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FEM-ANSYS-Classic-loads

FEM-ANSYS-Classic-loads

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08/11/2013

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Course in FEM – ANSYS Classic

Loads

FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

FEM - ANSYS Classic
• Lecture 1 - Introduction: – Introduction to FEM – ANSYS Basics – Analysis phases – Geometric modeling – The first model: Beam model Lecture 2 - Preprocessor: – Geometric modeling – Specification of Element type, Real Constants, Material, Mesh – Frame systems – Truss systems – Element tables Lecture 3 - Loads: – Boundary conditions/constraints/supports – Loads – Mesh attributes, meshing – Sections Lecture 4 – 2D plane models : – 2D Plane Solid systems – Geometric modeling – Postprocessing Lecture 5 – Analysis types: – Analysis types – Modal analysis – Buckling analysis

FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

Loads

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FEM - ANSYS Workbench/CAD
• Lecture 6 – 3D Solids:
– 3D solid models – Booleans – Meshing issues

Lecture 7 – 3D Modeling:
– Operate – Import CAD – Advanced topics

Lecture 8 – Analysis types:
– Analysis types – Postprocessing – TimeHistProc

• •

Lecture 9 – Workbench basics:
– Workbench basics – Geometric modeling

Lecture 10 – Workbench analysis:
– Workbench analysis types

FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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g.Solution phases Analysis Type – specify the character of the problem Define Loads – apply loads to the element model Solve – run the solution process. Esbjerg Loads -1 Known load vector ndof x 1 4 . for linear static systems solve (Gaussian elimination) for the unknown displacements: The global stiffness Unknown displacement vector ndof x 1 matrix [K]: ndof = total number of nodes x number degrees of freedom per node [K]{D} = {R} → {D} = [K] {R} Known global stiffness matrix ndof x ndof FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. e. AAU.

Solution Menu The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged. AAU. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for modal analyses.” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 5 .

Esbjerg Loads 6 . (If it is not possible for you to use an option in the current analysis. transient. AAU. Only those options that are valid and/or recommended for the current analysis type appear. for you to use them in the current analysis. or buckling analysis. For example. if you are performing a static analysis. regardless of whether it is recommended.Solution Menu • If you are using the GUI to perform a structural static. FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. modal. They list only those options that apply to the type of analysis that you are performing. the option is listed but is grayed out. the Modal Cyclic Sym option does not appear on the abridged Solution menu.) – Abridged Solution menus are simpler. or even possible. you have the choice of using abridged or unabridged Solution menus: – Unabridged Solution menus list all solution options.

Loads Multiple load steps Applying loads FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 7 .Loading • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Programme for Lesson: Types of loads Load step Substep Time tracking Application of loads Solid-model loads Finite element loads DOF Constraints Forces (Concentrated Loads) Surface Loads Pressure Loads on Beams Body Loads Misc. AAU.

convections. infinite surface • Electric: electric potentials (voltage). pressures. heat flow rates. infinite surface • Fluid: velocities. electric charges. AAU. internal heat generation. source current density. magnetic flux. gravity • Thermal: temperatures. electric current. infinite surface • Magnetic: magnetic potentials. charge densities. magnetic current segments. temperatures (for thermal strain).Types of loads • Structural: displacements. pressures FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 8 . forces.

Types of loads • Loads are divided into six categories: – DOF constraints – forces (concentrated loads) – surface loads – body loads – inertia loads – coupled-field loads FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. AAU. Esbjerg Loads 9 .

Applying Displacement loads FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 10 . AAU.

AAU. Esbjerg Loads 11 .Applying Force/Moment loads FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.

and so on. gravity load in the second load step. multiple load steps apply different segments of the load history curve.wind load in the first load step. you can use different load steps to apply different sets of loads . In a linear static or steady-state analysis. both loads and a different support condition in the third load step.Load step • A load step is simply a configuration of loads for which a solution is obtained. AAU. In a transient analysis. FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 12 .

Application of loads • Most loads are applied either – on the solid model (on keypoints. and areas) or – on the finite element model (on nodes and elements) FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. AAU. Esbjerg Loads 13 . lines.

especially when the constraint expansion option is used. especially with graphical picking. you can change the element mesh without affecting the applied loads.Solid-model loads • Advantages – Solid-model loads are independent of the finite element mesh. (The expansion option allows you to expand a constraint specification to all nodes between two keypoints that are connected by a line.) Applying keypoint constraints can be tricky. Elements generated by ANSYS meshing commands are in the currently active element coordinate system. Therefore. Therefore. AAU. – • Disadvantages – – – – FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. where loads are applied at master degrees of freedom. The solid model usually involves fewer entities than the finite element model. Esbjerg Loads 14 . the solid model and the finite element model may have different coordinate systems and loading directions. Nodes generated by meshing commands use the global Cartesian coordinate system. This allows you to make mesh modifications and conduct mesh sensitivity studies without having to reapply loads each time. selecting solid model entities and applying loads on them is much easier. Solid-model loads are not very convenient in reduced analyses. not at keypoints.) You cannot display all solid-model loads. That is. (You can define master DOF only at nodes.

– There is no need to worry about constraint expansion. You can simply select all desired nodes and specify the appropriate constraints. unless only a few nodes or elements are involved. because you can apply loads directly at master nodes. AAU. Esbjerg Loads 15 . – Applying loads by graphical picking is inconvenient. • Disadvantages – Any modification of the finite element mesh invalidates the loads.Finite element loads • Advantages – Reduced analyses present no problems. requiring you to delete the previous loads and re-apply them on the new mesh. FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.

Esbjerg Loads 16 .DOF Constraints FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. AAU.

prescribed temperatures in a thermal analysis. Esbjerg Loads 17 .DOF Constraints • A DOF constraint fixes a degree of freedom (DOF) to a known value. Examples of constraints are specified displacements and symmetry boundary conditions in a structural analysis. AAU. and flux-parallel boundary conditions FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.

if you repeat a DOF constraint on the same degree of freedom. the new specification replaces the previous one.DOF Constraints • Applying Symmetry or Antisymmetry Boundary Conditions • Transferring Constraints – To transfer constraints that have been applied to the solid model to the corresponding finite element model • Resetting Constraints – By default. Esbjerg Loads 18 . AAU. You can change this default to add (for accumulation) or ignore • Scaling Constraint Values FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.

AAU. Esbjerg Loads 19 .Forces (Concentrated Loads) FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.

AAU. and current segments in a magnetic field analysis FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 20 . Examples are forces and moments in a structural analysis.Forces (Concentrated Loads) • A force is a concentrated load applied at a node in the model. heat flow rates in a thermal analysis.

Esbjerg Loads 21 . AAU. You can change this default to add (for accumulation) or ignore • Scaling Force Values • Transferring Forces FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. the new specification replaces the previous one. if you repeat a force at the same degree of freedom.Forces (Concentrated Loads) • Repeating a Force – By default.

AAU.Surface Loads FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 22 .

Examples are pressures in a structural analysis and convections and heat fluxes in a thermal analysis FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.Surface Loads • A surface load is a distributed load applied over a surface. AAU. Esbjerg Loads 23 .

For example. AAU. if you repeat a surface load at the same surface. etc. • Transferring Surface Loads • Using Surface Effect Elements to Apply Loads – to apply a surface load that the element type you are using does not accept. radiation specifications on thermal solid elements. FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. the new specification replaces the previous one. Esbjerg Loads 24 .Surface Loads • Specifying a Gradient Slope • Repeating a Surface Load – By default. you may need to apply uniform tangential (or any non-normal or directed) pressures on structural solid elements.

Pressure Loads on Beams Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Select the line Enter 10 Press OK to finish FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 25 . AAU.

AAU. Esbjerg Loads 26 .Body Loads FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.

Examples are temperatures and fluences in a structural analysis.Body Loads • A body load is a volumetric or field load. and current densities in a magnetic field analysis FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. Esbjerg Loads 27 . heat generation rates in a thermal analysis. AAU.

Esbjerg Loads 28 .Body Loads • Specifying Body Loads for Elements • Specifying Body Loads for Keypoints • Specifying Body Loads on Lines. Areas and Volumes • Specifying a Uniform Body Load • Repeating a Body Load Specification – By default. the new specification replaces the previous one. • Transferring Body Loads • Scaling Body Load Values FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. if you repeat a body load at the same node or same element. AAU.

Loads • Inertia Loads – Inertia loads are those attributable to the inertia (mass matrix) of a body.e. Initial stresses can be applied only in the first load step of an analysis. the ANSYS program ignores the load.Misc. • • Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters Graphing or Listing the Boundary Condition Functions Loads 29 FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics. You use them mainly in a structural analysis • Coupled-Field Loads – Coupled-field loads are simply a special case of one of the above loads. you can apply magnetic forces calculated in a magnetic field analysis as force loads in a structural analysis • • • Axisymmetric Loads and Reactions Loads to Which the DOF Offers No Resistance – If an applied load acts on a DOF which offers no resistance to it (i. perfectly zero stiffness). Initial Stress Loading – Initial stress loading is only allowed in a static or full transient analysis (the analysis can be linear or nonlinear). AAU. For example. and angular acceleration. Esbjerg . angular velocity. where results from one analysis are used as loads in another analysis. such as gravitational acceleration.

Esbjerg Loads 30 . and substructuring analyses (which each use the frontal direct solver by default). In addition to these solvers. except for electromagnetic analyses. the Parallel Performance for ANSYS add-on product includes two multiprocessor solvers: – Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) solution – Distributed Domain Solver (DDS) FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.Solvers • Several methods of solving the system of simultaneous equations are available in the ANSYS program: – – – – – – sparse direct solution frontal direct solution Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solution Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solution Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) solution Automatic iterative solver option (ITER) • • The sparse direct solver is the default solver for all analyses. AAU. analyses that include both p-elements and constraint equations. spectrum analyses.

Esbjerg Loads 31 . AAU.Solvers FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.

Esbjerg Loads 32 . list E = 210000N/mm2 n = 0. AAU. Element table/output.3 L = 1000mm a = 10mm b = 10mm p = 10N/mm FEM – ANSYS Classic Computational Mechanics.Example 0110 – Cantilever beam Objective: Display the moment curve Tasks: Obtain values in intermediate points? Create an element table? Display the moment curve? Topics: Element type. pressure load.

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