTER nEAL SECT. 12. 8. 34. function. 17. trass'e 'I'heore: n . 13-14. 1. Coordinates 41 4:l 44 26-'27. Arithmetical and geometrical means. Algebra. 38 of functions.o\BLES 20. 30.iclll n mbers.

65 OHAPTER 34-:38. CHAPTER LnrITS OF FUNC IV VARIABLI!: IOXS OF A POSITIVE INTEGRAL 50. 39-42. Ruled surfaces. 53~.~4 1341'37 '\ 76-77. 94. Imaginary points and lines. Some algebrai 1 lemmas The limit of 11 Wz-1). Cylinders.i Rational functjons of a complex 'varia-ble Roots of comp ex numbers.forgottenbooks. 75. 1. 72 Functions of positive integral varia ble Interpolation Finite and inn ito classes . ·74. Curves in a pI ne Loci in space Miseellane us Examples Trigonometrital fun tions. 51. 78. Geome rlcal constructicns fo)' irrational numbers. 4-4.t four points should be conoyclic. 60 61. variable.)7. 97. Tho quadratic equation with real coefficients Argand's diagram . Properties pOSB sed by a function of tt for large values of n Definition of a limit. Examples Properties of Q trian 91. Infinite series 1 . 68. 58-61. de Moivre's T corcru .3 Join www. 62. 96. 93. Coaxal circles. Quadrature of the eire! . . 46. COD Complex function 8 of a by Euclidean methods. 62 Cones. Surfaces of revolution. Oonstructio n of regular polygons 1 to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY . 90. III 09 81 Sol COMPLEX XUMDEns Displacements Complex num ers . 63---68.. Orosa ratios. 64. 97. 47-49.)'9 139 140 14. l+n I)" . 63.HIGH-QUALITY nll SECT. Is. 52. Bilinear and other traosformations. 63. Equations with complex coefficients. Contour maps. 62.trass's Theorem The limit of • Tbe limit of 106 107 108 109 I1G 121 I I'J"} ~. 69-70. 101. 71. 66. 33.~' O!:lcillating fun tiona General theore a concerning limits Steadily inoro sing or decreasing functions Alternative p of of "Teien. 5~. ell. Miscellanc ItS 78 86 88 91::1 101 45. 43. 97. 55. Arithmetical functious. 104. and other definitions . 103. SAMPLE PAGE 32. rtiou tha. ]:11 73.

143. B. 117. 87-88.'1ded fu nc tiou • The general principle of convergence • Limits of complex functions and serie of complex terms. )77. :.'S 89-92. Derivatives General rules for differentiation. bounded aggregate The hounds of a bounded function TIle limits of indetcrmina tion of a 001.173.. Continuous functions of a real Properties of conti 11 uous tu nctions.c!ll series.. Equation 11 Decimals. (~) ~!I. Orders of smullness and greatness. 147. 1113. {!{nl). Limit of menn value.forgottenbooks. 160. Continu tyofMS$andsin:1:. . Derivatives of complex functions The notation of the differential cslcul !OJ Differentiation of polynomials Differentiation of rational functions • 19?" 203 205 205 207 20D 210. Ati tbmetic X. The oscillatiou of a function in a interval Set"! of intervals on a line.o+l series. Expo. 98-99. 123. Differentiation of slgebraical functions Join www. Bound od functions. 114. 100-104. Applicatlons to z" and tho geometries series Miscellaneous Examples Limits of Oscillation of eiu1!O". Inflnity Olasaifica tion of d iscontioui ties. 159.. 169. 115. 178.].a4. of a Iunetion..nsi nit of rational functions. 107. 176. 151. CHAPTER DERIVA'I'IV~S AND VI I~TEG ALB 110-112. 113. CHAPTER LUIlTS OF FUNCTIONS A!\D DISCONTIXUOUS a) V CONTINUOUS OF A CONTINUOUS V FUNC 10:o.HIGH-QUALITY SAMPLE CONTENTS PAGE IX PAGE sscr.tx.'1:_ or x. 93-9i. 139. 158. =!(:r. 147 149 149 100 15l 15::1 15t) 167 nkxn. x-a sill a: X . 108-109.:. Rarmonl. to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY . ~~. 105-106. The representation of functions of a co tinuous real variable by means of limits The bounds of a. Bl. - a) 162 165 174 179 185 190 191 19-1 Limits and coutinuitj' Limit of --. Limits as Limits as x_ a .:t1ll-a"l . Limit of 177.. . 79.). 118. 146.171. 172. 83... 121. :. The Hei c-Borel Theorem Continuous functions of several varia IC>i Implicit and inverse functions Miscellaneous Example"! of polynomials nod rat onal functions. 136.

of a ulae CHAPl'ER VII !"DDITIONAL TUEORE)[S IN THE DIFFEREXTIAL AXD fNTEGRA L C LCULL'S Taylor's 'Ibeoreru . 303.forgottenbooks.HIGH-QUALITY SAMPLE PAGE CONTEXTS SF. 215. Newtoll'S method of upproximation to the roots of equations. 267. Applications of Taylor-s Theoremto maxima and minima l50. AplJ[oxim!lte values of definite integrals. rve. Applicatioua of Taylor's Theorem to the calculation of liml s The contact of plane curves l51. 203. 146. 302. in- Join www. Homogen functions. Sch ws ra' equality for integrals. 274" a02. Areas of plane curves. Fou integrals. 306. Differentials . Curvature. 607. and nic. LengthA and areas in polar coordinates. Tnnormal to I> curve. Differentiation of impJic it function 8. Oscul conics. Differentiation of transcendental functions.L ot the quotient of two qua-dratio. Points of i nflexiou. 223. to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY . Integration rationalisation.254. The logarithmic function Integration of polynomials . Ta. 262 266 268 268 270 274 2eO 283 298 299 209 300 Miscellaneous Examples 2135. Integration of rational functions Integration of algebraical functions. M. 147. Integration. and minim:'. 263. Taylor's Series l49. Binornial series. 140-144. ting ier's ous 301. Repeated differentiation General theorems concerning derivatives. Extensious of the Mean Value Theorem. Differentiation determinllnt. For of reduction. 201. 290.CT. 127-128. 259.~. 29<1. The second mean value theo!:~ml 29fi. El9. 132-139. J acobiaue. 256. ima Derivative of x . 2. 273. Simpson's Rule. Differentiation of functions of several variables. 214. J21. 201. lC. Rolle's Theorem for polyuomials. Axes of a c 226. 130-131. 272. 303. 201. Dcrivati ves of cos x and sin x. 120. 145. 1W. Intezrabion bv narts Integration of transcendental ftlneti~ris -. Euler's Theorem. l43. 302. Rolle's Theor Maxima and minima' . Application to the binomial series l63. ]23-126. Series for cos x and aia x. Tbe Mean Value Theorem .58. 253. Leibniz' Theorem. Lengths of plane curves 1\1 iscellaneous m PAOE t 212 214 2[7 2]8 226 228 23i! s 23:3 236 245 249 251 253 Examples gent '255. Definite Integrals. Areas of curves If>G-IGL Alternative proof of Taylor':'! 'I'heorem lG2. Multiple roots of equations.2-154. Integrals of complex functions l64. 2137. 283. 209. l55.ngent to a e 272. 122-124.

207.forgottenbooks. 0 convergence Dirioh et's Theorem :Multi lication of series of positive t ei-rus Abel's Tbeorem. Condi ionally convergent series Alter ating series . Bebwarz's in uality for infinite integrals.tion of the sum of a aeries by rear angement. Biuomial series. 171-174- Cauchy's and d'Alembert's tests Series of positive terms. 170. 327. Cauch 's condcnsation test 176. 333. Maclaurin's 308 313 313 315 319 320 321 335 336 The s ries ~ n-' 175. 352. 1348. 165-168. Been rring ser ee. 186-187. Abel's and Dirichlet's testa of convergence 189. Absol tely convergent series l84. 191-194. 183.\oe SERIES . 177-182. 1\ ultipltcatlon of conditionally convergent series. 344.. Series of complex terms 190. 202. 198. ~ an sin n9. 348. Infini e integrals Series of positive and negative terms. Tm nsfo L" mation of infini te integrals hy bsritutlon and integration by parts. 188. OHAPTER IX THE: LOGARITIT IlC AND EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS OF A REAL VARIABLE 198-197. 3G8 360 369 374 Join www. Powe senes • Multi lioation of series in general 195. tegral test . 209. to read this book in HIGH-QUALITY . 204-206. 356.tions. 354. Furth r tests of convergence. 199-201. 353. 338 340 342 344 345 349 350 }.-185. 311. The series ~ Iln cos n9. ponential limit I garitbmic limit Com on logarithms Logar tbmic tests of convergence. 355. Altero. Dati nite integrals. . 349.eCT. GE~CE OF INFINl1'E VIII AND INFINITE INTHORAU :r.HIGH-QUALITY SAMPLE CONTENTS PAGE Xl CHAPTER 'i'HIt CONVF.' • ehaviour of logx as x tends to infinity I garithmie scale of infinity umber 6 or to zero 357 3GO 3GO 362 363 3G·' 366 onontial function ncral power aZ. 341. 210. 328. 343. Tho The The The Tho Tho The The Tbe 1 garithmic function f notional eq uation satisfied by log [l. 350.iscellanaous Examples The series 2: n~'r" find allied series. 338. 208. 211. 169. Difference eq ue. Logarithmic ~eries.

." ar IorJ".)' . 'S!:rJ. i3"l. ..lII1 I I . jI~ . Of tbe 't.JI. 213.~ob. 2:~.i.U:tlC1fOtUI .AP:rOli v117.rl'" tOO 41." ~\lr. 220.i462i!l- I' l"..a'" hi .nflOl'1 . h.:I1 . 219.8.lS-l 3136 367 mple.3 til in i!3t.. ~3G.)7" lBI 3Sl srn. t.Q4. ~1. !!l!l.'T CO:r=T&~'l'S r.a.PI! l"\Ioli (I: fiji De't4 n .!! f 1:1 ClII4IIItiaI III' ILmCt:£1::I!:I. n. cu LUt ~ 1-0(:1.t03 .IUt IU." 'It tT"H:r. + + ue ~17 i.U 412 41~ e lin I) FDlJ'Dllm Boou I I -.H:I!.I- PL}~~'I ~ + + J!i(i 3» 300 . it4.31.I. t:l1II iIi. ~l..I\e 1C1f&rilh + d i. I- n:5· i..

.he"e 11 and q on tHNr.rit.. {fll "t. A fly (. ".I . to. aru nuiGnaJ .tIIJ if they 3.jmn llltMlolt:1t...DI1 .1)_ h(l'lllt tJ. nple!!!l!l n. Tht:= tis.lly ~ermiDe wlwoo sid. ~~.. mbe1~ tb • +1'" 1'1 ~. -. C!iII.. 2A~ Nt l\tld and oL\.l til.. ] r :.hmet.:11.~ob.lW! ~ ul:I::m~ aP. We fJ ha d vide eeeh of h m by it.(BJ1.I it fJ i•.~era.«.which u r"l '"=0 {w'b 11 t e ordinary bars.'('J ntH IX! N 1..iii 'BlBmpb!t L 1. o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm ill" Boou -. and no mOlOIl.\:''1.ieal ntieB ~ ....-. W.D ber l-e [Tlu!. 'Sl..ldeIII).I.l:Cill n alo. flt. and i~ -of (:OlLNIE: ).

i"t ir rh.k M the point.-e ir m ~ . and)"l ~\.] t. ch thll" l' . jj.BA j !Lnd to 1a.h .e length is t.lI.j• jj j In. fl.oro to obtai tu r~ to re fB' le of si • ~il.d ~til:m wbi rhen.8. tun ber ]t ]5 e 1 I n FlllJ'Dllm II Boou I .ij" Fig. of A~ J.

s 'Ei: clos-e! y pC)w. . ThU! 0\" r 'Wf3" can ing "bat. BIl ~ P obvioll 1Y eerrc bct. I!19 II. anothe between asserted abo g t.(1).n t.D ~ nd C.l numb .e:re ~ l pomti1'"& I U.W' A l. itg "J'. ill It.rIg eopoints -wit.b ~.11readi I eonvi nee rations] poin t." eeerespond in 'to e'''eJ'Y d jr~ is fIIU.('!. BIl then we B and P.I "'hO$C! he wi.. "n :!.h)1!I by ~ j minawr lS Ie.3 d such cha.'IL~en .fl.U ~Al ~ 1 then g ttl the ntL(m.tlt: has b d ivided.nII l:IOW'C\'Cf iDlj true e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I . aa if tutJ I .

rib tes to t.1. the re are any $U h uld ~~ m nsc ..[ M.VARU.. _g1·nID an t.1 .IiI link w' :r and .. \Ii t~l. gLven 1 ne.hc: Ultc:cm!' Fro the infer t nt.'lIWeu ~ 1. -di pt.l nmn iJ ~e. straight e: furmed in'f: ruU:IU orne of the pro 0 Lno kr ~OS~ it.y two gi j]. jtlea w ieh w d oons:i~1' e a. g. It'rI!I :L:IICrc:]J to ti a tQ. with olle -'\ of a1gcb t by uiesns of . ..e W tJ..he mat :lora DlClIrL reeson 1. ei!-hlt: 0IIII 'Ir!M rMu""" A.1auu:J tia lly u j 1..s j !fiell It. j Let.. i~ a. don hOW'O\~L·.t1I. is "he lenHth .go.n elem-e n i -tMllt i mWit the [) be composed of pai in tJS whic 1ill!: breotwe1!ln i t mltSt he t be .&i Ll1i. di&:r bJ' &.MIll of ecJmbi 'OIl. and t.l3L!S .e~ . t line.Dy r.t4uo. ·oml numbee lyiL ~11L\u1jft..a...0 IaI.~R.1 e:o.$. an by hieb t.1 111... !!len IJins 111.1 q any 8.1 QA th~n. reIu:IlJ."W prmti~-u l:IimaalI qt Uie 1l..he $tmi r rollgb I)' look llnd be j nts (ir a line.£' prod 0.he othe re wI' which omm tel Jllll.10 mlU-~ be possible to Ct.r n.inm a. tijtm.

! ecmpesed of n umbee.'t.h pre!ttlpp08itio Now j~..A. I I . h. II!'lem pllrpOl. The length~ I1lws t.o\'e . Ii <". to e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I -..d j fll ndnmen Lal tLl)Y segment I ~llA All t.i. C arc t.01I~e:rn n .· ~ "iz.A~ B.cann \'Ul:lou.

II c • l.a.:. Wi SI]'W'ln is no tatj to s 1'f is ntJ po!!i.· e t!_PI.ioo '/'1 iD itfJ lM¥vt.ti~e etion in its lowe to t perfect Bq if 2. ~ IlD. -here A is d ft. h" 00 1r~ry mtor or q' m t d ide Thu!9 m- was to be by tnkiflg number. . wriw e ~2.. . ualesa Wid are p flirthM' and l!.G [l ~ D lit.aqu I" mIll I where llIl.ving f.ctOO'" i wit. nal num ttdio~~ nn. ).. nnd (:A.CWr.rJt. mua be I! ity. d i...~' or tile en~ involve tho e rntiona! pcr.d m no tAclor I eorn non tor or rt Il'IId. 1. Qr O~'SJ B !:mill int P.IL .y ia r wh . 0100 1'1. intqe. ui ~. In panic:ular it f'ol t. o 'both P"'" ret. d " . A II} 3:. lb. U1i iru J ves mon ri!I. :\ nQ (Joe t. i~ j. 2.... ~ r e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boow.. Bu &.r... &1:1 t. d as m ctor. be the :sq IJ.h jt~ hen ttp' mmon !iI6 P and q hsve no Q.a the ill - nta ry a1 ~bfD.IU'e is itself integral.q'.

L\D on 11 br.w h e nlroady sesn t is equation.DI1 ·1· .""'"1dete l.t the~ once pt.i1Jln rJlf ':n now kind.han 2_ WEI mbers. than Dr gToo.----- e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I II Boow. f....(:. The 11 eq llatiCln has no 1 tions M ~ = 2.8. ined by tfiltl. L'CI!IO It umbers i.-aDltom1.:.$ '11.te n tmbera j nto t s are 16lIIII t. It :ia 01 &n1 web cq ta.noh. or tM kfl· IIDId clasl!'J and _.. 15.. and Wi5 8.. i r:J 'Il'heth9l' th8119 a D . :tlO N'Q tm Th. I . 1jCIm$ ~M".bi.

"'U of the 1 41. lor Lh~ :I of nilt b~1'S...lII1 I .~-Ule zm n FDlJ'Dllm OOU I II I -. yi .~ob.rnet f·Wf: c. Ii given .• • 'I'.] we 1t'OC:CS1!. 1 1 +. t. 1"4 42•.

. ~ of L %1> . e I""'Ift of Then ~ hs. 1. R t. ."e t ttl!i divided And such that. the leme-nt:lry % !1 ~ 1".t I ppose.11 af R.U9 e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I I .-11"" pn~ .. t. l.. for ".I li..9 ·0/ L or (t or en til <: 2.y n hM We hll. t.ll!wWs:t:S ~ t/If}n all.."1 Arger 'han ai mi fll'l. u:tt!d fJf p ·~~~ick o~d I'J m. is '.. member.hat nnmbCl·~..r. t line.:t'N.

bEl ~t:\l la"W'~ with.bau ~. lor no r& 2_ I is the simplest to t.m ~Uil.10 ~ and '2- [1 That j r t. ~ .. and lltIly pus.han ~ - N i!!l any in~ger whi ~=3.his co embers of L from ttl s1llli la. iUldcr 'Do"m t}. 'PI' hew' 1 lJiI! able to ilwid th Ji ions. tiafit'5 equa ig :sM.he.. 01·. of the eqllllt..\ on e in 1. i.ltUel!. tt•• clw:d.1 e in alge bra we denote -Ii i.1l sec I I' aU:! len SI cannot Cu".rly it CiLlmot 'toll '1. I tlflal :I'J L1 mhera . and !.tI ~i reader msy now He lXtay~ if he such th a..neRl m-etb~!i.I':h . .t. almosb "'" .ion i:lll ..2 can) ge n t. '-0.he preceding ug . eeuelusion onal Ii t !.t.enre of rra u b thlit.sol l:!II "-1n11 1t::::o( "Win ~brI.hc ui!9t.iom ft . bow.111 I'IJ t !'II) dtlllbt 1"ImI D of I!ILI. 00 ~ :2.! not rational.

.lro to J'j~then '~+'2J.) III DOt i~ n~IUol1j U:na il .qIJt. the.'ti(llli Wt ..:...i.ppro:timsl. Let.8 E:umi'lll!!l umbers in qu ruc. in w-hien 1 in Cl'1pMit..o n in tcri~cd by "th!! j .i. .6J luw. (<l-r ttl .I (wrt til'I moe.t a :Se&~i.6 dir o. us DOW t e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I I I Boow.. ~ Uf..

Jl tho a. {)~jl1 1M t'hl!l ~.L hed no 5 eless or.E.sJ W"~ &mh!r ~ ember and Ail QQ IIIu.'r' J j~ d1J .UJ111i..v 101" 1i.c! 0 l' loRd Q (U.. '~li:l.~ .M al II umbel" o "erse1y.!J ·~>lj.Jl Ul!IViIi!l . ~>.iWI TI' hic h t.o be lM . it is t.JOt..\ tn.' ld I.~io.

13 (ill !:tl-.DI1 .l rational w~ id about 1n(!!"Clly om~ I I i Mv& 6) 7. f "iew a d.tle. -"~ob. W~ t mc:rely i tlmbi:!l'El.~"~. Il.p".rJ'l!rsJl'Ol"~ CI:l 4.UiN aUoDal ""'til we have (ore we franle F~"'" OUr lit.

llll.E F"Uu 110 lII'!l. Wa d IItd: ~ lV. ~ far &III rl Mr EDlobmd It ICnrju.'bJe of ~ t 'Mil.ill III.h&t i Qpa..n tha~ and eero 'eo describe$oj-' happen . .td.D.t ppe. hoI M! w be 1I. ind mIlo iD deto.ft.m:Z " A~ 1'~ mllw 'It 11ft. I!I:jIIl::b el. (I( M. If t.a t tW The I'$U. W. cW35U t:tisc Q.t. 'milM eq 11 'Ll~1 -Df llumbBnl.i n G1Mter&l.l to lui p l'1L'1'CI adopt.a.t~bet.dIflI'" .

-aDltom1. b. real 1'1 um ber by &ro If III fL.e I'lU'tnhl!!l"Z. lid! IlLlmbt:lr. (..DI"1 "I" . of it! we and upper ina: t!lh letters a..!fIlliloIG IInI-'bto .." 'k let.lII:'IM.te.i~ T. Iop:II [)'bjec~ 14 ~t. u4 ''bll=ir Ylil il tbal.. B j. r real n and e lD • I'CI~ d..tL J3 hm (i) eve 'Y C!.. ceed. :!I n:! m:ll.g. iillil¥. ifJi ..----- .~ IliAtB tt.9} IS n It icn. 0'10 I.. i~. d not~ by (a).11..rily how 01..t.. ~ ith (b} an (A) with (B) ~ • alII(! ~I. A..41 .D. C j ••• ~ wt.Y'.1oU)lui411tC1 e zm n FDrJ'Dllm Boou I I I I _" f.hlll .1:II 1.noh..1of iI4'tOf"1 '"1. Tb..

ma h.L I not f {h)-I and (B.:>0 H a j. .:<: ~ III: ) -e wr. I:uilit.h w ir.::: I . ) an cl-eL'u' tho.y ootw which we be iu CI. ru [Hj p 011 fui (~ =fJ. IjJ~y HE"..h the ideM.ite. 3 be i.ic& tI! = fj his Fi L. but. ~ 11t·1- <J'l<..~ w h ~ k'lltion.'ll~ :t.TKl.. potLI!'I'e <.16 .2.3 ) e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou ...

. jl.J1y 00 ~ ~Yp3~e. .a.'to 001. In II n... 0lil +D iI III .DI1 I . formed by all e.o :t ) +(B .inly c Agai r. wO M'i.ide[" 7 10." P'f'hj~ ... be Ie" th..10] peoeeed to.tba t~Dli such 85 itilXl:~ (i) AMii.~ob.h~ plllit... _y '" fnt:t!it.t'Ie the . o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boou I II I :2 -. er thlm ne.1.1i. . n. both t.deM (jj) SK~ (.c: A + 1]. a~ be graa.B.+"') (1+3=3+'" ow dl!.te19 D~ bale g -ei~b 't\lftl. PrM.t.!~ ctU:I dr.9. ~ c:l. M l:iUl :l'imnll t:b. tha.0.mlll'... ~CO(A)md or ( G O.b)~ and we H..Klfl .

'M (COl ~ l~plicaLio .. 7.1 ~ 6. numb 8llrlto Fi e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I II I . 1 b....

. .6 all res] nu and melLhad.0)..rz . v3~}IT..•. 9....8 ~e to carty 011 and more in put1~ularly im )- .lII1 I I .J21 y d! the I:lJIn ~ e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I -. j ~ v2 aM Ii (... t'OOU rIll =3 = 7.10 l~] ply .. 1~ 1=lilll~ I • ..~ob.

~y! ~ + 'J.. :For t(II bM'I!I • hr6 I!qqJ 1 IIIIUI '·111 tio:g. Th~ proper!.. 'b tilL (Id11 0~ :roo t.~ II. t tunb.e&o k i itTllt:ted by Euclid .. r C)fJ. It i$ ensy 1O c.. m 01. j rltqen.r. I~p1. t.e fQI il pII4I~lll' Ililict iill 1.ional I'm mb6I"B sugge:rterl by the eome t rica I eonsicienlti(l qu~rl!.!4IIes) II :III :plint.d . as c. nal numbers of r.i th ru ler and co _p.o o! llwJ:il' dll!lno ..r..Ch 'r:I:IOnl eli!plll ~~iDg. lIf. wbBJ'e P .....iOWL.. fll~. Ill. + ~+-(I'-O .l~ 'li'"hich Y be E.:20 Jl.n1t! ow 1'h-e only kind irm1...NolbiflC ie l tba iI!Iq~ tJOCI .his form.0 lJolillll :II"\CI~I "ill IJ(IIJ._o lmd. t.... TOO . bae ~ tt.8.UOO as repeaioo equal to any num or 1.(J ..'UCi .I!I Ch. ... wil! NIIlII!lIIIbe.u lLU .HI 00 ~ 'l'W:U. 1nu.wo q~r.!i can mulUpll 1Q ..a~:>0.lly aJ .. hi I1Ixlt: That irn... SLlP~ p ·eo and rni ~":U:~I and t.b .. M w.ladratil'J equation 4I.eomet.. _II' :n!I II!mbv tb . U!QUP ~ • Se.. tb ~{ .tJn L!i aiiII Lo liau Iwo 4 CClmllln ' .f':>o.q1l .'Ia.:I.. 1..t!heiI IL Whe II ~ = 1:1~ lh. 2'l.I.h..uq uare r'lXlta..he. be deferred lor the preseu t·. tiKI! ~ ]IDug\b.'_ by potd 'lIf.~ . mUt~ them apecia 1y intmat..~ob...rai&btfww A mL1.h irnt... ~ t.I prt:&9Cd in a . I...lcally t Drat.. e zm n FllfZ(l!lm Boou i I I II -.nJ. '1)IL1le 'w *lIiptalll_ iilll tb.b~ IIIqC-lot· opt . "l'b6 foIl.UL V"RUBLES [ ~-~+r-!"-o. hll!Jh oS. th. methud!! (i.e..t.01'. :lj.I 00 (XIII""" LCt.. >t gwlllt:trkB.ttl 2" t.. (t (: nJ:ioo./(1+J2h J ~ + J(! + Thll q_l. + ~ ..: 5.JHder .he e.tII. t.lII1 II .tn + q -0. 1I~ :Kil'" P.

. IioG mLioos.l m ul mi'ar.l..t' arid Q1 dt'Jt IAfI. 9IIjlt iIruJ...b PF . oL\ ftJ'th ~Jl..$:(! i.. ~ n J/ I!I:U Q. 'l'bUSi e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I I I I -.~pJe V1'I!~ pCl'"NP" O'IIM :BLIJI Imp}.i!i . Be if 8t'r ]' .. VCI"i(1 iD.~ob.t.t!o tl! Ldl -t.lII1 I I !: prDOf l. poIIi'ln! P t.~(.rli. Two pl surds . rlt.[4J" "' BC' 0'1td . INtI. nco P"rtm!! tha" 4."&. SomlllthlIOR qUlldt. !M!"t_:u~L.. P"Q' 'Pi'ill Mt 1!"Dt..

Y The integral 00 t.!'t&. .hesis. w hert 'I fj.J~ + ~f.whwh ~nuuy of the . = u"l~ .M N . J) t N I\nd thon ..!~ 0/ t. . (: .//).R V A 'RJ I.( ) JI is divjsib t! I di mib! by at. ense m..he .I. Hanec AI an nr hypot."8 no mr. and ere re (Ex.-e eithet. tional. ~n. rl"b last.Ro\ :ra~i of J(J . A i MsD.y be app ie to eaeh of Iha fI cto so that M mu t be di villi oCI by some of th by (.Bqoblf.n~ fi 'l'his 0 II men t ma.. unlc.. I:w.& (II' (3) M ri d ~ are both d i'\l . . be lied ou ~ IIi M and N h.i e ntege:~. _(J+ -JD j (h) B and D an U.~.hat. iPJ evidcn Ir nt.B.he .t re P ig au mte . Then divisib or {2} by -IS where deno es the p 8lld P't" he p uet of I. torli of p.• !!'lIrepoait.I e of BOrne ~u~.. .

I.)ll with Mt. P+ Q.oJ the!.1n . 'I'OOt 0' M ~gtI ~"(II)'t.on 81.:IIDIJIII lhl!" ii:tJ.. ""M't: ~ :!iB .td.It nu.lIIn"II1. f(n' '=Ill' '-0 " t-t!I ~ r bAilllM la.s. mil rCl11il1 zm n FDlJ'Dllm II Boow. (..hat.!I L. The pointa of lhe to -01 'With oI..:..t. \II 1I&. J&} 1 regate of an resl nu m orUhmeUoal conUr.J b i. II..ij and B= OJ (]oJ' (~) ~ IL ~I P'/~ ~ .KI.)' til.~mcl~t condltiOOll !..'i.ti .t"'". line A of S '2 all the n umbers of t. "" il!li UlD~'her or thl:!!oj .a rln .i.*1 mel ~'C:&Wlt. i.J »t .. be~~tob~.ight.'M.e"r:I~•• .~ ) ~il~ b Ii .betnen -tI.tion 11 ~beLioo m~l u tlla.J(p+ 'Pi'bGl~ ~. ('~h bo 11.nd Y IU'e :r-.iunal ~(!il!!l~lB~ IIl"e hIA: i0 I w.23 (Jilbu (0) . the ~t.1~ kI ..Jfh P &ll . tlLI tl . fmM () (.. .tW./iII tho ~h"'NI Dqt.t.rn.

.L PoOr my 'J we '" &:r.u~ aggrega WI! h.:.h y eo "Ilrie'y of . HI:fI~ l eq~ r.. t.uJd llide JU:!i(IIIl I I"Ig .s ...Ir '" .1: Imrnban.TI~ t. 3..~3)..-_I +~ And.. row el~ of reAl nu or q uadr.. iI! 61111 fleg&lI.. p". roughly. il:l~ b1 ~ .~ ~ ~ > 8 .otl rnbo wh Cl} Lot.lL ]lDe~ "A~IA -<. t.~ob. iI=I . ~tjOMt t..3.ho:roIi Itl > j lIBt fgund ill irnpoa "too.t. ~ -:3ta ~+~ -3.. I:III..'I (OJ' an.DI1 II .. IJnd C.Jtie Su very speciaJ thes PLlt it.Id i U ~(Jrs (El.&111 rid :Now i~i& ~ {.a"e con ..rI'I .. or :) 81' > ~url. kI ~=:b+f p:rorA of be h!. 'CI jJ ~>b+& 'lIppD1M1 i( Ili~ g tto:ot.".t COn tJ.i ..t+ 8 L. ~ -oon~ Tho ~h~-b. Fill'" if d[..h ~rithn\etim.. . ~>!. Mch :r.SI to III~ 8 And.u.5Q HI!fiC!I tbN'e ill m. be o~tij'tt.3{+a.wj)~ T'b.3.0 ~~ LAnd we mie:bt M'I'I!I it wch tlu" ~ . i ~ . o~'b~ is ..:J ~ I poMiMe -.1millUiy '1-1'1:.tilm .. G1bill:r ~ I!n'~ ..-nIl rm.o...

I n~!!l"bet Ji ~h~ no'lll'4 how to .l:fIt.. "o.tIsted the di ffereDt cd iD ~ e oontinoum. this number '"' i!i not t.pplieo. t. such. to unit-yo eq 1Jtl. circle b. positive how.and tIM! fMm "il. xh!l.ill length is USIIt\! ly been sh n t ( ough tbe proof iii uniAio.g 11 niqtre mG"1l t a lied e to the cq uatien WtN ld be In tlhil.. i~ the eireu rerenee or such II.rtoe te. Th.e.1~] er oth iIi!Il.plie!t Kprt:SliQDof plied (th h tohe o.he eqnation W' th in gral eoefficienta.aa Dent..MD t. ~t.. Irrational 1G) which eannot be nc. .1t.. ~.) tt-. UIII ilia dec is eq 1 to A J ~ i.1"" cubic Lbi . real very !!iI (iii nnmbe espliei kinds list.t. QU r or e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I I .

26 "A.'hese is formed by ~lUdpl8B.!itA :SUS OIfible to d the A variabJe. nOC-O!EI a pOiih " Ion '" IS b num IJ. A ~l In:lltead not. 0 eonside Inlly d decimal . e L'ily be J't4l "ned - ~ggrega aggrt:lga in slate i.

uJod. of the r t.'tI.rl.1'1 . Of ftal L and (i) }XI'5GS!ing the foil ry num er two C or tbe t)1pe eona .i: 1ft up!.i. IIIjl1c~ I h~ mlllr. i.:It 'LbON '0 00 II e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I I .e Clnly 0 (ii) (iii) IIlO't a. bml:lI. numbeFe. II.lJ}' 'W1.L V&R[An~ 6clJ& of " Iife: pcli he week. i:llli~ • 'lZ'hll) prtt!r l. . ~l.e ptd.he poaiti"e: rn . tiMS ber! (or of t.'I'Oi.!' In DfilI!"!tlnd'.meil i~ 51 G-U. .iMl~l num ben.(r.

Qnd ember t.cJ L er to JL H thn.hat the .or the to R. L.l number in ntl m bert :&OT.'28 au:mClt. thOM.-. On t [r t. bain and this i8 p1l.r----- .noh. it i.a.OfIC&S com pie by saying thiU ttl a lacked.l'lly rurth. t. bekUlg t L~:IIJld ietion. other rnem her.-om the ratioaal thE! mtion. iotl8. OC:CtU·.he. TtJi:!! that the COllBidera ~ to . ~lt might have l'6a1 numbers woul The diEien~o.l' On t. II .l nUm ($lyin ~ .king only the l' L.e&t 11~and Ii greater. In ih i8 by h and B..a.y {J. foraDltom1. nguage o lBI B FDlJ'Dllm I II oou II _.l nDm b of :11 I'1:!U lLU mber. is 1:.Q..y happen a must biI!I also 1M F O"f lee.e 0 of OO.1m bar.nple1.i u member of L.h!.n w t. are ra.etim III ig a ra.hc nu of L and less Ieither ellIS!.DI1 .ppen t. f. Any BIE'.8 U-U~ 1'b U3 in any lall. Fo member ") t..lld ~ f'otm a two t&:!e& to di!~ It mm. me IH if 1IO eont.'!.t. h!. e.t it i& the i\ mm.o.

n..:. ibis to choose dOC8 ~'be i..o1.ill t. beloDg to S. I I .I. "d tbat . ". posa-ible. I h Dum bers. defined 00"" I the pcsiti ve r in . Ill.I1l1mher" or or gemnetry hieh W~ •..IlILI bri1i b.con- e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I Boow.

VA. 9. .0 e ~f + 3} nUI'8t nMin. origit'l.91 A [ t (Li) k$ true. is fw th ed in a book t:h '" t.fl~Bt he!! of analy:!. nil I ~n~ 1~ 1. U ir Q pl1i1'U: ()f o. i euy 1...I!I bleh fuflo~ illus if1~ra.o P long! ~ zm n FDlJ'Dllm IBoou I I II . phs. this intornl.[i~.t.l'HI l'&U th.hH way we can dEl e fl' . all belo K('!'11 point of rn larien of S rna Tbe u~mples .. of ~ ~ poln&.e.h. t 1.l n\U:n eon (E -~... not.1. pni nt. b Clf 8. bll to it.ts 1111 tile 111tqtrs.· E1 in e place ni tdy. .I!J of Un! .l!l!l"ItI'8.t.loJllll P(1 Ir .. FM"j 'W en 'We M'Y8 de tmintd . 1 ~ti"'lI! polcb Wei. In. tI ~ II int.mding t"i t not s. JIE01tE~'L S oonttWl:! ~!IMaud in a inU:rf.!al (~ 11)..U m:Jl.h. In t ~ t:iI&I!I we Dt or accumul Uon of It. or If !I ootJl!list.i1. please. roe Iv one...11.hi&. E + )!. contiii~ gs 11::1 8 &nd da nO~ coincide be a mem hBr 8 or not. !:If" t.'Um!(laJ~ S.l...REa r...11 • Theorem.1'8 11m with.f.e. '1' gt.'hoowtt Df i~ Ll:ie.b ~ . r U !J 00I'I:mta. E6 ~E + 8).If 8 con5i_.e j)fj~J) L'LOO. r of S and do Il~t eoind~ i. IJI' 1.. inbs jB of the: IDmit int. III theorem wh' !!ii auily ded u uiee later. Ii D A in&. U:.

pei t ~ . &n. Or'" :M of LN pDiot. Til PJi 3. I .'I..6 ni t:t of 8J a. j . . (I) f " f -.1$0- ekmp to ~ . 0.. J • \l"'N.i y [n 1 e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I I Boow.f + 8: to R• so that 'the nbt. 1..IlttI!! I:I(~ of III UO!Io uI Zj ~ IJlI to bt..~1!!1 ion of Sma..11 'VR.ill' an inti! 'ty Df po nts of 8. uli!l M. IS.. I Me i.UI !XI nd i _ It.$ueh that.:..8~19] n.y of iIXIUra: eel n(!ide 'IV th .. h n. .& l.

. :t.....o .e "PI' r:M. t tp tti ti CIIl-& O.t.~a.e llrlm'bma • u.~ n t. l (1) I) "h~ 01» D be fIlL in "Ulilil i..).. (.!lI'la...eqI:l. Hty tl:.(~).~ -IJ.\i:iJ.t 1111 LI.G'} C t tn i. tbl:! io.m 0Jt. nl1llllber..a. -{dr-.. be wt'iu(:o io •••••• .i mLl ..tio._•.j.•••••• (5U- ••-(ilh -...If raw.11 V'W"IMe m i!I.:..l1U'. +nt"' ::'.t wh 'U r. 11-1 in (I~ or I~ - 2: in (4. e zm n FDfZ(I!Im I I I T Boow.32 !:i +"'+~"'. I .

uli d DlIr:n'i:J -6L~ ~.. D 0lil+11 'I---~:-F--I.r---:-:.r.he.I-'----<+--=-+"-..II i. w'honre . too ".10....y (1 ~Hl + a. - [f>idontlj' {l +r. "IIrMnl lit...D . .. iclet!til..b COftffi {] t i d ••pi l 11. H JPt a! ~. wh~ l4. Me 4~~ 1 I FDlJ'Dllm Boou I I .Ii' .H.p+~ ./'l - II. A.enry Lhu.4 [1!1~ I.+..neq. Ik.. . J. Jp +J. t. a. ••• .) -.II(It. lekwat 4I'1l lUll III t .A:! 11.

r .fU'I!I ~ of rot' " (. .. ] . e In n FDlJ'Dllm Boou II I .. ...~ [.red.. I . !.n lIJ1I Hee I)da:... l-. 'l"lUII\ dl. D my "11 .. _I' 011..rl of IJjll.) !8. ..UQ.. ~r IIltilll[cMK:.JG.I'Jj.'-0.J)UJ" _ lli~I4"H rcq r .Mot.. l' I I ) or Ihe rt:lrtn be (11110.Q'.

. \bll(1. + m. t.. or II.+~ ia impOott!i 1:1.+iS.I!IM No It. .i M [f Mit:hllr II. b.i~ 0Il..M.1. _. ~.... e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boo II I .f'J.i!!J.~ I. +.. . il.b 1!11 ~ • . j of' III ...' - -.. a. .t" + ~ + '. .3 ( -~. w.'IId ~ """-d+l!'~ +f .!' ~ lI.:rI..01" ... _.~ ~= Ii§..baI.'2kU( III tt.'1"~t.t~ =0..'rM -~~=O..Jt..l.amo. s:.1.... bil:h gi. 1l11J1:h tb. by III- IUId i..- 0. . llIq~tion Uu.•..II LhI!I mLi~&l I)um~ fif/6... or..."'d +&J!)-III.J ~ "I"bG 0111 f (.L tb.-!&IJ.

3G Shnilarl . 1I:IIL <+_ .\.1'. buli!l A i& t'ba ~jN..!U (The.rl""" ~ lVriloll..l ~+$ IILmi +. ef §14. hctt Ih& a's MId "' Z". 4&1:'+9=0...+~-0. .n zi .] e zm n FDfZ(I!Im Boou I T I I .K..7!- Hcnoe .t'J. 0' t)~~] eqoaJ. We t'hna 01: ~ jl I'&. VAIUAnuS .. 3L • •351. equalilID l.t.

H. tip.UA.J'oII:.I.. 19O:1} e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I I I Boou I . thet.! . . wll!lfiM ~J/f.

rel 10 bcLw n s: and !I: ao P and ol: ale kno'f111 Q" ~ also klW~n. fiuppo!Ie thB.%. su pp08ll!l gi en. z. RIABr. we migh t.DI1 ·-·TI---- .UPPr.l:llm pIe.y fro fixed paints A.~ B~ g tw sln\ight I inC!:. b' ro an fI.&es "!I lohE! v Iud !I ~ h. ~ed 8$ 8.\ A. let u. or .&C se ted geometrically by es 11. I foraDltom1. Bo Q .. tlot by means of I'l bu by means of a geom~ de mine Q wbon P 18 iOIl ctien which In \hese ci:re"tun!'tt'W~ of fundional dep hap the most i. or etennines tha. The idea.t. re I1tion which we to e:J... the l (I the poi nta P::t.n Q in f!:perlldC!nt but eonne.cte y It. of these . d ClUOD+ Su ppose that ~ an ceutinuous real varia which we may. ation bc:twe~n wul" for 11 ill in.noh. r whi h y ill given e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I _..II V A.ES 20.'IISC· tb:::Lt c:I.p . or.t.mporta y Ud ()J~..!!lU PPQ.

8 ..j. But e eonclear t to ~bey t. He . Thar.ILJC:hZl!il~ l.d Lel.: ron-eapcrulio.1 i~ sorno relRtion bm.1:1 ftn).o.0 1II.ial to a.rru::~ri!:l llewing exunples wil C'Dt.{i).. rll netien. 0. f\anetiCMl ""lI!Infl)l.. ." fi 39 c.z- or .~ ••. hat to Olny t'&te cormpon.hat t..20] Ca!IC t.C of z is caBed a anu. rOf "..:ioo.Rl. trLI.y-~ or 'Is or 'to~I!.are . ~I.M. vaJ 1"'i!!lAt.Do t09. tho val1JC! d x.hella~ par cui ) of the moss impor~lUl.I . Lb." y.' '1M 'r3o '="" of J to tbli!l ir $ jill 1.y. m~ tlnl:Mill 'Pi'CIlIkI' be.

l1lM ~~i ve 'l'alutltl of 1. pr'l..! n\l.btl . i!..tion ~ tbo t.a.-.enl (1 iii- PM ~ 1.e of II!IJIJIDI. dd:o ftI r a..U!I '" ~\'at! d~1'" ¥l'u1m' I!~ .... ~ n.: hOi &.a (I praba.nn: 1!:IJlJmina .8 nil!.to I bejng ~ T.'uW' d!l!lTlli!ld . "'" ...bicb il1ll.1 do Gf II . M tlhl ~~i T i:ll I!I oIW'L e 1..00 " 0l..l'.40 FU:rtC'fIONS 011" It l'O.~ I'd.J M' of .'I.Ilumlllj 1.001 pte IJ f B. .ISI Qt d!:RJMt for ~ wll.m sa.::ern'! r.. .i! 6I'ld loe. n(Jril!dfl Ttl. n..'{i:ma. cu ar...$!11 ~ Jt III pal't.iclLw ~Is. 'S'l..IlIe.ti\'IC. H ula which U}lf".. rfO(lU1 clMlic: 'too & bOO.oul.7ddQ~ j I!I .DI1 III .PQ ~IJ"'_ ~ f~ iJ....: OJJ ' ne. ddM'd for ~ • . !I 00 dli!taned.-r thorn' Um. .flD11'ahllD fIJI" Depth")!.t.lll!. (t).. of l..(:te~ltl!c (1).h.:m.I ... 81 from i'.)' f&'ttnW!..ll.f1 if 0 ball &t tirtLfl r.l'dl'll~ I7W1UJ k!' " il10 N'- or ~ .e.~ob." = 19. btJJ~ ..-1 it "". . i r).tjl bal'l. icb • j e I zm 1)IFDlJ'Dllm Boou -. .

1l1li fUI" 10 u:~ 6.~es.33 P. 1M tt. UB b..z:L y by r d beln 11'--+---+-- thep09 nt In being Pl in Fig. " P mc.!lb.a1u. Let defined ". 1. £: f.o has ( point. Ta. Czj ilL . The natu ill !ltntecl Q ~ QY 0 f jQ. dll:f1Llod N j" LRe: tot.W() lines at prod 5..k1il mplete ~if! e t./ P .41 aJiI. ! . di1j'~n C 1111.h.0 Iae Llr.LaI~ be). ft. ~~ i'ruttf gethe:r the zmIn FDlJ'Dllm BoouI I of r.y tli. We g the . J 'It.IIl D jlw t. 6.

Y eqUIJ. Md Py t.h e loeu.e generAlj and ms. in c an $. An equation of (c .I: of .l polyno + By + \-e any nu!).. ions...he te.CJA.. ror ""err slmp1e e A. )..h of 'his tion \Vh ieh a gi . J.. (21 (3) eooy to t &. Gcome We l!I.hfi. ~.y e tAe 0CtLS 01 ~ p~ ~(%1 y) it il m· !I( ) I~ ~iUUtl}n if ~ ~ 'OCUl.i. Ul e lin I) FDlJ'Dllm Boo II .•.lJ.1iat' 'fi h one or other or t." :t .o prov of tlRy ldraight li~' enti n a rew urthn eaamplea or i b. b b~ .r i!'tJUO. b.t 0 . enee CI 'A~ g.-. all l . .) of YI •. h!1~ gate of all thue poin'" the lohi!!.uothm'" made of e tball u ary in sueh a W>l. points ~P' ~P"~..H'f =t.lM lJ jpr . GCrIU" J n.42 vallie.vraph Y u a stmi!}M 1~4.s a pro[ 0111l.11' ~I I~ i5 eq ualt)'" h ighe.m.. t:.en in ~ej(t·boo wbere ate y fi:xed umbera ~.. (. Then !I is. ~ 8:.. . By + G~ (1).-1 + (y.&1 C:Ij. aDd :J il C&Plble of belDg re ul'l. ea3Y t.y be BppUed n u. We..str gtDlE'ro.!I!.t (or '1. This :sc or t..n. .. wbje-h ~~= aJl the chor teristics (1). 0 is tM 9~1"rnllq«4 + C is t... .tml!i 'loC'u ui r.h ••••• by Q equat. iu nil i1 loy .~a!'i: of ~hiftrB or degree ~..h mo.e ItC\ I!IU ppal!ie t.1.

.. COI!I (J rol!pre&eRUi nera 1 eqI.. 0 a nts. b..I 1)9] ..ncb 1:Il..~. 21..11)1111f' b (lDil In. a&IIin:ming COT.ilID 'bBlwee.l~~kIt. angJe thePJ ('I ve dirsctioe y~ j fl... :1'18 OF ua~ion . "Uhtu~ Z'lll1Im. (J hoi 2" (meBSu it.n~ e Inn FDlJ'Dllm 1111 I I!oow.&fj~tiODJ her diseussion eometry..jIJ I.J md.<':II - .8.sjNP-y.~Q. frnm the (~ g) e'ljl'iden !/.. .! ie . eM:.elll S.'re datermiued OM"".00. Bte•• R= of the If OP In w lengths of hlll. I .M .D:II iG oIIU:t dell! ~11. ml.9:sin 6':1:: ~ t.un.a'" u..:.ion cf pIIIitI 'WI or '!Its'4I Li ~ l~!lwd!..U r 6 pJa~.

a z ~ LhuSi the give .lu~ ditlo a.t. or itG e.ions.41 rtpretl. shown he dn. (I. n l. (.n. Futiher I:iUO • and wh· folio etyof pblcal "W ill ive t.Ily be: rOllnd by do il'n."aph t.he ible types of of thll wheu a•• aw ••••• a!" !.hu \hey Ii. 1). ell ~pecial pDLIlt. e g1. G)..et1nacs by gi ing ~ valuea and eale to g t.II 1).If the reader ow ill will be led to ron form t.he !irnple powt"#'" is 1)f two distl Fi~~ 1'!:!t m = Then t .i ".lll a.". I'l [u as.1lt! J responding valli flt.d t.hi to lie: (In lohe pp • ft.'f.aJu on t.he grap like r.hBt.1AI n the ph (0. reader a beuet runc.n'tilt1on .e when she inavita :v~ he e zmIIn FDlJ'DllmI II!oou .l poi ~pee ".

he more prob!l.9)j . but Fig. though 1(. ee. e zm n I DIJ'DIIm I!oou . nu:t.23] ted pc aU..on the ClJrve.. will .

. that ins' or gm . 'to m. tlllM 110WlIU4"M f t"iZlI!:I 0lil 00lJC~ c!\..&: or~ SN-+t y.en bf 5~l cd in.i b IJlie e zm n FDfZ(I!Im I!oou I r I . ~ t'" f01.~..y tb8 use of I ter on.f(lJ -0lil +(II/a)II.

r IlC~ for a. sivu . i""_ 1~l~ 0.I (Z!1 by ihe ordiL. 2 all dll1:niflll for tb QD ....47 wbkh ooctioo &. j'f)l7P..

Dr ''''''e abnll e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I Boo I . titJn-n. ~ Qnd tfl reduce IJ ~ O'r quotilPRI.[u ILea or .c:.I 'U~OlI.l 'll!'ll:II:IIMn. :Cor- 'W w~h !:IILdi r-.tTn t[m.i:I. I)f 1 r."t~OOtl. Ii!:ly h.ion. U:le \'lMiiiloble ~ • even m(lp: 1bct usc axareplcs.a.!! -n wh' iliNla.II.. fIf t'''mli!l/~ifJfi P &00 Q arB mpijtlll:'lIltion .t:I.L ltd. the: iIXIomoi.." vr..

.JON"S 0' R:I!!. o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm I!oou I I III II lin 1 of roet..b tl:ak:'h ib~ gc: ~md ful' r=l. ithlJ ~ . C.1~~~ ~+(l IMIgII..Bl.E 49 6.n. porUu'l el~:!i of I1. are e:r lieit.irl:R and ~ a.i . !BCiI!I Y= If(~ - 4 {.umb ftmcti 26.e ... im- ne ti ~ finite """" .foI. .lgflbra. ~.ny ill~ m:dd be nat..1 .!t. 0"".~ob.. ra t. am &. 11.Fi.o..(1 ~ fur 1$1- CLtI -to n..DI1 .ti~· ~f.g. J::qJ 1h:: fUM • n&.

. ~<~<bLt b&.r----- .y thtu ~h +R~ \fM:ro will ea:.~uod :5qU!lrt • t. all \-:ll:ue pt. it is defia f{. ~c.[11 ~!it. (1)1 y ~"eriry t • Rw. But.lf 8-lStil. 4~ i! und~fi \·D1u~). :a.. (i.4% D~n m .noh.~ differs ". all III '01 Ueril nctien :t of ~.iw '!J -. I:IIS lr XlII..B) t~'lJ. in the $' t41:t of o lBI B FDfZ(I!Im I I1I I!oou II _.!I two .ndli readu ideNid lSi fonn.he In the Iues or ~ fi.D"Yeni !It til re in W' h ~ 'I:!&ge k! funetion who:se tw The ar will function . It· ~y to tMO or ir or hl!M eq t.loIl.DI1 . 4 . ions m. .t.! ..ious.•••• ..-. foraDltm1.J{(~ .

t m'" 1M plici'ti indHd & not proof here.t.~G) 2. It 11M t111'0 ]f. nm. ] III II) FDlJ'DllmI!oou I I -.lgebr..t. I algcbTAi~ d iffirulc to p any m.U.j1 It ..DI1 . for t.i1riD1I eq ua.~ob.b I!I PI'OIII!M i. ~~r.6.a • ~ we tcntr.LiQn.f til Qr.tOlulion mmpl~ thcvroveru 01 I I I on .n.t. en wbich Comal the 1 inee .-3 r t.

I l:I0...ctioo bu t. tbAI.I!I 0lil rY. l'Iu.rigooom~try..An.u.i kunia of function Arno. SUI them.J(ll oacb iJf Lbo fw1(!ti. d!lfl:nm b j Urma But tho proof 'lhAt -of $ i. [u .ion.d~:t"u:J i~iIIru I101PfOII. . .y with "bell' moss i • 'T~ . The cUr t.nn U (unction tallNi II dclined .52 3.I [H81"8 y- Ccrn. Find &lgobr rtlz+..i:l!ic 1 arc not r& i.i...og 'libese 'We partieu 1L\f]Y into E.::d! fUl'1et.. bE !lZfln!lMled flLnetio:o . &11)1" !MIl M$1.!Iidcr tb ±z.t e zm In FDlJ'Dllm I!oouI I .atiug • """11 fI '1.mple CMlIut. ...AJ) ela.8.cIl &l gtI bmi.otL.ion!.h!:!rli!l 1\1nct. Will: 'llJ.wo 6. nia tIoC!:g4c.o ti-. tlm Wo: 'W(. e Etilllin.i'110 a m iil.3 d.

. tor.. o lBIB FlllJ'Dllm I!oou I II -.. the "'h "...' iell ~iJ~~·bet.~ob. 1 y--l :A.. Ft....l • l+ Dm .:1 .a.~./(.. . ..~y-l . h/J{c.1 "llli:~:RiI: i4 . F(~) .... 2 ] rtTNCTIO:":-S 0 .t l~p+ ~ ~1 lI'hen -l/l2t .i + 1M or O».!!. 1. ~ UIA: cu:r"'~ y thl: grl1.lII1 I .c. F . $)..1: ~ Md.... s.~ d -i:00I!I: )J(p + 01]) ~ -lllroaJ..hen: B -s.

ill V&w! los ICl1j'ill W Chilw t ... 8.. or ~..+p.... 1) i!J II.) ! r~ U e. jf f a.. .fI dofi~ lJJb bl-&iad fuc:cr.f(m be +".h p!!rimi fnnat.•. lj1!J.._... •od ~z) '5!! ~ . j~ ~ rut &U -ruues p 001 ~ otrJJ ~ . RJ 0\ "81..-o) iDJMlEl. U'$ 'l11'1'" Ie. Dr Z...ill! . . v11. -000 • d['CID..tQ( f{x) 'oUI .t:&in (1 14 .bM~ . -.:!1I~. ...r)II..-o. 1ElLe. I(l.. ill: to&~+ IJ~ !iI'.~ '"' I. sit! {IJA'1 YD (l/~'...xlnd&i rtmetioo ClIO be I(O)-. { llin' -..bowa 1 IC gr&fI ~f!1 • i:o:lin d tho (!I)'I"bt.. and er riO t:[olJ ~ IJ th 1i. {If s ....AL 8.1:9: [u (tOaI"' (1 ~..•.furn bsr oar Tl:Jall the eqwr.lJd 'b II.i 4.. l ~OMI jt...aid""red U..l:i.. (II. .) '~:i..I.r-'+ . '3.~ ....+n.( J +-..

er1! (. i IIbo'llfO j It 'Fig.l.r) d~crlaI 1:.r:J1II at MDStau m tba ~ ~ b..ABlA8U::S -. ~ am '!lot rot' -1 :i. \'.RUI.\' Lha~ m U)..r1!1:h~·hNid ~C!IiI.:1 r an.MiDi~ of tr&nlct!adentallb in II:t J' .e CIt ~. 1M il:l !lumbar JIll c:l6i. 01.f""" DI~ " .. balD . ie ~ .~11l'b..a.~ t'be ~Lltl._ s-«: e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou III .iOJJ (I} 1:'\1 j\:n:u:t:i Iln md lll:e:!I to to ~CI 1!If1U0)0rI't. "r8"lI.

.t- e. en \b. ca8I. 10 t_) lfS 0 REJLL V Fa {n (Fi. 'm'b~ .ttj. e zm n FDlJ'Dllm II I I!oow.56 3~ J)lj (.-cJ.11.]1 (rom t tt r..] @ a.hlMt IIhoold tt i!l.tI.t p.j IJ. . [. 4..n. quite to A1 wl:lI!do&!:~ 'IiI'.io:A.:. ~ (r.1I and prime to ~v. xt-['~l \. -(~JfI ~ 'I • I + ..i ror ~11 flmc. IF..pb (mIl' far. .ht gropb Q( tlil 'IWrd .J c:.....or ~ "" I td ~III 1t~W III 't.. of tDLlnt.t U..l 'bJe ro~e:t. . j J is oik G:ri td t.[. no 1pt)Qi ~eqll. It.b!lll:'. :cQ :tI! I'y pt.... koo'll'D . ~ .t...iClD~ Will tI~T'u'b d Lffi::runt.ll.II ..! vtt.!i"] z r~J}· ( . l3 d.. [. Y&l. ~ is.JLl'l't..J.. curee.i!lhI.r~ the th!finiiioo Clr a. i!II t(Io be "lwIt 'i1te pl_. J are\ui Itl"kll::r "rid . .( or . . ~ l0t ""hare.. .~mp~. U~n TIle &~. Llil I th iIjI.II . tIL in~01' ]!:n ow 11. (6.1lM . ~..R) 1 rl\ {\ '" i..

noh.c::1... ].. foraDltom1.-.s..r i3:ql.i9] llJ. f%.h 1..s" lfI ir .. ..tian. ilo not..Dtatod..:I".... ~"w. ..atl I.. dJ~t...I.~ ~itII or two ~ or IJ'O. 'I • 'I I... .... J''' C1. ..' . I .... {for po:!I or . • 0' JI(Ii:nt. . .:D....e.s.:.l&l tijOira Thu Q:I U:m Iie '. ir p to wi"t. I "'_ . 6.." ill ~nL~ Durn -of po. ... .. .bo lIlytJ it.. . Let Y=~ ". ~ e:r&p'b. ~I .1 . -'1 ...i 1 poin. Tbe pIIlio ~ ~ht 50 di Lhlll ie. 'l"be 1 . hI l~ bo {R. 18. te......a. .......d..M.: .a u. r 'I 4 I • .t... ooBl. .. .!:" if (}< z Il!IfgO PI.. u.... .al hct.. roond y _.& 1.:t.DI1 ·_·'TII--- . . • ::- -..' l'Ir rl"· ': Ii.loo 'PI9..e ifI. r'l - .~~bl fOal:i. lirlt..·bet m.... iI: Dal.ta . 1 -herl il!l r. .. r -.. Lt. .'t.!:. pOio'..J'Ltm"t.. A:. r . r ~ 'I. I ... .md._.. . + r 'I • _ . ._.!I.... 'I . : ->.

root&. inte....r tbo ppkllll of ..UdiOM it! wit'b ~- nLJ._.. ... . expressed C~ -•.. L_ _ .n B pI... '1"1'".. -.nmown form (0'1:) =..(1. {I}.• --" •...]~ T 0.. .. ie&lly ....... . or REAL [u II"hdar u.1} I1z:1mpl_ mar be :llCll~...... .. . 1'..DS 30. -.....r~' ~uaLi[)D i. ._ ..m.1I' TWill circle ~hO&(]...(l)~ nre eMY draw.!ll btt of ... amw inl.... I __ ..

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm I!oou I -. OZ~ a.8 to the CI r to t.DI1 I . ezac of th rrotO the. u posi!. ~.ry~ f ai I tlh point.h relatien b .II As .A ntdyti. (~~ ~) er I. ag'ilin Rf. sing j.Aggregate or 'Where prco6! of eee pr . IIJld utt. boob (If Ge:ome F' eD lS 8. . 'ine grliphica.!O!Ii r..metions OZ in .iv same as and y 'Ir'lI.~ob.:30.31 ) 'EAL VABU lmgth!.

21 .t:.r of ach '\Iah. = !(tc) to Clfpn:: t.. and th 0.!$. toj(f&rY t.. .l"!t M I"Jl n (I) R inc! udes 6 eq llat ial form o a uneti and !/.ay ~ (l'Wn N!8S !I 0:11:fJI1t::itly " an Blga. We . Yi~ by t..(t).e~d mes point..hls nota ~ + ••••• tion (1) prwe. e zm n FDlJ'Dllm OOU I I I .~ . as 'when sin. ues -or Elu:h pLloi.hat t n. S y= ~cd to to 8 OOl!"'Up ng ''OJ. :y . a oo~ \Ve b + bsin'~ which it."oid of et hod of 't'Cprc!! .20.J(FI..! n 11 defin I(~.M te gegm~t:Q. ftm:nula more F+ 8il(Lplye It.te in e case in ieh:J is ex ~ 9i of :z: by me s of & r.d e (or exam pendente of 9 pon ~ It· !I . of ol: Joel.ppropriA.-iJe t.If e vel')' often to doe with fu ~ at re at.he curv pe.60 {n 3:!.C).. m leo.riab!e de. Tn uteful. . n. ~.y) Ilbjocti h 0 r lhe fl1 net.o.tLk of "he loeu of the poi r. .$ ~ 0 01' ~ Y' .a: and !I rare ot.l :s.'IS !l I!I~C the S~I'I"'_' A- m.. chon j c~o~ eMed.iL)n~ bt or ineon venien to el':p:r th i form.l. '!I) = 0) .h rLU1e~ be re~ed a oikn third and W. I~ for e to be im of %.

'I'M. on t.J'j 'i) j 1-11 ~ ¢ l\"~t locIi Z'lll:ru+~ IUt ~. dirtct rdatiotl be~ een ~ fi d t~t. 61 ointa whic: obt. 'I'l::U!I tow ID eq . L'It +1" = al~ being C 8 EnJn~ d 't X'D!.lLt'ju. a· g1e c B..g.)1+~ (.I11L s= +d..GInC Y..L. ~ et. pPIPI! fur over ud O'&l8r in. 33. I1.It. Qnly D (lj11S CI r dil!luUlOO from a fix fundL\meubll lin.btt of i::IICIl . ita rdinatea P ili DIy l:i@lClng'! 'kl th led Q.-e.l!in th Jf we.ioo 4.!1 :pcin'fol IJf In"Winom.nil ..Ia r:J.nll!: Ql' h ition un only be 6 fd by I:J pcsit. by ke he line n.OVes al ~Ijrf«lom. {II} +.ion i n. . ~ (ZI . e.Cl9 II!! thlll oC:ur'l1ll!l 3. Loci iD IP o fundamentally de am plea are the p A particle whieb II. T~ lIDluti ~e Uft of :& I. .) t..UI!!I 1(II .Ito . I dire t.@! determined B pIM.f' pOL ] Thl!l =0..) ODed irtb~Ellj.:3 ~ 33] ( .ltk:lll4l . aU y 10 diftue:nt \Ill fo~1d ~ o« ~ .....curwc f(1.:!i ~ ~ . y). r. Tr:B.i be 'CO rnple tAl y fix d by Qf C by .s lIy i~poill~ ieh moves edam .

" =~ . La.u!tll lIi"I!I DaY!).A.e' a ll}a"ne CUl""i'll ~ 1!..l:Un!:! t.arW. • . e eqn Ian shsll II. . ge iI!Imliae :ao unction j (..y -e\l"ide lit.t1j lura § w~ as the: standard of t..GIn rq_ tc!~ . I5Iphel"e d IlL P two eq lIation~ of e: fo 6l'8t the be a. vtt1 bit 1 DI::wLAintd .. .II. Y) .El.he CUI"'I. be..wl!e:i tt ill: but..grete to ad trG (or.Ii..un A. .tI.y or .tI :r~icullY' diflll:t~.lh~s). ol. And ns .t) . .0 .at by huo eqlu1ti0n5 cia.If) of t/trH ariab!e (OL· r of ..DI1 I I . A ail IS in • 00 of a.. it.lU"V'O J(~1 1 (f(~.a.Y bu reprue ted by t + D = O. [11 ma.a e:nd'aC:1fI OD ble W ~~t & Moo j. i" (.~ob.Or RUt v . f Ioe~ rtI.O!I (a) ill -.

l! ~ &:be RltW"...ri. w~ Clbt&i.#1) ~ Uld. 7 Sho" thai the ~ J in_ JIIWiIIIi1l8 r..UIllliIrn r :J.. A ~ifI Es.. iii I.63 do lb~ rel'". :OJ p.. tl:u! l:UQQtI cf tho PI tlilll Bl to U!.e. mutt.ttaota-=. .n ountoliRd ic:h !Well Ie 0D:tI cI Ilt tb 6 IIIJ..bat -IIIlly li~ 001:1 co. and let. oil 'be (~bich murt.6 l.jI. e zm I FDlJ'Dllm I!oou I I I .o. - or f(4 rnund r [r II ro~ / a:f~.lm d \hI) -.. " .u a).:m't." .

:. e zm n DIJ'DIIm I!oou I II I -.1.od. I' .18.IH: ti. v&h.DI1 II .on o! ~ L' '1[(1 of I"cll~ Ilh. tb!: I'i..1!I of .~ob. It.

ll 'PiiJ or a. e!.o.T} jtlo Jt f(J!il=/ --/(-4 m.1...lII1 I I . SolV(] the ~'-=r:- 1:'Q. '3-1 ~.'liait.&'h1J-'ol' t.i 1iL~ tIS rr:JDW be e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I I!oou I I -. 4.~ob.

7Hp.iI::al rUild.l ~ is ratitln&l mb r.OJJ or th.:! 0( ra .ula et~ II!' f) or tb.eond dlgrelB -hl -J l)th docrt* wbie~ 6._. ~ d. till.:. 11&1.t -beu (JI"alA. 21'i+3 -'1'1'" ~U r-ou. posit.1:+1- . . lJ(IIH]).l!ln fllfJC:Uon.n .fI.9 (Ii) :P-+~n'lR {3J (l-eOlIl1:) eq_ u'"Lio lUll ta..h. is a.bat. 1 ).eb1y.C of tlIe .Q.) &. I jn iii hid:!. .l~ d .~+.+2j~ Allie kI!I If(t 7.AD.00 [It 1tU tb..illl.. l~ll. +&+0.he! 1 In Cb. Ud.iOGO ucs lj4. A II tlllCllSO ceeiI)f.):1111 lf the M~i. rm . t.i..n.)I') ( of t\o!li!I I"&ph of .. If o! 9.r.&t_lIMHIed b~ ~ue'" e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I I III I!oow. .ei :II.lw l j . .. tot' t-hm "a.:¥" 'h«I It 8.~c. i\f1d ". 10 net.Il. graph of ~bll!l ]+[r]1 ·=.s""ICII~ the 11lrm...!:::::IIhj(l +~ the ae:.Fin tabs Un:1 ~ I 2Ctf .n I .:1". Sh of. r poIIIId 1. or . that tile 4. ['l'u-.pli!r 1 • kngtb equal lo bGS to .

is to F'J:J. (. l. tbe. It c&1'I btl Q!M.d tbo (Iirclo " ~1l.rrd.quar(J.i!/1+t = OJ.OWl:! 'r l.'tI Q( Ud.r. o! a".d -ei:r(. aA!I m.i1.b . ' 1.II:Il.mnCftl tl:m:!l ot li:lCIII .DI1 I I .1".~uadraJ:.1lI fi. el DZp1'~Lo APil :rI!mallJlIi EuditNGs frlttWI ~fln'&..tioo. 0lI MIl.' I -"~ob. aM tmo 1l~'nI 'I1'iU ~"""1id the tU®U1fI ~'O'b1etm.. .7 I I Wrly ob-riQ1.le:m is ~ im~iW.ib Cb.a..ia 00 i!l. !I. j" B¥1 don Ii 1..joo~ .b tI COCI mci. i\n.'Ir+. • Starti:nr:l!'Dfll. . Or .m.J:m 1IIl.iSltt bo ~ + 100=0~'ettel1." d!.tiol'i-l.\ t. • &iii tw ~ b~~l'I'Mtli ilnd I ~ 1 . Em 21).o'tolllnlf!Ct:i 'B ILt..:l't. U· t..1I!I 'Mot by II.beIII:I t"~ mi.'l eqWl. i U.D + impillillS n. ~ ~ th"" B. I).nr ~ 1.s~tlD the ~l~ l'I:Iat of .D coolllnl~~ Lhc lir.1 oJ' LDe 0011 t.tio~ of 'rat" or pro1. "0 DIH' IIUrd (I' '*" li IkI • CIrL!S ~ nd.jit:t:ted' • 1:1 VV •'{ '(17 +3Jll) U-3JH n a(l00 ~ ie poi.tI. i!.jldlll m..Dy+C=~ "~ yt oM:!.hoosn tMII.[ (Mi'5t-.'l. .l d:l..t.1110 mn i1'J'. p1'O'rided . TMIII e.~I.iDnral mlmR-r bowe'l'e1' ~qtb 'll'e ~C II.&t. mca.G ~ Il!yj • "''I.II 1M: irr.1 !tLlte Mmbillll. &-et -I.only m't. ~ ..M r. lOI'CIit. l!otCI e et.&ttl'td bJ -12. .)' ElIclid~L' oo~lllll(! • del-!lrllJiDM DB.e:nttI Ilr'fI (. I" J. It..!::-#+ !f + ig~ +.

\0 t.. A(i- eItI or 11.m..v J\lU &.e t4npDt "t.J.c the pl~ hi M im.. J/ p.o.:t.MIl¥' lha.t the if: CW' .d tb.h~ "~tll ml!llQl! 16 le.'BLO A f-1f !LlUl d~'PJ [11 ar the i. ItDgd. meter QA .A[) eI zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou . On ~I ~d We ~t Oll ~ ui.ed lI. 't. QI' Nt Ti1c~alq the ulJi of ) ~ !..J 11 'P n be.rele. n P -oon1ill~'t'1Ict.lll! IJ t."ith UJt: tional.. 1D }.i of ill .rw tM.he.n.lmferalctl of thll!! cil"'dc t dceirn~lL If R ill t. OP ~ Let () 00 th!l n fl. t. C.


oN UDBI!: ItS [n orrle~·to s g. ify it completely. be~.e " hrM.& PQ -de r di$pl4lcrmiSitU' in plane. ~ uirttnlmts we Q e zm n FDlJ'DllmI I!oou . n of Of tL ~ d i:llplaccmcllt.:ee with . But..Ii) • di ctio~ of tb8 di~p by the Mg~ w hie PQ ma\. . t e Jeng .t1tud1l5 of e PQ ) (. \Ve uire to k no : he tI spleeement.. (iii) th.

u 'bJ' D c p..' _••• ' .h o lBIB FDfZ(I!Im 1 iJJ the J"C II I oou I -... &nd AAd ~.s h di$ 1 o . id displaeeme with disp eqU& The mportant. ~ ~ ~. t E!i 6SeI oqmLti.. pla. [~-r. being eebols - If] 1m.9. Eq:uJnl._ .o agree that ~ . pudtipli:cattM oj d 36.WIJI and only if. --eZ) here « i.. t). au s to o two diapli&Ce'ment. y Additio:Q u-t de~itioo..} •• .1'Jl and it.alJS. !uCCCMi ve appli be .tOA then t.Ii nny Rt. y The I"m'QJ"U~ di!llplnce natural t.l nu Thus (Fig..e. th r Ito is clear that t. which ramon !9~5e nt onM..DI1 I .o~ (1) n. tt • [ oil".l.~ob. ••• . 9) OB-.

if qQ.[ +..i')~ i (y+ ) fiAt to Q n :U. :2CI..1 of d~~j d in erdin algebra by th ~ the bvioWlogecrn~tri thro~Sh a chlt. addit!'(. Q ..l11! y')..z'.re.!I. y'] = [If.• or -.~. ' Fi_s. d pm-a1lel J .."l OA t....[)Ugh ~ di.. .. ..[m to P'lJ &0 be L Bot.... nsider \he O~II(lnc:etil of il!e!i of B a :i. _(3)1 n i. .hcn W~ sum 0 PQ and ~ as n 1 rmd pan. tho!!! ~1 of :!!ill~e:ssi"¥e: d' P is to l.. + .anec PQ...10. U~@ln t.... ...... e zm n FDlJ'Dllm OOU I I .h6 FQ+p /Q '-PQ.Y] 1 +$'Jy+~ll·[) s..a e eq 11&1 nnd Ii!IU1Ut point Ql as ber..b + .. eq n .m.) these of detilli t.tio of addition of [. A'.t: Y + . /""" \\ . yJ -.. j + [%.P'{{on • 't.-LiA+ \ \. y] regaroed \Yeo [.ra PJfe. He!1!..Lon_ Ie point Qf 01:+ ~ '!J y'.. k 1 too PQ~ 8Jld 0 plett} the -al1~logre.

0] . . dil'~on OJ d pa nd [3:..mll il equaJilIIl'!i fotlo ju ~h ~ id &'bo~ in tbifl 2.O~ EJELmpl(i) (ii) (iii} {L . r. ir If ..lII1 . ( ~ ~he p l1icle whel"€ j me to W' 'l.... y] ~eir ere is no fur ny nnmber....~ «. ) (y) ~il 8t'" lili.d:Ll'ii!tt lUI i a tM FQ III idli18 Emi tbo ~t.t [0. 'Y+y~ + by tbeeqUA D [~y]+ ~ [~'j!ID ..'t~1} + m.73 e~ [~ enotfd by [~ long a lion..~ob.i D e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou -. .

. . Com It ill." T AC. :!I~b t II. ..Jq+l' .'O Sbot'l' Lha~ .:! . "YI 'PI'herl OIl t.! at IIll ..8 ...s e IzmI n I Df1'D1Im I!oou I I -.beQ • .lII1 I .dC'.~ob.n I.tridlli!n1. il'- II+/J-l ..11~ poi'[]ts in th!. A ().U~~ U ch'. ~ (f}+fl. !tv [lil IiDd coll.! Co r.... =.11.~ aM.

3 was.g Wt. -·1.ClMDenb.irly clear t t.hod 01 e eJt~E!i Wj Y + y1.nt :a.wo t1isp e ham OOD' number. gi\'e thil nable dell it n m Lg bt (LPpelU" [~ J}[ ~i y'] ~ ["1 !".t 08 being '1 [+ in o'hEll' \VOrd we migh t.IOI.----- foraDltm1.O defllliti~ WO d be fut. tnt.fl.!IJ. nnd 'We !ilf"e \'IIhieh iF. 'ID :II. Tho en 1 . A Il that iF. wio. 't. 1 1 .noh. It 19. S13 pit.o be f ny use. IiQ We might r~rxample e J d ue 6C uf th~ prod. ineon vi'nie.y']. Y m@M. mul ~iFIied Ya of t.· J e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou 1 _. b.. it to ~ f Y use. vor men 18.lII1 . W Il101 a)'"3 w t \iii 0 serious 0 ections 't...0 b"iml9: WMt.f 111~ ~bing.. t3.h w er. men t. rea. t. met. In rnct.ile. el n is t. kin ed is tha~ in W 'M & fR.y to def I"l anything 'We 1ke. th i~ pr et . libert.t. the prod~ t -or wo mmte multo i Ir be a w.:36~:]7] mnde . ne a:Lte d11!1p]B. ill by no m the produe t [ Y [%'. jf DY of~ueh ~ P ct.l Dnm hi:! DOt.

2: [e. 00=0 ltiiVI ication 0 Now let InO Thi. - [~ ~]. wonls t.1. 31'] [. til n OB.[It'I.OD. y1 [ ({~. e or .h~ [". !I] ([d:~.vJ + [ t1)[ tt'. 0:0(00 1 (i1i.jl 0 K~ YI.c. an definition mu t.. :iI gguw d d ivision of d splncem .-t.D U!~ are flJ:net.76 ..({~ yJ[ . of ruul . OA . I!IUM :11.ion of~. i.kc.5! \0 ngree YI WI nnd (3) Lhnt th dinributi u.. y] ([ y'] [%"'t ~D .~ [.icn I".:. e zm nII IIIJ'DIIm I!oou I I I ."e. y] (*' ~ y] [~. and 38.n which t.a.[.1-= [. 'rile f~ "definition ~ t. 11~ [a:. ngle~ tho We gles wntt n. u BI OOf) are t~'o aim I k~· th!1~ if eorrtspoJlding i the order i. dieplaeemen to [rn and . ]I] where X and definil..:. obey !IooIlclativ! 13 131 1. [s.. 'l + (~"I y"'n . DC..iI(.

we c:hM~ f§37 er'. =I sigu then !I p!ln 9~ tes in or D ~) 11. Y]. ] We ide' the not.. .lt. YJ.31 3S] j 17 that (J£ .[X.f3 ntly pa :51 and 8 pa'~(8 l= )r= txr aln (0 l! -91. Altered i we ' tm~ X ='"1 Y q. desired . -t p'. Then j Y] . [1 0].

nd gnly if.. j nteg e then defined y = y' in (3)j \\'e :fIrfl: 0 lU - (..78 m 39. Th Tho reuon hltJn~. m. for 0 j .an~ ~o'tJ y J in th of . 'Dl be- t.iClllDf" ~ y-y' i) + (~ !Ii) -c. ment. )1') and II W& shall find i Y by ihe Iytn bo for t e ehoi For the: present t e ROO lUdy f)f wnting [: ).DI1 II . We [X'OOI!ed ne t to deS rum of eom pleJ: nu belt. Positi .:L:' (~+ (~+ In part.'1:". c pin n I h~n~ th. eOJTes~ng_d~ of t~ complex nu to t.. Comp OX wrreapond e.+:VI (~+ -. [.2:] o to a di 1 nat t'r-ImWm ~. til t th~e Lth.I.$um or Th1U~ if..j (~+r) -W1"-( (y +Y" ~a+ and thase equatio confusion ir when :E + Oi lind yJ.. a d isplaeement.he .~ob.

Slii. 39


tltJ of complex by t eo equations ~+yi+(~j

'Wi' I e-A!ily veri fy ttJr- hi

n lim bera: ob



t ~gebm

+ y''':)

+ ,~~)


+ {z:.~ + ~i}

;;;;;; + yt.) (.'I:

":)1 (~+ y"t}=-{~ + Yi) (~

+ ;.)

+ YI) (Z" + Y"~)J~ H~+ tfl)

or t.


eq aatiao:9- bei Dg pl1.\Ct. ooing 'f!q [ult.iIlDB fOI" Lhe

.nd diviBion tJr oomphn: u bra. Th 113 we may de6ne ~ - y1i;

number E + tti such t.hat.
(~'+y',) +{E+vi)::;;%

;:) is defined i;



mplex ruunbet

me rn&tLlL

E + qi + 'll) - % +

And {:II

(_a.) + y'i)(l

~e- Y17 + (~1f +:vEl i ~.( - Y'l1- ~~
So vi g

+ 'J
..... " .._-. (4). .

+ (E -

·Is if % !Uld y' 3I!'e bot.h e n is nlwayE; ~ible; d~vi ;0











l)1iry our



ply by L.
Ilt along


,~d - i
a&. the upshot of n.umberl


ll]e:lt n mben is U. ¢.y cl!, &~ ~
i a itMlf I!oou

tL o




Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.