a . from is obtained. Democritus.called the Greek smallest philosopher. indivisible particle atomos.1.proposed that if a piece of gold is divided repeatedly. it will reach a state whereby the smallest Concept of particle. which Democritus . which atom originated is indivisible. Democritus : .

Dalton proposed that : a) all elements are made up of small indivisible particles called atoms. In 1808. but different from the atoms of other John Dalton John Dalton¶s Model . John Dalton proposed the atomic theory. 2. c) the atoms of an element are alike. b) atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.1.

which means that an atom can be destroyed. electron. There are subatomic particles (proton. b) A radioactive atom decomposes spontaneously. and neutron )in an atom. A new atom can also be created by a process called .Dalton¶s atomic model WEAKNESSES a) The atom is not the smallest particle in an element.

J. with electrons Thomson¶s embedded in it Model like a raisinpudding. 2. Joseph John Thomson (J.J. J. Thomson) discovered negatively charged particles which he called electrons. In 1897. .J. He suggested that an atom is a positively charged sphere J. Thomson 1.

b) Rutherford then of the alpha however. a) most of the alpha particles passed directly through the gold foil without deflection. which Ernest Rutherford .1. Ernest Rutherford bombarded a thin gold foil with alpha particles (helium nuclei. He2+). In 1911. some particles werethat suggested deflected at very acute angles. To explain the most of the atom deflection of the alpha particles. positive charge of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus. must be empty Rutherford proposed that all the space.

Rutherford called the positive particles protons. c) Rutherford proposed that an atom consists of a positively Ernest Rutherford¶ s Model .Further experimental studies led to the discovery of positive particles in the nucleus.


Niels Bohr proposed that the electrons in the atom are arranged in permitted orbits called electron shells Niels surrounding Bohr¶s the Model nucleus. .Niels Bohr 1. In 1913.

Chadwick James suggested that Chadwick¶s the nucleus of the Model atom contains protons and neutrons. The neutron has a mass almost the same as that of a proton. and the nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of James Chadwick . 1n 1932 . James Chadwick discovered rays of electrically neutral subatomic particles which he called neutrons.1.

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