Dr. Bruce H. Lipton, Ph.D. © 2001 http://www.brucelipton.


The Biology of Belief

Recent advances in cellular science are heralding an important evolutionary turning point. For almost fifty years we have held the illusion that our health and fate were preprogrammed in our genes, a concept referred to as genetic determinacy. Though mass consciousness is currently imbued with the belief that the character of one’s life is genetically predetermined, a radically new understanding is unfolding at the leading edge of science. Cellular biologists now recognize that the environment (external universe and internal-physiology), and more importantly, our perception of the environment, directly controls the activity of our genes. The lecture will broadly review the molecular mechanisms by which environmental awareness interfaces genetic regulation and guides organismal evolution. The quantum physics behind these mechanisms provide insight into the communication channels that link the mind-body duality. An awareness of how vibrational signatures and resonance impact molecular communication constitutes a master key that unlocks a mechanism by which our thoughts, attitudes and beliefs create the conditions of our body and the external world. This knowledge can be employed to actively redefine our physical and emotional well-being. Lecture Outline: Knowledge of the philosophical foundation underlying conventional (allopathic) medicine is relevant for it illuminates why and how the dogma of genetic determinacy was derived. Francis Bacon defined the mission of Modern Science shortly after the onset of the Scientific Revolution (1543). Accordingly, the purpose of science was “to dominate and control Nature.” To accomplish that goal, scientists had to first acquire knowledge of what “controls” an organism’s structure and function (behavior). Concepts founded in the principles of Newtonian physics defined the experimental approach to this quest. These principles stipulate that the Universe is a “physical mechanism” comprised of parts (matter), there is no attention given to the invisible “energy.” In this world view, all that matters is “matter.” Consequently, modern science is preoccupied with MATERIALISM. The way to understand how a finely tuned mechanism works is to disassemble it and analyze all of the component “parts.” This approach is called REDUCTIONISM. Through an analysis of the parts and how they interact, defective part(s) in a malfunctioning organism can be identified and either repaired or replaced with “manufactured” parts (drugs, engineered genes, prosthetic devices, etc.). Knowledge of the body’s mechanism would enable scientists to DETERMINE how an organism works and how to “control” the organism by altering its “parts.” Biologists were preoccupied with taking organisms apart and studying their cells for the first half of this century. Subsequently, cells were disassembled and their molecular “parts” catalogued and characterized. Cells are comprised of four types of large (macro-) molecules: Proteins/Polysaccharides (sugars)/Nucleic Acids (gene stuff)/Lipids (fats) The name PROTEIN means “primary element” (proteios, Gr.) for proteins are the primary components of all plant and animal cells. A human is made of ~100,000 different proteins. Proteins are linear “chains,” whose molecular “links” are comprised of amino acid molecules. Each of the 20 different amino acids has a unique shape, so that when linked together in a chain, the resulting proteins fold into elaborate 3-dimensional “wire sculptures.” The protein’s sculpture’s pattern is determined by the sequence of its amino acid links. The balancing of electromagnetic charges along the protein’s chain serves to control the “final” shape of the

sculpture. but random protein actions can not provide for “life. Since genes are presumed to control cellular life.” The activities of specific protein pathways provide for digestion. the organ that “controls” life is known as the brain. genes are “not self-emergent. Removing the cell’s nucleus. referred to as enucleation. respiration. Since 1953. cells can live for two or more months without a nucleus. In this context. realize Science’s mission of “controlling” the expression of an organism.” Scientists needed to identify the mechanism that “integrates” protein functions to allow for the complex behaviors. behavioral functions were thought to be controlled by “regulating” the presence or absence of proteins comprising the pathways. Since proteins define the character of an organism and the proteins’ structures are encoded in the DNA. Consequently. then it is appropriate to acknowledge the concept of Genetic Determinism. protein sculptures compliment the shape of environmental molecules (which includes other proteins). the protein must be replaced. When proteins chemically couple with other molecules it changes the distribution of electromagnetic charges in the protein. the multibillion dollar program to map all of the genes. Their search was linked to the fact that proteins are labile (opposite of stabile). If genes can’t control their own expression.” It was concluded that DNA “controls” the structure and behavior of living organisms. Though enucleation should result in the immediate death of the cell. Once this is accomplished. it is assumed that we can use that knowledge to repair or replace “defective” genes and in the process. excretion.” In the manner of a lock and key. Rather than endorsing the Primacy of DNA. The unique shape of a protein sculpture is referred to as its “conformation.” that is genes can not turn themselves on or off. the nucleus would be expected to be the equivalent of the cell’s “brain. The DNA blueprint for each protein is referred to as a GENE. upon coupling with chemicals. how can they control the behavior of the cell? Nijhout further emphasizes that genes are regulated by “environmental signals. biologists established the dogma known as the Primacy of DNA.” which revealed how the DNA served as a molecular “blueprint” that defined amino acid sequences comprising a protein. In fact. The source of replacement protein parts is related to “memory” factors that provide for heredity…the passing on of “character” The search for the hereditary factors that controlled protein synthesis led to DNA. they assemble into complex structures (similar to the way cogged “gears” intermesh to make a watch). Since DNA “determines” the character of an organism. When proteins interlock with the complimentary environmental molecules. Science’s materialist-reductionist-determinist philosophy led to the Human Genome Project. biologists have assumed that DNA “controls” life. A protein generates “motion” as it changes shape. Proteins provide for the organism’s structure and function. Changes in “charge” cause the protein to change its shape. reproduction and all of the other physiologic “functions” employed by living organisms. a protein’s will shift its shape from one conformation to another conformation.” Groups of interacting proteins which work together in carrying out a specific function are referred to as “pathways. would be tantamount to removing the cell’s brain. In multicellular animals. we must acknowledge the Primacy of the Environment! 2 . In 1953. proteins “wear-out” when they are used. Watson and Crick unraveled the mystery of the “genetic code. and genes are contained in the cell’s nucleus. To resume function. Like parts in a car. Clearly. Therefore. it is the environment that controls gene expression. enucleated cells may continue to survive and exhibit a “regulated” control of their biological processes.” Dispelling the Myth of Genes: If the brain is removed from any organism. the assumption that genes “control” cell behavior is wrong! As is described by Nijhout (X). the idea that the structure and behavior of an organism are defined by its genes. If an individual protein in a pathway wears-out and is not replaced then the action of the pathway will stop. A protein’s movement can be harnessed to do “work. Primacy means “first level of control.” Consequently. the immediate and necessary consequence of that action is—death of the organism.

Phospholipids.” also known as its plasmalemma. and recognizes uncertainty in place of determinism. Cytologically. which resemble lollipops with two sticks. research that clearly reveals the regulatory influence that electromagnetic fields have on cell physiology.” . the equivalents of eyes. including DNA synthesis. RNA synthesis. The many processes and functions of this unicellular life form are highly integrated.. actually provides for the bacterium’s digestive. and through its affect upon regulatory proteins. when the receptor binds to the effector protein. wherein the lipid “sticks” form the central butter layer. it must have a brain equivalent. are arranged in a crystalline bilayer. processed and used to make a calculated behavioral response emphasizes the existence of a “brain” equivalent in the cell. Pulsed electromagnetic fields have been shown to regulate virtually every cell function. Where is cell’s brain? The answer is to be found in bacteria. excretory and integumentary (skin) systems. ions. The IMP complex controls behavior. a belief consistent with the Newtonian view of the Universe as a “matter machine. IMPs look like olives in the membrane’s bread and butter sandwich. Built into the membrane are special proteins called Integral Membrane Proteins (IMPs). Effector proteins may be enzymes. the most primitive organisms on Earth. The membrane resembles a bread and butter sandwich. The activity of effector IMPs generally regulate the behaviors of cytoplasmic protein pathways. Consequently. This new physics emphasizes energetics over materialism. assess the information and then select appropriate behavioral programs to maintain their survival. it causes the effector to changes its own conformation from an inactive to an active form. When a receptor recognizes and binds to a signal. cell differentiation. etc. and cell movement. Each receptor-effector protein complex collectively constitutes a “unit of perception. This is how an environmental signal activates a cell’s behavior. cytoskeletal elements (cellular equivalents of muscle and bone ) or transporters (proteins that carry electrons. The cell membrane.” which by dictionary definition represents perception. like those associated with digestion. Effector proteins carry out cell behaviors. substitutes holism for reductionism. If specific functional proteins are not already present in the cell. morphogenesis and neuroendocrine regulation.” The cell membrane is primarily composed of “phospholipids” and proteins. However. nose. these IMPs also control gene expression. Conventional medicine has consistently ignored research published in its own main-stream scientific journals. Receptors are the cell’s “sense” organs. we now recognize that receptors respond to energy signals as well as molecular signals. protein synthesis. which include thought. activated effector IMPs send a signal to the nucleus and elicit required gene programs. these organisms do not contain any organelles (diminutive of “organs) such as nuclei.Cells “read” their environment. etc. once thought to be like a permeable Saran Wrap that holds the cytoplasm together. consequently. protons. Golgi bodies. and other specific molecules across the “bread and butter” barrier). When activated by its complimentary signal. The fact that data is integrated. the protein receptor changes its conformation so that it is able to complex with a specific effector protein. cell division. These findings are relevant for they acknowledge that biological behavior can be controlled by “invisible” energy forces. The IMP complexes provide the cell with “awareness of the environment through physical sensation. respiratory. It also serves as the cell’s “brain. Conventional biology stipulates that receptors only respond to “matter” (molecules). Receptor IMPs “see” or are “aware” of their environment and effector IMPs create physical responses that translate environmental signals into an appropriate biological behavior. mitochondria. The phospholipid bilayer forms a skin-like barrier which separates the external environment from the internal cytoplasm.” Leading edge contemporary cell research has transcended conventional Newtonian physics and is now soundly based upon a universe created out of energy as defined by quantum physics. ears. Generally effector proteins are inactive in their resting conformation. it responds by changing its conformation. There are two classes of IMPs: RECEPTORS and EFFECTORS. excretion. The only organized structure in these primitive life forms is its “cell membrane.

Cells “learn” by making new receptors and integrating them with specific effector proteins. minerals. A special group of receptors confer “identity” so that members of the cellular community can collectively respond to a “central” command. growth and protection are mutually exclusive behaviors. “signals” enter the environment. all behaviors can be classified as either growth or protection responses. it will activate a cell function. When a perception unit recognizes an environmental signal. If our tissues and organs perceive a need for protection. predators. etc.” Protein antibody structure is encoded in genes (DNA). When new. Simply stated.” are equivalent to computational BITS. the cell IS an organic computer. This learning/evolution mechanism is employed by the immune system.) represent “new” environmental signals. In multicellular organisms.A biochemical definition of the cell membrane reads as follows: the membrane is a liquid crystal (phospholipid organization). This definition is exactly the same as that used to define a computer chip. bacteria. It is now recognized that environmental stimuli can induce “adaptive” mutations which enable a cell to specifically alter its genes. parasites. Furthermore. To the immune cell (T-lymphocyte). Identity receptors are referred to as “self receptors. the cell is a self-powered microprocessor. Until recently. Recent studies have verified that the cell membrane is in fact an organic HOMOLOGUE of a silicon chip. In single-celled organisms (bacteria. the cells evolved additional receptors required for “community” identity and integration. The operation of the cell can be easily understood by noting its homology to the computer: the “CPU” (information processing mechanism) is the cell membrane. if an organism “perceives a stress that is actually not there. heretofore unrecognized.” meaning that the outcome of the mutation could not be directed. This is true for human cells as well. At the cellular level.). toxins. they will compromise their growth behavior. Taken in this context. semiconductor (the only things that can cross the membrane barrier are those brought across by transport IMPs) with gates (receptor IMPs) and channels (effector IMPs). etc. invasive ANTIGENS (e. Since a cell can not move forward and backward at the same time. and life-threatening agents (toxins. These signals include elements of the physical environment (light. This process enables organisms to survive in ever changing environments. the units of “perception. Chronic protection leads to a disruption of the tissue and its function. A cell’s awareness of the environment is reflected in its receptor population.. Integration receptors respond to information signals (hormones. etc.g. What happens if a cell experiences a stressful environment but does not have a gene program (behavior) to deal with the stress? It is now recognized that cells can “rewrite” existing gene programs in an effort to overcome the stressful condition. These DNA changes are mutations. Cellular memory is represented by the “new” genes that code for these proteins. other organisms). temperature. growth factors) used to coordinate functions in cell communities. the screen (data output) is the physical state of the cell. food (nutrients. New perception units require “new” genes for the IMP proteins. T-lymphocytes create protein ANTIBODIES which complement and bind to the antigens. a cell can not be in growth and protection at the same time. Antibodies are “receptors” for they specifically recognize their antigen “signal. protozoa and algae). such mutations may be mediated by an organism’s perception of its environment. cells “create” new genes. the misperception can actually change the genes to accommodate the “belief. Receptor/effector IMP complexes. the disk (memory) is the nucleus. Though there are hundreds of behavioral functions expressed by a cell.). gravity. In making new antibodies. the cell’s receptors respond to all survival-related environmental signals. For example. Cells move toward growth signals and away from life-threatening stimuli (protection response). the cell creates new perception units to respond to them. The cell’s ability to make new IMP receptors and respond to the new signal with an appropriate survival-oriented response (behavior) is the foundation of evolution.” or “histocompatibility receptors.” Self-receptors are used by the immune system to distinguish “self” from invasive organisms. viruses. the keyboard (data entry) are the membrane receptors. salts. Organs or tissues can not be exchanged unless they bear the same self-receptors as the recipient. all mutations were thought to be “random.” 4 .

the IMP perception units can activate expression of appropriate genes in the cell’s nucleus. P. V.. Science 1997. Thaler Science 1994. Balter Science 2000.” almost ten years after it was first published!) Transposons Help Sculpt a Dynamic Genome Anne S. 288:39 (Environment controls genes through “epigenetic” mechanisms) Gaia and Natural Selection T. new gene control scheme compared to Darwinian scheme) Evolution Evolving* Tim Beardsley Scientific American September 1997.. Marx Science 2000. 290:1066-1067 (Same “transcription factors” used for 3 different genes in same nucleus. Glanz Science 1996. not survival of the “fittest”) Principles for the Buffering of Genetic Variation J.and Additional Good References: These references are organized into subject categories and serve as references to related information. Lenton Nature 1998. the resulting behavior will be life enhancing. The “movement” generated by protein shape changes is harnessed by the cell to do “work. Hartman. LIPTON. Detecting Individual Atoms and Molecules with Laser: Every atom or molecule emits and absorbs light of characteristic wavelengths. Science 2001. McClare Annals NY Acad. Cairns. Moffat Science 2000. PHYSICS AND BIOLOGY: The Quantum Centennial A. pages 15-16 (Provides the first notice of Cairns’ study to the “general public. 1974. S.” our behavior will be inappropriate and will jeopardize our vitality by compromising our health. F. Miller Nature 1988. allows “buffering” of effect of individual mutated genes) New Clues to How Genes Are Controlled J. If we operate from “misperceptions. 411:539-541 (Reveals why Newtonian-based chemistry textbooks hinder advance into quantum mechanical understanding of molecular interactions) Biologists Cut Reductionist Approach Down to Size Nigel Williams.” Cells respond to perception by activating either growth or protection behavior programs. Ridley Nature 2000. A.. Matzke Science 1999. 12 (9):441-446 (Describes that genes are not self-emergent. If the necessary behaviorproviding proteins are not present in the cytoplasm. Kerr Science 1994. 335:142-145 (This was first major paper on “adaptive” mutations [i. Relevance of each article enclosed in parentheses. Appenzeller Science 1999 284:2108-2110 (The “regularity” and “reproducibility” (not chance) of mutational response in genetic “adaptations. M. this source is present in almost all local libraries and schools of higher learning. 289:1455-1457 (Moveable genes create rapid changes in DNA code) Dirty Transcripts from Clean DNA B. Nature 2001. PhD Literature Cited. 408:639-641 (Brief review of quantum physics origins and its impact on civilization) A New twist on Molecular Shape Frank Weinhold. how does single factor select among three genes?) Tangled Strands In The Double Helix M. F. Sci. (Genetic mechanisms for “adaptive” mutations) Test Tube Evolution Catches Time in a Bottle T. J. Nijhout BioEssays 1990. Overbaugh and S. Bridges Science 1999. Wolffe and M. A. 406:347-348 (Reviews 2 books by evolutionary geneticist R. Zellinger Nature 2000.” brings up environment-gene issues) .In conclusion: The structure of our bodies are defined by our proteins. mutations that are not random!]) The Evolution of Genetic Intelligence David S. our bodies are physical compliments of our environment. 284:79-109 Collection of 10 articles that question continued use of “Reductionism” and endorse “Holism” as necessary for acquiring new knowledge. 227:74-83 (States that vibrational energy interfaces biological tuned resonance information system) Cold Numbers Unmake the Quantum Mind C. et al. many genes acting together. 272:646-648 (Bringing new physics to cell biology) Resonance In Bioenergetics C. IMP perception units in the cell’s membrane convert the environment into awareness. 264:224-225 (Discusses new papers which verify adaptive (Cairnsian) mutations. W.” Life (animation) results from protein movements which are translated as “behavior. BRUCE H. who questions current genetics dogma as “bad science. Seife Science 2000. 277:476-477 (Current science is materialistic since “information” considered to be only found in physical molecules) Complex Systems: Beyond Reductionism Science 1999.e. A. 286:481-486 (“Acquired” characteristics passed from parent to child without changes in DNA coding) Was Lamarck Just a Little Bit Right? M. Consequently. If our perceptions are accurate. Proteins represent physical complements of the environment. 284:62-63. 394:439-447 (Nature selects organisms that benefit Earth. Lewontin. 287:791 (Microtubules not source of “quantum” consciousness) NEW CONCEPTS REGARDING GENE EXPRESSION AND MUTATION: Metaphors and the Role of Genes in Development H.. Most references are from the journal Science. Articles with an * are written for general reading audiences. Reception of environmental signals change protein conformations. Letokhov Scientific American September 1988 pgs 54-59 (Atoms and molecules communicate via frequency resonance) Laser Chemistry: The Light Choice R. they need environmental signal for activation) The Origin of Mutants John. 266:215-217 (Research on how vibrational energy affects specific molecular bonds) Physicists Advance into Biology* J.. 291:1001-1004 (Discusses that traits are due multi-genes.”) Epigenetics: Regulation Through Repression A. “Perceptions” lie between the environment and cell expression.

knowing gene does not predict the outcome possibilities) How the Genome Readies Itself for Evolution* E. 290:1491-1493 (Microrganisms exchange DNA in cooperation. 291:843-847 (Describes role of nuclear proteins in gene expression) PROTEINS: A Glimpse of the Holy Grail?* H. Travis Science News 1998. Simons and E. creating “families” of receptors each with distinct properties) Stretching Is Good for a Cell* E. 274:1850-1851 (Reviews mechanisms by which proteins incorporate into lipid membrane) Signaling Across Membranes: A One and a Two and a . Milligan Science 2000. 273:323-324 (Membrane mechanism to transduce physical stresses into electrical activity/cell control) The Architecture of Life* D. and. discusses lipid “rafts” that transport IMPs) INFORMATION IN BIOLOGY: The Babel of Bioinformatics T. C. 288:65-67 (Different receptors can pair-up. 273:29-30 (Seeing dynamics of protein folding) Proteins in Motion* M. Misteli Science 2001. Chothia Science 1999. 387:580-584 (Describes the technology of making a digital chip out of a cell membrane) Biological Information Processing: Bits of Progress* N. 280:521-522 (Bacteria pick-up environmental genes) Close Encounters: Good. 276:16651669 (The precise nature of gene mutations in antibody formation) B Cell Receptor Rehabilitation-Pausing to Reflect L. Fallon Science 11999 283:339-340 (Addresses issues of holism versus reductionism in cell information pathways) CREATING NEW PERCEPTION PROTEINS: THE ANTIBODY AS A MODEL SYSTEM Evolutionary Chemistry: Getting There from Here* G.Genomes as smart systems* J. Sejnowski Science 1997. 84:3-4 (Compares the new understanding of gene function and behavior with the established “DNA dogma”) Brain Wiring Depends upon Multifaceted Gene J. Spitzer and T. 281:1131-1134 Doubled Genes May Explain Fish Diversity* G.. J. M. Nowak Science 1994. Bad. DNA Microsatellites:Agents of Evolution?* E. mix-n-match. Attwood Science 2000. C. Nature 1997. 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Shapiro Genetica 1991. 291:1503-1505 (Cells can 6 . 283:1247-1249 (How connections between proteins regulate cell pathways) MEMBRANE STRUCTURE/FUNCTION: The Molecules of the Cell Membrane Mark S. Berendsen Science 1998. K. Chang et al.000 different versions of a protein. 272:652-653 (How genes respond to environment) Dialing Up an Embryo: Are Olfactory receptors digits in a developmental code?* J. 282:642-643 (How proteins fold into shapes) Folding Proteins Caught in the Act* R. Ikonen Science 2000. Vogel Science 1998.Am. 253:100-108 (A great review of membrane structure and properties) The Structure of Proteins in Biological Membranes N. 263:608-610 (Junk DNA’s important role in evolution) Quick-Change Pathogens Gain an Evolutionary Edge* D. F. J. Ruoslahti Science 1997. 154:106-107 (Surface Receptors-how cells know who they are and where they should go) What Maintains Memories? J. Corey and J. 274:1081 Versatile Gene Uptake System Found in Cholera Bacterium E.. 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Travis Science News 2000 157:406 (A single gene can create 38. 276:1658-1659 (The molecular nature of “learning and memory” as seen in antibody maturation) Structural Insights into the Evolution of an Antibody Combining Site G. Gerstein and C. 276:1345-46 (Physical tension influences cell behavior) Structure of the MscL Homolog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Gated Mechanosensitive Ion Channel G. and Ugly E. Service Science 1996. Joyce Science 1997. 274:370-371 (Describes universality and “multiplicity” of receptor proteins) Receptors as Kissing Cousins G. 285:1682-1684 (How membrane protein conformation changes send signals into cytoplasm) The Rotary Enzyme of the Cell: The Rotation of F1-ATPase H.

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