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Concepts and Objectives

Graphs of other circular functions (Obj. #30)

Graph the tangent and cotangent functions

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent

x

will be undefined whenever x = 0, which occurs when

π 3π

s= , , etc.

2 2

Therefore, the function y = tan x has vertical asymptotes

at these values. This means that the period of the

function is π.

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent

Consider a table for y = tan x:

x y

π

− undef.

2

π

− –1

4

0 0

π

1

4

π

undef.

2

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent

We can see the repeat as we expand the domain.

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent

The cotangent function is a shifted reflection of the

tangent:

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent

To graph y = a tan bx or y = a cot bx, with b > 0,

π

Determine the period, . To locate two adjacent

b

vertical asymptotes, solve the following for x:

π π

For y = a tan bx: bx = − and bx =

2 2

For y = a cot bx: bx = 0 and bx = π

Sketch the asymptotes.

Divide the interval into four parts (3 values of x).

Evaluate the function at each point.

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent

Example: Graph y = tan 2x

a = 1, b = 2

Period: π = π

b 2

π

Asymptotes: 2x = ±

2

π

x=±

4

Graphing Tangent and Cotangent

Example: Graph y = tan 2x

The three x-values will be at

π π

x = − , 0,

8 8

x 2x y = tan 2x

π π

− − –1

8 4

0 0 0

π π

1

8 4

Graphing Secant and Cosecant

Like the tangent, the secant and cosecant are not defined

when the denominator (cos x and sin x) are 0. The

functions, therefore, have vertical asymptotes wherever

that occurs.

Like the cosine and sine, the secant and cosecant have

periods of 2π.

We use the cosine and sine to help us position the

reciprocal functions.

Graphing Secant and Cosecant

Example: Graph y = sec x

function (cos x)

Sketch the vertical

asymptotes through

the x-intercepts.

Draw the U-shaped

branches at the peaks

of the graph.

Graphing Secant and Cosecant

3 π

Example: Graph y = csc x −

2 2

3 π

Graph y = sin x −

2 2

Sketch asymptotes

Draw the U-shaped

branches at the peaks of

the graph

Homework

College Algebra (brown book)

Page 620: 9-30 (×3s), 50-62 (evens)

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