This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Release 6.1 Finite Element Analysis Software
For Unix Based Workstations Truss, Frame, and Plate Examples
By Andrew R. Mondi Using examples and revisions from: Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial, January 2000, by Keith M. Mueller Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign May 2003 Corrections: May 18, 2004
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This tutorial is based upon Cosmos-Geostar Tutorial written by Dr. Keith M. Mueller in January 2000. The example problems solved in that tutorial are also solved here. I tried to incorporate the strengths of Cosmos-GeoStar Tutorial into this ANSYS tutorial, even though the structure and content of each are quite different. I thank Professor David E. Goldberg for his guidance while writing this booklet. He is a skilled manager and leader. I thank Mr. Raja R. Katta for his assistance. His concise and timely explanations of difficult material in ANSYS were essential for swiftly completing this project. Also, I thank Professor Thomas F. Conry for his advice and suggestions for refining and improving this tutorial.
FRAME EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Define Sections Meshing Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Define Frame Constraints Define Frame Loads Apply Solution 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-7 2-8 2-10 2-12 2-16 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-20 2-23 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-9 iv . INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? Helpful Web Links Purpose of this Tutorial Using this Tutorial Effectively Starting up in a Unix System Default View in ANSYS Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS 2. TRUSS EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing Solution Phase Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing Reaction Forces Member Forces and Axial Stresses Displacements 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.
APPENDIX Working with ANSYS in Unix Saving an ANSYS file Opening a previously saved ANSYS file Printing result tables Printing graphical output Managing your EWS Account How to Access EWS files Deleting EWS files in Unix Creating Axisymmetric Models General Notes on Understanding ANSYS 3-9 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-10 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-5 v .3. PLATE EXAMPLE Preprocessing Introduction Modeling Element Type Real Constants Material Properties Meshing (and refining a mesh) Solution Phase Introduction Analysis Type Apply Constraints Apply Loads Apply Solution Post-processing 5. FRAME EXAMPLE (continued) Post-processing Introduction Reaction Forces Member Forces and Stresses Member Displacements and Rotations 4.
ualberta.mece. Here the user defines sections and outputs internal member moments and member rotations. This is the simplest of the three models investigated in this tutorial. the user should be able to apply its principles to all types of two dimensional beam problems. Finite element analysis was first developed by the airplane industry to predict the behavior of metals when formed for wings. More information about the ANSYS FEA package and other ANSYS products can be found at <www. It is designed to familiarize the user with the basic functions of ANSYS FEA software.hsympatico.nist. This example is useful for those users investigating stress concentrations and other solid mechanics properties. It uses a preprocessor software engine to create geometry. This is also the longest of the three tutorials because it is the most detailed of the three examples and it does not assume any prior knowledge of the user.htm>. Then it uses a solution routine to apply loads to the meshed geometry. Using this Tutorial Effectively This tutorial is designed so that the reader completes each example in the order it is presented.ca/peter_budgell/home. Once completing this tutorial. Purpose of this Tutorial The purpose of this tutorial is to guide students in the Department of General Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through their structures courses (GE 221 and GE 232). Some commentary on the mathematics behind FEA software by the National Institute of Standards and Technology can be accessed at <http://math.html>. Examples of a simple truss.gov/mcsd/savg/tutorial/ansys/FEM/index. First a truss is analyzed. Next a frame is explored. This software package was even used by the engineers that investigated the World Trade Center collapse in 2001. The latter tutorials (frame and plate) assume the user understands certain functions of the program covered in earlier examples. a frame (using beam members). Finally it outputs desired results in post-processing.1. INTRODUCTION What is ANSYS? ANSYS is a finite element analysis (FEA) software package.ca/tutorials/ansys/>. ANSYS is used throughout industry in many engineering disciplines. Canada can be accessed at <http://www.ansys. 1-1 . Finally a two dimensional plate is analyzed. and a two-dimensional plate are explored. Links and design tips can be accessed at <http://www3. Now FEA is used throughout almost all engineering design including mechanical systems and civil engineering structures. Helpful Web Links Another ANSYS tutorial produced by the University of Alberta.com>.
you will see an x-term window (Figure 1-1) on the desktop: Figure 1-1 x-term window At the prompt in this window. Click the top icon. Note: the question-mark icon accesses Help. Figure 1-2 Tansys window First. a session file screen (Figure 1-3) will pop-up. You may need to wait for a few seconds until the graphicalinterface component of the program launches and you see the graphical interface (Figure 1-4 on the next page): Figure 1-3 Session file window 1-2 .Starting up in a Unix System After logging onto the workstation. You should not perform any operations in this window. type ansys. which creates a new window (Figure 1-2) on the desktop titled “Tansys” with square icons. ANSYS NOW.
Familiarizing Yourself with ANSYS The fastest. Zoom and repaint (or refresh screen) commands are very similar to those used in most CAD or word processing software. you simply need to tell the program this information and it will do the rest for you! Figure 1-5 Main Menu 1-3 . y-axis pointing vertically upwards. and material of the structural members. and the constraints on the structure. and the z-axis pointing out of the screen. You need to know the position. It may look intimidating at first glance however think about the information that you need to solve for all of the components in a structure. magnitude and direction of all the loads on the structure. the position. easiest and most logical way to use ANSYS is through the Main Menu located on the far left-hand side of the screen (Figure 1-5 at left). length.Figure 1-4 ANSYS with graphical interface Default View in ANSYS The default view in ANSYS is well suited for two-dimensional designs with the x-axis pointing horizontally to the right. In order to get ANSYS to work properly.
You will use this Main Menu just like Windows Explorer or any other function that is organized in a “tree fashion”. You should complete these three major steps: (1) Preprocessing stage.The Main Menu is designed so that you complete the steps required to build your model by beginning at the top of the menu and working your way down. Member material Solution 1. Load position 2. ANSYS will not know how to properly solve your structure and give you bad results. 1-4 . Member position 3. these are the first three commands on the Main Menu. The construction steps to be accomplished in each command are listed below: Preprocessor 1. For the purposes of this tutorial. managing your EWS account and other helpful Unix tips is in the Appendix at the end of this tutorial. and Post-processor (noted as General Postproc on the ANSYS main menu) – as you can see in Fig. and (3) Post-processing stage IN THE ORDER GIVEN. 1-5. Solution. If you do not. Load magnitude 3. Member length 2. (2) Solution. The rest of this tutorial will bring you through three helpful examples that will familiarize you with ANSYS. Also information concerning printing. you will need to be familiar with three of the commands on the Main Menu: Preprocessor. Load direction Post-processor Get displacement member force data in both graphical and text output.
In each of these major steps. Meshing (one division per element) 2-1 . Figure 2-1 Given truss For illustrative purposes. Remember: Think about the modeling processing as having 3 major steps: Preprocessing. Preprocessing A. I. Solution. it will allow for demonstration of modeling a truss containing different materials and member sizes. This tutorial is built so as to mimic this outline structure. TRUSS EXAMPLE Given the following loaded truss. ANSYS is constructed in an outline format. and the three horizontal members will be assumed to be steel and have an area of 10 in2. find the internal forces in all members and displacements of all joints. Always be thinking about where you are in the modeling process and how the steps you are completing are meaningful and can be used in other problems you will solve in your classes. Real Constants (define cross-sectional areas of truss spars) 4. Modeling (define Keypoints and lines and using plot controls) 2.2. While this creates a somewhat unrealistic truss. Element Type (2D truss spars) 3. the four diagonal members will be assumed to be aluminum and have an area of 30 in2. and Post-processing. there are small sub-steps. Introduction – several steps will be completed in the Pre Processing stage: 1.
A sub-menu will drop-down listing all of the commands you can use in the Preprocessing stage. This menu lists all of the objects you can create in ANSYS. Left click the small plus sign next to Create. On the Main Menu. Click the small icon next to Active CS. Left click the small plus sign next to Keypoints. left click the plus sign next to Preprocessor. b. a.Figure 2-2 Main Menu B.The first step in designing any structure in ANSYS is to define the Keypoints of the structure. d. c. Note: This sequence of steps will be summarized using the following notation: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS The Create Keypoints window will appear: Figure 2-3 Create Keypoints window 2-2 . These points simulate the joints of the structural members and also serve as endpoints of the members. You will be creating points and lines. Keypoints . Modeling 1. Another sub-menu of all modeling commands is listed here. Left click the small plus sign next to Modeling. The pop-up window will prompt you for a keypoint number and a set of coordinates for that keypoint.
i. ANSYS is now ready to accept the coordinates for another point. The Create Keypoints window (Figure 2-3) tells ANSYS where your keypoints (or joints) are located. This will create the point and close the dialog box. 200 in the y and 0 in the z box. Sometimes the entries in the box will clear. Note: If you select “Apply” on the last point you need to enter. In the Keypoint number box enter a 1. h.e. ANSYS will assign a zero for that coordinate component. Once you have entered all of the information for the final keypoint (point 5). For this example.e. At this juncture you should choose how to define all of the Keypoints in your structure. you may always leave the zcoordinate box blank. Instead choose “Cancel”. It is often best to number the joints in a logical manner that you can remember easily. Select Apply. Helpful Hint: If you do not enter a point value. For this example the joints have been defined below: Figure 2-4 Given truss with numbered keypoints (joints) f. Y. In the X. ANSYS takes default coordinates as 2-3 . DO NOT SELECT “OK”. and Z coordinate boxes place a 0. click the “OK” button. Define point 2 just as you did for point 1: enter 2 into the keypoint number box at the top and 200 in the x box. for two-dimensional models. Define points 3 and 4 as above. Thus. Note: ANSYS does not work in any pre-defined unit system – it is your responsibility to be consistent with your units (i. g. we will use inches for length and pounds for load. This way we will be certain that our stresses will be in units of psi. do not enter your lengths in feet and loads in Newtons!). other times they will not clear away and you must overwrite them. As mentioned earlier. Remember that Keypoints represent joints of your structure’s geometry so number ALL of the joints in your design.
Lines (Defining Members) . You will find that there are Delete commands that correspond to all Create commands. You define lines by connecting the keypoints created previously. a.In ANSYS. This is done for you below: 2-4 . Begin by numbering your structure’s members on your paper copy for your own records. go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Delete.0)! Note: If you need to remove keypoints that you have already created. Figure 2-5 All keypoints defined 2. Now all of the points for our truss have been defined. lines represent structural members.zero.0. ANSYS will define a new point at (0. if you press “OK”.
Move your mouse cursor to a Keypoint that will serve as the start of the first member you wish to define. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Lines> Lines> Straight Line in the Main Menu. and List of Items are selected. we will begin with member 1. Figure 2-7 Create Straight Line window Figure 2-8 Line (member) 1 defined Note: The process is the same for defining all other members: left click once on the start point. Left click once on point 1 (0. 2-5 . 0). This defines the member 1. Single. Left click once near or on point 2. Your mouse cursor will appear to be a small vertical arrow pointing upwards. A yellow box will highlight this point. ANSYS will provide a preview sketch of member 1. Be sure that the options Pick.Figure 2-6 Given truss with numbered members b. The Create Straight Line window will appear (at right). d. move to the end point and left click once. 200). c. Move the cursor right to point 2 (200.
Select the first command on the drop-down menu. Figure 2-9 All members defined Note: The lines (members) are denoted by L1. your model should look like the one below. c. Go to the Plot menu on the menu bar at the top of your screen. Replot. Go to the PlotCtrls menu (to the right of the Plot menu) and select Numbering. Once all of the lines (members) have been defined. you must change the plot controls.now that you have finished plotting lines. L2 etc. In order to see your model. Now you should be able to see your model.e. The Plot Numbering Controls window will pop-up. 2-6 . a. Define the other six members of the truss in the order they were assigned. there may be a difference in numbering between KEYPOINTS and NODES (this will be discussed in greater detail later). d. Your keypoints (joints) are denoted simply by numbers. Figure 2-10 Plot command on the menu bar b. 3. Remember. Using Plot Controls . you should familiarize yourself with helpful viewing options in ANSYS. See that the lines and perhaps your keypoints have disappeared. In the Plot drop-down menu select Lines.
2-7 . Figure 2-12 Element Type window 2.. Now you should be able to see your truss completely numbered. Note: Throughout this tutorial you may need to Replot your model several times to get a good visual representation of your model.” The Element Type Library window will pop-up.. C. Element Type 1.Figure 2-11 Numbering window e. Turn on the Keypoint and Line numbers options and select OK. The Element Type window will pop-up. Select “Add. Know that you can turn on and off visual components of your model using the options under the Plot and Plot Controls (PlotCtrls) command on the top menu bar. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu.
Select “2D spar” in the right hand box. b. 2-8 . Select OK. Select Add. In this window set the following: a. You will return to the Element Types window (Figure 2-12). Figure 2-14 Real Constants window 2. Leave the default 1 for element reference type number.next you must define the cross-sectional areas for the members of your truss. this will close the Library window. Click close. This will force your truss members to be displaced in 2 dimensions. Select “Link” in the left hand box. so that the Element Type for Real Constants window will popup. This means that this element will be a truss link. Real Constants ... d. D. The Real Constants window will pop-up. e.Figure 2-13 Element Type Library window 3. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. 1. c.
Set Real Constant Set No. Enter the cross-sectional area for Al (30) [in units of in2]. Note that you are in Real Constant Set Number 1. Enter the following in the Set Constants window: a. This will store the information for aluminum. Enter the cross-sectional area for steel (10) [in units of in2]. Click Apply. c. d. Note that "Type 1 . Figure 2-16 Set Constants window 4. to 2 e. b. ANSYS is now prepared to receive the set of real constants for steel (type 2). f.Figure 2-15 Element Type for Real Constants window 3. Initial strain to 0 2-9 . The Set Constants window will pop-up.LINK1" is already highlighted. Select OK. Initial Strain is 0.
Material Properties .ANSYS is waiting for you to define it. h. This window is divided into two regions: Material Models Defined on the left and Material Models Available on the right. Remember that the diagonal members are aluminum and the horizontal members are steel. E.Figure 2-17 Set Constants window with those for steel g. 1. 2-10 . Go to Preprocessor> Material Props>Material Models. Note that “Material 1” has already been created . Click Close in the Real Constants window. The box will close and you will return to the Real Constants window. In this window. 3.now you must define the materials that make up your truss members. This will launch a new pop-up window Material Properties for Material Number 1. Figure 2-18 Material Model Behavior window 2. On the right hand side double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic. Click OK. left click on Material 1 so it is highlighted (this may already be done). Now there are two real constant sets for cross-sectional area defined (one for each material). The Material Behavior window will appear.
a. A pop-up window asking for a Material ID number. so it doesn’t have to be entered. For this example. Enter 0. In the Material Model Behavior window (Figure 2-18) click on Material 2 in the left hand box so that it is highlighted. d. Enter 10000000 in the EX box b. PRXY is for Poisson's Ratio.3 in the PRXY box c. The box EX is for the Elastic Modulus of the material.000. Select OK. Figure 2-20 Material Menu location in Define Material Behavior window Figure 2-21 Material ID window 5. You will return to the Define Material Behavior window.Figure 2-19 Material Properties for Material Number 1 4. Note: we will follow the same steps to define Material 2 (steel) as we did for Material 1 (aluminum). but it is a good idea to be in the habit of entering it. Select the Material drop-down menu in the upper left-hand corner of the window and select New Model.000 psi (10. 2-11 . For all two-dimensional models (spars). let us make Material 1 behave like aluminum with an Elastic Modulus of 10. Poisson's ratio is not used. click OK (the default number is sufficient).000 ksi).
Note: You may want to turn line numbering under PlotCtrls>Numbering to see the line numbers if this is not already done. F. 5 and 7 (all the diagonals). 4. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked Lines. Select lines 1. 2-12 . Once this is complete. 7. if you do not already know how to do this). Define the elastic modulus (EX) to be that of steel for this example (30000000 psi) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to be 0.6. Meshing . 3. it is difficult to pull it apart so you should save your model NOW (see Appendix. In the right hand box and double click on Structural>Linear>Elastic> Isotropic (this may already be done). The properties window for Material Properties for Material Number 2 will pop-up (Figure 2-19). The Pick Line Attributes window will pop-up.3. each with a single left click. Select OK and exit out of this window by clicking on the close box or selecting Exit in the Material Menu. The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. 3. note that the mouse will be a small black upward pointing arrow.the Mesh function is the heart of ANSYS! Meshing is like breaking your structure into small pieces that ANSYS can recognize and then “gluing” these pieces of your model together. 8. In the workspace. page 5-1. 1. Figure 2-22 Pick Line Attributes 2. Select OK in the Line Attributes window.
Figure 2-23 Define Line Attributes window for material 1 (aluminum) 5. Select Apply so you will return to the Pick Line Window. Figure 2-24 Define Line Attribute window for material 2 (steel) 2-13 . Now you are ready to define the material properties for the steel members. Select OK on the Line Attributes window. 6. Material Number = 1 b. The Define Line Attributes window will pop-up. 7. e. Real constant number and Element type for the lines that you selected. Since you selected all of the aluminum members. 4. Real Constant Number = 1 c. and 6). Select with a left mouse click all of the steel members (2. Element type = 1 d. In this window you can set the Material Number. There is no need to define the Element Section. define these lines accordingly: a.
Figure 2-25 Element Size window 10. 11. The other boxes should remain blank. Real Constant = 2 c. The Element Size window will pop-up. Note the lines of your truss will appear shorter than before (see below): Figure 2-26 Truss after number of divisions per element are set to 1 2-14 . Define these properties for the steel members: a. Material Number = 2 b. Element Type = 1 d. This will close both this window and the Line Attributes window (if you haven't already done so). Select OK. Set the number of divisions per line (NDIV) to 1.8. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Controls>ManualSize>Lines> All lines. Select OK. 9. this will close the window.
It might be a good idea to save your truss now. The Pick Mesh Lines window will pop-up.Note: Be absolutely sure that your model is correct BEFORE you mesh it together (upcoming steps). Be sure that pick and single are selected. This is an indication that your Mesh was successful! Figure 2-28 Fully meshed truss This completes the Preprocessing stage. You cannot place loads on your model or find displacements of nodes until it is meshed. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines. Now go to Phase 2. Your mouse should look like an upward pointing arrow. Once your entire truss is entirely highlighted. select OK in the Mesh lines window. 12. Select each line individually with a single left click. 2-15 . Your model is now complete and is ready to be loaded. 14. Your truss will now appear to be one color and connected like earlier. Figure 2-27 Pick Mesh Lines window 13. This step is the heart of ANSYS. the Solution Phase. 15.
Next. A. You may want to turn on your element numbering through PlotCtrls>Numbering and setting Elem. Numbering to Element Numbers. Select Static and OK. Solution Phase – here you will be applying loads and constraints to your truss. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu.II. go to Solution> Define Loads >Apply> Structural> Displacement>On Keypoints. Apply Constraints 1. Be sure that Pick and Single are turned on. Figure 2-29 Analysis Type window 2. The Apply U on KP’s window will pop-up. The Analysis Type window will pop-up. B. Attrib. Figure 2-30 Apply U on KP’s window 2-16 . Analysis Type 1.
e. The Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31) will pop-up. 6. Select Apply.2. this will close the Define Constraints window and the Apply U on KP’s window. Leave KEXPND option as default. Select OK. Displacement = 0 d. Displacement value = 0 d. Apply as a constant value c. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. The Apply U on KP’s window (Figure 2-30) should still be available. Select Apply. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Force/Moment>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. 2-17 . The Apply F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. 7. In the Apply U on KP’s window. Doing so will highlight the point with a small yellow box. Apply Loads 1. Be sure that Pick and Single are selected. UX and UY b. 5. e. C. Apply as a constant value c. Set the following: a. UY b. Note there is now a small triangle under node 1. 3. Select the following: a. Leave KEXPND option as default. select Apply. Now select node 5 (far right and bottom of truss). this will close the Define Constraints window (Figure 2-31). Figure 2-31 Define Constraints window 4. The Define Constraints window will pop-up. Select node 1 (coincident with the origin) with a left click near or on the point. Note there are two small triangles (one horizontal and another vertical) under node 5.
This will close both the Define F/M and Apply F/M windows. Select Apply in the Apply F/M window. FX b. Apply as a constant c. d. Magnitude = -400 [units of lbf]. Now select node 2 again and Apply in the Apply F/M window (Figure 2-32). Select the following: a. 2-18 . Magnitude = -300 [units of lbf]. d. Select Apply. Select the following: a. Figure 2-33 Define F/M on KP’s window 4. The Define F/M on KP’s window will pop-up. The Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) will pop-up. 3. Select node 2. Select OK. it will be highlighted by a small yellow box as before. FY b.Figure 2-32 Apply F/M on KP’s window 2. 5. 6. Apply as constant c. This will close the Define F/M window (Figure 2-33) but will leave the Apply F/M window open.
You are now ready to have ANSYS actually solve the truss. Figure 2-35 Solve Current Load Step window 2. your truss should look like the one below. It may take a few seconds before both of the following windows appear.7. After doing so. 2-19 . Select OK. The Solve Current Load Step window will appear. Apply Solution 1. You may close them both. Figure 2-34 Fully constrained and loaded truss D. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS in the Main Menu. Now your truss is fully constrained and loaded. Then ANSYS will solve the truss. Repeat this process (steps 5 and 6) for node 3 (load = -1000) [units of lbf]. Figure 2-36 Solution windows.
The Reaction Solution window will pop-up. The Define Element Table window will pop-up. In this section we will order ANSYS to output internal member forces. Note that the reaction solution results are listed by node number. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. Figure 2-37 Define Element Table window 2. Post-processing. 2-20 . B. You are now ready for the final step. Select “Add. member axial stresses. 2-37 Reaction Solution Table 2. Post-processing . III. You can see the node numbering on your truss by going to Plot Controls>Numbering>Nodes (this may not be necessarily the same as the Keypoint numbers). Reaction Forces 1.. and node displacements. A. The Define Additional Element Table Items window will pop-up.This completes the Solution Phase.this is the last step of the three major analysis steps in ANSYS. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Define Table. Member Forces and Axial Stresses 1..”. Go to General Postprocessor>List Results>Reaction Solution.
Set the following: a.”. d. Set “By sequence num” in the left hand box (may already be done). Figure 2-39 Define Additional Element Table window 5. b. Place a 1 next to SMISC in the selection box after the comma. You will return to the Element Table Data Window. In the “User Label for item” box.. Select “Add. c.Figure 2-38 Define Additional Element Table window 3. 4. Select SMISC in the right hand box. this will launch the Additional Elements window again. Select OK. In the right hand box select LS.. In the User label item set the name to “member forces”. Set the following a. In the left hand box scroll to the bottom and select “By sequence num”. Place a “1” after the comma in the Selection box in the lower right. type “Axial Stress”. e. b. c. 6. e. Close element Data Table. d. This will close the window. 2-21 . Select OK.
You can save it to your EWS account or print the data (if you do not know how to do this.7. Figure 2-40 List Element Data 8. You can also get a visual representation of your truss using some of the graphical results options. 11. The List Element Data window will pop-up. The Contour Plot of Element Table window will pop-up. Figure 2-41 Element Table 10. see Appendix. Select Member Forces and Axial stresses by left clicking on each . page 5-2). Go to General Postproc>Elem Table> List Elem Table. To output this data go to the File at the top of the window. 9. This will close the window. Select OK. Your element table will appear.the two quantities you defined. The element numbers are in the first column followed by the Member Forces and Axial Stresses. 2-22 . They should be at the top of the listing. Go to General Postproc>Element Table>Plot Elem Table. Note how the values are listed.
Note that along the bottom you can see that the element forces correspond to the certain colors of the plot. 13. You should now be able to see a deformed truss with the member forces plotted. 2-42) you can choose what you would like to output. In the “Item to be plotted” box (Fig. C. Click OK. Leave the lower box as “No . Displacements 1. This will close the window.do not average”. General Postproc>Plot Results>Deformed shape.Figure 2-42 Contour Plot of Element Table window 12. For this example we will plot member forces. The Plot Nodal Solution window will pop-up. Figure 2-44 Plot Nodal Solution window 2-23 . Figure 2-43 Contour Plot of Truss 14.
To see the values of the deformations go to General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution. The Nodal Solution window will pop up. for this example plot “deformed and undeformed. Figure 2-45 Deformed and undeformed truss 4. Click OK. Click OK. 2-24 .2. Figure 2-46 Nodal Solution window 5. Choose your plot preference. This will close the window and create a table of displacement results. Figure 2-47 Displacement Table This completes the Post-processing. Set DOF solution in the left box and “All dofs” in the right box 6.” 3. This will close the window. You should now move on to the FRAME example.
1. The following frame will be constructed: Figure 3-1 Given Frame Once again. Modeling (similar) 2. Real Constants (similar . Introduction – think about the steps that you will complete in this section of the tutorial and how they are similar or different from the truss tutorial. a complete finite element analysis in ANSYS has three components: Preprocessing. Modeling – none of the principles used in this example are different from the truss. I. Preprocessing A.beam) 3. Try to complete this without help of the tutorial.cross sectional area) 4. Sections (new) 6.3. The greatest differences between the frame and truss examples occur in defining and assigning member properties and applying loads (in this case a distributed load). Element Type (different . This tutorial assumes that you have already worked through the truss tutorial. and Post-processing. Consequently. 1. Material Properties (similar) 5. procedures that are the same or very similar to those in the truss example will not be outlined in much detail. Solution. FRAME EXAMPLE As you should already know. the major difference between trusses and frames is that members are beams and thus can have a reaction moment. You will find that many of the steps in this tutorial are similar to those in the truss. Go to Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>Active CS. The steps to be completed in this phase are listed below. Meshing (similar) B. The coordinates for the Keypoints are: 3-1 .
Select Beam in the left-hand box and 2D Elastic in the right. 3. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete on the Main Menu. X coord. C. This will close the window and return you to the Element Types window.Table 3-1 Keypoint Locations KP No. the Library of Element Types window will pop-up. You will only have one choice since you have only defined one type of beam. The Define Element type window will appear.. Define the Element Type – this frame is composed of beams. Figure 3-2 Library of Element Types Window 3. Another window will appear prompting for which beam to select. Click Add. Select Add. Connect the Keypoints with lines from Preprecessor>Modeling>Create> Lines>Lines>Straight lines. Close this window as well. Y coord. The Real Constants for a Beam window will appear. Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete in the Main Menu. 3-2 . The Real Constants window will pop-up. 2.. 1 0 0 2 0 144 3 180 0 4 180 144 5 360 0 6 360 144 2. 4. Select OK. Define Real Constants 1. Select OK. 1. 2. D.
= 3. (In British units. Once you are complete select OK and close out of the Real Constants boxes. 3-3 . Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. Cross-sectional area = 20 c. Moment of Inertia = 8000 d. Height = 8 e. units of force are in lbf and units of mass are in lbm.) h. In this window you define all of the constants for members 1 and 5. Note: Remember that you are working this problem in lbf and INCHES. Initial strain = 0 g. Just like entering in Keypoint coordinates. Real Constant set number 1 will correspond to the W8x42 beam used for members 1 and 5. lbf and lbm have the same numerical value. ANSYS is now ready to accept the constants for the second and third types of beams. Select Apply. = 1 b. in the British system./in. Pay close attention to your units! Also. Define this beam: a.Figure 3-3 Define Real Constants for a Beam 4. Added mass/unit length = 42 lbm/ft. 5. Shear deflection constant = 0 f. Real Constant Set No.5 lbm. Often tables will report these values in other unit sets such as “Added mass/unit length” in lbm/ft.
3) and Exit. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models in the Main Menu. In this example we will use traditional I beams. 1 2 Cross-sectional area 20 25 Moment of intertia 8000 10000 Height 8 10 Shear deflctn. Enter E (EX=30000000) and Poisson's Ratio (PRXY=0. 2.5 E. Define Sections – this section tells ANSYS what sort of beam you are using. Figure 3-4 Beam Tool 3-4 . The Beam Tool window will appear. Define the material just as you defined steel or aluminum in the truss example. Define Material Properties 1. Double click in right hand box Structural>Linear> Elastic>Isotropic.Table 3-2 Real Constant Values Corresponding Beam W8x42 W10x48 RC Set No. Go to Preprocessor>Sections>Beam>Common Sectns.5 4 W12x54 3 30 12000 12 0 0 4. F. The Define Material Properties window will appear. 1. constant 0 0 Initial strain 0 0 Added mass/unit length 3.
ID = 1 b. let us have the dimensions of each beam correspond with the same Real Constant Set. Set the number of divisions (ndiv) to 25.2. Leave the other boxes blank and select OK. Meshing 1. Repeat step 4 for the other two beam types with values from the following table. “finite elements”. Sub Type = I (from drop-down menu) d. W2. Select Apply. and other structural properties so we need several elements per part to get accurate results. rotations. For the W 8x42 beam (Real Constant set 1) enter the following: a. It was not necessary for any further divisions because in a truss there are no internal moments or rotations that need to be calculated. Name = W8x42 c. T2. we set the number of divisions per element to 1. Also note that you could choose a different number of divisions per element. Your frame will now appear to be of dashed lines. This will save the information for the W 8x42 beam. For this frame example (and for all structures that have members with internal forces that vary with position. Note: all of these dimension values are expressed in units of inches. T1 = T2 = T3 = 1 g. W3 8 10 12 T1. Note: The ndiv function divides the element into small pieces. Offset to centroid e. This is also why it is so important to save often while conducting your analysis and especially before Meshing! 3-5 . 3. Once you are complete select OK. T3 1 1 1 G. Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Cntrls>ManualSize>Lines>All lines in the Main Menu. W1 = W2 = W3 = 8 f. Table 3-3 Section Definitions ID 1 2 3 Name W8x42 W10x48 W12x54 Sub Type I I I Offset Centroid Centroid Centroid W1. For clarity. Thus we have selected 25 divisions per element as a good manageable value. do not create too many elements as your analysis will become computationally more expensive possibly causing the program to crash or freeze. The Element Size box will appear. such as beams) we need to be able to calculate internal moments. Just remember that your results may be less accurate with fewer finite elements. However. For the truss.
If the mesh was successful the frame will made of blue-green solid lines. 1 1 1 Real Constant No.W12x54 6. Select Apply. Select lines 1 and 5 with a single left click. 7. Go to Preprocessing>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked lines. Repeat this process for the other members in the frame assigning the following constants: Table 3-4 Line Attribute Assignments Member No. This will close the Line Attributes window. 3. 1 and 5 3 2 and 4 Material No. a select lines box will appear. 1 1 1 Element Section 1 . Figure 3-5 Line Attributes window 4. Select Apply in the pick lines box. Element type number = 1 d. The Line Attributes box will appear. Select all of the lines and OK. 5.W10x48 3 . Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh>Lines. Set the following: a. 3-6 . 1 2 3 Element Type No. Material number = 1 b.W8x42 2 . The members will be highlighted. It is always a good idea to save your project before meshing – do this now. Element section = W8x42 e.2. Real Constant number = 1 c.
three fixed ends) 3. Single left click on all three bottom nodes. Analysis Type – just like in the truss tutorial. Select All Degrees of Freedom (All DOF) since all of the free ends are fixed and constrained in the x. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Keypoints in the Main Menu. Solution A. you will need to apply a distributed load to the frame. 1. 2.distributed) 4. Select the first option. C. Select OK in the selection box. The Analysis Type window will appear. 1. Define Frame Constraints (different . This will be simulated by applying a load to each node. a selection box will appear. You should see two small green triangles and little red crosses indicating these are constrained in all three directions at each end. 4. 1. Select OK. Define Frame Loads – unlike in the truss that contained all point loads. Figure 3-6 Apply Constraints window 3. The Apply Constraints box will appear.II. Just as with the truss tutorial. Analysis Type (similar . and OK. 5. D. y and rotational directions. 3-7 . each will be highlighted by small yellow boxes. Define Frame Loads (different . Apply as a constant value of 0.static) 2. Define Frame Constraints – we will fix the three bottom ends of the frame. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Beams. Apply Solution (similar) B. this is a static analysis. 1. Static. 2. Introduction – the most significant change from the truss tutorial is the presence of the distributed load. The Apply Pressure on Beams selection window will appear. Go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis in the Main Menu.
thus you must deselect these locations. You make the box by holding down the left mouse button and dragging. In the workspace. 3. Figure 3-8 ANSYS workspace window after the top of the frame is selected for application of a distributed load 4. 3-8 . select OK in the Apply F/M on Nodes window. Once you are certain that only the nodes where the load should be applied are highlighted. change the Pick option (at the top) to Unpick and the Box option to Single. In the Apply Pressure on Beams selection window (Figure 3-7). you will select some of the vertical supports where you do not want to apply the distributed load.Figure 3-7 Apply Pressure on Beams selection window 2. Undoubtedly. 5. Then individually left click on the each small yellow box on the vertical supports where no load should be applied. In this case change the select style option to BOX (not Single). highlight all of the nodes on the top of the frame where the distributed load will be applied by enclosing this area in a box. The define pressure on beams window will appear.
Set the pressure value to 100. To see you nodal numbering go to PlotCntrls>Numbering. Also. 1. if you have trouble seeing your nodal numbers. III. Select OK. For this example. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. 52. You numbering might be different and is dependent upon the precise order you created lines. Introduction – as discussed in the notes of section I. etc. It would be a good idea to “Save As…” before Post-processing. and 102 (from left to right respectively). it is good to see the numbers assigned to each of your nodes so you can make a meaningful interpretation of this data. ANSYS assigns a number to each node and reports Postprocessing information according to this nodal number. or other set of units! E. 2. Select Solve in the pop-up window. THESE NODES ARE DIFFERENT FROM KEYPOINTS. the nodes at the fixed points (bottom of vertical members) are 1..G. you can zoom in on your model display by PlotCntrls>Pan Zoom Rotate.1 (page 3-5) recall that by setting the number of divisions per node (ndiv = 25) we broke the beams into small pieces or “finite elements”. A tool box will appear. Before beginning your Post-processing. In the numbering window turn node numbers to ON. The other boxes may remain blank. 3-9 . but you would need to convert this value if this were given in lb/ft. Apply the Solution 1. Post-processing A. Remember this load was given in 100 lb/in. Just as with the truss. Keypoints. close all of the pop-up boxes. 3. Select OK. ANSYS will return data tabulated for these small pieces (finite elements) that ANSYS calls nodes.Figure 3-9 Apply Pressure on Beams window 6. For most of the Post-processing functions we will use in this section.
Your solution may be somewhat different from the one given here. You can see that the forces at node 1 (which in this example are coincident with Keypoint number 1) are 2025. Also note that the sum of all the reaction forces are listed at the bottom under total values. Figure 3-10 Reaction Solution window 2.2. 3. C. The Reaction Solution window will pop-up.000 lbf were applied) and the moments sum to 0 lbf-in. 8807. (since none were applied). Similarly. See the printing section (near the end of this booklet) on how to do this. B. Note that the x forces sum to 0 lbs. you should print these results now.) = 36. If you desire.4 lbf in the x direction. This is a good fast way to check that your model is correct. Go to General Post-processing>List Results>Nodal Solution>DOF Soln. Go to General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solution. 3-10 . the forces at node 102 (which corresponds to Keypoint number 5) are –2025. Note that the nodal numbering will increase or decrease linearly from one end of a beam to another.000 lbf (since 100lbf /in. the y forces sum to 36. Reaction Forces 1. In the pop-up window select All items and OK. See section III. 4. Member Displacements and Rotations 1.B (in the Post-processing section) in the truss tutorial while keeping in mind that the output will be listed by NODE and not Keypoint as explained previously in the Reaction Forces section.9 lbf in the y direction and a moment of –76121 lbf-in. * (180in. in the x direction and 8807. Take note of the nodal numbers in significant places such as those at the ends of each beam. D.9 lbf in the y directions and a moment of 76121 lb-in.4 lbf. Member Forces and Stresses – reporting this data is no different from the truss tutorial. The List Nodal Solution window will pop-up.+180in.
Proceed to Chapter 4. This concludes the frame tutorial. In this window. the displacement in the x and y direction and the rotation of each node is listed. With your nodal numbering turned on.Figure 3-11 List Nodal Solution window 2. the plate tutorial. The solution will appear in tabular form. you should be able to find the corresponding node to the Keypoint or other member location of interest. In this window select All DOFs (degrees of freedom) and OK. Figure 3-12 Nodal Solution Table 3. 3-11 . At the bottom of the list maximum values for each parameter are reported.
Below is the geometry that we will define in ANSYS: Figure 4-2 Model of plate that takes advantage of symmetry I. it is always good to take advantage of symmetry because it allows for your analysis to be smaller and subsequently more specific.4. As a rule of thumb. Although it has a thickness.1” uniform tensile loading of 8 psi Figure 4-1 Steel plate with hole in center When we model this plate. Introduction – below is an overview of the steps we will complete in this example and how those steps compare to the previous examples: 4-1 . We can see symmetry by dividing the plate into 4 parts about the center of the hole and then apply constraints to edges of this divided part. 20” steel square plate with 4” diameter hole thickness = . ANSYS allows us to model it as a two dimensional representation. we will take advantage of its SYMMETRY. Preprocessing A. PLATE EXAMPLE For this example we will model the plate below.
1. Modeling (different – defining areas and using Boolean operations) 2. Element Type (different – plate with thickness) 3. Real Constants (similar - define element thickness) 4. Material Properties (no changes here) 5. Meshing (different – mesh areas and refine mesh) B. Modeling 1. Begin by going to: Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Areas>Rectangle>By 2 Corners, the Create Rectangle by 2 corners window will appear.
Figure 4-3 Create Rectangle by 2 Corners window 2. The boxes WX and WY specify the coordinates of one corner of the rectangle. Enter 0 in both boxes and width and length of 10 (we will be working this problem in inches and pounds). 3. Now we must create the hole in the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Create>Areas>Circle>Solid Circle. The Create Solid Circular Area window will pop up.
Figure 4-4 Create Solid Circular Area window 4. The WP X and WP Y boxes specify the center point of the circle. Our circle will be centered at (0,0) and has a radius of 2. Your model should be as below:
Figure 4-5 Model after defining both rectangular and circular areas. 5. Just like when using a CAD program, you must perform a Boolean operation to remove the circle from the rectangle. Go to Preprocessor> Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Subtract>Areas. The Subtract Area selection window will appear.
Figure 4-6 Subtract Area selection window 6. Single left click on the rectangle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area that is occupied ONLY BY THE RECTANGLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the rectangle and the circle. The rectangle should now appear pink or purple. 7. Select OK in the Subtract Area window (Figure 4-6). You have now defined the area that we will be subtracting from. 8. Single left click on the circle in the workspace. Be sure that you click on the area occupied ONLY BY THE CIRCLE. Do not click on the area occupied by both the circle and the rectangle. The circle should now be highlighted. 9. Select OK in the Subtract Area selection window. You have now defined all of your geometry. C. Element Type 1. Go to Preprocessor>Element Type>Add/Edit/Delete. The Define Element Type window will appear just as in the previous tutorials (Figure 2-17). Select Add... The Element Type Library window will appear. 2. In the left hand box select Structural Solid. In the right hand box select Quad 4 node (42). This will define the elements to be small quadrilaterals each with 4 nodes from which the location of each square will be calculated. 3. Select OK. Note that the Element Types window will still be open. Be sure that the element type is highlighted and select Options. The Element Type Options window will appear:
A new window will appear . 4-5 . Figure 4-8 Define Real Constants Set window 2. D.1. The other options may remain as default. select Add. Set the thickness to . Go to Preprocessor>Real Constants>Add/Edit/Delete. Close out of the Real Constants windows. In the Element Behavior box select “Plane Stress with Thk”. Select OK and Close the Element Type window.Figure 4-7 Element Type Options 4.be sure that the correct (and only) element type is highlighted (Type 1 Plane 42) and select OK. Keep the type number as the default (1). Select OK. Real Constants 1. The Define Real Constants Set window will appear. The Real Constants window will appear.
In the pop up window set the modulus of elasticity (EX) to 290000000 (remember we are working in pounds and inches so this number is in psi!) and Poisson's ratio (PRXY) to 0. This will make fairly large finite elements. Turn on the Smart Size option at the top of the MeshTool.note nothing in this section has changed from previous tutorials – try doing this on your own! 1. 2.E.3. Go to Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models. A Mesh Selection box will appear. 3. Figure 4-9 MeshTool window 2. F. 4. In the Define Material Properties window select Structural>Linear>Elastic>Isotropic. Meshing – be sure to save right now! 1. The MeshTool box will appear. Left click once on the plate geometry so that it is highlighted. Left click and hold down on the control bar and slide it to the right to level 8 (the level is denoted above the bar). Material Properties . Go to Preprocessor>Meshing>MeshTool. Then select Mesh (towards the bottom of the window). 4-6 . The MeshTool is a convenient and quick way to mesh an object and refine an object that is already meshed. On the Fine to Coarse bar directly below the Smart Size box controls the size of your finite elements.
The Refine Mesh at Element window will pop up. we know that the most important stresses in this plate are near the hole. On the MeshTool select Refine (near the bottom of the MeshTool). Note that the MeshTool is already set to refine at elements (directly above the refine button).5. However. 4-7 . Select OK in the Mesh Selection window. Single left click on all of the finite elements adjacent to the hole (see below). There is no need to Refine the mesh elsewhere since other stresses in the plate are not as important. we should Refine our mesh in this area. A Refine Selection box will appear just like the Mesh Selection box. Figure 4-10 Refining the mesh near the hole 8. Consequently. Now your element has been meshed and should appear to be divided into quadrilaterals. 7. 6. Then select OK in the Refine Selection box.
Go to: Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Displacement>On Lines. Solution Phase A. The Define Constraints window will appear. where the most important and interesting stresses are located. You can select the defaults (minimal refinement) in this window. thus the approximation in that region will not be as accurate. 10. Select Static and OK. You can even REFINE your mesh after you run the solution and look at post-processing output. Apply Constraints (similar – X and Y direction on lines) 3. C. Note: now the elements near the hole. The New Analysis window will appear. Note that you can refine your mesh several times until you have finite elements in your region of interest that are small enough to your satisfaction. Apply Constraints 1. If ANSYS requires more memory than the computer can give. it will require a large amount of memory etc. Select OK.Figure 4-11 Refine Mesh at Element 9. Once you are satisfied with your mesh. then ANSYS may crash or give incomplete results. Analysis Type (no changes – static) 2. Select the bottom edge only and OK in the pick box. Introduction – no radically new concepts are employed in this section that were not used in previous examples. However this is not cause for concern since the stresses there are unimportant and uninteresting. The elements elsewhere in the plate are large. It is usually good to have your mesh change gradually so that you do not have disjointed elements. 4-8 . You might be thinking. Apply Pressure (similar – pressure on lines) B. The Apply Constraints window will appear. II. 1. Analysis Type – go to Solution>Analysis Type>New Analysis. move on to the Solution Phase. are very small and will give a better approximation of the plate’s behavior there. “Why don’t I use the most accurate mesh everywhere in the element?” This is generally not a good idea because when ANSYS tries to solve the plate. from the computer.
4-9 . UY b.Figure 4-12 Apply Constraints window 2. The Define Pressure on Lines box will appear. Click on OK. Displacement value = 0. Go to Solution>Define Loads>Apply>Structural>Pressure>On Lines. Set the following: a. d. Apply as constant c. Another pick box will appear. D. Apply Loads 1. Select the right hand vertical line and OK. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for the left edge with a zero-displacement constraint in the X direction. 3.
rotation. Go to Solution>Solve>Current LS. tabular output will list far too many nodes to be helpful. displacement. E. The graphical output will likely be the easiest and most meaningful for your analysis.now all the loads are applied and you are ready to solve. This set of commands will output the stress. Select OK in the series of boxes that appear just as in the other tutorials.Figure 4-13 Apply Pressure on Lines 2. Results will be generated in the workspace. Set a constant value pressure of -8 and select OK (since negative pressure points AWAY from its application point). If you desire. You are now ready for post-processing. you can refer to the Truss Example tutorial Post-processing section to review this process. All graphical outputs that you will need can be accessed from: General Postproc> Plot Results>Contour Plot>Nodal Solu. 4-10 . Post-processing – The major difference between post-processing with the plate and with the other examples is that you will probably find the graphical outputs most helpful. Apply Solution . III. As you might guess. energy or any other relevant outputs.
db). ANSYS uses the work “Resume” instead of “Open”. Note that you are already set to save in your EWS account. You can confirm your save was successful by going to “File>Save As” again and noting the name in the right hand box. Saving an ANSYS file – ANSYS is set to save files automatically to your EWS (Engineering WorkStation) account.dbb).db) otherwise you will not be able to see it when you want to reopen your project. all of your data will be saved into this file. Note: You may also notice (especially if you have already saved projects before) that there is a file called file. Your project will launch. If you have been saving to the default file (file.db. Open a previously saved ANSYS file 1. let us name our file truss1. B. This is ideal for your finite element analyses because several files are created throughout the analysis including the main database file (. The second section outlines how to access and manipulate files on your EWS account. Let us say that you want to open truss1. This directory is listed in the bottom box of the Save As window. You should include the file type extension which is . 3. Highlight truss1. Below are a few steps to follow to save your project: 1. a backup database file (. At the end of the account name enter and select OK. In order for you analysis to operate properly. This is a default ANSYS file. For this example.db You must include the file type extension (. From the top menu bar. 5-1 . If you do not specify a name for your project. 3.5.db on your account.db) you can open this by simply choosing: File>Resume Jobname. I.db and select OK. APPENDIX Some common tasks such as saving.db. The Save window will appear. go to File>Save As. 2. The EWS account is especially convenient because you can access it from any EWS computer and you do not have the worries that are associated with using a disk (such as it being damaged or lost). The purpose of the section is to outline these tasks to make using ANSYS easier for you.db. The Resume From window will appear. You will already be in your EWS account where all of your ANSYS files should be located. it is important that all of these files be in the same location so that ANSYS can access them when necessary. then in the box enter: truss1. It is a good idea to depend on this function only for backup purposes. Go to File>Resume From.db 2. Working with ANSYS and Unix A. opening and printing files may be different from working in other operating systems that may already be more familiar to you. and various solution and results files. If you want to call your file “truss1”.
doc 2.uiuc. 3. This is probably because you do not have enough room on your EWS account to save your project. You can use the wildcard anywhere in the command line so you could also type: rm paper* and this would remove anything that begins with “paper” regardless of extension. However at the time this tutorial was created you would type: <lpr –Pehlas3@wood. We will then be prompted if we really want to remove the file. Type rm for remove followed by the file name and its extension.uiuc.doc from our EWS account. At the prompt type ls this command will “list” all of the files currently saved on your EWS account. Printing graphical outputs 1. As a general rule you should type <lpr –Pprintername@wood.edu> for the lab in MEL. Deleting files quickly – sometimes when working in ANSYS you will get a message that there was an error saving or ANSYS could not properly execute a save command. Instead of removing each file individually as outlined above. This will activate the “Printer Name” box.out this is the ANSYS output file and can be opened or printed using a text editor. Select “Print to” towards the bottom of the screen. In the “Printer Name” box you will need to type in a Unix command to send the job to the printer.uiuc. 2. So.ews. 2. You must remove files from your account to make room for your analysis.edu> for the 4th floor Engineering Hall lab and <lpr –Pmelas1@wood.doc The * is a “wild card” command. There are several text editors available on the Unix systems. Printing result tables 1.ews. 2. When using the wildcard command you will be prompted to remove each file individually. For this case. If you are unfamiliar with using a text editor you should ask the EWS site consultant on duty how to launch and use one. This will list all of the files on your account.edu>.doc. let us say that we want to remove the file paper1. Let us say that you wanted to remove all files that end with the extension . B.ews. Managing Files on your EWS Account A. This will copy the table to your project output file. Open an xterm window. 5-2 . When you have a table window open you can choose File>Copy to Output. open another xterm window and type ls at the prompt (meaning “list”). How to access all of your EWS files from a Unix machine 1. Type y for yes. type: rm *. 1. Find the file ending in . The “Capture Image” box will appear.doc individually. For our example we would type rm paper1. D. II.C. This process may change from year to year. Go to PlotCntrls>Capture Image.. To view your project output file. 3. after typing this you will be prompted “if you are sure you want to remove” for each file ending in .
Creating Axisymmetric Models When using ANSYS you may be asked to create an axisymmetric model. You can define geometry to be rotated about an axis. thereby taking advantage of axial symmetry. Consider the part below: Figure 5-1 Axisymmetric bar. The y-axis is that of axial symmetry. To take advantage of the axial (about the y-axis) symmetry you must first model the section that is to be rotated about the y axis. It was already outlined how to model traditional symmetry (which for this example is the bar’s symmetry with respect to the x axis) in the plate tutorial. Note the bar is also symmetric with respect to the x-axis. Look at the wire-frame representation below: 5-3 . Just as mentioned in the introduction to the plate tutorial. it is always a good analysis technique to take advantage of symmetry in design. You can take advantage of this symmetry in ANSYS.III.
Be sure to constrain properly your sketch in the Solution phase. Note that the section to be modeled (highlighted in gray) is entirely in quadrant I of the modeling plane (all values are non-negative). 4-4).C of the Plate tutorial (pg. Once your geometry is sufficiently defined.Figure 5-2 Wireframe representation of axisymmetric bar. See section I. you cannot allow any of this two-dimensional geometry to have negative coordinates. From the options window (Figure 4-7) set the Element Behavior to “Axisymmetric” (instead of “Plate with Thickness”). so no explicit constraint needs to be applied. This is done in Preprocessing>Real Constants. if you want a solid bar (not hollow) you must align one side of your geometry on the y axis. By specifying the elements to be “axisymmetric. you must define the section (highlighted in gray) entirely in quadrant I. For ANSYS to properly define your geometry. Thus. displacement will be constrained to zero in the y direction on the z axis. ANSYS is programmed to rotate your element about the y axis in the workplane. Also. 5-4 .” you have implicitly constrained all points on the y axis from moving in the x direction. For this example. Then you can skip step 5 since there will be no need to define Real Constants. then you must tell ANSYS that the problem is axisymmetric. Follow this section as written except for steps 4 and 5.
material definition. 2003. and.IV. etc. Understanding (and consequently rapid analyses!) comes with familiarizing oneself with the entire process and the order in which the processing commands must be executed. 5-5 . you would have to return to that analysis section to make adjustments. the students who grasped ANSYS best seemed to understand how each step in the program fit into the overall FEA process. (2) in order to edit various parts of the model. Because of the tedious nature of iterative design using Finite Element Analysis. General Notes on Understanding ANSYS When this tutorial was first used during the spring semester. if possible. The students that tried this by jumping between steps or skipping sections in the tutorial often found themselves lost (with several hours wasted) trying to repair their model using processes not outlined in this tutorial. these students understood that: (1) modeling. Specifically. These students recognized that only certain operations can be performed at certain times and those operations had to be performed with a certain degree of coherence and order. occurred only in the Preprocessing stage. meshing. it was understandably tempting to try to circumvent the rigid processes outlined in this tutorial.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.