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Interstellar Colonization and its Hypothetical Technologies

Interstellar Colonization and its Hypothetical Technologies

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Published by israelissadistic
An outline on the hypothetical technologies and methods that may or may not be used in our future search for habitable planets. This concerns practically all aspects from propulsion all the way to interplanetary warfare.
An outline on the hypothetical technologies and methods that may or may not be used in our future search for habitable planets. This concerns practically all aspects from propulsion all the way to interplanetary warfare.

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Published by: israelissadistic on Apr 11, 2011
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Spreading Your Wings ± Interstellar Travel Methods Propulsion Systems: Considering the possibility of us running out of fossil fuels within the next century, objects leaving the earth may be put into orbit through electromagnetic propulsion. According to howstuffworks.com, ³When cooled to extremely low temperatures, electromagnets demonstrate an unusual behavior: For the first few nanoseconds after electricity is applied to them, they vibrate. David Goodwin, a program manager at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, proposes that if this vibration can be contained in one direction, it could provide enough of a jolt to send spacecraft farther and faster into space than any other propulsion method in development.´ Alternatively, rail-gun technology may be used to propel other objects into space. In these propellers, there will need to be a power supply, rails of conductive metal, and an armature (³bridges´ a gap between the rails [must be conductive metal]). One rail will serve as a positive conductor and the other as a negative conductor. The flowing current will produce a magnetic field around both of the rails and if the projectile used is magnetic, then both of the magnetic forces will combine. This may produce a controlled movement of the object towards the desired direction. For countries unwilling to use rail-gun technology, they may simply use the concept of magnetic trains. The main object should have electromagnets inside of it so that the magnetic field should be turned off (same goes for the railing). The electromagnets in the projectile shall

alternate in ³north or south poles´ every few feet or meters. The magnets below the object should be also placed in the same intervals with the same intervals of alternation. If the object is not moving, then magnets may be turned off. An electromagnet above the object should be turned on a little before the propulsion to prevent an inefficient startup (computers will be used to perfect the accuracy of the magnets to make the object float and so that the poles of either the electromagnets in the projectile or railing will switch perfectly to provide and efficient takeoff). To start the movement, the electromagnet (railing) in the front of the corresponding magnet (projectile) will change so that the earlier magnet (nearer to the back) will repel and the newer magnet (closer to the end of the course) will attract the object. Computers controlling this will switch the magnets in quick succession to ensure a fast takeoff that will either go into orbit or into space where the object is needed. Any propulsion methods listed above should not include humans because of the incredibly high g-forces involved. For the propulsion of humans into space, light waves may be used to help clear a path for space ships heading skyward. Traditional ion (charged gas particles heading at an extremely high speed to propel the spacecraft [similar to pushing a truck by flicking peas at it assuming that the environment is frictionless])/propeller blade or even possible chemical reactions such as controlled sodium/potassium or lithium reactions may be used to propel the humans. Using light to clear the path (light pressure currently being researched²hypothetical at this point) will greatly increase the efficiency of the propulsion system.

When out of the Earth¶s orbit, ³gravity assists´ should be used to slow down or to speed up the ships. The spacecraft may use a planet¶s gravity as a ³slingshot´ to help to increase the velocity of a spaceship in a certain direction or, it may help to slow down the ship at a certain distance from the planet. When these spacecraft are no longer noticeably affected by gravity of other planets, they may use ion propulsion (as listed in the above paragraph) or ramjet propulsion. In the process, an explosive device is released from the back of the spacecraft. As it explodes, the particles, radiation, and other possible forces push the spacecraft by hitting the blast shield and propelling the spacecraft. Anti-matter or nuclear bombs are most preferable. The hydrogen bomb will be heated by the fission bomb (splits atom by shooting neutrons at the nucleus and converting matter into energy) in order to help the hydrogen atoms fuse (more heat means more kinetic energy means a bigger collision between the atoms so the fusion reaction can start) y Anti-matter is simply the opposite of matter and when combined with matter, generates pure photons with a 100% conversion depending upon how much antimatter


was combined with matter (probably will not be used because of how hard it is to contain and make [currently uses much more energy to create it than the energy it generates]) y These propulsion methods will gradually accelerate the spacecraft (ex: use smaller bombs) to help eliminate the dangers of extreme acceleration. Over time, the high speed will slow the aging of the colonists, while still reaching the destination(s) quickly (the theory of relativity states that the closer you are to the speed of light, the more time stretches or slows down for you). Slower aging will help to reduce the deaths, psychological, and physical degradation of colonists. For all of the above to occur, humans must first be able to master renewable energy (solar, water, and wind). Generators using water and winds simply use the medium to turn the blades of a magnet inside a coil of wire. This would generate electricity, and with this energy humans may launch objects into the orbit of the earth to either generate more electricity, or to help build spacecraft one step at a time. Additional solar panels may be built to orbit the earth until all ³ships´ are sent on the path to deep space. These solar panels will be able to generate much more electricity to those on the ground because of the scattering of light, and low (if any) atmospheric interference. To transmit the power, the same technology used for radio wave transmission will be used to send the power back to earth, or to the ships. In the case of power shortages (such as when the solar panels are damaged), rechargeable batteries may be put to use in order to power the ship. Hazards for Unprotected Spacecraft and What Can Be Done To Avoid Them:


Falling into orbit of planets or stars (affects all ships): These objects can simply be avoided. Their composition, size, and other measurements can be made far away from it using telescopes. Therefore, we will only visit a planet in the area if it is needed.


Radiation: Thick hull with possible magnetic field around the storage area of the ship so no equipment or humans are harmed.


Incoming Asteroids/Comets: Radar detection to help the ship steer away from these objects ahead of time


Supernovas: Stars can be added to a database so we can keep track of which stars are probably best for searching for planets to colonize and those about to become a red-giant or supernova. Just to be safe, as we cannot track all stars, we may simply avoid being near the larger stars at a minimum distance of one light-hour or even one light-day (simply a light-hour x24)


Hot gas/nebulae scorching the ship: These nebulae should be avoided entirely unless the gas density is so low, that the ship can take some of the gas without a chance of being crushed, or pulled in by the cloud¶s gravity.


Blackholes, neutron stars, GRBs, etc: Use telescopes to avoid ahead of time and to help see how the blackhole is rotating to show where the GRBs (gamma-ray-burst) are likely to shoot out

Supporting Human Life On The Spaceships: Most of the food will be farmed in space. Since massive amounts of solar radiation coming from nearby stars could cause dangerous mutations within the planets, solar panels will be used to transmit energy to fluorescent lights that will be turned on for full earth days, only turning off to be replaced.


fluorescent lights ionize a gas using high-frequency alternating current therefore, the atoms of the gas move their electrons to a higher energy state, which will soon emit energy in the form of photons

Also, the protective coating on the fluorescent lights should be removed so that the planets receive their usual UV rays. Both humans and other animal species will feed off of the food provided from the plants and many seeds will be kept to help produce more plants for future ³earth-yearly´ harvests. Although each ship will be filled with as much of a variety of plants and animals from zoos, the primary planets for food will be corn, beans, squash, and wheat. Rationing will be recommended (not enforced; just provides guidelines to ideal health) according to one¶s personal conditions (each colonist will have a semi-yearly health check which includes weight checks, height, blood pressure, and etc while checks for cancer will occur at the recommended rates). For possible food shortages, foods that can be frozen will be flash-frozen for long-term storage. Colonists living on the ship will be allowed to grow their own plants although they will have to process them properly by themselves if they wish to consume them. Human and animal or plant biological waste will help to keep the plant soil renewed (the waste and animals [such as bees] applied will be regulated by biologists to help prevent widespread plant diseases and other complications). With the vast quantities of plants, air will be circulated with small turbines throughout the ship (powered by electricity) so photosynthesis and human metabolism will be kept as high as possible. If carbon dioxide slowly begins to dominate over oxygen, then an increase in plants will be planned for the next year (each year will be required to produce a small surplus of seeds) or more sleep may be encouraged for the colonists as a shortterm remedy.

Water used by humans, plants, animals, etc. will be continuously circulated between the organisms. All areas will depend on another area¶s usage since a larger use will create more circulation. The water released by plants through transpiration will be evaporated gradually and cooled so animals can obtain water. The areas that combine both plants and animals in a similar level to a rain forest (only the younger trees will be kept) will continuously circulate within itself and if extra water is needed, it may be drawn from a reservoir or the human/plant water supply if the humans are using smaller amounts of water than usual. The filtration will occur using reverse osmosis (high pressure water applied to filters that will be cleaned [waste will be used in every way possible, from recycling to fertilizers]), chlorine (simply water aerated with chlorine), sedimentation, and bacterial treatment (bacteria that helps to eat away remaining foamed waste). Any other possible more efficient methods proposed by the colonists will be used to help replace the traditional methods of water treatment. To help reduce the boredom and the physiological/psychological effects of being in space, all sites on the internet will still be available and unregulated except for illegal trade and etc. (based on a person¶s age will regulate what genre people can visit and messages including offensive terms or threats will be auto-blocked). Since each spaceship will be kept at a maximum of onelight-hour away from the center point in which all spaceships will revolve around, forum ³shoutboxes´, emailing, and private messaging may be carried wirelessly across the distance (chatrooms may offer faster responses [in real time] if the users are on the same ship). If people that know each other as friends, families, and etc are separated between ships (this will be avoided as much as possible through prioritizing who goes to which ship and other requests), then wormholes may be generated. ³Ghost Radiation´ or negative energy will be added as a safeguard against the possible generation of a black hole as the chatroom data will be sent through

the wormhole, to another spaceship, and received into the internet servers (two-way communication will be permitted). All colonists will be allowed to choose which jobs they would like to take (higher jobs such as teaching, researching, and etc will require specific credentials and all jobs will still give the same amount of privileges and etc). If they do not choose a job, then one will be chosen for them based off of their education, intelligence, and etc. To reduce the dangers of a low-gravity environment, artificial gravity will be generated by having the ships contents rotate around a central point. The centrifugal force generated will help to pull the contents toward the sides, so that when the equipment, animals, etc are organized correctly, life will be at least somewhat similar to that of on earth (the motion will be controlled by a computer calculating how much force is needed to keep the gravity at normal levels). Additionally, traditional practices of religion and cultures will be allowed (including ³unauthorized´ gatherings [unless there is an ACTUAL threat that the colonists may harm the entire interstellar operation {religion and race will not cause the removal of these rights unless they ONLY identify the mastermind of the plot}]). Requirements of a Habitable Planet ***NOTE: THIS DOES NOT NECESSARILY SHOW HABITABLE PLANETS FOR LONG-TERM USE----THEY ARE ONLY FOR POSSIBLE CANDIDATES THAT WITH TERRAFORMING, WILL EVENTUALLY BE ABLE TO SUPPORT LIFE FOR LONG-TERM USE

y y y y y y y y y y

normal sized star atmosphere (nonpoisonous/acidic) active core water magnetic field 22 Degree tilt Moon Solid surface Near 24 hour rotation Mineral resources (for building more ships to search for other planets)

Methods of Searching for These Planets Spectral Lines: Lines that indicate an unusually cool of the star or dimming and brightening regularly appearing over the course of time could potentially be a planet (use blue shift and red shift to confirm[light waves may compress if objects are heading toward the viewer appearing more blue and also may stretch if they are heading away from the viewer {Doppler effect}]) y ³Direct Detection´---simple optical telescopes to see where visible planets are if they are close enough y Use radar to reflect radiation off of nearby planets--- radar hits the planets and what is reflected back to the detector may tell the shape of the planet and by comparing the original wavelength of the radiation with the reflected wavelength, blue shift or red shift may determine the speed of the object¶s revolution



³Astrometric Measurement´---Telescopes will track the star in real-time using computer simulations of the results to determine the distances (using parrallex, those left on earth may be able to send the data to the spaceships through mini-wormholes) so that a wobble may be detected from the planet slightly affecting the star¶s movement


Gravitational Microlensing---The planet¶s ³intense´ gravitational field may have small effects on bending light that is emitted from the star. Consistently measuring and amplifying the differences of light patterns caused by the planet may reveal the planet through its regular motion around the star. If it takes too long, then either it simply is not feasible to measure the differences, or the orbit may take too long either showing the possibility of unearthly seasons or an extremely cold planet

Terraforming the Planets ****THESE STEPS ARE NOT NECESSARILY IN ORDER For cold planets: o Place large mirrors into orbit to help heat the surface o Greenhouse gasses to produce the greenhouse effect heats the surface melts ice


if it has any releases more greenhouse gasses if the ice contains greenhouse gasses and cycles back to heating the surface o Perfluorocarbons---(these gasses are 10,000 times more effective than carbon dioxide, last very long, and are cheap to produce) Made from releasing pure fluorine into the Martian atmosphere. The fluorine reacts with carbon dioxide to form fluoroform and oxygen. Factories could be placed on the surface that would mine apatite for fluorine, using solar power


Generating ozone with cold plasma--- Glass rods are filled with ³noble gasses´ with high voltage applied to them The electricity jumps between the rods, forming plasma which turns the oxygen into ozone (Lasts an incredibly long amount of time ³Limited only by the quality of the transformer´ and does not overheat or burn out)


Cooling planets may require ³simply´ using asteroids and because of the potential energy already stored within them, they can create an impact without having thruster placed on them the impact throws dust into the atmosphere the dust will block out much of the light (Nuclear weapons such as hydrogen bombs may be used if the supply of uranium

on the planet to help heat the bomb is enough) y If the planet only has a greenhouse effect, the above method may be used with the combination of slowly clearing the carbon dioxide out and producing oxygen with photosynthesis (from plants but also preferable from lichens since they can usually withstand a harsher environment and therefore are easier to care for). If the planet has an extremely high pressure atmosphere or strong acids where as even the strongest walls cannot protect our organisms, then it is not considered habitable. Also, if a greenhouse effect is caused by chemicals other than methane or carbon dioxide and if no ways are proposed to help clear out these gasses, then the planet will be considered ³currently uninhabitable´ y Soil, bacteria, archaebacteria, and other organisms and materials will be added to the planet first, before all other animals, plants and etc y Water may be melted if the planet is cold or extracted through the process of dehumidification (cooling water vapor to condense it into droplets) from the air The Path of War Strategies and Weapons

Offensive Strategies Lasers: To the right is a ³model of a laser´. Inside a laser, light produced (the yellow arrow) and is sent to the medium (pink material). The medium will absorb many wavelengths and reemit certain wavelengths (if it is the ideal material). With two mirrors on the side, one half silvered (far right) and the other fully silvered, these specific wavelengths of light emitted by the medium will bounce back and forth until there is enough light to break through the half-silvered mirror (this happens over the course of thousandths or millionths of a second). Certain mediums such as carbon can a high powered output with the ability to melt even the hardest of metals. With solar power and liquid/air cooling, it will not have to quickly waste batteries away or have very much of an overheating problem. Yet, the light is extremely accurate since the only reason it can miss is the inaccuracy of the observer (you cannot dodge light since you will not see the laser until it hits you). Therefore, this can be an extremely deadly weapon, particularly against infantry although it will be ineffective under water. y RailGuns: Uses the same technology as the possible railgun propulsion systems already stated. Effective against all types of aliens unless their armor is just too hard to penetrate even with the highest amounts of energy put into the shot (densities of the surrounding environment such as the atmosphere will interfere with the shot; for best results, use in space)



³Sound Gun´: In this weapon, sound is produced with a speaker at one end of the barrel. (the speakers use electromagnets and a magnetic plate to vibrate and produce sound) ³Saucers´ are placed throughout the barrel and up until the end while the barrel is elongated to help focus the sound onto a single point. Since none of the ripples of air or water or solids are traveling to the user(s) or humans, (unless the aliens can somehow deflect the sound or if the user misses and hits a human) no dangerous volumes of sound can be heard (high quality ear mufflers with radios for communication may be employed for safety). Using either extreme volume or the resonance of an object, it can harm the armor or creature if it relies on a sense of hearing.


Cheaper Chemical Explosions: New bombs may be produced from plentiful elements found on the alien planets. Elements such as those that are considered ³alkaline´ react violently under certain conditions. Sodium (from salt), potassium (small amounts in bananas), and lithium (made with rechargeable batteries) react violently with water even in small amounts. Simply coating it a chunk of these elements with a thin coat of aluminum and placing water around it with an electronically controlled time till the metal is punctured could create quite an explosion. Additionally, elements that ignite with fire such as magnesium may have a slower start to explode. Hopefully, that will be enough the fool the aliens for during their first use since after just a few seconds, the magnesium may create huge fires even with water pouring to control the fire. Defensive Strategies y A magnetic cloaking device may be used to bend light around the spaceship, making it invincible against all radiation attacks, and virtually undetectable (communication systems may still work through wires or simply sending the

radiation signals through wormholes). This light will be either bent with ³metamaterials´ which are known to bend light controllably, or a magnetic field where as the magnetic portion of the light will be pulled. y Missile Interception: Lasers may be used to shoot down or explode rockets or ships heading toward the humans. The laser will use a computer simulation basing the results off the rocket/ship¶s velocity and other possible factors such as atmospheric conditions. Lasers will aim particularly at the nose portion of the missile as that is usually where the detonation mechanism is. Conclusion The main interstellar propulsion system will mainly be ramjets or ionization of gases. Dangers of the interstellar space travel include gravitational and electromagnetic interferences with the ships. Because of the environment of being confined to a spaceship, artificial gravity will be generated with centripetal force. Spectral lines, gravitational microlensing, and stellar ³wobbling´ may be used to determine where planets are, their mass, and composition to help predetermine which planets are habitable. Additionally, offensive and defensive technologies will mainly use items that are related to the electromagnetic force such as lasers and cloaking devices although additional explosive devices may be used. References "Artificial Gravity." The Worlds of David Darling. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/A/artgrav.html>. Ecosystem - Article - Red Colony." Red Colony - Colonizing and Terraforming Mars. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.redcolony.com/art.php?id=0301290>.

"The Greenhouse Effect." Earthguide: Educational Resources in Earth, Marine, Environmental and Planetary Sciences. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/globalchange/greenhouse_effect/01.html>. "The Hazards of Space Travel." Nature Publishing Group : Science Journals, Jobs, and Information. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v4/n11/full/embor7400016.html>. "HowStuffWorks "How Electromagnetic Propulsion Will Work"" HowStuffWorks - Learn How Everything Works! Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.howstuffworks.com/electromagneticpropulsion.htm>. "HowStuffWorks "How Space Farming Works"" Howstuffworks "Science" Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/space-farming.htm>. "HowStuffWorks "How Terraforming Mars Will Work"" HowStuffWorks - Learn How Everything Works! Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.howstuffworks.com/terraforming.htm>. "INSTERSTELLAR SPACE ROCKET TRAVEL." Creation Evolution Encyclopedia and Natural Remedies Encyclopedia. Is Creation or Evolution the Correct Scientific Explanation for the Origin of Life? What Do the Scientists Say? The Facts May Surprise You! Are Drugs and Surgery the Best Way to Health? Si. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.pathlights.com/ce_encyclopedia/Encyclopedia/02star10.htm>. Kian Cochrane's Terraforming Method - Article - Red Colony." Red Colony - Colonizing and Terraforming Mars. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.redcolony.com/art.php?id=0102220>. "Lichen - Article - Red Colony." Red Colony - Colonizing and Terraforming Mars. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.redcolony.com/art.php?id=0109020>. "Looking to Lasers, Microwaves and Anti-Matter for Space Travel." Learn More at Space.com. From Satellites to Stars, NASA Information, Astronomy, the Sun and the Planets, We Have Your

Information Here. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/technology/fof_physics_031126-1.html>. "Nature Reviews Microbiology - Focus on Antimicrobial Strategies." Nature Publishing Group : Science Journals, Jobs, and Information. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/focus/antimicrobialstrategies/index.html>. Planet Quest: News Article." PlanetQuest: Exoplanet Exploration. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/planetHunters/anglingAliens.cfm>. "Planet Quest: Science - Finding Planets." PlanetQuest: Exoplanet Exploration. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/science/finding_planets.cfm>. "Planet Quest: Science - Finding Planets." PlanetQuest: Exoplanet Exploration. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/science/finding_planets.cfm>. "Quantum Wormholes." The Library of Halexandriah. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.halexandria.org/dward134.htm>. Ramjet Propulsion." NASA - Title... Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/ramjet.html>. "Stars and Habitable Planets." SolStation.com. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.solstation.com/habitable.htm>. Types of Ozone Generators - Cold Plasma, Corona Discharge, UV, PEM." Activated Oxygen - Ozone Generators / Ozonators for Food, Vegetables & Water | Ultrasonic Ozone Baths - Ozonating. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. <http://www.oxygenie.com/ozone-story-generators.php>.

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